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Title: Neotropical primates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00021
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: June 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00021
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
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issn - 1413-4705


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Full Text

ISSN 1413-4703

NEQ TROP A"L ... '

PRIMA.. got,'
A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Emesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: Anthony B. Rylands




Page 34

by Douglas and Christine Brandon-Jones
We are very sad to announce the death, at the age of 81,
of Prue Napier, on the Isle of Mull, Scotland, on Satur-
day, 7 June. She had been suffering from cancer, but died
suddenly while convalescing from a serious operation.
Prue was best known as the co-author with her late hus-
band, John Napier, of the classic reference works, A Hand-
book of Living Primates (1967) and The Natural History
of the Primates (1985) and co-editor with John, of Old
World Monkeys (1970). She was also the author of the
three volumes of the important Catalogue of Primates in
the British Museum (Natural History) (1976, 1981, 1985).
She was a president of Twycross Zoo, and remained in-
terested in the doings of British Primatology until her
death. In 1995, she personally presented the Primate So-
ciety of Great Britain's medal in honour of her husband,
an event which gave both Prue and the Society enormous
pleasure. The Society has lost an important and most se-
nior member, and many will, as we do, grieve personally
for the death of such a good friend, one who with her
indomitable spirit, humorous and wise outlook on life,
and her generosity, enriched the lives of all who knew
her. She is survived by Gremlin and her older son Hugo,
his wife, and two young children. Anyone who would
like to get in touch with Prue's family, please write to:
Douglas and Christine Brandon-Jones, 11 York Road,
London SW11 3PX, UK.
Philip Hershkovitz, Curator Emeritus of Mammals at the
Chicago Field Museum of Natural History, died on Feb-
ruary 15, 1997, aged 87. He was born in Pittsburgh, and
obtained his bachelor's degree in Zoology at the Univer-
sity of Pittsburgh, and a master's degree in Mammalogy
from the University of Michigan. He joined the staff of
the Chicago Field Museum in 1947, and was appointed
Curator of Mammals in 1956, after serving as Associate
Curator. He retired in 1971, but continued working right

Photo: Stephen D. Nash

up to his death, and was carrying out field work in Brazil
in 1992. At the time of his death he had four papers in
press. From 1947 to 1952, he participated in the Field
Museum's expedition to Colombia, one of the longest col-
lecting operations in its history. His field experience also
extended to Ecuador, Peru, Surinam, Bolivia and Brazil.
He published more than 300 scientific and popular ar-
ticles on mainly South American mammals, and includ-
ing marsupials, bats, rodents, whales, ungulates, and pri-

by Adelmar E Coimbra-Filho
It was with great sadness and the feeling of a very great
loss that I heard of the death of the eminent zoologist Prof.
Philip Hershkovitz, Emeritus Curator of Mammals of the
Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
Prof. Hershkovitz leaves a gap which will be extremely
difficult to fill due to his eclectic knowledge of vertebrate
zoology, his capacity for work and extraordinary scien-
tific productivity, and his vast experience obtained through
decades of research on the living and extinct faunas of the
Neotropical Region, encompassing many biomes and eco-
systems and most particularly concerning marsupials, ro-
dents and primates but also many other mammalian taxa.
His detailed, thorough, and encyclopedic studies have re-
sulted in remarkable and scholastic monographs and pa-
pers, many of which are keystone for entire research areas
and taxonomic groups. I cite, as an example, his essay on
the genus Pudu, a very poorly known group of South
American cervids (Fieldiana, Zoology, n. ser. 11:1-86,
1982). At least 75 new species were described by Prof.
Hershkovitz, and many species have been dedicated to him
and bear his name.
His professional and private life have been the subject of a
number of articles, but there is one publication of particu-
lar interest: A special edition of the Field Museum publi-
cation Fieldiana, with 506 pages, prepared especially in
his honor: "Studies in Neotropical Mammalogy Essays
in Honor of Philip Hershkovitz", organized by B. D.
Patterson and R. M. Timm (Fieldiana, Zoology, New Se-
ries 39, 1987). The issue includes biographical informa-
tion on this tireless zoologist. In this collection dedicated
to the great master, he himself published an extremely
valuable contribution to the history of zoology in the Neo-
tropical region, recounting and documenting zoological
and botanical expeditions between 1492 a 1850; a compi-
lation which filled an important gap. I discussed the com-
petence, productivity and pragmatism of this famous tax-
onomist, justly honored during his lifetime by his col-
leagues in this volume, in an article I published in 1990
in the Revista Brasileira de Biologia (Vol. 50, Number
Over the years of my involvement in Primatology, it was
always with great satisfaction that I would write to Prof.
Hershkovitz and discuss with him my findings and re-

Cover photograph by RussellA. Mittermeier: Cebus apella from Paraguay.

Neolropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997 Page 35

search. My correspondence with him began in 1968, when
I was finishing up the first stage of my research on
Leontopithecus rosalia.:Then I was able to call on him a
number of times to help resolve our questions and doubts.
His perspicacity and interest were remarkable. His enthu-
siasm was gratifying when I sent him the first photographs
of the, then little-known, dark forms of the lion tamarins,
including the exact site of the rediscovery ofL. chrysopygus
in 1970, which he published in his great work The Living
New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini) in 1977.
Our correspondence was intermittent and only rarely did
I have the pleasure of meeting him personally. On these
occasions, however, we were able to talk at length, and
fascinating conversations they were, always. Once he
stayed with me at the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center (CPRJ)
for some days while researching and collecting marsupi-
als, rodents and bats in the surrounding forest of the Serra
dos OrgAlos, and observing the callitrichids we maintain
in captivity there. It was then possible to enjoy at first
hand his extraordinary knowledge of the diversity and
origins of the Neotropical fauna.
He was, without doubt, one of the great zoologists of our
time, and his work on the mammals of the Neotropics,
consolidated in his numerous publications, is an extraor-
dinarily valuable legacy for future generations. The very
rapid development of New World Primatology during the
1980's is in great part due to his research. His treatise
Living New World Monkeys concentrated on the marmo-
sets and tamarins, and is a landmark in the Primatologi-
cal sciences, stimulating not only field researchers, mor-
phologists and taxonomists, but also benefiting such as
Biomedicine and Pharmacology. This book and his sub-
sequent publications concerning a number of the remain-
ing genera (which were to form a second volume) have
provided the groundwork for our current understanding
of the morphology, taxonomy, origins, and radiations of
New World monkeys. Very few people have achieved so
much and contributed so significantly and substantially
to our understanding of Neotropical mammals, and his
life work will continue as the key reference for New World
primatologists for many years to come.
Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho, Member of the Brazilian
Academy of Sciences. Address for correspondence: Rua
Artur Araripe 60/901, Givea, 22451-020 Rio de Janeiro,
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Hershkovitz, P. 1949. Mammals of northern Colombia.
Preliminary report No. 4: Monkeys (Primates), with taxo-
nomic revisions of some forms. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.
98: 323-427.
Hershkovitz, P. 1955. Notes on the American monkeys of
the genus Cebus. J Mammal. 36:449-452.
Hershkovitz, P. 1957. The systematic position of the mar-
moset, Simia leonina Humboldt (Primates). Proc. Biol.
Soc. Wash. 70: 17-20.

Hershkovitz, P. 1958. Type localities and nomenclature of
some American primates with remarks on secondary
homonyms. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 71:53-56.
Hershkovitz, P. 1963. A systematic and zoogeographic
account of the monkeys of the genus Callicebus
(Cebidae) of the Amazonas and Orinoco River basins.
Mammalia 27(1): 1-80.
Hershkovitz, P. 1963. Primates: Comparative Anatomy
and Taxonomy, V, Cebidae, Part B. A Monograph by W.
C. Osman Hill, Edinburgh University Press, 1962, xix
537pp., 34pls.,94 figs., 3 maps. A critical review with a
summary of the volumes on New World primates. Am.
J. Phys. Anthropol. 21(3): 391-398. (Book review)
Hershkovitz, P. 1966. On the identification of some mar-
mosets Family Callithricidae (Primates). Mammalia
30(2): 327-332.
Hershkovitz, P. 1966. Taxonomic notes on tamarins, ge-
nus Saguinus(Callithricidae, Primates) with descriptions
of four new forms. Folia Primatol. 4: 381:395.
Hershkovitz, P. 1968. Metachromism or the principle of
evolutionary change in mammalian tegumentary colors.
Evolution 22: 556-575.
Hershkovitz, P. 1969. The evolution of mammals on south-
ern continents. VI. The recent mammals of the
neotropical region: A zoogeographic and ecological re-
view. Quart. Rev. Biol. 44(1): 1-70.
Hershkovitz, P. 1970. Notes on the Tertiary platyrrhine
monkeys and description of a new genus from the Late
Miocene ofColombia. Folia Primatol. 12(1): 1-37.
Hershkovitz, P. 1970. Cerebral fissure patterns in platyr-
rhine monkeys. Folia Primatol. 13: 213-240.
Hershkovitz, P. 1970. Dental and periodontal diseases and
abnormalities in wild-caught marmosets (Primates -
Callithricidae). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 32(3): 377-394.
Hershkovitz, P. 1970. Metachromism like it is. Evolution
24: 644-648.
Hershkovitz, P. 1971. Basic crown patterns and cusp ho-
mologies of mammalian teeth. In: Dental Morphology
and Evolution, A. Dahlberg (ed.), pp.95-150. Univer-
sity of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Hershkovitz, P. 1971. Stapedial processes in tympanic
cavities of capuchin monkeys (Cebus). J. Mammal.
52(3): 607-609.
Hershkovitz, P. 1972. The recent mammals of the
neotropical region: A zoogeographic and ecological re-
view. In: Evolution, Mammals, andSouthern Continents,
A. Keast, F. C. Erk and B. Glass (eds.), pp.311-431.
State University of New York, Albany.
Hershkovitz, P. 1972. Notes on New World Monkeys. Int.
Zoo Yearbook 12: 3-12.
Hershkovitz, P. 1974. A new genus of Late Oligocene
monkey (Cebidae, Platyrrhini) with notes on postorbital
closure and platyrrhine evolution. Folia Primatol. 21 (1):

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Page 35

Page 36

Hershkovitz, P. 1975. The ectotympanic bone and origin of
higher primates. Folia Primatol. 22(4) (1974): 237-242.
Hershkovitz, P. 1975. Comments on the taxonomy of Bra-
zilian marmosets (Callithrix, Callitrichidae). Folia
Primatol. 24:137-172.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini) with an Introduction to Primates, Vol. 1.
Chicago University Press, Chicago.
Hershkovitz, P. 1979. Races of the emperor tamarin,
Saguinus imperator Goeldi (Callitrichidae, Primates).
Primates 20(2): 277-287.
Hershkovitz, P. 1979. The species of sakis, genus Pithecia
(Cebidae, Primates), with notes on sexual dichromatism.
Folia Primatol. 31:1-22.
Hershkovitz, P. 1982. Subspecies and geographic distri-
bution of black-mantle tamarins Saguinus nigricollis
Spix (Primates: Callitrichidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash.
95(4): 647-656.
Hershkovitz, P. 1983. Two new species of night monkeys,
genus Aotus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary re-
port on Aotus taxonomy. Am. J Primatol. 4: 209-243.
Hershkovitz, P. 1984. Taxonomy of squirrel monkeys, ge-
nus Saimiri, (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary re-
port with description of a hitherto unnamed form. Am.
J. Primatol. 4: 209-243.
Hershkovitz, P. 1985. A preliminary taxonomic review of
the South American bearded saki monkeys genus
Chiropotes (Cebidae, Platyrrhini), with the description
of a new subspecies. Fieldiana, Zoology, New Series (27):
iii + 46.
Hershkovitz, P. 1987. The taxonomy of South American
sakis, genus Pithecia (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a prelimi-
nary report and critical review with the description of a
new species and new subspecies. Am. J. Primatol. 12:
Hershkovitz, P. 1987. The titi. Field Museum of Natural
History Bulletin 58(6): 11-15.
Hershkovitz, P. 1987. Uacaries, New World monkeys of
the genus Cacajao (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary
taxonomic review with the description of a new subspe-
cies. Am. J Primatol. 12: 1-53.
Hershkovitz, P. 1987. A history of the recent mammalogy
of the Neotropical region from 1492 to 1850. Fieldiana,
Zoology, New Series 39: 11-98.
Hershkovitz, P. 1988. Origin, speciation, and distribution
of South American titi monkeys, genus Callicebus (Fam-
ily Cebidae, Platyrrhini). Proc. Acad Nat. Sci. Phila-
delphia 140(1): 240-272.
Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the genus
Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic
review. Fieldiana, Zoology, New Series, (55): 1-109.
Hershkovitz, P. 1993. Male external genitalia of non-pre-
hensile tailed South American monkeys. Part I. Sub-
family Pitheciinae, Family Cebidae. Fieldiana, Zoology,
New Series (73): 1-17.

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Currently, most information on the diets of primates comes
from direct observations. However, primates are still com-
monly hunted or accidentally killed throughout most of
the Neotropics, and provide as such opportunities for gath-
ering data on food items and their processing, besides
material for anatomical and genetic studies. Here we re-
port on diet and biometric data from primate specimens
collected in parks and reserves in the state of Sao Paulo,
southeastern Brazil. Individuals were either found dead
along roads or recovered from poachers (Table 1). Stan-
dard measurements were taken before the stomach con-
tents were fixed in 70% alcohol for later analyses. These
were washed under running water through a 1 mm mesh,
and the excess liquid drained by gently compressing, and
the remains weighed with a spring scale (precision 1 g).
Identifiable larger items were sorted and weighed, while
the relative composition of the remaining mulch, or of
contents too finely chewed to be sorted, was estimated.
The results are shown in Table 2.
Although general patterns cannot be drawn from such a
limited sample, some interesting findings are worthy of
note. Insect remains were found in the capuchin, lion tama-
rin and titi samples, but the tamarin sample was too
crushed for identification at a higher level. Besides fruit
pulp and insects in its stomach, we found the tamarin's
small intestine to be filled with a translucent exudate.
These items present no surprise, agreeing with what is
known for this species (see Fonseca et al., 1994, pp. 97-
107). The same can be said for the howlers, which had
fed exclusively on leaves (see Mendes, 1989; Chiarello,
1994) although the ratio of stomach content to body mass
of the adult male was remarkable, the monkey having in-
gested 15.75% of its own body weight. Compared to the
immature male, the contents of the adult's stomach were
not as finely chewed, and had many intact leaf petioles.
There is little information on the diet of Callicebus
personatus (Kinzey, 1981; Muller and Pissinatti, 1995),
the available data showing it to be mostly frugivorous.
Miller and Pissinatti (1995) reported on the diet of C. p.
melanochir as 76.6% fruits, 17.2% leaves, with other items
making 1.8%. No animal prey were reported. Our speci-
men had gorged on Campomanesia sp. fruits, both ripe
and green, ingesting and partly chewing a few green seeds,
and had eaten a few insects and caterpillars. This om-
nivorous meal recalls the diet of some Amazonian titis,
known to include insects in their diets (see HernAndez-
Camacho and Cooper, 1976; Kinzey, 1981).
The capuchin from Morro do Diabo had fed mostly on
bamboo shoots and Chorisia speciosa seeds. Capuchins

Neotropical Primates S(2), June 1997 Page 37

have been observed to feed on bamboo shoots (Guadua cf.
angustifolia) in the Atlantic forest of the coastal moun-
tain ranges of Sao Paulo (Intervales and Carlos Botelho
State Parks, pers. obs.) as well as on bamboo leaves
(Merostachys sp.) in semideciduous forest further inland
(Galetti and Pedroni, 1994). The large amount of Chorisia
speciosa (an anemochoric cotton-tree) seeds, suggest the
monkey spent a considerable time opening the hard fruits
of the cotton-tree and separating the seeds from the at-
tached cotton-like fibers. Dry-fruit seeds are known to be
an important food item to capuchins in the semideciduous
forests of Sio Paulo, such as in the Morro do Diabo State
Park, where fleshy fruit are less abundant (Galetti and
Pedroni, 1994).
The greatest surprise was the amount of crushed
Sapotaceae and Campomanesia sp. seeds in the
Brachyteles stomach contents, comprising c. 25% of the
volume. Except for 11 Campomanesia and ~10OPassiflora
seeds, the monkey had crushed all ingested seeds, identi-
fiable only as finely chewed fragments. Very few of these
fragments could be identified in the cecum, the contents
of which were reduced to a green paste with a few fibers,
plus 22 Passiflora and two Campomanesia seeds, sug-
gesting that chewed seeds are efficiently digested.
Brachyteles arachnoides, like other Atelinae, has been
considered to be a seed disperser, rather than a predator
(Terborgh, 1983; Milton, 1984; Van Roosmalen, 1985;
Fonseca, 1986; Strier, 1991; Nunes, 1995), probably be-
cause obvious seed-crushing behavior is hard to observe,
and fecal samples produce little evidence of seed preda-
tion. Nevertheless, considering the monkey's size and the
importance of fruit in its diet (at least for the Sao Paulo
Atlantic forest population, see Moraes, 1992a, 1992b), the
muriqui can evidently be an important predator of many
of the soft-seeded species it consumes, such as many
Lauraceae, Myrtaceae and Sapotaceae. This may be an
interesting topic for future research.
The Ubatuba muriqui showed all long bone epiphysis free,
and the simphysis between the basisphenoid and basioc-
cipital bones totally open. These, plus its dental charac-
teristics and low mass proved it to be a juvenile (follow-
ing De Blase and Martin, 1981). The dentary showed rel-
evant information on the tooth eruption sequence and age
of the specimen. Permanent incisives and first and second
molars had already erupted, but the third molars were still

enclosed, under the still attached deciduous teeth. The
deciduous canines and premolars were still present, show-
ing abraded cusps, while the permanent ones were begin-
ning to push them up.
Comparing our skull with 11 specimens in the Museum
of Zoology of the University of SSo Paulo (in age sequence:
MZUSP 11106, 8582,24604, 11098, 11098, 19362, 1690,
1160, 19336,11100, 19360, 3533) we found the teeth erup-
tion sequence in Brachyteles arachnoides to be:
M4 F M2 P2 P3 (P4 C) M
Mt-I,- 12-M2-P P2 P-(P4-C)-M,
An adult male (MZUSP 3533) showing the basisphenoid
and basioccipital bones fused had all permanent teeth,
except for the third molars, which were still erupting. This,
and the other specimens, showed these teeth to be the last
to erupt. Although it is difficult to estimate the age of our
specimen, Alcides Pissinatti (Centro de Primatologia do
Rio de Janeiro CPRJ) informed us that an individual
showing dental characteristics and weight similar to ours
was 6-8 months old. As captive specimens may show a
more rapid growth due to better nourishing the Ubatuba
specimen may have been somewhat older.
It is worth commenting on the way the monkeys were ob-
tained. All but the muriqui were road-kills on roads or
avenues through or adjacent to state parks. This fact shows
that monkeys of most species will descend to the ground
to cross roads through habitat patches, making them vul-
nerable to the traffic. None of the many roads traversing
the state's reserves have devices to allow safe wildlife cross-
ing, making some of them true killing grounds. This fact
is especially acute in Morro do Diabo State Park, where
endangered species such as the black lion tamarin, tapirs,
Tapirus terrestris, and pumas, Puma concolor, are fre-
quently killed on the paved road that was built through
the park without any effective measure so far being taken
by the authorities, despite the problem being well known
(see Valladares-Padua et al. 1995). The state's highway
department has recently answered to requests for taking
measures by contending that the present culverts and un-
derground passages are enough to allow wildlife (includ-
ing primates) to cross. This is unfounded and the roads
present a serious threat to the already isolated populations
of the larger mammals in the park; the last large remnant
of mesophytic forest in the state. Cantareira State Park is

Table 1. Collecting and biometry data of the primate specimens studied.' Killed by poachers, 2 Road-kills. Weights are for whole specimens, including
stomach contents.
Species Collecting Date Locality Age and sex BodyWeight Head-Body Length Tail Length
(g) (mm) (mm)
Brachyteles arachnoides' 20 Jan 96 Sertao do Puruba, Ubatuba Juv. male 6,250 588 594
(23019' S, 44056' W)
Callicebus personatus2 17 Jan 96 CantareiraS.P. Ad.female 1,692 358 468
(2322' S,4346'W)
Cebus apellaO 23 Jun 94 Morro do Diabo S.P. Ad.male 3,864 394 395
(2223' S, 5215' W)
Alouattafusca2 21 Nov 94 Cantareira S. P. Ad.male 6,540 470 535
Alouattafusca2 July 96 Cantareira S. P. Juv.male 1,143 285 338
Leontopithecus chrysopygus2 Feb 95 Morro do Diabo S.P. Ad.male 561 240 368

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Page 37

Table 2. Stomach contents of primate specimens from the state of SAo Paulo, Brazil.
Species and Collecting Data Food Items (g)
Brachyteles arachnoides Finely chewed leaves, flowers and fruit parts (~75% of volume) and crushed seeds (25%) 266 g, including:
Ficus sp. syconia, Sapotaceae (Pouteria?) fruits and crushed seeds, Passiflora sp. (Passifloraceae) fruits
and > 100 whole seeds Campomanesia sp. (Myrtaceae) fruits and 12 whole seeds Fabaceae (Machaerium or
Dalbergia sp) flowers
Callicebus personatus melanochir Campomanesia sp.(Myrtaceae) fruit peels and seeds 20 gMiconia sp. (Melastomataceae) fruit peels 3 g,
Unidentified chewed mulch and fruit pulp 20g. Insects remains of I winged Hymenoptera,
4 Lepidoptera larvae, 1 cicada (Homoptera) and adult and larvae ofColeoptera (Chrysomelidae ?)
Cebus apella Bamboo shoots (Merostachys sp., Poaceae) 32 g, Chorisia speciosa (Bombaceae) seeds 5.5 g. Insects -
2 g; remains of large Hemiptera and winged Hymenoptera (Vespoidea ?). Mulch (mostly crushed seeds and
bamboo shoots) 21 g
Alouattafusca (adult male) Chewed leaves and stems 1,030 g, including parts of a Bignoniaceae liana
Alouattafusca (immature male) Finely chewed leaves 16 g
Leontopithecus chrysopygus Fruit pulp and chitin fragments 4 g

quickly being engulfed by the urban sprawl of Sao Paulo
and neighboring cities, urban areas and high-traffic av-
enues and roads cut or surround the park, and road-kills
are frequent.
A similar situation is arising with plans to improve the
dirt road which bisects the Carlos Botelho State Park, cur-
rently under consideration by the state's environment sec-
retary. Carlos Botelho is probably the most important re-
serve in the state in terms of wildlife populations and is
crucial for the long-term global survival of endangered
species that have their stronghold in the park and the ad-
jacent Intervales State Park. These species include the
muriqui and the jacutinga or piping guan, Pipilejacutinga
(see Martuscelli et al., 1994; Galetti et al., in press). Road-
kills, poaching, and palm-heart harvesting will likely in-
crease with greater traffic and easier access to the park's
interior. Despite the protection and limited access to the
park, muriquis are occasionally poached (see Mittermeier
et al., 1987; Moraes, 1992a) and illegal palm-harvesting
is currently a serious threat to Carlos Botelho and
Intervales (Galetti and Chivers, 1995).
Our muriqui was one of three killed by poachers during a
day-long hunting expedition over very difficult mountain-
ous terrain in an area belonging to the Nficleo Picinguaba
of the Serra do Mar State Park. The fact that the muriquis
were poached inside a park by local "caigaras" confirm
the view of Martuscelli et al. (1994) that poaching by "tra-
ditional people" living in and around reserves is the great-
est threat to the species in Sao Paulo, and show that the
muriqui is not safe even in one of the conservation areas
with the best infra-structure in the state. In fact, in terms
of protection, most Sao Paulo parks are reserves only on
paper, with only 11% of their total area being effectively
protected, and just 29% being under the dominion of the
state (Brazil, Sao Paulo, DRPE-IF, 1993). The difficult
problem of "caigara" populations in the state's conserva-
tion units and their depredations on the wildlife (see
Martuscelli et al., 1994; Martuscelli and Olmos, in press;
Galetti et al., in press) has not been acknowledged by the
state's conservation authorities, and in fact the current
view is that these communities should be allowed to con-
tinue living in the reserves with full access to their natu-
ral resources, as was outlined in a recent proposal in which
up to 5% of the area of the state's ecological stations should

be given over to local populations, with 3% made avail-
able to agriculture, regardless of habitat type or extent.
This proposal was being considered despite insufficient
habitat being recognized as one of the main problems of
fauna conservation in the state (Brazil, Sao Paulo,
PROBIO, 1996). Such "politically correct" proposals are
taken seriously despite the lack of scientific evidence that
the activities of the occupants of the reserves are sustain-
able. The damage to these communities, including local
extinctions of primates and larger mammals and birds, is
easily perceived (Martuscelli et al., 1994; Olmos 1996;
Martuscelli and Olmos, in press). Without a more serious
commitment on the part of the state government to con-
serve its protected areas, one sad consequence is that more
primates will become available to studies such as this.
Acknowledgments: HerculanoAlvarenga, Francisco Vilela
and the personnel of Cantareira State Park made speci-
mens available to us. Edson P. Teixeira kindly identified
the insect remains.
FAbio Olmos, Setao de Animais Silvestres, Instituto
Florestal de Sao Paulo, C.P. 1322, Sao Paulo, SP, 01059-
970, Brazil, e-mail: guara@nethall.com.br, Geraldo
Ant6nio Daher Correa Franco, Se9ao de Ecologia,
Institute Florestal de Sao Paulo, C.P. 1322, Sao Paulo, SP,
01059-970, Brazil, and Paulo Auricchio, Bolsista CNPq,
Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociencias -
Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matlo Travessa 14,
no. 321, Sao Paulo, SP, 05508-900, Brazil, e-mail:
Brazil, Sao Paulo, DRPE IF. 1993. Plano Emergencial
para as Unidades de Conservaqdo. Secretaria do Meio
Ambiente, Instituto Florestal, Sao Paulo.
Brazil, Sao Paulo, PROBIO (Programa Estadual para a
Conservagao da Biodiversidade). 1996. Diretrizes para
a Conservaqdo da Fauna no Estado de SJo Paulo -
Diagn6stico e Propostas. Relat6rio Preliminar. PROBIO/
Cinp, Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente, Sao Paulo.
Chiarello, A. G. 1994. Diet of the brown howler monkey
Alouatta fusca in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of
southeastern Brazil. Primates 35(1): 25-34.
De Blase, A. F. and Martin, R. E. 1981. A Manual of
Mammalogy: With Keys to Families of the World. 2nd
edition. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa.

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Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1986. Observaqbes sobre a ecologia
do mono carvoeiro ou muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides)
e sugestbes para sua conservagao. In: A Primatologia
no Brasil 2, M. T. de Mello (ed.), pp.177-190.
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.
Fonseca, G. A. B., Rylands, A. B., Costa, C. M. R.,
Machado, R. B. and Leite, Y. L. R. 1994. Livro Vermelho
dos Mamiferos Brasileiros Ameacados de Extingio.
FundarAo Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Galetti, M. and Pedroni, F. 1994. Seasonal diet of capu-
chin monkeys (Cebus apella) in a semideciduous forest
in south-east Brazil. J. Trop. Ecol. 10(1): 21-39.
Galetti, M. and Chivers, D. J. 1995. Palm harvest threat-
ens Brazil's best protected area of Atlantic Forest. Oryx
29: 225-226.
Galetti, M., Martuscelli, P., Olmos, F. and Aleixo, A. In
press. Ecology and conservation of the jacutinga Pipile
jacutinga in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Biol. Conserv.
Hernndez-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The
nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: Neotropical Pri-
mates: Field Studies and Conservation, R. W.
Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds.), pp. 35-69. Na-
tional Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C.
Kinzey, W. G. 1981. The titi monkeys, genus Callicebus.
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1, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.),
pp.241-276. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de
Martuscelli, P. and Olmos, F. In press. Cracid conserva-
tion in Sao Paulo state, southeastern Brazil. In: Biology
and Conservation of the Family Cracidae, S. Strahl and
D. M. Brooks (eds.).
Martuscelli, P., Petroni, L. and Olmos, F. 1994. Fourteen
new localities for the muriqui Brachyteles arachnoides.
Neotropical Primates 2(2): 16-19.
Mendes, S. L. 1989. Estudo ecol6gico de Alouattafusca
(Primates: Cebidae) na Estacao Biol6gica de Caratinga,
MG. Rev. Nordestina Biol. 6(2): 71-104.
Milton, K. 1984. Habitat, diet and activity patterns of free-
ranging woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles
arachnoides E. Geoffreoy, 1806). Int. J Primatol. 5:491-
Mittermeier, R. A., Valle, C. M. C., Alves, M. C., Santos,
I. B., Pinto, C. A. M., Strier, K. B., Young, A. L., Veado,
E. M., Constable, I. D., Paccagnella, S. G and Lemos de
Sa, R. M. 1987. Current distribution of the muriqui in
the Atlantic forest region of eastern Brazil. Primate Con-
servation 8: 143-149.
Moraes, P. L. R. 1992a. Dispersao de sementes pelo mono-
carvoeiro (Brachyteles arachnoides E. Geoffroy, 1806)
no Parque Estadual de Carlos Botelho. Rev. Inst. Florest.,
Sdo Paulo 4: 1193-1198.
Moraes, P. L. R. 1992b. Esp6cies utilizadas na alimentagao
do mono-carvoeiro (Brachyteles arachnoides E.
Geoffroy, 1806) no Parque Estadual de Carlos Botelho.
Rev. Inst. Florest., Sao Paulo 4: 1206-1208.
Mtlller, K.-H. and Pissinatti, A. 1995. Ecology and feed-
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Page 39

mates 3(2): 51-52.
Nunes, A. 1995. Um teste de germinalAo em sementes
dispersas por macacos-aranha em Maraca, Roraima; Bra-
zil. Studies in Neotropical Fauna and Environment
30(1): 31-36.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. 1985. Habitat preferences, diet,
feeding strategy and social organization of the black spi-
der monkey Ateles paniscus paniscus Linnaeus 1758,
in Surinam. Acta Amazonica 15: 148-163.
Strier, K. B. 1991. Diet in one group of woolly spider
monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides). Am. J. Primatol.
23(2): 113-126.
Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates: A Study in
Comparative Ecology. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, NJ.
Valladares-Padua, C., Cullen Jr., L. and Padua, S. 1995.
A pole bridge to avoid primate road kills. Neotropical
Primates 3(1): 13-15.

Se ha dicho que en la mayoria de los primates gregarios
del Viejo Mundo con mAs de una hembra reproductive
por grupo los machos son los que muestran una mayor
tendencia a dejar la tropa natal, sin embargo en algunas
species se ha observado que ambos sexos emigran en tanto
que en otras, generalmente lo hacen las hembras (Pusey y
Packer, 1987). Con respect a los primates neotropicales
poco se conoce sobre los patrons de dispersi6n de los
sexos, describidndose en aquellas species con estructura
social poligama, dispersi6n de machos, tal es el caso de
en Cebus (Robinson y Janson, 1987), Saimiri (Baldwin y
Baldwin, 1981) y Alouatta (Neville et al., 1988). De las
species mencionadas, Alouatta, tambi6n muestra
dispersi6n de hembras (Jones, 1980; Crockett, 1984;
Neville et al., 1988; Calegaro-Marques y Bicca-Marques,
Si bien no siempre es fAcil determinar porqud un individuo
emigra en un moment determinado de su vida, este tipo
de conduct se puede clasificar segin: a) emigraci6n como
consecuencia de comportamientos agresivos, b) emigraci6n
causada por la atracci6n hacia un individuo extragrupal,
c) emigraci6n causada por rapto (Pusey y Packer, 1987).
En species que muestran dispersi6n regular de hembras,
se ha visto que las mismas emigran despuds del primer
estro; sin embargo, en hembras de hamadriadas (Papio
hamadryas) este event se produce aim en la etapajuvenil.
En aulladores la dispersi6n se da generalmente antes del
primer estro, en relaci6n con el establecimiento de los
ranges jerdrquicos y es asi como se ha descripto que en
Alouatta palliata, A. seniculus y A. caraya, las hembras
forman una jerarquia social en la que el rango se relaciona
de manera inversa con la edad (Jones, 1980, 1983;
Crockett, 1984). Si bien el mantenimiento de lajerarqufa

Page 40

se alcanza por medio de comportamientos pacificos, en el
establecimiento de los rangos, principalmente el que
corresponde a la posici6n alfa, las hembras j6venes
interactian de manera agresiva con las otras (Crockett,
1984). El comportamiento agresivo de las hembras j6venes
tambi6n puede apreciarse en lo sefialado por Glander
(1980) quien observ6 una baja supervivencia en las crias
de las hembras primiparas con rango alfa, asociando esta
situaci6n a la coincidencia entire el tiempo en que tienen
el primer pato ( 3 a 4 aflos de edad) y aquel en el que ellas
obtienen el primer puesto en la jerarqufa social, dando
origen a la dispersi6n de las hembras juveniles que no
pueden integrarse en la dinamica social de su grupo natal
(Jones, 1980; Crockett, 1984; Rumiz, 1990; Clark, 1990;
Calegaro-Marques, 1992).
El present trabajo describe las observaciones realizadas
en aulladores negros (Alouatta caraya) teniendo en cuenta
las relaciones sociales de las hembras observadas en
condiciones naturales, considerando la desaparici6n de una
de las sub-adultas y dando particular Wnfasis a las
diferencias de comportamiento entire las mismas.
La ecologia y el comportamiento social de un grupo de
Alouatta caraya fueron estudiados en un period de 20
meses Mayoo 1992/diciembre 1993) en una tropa llamada
TP que habitaba en un parche de bosque semi-caducifolio
de aproximadamente 10 ha, denominado Tacuaral-Pozo,
situado en las mkrgenes del rio Riachuelo en el noroeste
de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina (270 30' S; 58
41 'O) (Figura 1). El sitio present un relieve suavemente
ondulado con una altura de 50-60 msnm y el clima
corresponde a un ambiente subtropical subhimedo a
hiumedo (Zunino, 1986).
Este trabajo present el andlisis de 8 campaflas de
aproximadamente 15 dias de duraci6n cada una, llevadas
a cabo en las siguientes fechas: 1992, 1) mayo, 2) julio-
agosto, 3) septiembre-octubre, 4) noviembre-diciembre;
1993, 5) febrero, 6) abril-mayo, 7) agosto y 8) noviembre-
diciembre, totalizando 305 horas de observaci6n. Mientras
que la tdcnica de observaci6n adlibitum fue utilizada para
el grupo (total = 130 horas), la t6cnica animal-focal
(Altmann, 1974) fue empleada para observer cada una de
las hembras adults, denominadas H1 y H2 y sub-adultas,
denominadas OR y OM (total = 175 horas). Las classes de
edad se consideraron segin Rumiz (1990).
Los nueve comportamientos analizados se definieron de
la siguiente manera:
"Juego": interacci6n entire dos o mas individuos que se
agarran, empujan, tironean, simulan morderse, saltan
unos sobre otros sin daflo aparente para los involucrados,
incluydndose tambien las persecusiones en tal context
(Neville et al., 1988),
"Suplantaci6n": aproximaci6n con o sin contact de un
individuo hacia otro que se retira del lugar que ocupaba
previamente (Giudice, 1993),

"Acicalamiento" ("allogrooming"): el remitente
inspecciona el pelaje del receptor aproximando a veces
la boca a la piel (Giudice, 1993),
"Aproximaci6n": cuando un individuo se acerca a otro y
permanece junto a 61 (Giudice, 1993),
"Evicci6n": cuando un individuo se liberal cauta y
previsoriamente de otro,
"Cuidar a una crfa de otra hembra" ("Allomatemal care"):
cuando las hembras cuidan a las crias como si fueran
las verdaderas madres (Calegaro-Marques y Bicca-
Marques, 1993),
"Amenazas": gestos faciales o corporales previous a un
possible ataque dirigidos hacia otro individuo (Giudice,
"Coalici6n": alianza entire dos o mas individuos que
hostigan a un tercero (Giudice, 1993).
"Pelea": acci6n agresiva con contact fisico, relacionada
con manotazos, mordiscos y persecusiones (Giudice,
Los datos de comportamiento se analizaron a partir de las
frecuencias de vecino mas pr6ximo y se consideraron en
dicho andlisis las conductas defmidas previamente. Las
frecuencias observadas fueron comparadas con las
esperadas, basadas en una distribuci6n hipot6tica
homogenea de los valores para luego ser contrastadas
utilizando la prueba chi-cuadrada con un nivel de
significaci6n del 5% (Lenher, 1979). Este andlisis se
realize entire las hembras focales en el period mayo-
septiembre de 1992, es decir hasta el (iltimo mes con
observaciones realizadas sobre la hembra que desaparece
(OM). Se calcularon los indices de asociaci6n como el
cociente de las frecuencias observadas sobre las esperadas,
otorgando el valor de 1 cuando el grado de asociaci6n
coincidi6 con el esperado por la distribuci6n hipotetica
homogenea, los valores superiores e inferiores destacan
un alejamiento de esa distribuci6n te6rica, indicando
afmidad y repulsi6n respectivamente. Por otra parte, la
frecuencia absolute de la categoria "Suplantaci6n" fue
clasificada para todas las hembras focales en una matriz
cuyas filas presentan a los iniciadores y en las columns a
los receptores de las suplantaciones (Tabla 1). Por iltimo,
se compararon por la prueba chi-cuadrada, las frecuencias
observadas de los comportamientos "Suplantaci6n",
"Aproximaci6n", "Acicalamiento", "Amenaza",
"Evicci6n" y "Juego" expresados por OR y OM (ambas
hembras sub-adultas) con las esperadas a partir de una
distribuci6n te6rica para la cual ambas hembras

Tabla 1. Matriz de dominancia social basada en la expresi6n de
suplantaciones para el period mayo-septiembre de 1992.
Individuos HI H2 OR OM Total
H1 1 9 2 12
H2 12 11 3 26
OR 0 0 7 7
OM 0 0 3 3
Total 12 1 23 12 48
Los valores son dados como frecuencias absolutas. En las filas se disponen
los individuos suplantadores y en las columns a aquellos suplantados. HI,
H2, OR y OM correspondent a las hembras focales.

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997 Pa2e 41

b g
Figura 1. a) Localizaci6n geogrAfica regional del area de studio. b) Monte
Tacuaral-Pozo y los bosques semicaducif61ios en el sitio de studio al norte
del Rio Riachuelo.
expresarian en igual magnitude los comportamientos
mencionados (Lehner, 1979).
Cambios demograficos. Al comienzo del studio de la
tropa Mayoo 1992) estuvo compuesta por 11 individuos: 1
macho adulto, 2 hembras adults, 2 hembras sub-adultas,
3 machos juveniles de distintas edades, I macho sub-adulto
y 2 crfas (macho y hembra). Desde mayo de 1992 hasta
diciembre de 1993 los Onicos cambios observados fueron
una desaparici6n y un nacimiento. El primer caso
correspondi6 a la hembra sub- adulta OM y ocurri6 entire
septiembre y octubre de 1992. El nacimiento producido
en el period mayo-julio de 1993 estuvo relacionado a la
hembra adulta H2. El tamaflo grupal (N = 11) se mantuvo
constant durante los 20 meses en los cuales se realize su
Desarrollo de coaliciones. En septiembre de 1992 se tuvo
la oportunidad de observer dos coaliciones formadas por
OR y HI en contra de OM, iniciadas con amenazas
reiteradas de OR y uni6ndose de imprevisto HI que
acorral6 y embisti6 a OM quien cay6 aproximadamente
tres metros quedando trabada en las ramas de un arbusto
bajo. En ambos casos H2 se interpuso entire las atacantes y
OM, sin observarse agresiones entire la dupla HI-OR y
H2. En los dias siguientes OM se mantuvo alejada del
grupo, aproximdndose en algunas oportunidades a H2 y

descansando junto a ella o bien intercambiando breves
sesiones de acicalamiento. Se destaca que en el desarrollo
de las coaliciones se plegaron en contra de OM algunos
machos juveniles que nunca antes se habian observado
interactuando de manera agonistica con OM.
En las siguientes campafias realizadas durante 1992
(octubre-noviembre) y 1993 OM no fue vista en el area de
Relaciones sociales. El analisis de frecuencia de vecino
mis pr6ximo entire las hembras focales para el period
mayo-septiembre de 1992 muestra diferencias
significativas con respect a la distribuci6n homog6nea
de valores observados (x2 = 99.68, gl = 5, p< 0.05). Se
puede considerar una relaci6n de afinidad entire H1-OR y
H2-OM mientras que entire las hembras adults (HI y H2)
la relaci6n fue de tipo aleatoria y las restantes
combinaciones (H 1-OM, H2-OR y OR-OM) mostraron una
relaci6n de tipo repulsiva (Tabla 2). En las hembras adults
la jerarquia social fue encabezada por H2 (Tabla 2).
Considerando s6lo a OR y OM entire mayo y septiembre
de 1992, fecha de la desaparici6n de OM OR suplant6 a
OM mas veces que a la inversa (X2 = 7.8, gl = 1, p<0.05).
Otras pautas marcan las diferencias de carActer entire las
hembras sub-adultas: 1) OR ejecut6 con mis frecuencia
"Amenazas" hacia las otras hembras (x2 = 10.34, gl = 1,
p<0.05), 2) OM fue la hembra evasiva del grupo (x2 =
8.6,gl = 1, p<0.05 ), 3) OR ejecut6 con mas frecuencia
que OM los comportamientos afiliativos "Acicalamiento"
(X2 = 6, gl =1, p<0.05 ), "Allomaternal care" ()2 = 5.44,gl
=1 p<0.05 ) y "Juego" (x2 = 4.5, gl = 1, p<0.05) y 4) OR
acical6 al macho adulto (MA) con mas frecuencia que
cualquier otra hembra (X2 = 6.7,gl = 3, p<0.05). La (nica
similitud en la conduct expresada por las hembras sub-
adultas fue la frecuencia con que estuvieron mas cercanas
al MA (2 = 1.3,gl = 1, P>0.05). Se observ6 a OR amenazar
a OM en las siguientes notas tomadas ad libitum: a) OM
descansaba junto al MA cuando OR se aproxim6 a ellos
emitiendo chillidos e intent desplazar a OM que respondi6
tambidn con vocalizaciones; al cabo de algunos minutes
de vacilaci6n, OM se retir6 quedando OR junto a MA; b)
OR acicalaba a MA y comenz6 a gritar ante la
aproximaci6n de OM quien se alej6 respondiendo con

Tabla 2. AnAlisis de frecuencias de vecino mis pr6ximo para las hembras
focales, correspondiente al perlodo mayo-septiembre 1992. Referencias: HI,
H2, OR y OM: hembras focales. Las frecuencias esperadas fueron calculadas
considerando una distribuci6n te6rica homogdnea. El estadistico c2
corresponde a la prueba Chi-cuadrada. El Indice de Asociaci6n se calcul6
como el cociente entire las frecuencias observadas y esperadas.
Paresde Frecuencias Frecuencias X2 Indicede Tipode
Hembras observadas esperadas Asociaci6n Relaci6n
HI-OR 24 14.5 6.22 1.66 Afinidad*
H1-OM 1 14.5 12.57 0.07 Repulsi6n*
H1-H2 8 14.5 2.91 0.55 Aleatorio
H2-OM 45 14.5 64.16 3.10 Afinidad*
H2-OR 5 14.5 6.22 0.34 Repulsi6n*
OR-OM 4 14.5 7.6 0.28 Repulsi6n*
Totales 87 87
* p<0.05

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Page 41

Page 42 Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Con el objetivo de hallar un possible recurso por el cual las
hembras OR y OM compitieran, se analizaron los contextos
en los cuales tomaron lugar las suplantaciones. Las
suplantaciones por ocupar lugares de descanso
representaron el 46% del total, en este context se
registraron dos amenzas vocales. El 15% de las
suplantaciones se observ6 en lugares de alimentaci6n,
registrAndose s6lo una amenaza de tipo vocal con
movimientos de ramas. El 28% se llev6 a cabo durante los
deplazamientos del grup o y no se registraron
comportamientos agonisticos. Finalmente, el 11% ocurri6
en relaci6n a la proximidad de un tercer individuo, en
este context se registraron 3 amenazas vocales y 4 peleas
que involucraron a las hembras subadultas.
ZPor qud OR y OM expresaron comportamientos agresivos
entire ellas? ZCul file el recurso por el cual las mismas
competian? Las observaciones indicarian que OR intent
monopolizar el acceso al macho adulto (MA) a trav6s de
las sesiones de acicalamiento a expenses de OM. Este
comportamiento desarrollado por OR es similar al sefialado
para hembras adults de cercopitdcidos, en las cuales
hembras de alta jerarqufa interrumpen las sesiones de
acicalamiento de hembras de menor rango, a las cuales
persiguen y amenazan, reduciendo asi el contact entire
dstas y los machos adults reproductores, con la
consiguiente disminuci6n del 6xito reproductive de las
mismas (O'Brien, 1991). Este comportamiento tambidn
ha sido descripto en Cebus apella en cautiverio (Welker
et al., 1990). Estas interferencias no tienen una
contrapartida entire las hembras adults de aulladores, las
cuales se reproducen regularmente una vez que alcanzan
la madurez sexual. Sin embargo, las restricciones para la
reproducci6n parecen recaer sobre las hembras que se
aproximan a la madurez sexual (Crockett y Eisenberg,
1987). Al respect Calegaro-Marques y Bicca-Marques
(1996) observaron que el orden cronol6gico en la
dispersi6n de tres hembras inmaduras de Alouatta caraya
se asoci6 con el grado de madurez sexual de las mismas,
siendo cada una de ellas vecina mAs pr6xima del macho
adulto en los periods previous a cada emigraci6n. Se ha
postulado que si las hembras juveniles se reprodujeran en
su grupo natal, aumentaria el tamaflo de la tropa afectando
negativamente una estrategia de alimentaci6n 6ptima para
las hembras reproductivamente activas (Crockett, 1984;
Crockett y Eisenberg, 1987). Asi mismo, se ha sefialado
que algunas hembras cumplen con la funci6n de alentar
la dispersi6n de otras (Crockett, 1984). En el caso
reportado en el present trabajo, OR tom6 esa funci6n al
alentar la dispersi6n de OM.
Teniendo en cuenta que en los bosques fragmentados del
area de studio el tamaflo de los grupos de aulladores no
es numeroso, ya que en promedio hay de 6 a 8 individuos
(Rumiz, 1990) y considerando una estructura social de
tipo uni-macho con un promedio de 2 hembras adults
por grupo (Rumiz, 1990), con hembras adults que forman
sub-grupos con su descendencia de distintas edades

(Zunino, 1986), la incorporaci6n de hembras solitarias a
grupos reproductivos preexistentes seria altamente improb-
able, infiri6ndose por el analisis de vecino mas pr6ximo
que los pares Hi-OR y H2-OM correspondent a duplas
madre-hija. Contrariamente a lo esperado, es decir con la
hembra de mayor jerarquia protegiendo a su desendencia,
vemos que H2 no defendi6 activamente a OM, limitAndose
a interponerse entire las hembras atacantes y OM. Tampoco
fue observada participando en las disputes previas entire
ambas hembras sub-adultas. Esta situaci6n es distinta a la
hallada en algunos g6neros de primates del Viejo Mundo
como por ejemplo Macaca y Papio, en los cuales las
hembras generalmente quedan en el grupo natal adn
habiendo alcanzado la madurez reproductive (Gouzoules
y Gouzoules, 1987). Una explicaci6n seria que de esa forma
tendrfan la oportunidad a lo largo de sus vidas de
interactuar con gran n(imero de individuos, entire parientes
y no parientes, formAndose lazos sociales fuertes y
duraderos que se traducen en intercambios de
acicalamiento ("grooming") y formaci6n de alianzas. Este
aspect tambien fue sefialado para Cebus apella, especie
en la cual los miembros de una linea maternal se apoyan
mutuamente en interacciones agresivas con otros miembros
del grupo (Welker et al., 1990; Valderrama et al.,1990).
Sin embargo, en hamadriadas, colobos, gorilas y
chimpancds, entire los primates del Viejo Mundo y
aulladores (A. seniculus, A. palliata y A. caraya) entire
los monos de Nuevo Mundo, las hembras se dispersan y
de esta forma las posibilidades de interactuar a largo plazo
con otros individuos son menores con respect a los grupos
de cercopitecidos en los cuales las hembras permanecen
en su grupo natal (Walters y Seyfarth, 1987). Los datos
aqui presentados responderian a este modelo, donde H2,
la hembra adulta de mayor jerarquia social, no desarroll6
un comportamiento de defense active en favor de OM
situaci6n que hubiera balanceado las relaciones entire las
hembras sub-adultas y pareciera evidence que esta
organizaci6n social no favoreceria el desarrollo de vinculos
sociales entire hembras a largo plazo. El event reportado
en Alouatta caraya se encuadra en la emigraci6n como
consecuencia de comportamiento agresivo intrasexual,
destacandose que el carActer propio, la habilidad
competitive y la capacidad para convocar aliados fueron
factors que determinaron la exclusi6n del grupo,
independientemente de la linea materna a la cual
pertenecia la hembra emigrada.
Este trabajo se llev6 a cabo en el marco de una beca de
CONICET (1992-1994). Agradezco al Dr. Josd Maria
Gallardo, ex-director del Museo Argentino de Ciencias
Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" por apoyar
econ6micamente las campaflas realizadas en Corrientes y
al personal del Centro Argentino de Primates (CAPRIM)
por la ayuda otorgada en mis estadias en dicho centro.
Agradezco a la Dra. Marta Dolores Mudry por la
correcci6n y revisi6n critical del manuscrito y alentar el
seguimiento de mis studios en el comportamiento de pri-

Page 42

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997 Page 43

Aldo Mario Giudice, Grupo de Investigaci6n en Biologia
Evolutiva gibeE), Laboratorio No. 46, Departamento de
Biologia, 4o. Piso, Pabell6n II, Facultad de Ciencias
Exactas y Naturales (UBA), Ciudad Universitaria, (1428)
Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: Sam-
pling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-267.
Baldwin, J. D. y Baldwin, J. I. 1981. The squirrel mon-
keys, genus Saimiri. En: Ecology and Behavior of Neo-
tropical Primates, Vol. 1, A. F. Coimbra-Filho y R. A.
Mittermeier (eds.), pp.277-330. Academia Brasilera de
Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.
Calegaro-Marques, C. 1992. Comportamento social de um
grupo de Alouatta caraya (Primates, Cebidae) em
Alegrete, RS, Brasil. Tese de Mestrado, Universidade
de Brasilia, Brasilia.
Calegaro-Marques, C. y Bicca-Marques, J. C. 1993.
Allomaternal care in the black howler monkey (Alouatta
caraya). Folia Primatol. 61: 104-109.
Calegaro-Marques, C. y Bicca-Marques, J. C. 1996. Emi-
gration in a black howler monkey group. Int. J Primatol.
17(2): 229-237.
Clarke, M. R. 1990. Behavioral development and social-
ization of infants in a free-ranging group of howling
monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Folia Primatol. 54: 1-15.
Crockett, C. M. 1984. Emigration by female red howler
monkeys and the case for female competition. En: Fe-
male Primates: Studies by Women Primatologists, M.
Small (ed.), pp.159-173. Alan R. Liss, New York.
Crockett, C. M. y Eisenberg, J. F. 1987. Howlers: Varia-
tions in group size and demography. En: Primate Soci-
eties, B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W.
Wrangham y T. T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp.54-68. Univer-
sity of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Giudice, A. M. 1993. Relaciones sociales en grupo en
cautiverio de monos aulladores negros (Alouatta caraya).
Bol. Primatol. Lat. 4(1): 19-23
Glander, K. E. 1980. Reproduction and population growth
in free-ranging mantled howling monkeys. Am. J. Phys.
Anthropol. 53: 25-36.
Gouzoules, S. y Gouzoules, H. 1987. Kinship. En: Pri-
mate Societies, B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M.
Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham y T. T. Struhsaker (eds.),
pp.299-305. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Jones, C. B. 1980. The functions of status in the mantled
howler monkey Alouatta palliata Gray: Intraspecific
competition for group membership in a folivorous
neotropical primate. Primates 21: 389-405.
Jones, C. B. 1983. Social organization of captive black
howler monkeys Alouatta caraya: Social competition
and the use of non-damaging behavior. Primates 24(1):
Lehner, P. N. 1979. Handbook of Ethological Methods.
Garland STPM Press, New York.
Neville, M.; Glander, K. E.; Braza, F. y Rylands, A. B.

1988. The howling monkeys, genus Alouatta. En: Ecol-
ogy and Behavior ofNeotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R. A.
Mittermeier, A.B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho y G. A.
B. da Fonseca (eds.) pp.349- 453. World Wildlife Fund,
Washington, D. C.
O'Brien, T. G. 1991. Female-male social interactions in
wedge-capped capuchin monkeys: benefits and costs of
group living. Anim. Behav. 41: 555-567.
Pusey, A. E. y Packer, C. 1987. Dispersal and philopatry.
En: Primate Societies, B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R.
M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham y T. T. Struhsaker (eds.),
pp.250-266. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Robinson, J.G. y Janson, C.H. 1987. Capuchins, squirrel
monkeys, and atelines: socioecological convergence with
Old World Primates. En: Primate Societies, B. B. Smuts
D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham y T. T.
Struhsaker (eds.), pp.69-82. University of Chicago Press,
Rumiz, D. I. 1990. Alouatta caraya: Population density
and demography in northernArgentina. Am. J. Primatol.
21: 279-294.
Valderrama, X., Srikosamatara, S. y Robinson, J. G. 1990.
Infanticide of wedge-capped capuchin monkeys, Cebus
olivaceus. Folia Primatol. 54: 171-176.
Walters, J. R. y Seyfarth, R. M. Conflict and cooperation.
En: Primate Societies, B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R.
M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham y T. T. Struhsaker (eds.),
pp.306-317. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Welker, C., Hohmann, H. y Schafer-Witt, C. 1990. Sig-
nificance of kin relations and individual preferences in
the social behaviour of Cebus apella. Folia Primatol.
54: 166-170.
Zunino, G. 1986. Algunos aspects de la ecologia y
etologia del mono aullador negro (Alouatta caraya) en
habitats fragmentados. Tesis de Doctorado, Universidad
de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires.

En distintos esquemas taxon6micos el gdnero Callicebus
fue incluido entire los Pitheciinae (Rosenberger, 1981), con
Aotus en la subfamilia Aotinae (Cabrera, 1958; Fleagle,
1988), o en la propia subfamilia monotfpica Callicebinae
(Hershkovitz, 1977; Thorington y Anderson, 1984;
Tejedor, 1996a); esta disparidad denota una posici6n
taxon6mica incierta, product de una historic evolutiva
compleja y escasamente interpretada. Como propuesta
alternative se infiere que, a partir del andlisis de la
dentici6n, Callicebus posee numerosos caracteres
primitivos retenidos desde formas ancestrales previas a la
radiaci6n que posteriormente diferenciara los grupos
actuales. Es entonces cuando hallamos una soluci6n a los
problems taxon6micos mencionados: la morfologia
primitive de Callicebus es la causa de las dificultades de
interpretaci6n, ya que son los caracteres derivados los que
indican relaciones filogendticas; es oportuno aceptar que

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Page 43

Page 44

la dentici6n del mencionado gdnero representaria al
morfotipo ancestral de los platirrinos. Los incisivos de
Callicebus requieren especial atenci6n debido a que son
estos dientes los que mayor diversidad demuestran entire
los platirrinos, y en consecuencia sus afmidades resultaron
ser confusas. Los incisivos superiores son moderadamente
heterom6rficos, siendo los centrales mayores que los
laterales, con secci6n transversal redondeada y corona mis
espatulada en comparaci6n con los laterales c6nicos. Los
incisivos inferiores presentan ia corona estrecha en sentido
mesodistal, y son algo elevadas e implantadas de modo
relativamente procumbente. Los caninos son reducidos,
el dimorfismo sexual no es significative, la corona de los
inferiores es sensiblemente espatulada en la porci6n api-
cal y la cara lingual es redondeada; los superiores son
algo mAs robustos y levemente proyectados sobre el plano
oclusal. Los premolares y molares muestran cispides
prominentes, redondeadas, unidas por crestas bajas aunque
bien distintivas; los molares superiores poseen un marcado
cingulo lingual y un gran hipocono, el tercer molar es
bastante complete en cuanto a la presencia de cOspides
que en otros generos tienden a reducirse o perderse,
especialmente el metacono, hipocono y las c6spides del
tal6nido. El trig6nido de los molares inferiores, mas aun
el del primero, es mAs elevado en relaci6n al tal6nido, un
carActer indudablemente primitive. Estos caracteres
mencionados son compartidos en gran parte por Homun-
culus y Carlocebus, g6neros extintos asignados a la Edad
Santacrucense (Mioceno medio) de La Patagonia (Tejedor,
1996b), cuyas notables similitudes con Callicebus llevan
a pensar en un stock ancestral comin y lo suficientemente
antiguo para considerarlo cercano a la primitive radiaci6n
de los platirrinos. Cabe recorder que, luego de los registros
aislados de platirrinos f6siles en el Deseadense (Oligoceno
superior) de Bolivia, las diversas formas de Patagonia y
un 6nico registro en Chile conforman el grupo mas
antiguo. Una morfologia dentaria como la de Callicebus
es apropriada para que de 6sta se driven las tendencies
que se verifican en los restantes monos sudamericanos; el
hecho de que los incisivos inferiores presented corona
moderadamente elevada, estrecha y procumbente, asi como
en los superiores no se observa un heteromorfismo muy
significativo, permit inferir que la gran diversidad hallada
en otros grupos actuales tenga origen en un morfotipo
semejante a Callicebus, ofreciendo las mis diversas
posibilidades de evolucionar hacia tipos extremes. De la
misma manera, es mas sencillo aceptar que los caninos
reducidos, no proyectados y no dim6rficos, son estructuras
ancestrales de los grandes y dim6rficos caninos que
correspondent a species con hAbitos alimenticios
especializados y estructuras sociales complejas. Callicebus
hace uso del mas amplio espectro de posibilidades
alimentarias entire los platirrinos, ademis de constituir
estructuras sociales mon6gamas (Kinzey, 1981). Como se
ha mencionado, los premolares y molares de Callicebus
son completes en cuanto a la morfologia oclusal; ciertas
tendencies tales como reducci6n de cingulos, reducci6n
de hipocono y entoc6nido, y reducci6n o pirdida del ter-

cer molar, entire otras, correspondent a indubables caracteres
derivados, nuevamente a partir de un morfotipo ancestral
similar a Callicebus. La gran semejanza entire Callicebus
y los extintos Homunculus y Carlocebus, sugiere la mds
que interesante alternative de representar cercanamente
al morfotipo ancestral del infraorden, respaldando las si-
militudes fenotipicas con s61lidas bases filogen6ticas. Las
notables afinidades entire estos tres generos y la dificultad
de relacionar a Callicebus con otros grupos o gdneros de
platirrinos, actuales o f6siles, nos induce a retroceder en
su historic evolutiva para hallar su origen entire las formas
generalizadas que diferenciaron al infraorden. Es esta una
posici6n especulativa aunque adecuadamente sostenida
desde los abundantes datos que nos confiere la morfologfa
dentaria, en especial si consideramos que los f6siles se
hallan representados mayormente por restos dentarios;
pero al moment de contrastar con otras hip6tesis
observamos que los grupos altemativos son marcadamente
derivados hacia otras tendencies, como se detalla abajo.
Cabe entonces mencionar los grupos mas derivados entire
las formas vivientes, tal es el caso de la subfamilia
Callitrichinae (Callithrix, Cebuella, Leontopithecus,
Saguinusy Callimico) que poseen una dentici6n en muchos
aspects distintiva. Estos pequeflos primates han perdido
el tercer molar (a excepci6n de Callimico, que lo posee
extremadamente reducido), en tanto el segundo molar se
ha reducido notablemente, otorgando a los premolares una
important funci6n en la mecAnica masticatoria
(Rosenberger, 1992). Los premolares y molares exhiben
crestas cortantes y elevadas c6spides que denotan habitos
predominantemente frugivoros-insectivorps (Garber, 1980;
Rylands 1989), aunque la incorporaci6n de resinas es
destacable especialmente paraCebuella y Callithrix (Soini,
1982; Rylands, 1989). Es important mencionar la gran
reducci6n o pdrdida del hipocono en los molares superiors,
que le confiere a los mismos una forma triangular. Los
incisivos y caninos de los Callitrichinae presentan algunas
variaciones intergendricas, ya que la morfologia mAs
derivada la poseen Callithrix y Cebuella, con incisivos
inferiores de corona elevada e interdigitada, estrechos e
implantados de manera procumbente, y caninos de aspect
incisiviforme ubicados por detras de los incisivos,
reforzando la acci6n mecanica de los iltimos en procura
de resinas de Arboles. Los caninos superiores son alargados
y proyectados sobre el piano oclusal, sin diferir
significativamente de los caninos superiores de los otros
integrantes de la subfamilia. Saguinus, Callimico y
Leontopithecus presentan incisivos inferiores de corona
espatulada e implantaci6n relativamente vertical,
delatando sus hibitos mAs frugivoros, mientras que los
caninos inferiores son, al igual que los superiores, largos
y proyectados. En todos los Callitrichinae, los incisivos
superiors son moderadamente heterom6rficos, siendo los
centrales mayors que los laterales, una condici6n que
caracteriza en mayor o menor grado a todos los platirrinos.
Los Pitheciinae (Pithecia, Chiropotes, Cacajao) poseen
la morfologia dentaria tambi6n extremadamente derivada,

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Neotopicl Pimats 5(), une 997Page 45

aunque en cierto modo opuesto a lo visto en los
Callitrichinae. Los premolares y molares muestran un
escaso relieve oclusal, cispides marginales, crestas poco
insinuadas y forma subcuadrangular; no obstante, el
segundo premolar inferior se halla muy desarrollado y la
corona es elevada. Los incisivos exhiben corona muy
elevada, estrecha y procumbente, estando los laterales
separados de los caninos superiores e inferiores por un
amplio diastema. Los caninos son muy robustos y se
proyectan considerablemente sobre el piano oclusal,
teniendo la caracteristica de una secci6n transversal tri-
angular con crestas linguales cortantes. El complejo
funcional formado entire incisivos y caninos represent,
en los Pitheciinae, una adaptaci6n mecAnica para el
consume de frutas endocarpo lefloso, donde debe actuar
una poderosa incisi6n (ver Rosenberger, 1992 y referencias
alli citadas).
La subfamilia Atelinae (Ateles, Lagothrix, Brachyteles)
compare ciertos caracteres dentarios, aunque las mayores
similitudes las hallamos entire Lagothrix y Ateles, generos
mis frugivoros que consecuentemente poseen molares con
coronas relativamente bajas y cuispides redondeadas unidas
por crestas poco elevadas, cingulos escasamente marcados,
caninos moderados, incisivos de corona ancha y
espatulada, implantados de manera relativamente verti-
cal, siendo los superiores centrales muy desarrollados;
Brachyteles tiene la dentici6n caracteristica de hibitos mis
folivoros, con molares de crestas marcadas y cispides mias
elevadas que en Lagothrix y Ateles, incisivos reducidos
en relaci6n a la dentici6n posterior, y caninos tambidn
reducidos, cuya homologid con los pequeftos caninos como
aquellos de Callicebus y Aotus es dudosa.
Alouatta demuestra similar morfologfa que Brachyteles
en cuanto a la existencia de cospides elevadas y crestas
cortantes, pero los caninos son largos, robustos y
sexualmente dim6rficos en Alouatta, el segundo premo-
lar inferior esti muy desarrollado en relaci6n al tercero y
cuarto (en Brachyteles el de mayor tamafto es el cuarto),
el segundo molar es mayor que el primero, y el tercer molar
inferior present una notable expansion distal del tal6nido.
Tanto los reducidos incisivos de Alouatta y Brachyteles,
como los amplios y espatulados de Ateles y Lagothrix
correspondent a estructuras derivadas, asf como lo es la
morfologia oclusal de Ateles y Lagothrix, sin cispides y
crestas prominentes. No obstante el aparente status
derivado de los incisivos, premolares y molares de
Brachyteles y Alouatta, se reservan mejores andlisis para
comprender las exactas homologfas, raz6n por la cual no
se los incluye en la misma subfamilia.
Frecuentemente se han mencionado las afinidades entire
Cebus y Saimiri, y a su vez con los Callitrichinae
(Rosenberger, 1981; Schneider et al., 1995; Tejedor,
1996a). Cebus y Saimiri comparten similar estructura de
incisivos y caninos, siendo los primeros espatulados e
implantados verticalmente, aunque los superiores de Cebus
son particularmente mAs procumbentes y
considerablemente heterom6rficos. Los caninos son

robustos y alargados, en tanto los premolares y molares
poseen similar morfologia oclusal, con la salvedad de que
en Cebus hallamos una espesa capa de esmalte no compa-
rable a ningfn otro platirrino actual o f6sil, lo cual, aunque
es una indudable autapamorfia, no facility la interpretaci6n
correct de la relaci6n filogenetica con otros g6neros, a
excepci6n de Saimiri, con quien compare un muy reducido
tercer molar y premolares superiores elongados
bucolingualmente. Cebus se caracteriza, ademis del espeso
esmalte, por la presencia de un notable segundo premolar
inferior, y Saimiri, por otra parte, preserve en mayor o
menor grado un cingulo bucal en los molares inferiores,
lo cual permit en parte diferenciar ambos generos y
considerar una independencia evolutiva prolongada y
comprobada, en el caso de Saimiri, por la evidencia f6sil,
dado que compare numerosas sinapomorfias con el gdnero
Dolichocebus, del Colhuehuapense (Mioceno inferior) de
Patagonia (Kraglievich, 1951; Rosenberger, 1979).
Aotus es otro de los g6neros que ha originado dificultades
en la interpretaci6n filogen6tica, y es, despuds de
Callicebus, el que preserve mayor niimero de caracteres
primitivos, a excepci6n de la presencia de grandes incisivos
centrales superiores que determinan una superficie de
oclusi6n tambien amplia en los incisivos inferiores,
caracteres asociados e indudablemente derivados. El rest
de la dentici6n concuerda con una morfologia
generalizada, con caninos reducidos y premolares y
molares de corona relativamente complete y c6spides bien
desarrolladas, con moderados cingulos linguales en los
superiores. Se evidencia una notable similitud con la
morfologia de premolares y molares de Callicebus,
exceptuando la marcada diferencia en la estructura de los
incisivos. Estas caracterfticas conducen a pensar en una
relative cercania entire estos dos generos, en lo que refiere
al tiempo de divergencia de ambos linajes, considerando
que tambien el linaje de Aotus tiene un representante en
el Cohuehuapense de Patagonia (Rusconi, 1935;
Hershkovitz, 1974). Consecuentemente, siendoAotus otro
de los controvertidos generos actuales, se pueden explicar
sus particularidades demostrando la pertenencia a otro
antiguo linaje independiente.
Todos los g6neros arriba mencionados demuestran varias
tendencies en la evoluci6n de los caracteres dentarios, que
apuntan a extremar la diferenciaci6n morfol6gica
relacionada a una mecinica masticatoria particular en los
distintos clados de platirrinos vivientes. Algunas veces
estos clados integran generos en subfamilias (Pitheciinae,
Callitrichinae, Atelinae) y en otro casos ciertos g6neros
son asignados a una subfamilia monotipica (Aotus, Saimiri,
Alouatta, Cebus, Callicebus) (Tejedor, 1996a), cuya
monofilia inicamente podria comprobarse en formas
f6siles afn no conocidas, cercanas a la radiaci6n mAs
antigua del Infraorden Platyrrhini. Hasta el moment, son
6stas las evidencias que mas sencillamente concuerdan
con la realidad de una sistemAtica compleja, y sera
solamente por medio del registro f6sil, afortunadamente
cada dia mas divers, que podra lograrse una mejor

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Page 45

Page 46

aproximaci6n al conocimiento de la historic evolutiva de
los platirrinos.
Marcelo F. Tejedor, CAtedra de Anatomia Comparada,
Faculdad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Paseo del
Bosque, 1900 La Plata, Argentina.
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World, S. Anderson y J. Knox Jones, Jr., (eds.), pp. 187-
217. Wiley and Sons, New York.
Tejedor, M. F. 1996a. SistemAtica de los platirrinos: una
perspective filogendtica. Neotropical Primates 4(2):44-
Tejedor, M. F. 1996b. The affinities of Homunculus and
Carlocebus (Primates, Platyrrhini), early Miocene platyr-
rhines from southern Argentina. Am. J Phys. Anthropol.
supply. 22: 227-228.

During a six-month study of sexual behavior in the mantled
howler monkey (A. p. mexicana) at Catemaco, Veracruz,
Mexico, investigators attempted to employ the system of
Jones (1985; see also Glander, 1980) for the identifica-
tion of stages of female receptivity possibly correlating
with stages of estrus devised for A. p. palliata in Costa
Rica. This system uses visual inspection of the vulva, in
particular vulval color and morphology (swelling), to clas-
sify a female's reproductive state for three stages of "es-
trus" and one stage of "post-estrus", where stage E3 is
presumed to be "peak estrus" and the period of height-
ened fertility. Jones (1985) found that most copulations
by high-ranking males occurred during stage E3.
The classification system proved unreliable at Catemaco
(L. Cortds-Ortiz, pers. comm.; G. M. Palacios, pers.
comm.). In an attempt to evaluate the problem, I traveled
to Catemaco in January, 1997 to observe females of the
population on Agaltepec Island in Catemaco Lake (see
Cortes-Ortiz et al. 1994). Observations determined that
vulvas of female A. p. mexicana are more similar to the
relatively inconspicuous vulvas ofA. caraya than to those
of A. p. palliata in which vulvas may exhibit genital hy-
pertrophy (Jones, 1995). WhereasA. caraya were observed
under captive conditions where slight changes in color
and morphology were detected (Jones, 1983), the field
conditions ofA. p. mexicana on Agaltepec Island are chal-
lenging, making confident external identification of "es-
trus" stages, if they exist, difficult. While vulvas in A. p.
mexicana and A. p. palliata were variable, the largest A.
p. mexicana vulva did not appear to be as large as the
smallest A. p. palliata vulva. Discrete measurements of
immobilized females are necessary to test this impression.
What factors may explain these subspecific differences in
vulval size? First, if a prominent vulva in A. p. palliata is
a derived trait, what characteristics of the selective re-
gime throughout the range of A. p. palliata differ from
those ofA. p. mexicana? Because of the historical signifi-
cance of topological features (for example, volcanoes), river
patterns, and the tropical dry deciduous forest throughout
Central America, the environment of A. p. palliata may

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997 Page 47

be more heterogeneous in time and space than that of A.
p. mexicana, with subsequently stronger sexual selection
in the former subspecies. Support for this view is found in
the observation that sexual dimorphism appears to be
greater in A. p. palliata than in A. p. mexicana (E.
Rodrfguez-Luna, pers. comm.; J. C. Serio-Silva, pers.
comm.; pers. obs.). Again, verification of these specula-
tions await systematic study.
If the habitats ofA. p. palliata are significantly more het-
erogeneous than those ofA. p. mexicana and if the former
subspecies exhibits a greater degree of sexual dimorphism,
then it is possible that stronger reproductive competition
among females has resulted in female choice by epigamic
selection to attract males (for resources and/or "good
genes") (see Crockett, 1984) by elaborate sexual signals
in the form of prominent labia and the advertisement of
estrus. This hypothesis assumes that female signals are
"honest". Alternative hypotheses are that A. p. palliata
females "cheat" males by advertising dishonestly (an ex-
pensive strategy), possibly to avoid infanticide (see
Crockett, 1987) or the costs of female-female competition
(for example, by attracting males to feeding sites away
from the group). These alternatives might occur with in-
tense sexual selection such as that proposed for A. p.
palliata under conditions in which costs to fitness are as-
sociated with "honest" signals from females to males in-
cluding those incurred under conditions of male "coer-
A. p. mexicana, on the other hand, is either advertising
discretely or concealing estrus (at least by visual cues).
Other possibilities are that females are polymorphic for
labial size and estrus signals, that the display of these traits
is incomplete, possibly due to the loss of the derived con-
dition, that the trait is "incipient" in A. p. mexicana, or
that the latter species never exhibited the trait. Physiologi-
cal studies are underway to determine the hormonal pro-
file ofestrus inA. p. mexicana (D. Canales-Espinosa, pers.
comm.) after which research will be conducted to deter-
mine the correlation, or lack thereof, of visual cues with
physiological estrus and the variability in vulval size.
Similar studies are required for A. p. palliata. In a pre-
liminary report by Zucker et al. (1994), it was concluded
that visual cues are not true indicators of physiological
estrus, but the reliability of their methods to discriminate
visual cues in vulval swelling and color change are in
question (Jones, 1995). It might be expected that both sub-
species ofA. palliata would exhibit "honest" signals about
reproductive condition from females to males since, al-
though aggression is comparatively rare in both, the costs
of a cheater being detected may be high. Environmental
heterogeneity, however, may increase the benefits to fe-
males of cheating males, leading to the trait in both sub-
species, but more accentuated in A. p. palliata. Males have
been observed to copulate with pregnant females and to
reject receptive females in A. p. palliata (pers. obs.; K. E.
Glander, pers. comm) as well asA. p. mexicana (L. Cortes-
Ortiz and G. M. Palacios, pers comm.), suggesting that

cheating may indeed occur. Alternative hypotheses must
be considered, however, since vulval swelling may "rein-
force" the advertisement of estrus by olfaction, for example
, or vulval swelling may have arisen in response to sperm
competition (Nakamura, 1990 in Hrdy, 1997).
This note reports apparent differences in the sizes of vulvas
between A. p. mexicana and A. p. palliata and proposes
alternative hypotheses to account for them. These obser-
vations are related to conservation becauseA. p. mexicana,
the more endangered subspecies, may have lost important
behavioral safeguards against environmental heterogene-
ity if it is adapted to a less seasonal regime than A. p.
palliata, making it more vulnerable to increased hetero-
geneity accompanying habitat destruction.
Acknowledgments. I am most grateful to the members of
the Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana,
in particular, E. Rodriguez-Luna (Director), L. Cortds-
Ortiz, J. C. Serio-Silva, D. Canales-Espinosa, and G. M.
Palacios. I also appreciate constructive criticism of a pre-
vious draft of this note by Anthony B. Rylands.
Clara B. Jones, Community Conservation Consultants,
Gays Mills, Wisconsin, USA, and (address for correspon-
dence), Institute of Animal Behavior, Rutgers University
- Newark, 101 Warren Street, Newark, New Jersey 07102,
Cortes-Ortiz, L., Rodriguez-Luna, E., Martinez-Morales,
M. and Carrera-Sanchez, E. 1994. Parametros
demogrAficos y reproductivos de un grupo de monos
aulladores (Alouatta palliata) en semilibertad. La
Ciencia y el Hombre 18:151-166.
Crockett, C. M. 1984. Emigration by female red howler
monkeys and the case for female competition. In: Fe-
male Primates: Studies by Women Primatologists. M. F.
Small (ed.), pp. 159-173. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York.
Crockett, C. M. 1987. Diet, dimorphism and demogra-
phy: perspectives from howlers to hominids. In: The
Evolution of Human Behavior: Primate Models. W. G.
Kinzey (ed.), pp. 115-135. State University of NewYork
Press, New York.
Glander, K. E. 1980. Reproduction and population growth
in free-ranging mantled howling monkeys. Am. J. Phys.
Anthropol. 53:1-34.
Hrdy, S. B. 1997. Raising Darwin's consciousness: Fe-
male sexuality and the prehominid origins of patriar-
chy. Human Nature 8:1-50.
Jones, C. B. 1983. Social organization of captive black
howler monkeys, Alouatta caraya: social competition
and the use of nondamaging behavior. Primates 24:25-
Jones, C. B. 1985. Reproductive patterns in mantled howler
monkeys: estrus, mate choice and copulation. Primates
Jones, C. B. 1995. Mimicry in primates: implications for
heterogeneous conditions. Neotropical Primates 3:69-72.
Zucker, E. L., Clarke, M. R., Putnam, P. M. and Harrison,

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Page 47

Page 48

R. M. 1994. Validity of measures assessing reproduc-
tive status of female howling monkeys (Alouattapalliata)
in Costa Rica. Am. J. Primatol. 33:255.

The evolution of monogamy nd nocturnality in owl mon-
keys (Aotus spp.) remains largely unexplained. This can
be blamed, at least partially, on the lack of long-term data
on the ecology and behavior of this unique New World
primate species. We report here on a field site that offers
an unique opportunity to conduct long-term research in
Aotus azarai. First, we report preliminary data on the ecol-
ogy and behavior of the owl monkey population. We con-
clude with a brief description of three research projects
that we will conduct in the area in the near future.
Study Area
The field site is located on the borders of the Pilagd River
which runs across Estancia Guaycol6c (58013' W, 260
54'S) in Eastern Formosa. The area is comprised of a
mosaic of grasslands, savannas, xeric thorn forests and
semideciduous forests. The semideciduous forests occur
along river banks, where they form gallery forests. The
13-18 meter-high gallery forest, contains, on average, 39
tree species per hectare (Placci et al., 1992, cited in Brown
et al., 1993). The understorey is clear and easy to walk
through because of cattle grazing. The climate is subtropi-
cal with mean temperatures of 27.4 C during the sum-
mer and 16.9 C during the winter. There are usually some
nights with below freezing temperatures each year. Al-
though there is no marked rainy season (1400 mm per
year), average monthly precipitation tends to be lower
between June and August (45 mm/month) than during
the rest of the year (160 mm/month). The weather in the
region is generally highly unpredictable.
Primate Species
Two primate species inhabit the area: owl monkeys (Aotus
azarai) and black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya).
Aotus azarai, is one of the five species south of the Ama-
zon classified in the red-necked group (Ford, 1994). Den-
sities in the area vary from 12.7 ind/km2 to 25.4 ind/km2
(Rathbun and Gache, 1980; Arditi and Placci, 1990; Arditi,
1992; Brown and Zunino, 1994).
The density of Alouatta caraya reported in the area be-
fore 1982 was one of the highest for the species in Argen-

Table 1. Aotus azarai group composition in Guaycoldc, Formosa, Argen-
tina. N = number of encounters.
Group Adults Juveniles Infants N
1 2 1 1 5
2 2 1 1 4
3 2 1 5
4 2 1 2

tina (63.2 ind/km2), only superseded by the density re-
ported in the flooded forests of the Rio ParanA islands
(Brown and Zunino, 1994). A significant decrease in popu-
lation numbers occurred in 1982, apparently as a result of
a botfly infestation (Dermatobia sp.). The most recent es-
timate indicated a density in the area of 9 ind/km2 (Arditi
and Placci, 1990).
Preliminary Study
Between May and July 1996, we conducted a preliminary
study of owl monkeys in the area which allowed us to (1)
identify this as a convenient field site for long-term stud-
ies, (2) obtain preliminary data on the behavior and de-
mography of the species.
1) Estancia Guaycolec is a 75,000 ha cattle-raising and
rice-growing ranch owned by PilagA S.A., a multinational
company based in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The company
has supported scientific research and promoted conserva-
tion efforts in the past (Rathbun and Gache, 1980; Zunino
et al., 1985; Arditi and Placci, 1990; Arditi, 1992). The
commitment of the company to conservation, the conve-
nient location of the ranch (on a paved national highway
25 km from the capital of the province and 100 km from
Asunci6n, Paraguay), and the existence of a wildlife re-
serve with housing facilities and a small zoo, make this
site an excellent one to conduct long-term projects in con-
servation, wildlife management and environmental edu-
2) We have conducted 46 surveys of the area. On 17 occa-
sions we encountered, observed and followed owl mon-
keys. Based on repeated encounters of one of the groups,
we estimated that at least four different groups were regu-
larly ranging within a 1 km-radius of the camp (Table 1).
As has been reported previously for owl monkeys in Ar-
gentina, our preliminary observations suggest that they
are active both during the day and night. Although most
of the activity was recorded during the early and late hours
of the day, three of the four groups were observed moving
and feeding during the early afternoon (approximately
1500 h, Table 2).
Population Genetics of Owl Monkeys
In the future we will examine how different aspects of the
monogamous social organization of owl monkeys interact
to determine the degree of genetic differentiation between
and within populations. To understand better the evolu-
tion of monogamy in these monkeys, we will use molecu-
lar genetic data to explore the influences that monoga-
mous patterns of dispersal and mating have on the ge-
netic structure of owl monkey populations. These data
should allow us, among other things, to assess the extent
to which a socially monogamous relationship, as has been
described for Aotus (Wright, 1994), implies genetic mo-
nogamy in the sense of an exclusive mating relationship
between the adult male and the adult female in a group.
The long-term goals of the study are: 1) to locate and iden-

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Neotropical Primates S(2), June 1997 Page 49

Table 2. Time of day (one-hour periods) between 0600 and 2100 h when at
least one individual in each of four Aotus groups was active.
Group 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
2 X XX X X X
3 X X X X X X
4 X X
tify 10-15 groups of owl monkeys from which demographic
and ecological data will be collected, 2) to habituate 3-4
of those groups from which behavioral data will be col-
lected, 3) to obtain feces and blood samples from all groups
and, 4) to obtain genetic data from the samples to exam-
ine patterns of dispersal and mating as well as degree of
relatedness among individuals.
Increasing the Area of Protected Owl Monkey Habitat
The Chaco region extends over one million km2 of Ar-
gentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. Despite data sug-
gesting that this region is as rich as tropical rain forests
when numbers of large and medium-sized mammalian
species are considered (Redford et al., 1990), and that it
holds a greater diversity of endemics than other major
macrohabitats (Mares, 1992), the Chaco has received less
attention from conservation agencies than have tropical
rain forests.
In Argentina, the original landscape of forest patches al-
ternating with extensive savannas has been replaced by
communities of trees, thick and continuous shrubs, and
very low coverage of grasses as a result of severe over-
grazing (AdAmoli et al., 1990). Gallery forests in particu-
lar are not well represented in the protected areas of Ar-
gentina (Brown and Zunino, 1994) and are suffering con-
stant pressure from urban and agricultural development.
Our long-term goal is to promote the conservation of this
threatened habitat which has traditionally received little
attention from the scientific community and conservation
We have plans to assess the impact that cattle grazing and
hunting have on the mammals and birds in the poorly
protected gallery forests of the Argentinean Chaco. We
will estimate the abundance of mammals and birds in: 1)
gallery forests subject to cattle grazing and 2) in gallery
forests that have not been subjected to cattle grazing for
the last 15 years, and which are also of difficult access to
hunters. Results will be used in deciding the most conve-
nient location for the establishment of a 5,000 ha wildlife
reserve on the premises of the ranch. The reserve will in-
crease the area of protected gallery forest inhabited by
species that are heavily hunted (for example, tapirs, pec-
caries, and parrots), as well as those that are threatened
by the destruction of their habitat (for example, Nearctic
migratory birds, puma, giant anteater, and owl monkeys).
Environmental Education: Owl Monkeys as Flagship
Conservation efforts are generally more successful if car-
ried out in collaboration with local communities. Our ini-
tial efforts to involve local people will be focused on edu-

national institutions. In collaboration with GEOS, an
Argentinean NGO whose main objective is to promote
environmental education, we will organize four one-day
workshops at the primary school located in the ranch. The
workshops will make use of audiovisual material to de-
pict the fauna and flora of the area, will include special
activities and will provide the students with printed mate-
rials to illustrate important concepts of ecology and con-
servation. The workshops will provide us with an oppor-
tunity to identify a small group of motivated students and
teachers especially interested in conservation. These stu-
dents and teachers will join us in the organization of a
survey on the status of the local fauna.
Funding for the preliminary study of Aotus was provided
by the L. S. B. Leakey Foundation, Oakland, California,
through a General Grant to EF-D. Support for the project
on population genetics of owl monkeys will come through
two Earthwatch Expeditions. Finally, we would like to
thank Pilagd S.A. for authorizing and supporting our work
on the ranch and the employees of Estancia Guaycoldc for
their continued help.
Eduardo Fernandez-Duque, Ayacucho 128 5P, Buenos
Aires (1025), Argentina, and Susana P. Bravo, Museo
Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia",
Av. Angel Gallardo 470 (1405), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Addmoli J., Sennhauser, E., Acero, J. M. and Rescia, A.
1990. Stress and disturbance: vegetation dynamics in
the dry Chaco region of Argentina. J Biogeog. 17:491-
Arditi, S. I. and Placci, L. G. 1990. Habitat y densidad de
Aotus azarae y Alouatta caraya en el Riacho PilagA,
Formosa. Boletin Primatol6gico Latinoamericano 2, 29-
Arditi, S. I. (1992). Variaciones estacionales en la actividad
y dieta de Aotus azarae y Alouatta caraya en Formosa,
Argentina. Boletin Primatol6gico Latinoamericano
Brown, A. D. and Zunino G. E. 1994. HAbitat, densidad y
problems de conservaci6n de los primates en Argen-
tina. Vida Silvestre Neotropical 3:30-40.
Brown, A. D., Placci, L. G. and Grau, N. R. 1993. Ecologia
y diversidad de las selvas subtropicales de la Argentina.
In: Elementos de Politica Ambiental, F. Goin and R.
Goin (eds.), pp.215-222). Di Giovanni Grafica, La Plata.
Ford, S. M. 1994. Taxonomy and distribution of the owl
monkey. In: Aotus: The Owl Monkey, J. F. Baer, R. E.
Weller and I. Kakoma (eds.), pp. 1-57. Academic Press,
San Diego.
Mares, M. 1992. Neotropical mammals and the myth of
Amazonian biodiversity. Science 255:976-979.
Rathbun, G. B. and Gache, M. 1980. Ecological survey of
the night monkey, Aotus trivirgatus, in Formosa Prov-
ince, Argentina. Primates 21:211-219.
Redford, K. H., Taber, A. and Simonetti, J. A. 1990. There

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Page 49

Page SONeolrovical Primates 5(2). June 1997

is more to biodiversity than the tropical rain forests. Con-
servation Biology 4(3):328-330.
Wright, P. C. 1994. The behavior and ecology of the owl
monkey. In: Aotus: The Owl Monkey, J. F. Baer, R. E.
Weller and I. Kakoma (eds.), pp.97-112). Academic
Press, San Diego:
Zunino, G. E., Galliari, C. A. and Colillas, 0. J. 1985.
Distribuci6n y conservaci6n del mirikina (Aotus azarae)
en Argentina: Resultados preliminares. In: A
Primatologia no Brasil 2 M. T. de Mello (ed.), pp.
305-316. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.

O saud ou guig6, Callicebus personatus, 6 end6mico da
Mata Atlantica. A esp6cie defended seu territ6rio por meio
de vocalizac6es, 6 mon6gama e forma grupos de at6 cinco
individuos. No estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, o saua, C.
p. nigrifrons, ocorre ainda em pequenas remanescentes
de floresta e matas ciliares no Cerrado. C. personatus 6
um animal timido, de movimentos sutis e que emite
vocalizac6es, em muitas regi6es, apenas matutinas,
dificultando seu encontro e estudo atd a habituacao a
pesquisadores. Aqui relatamos nossa experiencia a respeito
da colocagAo de colares com rAdio transmissores como um
meio de facilitar a habituag o e observagao dessa esp6cie
na natureza.
Durante a implantag o da Usina Hidrel6trica Nova Ponte,
Minas Gerais, pela Companhia Energ6tica de Minas
Gerais (CEMIG), no Triangulo Mineiro, foram realizadas
operag6es de resgate de fauna. Dentre outros animals, fo-
ram capturados 25 sauas, visando novas tentativas de
utilizaglo da t6cnica de radio telemetria corn estes
primatas, aumentando-se os dados disponiveis para a

O present trabalho objetivou, al6m da obtengao de dados
ecol6gicos da esp6cie, a verificacao da readaptaqao ou nao,
de animals originados de operagoes de resgate,
reintroduzidos a novos habitats.
Material e M6todos
Durante as operagoes de resgate de fauna pela CEMIG, os
animals foram levados a um centre de triagem, onde
permaneceram em recintos de tr8s a seis animals de margo
de 1994 a janeiro de 1995, at6 serem obtidas condigqes
necessArias a soltura e para observag6es sobre sua biologia.
Tais procedimentos seriam realizados por tres bi6logos
da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, contactados ap6s
resgate dos animals. Ap6s este period, os animals foram
devidamente preparados para receberem os aparelhos
transmissores. Os individuos foram sedados por via intra-
muscular, corn Ketalar a 3mg/kg. Em seguida eram
pesados, e recebiam os transmissores (TELONICS). Eram
ainda marcados corn produto de born poder de tingimento
dos pSlos e de boa durabilidade, o Nyanzol. As marcagoes
distingiliam machos de f6meas parte proximal e distal da
cauda respectivamente) e grupos (coxas e regilo costal,
ora esquerda ora direita variando o posicionamento da
marcagAo de acordo corn o grupo). Durante o process de
sedagao foram tomadas temperatures, batimentos cardiacos
e movimentos respirat6rios dos sauas. Ap6s todos estes
processes, os sauAs ficaram em observagao de quatro a
doze dias para verificagao da adaptaqao aos transmissores
e reaqAo ao anest6sico (Ver dados referentes ao process
de sedacao na Tabela 2). Foram realizados esfregagos de
sangue, para verificaqao de parasitismo sangtlineo.
Coletou-se ainda fezes para analise parasitol6gica.
Resultados e Discussao
Verificaram-se varias reag6es de desconforto quanto aos
aparelhos. Os primatas manusearam, ora as pr6prias
coleiras, ora as de outros individuos, tentando arrancA-las
com as maos ou boca sistematicamente. Houveram casos
de retirada do ima, que mant6m os aparelhos desligados
at6 a soltura dos sauas, e de manuseio das antenas, que
foram roidas, entortadas e descascadas em suas camadas

Tabela 1. Diferenpa dos pesos dos individuos antes e depois da colocagdo dos transmissores.
Nfmero do Sexo Recinto Data colocaiAo Peso(kg) Data retirada Peso(kg)
Transmissor do transmissor do transmissor
362615 F 3e4 10.01.95 09.02.95 1,06
362616 F 3e4 10.01.95 1,34 09.02.95 1,22
362617 F 3e4 10.01.95 1,28 09.02.95 1,20
362618 M 3e4 10.01.95 0,79 09.02.95 0,83-
362609 F 5 11.01.95 0,82 09.02.95 0,76
362610 M 5 11.01.95 0,74 09.02.95 0,68
362611 M 5 11.01.95 1,05 09.02.95 0,99
362612 F 5 11.01.95 0,80 09.02.95 0,86
362613 F 5 11.01.95 0,68 09.02.95 0,72
362614 M 5 11.01.95 1,10 09.02.95 1,05
362619 F 1 12.01.95 1,18 09.02.95 1,05
362620 M 1 12.01.95 1,50 ant. 09.02.95 1,33
362621 M 1 12.01.95 1,45 ant. A 09.02.95 1,46
362622 M 6e7 19.01.95 1,15 20.02.95
362623 F 6e7 19.01.95 1,20 *
* NAo foi retirado o transmissor.

Page 50

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997 Pa.ee 51

Para soltura dos primeiros animals os bi61logos
consideraram, condigies climiticas favorAveis (mes de
Janeiro, em que as temperatures eram altas),
disponibilidade de alimento na natureza, (haviam muitas
arvores-fontes frutificando, e Agua disponivel devido As
chuvas de verao), e ofertou-se ainda alimento em girais
construidos para este fun para auxiliar at6 que os sauAs
pudessem obte-los independentemente. Os animals foram
acompanhados desde a soltura. Houve a recapture de um
individuo macho, acompanhado sistemraticamente, que
mostrava-se inadaptado A soltura. Este individuo
compunha o primeiro lote de animals soltos, um casal de
adults em que 15 dias ap6s a colocago dos transmissores,
nao havia apresentado nenhuma reagao adversa na regiao
de contato da coleira corn a pele at6 a data da soltura.
Contudo, durante acompanhamento do casal em campo,
16 dias ap6s a soltura, perceberam-se feridas na mandibula
do macho e o animal locomovendo-se a poucos metros do
chao ou mesmo neste, permitindo entao a sua recapture
como jA citado, para retirada do rAdio e tratamento das
feridas. A femea, no entanto, parece nao ter tido
complicag9es na adaptacao ao aparelho,jA que encontrava-
se em campo atd o mes de maio de 1995, estando
acompanhada inclusive de um outro individuo, adulto
macho e um subadulto de sexo desconhecido, nativos.
Houve ainda um individuo juvenile, ainda em cativeiro,
que nAo apresentou complicaoies quanto aos rAdios, o que
pode ser atribuido ao fato de nao possuir a mandibula
suficientemente desenvolvida para que a coleira e a parte
metAlica friccionassem a mesma.
Constatou-se a n&o adaptacqo aos rAdios jA no segundo
grupo de sauas, que apresentou desde vermelhidao no lo-
cal da coleira a profundas escoriag6es, edemas e formagAo
de crostas advindas de inflamagOes, tanto na nuca quanto
na regiao mandibular.
A rAdio telemetria d uma tdcnica que jA vem sendo utilizada
em esp6cies de primatas para estudos ecol6gicos, como
paraLeontopithecus rosalia, (mico-leao-dourado) em Pogo
das Antas, Rio de Janeiro (Pinder, 1986; Kierulff e

Oliveira, 1994) e Callithrix geoffroyi (sagtii-da-cara-
branca) em Area de preservagao da ARACRUZ Celulose,
Espirito Santo (Passamani e Passamani, 1994). Muller e
Schildger (1994) relatam o insucesso desta metodologia
para C. p. melanochir, no sul da Bahia. Contude, devem
ser consideradas as dificuldades encontradas em cada umrn
destes trabalhos, levando-se em conta as condig9es dos
animals, da pesquisa em si, para cada uma das
metodologias. Ao considerar-se como um insucesso a ra-
dio telemetria para C. personatus, deve-se levar em
consideraqao os problems enfrentados em todos os outros
trabalhos, para umas novas tentativas, jA que o insucesso
provavelmente se deu a outros fat6res somados a esta
Quanto a sedagao, conclufmos ser a Ketamina, um
anest6sico adequado A C. personatus, considerando a
dosagem de 3mg/kg. Dos animals sedados, um apresentou
baixa frequencia de movimentos respirat6rios, sendo
necessAria a intervenqao de um br6nquio-dilatador. Dois
nao ficaram completamente sedados, implicando em nova
dose de anest6sico. Contudo deve-se tomar como base as
condi98es de saude e stress destes animals, para se cogitar
uma dosagem maior do que a acima citada.
Ffz-se necessaria nova seda9 o de todos os outros primates,
para retirada dos aparelhos e tratamento das feridas.
Atribui-se A nao adaptatao de C. personatus A t6cnica da
rAdio telemetria A varios fat6res:
- As coleiras dos radios sao em arestas, que intensificam
as escoria96es na pele e sao confeccionadas em couro
pouco flexivel, nio permitindo livre movimento do
pescogo dos animals;
- o desconhecimento sobre a dieta e hibitos de C.
personatus, em cativeiro, e mesmo na natureza,
dificultam o tratamento adequado a esta espdcie,
tornando-a mais vulnerivel a doengas. Estas acarretaram
perda de peso que levou aos animals a dispenderem um
esforgo ainda maior em conduzir o aparelho;
- ao se optar por utilizagao da rddio telemetria para esta e
mesmo para outras esp6cies, fazem-se necessarias

Tabela 2 Dados referentes ao process de sedagao de Callicebuspersonatus.
Data No. do Sexo N do Peso kg Sedativo Tempo p/ Tempo de Temp. Frequencla Frequencia Obs.
transmissor Recinto aplicado sedagio sedacio corporal respirat6ria cardlaca
ml min. min. 0C N/min N/min
10.01.95 362615 F 3e4 0,20 3,5 17,0 38,8 -
10.01.95 362616 F 3 e4 1,34 0,23 3,0 22,0 38,7 50 121
10.01.95 362617 F 3e4 1,28 0,20 2,0 20,0 39,1 57 113
10.01.95 362618 M 3e4 0,79 0,07+0,04 9,0 20,0 38,7 33 118 1
11.01.95 362609 F 5 0,82 0,07+0,07 38,6 39 114 2
11.01.95 362610 M 5 0,74 0,10+0,05 38,5 35 117 2
11.01.95 362611 M 5 1,05 0,20 6,0 10,0 39,0 24 114
11.01.95 362612 F 5 0,80 0,18 4,0 11,0 39,4 42 130
11.01.95 362613 F 5 0,68 0,07+0,03 < 6,0 38,9 62 132
11.01.95 362614 M 5 1,10 0,17+0,03 4,0 9,0 39,4 36 112
12.01.95 362619 F 1 1,18 0,18 3,0 7,0 37,9 164 3
12.01.95 362620 M 1 1,50 0,22 4,0 >19,0 38,7 56 116
12.01.95 362621 M 1 1,45 0,21 + 0,02 6,0 14,0 38,7 57 138 -
19.01.95 362622 M 6e7 1,15 0,18 3,0 10,0 38,5 64
19.01.95 362623 F 6e7 1,20 0,18 2,0 8,0 37,6 28-22-22 132 4
M = Macho, F = Femea, *Ap6s a aplicagao de sedative. Obs: 1 O0 animal, em nenhum moment, ficou completamente sedado. 2 0 animal nao pennitiu
a manipulagao. 3 O0 animal defecou, muito pouco, ap6s a aplicag o do sedativo. 4 Foi aplicado um bronquio-dilatador.

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 199 7

Page 51

Page 52

experiencias prdvias corn poucos individuos, em
condig6es comprovadamente boas de sadde, que
suportem as condig6es de stress advindas de todo o
process de colocaqAo de radios, e para que possam estar
sadios durante o period de readaptagAo As condig6es do
habitat natural quando reitroduzidos ou translocados.
Fat6res ligados aos recintos durante a estadia dos sauns,
nestes, tais como temperature, tamanho, n6mero de
animals, luminosidade e contato muito constant corn
outras espdcies e mesmo corn humans, contribuiram para
o stress dos Callicebus.
Outras altemativas para o material dos radios, tais como
modificar coleiras originals para material mais maleavel,
foram tentadas por bi61logos, veterindrios e tdcnicos da
CEMIG. Bordas abauladas e material maleAvel
diminuiram a fric9ao da coleira na pele, bem como o
desconforto causado pelos transmissores. No dia 8 dejunho
de 1995 os primatas foram reintroduzidos aos habitats
naturais pela equipe da CEMIG. Contudo, o
acompanhamento nao foi sistematico desde a soltura. Os
sauAs responderam bem aos novos aparelhos, nao
demonstrando os inc6modos das primeiras tentativas
anteriores. Contudo, deixou-se de levar em conta certas
prerrogativas consideradas na primeira soltura tais como:
- disponibilidade de alimento mais acessivel, visto que
este period era seca e que os recursos estavam bem
- condig6es climAticas, jA que o period era de invemo
(m6dia em tomo de 80C em contrapartida ao verlo com
at6 30 C);
- nlo houve oferta de alimento em girais, como uma
alternative, at6 que os sauas se acostumassem a buscA-
lo por si mesmos;
- o nao acompanhamento sistemAtico desde a soltura levou
A perda de dados muito importantes e principalmente a
perda mesma dos animals que morreram em sua maioria,
mas que apesar de possuirem rAdios, foram encontrados
dias ap6s morte, quando realmente procurados.
Agradecimentos: Os autores agradecem ao suporte
financeiro da Companhia Energ6tica de Minas Gerais
(CEMIG), a Coordenacao do Aperfeigoamento de Pessoal
do Nivel Superior (CAPES) e o U. S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, Washington, D. C. Agradecem ainda pela valiosa
colaboragao: Alcides Pissinatti, Maria Teresa Zanata
Coutinho, Luiz Fernando Bandeira de Melo e Marco
Aur61lio SAbato.
Fernanda M. Neri, Anthony B. Rylands, Departamento
de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciincias Biol6gicas, Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Vivian T. Fraiha e Maria Beatriz
Ferreira, Funda9lo de Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa
FUNDEP, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil.
Kierulff, M. C. e Oliveira, P. P. de. 1994. Habitat preser-
vation and translocation of threatened groups of golden

lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia. Neotropical Pri-
mates 2 (suppl.):15-18.
Mason, W. 1966. Social organization of the South Ameri-
can monkey, Callicebus moloch: A preliminary report.
Tulane Studies in Zoology 13:23-28.
Mason, W. 1968. Use of space by Callicebus groups.. In:
Primates: Studies in Adaptation and Variability, P. Jay.
(ed.), pp.200-216. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New
MUller, K.-H. e Schildger, J. 1994. Capture and radio-
telemetry of masked titi monkeys, Callicebuspersonatus
melanochir. Neotropical Primates 2(4):7-8.
Oliver, W. L. R. e Santos, I. B. 1991. Threatened endemic
mammals of the Atlantic Forest region of South-East
Brazil. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Special Re-
port (4):126pp.
Passamani, M. e Passamani, J A. 1994. Losses of the re-
introduced Geoffroy's marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi).
Re-introduction News (8):9.
Pinder, L. 1986. Projeto Mico-Leao-Dourado III.Avaliaao
da t6cnica de translocagao emL. rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766)
(Callitrichidae, Primates). In: A Primatologia no Brasil
2, M. T. de Mello (ed.), pp. 235-241. Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.
Robinson, J. G. 1979. Vocal regulation of use space by
group of titi monkeys, Callicebus moloch. Behav.Ecol.
Sociobiol. 5:1-15.

Research is being carried out on the social structure and
social dynamics of adult male muriquis at the Caratinga
Biological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The main focus
is how different individuals initiate or avoid proximity.
According to Strier (1993), spatial relations correlate well
with other features of social interactions. Her study (Strier,
1992) and that of Mendes (1990) focused on social rela-
tions in the same muriqui group. This study is a follow-up
to their work, and will provide comparative insights, clari-
fying how changes on the group composition over the years
have modified the social relations between the males. Data
collection will cover the period August 1996 to July 1997,
and the behavior of individual males will be monitored
using the focal animal technique (Altmann, 1974). Dr.
Karen Strier, Department of Anthropology, University of
Wisconsin, Madison, U.S.A. is supervising the research,
which is supported by a U.S. National Science Founda-
tion Grant (BANS 958198), the Liz Claiborne and Art
Ortenberg Foundation, The Chicago Zoological Society
and the Scott Neotropic Fund of the Lincoln Park Zoo,
Laiena Ribeiro Teixeira, Avenida 19, No. 1641, Centro,
38300-000 Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais, Brasil.

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997 Page S3

Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sam-
pling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-262.
Mendes, F. D. C. 1990. Afiliagao e hierarquia no muriqui:
o grupo Matao de Caratinga. Unpubl. Master's thesis,
Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo.
Strier, K. B. 1992. Faces in the Forest: The Endangered
Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil. Oxford University Press,
New York.
Strier, K. B. 1993. Growing up in a patrifocal society: Sex
differences in the spatial relations of immature muriquis.
In: Juvenile Primates, M. E, Pereira and L. A. Fairbanks
(eds.), pp. 138-147. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

The lion tamarins (Leontopithecus) are members of the
family Callitrichidae, together with three other genera of
Neotropical primates: Cebuella, Callithrix and Saguinus.
These monkeys are characterized by their small size,
clawlike nails on all digits except the hallux, absence of
the third molar, tritubercular upper molars and twin births.
The genus Leontopithecus encompasses four species: L.
rosalia, L. chrysomelas, L. chrysopygus, and L. caissara.
The principal aims of the present study were to evaluate
in L. chrysomelas and L. chrysopygus: (1) whether
affiliative behavior is more common in experienced pairs;
(2) whether a relationship exists between the affiliative
behavior of a pair and their mating success; (3) if there
are interspecific differences in affiliative behavior and/or
mating success. The study was carried out at the Fundagao
Parque Zool6gico, Sao Paulo, between 20/06/95 and 13/
01/96, with eight pairs of L. chrysomelas and L.
chrysopygus. Continuous record focal group samples were
used to collect behavioral data. Affiliative behaviors such
as allogrooming and approaching were used to assess so-
cial interaction within pairs and to evaluate the relation-
ship between affiliative behavior and mating success. A
comparison of the two species revealed that L. chrysomelas
exhibited higher frequencies of social behavior than L.
chrysopygus. Experienced pairs of both species approached
each other more frequently than inexperienced pairs, and
experienced pairs of L. chrysomelas groomed each other
more than inexperienced pairs, although this pattern was
not observed in L. chrysopygus. The data partially sup-
port the hypothesis that affiliative behavior is more com-
mon in experienced pairs. No clear relationship was ob-
served in the approaching and grooming behavior of males
and females between pairs that had offspring and those
that did not. These results contradict findings in Callithrix
jacchus, where females were significantly more involved
in social interactions in pairs in which the females be-
came pregnant. Social behavior was observed almost twice
as often in L. chrysomelas overall and more frequently in

all categories. In addition to exhibiting higher frequen-
cies of social interactions, L. chrysomelas pairs were also
more successful reproductively. Three of the four L.
chrysomelas pairs had offspring during the study period,
as against only one of L. chrysopygus. A possible expla-
nation for this difference may involve ecological differ-
ences between these two species, although it is also pos-
sible that the L. chrysomelas pairs chosen for the study
were more socially compatible than those of L.
chrysopygus. In the colony as a whole, the experience of
the pair rather than species and, to a certain extent, the
presence in the group of helpers, would appear to be the
most important factor. Births occurred in four of the seven
groups of each species, but in five of the six families/trios
(all composed of experienced animals) as against only three
of the eight pairs.
The study was supported by the Brazil Science Council
(CNPq), the Brazilian Higher Education Authority
(CAPES), and the Department of Experimental Psychol-
ogy of the Federal University of Para, Bel6m, Brazil.
Vinia Haddad Diego, Departamento de Psicologia Ex-
perimental, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de Sao
Paulo, Avenida Prof. Mello Moraes 1721, 05508-900, Slo
Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, and Stephen F. Ferrari,
Departamento de Gendtica, Universidade Federal do Pard,
Campus do Guama, Caixa Postal 8607, 66075-150 Bel6m,
Para, Brazil. (Address of first author for correspondence:
Avenida Eng. Heitor Ant6nio Eiras Garcia 79, Apt. 24C,
05580-000 SAo Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil.)

The four lion tamarin species are endemic to the Atlantic
forest in eastern and south-eastern Brazil. Three of them
have coastal distributions: the golden lion tamarin (GLT),
Leontopithecus rosalia, in the lowland forests of the state
of Rio de Janeiro; the golden-headed lion tamarin (GHLT),
L. chrysomelas, in southern Bahia; and the black-faced
lion tamarin (BFLT), L. caissara, in the north-east of the
state of Parana and extreme south-east of Sao Paulo. The
fourth species, the black lion tamarin (BLT), L.
chrysopygus, occurs inland in the west of the state of Slo
Paulo. They occur in the most densely populated regions
of Brazil, where a long history of forest destruction has
reduced the once widespread Atlantic forest to less than
6% of its original extent. As a result of this, and along
with hunting and commerce, three species L. rosalia, L.
chrysopygus, and L. caissara are currently classified by
the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as "critically en-
dangered", and the golden-headed lion tamarin, L.
chrysomelas, is "endangered".
The first workshop concerning the plight of these species
focused on the golden lion tamarin (GLT) and was held
25 years ago in Washington, D. C. (supported by the Wild
Animal Propagation Trust, the New York Zoological So-
ciety and the National Zoological Park NZP). The pro-

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Page 53

Page 54

ceedings were published in a book Saving the Lion Mar-
moset, edited by D. D. Bridgwater in 1972. It was carried
out as a result of both Brazilian and non-Brazilian con-
cerns that the species was rapidly heading towards ex-
tinction. A population of the black lion tamarin (BLT),
long thought extinct, had just been rediscovered, but the
black-faced lion tamarin, L. caissara, was still unknown
at the time, being first described only in 1990. Numbers
of the golden-headed lion tamarins (GHLT) were thought
to be low and also approaching extinction. At that time,
priorities for action concentrated on research and man-
agement strategies necessary to protect and expand the
captive zoo population of GLTs. There were no protected
areas in Brazil for any of the species, and their creation
was identified as the first crucial step for the wild popula-
For the following 10 years, the focus of international ac-
tivity was on expanding and managing the captive popu-
lation of GLTs, while within Brazil the Federal and State
government agencies responsible for conservation of spe-
cies and natural resources passed decrees creating reserves
for the three species known at the time. Regular imple-
mentation of endangered species laws (e.g., controlling
exploitation of these areas and from human pressure) and
institutionalizing management of the decreed conserva-
tion units was yet to come. The situation of the lion tama-
rins at that time was reviewed by Adelmar F. Coimbra-
Filho and Russell A. Mittermeier in the book, Primate
Conservation, edited by H. S. H. Prince Rainier III of
Monaco and G. H. Bourne in 1977.
During the 1980s, scientific and conservation activities
in Brazil for the three known species expanded dramati-
cally, as did the organization of reserve management. A
captive population for the GHLT was established from il-
legally-held animals confiscated outside of Brazil. Field
studies (GHLT, BLT, GLT), a reintroduction program us-
ing zoo-born animals (GLT), and local education activi-
ties (GHLT, BLT, GLT) were implemented, and
metapopulation management strategies, based on the prin-
ciples of conservation biology, were initiated.
In June 1990, the discovery of the black-headed lion tama-
rin, L. caissara, was announced during the first PVA Work-
shop for the genus, held in Brazil and organized jointly
by the Fundalao Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte, and the
IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group
(CBSG) (Seal et al., 1990; Rylands, 1993/1994). The PVA
resulted in the formal establishment by Ibama (the Instituto
Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais
Renoviveis) of four International Recovery and Manage-
ment Committees for the genus. The task of these com-
mittees is to present recommendations on the manage-
ment and conservation of the species, and since 1990 they
have met every year. The PVA also resulted in the estab-
lishment of a series of priorities for each species with re-
gard to research and to their management in the wild as
well as in captivity, which guided the activities of the Com-

mittees over the subsequent seven years. This Workshop
brought together all the major players in the current ef-
forts for the survival of lion tamarins to discuss the cur-
rent status of each, and their major threats, and to draw
up the best options and strategies available for their sur-
vival and the recovery of their populations and habitats
over the next ten years.
A second workshop for the lion tamarins, involving a Popu-
lation and Habitat Viability Analysis (PHVA), was held
in May 1997, also in Belo Horizonte, in conjunction with
a one-day symposium marking 25 years of lion tamarin
conservation and research activities, and the annual meet-
ings of the International Committees for the four species.
As in 1990, it was organized by the Fundacao
Biodiversitas, Director Ilmar B. Santos, in conjunction
with the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG),
the Brazilian Institute for the Environment (Ibama), the
Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Program of the Na-
tional Zoological Park, Washington, D. C., the Primate
Specialist Group (PSG), the Jersey Wildlife Preservation
Trust, Conservation International, Washington, D. C., and
its Brazil Program Conservation International do Brasil,
Belo Horizonte, and the State Forestry Institute of Minas
Gerais (IEF-MG). There were over 60 participants, and
the large majority of those from North America were able
to participate thanks to the generosity of the Brazilian air-
line company Transbrasil.
The one-day international symposium (20 May 1997) was
organized by Devra Kleiman (National Zoological Park,
Washington, D, C.) and Anthony B. Rylands (Conserva-
tion International do Brasil) and included the following
speakers: Hector SeuAnez (Instituto Nacional de Cancer,
Rio de Janeiro), Beatriz Perez Sweeney (Columbia Uni-
versity, New York), Adriana Grativol (National Zoologi-
cal Park, Washington, D. C.) and colleagues, discussing
aspects of the evolution, genetics and phylogeny of the
species, with approaches including species and popula-
tion appraisals; James M. Dietz (University of Maryland,
Maryland) talked about the ranging and feeding behavior
of Leontopithecus; Andrew Baker (Philadelphia Zoo,
Pennsylvania) mating systems, demography and social
organization; Jeremy J. C. Mallinson (Jersey Wildlife Pres-
ervation Trust, Jersey) the history of lion tamarin conser-
vation; Benjamin Beck and Ines Castro (National Zoo-
logical Park, Washington, D. C.) the reintroduction pro-
gram for GLTs and the influence of variable environments
on development and behavior; Jon Ballou (National Zoo-
logical Park, Washington, D. C.) the genetic and demo-
graphic management of lion tamarins; Claudio Valladares-
Padua (University of Brasilia and IPE, Brasilia)
metapopulation management; Keith Alger (Instituto
Socioambiental do Sul da Bahia -IESB, Ilhdus) the man-
agement, restoration and augmentation of protected ar-
eas; and Denise Rambaldi (AssociagAo Mico-LeAo-
Dourado, Rio de Janeiro) the role of NGOs in
Leontopithecus conservation. The papers presented at the
symposium will form the core of a book on lion tamarin

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997 Page 55

conservation and research which will be edited by Devra
G. Kleiman and Anthony Rylands.
The PHVA Workshop was carried out over three days (21-
23 May) and was most successfully run by Susie Ellis
(Strasburg, Virginia) and Robert J. Lacy (Chicago Zoo-
logical Park, Brookfield USA), representing the Conser-
vation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG). Following some
introductory talks, including presentations of the PHVA
methodology, the use of the VORTEX computer simula-
tion program for population viability, and an appraisal of
the 1990 Workshop, the participants were divided into
fours working groups. The first discussed research on the
lion tamarins and their habitats; the second the
metapopulation management; and the third land use, habi-
tat protection and environmental education. Proposals and
recommendations put forward in reports were presented
by each group, in all cases discussed at intervals during
plenary sessions. The task of a fourth working group was
to collate information on such as the demography, life his-
tory variables, social structure, and threats to and the sta-
tus of the populations and protected areas, in order to ini-
tiate computer simulations for the projection of popula-
tion viability using the VORTEX program. The results of
the Workshop will be published in the near future in the
form of a full report being prepared by the CBSG.
The last two days (24-25 May) were devoted to the meet-
ing of the four International Committees for the manage-
ment of the species, coordinated by lolita Bampi of the
Faunal Division of the Brazilian Institute for the Envi-
ronment (Ibama). The meetings included progress reports
and discussions for specific action regarding the status
and management of lion tamarins in captivity, progress
on research and conservation action in the wild, and the
fund-raising activities of the "Lion Tamarins of Brazil
Fund", run by Jeremy J. C. Mallinson and Devra Kleiman
- a campaign aimed particularly at raising financial sup-
port for in situ conservation from zoos and institutions
holding lion tamarins.
The Symposium, the PHVA Workshop and the annual
meetings of the Committees were highly successful and
have undoubtedly contributed significantly to directing and
stimulating ongoing efforts on behalf of the survival of
the four lion tamarin species. Special merit must be given
to the Fundaqao Biodiversitas for the logistic organiza-
tion, and to the participants for providing an example of
how "pooling the World's best resources"(a quote from
Jeremy Mallinson) in international collaboration can pro-
mote successful conservation efforts and strategies on be-
half of endangered species.
Devra G. Kleiman, Department of Zoological Research,
National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Wash-
ington, D. C. 20008, USA, Ilmar B. Santos, Fundacao
Biodiversitas, Av. do Contorno 9155, Prado, 30110-130.
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and Anthony B.
Rylands, Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida
Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo

Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. 1996. 1996 JUCN Red
List of Threatened Animals. The World Conservation
Union, Gland.
Bridgewater, D. D. (ed.). 1972. Saving the Lion Marmo-
set. Wild Animal Propagation Trust, Wheeling, West
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1977. Con-
servation of the Brazilian lion tamarins (Leontopithecus
rosalia). In: Primate Conservation, H. S. H. Prince
Rainier III of Monaco and G. H. Bourne (eds.), pp.59-
94. Academic Press, New York.
Rylands, A. B. 1993/1994. Population viability analyses
and the conservation of the lion tamarins,
Leontopithecus, of south-east Brazil. Primate Conser-
vation (14-15): 34-42.
Seal, U. S., Ballou, J. D. and Valladares-Padua, C. (eds.).
1990. Leontopithecus: Population Viability Analysis
Workshop Report. IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding Special-
ist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley, Minnesota.

The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center's quar-
terly newsletter now has a web site. The URL is: http://
www.primate.wisc.edu/Centerline. If you want to be added
to the mailing list for the printed version, please e-mail
. Please provide your name,
complete mailing address, and area of interest. For more
information: Jordana Lenon, Editor and Media Relations
Specialist, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center,
Graduate School, University of Wisconsin, 1220 Capitol
Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299, USA, Tel: 608 263-
7024, Fax: (608) 263-4031, e-mail: jlenon@primate.wisc.

From tigers in Thailand to monarch butter-
4 flies in Mexico, the Wildlife Conservation
Society conducts more than 250 field projects
in 52 countries throughout Africa, Asia, Latin
America and North America. With 60 staff
scientists and over 100 research fellows, WCS
has the largest professional field staff of any U.S.-based
international conservation organization. WCS's strategy
is to support comprehensive field studies to gather infor-
mation on wildlife needs, train local conservation profes-
sionals and work with in-country staff to protect and man-
age wildlife and wild areas for the future.
Field programs of WCS benefit from technical support of
specialists based at the Society's Bronx Zoo headquarters
in New York. The Wildlife Health and Sciences Center

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

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sends experts around the globe to assess wildlife health,
develop monitoring techniques and train local veterinar-
ians. WCS's curatorial staff provide expertise in captive
breeding of endangered species. The Society's Science
Resource Center helps researchers assess data through
computer mapping, ecological analysis and cutting-edge
molecular genetics. Finally, the Education Department
writes primary and secondary school curricula that ad-
dress conservation issues, and hosts teacher training work-
shops around the world.
The Research Fellowship Program (RFP) is a small grants
program designed to support individual field research
projects leading directly to the conservation of threatened
wildlife and wildlife habitat. Projects must demonstrate
strong scientific merit, as well as direct relevance to con-
servation issues.
Eligibility: Any individual is eligible to apply. Organiza-
tions are not eligible for funding. Awards may not exceed
US$20,000. The RFP does not support conferences, travel
to scientific meetings, legal actions, construction of per-
manent field stations, tuition or salaries at institutions, or
overhead costs. Stipends are not considered (but investi-
gators who have no other source of support may request
modest per-diem expenses). Costly laboratory analyses,
gene storage, and captive breeding are also outside our
funding guidelines. Faculty and/or research advisors
should not be listed as principal investigators unless they
plan to carry out the majority of the field work. Proposals
may be submitted simultaneously to other funding orga-
nizations, but WCS must be informed of the organiza-
tion, amount, and if pending. Please note that the Research
Fellowship Program does not support research in North
America, Australia, or Europe.
Selection Criteria: Proposals are evaluated on a competi-
tive basis. Applications are screened by outside technical
reviewers and WCS staff. Preference is given to proposals
from nationals of the country of research and to projects
in our biogeographic regions of special interest: Sub-Sa-
haran Africa, Latin America, and Asia.
Closing Dates and Notification: The WCS Program Com-
mittee meets three times a year to make funding decisions,
with closing dates for RFP applications on February 1,
June 1, October 1. Final decisions and awards are usually
announced at the end of May, September, and January,
Application Procedure: An application package consists
of: proposal fact sheet, project outline, animal handling
sheet, project title page, and proposal checklist. Appli-
cants should use the project title page and submitfive cop-
ies of their proposal. Applications may be submitted in
English, French, or Spanish, but all proposals must be
accompanied by an English abstract. Five (5) completed
applications should be sent to: Wildlife Conservation So-
ciety, International Programs, Research Fellowship Pro-
gram Coordinator, 18th St. & Southern Boulevard, Bronx,
NY 10460, U.S.A.

Additional questions can be directed to: Tracy Van Holt,
Program Coordinator, Research Fellowship Program, Tel:
718-220-5896, Fax: 718-364-4275, e-mail: fellowship.vcs

Dr. Mauro Galetti is writing a review paper on frugivory
and seed dispersal in New World primates. He would be
most grateful for any reprints or references which would
contribute to his research. If you have any publications on
this subject, please send them to: Dr. Mauro Galetti,
Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Ciencias
Biol6gicas, Universidade Estadual de Sao Paulo (UNESP),
Caixa Postal 199, 13506-900 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, Bra-

The Latin American Fellowship has been established to
promote the support of field research by Latin Americans
in Latin America. Eligible students must be citizens of
Latin American countries (excluding Puerto Rico), and
enrolled in a graduate program in either a Latin Ameri-
can or North American university. The award will be
US$1,000. Proposed projects must be primarily field ori-
ented with a research emphasis in the areas of natural
history, conservation, ecology, systematics, wildlife biol-
ogy, biogeography, or behavior. These areas of research in
mammalogy shall be considered equally important by the
selection committee. Application information and forms
may be obtained from Dr. Janet K. Braun, Oklahoma
Museum of Natural History, 1335 Asp Avenue, Univer-
sity of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 USA, Tel: (405)
325-2828, Fax (405) 325-7699, e-mail: jkbraun@ou.edu.
The awardee will be announced at the annual meeting of
the American Society ofMammalogists (ASM) at the ban-
quet at Oklahoma State University.

The Australian Primate Society, President, Mr.
SJohn Lemmon, Western Plains Zoo, Dubbo, New
South Wales, has been renamed it is now the
Australasian Primate Society, and as from Volume
11(2), Summer 1997, its newsletter is called
Australasian Primatology. In the editorial of this
issue, Mr. Graeme Crook (Editor and Treasurer
of the Society) reported that the marmoset colony at CSIRO
will be closed down and transferred to another institu-
tion. Mr. Crook has been made redundant, but will carry
on serving the society as editor and treasurer. He will be
going into the computer industry and intends, as a result,

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Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Neotropical Primates S(2), June 1997 Page S7

to set up a Web page for the Society. The editors wish Mr.
Crook success and happiness in his career change into
computing. Graeme Crook: e-mail: gc00274@snetad.cpg.

A new API council for the years 1997-1999 was voted in
during the XII Congress of the Associazione Primatologica
Italiana in Turin, 16-19 April, 1997. They are as follows:
President: Prof. Giuseppe Ardito, Istituto di
Antropologia, Via del Proconsolo 12 50122 Firenze, Italy,
Tel: 055 215349, Fax: 055 283358, e-mail: antropos@
cesit l.unifi.it; Vice President: Dr. Augusto Vitale, Istituto
Sup. Sanita, Lab. Fisiopatologia, Via le Regina Elena 299,
00161-1 Roma, Italy, Tel: 06 49902107, 49902159; Fax:
06 4957821; e-mail: vitale@dns.istsan.interbusiness.it;
Secretary-Treasurer: Prof. Daniele Formenti, Dip. di
Biologia Animale, Lab. Antropologia, Piazza Botta 10,
27100 Pavia, Italy, Tel: (0)382-506324, Fax: (0)382-
506325; e-mail: formenti@ipv36.unipv.it. Other mem-
bers: Prof. Cristina Giacoma, Dip. di Biologia Animale
e dell'uomo, V. Accademia Albertina 17, 10123 Torino,
Italy; Dr.Gabriele Schino, Via Flaminia 109, 00196
Roma, Italy; and Dr. Massimiliano Del Pero, Dip. di
Biologia Animale e dell'uomo, Via Accademia Albertina
17, 10123 Torino, Italy. Additional information aboutAPI
activities can be found at their web page: http://

Tamarin Tales is a newsletter produced by the Jersey Wild-
life Preservation Trust and the Leontopithecus Interna-
tional Recovery and Management Committees. It is ed-
ited by Jonathan D. Ballou of the Department of Biologi-
cal Research, National Zoological Park, Washington, D.
C., and the first number (Volume 1, 1997) was produced
this year. The aim of this newsletter is to provide up-to-
date information to zoos and conservationists worldwide
on the most recent developments concerning research and
conservation efforts on the four species of lion tamarins:
Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysomelas, L. chrysopygus
and L. caissara. The newsletter is specifically targeted to
zoos and institutions participating in the captive breeding
programs for L. rosalia, L. chrysomelas and L.
chrysopygus, as well as to donators to the "Lion Tamarins
of Brazil Fund", co-ordinated by Devra G. Kleiman (Na-
tional Zoological Park, Washington, D. C.) and Jeremy J.
C. Mallinson (Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey).
The first issue is full of interesting information, including
as it does the following short articles: The Lion Tamarin

Committees D. G. Kleiman and J. J. C. Mallinson; The
current status of the golden lion tamarin (J. D. Ballou),
the black lion tamarin (C. Padua), the golden-headed lion
tamarin (L. P. de S. Pinto and L. I. Tavares), and the black-
faced lion tamarin (I. de G. CAmara and C. Padua); A
report from the field: Golden-headed lion tamarins in Una
- J. Dietz; Update on golden lion tamarin conservation
activities D. G. Kleiman; Assessment planned for Golden
Lion Tamarin Conservation Program D. G. Kleiman;
Effect of translocations on resident groups of black lion
tamarins M. Silva; Landowners' Environmental Educa-
tion Program for Una and surrounding areas J. Blanes
and J. J. C. Mallinson; Forest Rehabilitation Program in
Pogo das Antas Biological Reserve J. L. C. Camargo;
Seasonal variation in behavior and ecology of black lion
tamarin F. de C. Passes; The Rio de Janeiro Primate
Center (CPRJ) A. Pissinatti; Studies of the natural his-
tory of the black-faced lion tamarin C. Padua and F.
Prado; Golden lion tamarin conservation education pro-
gram D. Rambaldi; Environmental education activities
of IPE S. Padua; The Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund J.
J. C. Mallinson.
For further information (and contributions to the newslet-
ter), please contact: J. D. Ballou, Editor Tamarin Tales,
Department of Zoological Research, National Zoological
Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 20008,
USA, Tel: 202 673 4815, Fax: 202 673 4686, e-mail:
nzpdzr01 @sivm.si.edu.

The proceedings of a symposium "Biodiversity and Envi-
ronmental Stability", held in Copenhagen by the Danish
Centre for Tropical Biodiversity, 24-25 April 1995, were
published recently in a special issue of the journal
Biodiversity and Conservation, published by Chapman and
Hall (2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, UK). This
issue (Vol. 6, number 3, 1997) includes some important
papers concerning the biogeography of South America.
Guest Editorial: Biodiversity and environmental stability
- J. Fjeldsa and J. C. Lovett (pp.315-323); Geographical
patterns of old and young species in African forest biota:
The significance of specific montane areas as evolution-
ary centres J. Fjeldsa and J. C. Lovett (pp.325-346); The
role of ecological knowledge in explaining biogeography
and biodiversity in Amazonia H. Tuomisto and K.
Ruokolainen (pp.347-357); Floristic diversity in the Cape
flora of South Africa P. Goldblatt (pp.359-377); Patterns
of plant species endemism in Ecuador F. Borchsenius
(pp.379-399); Are biodiversity 'hotspots' correlated with
current ecoclimate stability? A pilot study using the
NOAA-AVHRR remote sensing data; Stable environments
and fragile communities J. Fjeldsa, D. Erhlich, E. Lambin
and E. Prins (pp.401-422): Does history determine the
resilience of avian rain-forest communities to habitat deg-
radation? F. Danielsen (pp.423-433); Endemic bird spe-
cies and conservation in the Cerrado region, South

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

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America J. M. C. da Silva (pp.435-450); Alternative
models of vertebrate speciation in Amazonia: An over-
view J. Haffer (pp.451-476); Islands: Stability, diversity
and conservation Q. C. B. Cronk (pp.477-493); Floristic
diversity and history of African arid regions N. Jtirgens

In 1998, The Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, will
be launching a new journal Animal Conservation on
behalf of The Zoological Society of London, UK. The aim
of the journal is to provide a forum for rapid and timely
publication of novel scientific studies of past, present, and
future factors influencing the conservation of animal spe-
cies and their habitats. The focus is on rigorous studies of
an empirical or theoretical nature, relating to species and
population biology. A central theme will be to publish
important new ideas and findings from evolutionary biol-
ogy and ecology that contribute towards the scientific ba-
sis of conservation biology. Fields covered will include:
ecology, behavioral ecology, and wildlife biology, wild-
life disease and epidemiology, evolutionary ecology and
genetics, population biology, systematic biology and
phylogenetics, biodiversity and biogeography, and man-
agement (including translocation and sustainable use).
Animal Conservation will be essential reading for conser-
vation biologists working in universities, research insti-
tutes, governmental and non-governmental wildlife agen-
cies, and zoos. The principal objective is to ensure that
new and original research be published within six months
of submission, following a rigorous review process. The
Editors are: Michael W. Bruford (Institute of Zoology,
Regent's Park, LondonNW1 4RY, UK), John L. Gittleman
(Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Uni-
versity of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, USA),
Georgina M. Mace (Institute of Zoology, London), and
Robert K. Wayne (Department of Biology, University of
California, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA). The
Book Review Editor is Peter Cotgreave (Institute of Zool-
ogy, London).
Papers may be specific or single species studies but find-
ings must have general implications. Cross disciplinary
papers suggesting new approaches are particularly encour-
aged. The Editors welcome submission of research papers
(up to 4,000 words), research reviews containing interest-
ing and original new ideas (up to 4,000 words), comments,
criticisms of or additions to papers already published (up
to 1,000 words) and book reviews (up to 750 words). Full
instructions for contributors can be found on the Internet
at: http://www.cup.cam.ac.uk/journals/jnlscat/ani/
Animal Conservation will be published quarterly in Feb-
ruary, May, August and November. Volume 1 in 1998 will
be 78/US$124 for institutions, and 39/US$62 for indi-

viduals. Special arrangements exist for members of the
Zoological Society of London. The journal can be ordered
from: Journals Marketing Department, Cambridge Uni-
versity Press, The Edinburgh Building. Cambridge CB2
1BR, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1223 325969, Fax: +44 (0)1223
315052, e-mail inquiries to: journals_marketing@cup.
cam.ac.uk. Orders in the USA, Canada, and Mexico: Cam-
bridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York,
NY 10011-4211, USA, Tel: +1 914 937 9600 x 154, Fax:
+1 914 937 4712, Toll free for orders 1-800-872-7423, e-
mail inquiries: journals_marketing@cup.org.
New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution and Behav-
ior, edited by the late Warren G. Kinzey, 1997, 436pp.
Aldine de Gruyter, Hawthorne, New York. Price: Cloth
US$62.95 ISBN 0-202-01185-2, Paperback US$31.95
ISBN 0-202-01186-0. Postage and handling: US$4.00. A
volume in the Aldine de Gruyter Series "Foundations of
Human Behavior", Series Editors Monique Borgerhoff
Mulder and Marc Hauser. Anthropologists have tradition-
ally ignored the New World primates because they are not
in the mainstream of evolution leading to the human spe-
cies. In this volume, leading experts on various aspects of
New World monkeys explore the tremendous diversity to
be found among neotropical primate species that have
adapted to the highly diverse Central and South Ameri-
can ecosystems. They shed new light upon the evolution-
ary process as is it is played out among our primate rela-
tions on a neotropical stage. Also included is a short au-
thoritative synopsis of the basic behavior, taxonomy, evo-
lutionary history, captive and field studies, habitat and
ecology (including diet and predation), social behavior,
ranging behavior, activity patterns, mating and reproduc-
tion, communication, play, and growth and development,
for each of the sixteen known genera of New World mon-
keys, along with most useful maps of their distributions.
This synopsis covers about a third of the book. This book
is evidently a must for anybody working on Neotropical
mammals, and is highly recommended. The synopsis is
an excellent introduction to the state-of-the-art concern-
ing research on the behavior and ecology of each genus.
There is a massive bibliography of more than 100 pages
(pp.325-429). Contents: Partl. Perspective on New World
Primates; Platyrrhines, catarrhines, and the fossil record
- J. G. Fleagle and R. F. Kay, pp.3-23; Brains of New
World and Old World monkeys E. Armstrong and M. A.
Shea, pp.25-44; Color vision polymorphism in New World
monkeys: Implications for the evolution of primate
trichromacy G. H. Jacobs, pp.45-74; Is speech special?
Lessons from New World primates C. T. Snowdon, pp.75-
93; Sex differences in the family life of cotton-top tama-
rins: Socioecological validity in the laboratory? W. C.
McGrew, pp.95-107; Subtle cues of social relations in male
muriqui monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides) K. B. Strier,
pp. 109-118; The influence of New World mating and rear-
ing systems on theories about Old World primates C. M.
Anderson, pp.119-126; Behavioral and ecological com-

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Neotropical Primates S(2), June 1997 Page S9

prisons of neotropical and Malagasy primates P. C.
Wright, pp.127-141; The human niche in Amazonia: Ex-
plorations in ethnoprimatology L. E. Sponsel, pp. 143-
165. Part II. Synopsis of New World primates: Classifica-
tion of living New World monkeys W. G. Kinzey, pp. 169-
173; Synopsis of New World primates: Alouatta, Aotus,
Ateles, Brachyteles, Cacajao, Callicebus, Callimico,
Callithrix, Cebuella, Cebus, Chiropotes, Lagothrix,
Leontopithecus, Pithecia, Saguinus and Saimiri W. G.
Kinzey, 174-305; Distribution maps of South and Central
America by genus W. G. Kinzey, pp.307-324. Available
from: Aldine de Gruyter, 200 Saw Mill River Road,
Hawthorne, NY 10532, USA. Tel: +1 914 747 0110.
Last Stand: ProtectedAreas and The Defense of Tropi-
cal Biodiversity, edited by Randall Kramer, Carel van
Schaik and Julie Johnson. 1997. Oxford University Press,
New York. ISBN 0-19-509554-5. During the past cen-
tury, tropical rain forests have been reduced to less than
half of their original area, with a consequent loss of
biodiversity. This book takes a close look at how this has
happened and what the consequences may be, with an
emphasis on strategies that have proven successful in stem-
ming the loss of plant and animal species. The book high-
lights the important role of protected areas such as sacred
groves, royal preserves, and today's national parks, which
have long served to shield the delicate forest habitats for
countless species. It argues that, although programs that
combine biodiversity protection and human economic de-
velopment have become increasingly important, a system
of protected areas must still be the cornerstone of all con-
servation strategies aimed at limiting the inevitable re-
duction of our planet's biodiversity. Written by leading
experts with years of experience, the book integrates eco-
logical, economic and political perspectives on how best
to manage tropical forest reserves and their biodiversity,
throughout the world. In addition to conservationists,
policy makers, and ecologists, educators will find this a
useful text in courses on tropical conservation and policy.
Contents: 1. Preservation paradigms and tropical rain for-
ests RandallA. Kramer and Carel P. van Schaik; 2. Mini-
mizing species loss: The imperative of protection John
Terborgh and Carel P. van Schaik; 3. The ecological foun-
dations of biodiversity protection Kathy Mackinnon; 4.
The silent crisis: The state of rain forest nature preserves
- Carel P. van Schaik, John Terborgh, and Barbara
Dugelby; 5. Policy and practical considerations in land-
use strategies for biodiversity conservation Katrina Bran-
don;. 6. Biodiversity politics and the contest for owner-
ship of the world's biota Steven E. Sanderson and Kent
H. Redford; 7. User rights and biodiversity conservation -
Marie Lynn Miranda and Sharon LaPalme; 8. Tropical
forest biodiversity protection: Who pays and why Randall
A. Kramer and Narendra Sharma; 9. Compensation and
economic incentives: Reducing pressure on protected ar-
eas Paul J. Ferraro and Randall A. Kramer; 10. Toward
a new protection paradigm Carel P. van Schaik and
Randall A. Kramer. Available from: Oxford University

Press, Inc., 198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York
10016, USA.
Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical Primates, edited
by Marilyn A. Norconk, Alfred L. Rosenberger and Paul
A. Garber, 1996, Plenum Press, New York. 555pp. Price:
US$125.00. ISBN 0-306-45399-1. This collection of 29
papers grew out of a symposium entitled "Setting the
Agenda for Neotropical Primates", held at the Department
of Zoological Research, National Zoological Park, Wash-
ington, D. C., on February 26-27, 1994. It was sponsored
by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Re-
search, the Smithsonian Institution and the Friends of the
National Zoo. There were two objectives to the sympo-
sium: to honor Warren G. Kinzey (1935-1994) for his
contributions to the growing field of platyrrhine studies,
and to provide researchers who work in the Neotropics
with the opportunity to discuss recent developments, to
identify areas of research that require additional study,
and especially to guide the next generation of research-
ers. The book is dedicated to the memory and life work of
Warren Kinzey. A very rich store of information for any-
body working on Neotropical primates and South Ameri-
can biogeography and fauna in general. Contents: Sec-
tion I. Problems of Platyrrhine Evolution. Molecules,
morphology, and platyrrhine systematics H. Schneider
and A. L. Rosenberger, pp.3-19; Primates of the Atlantic
forest: Origin, distributions, endemism, and communities
- A. B. Rylands, G. A. B. da Fonseca, Y. L. R. Leite and
R. A. Mittermeier, pp.21-51; Primate populations in east-
ern Amazonia S. F. Ferrari and M. A. Lopes, pp.53-67;
Primates of the Guayana Shield forests: Venezuela and
the Guianas M. A. Norconk, R. W. Sussman and J.
Phillips-Conroy, pp.69-83. Section II. On Callitrichines.
Marmoset misconceptions P. A. Garber, A. L.
Rosenberger and M. A. Norconk, pp.87-95; The other side
of callitrichine gummivory: Digestibility and nutritional
value M. L. Power, pp.97-110; Locomotion of golden
lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia): The effects of for-
aging adaptations and substrate characteristics on loco-
motor behavior B. J. Stafford, A. L. Rosenberger, A. J.
Baker, B. B. Beck, J. M. Dietz and D. G. Kleiman, pp.111-
132; Functional and phylogenetic implications of ankle
morphology in Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) L.
C. Davis, pp.133-156; Ecology of the "southern" marmo-
sets (Callithrix aurita and Callithrix flaviceps: How dif-
ferent, how similar? S. F. Ferrari, H. K. M. Correa, and
P. E. G. Coutinho, pp. 157-171; Activity and ranging pat-
terns in common marmosets (Callithrixjacchus): Impli-
cations for reproductive strategies L. J. Digby and C. E.
Barreto, pp. 173-185; Parental care patterns and vigilance
in wild cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) A. Sav-
age, C. T. Snowdon, L. Humberto Giraldo and Luis H.
Soto, pp. 187-199; Testing learning paradigms in the field:
Evidence for use of spatial and perceptual information and
rule-based foraging in wild moustached tamarins P. A.
Garber and F. L. Dolins, pp.201-216; Section III. Critical
Issues in Cebine Evolution and Behavior. Critical Issues
in Cebine Evolution and Behavior L. M. Fedigan, A. L.

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

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Rosenberger, S. Boinski, M.A. Norconk and P. A. Garber,
pp.219-228; Species definition and differentiation as seen
in the post-cranial skeleton of Cebus S. M. Ford and D.
G. Hobbs, pp.229-249; Vocal coordination of troop move-
ment in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi and S. sciureus)
and white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) S. Boinski,
pp.251-269; The behavioral ecology of wedge-capped ca-
puchin monkeys (Cebus olivaceus) L. E. Miller, pp.271-
288; See how they grow: Tracking capuchin monkey
(Cebus capucinus) populations in a regenerating Costa
Rican dry forest L. M. Fedigan, L. M. Rose and R. M.
Avila, pp.289-307; Toward an experimental socioecology
of primates: Examples from Argentine brown capuchin
monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) C. H. Janson, pp.309-
325. Section IV New Perspectives on Pitheciines. New
Perspectives on Pitheciines A. L. Rosenberger, M. A.
Norconk and P. A. Garber, pp.329-333; The evolution of
positional behavior in the saki-uakaris (Pithecia,
Chiropotes and Cacajao) S. E. Walker, pp.335-367; The
Neotropical primate adaptation to noctumality: Feeding
in the night (Aotus nigriceps andA. azarae) P. C. Wright,
pp.369-382; Diet and feeding ecology of masked titis
(Callicebus personatus) K.-H. Milller, pp.383-401; Sea-
sonal variation in the diets of white faced-faced and
bearded sakis (Pithecia pithecia and Chiropotes satanas)
in Guri Lake, Venezuela M. A. Norconk, pp.403-423.
Section V. On Atelines. On Atelines W. C. Hartwig, A.
L. Rosenberger, P. A. Garber, and M. A. Norconk, pp.427-
431; Dental microwear and diet in a wild population of
mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) M. F.
Teaford and K. E. Glander, pp.433-449; Seasonal differ-
ences in food choice and patch preference of long-haired
spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth) H. G. Castellanos and
P. Chanin, pp.451-466; Use of space, spatial group struc-
ture, and foraging group size of gray woolly monkeys
(Lagothrix lagotricha cana) at Urucu, Brazil: A review of
the Atelinae C. A. Peres, pp.467-488; The relation be-
tween red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) troop size
and population growth in two habitats C. M. Crockett,
pp.489-510; Reproductive ecology of female muriquis
(Brachyteles arachnoides) K. B. Strier, pp.511-532.
There are also Portuguese and Spanish summaries of each
of the papers.
Mata Atldntica: Ciencia, Conservaldo e Politicas -
Workshop Cientifico sobre a Mata Atldntica, editado
por Luiz Paulo de S. Pinto, Josd Pedro de Oliveira Costa,
Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca e Cldudia Maria R. Costa. 1996,
27pp. Documentos Ambientais: Secretaria do Meio
Ambiente, Governo do Estado de Sao Paulo. Preficio pelo
Sr. Fabio Feldmann, Secretirio do Meio Ambiente do
Estado de Sao Paulo. Este document objetiva subsidiary
as discusses entire representantes de organizagoes
governamentais e nAo-governamentais, a comunidade
cientifica, e a sociedade em geral, no process de avaliaqlo
das political p6blicas e da legislaqao sobre o bioma Mata
Atl&ntica, visando proper alternatives para sua efetiva
proteg o. 0 document estA dividido em tries parties: na

primeira aborda-se o hist6rico da protego legal da Mata
Atlantica e seus desdobramentos; em seguida descreve-se
algumas iniciativas e as bases cientfficas para a delimitagao
e estrat6gias de sua conservagao; e para terminar apresenta-
se os resultados do Workshop Cientifico sobre a Mata
Atlfntica, realizado nos dias 22-23 de janeiro de 1996,
em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Maiores informag6es:
SMA Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado de Slo
Paulo, Av. Prof. Frederico Hermann Jr. 345, 05489-900
Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil, Tel: (011) 3030 6199, Fax:
(011) 3030 6203.
Wildlife Conservation, Zoos andAnimal Protection -
A Strategic Analysis, edited by Andrew N. Rowan. Pro-
ceedings of a workshop held at the White Oak Conserva-
tion Center, Yulee, Florida, 21-24 April, 1994. Tuft Uni-
versity, MA. USA. Price: US$30.00. Checks payable to:
Trustees of Tufts College CFA. Contents: Preface An-
drew Rowan; Opening Remarks James Smith; What do
"wild" and "captive" mean for large ungulates and carni-
vores. Now and into the twenty first century Michael
Hutchins; Wild/captive and other suspect dualisms Dale
Jamieson; The wild and the tame Juliet Clutton-Brock;
Naturalizing and individualizing animal well-being and
animal minds: An ethologist's naivete exposed? Marc
Bekoff; Animal well-being in the wild and in captivity -
Stephen Bostock; Preserving individuals versus conserv-
ing populations: Is there a conflict? Donald G. Lindburg;
Animal well-being in zoos, conservation centers and in-
situ conservation programs John Lukas; Final comments
- Andrew Rowan; Epilogue Howard Gilman. Available
from: Center for Animal and Public Policy, Tuft Univer-
sity School of Veterinary Medicine, 200 Westboro Road,
N. Grafton, MA 01536, USA.
Advances in The Study of Behavior, edited by Peter J.
B. Slater, Jay S. Rosenblatt, Charles T. Snowdon, and
Manfred Milinski, Volume 26, 1997.Academic Press, New
York. Price: US$95.00. ISBN: 0 12 004 526 5. Contents:
Sexual selection in seaweed flies Thomas H. Day and
Andre S. Gilbum; Vocal learning in mammals Vincent
M. Janik and Peter J. B. Slater; Behavioral ecology and
conservation biology of primates and other animals Karen
B. Strier; How to avoid seven deadly sins in the study of
behavior Manfred Milinski; Sexually dimorphic dispersal
in mammals: Patterns, causes, and consequences; Laura
Smale, Scott Nunes and Kay E. Holekamp; Infantile am-
nesia: Using animal models to understand forgetting H.
Moore Arnold and Norman E. Spear; Regulation of age
polyethism in bees and wasps by juvenile hormone Su-
san E. Fahrbach; Acoustic signals and speciation: The
roles of natural and sexual selection in the evolution of
cryptic species Gareth Jones; Understanding the com-
plex song of the European starling: An integrated etho-
logical approach Marcel Kens; Representation of quan-
tities by apes Sarah T. Boysen. Available from: Aca-
demic Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887,
USA, Tel: +1 800 321 5068.

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Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997 Page 61

Abbott, D. H., Saltzman,W. and Schultz-Darken, N. 1996.
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female callitrichid primates. AAZVAnnual Conference
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Allen, T. M., Lanchbury, J. S., Hughes, A. L. and Watkins,
D. I. 1996. The T-cell receptor beta chain-encoding gene
repertoire of a New World primate species, the cotton-
top tamarin. Immunogenetics 45(2): 151-160.
Arita, H. T., Figueroa, F., Frisch, A., Rodriguez, P. and
Santos-del-Prado, K. 1997. Geographical range size and
the conservation of Mexican mammals. Conservation
Biology 11(1): 92-100.
Ballou, J. D., Padua, C., Pinto, L. P. de S., Tavares, L. I.
and Camara, I. de G. 1997. The current status of the
golden lion tamarin, the black lion tamarin, the golden-
headed lion tamarin and the black-faced lion tamarin.
Tamarin Tales 1: 3-5.
Bauer, L. and Schreiber, A. 1997. Double invasion of Ter-
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Boinski, S. and Campbell, A. F. 1996. The huh vocaliza-
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Burity, C. H. de F., Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C. A. and
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Burity, C. H. de F. Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C. A. and
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Camargo, J. L. C. 1997. Forest Rehabilitation Program in
Pogo das Antas Biological Reserve. Tamarin Tales 1:
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BioScience 47(4): 210-213.
Dietz, J. M. 1997. A report from the field: Golden-headed
lion tamarins in Una. Tamarin Tales 1: 6.
Dietz, J. M., de Sousa, S. N. and Billerbeck, R. 1996.
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Fairbanks, L. A. 1996. Individual differences in maternal
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features of infant calls in relation to caregiving behaviour
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Genoud, M., Martin, R. D. and Glaser, D. 1997. Rate of
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Heymann, E. W., Sicchar V., L. A. and Tapia, R. J. 1996.
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and socio-ecology. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 59(3): 297-326.
Kierulff, M. C. M. and Oliveira, P. P. de. 1996. Re-assess-
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Kleiman, D. G. 1997. Update on golden lion tamarin con-
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Passos, F. de C. 1997. Seasonal variation in behavior and
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Patiflo, E. M. and Borda, J. T. 1997. The composition of
primates' milk and its importance in selecting formulas
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Peres, C. A. 1997. Primate community structure at twenty
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Pellis, S. M. and Pellis, V. C. 1997. Targets, tactics, and
the open-mouth face during play fighting in three spe-
cies of primates. Aggressive Behavior 23(1): 41-57.
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Soto, L. H., Chen, T. C. and Holick, M. F. 1997. Assess-
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wild cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus) in
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Rombos, T., Jaeger. E. E. M., Giunti, D., Lanchbury, J.
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Regional Primate Captive Masterplanning Meeting, 23-
27 June, 1997, Simon Bolivar Zoo, San Jose, Costa Rica.
Contact: Lic. Yolanda Matamoros, Director, Zool6gico
Nacional Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 11594-1000, San
Jose, Costa Rica. Tel: 506-233-6701, Fax: 506-223-1817,
or Dr. Cheryl Asa, St. Louis Zoological Park, Forest Park,
St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Tel: +1 314-768-5488, Fax:
Fifth International Congress of Vertebrate Morphol-
ogy, 12-17 July, 1997, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
Organized by the International Society for Vertebrate Mor-
phologists. All those interested in vertebrate morphology
and related areas are invited to attend. Suitable topics for
discussion at the meeting include all aspects of vertebrate
morphology, including anatomy, evolution, development,
biomechanics and locomotion, vertebrate palaeontology,
ecological morphology, morphological aspects of
behaviour, cell structure and function, neurobiology and

Page 63

neuroanatomy, and morphometric and other methods. The
closing date for submissions is 16 December 1996. Con-
tact: Professor J. M. V. Rayner, School of Biological Sci-
ences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8
lUG, UK, Fax: +44 (0)117 925 7374, e-mail: icvm97@
bristol.ac.uk, WWW: http://www.bio.bris.ac.uk/icvm.html.
VI Simposio de Primatologia de la Asociaci6n Mexicana
de Primatologfa, 30 de julio al 1 de agosto de 1997,
Institute Mexicano de Psiquiatrfa, Mexico, D. F.
Instituciones participants en la realizaci6n: Programa
Universitario de Investigaci6n en Salud y Instituto de
Investigaciones Antropol6gicas, Universidad Nacional
Aut6noma de Mexico; Organizacion Panamerican para
la Salud, Organizaci6n Mundial para la Salud; y
Universidad Veracruzana. Comit6 Organizador: Presidente
- Ricardo Mondragon-Ceballos, Secretaria Pilar Chiappa.
TemAtica: SistemAtica y evoluci6n; Ecologia de la
conduct; Conservaci6n; Fisiologia, medicine veterinaria
y usos de los primates no humans en la salud humana;
Cognici6n, inteligencia e inteligencia artificial; Panorama
del trabajo primatol6gica en los paises en desarrollo y su
divulgaci6n a nivel international. Conferencias
magistrales: Marina L. Butovskaya (Institute of Ethnol-
ogy and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences) -
Mechanisms of coping with social tension in nonhuman
primates; Hans G. Erkert (Universitat Ttibingen,
Tilbingen) Cronobiologia de primates neotropicales;
Michael J. Raleigh (University of California, Los Ange-
les) Imaging neuroplasticity: Primate studies and brain
repair; Ranulfo Romo (Universidad Nacional Aut6noma
de Mexico, M6xico) El primate: Un modelo para el
studio de la percepci6n tactil; Phillip V. Tobias (Univer-
sity of Witwatersrand, South Africa) A reconsideration
of man's place in nature; Russell H. Tuttle (University of
Chicago, Chicago) Global primatology in a new
millennium; Jaime A. Umafla A. (Universidad Nacional
de Colombia, Bogota) Programa de rehabilitaci6n y
possible reintroducci6n de primates neotropicales.
Conferencias: Martha Isabel Escobar B. (Universidad del
Valle, Colombia) Interneuronas en la corteza asociativa
del mono nocturno Aotus lemurinus griseimembra;
Joaquin Molina (Organizaci6n Panamericana para la
Salud) Politicas de la OPS para el apoyo a la
investigaci6n; Hernmn J. Pimenta J. (Universidad delValle,
Colombia) Organizaci6n de la corteza asociativa del mono
Aotus lemurinus griseimembra. Mesa Redondas: Los inicios
de la primatologia en Mexico (M. en C. Lilian Mayagoitia);
Del mono al hombre (Karen Toussaint); Conservaci6n
(Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna); Diferencas gen6ricas en primates
(Guillermina Yankelevich). Inscripci6n: 300.00 pesos an-
tes del 30 de junio, a partir de esta fecha el costo serd de
3 50,00 pesos. La cuota incluye coctel de bienvenida, paquete
de inscripci6n y cena de clausura. Informaciones: Depto.
de Etol6gia, Div. Neurociencias, IMP, Camino a Xochimilco
101, San Lorenzo Huipulco, C. P. 14370, Tlalpan, D. F.,
Mexico, Fax: 6559980, correo electr6nico: monc@cenids

Page 64

VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, 10-15 Au-
gust 1997, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. Deadline for sub-
mission of abstracts: 10 May 1997. Contact: Carmen
Alonso, Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia,
Departamento de Sistematica e Ecologia CCEN,
Universidade Federal da Parafba, 58059-900 Jofo Pessoa,
Paraiba, Brazil, Tel: +55 (0)83 216 7471, Fax: +55 (0)83
216 7464, e-mail: sagui@vm.npd.ufpb.br.
XXV International Ethological Conference, 20-27 Au-
gust, 1997, Vienna, Austria. This meeting will highlight
new synthetic approaches to problems in animal behav-
ior, and links between behavior and other disciplines, in-
cluding neurobiology, sensory physiology, population ecol-
ogy, conservation biology, and evolution. Deadlines: Sub-
mission of abstracts, budget registration, financial aid
application 28 February 1997; Hotel reservation, stan-
dard registration 15 July 1997. For additional informa-
tion, contact: XXV IEC, Wiener Medizinische Akademie
(WMA), Alser Strasse 4, A-1090 Vienna, Austria, Tel:
+43 1 405 1383 21, Fax: +43 1 405 1383 23, e-mail:
Sedation, Immobilization, and Anesthesia of Non-Hu-
man Primates, 23-24 August, 1997, University of Wis-
consin, College of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, Wis-
consin, USA. Sponsor: Safe-Capture International, Inc.
Guest speakers: Jan Ramer, WRPRC and Joanne Paul-
Murphy, UW, College of Veterinary Medicine. Focus: hu-
mane capture, remote drug delivery methods, pharmacol-
ogy, analgesics, medical emergencies, and safety proto-
cols. Each participant will receive a 110 page training
manual, including Immobilization Protocols for over 100
Species of Non-Human Primates. Certificates on comple-
tion. Contact: Keith Beheler-Amass, Safe-Capture Inter-
national, Inc., P.O. Box 206, Mt. Horeb, Wisconsin 53572,
USA, Tel: 1-608-767-3071, Fax: 1-608-437-5287.
A Linnean Society Conference: The Evolution and
Behaviour of Monkeys, Apes and Man, 4-5 September,
1997, Chester Zoo, Chester, UK. A Linnean Society Re-
gional Meeting to be held in conjunction with The North
of England Zoological Society and the University of
Liverpool. Registration fee 25. The keynote speech will
be presented by Sandy Harcourt, "Characteristics of pri-
mate species prone to extinction". Sessions include: Ecol-
ogy of Apes; Cognition; Social Behaviour, Functional
Morphology; Conservation; and Systematics. Organised
tours round the primate sections at Chester Zoo will be
available. For further information and registration: Julie
Whitear, Chester Zoo, Upton by Chester, Cheshire H2 I LH,
UK, Tel. +44 (0)1244 650201, Fax: +44 (0)1244 371273,
e-mail: gmreid@gn.apc.org.
Forum on Wildlife Telemetry: Innovations, Evaluations
and Research Needs, 21-23 September, 1997, Snowmass,
Colorado, USA. In conjunction with 1997 Annual Con-
ference of the Wildlife Society. Contact: Jane Austin, Na-
tional Biological Service, Northern Prairie Science Cen-
ter, Jamestown, North Dakota 58401. Tel.: +1-701 252-

5363, Fax: +1-701-252-4217, e-mail: jane_austin@nbs.
Vth Congress of the German Primatological Society,
1-5 October, 1997, Berlin, Germany. A meeting of the
Council of the European Federation for Primatology will
be held on 5 October. Contact: Prof. Dr. Carsten Niemitz,
Freie Universitat Berlin, FB 23,WE 5, Fabeckstrasse 15,
D-14195 Berlin, Germany. Tel: +49 (0)30-838-2900, Fax:
+49 (0) 30-838-6556, e-mail: cniemitz@zedat.fu-
Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Human Evolution,
4-8 October, 1997, Long Island, New York. Organized by
Luigi Cavalli-Sforza and James Watson (President of
CSHL). Five sessions will cover human molecular evolu-
tion (e.g., mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosomes, genetic
markers). Other sessions include paleoanthropology, ge-
netic variation and multifactorial disease, and primate
behavior. Frans B. M. de Waal is organizing a session
"Primate Behavior and the Reconstruction of Human
Social Evolution." Invited speakers include Robin Dunbar,
Richard Wrangham, Karen Strier, Anne Pusey and Bill
McGrew. There will also be Poster Sessions for which
abstracts can be submitted. The official abstract deadline
is July 16, 1997. Further information is expected soon at
the following WWW site: http://www.cshl.org/meetings/
Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB), Winter Meet-
ing New Perspectives on Nocturnal Primates, 3 De-
cember 1997, The Meeting Rooms of the Zoological So-
ciety of London, Regent's Park, London. The aim of the
meeting is to introduce nocturnal primates to those not
working on nocturnal primates and to inform them of re-
search developments. If you are interested in presenting a
paper to the meeting please submit an abstract to be con-
sidered for inclusion in the programme. Abstracts should
be of approximately 200 words and should be sent by 31
July 1997 to:. Dr. Paul Honess, Anthropology Unit, School
of Social Sciences and Law, Oxford Brookes University,
Oxford, OX3 OBP. U.K. or by fax to +44 (0)1865 483937,
or by e-mail to: . For further
information please contact Dr. Simon Bearder or Dr. Paul
Honess at the above address or by telephone (0)1865
483760/484941. Please send e-mail address for further
3rd International Conference on Wildlife Management
in Amazonia, 3-7 December, 1997, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
Co-organized by the School ofAgricultural Science of the
Universidad Autonoma "Gabriel Rene Moreno", the Natu-
ral History Museum "Noel Kempff Mercado", and the
Tropical Conservation and Development Program of the
University of Florida. This event will be a forum for prac-
titioners, students, researchers and other professionals from
all parts of Central and South America to evaluate ap-
proaches, share knowledge and exchange ideas about wild-
life and fisheries, conservation and management,
biodiversity, the environment, and sustainable develop-

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997 Page 65

ment, along with other themes intimately linked with
Amazonian wildlife. Since the problems of wildlife and
fish of the Amazon basin are similar to those of most Neo-
tropical regions, we invite all those interested in these is-
sues to participate. Sharing experiences throughout the
Americas will be beneficial to all aspects of wildlife man-
agement, conservation and sustainable development. The
Conference will be a forum to review recent research and
management programs and discuss how to integrate in-
formation on wildlife and fisheries population biology with
the socio-economic realities of rural people to insure sus-
tainable use. The conference will host a variety of sympo-
siums and workshops, including several IUCN/SSC Spe-
cialist Group Meetings and a workshop to evaluate com-
munity-based wildlife management in Amazonia. The
Conference builds on the success of the previous meet-
ings on Wildlife Management in Amazonia, which were
hosted in Beldm, Brazil in 1992 and Iquitos, Peru in 1995.
Call for Papers: Persons interested in presenting papers
are requested to submit abstracts (maximum 200 words)
for review and selection by 1 June 1997. Please send ab-
stracts via e-mail to: tcd@tcd.ufl.edu. Please do not send
as attachments. For more information. National partici-
pants and observers: National Conference Coordinator,
Dr. Mario Suarez Riglos, Facultad de Ciencias Agricolas,
Universidad Aut6noma "Gabriel Rend Moreno", Museo
de Historia Natural "Noel KempffMercado", Casilla 1321,
Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, Tel/Fax: (591) 336-6574.
International participants and observers: International
Conference Coordinator, Dr. Richard Bodmer, Tropical
Conservation and Development Program, University of
Florida, P.O. Box 115531, Gainesville, FL. 32611-5531,
USA, Tel: (352) 373-3186, Fax: (352) 392-0085 ,e-mail:
tcd@tcd.ufl.edu. For updated information, please visit the
conference web site at: http://www.tcd.ufl.edu./tcd/
ASAB Winter Meeting 1997 "Behaviour and Conser-
vation", 4-5 December, 1997, Zoological Society of Lon-
don, Regent's Park, London, UK. Association for the Study
of Animal Behaviour (ASAB). Organized by Morris Gos-
ling and Mark Avery. The organizers aim to use the meet-
ing as the basis for a multi-author book. Current ideas for
possible contents include links between mating systems/
dispersal and genetic structure of populations; dispersal
and other movements in relation to habitat fragmentation
and reserve design; individual foraging behaviour and
habitat carrying capacity; mate choice, signaling, and ma-
nipulation of captive breeding; learning and pre-release
training; and practical use of behaviour in conservation
(e.g., use of songs for censusing). Contacts: Professor Morris
Gosling, Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of Lon-
don, Regent's Park, London NWI 4RY, UK, Tel: +44 (0)171
449 6600, Fax: +44 (0)171 586 2870, e-mail: suaalmh@ucl.
ac.uk, or Dr. Mark Avery, RSPB, The Lodge, Sandy, Beds.
SG19 2DL, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1767 680551, Fax: +44 (0)1767
692365, e-mail: bird@rspb.demon.co.uk.

XVIth Annual Conference of the Australasian Primate
Society, 5-7 December 1997, Launceston, Tasmania. Sup-
ported by the Launceston City Council. Theme: Macaques:
Biology and Behaviour. Papers on this theme, or on any
other primate related topic, and abstracts should be sent
to: The Editor, Australasian Primate Society, P. 0. Box
500, One Tree Hill, South Australia 5114, Australia, Tel:
08 8280 7670. Deadline for abstracts: October 17, 1997.
Glttinger Freilandtage 1997. Primate Socio-ecology:
Causes and Consequences of Variation in the Number
of Males, 9-12 December, 1997, German Primate Center,
GOttingen, Germany. A goal of the newly-founded Be-
havior and Ecology Division at the German Primate Cen-
ter is to organize regular international conferences on
timely topics in primate behavioral ecology. These meet-
ings should provide a forum for discussion and informa-
tion for interested students and professionals from Ger-
many and abroad. Feature presentations and round-table
discussions are by invited speakers, but opportunities for
contributed talks and poster presentations will be provided.
On the final day of the conference there will be a limited
number of 15 minute oral presentations. Posters can be
displayed throughout the conference. Speakers include:
Nick Davies (University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK),
Peter Kappeler (DPZ, Gottingen), Eckhard Heymann
(DPZ, Gottingen), Karen Strier (University of Wisconsin,
Madison), Marina Cords (Columbia University, New
York), Jeanne Altmann (University of Chicago, Chicago),
Tom Struhsaker (Duke University, Durham), Liesbeth
Sterck (Utrecht University, Utrecht), Volker Sommer (Uni-
versity College, London), David Watts (Yale University,
New Haven), Peter Jarman (University of New England,
Armidale), Richard Wrangham (Harvard University, Cam-
bridge, USA), John Mitani (University of Michigan, Ann
Arbor), Theresa Pope (Duke University, Durham), Robin
Dunbar (University of Liverpool, Liverpool), Thelma
Rowell (University of California, Berkeley), Jan van Hooff
(Utrecht University, Utrecht), Charles Janson (SUNY,
Stony Brook), Charles Nunn (Duke University, Durham),
Carel van Schaik (Duke University, Durham), Barbara
Smuts (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor), and Tim
Clutton-Brock (University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK).
Deadline for submission of abstracts (not exceeding 250
words) is 1 August, 1997. Deadline for registration for all
participants is 10 October, 1997. Registration fees are
DM100.- for professionals and DM 30.- for students.
Please send your completed registration form, including
proof of bank transfer or Eurocheque, to: "GOttinger
Freilandtage" (address below). For further information and
registration forms please contact: Dr. Peter Kappeler or
Dr. Michael Schwibbe, "GOttinger Freilandtage", German
Primate Center DPZ, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Gottingen,
Germany. See also .
VII International Congress of Ecology, New Tasks for
Ecologists after Rio 92, 19-25 July 1998, Centro Affari
& Palazzo Internazionale Congressi, Florence, Italy. Or-

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

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Page 66

ganized by the International Association for Ecology
(INTECOL) in conjunction with the Italian Ecological
Society (SItE). Themes include: Perspectives in global
ecology; Perspectives for the ecological management of
natural resources; Problems and perspectives in Mediter-
ranean ecosystems; Diversity concepts at different scales;
Perspectives in ecological theory and modeling; Key is-
sues in aquatic ecosystems; Perspectives in landscape ecol-
ogy; Perspectives in sustainable land use; Key issues in
microbial ecology; Patterns and interactions in popula-
tions and communities; Perspectives in environmental
chemistry and ecotoxicology; Integrating ecology into eco-
nomic and social development; Ecological engineering;
Progresses in ecological education. Contact: Almo Farina,
Vice-President INTECOL, Secretariat VII International
Congress of Ecology, Lunigliana Museum of Natural His-
tory, Fortezza della Brunella, 54011 Aulla, Italy, Tel: +39
187 400252, Fax: +39 187 420727, e-mail: afarina@
tamnet.it, web site: http://www.tamnet.it/intecol.98.
Euro-American Mammal Congress, 20-24 July, 1998,
University of Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain.
Organized under the auspices of the American Society of
Mammalogists (ASM), Societas Europea Mammal6gica
(SEM) and the Sociedad Espafiola para la Conservaci6n y
el Estudio de los Mamiferos (SECEM). Also participat-
ing: University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) through
its Colleges of Sciences and Pharmacy as well as the
Consejeria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, y Montes of the
local government (Xunta de Galicia) through the inter-
mediacy of its Direcci6n General de Montes y Medio
Ambiente Natural. The meeting will emphasize the cut-
ting edge and little known aspects of scientific knowledge
of mammalian species, and communities and ecosystems
of the Holarctic. However, contributions of interest relat-
ing to mammals from other regions will also be welcomed.
Contributions will be grouped in sessions that will cover
general subjects, symposia or workshops. General mat-
ters currently projected: Behavioral Ecology, Biogeogra-
phy, Community Ecology, Conservation, Development,
Molecular Systematics, Morphology and Morphometrics,
Natural History, Paleontology, Parasites and Diseases,
Physiology, Population Dynamics, Population Genetics,
Systematics and Evolution, and Wildlife Management.
Those interested in organizing a symposium should con-
tact a member of the Steering Committee. Deadlines for
proposals 11 March 1997. The organizers request that elec-
tronic mail be used for contact whenever possible. For
more information, all queries and requests:
galemys@pinarl.csic.es. Circulars will also be sent by
electronic mail, and distributed through a variety of dis-
tribution lists and list servers. Postal address: Euro-Ameri-
can Mammal Congress, Laboratorio de Parasitologia,
Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de
Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain, Fax:
(34) 81 593316.

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Antananarivo, Madagascar. Contact: Secretariat XVII IPS
Congress, Madame Berthe Rakotosamimanana, Faculte
des Sciences, Batement P, Porte 207, BP 906,Antananarivo
101 Madagascar. Tel: 261 (03) 805 70, e-mail: ralaiari@

We would be most grateful if you could send us information
on projects, research groups, events (congresses, symposia,
and workshops), recent publications, activities of
primatological societies and NGOs, news items or opinions
of recent events and suchlike. Manuscripts should be
double-spaced and accompanied by the text in diskette
for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect,
Wordstar). Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, high quality figures,
and high quality maps, tables and references, but please
keep them to a minimum.
Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS, C/o
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio
AbrahAlo Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (31) 441 17 95 or
ERNESTO RODRIGUEZ-LUNA, Parque de La Flora y Fauna
Silvestre Tropical, Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz
91000, Mexico, Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748.
LILIANA CORTtS-ORTiz (Universidad Veracruzana) provides
invaluable editorial assistance.
Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to:


NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in collaboration
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XVII Congress of the International Primatological So-
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Lithograph printed in six colours. Image size 44.8 x 30 cm. Signed by the artist in a limited edition of 300, plus 30 Artists
Proofs, printed on Somerset 300 g textured paper at the Curwen Chilford Studio, England. Published by Sheeran Lock.
Prints are available from: Sheeran Lock, Albert House, Albert Road, Framlingham, Suffolk IP13 9EQ, UK. Tel: +44
(0)1728 621126, Fax: +44 (0)1728 621127.
The cotton-top tamarin is one of Colombia's most endangered animals due primarily to the alarming disappearance of its
rainforest habitat and its widespread capture for the illegal pet trade. This original lithograph of a cotton-top tamarin family
was produced by the New York based British artist Stephen Nash, one of the World's leading natural history illustrators.
10% of proceeds from the sale of the print will be donated to Conservation International for its work in protecting natural
ecosystems and the species that rely on these habitats for survival. Stephen Nash comments, 'The cotton-top tamarin is a
beautiful and charismatic animal which I see as a fitting representative for all endangered creatures'.
'In addition to his considerable skill as a draughtsman, Stephen has a profound understanding of the larger scientific
issues of our time, such as ecological interdependence. He also has an artist's sensitivity and compassion for his subjects,
be they moths or marmosets. His is a very rare combination of talents, and his work can justifiably be placed within the
great artistic tradition of natural history illustration, alongside that of Joseph Wolf Beatrix Potter and Edward Lear.'

Neotropical Primates 5(2), June 1997

Page 67

ISSN 1413-4703

Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodrfguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
AvenidaAnt6nioAbrahao Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil

A Division of the Houston
Parks and Recreation Department

This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foun-
dation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Con-
servation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas
77030, USA, the Grupo deTrabalho em Biodiversidade (GTB), through the Brazilian National Sci-
ence Research Council (CNPq), Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Coordenador do GTB, c/o Conservation
International do Brasil,AvenidaAnt6nioAbrahdo Caram 820/302,31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brazil, and the Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB), President Hilary 0. Box, Depart-
Lment of Psychology, University of Reading, Reading RG6 2AL, Berkshire, UK.

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