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Title: Neotropical primates
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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: March 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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periodical   ( marcgt )
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General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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    Front Matter
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    Back Cover
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Full Text

ISSN 1413-4703

A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: Anthony B. Rylands





The most recent appraisal of the taxonomy of the Neotropical primates lists five genera, 35 species and 55
species and subspecies of marmosets and tamarins (Family Callitrichidae), and 11 genera, 63 species and 147
species and subspecies of the remaining primates (Family Cebidae). This gives a total of 16 genera 98 species
and 202 species of Neotropical primates. Of these, 13 taxa of callitrichids and 54 taxa of cebids are considered
threatened (Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. The World
Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK).
Except in some few cases such as the lion tamarins (Leontopithecus), where surveys have been carried out
and total population estimates are available, the appraisal of the conservation status of these primates depends
basically on the consideration of three factors: 1) the degree of fragmentation and threats (current and poten-
tial) to the habitats of the species or subspecies; 2) hunting pressure for food (commercial/subsistence) and as
pets or biomedical research models; and 3) the number, size and status of protected areas within the species'
In collaboration with Conservation International do Brasil, the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate
Specialist Group has set up a referenced data base for the occurrence of primates in protected areas in Latin
America in order to bring together widely scattered (but abundant) information on the primate communities
they contain. Information to be catalogued includes:
a) the protected area systems for each of the 21 countries containing primates;
b) a listing of all protected areas in each country and basic data such as size, date of creation, status, principal
vegetation types, etc.;
c) A referenced listing of the research on such as vegetation types, and mammalian and especially primate
communities carried out in each protected area.
d) A referenced listing of the primate species which have been documented to occur in the protected areas or
which supposedly (according to the species' distributions) occur in them.
The information will be obtained through the current literature, including unpublished reports, as well as through
correspondence and personal contacts, and will permit an evaluation of the existence and extent of protected
areas for each primate taxon, as well as the current status of our knowledge of the occurrence of primates in
each of them. This project will be carried out in collaboration with the Protected Areas Data Unit (PADU) of
the World Conservation Monitoring Center (WCMC), Cambridge. It will be vital for the formulation of action
plans for the Neotropical primates, and a better understanding of their status.
Many parks and reserves are well known with regard to their primate communities, but information is ex-
tremely limited for the majority even with regard to the status of the protected area. We are making a special
appeal to readers to help in providing information they may have on the occurrence of primate species and
subspecies in protected areas in South America, Central America and Mexico, most especially regarding their
own observations or by informing us of pertinent projects, or publications and reports, notably those which are
obscure or limited in circulation. Your help in making this data base as complete and accurate as possible will
be greatly appreciated. Please contact Anthony B. Rylands (address on page 34).

Russell A. Mittermeier
Chairman IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna
Co-Vice Chairmen Neotropical Section

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997 PaRe 1


Introduction Objectives
Between January 1994 and July 1995, 370 km2 of a pri-
mary rain forest were flooded by the filling of the Petit
Saut hydroelectric dam built on the Sinnamary river in
French Guiana (504' N 5303' W). A wildlife rescue was
organized by Electricit6 de France, the French company
building the dam, with the following main objectives:
translocate threatened mammals and reptiles, create a bio-
logical bank and database on Guianan wildlife, carry out
a post release survey including ecological studies, and raise
public awareness on Guianan wildlife conservation (Vid,
1996). It was decided to document the consequences of
the translocation through the study of several mammal
species, including two primates red howlers (Alouatta
seniculus) and white-faced sakis (Pithecia pithecia). Red
howlers were selected because they are one of the most
extensively studied of neotropical mammal species giv-
ing us, as such, a basis for comparison. The main interest
lies in the fact that we could then compare ecoethological
aspects with a study conducted on undisturbed animals in
a similar habitat in French Guiana (Julliot, 1992). Infor-
mation on sakis, on the other hand, is scarce and the op-
portunity of capturing such animals could allow for an
extended ecological study.

Before the start of the operation, a nearby release area had
been chosen following several criteria: a) it should guar-
antee the trophic requirements of all the rainforest ani-
mals susceptible to being captured; b) it should be close to
the capture area in order to reduce transportation time
and stress, disease transmission risk, and genetic pollu-
tion and for logistic reasons; c) it should already be dis-
turbed by human activities (hunting, forest logging) in
order to avoid disturbing an intact area; d) it should be
efficiently protected against hunting, forest logging and
tourism in order to avoid jeopardizing the success of the
The 150 km2 selected area fitted these criteria very well.
A small part had been subjected to logging, but the entire
zone was heavily hunted, as confirmed by our surveys:
red howlers and brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)
were present at low densities and black spider monkeys
(Ateles paniscus) had been eradicated. Resident popula-
tions of golden-handed tamarins (Saguinus midas) and
white-faced sakis were present. Effective protection mea-
sures against human disturbances have been taken since
the beginning of the operation.
Up to 40 people worked on the operation, including vet-

erinarians, biologists, technicians, local workers and stu-
dents. Collaborative programs were also established with
public and scientific institutions.
Three primate species were captured in the flooded forest
and translocated: red howlers, golden-handed tamarins
and white-faced sakis. Most of the primate groups were
captured in one go by isolating and then cutting down the
shelter tree. Very few animals could be darted and some
tamarins were caught using live traps. After capture, the
animals were housed in individual cages and brought to
the veterinary facility at the dam site. All the animals were
anesthetized and immobilization was carefully docu-
mented. Capture location, group composition, sex, weight,
body dimensions, and the results of a clinical examina-
tion were recorded, and biological samples (blood, para-
sites, Akin biopsies) were collected on' a large majority of
them. Blood smears, exams for trypanosomiasis or
filiariasis were performed, and serums were kept at -800C
in our laboratory. Other samples were sent to various in-
stitutions for identification (parasites), investigation (for
example, retrovirus, leishmaniasis, and genetic studies)
or analysis (hematological and biochemical parameters).
Each monkey was tattooed and visually identified with
collar or radio-tags. For tamarins, we used plastic medals
on ball chain collars; sixteen adult females howlers were
radio-collared (Telonics MOD-125) and colored collars,
colored wrist or ankle bands, ear tags or a combination of
all three were used for others; five sakis were radio-col-
lared (Telonics MOD-080) and one female was ear-tagged.
The day following the capture, the animals were released
along a 13 km long dirt track penetrating the release area.
Howler and saki groups were transferred from individual
boxes to a prerelease enclosure built in the forest. After a
few hours of rest, the door was opened and animals could
leave at their will with a reduced risk of panic and troop
fragmentation. Trails were cut every 400 meters through
15 km2 for the post-release monitoring which focused
mainly on radio-tagged animals. Various methods were
used: triangulation from the roads, approaches on foot and
aerial tracking in the case of long movements or when the
signal was lost. The sakis were habituated to human pres-


A total of 3278 non-flying mammals (47 species), 799
snakes (68 species) and 1386 tortoises were captured. Four
primate species were represented: 124 red howlers
(Alouatta seniculus) from 29 groups, 98 golden-handed
tamarins (Saguinus midas) from 22 groups, six white-faced
sakis (Pithecia pithecia) (one group of three and three
solitary animals) and one black spider monkey (Ateles
paniscus). Five of these monkeys were not captured in the
flooded forest: two tamarins were found wounded on the
access road, the spider monkey was a juvenile probably
kept as a pet and two howlers (mother and newborn) were
observed falling down from a tree directly onto the ground;

Cover photograph by Sue Boinski: The Costa Rican squirrel monkey, Saimiri oerstedi oerstedi.

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

Page 1


Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997

Table 1 Collected and preserved biological material on primates.
A. seniculus S. midas P pithecia A. paniscus
Serum/Plasma 113 90 6 1
Blood smears 114 90 6 1
DNA samples (skin) 108 84 6 0
DNA samples (organ) 4 1 1 0
Hemolysates 109 87 6 0
Endoparasites 9 5 1 0
Cryopreserved cells 8 6 3 0

the female was found dead and the newborn died a few
weeks later. Most of our scientific results have not been
analyzed and published yet. We give some preliminary
results here.
Response of primate populations to the flooding of the
forest. The trees began to die and loose their leaves about
three months after the flooding of the ground. Most mon-
keys left the flooded areas and took refuge at the periph-
ery of the lake particularly spider monkeys, brown (Cebus
apella) and wedge-capped (C. olivaceus) capuchins which
were never observed in the flooded forest. Howlers, tama-
rins and sakis were the only species to be observed and
captured in the flooded forest and can still be found on
small islands. A red howler troop was observed to tempo-
rarily survive in a defoliated area by adapting its diet to
epiphytes which represented the major available food re-
maining (De Thoisy and Richard-Hansen, 1997).
Chemical immobilization. For the four species, we suc-
cessfully used a combination of medetomidine and
ketamine at the respective i.m. dosages of 0.15 and 4 mg/
kg reversed by atipamezole (Vi6 and de Thoisy, 1996).
We are not aware of a previous use of this association on
neotropical primates. The injection induced a 30 minute
anesthesia with short induction time and good
myorelaxation. This was very useful when we wanted to
keep the animals the shortest possible time in captivity.
Biological material collected. Material available for use
by the scientific community is listed in Table 1.
Chromosomes of howlers. Forty-two howlers were
karyotyped, and comparisons with other chromosomal data
found in the literature indicate that howlers from French
Guiana are very similar to Alouatta seniculus from the
Jari river in Brazil (Vassart et al., 1996).
Overview of translocation results. Released animals were
very shy and difficult to observe. Moreover, we could not
anticipate their future moves in the large release area. So
our survey focused on radio-tagged howlers and sakis.
However, visually tagged tamarins were observed on only
six occasions between one and 11 months after release
and between 500 and 1000 metres from their release site,
in association with residents. Radio-tracking proved to be
efficient and accurate. However, the occurrence of larvae
under the collar identified as the New World screwworm
fly (Cochliomyia hominivorax) (M. Hall, pers. comm.) lead
to the death of two howlers and one saki. One saki trans-
mitter failed and three howler collars snapped leading to
the loss of four animals. One howler was found dead with

evidence of trauma and three additional deaths remained
Response of red howlers to translocation (Richard-Hansen
and Vid, 1996). 1430 localizations were recorded; they
were made daily after release and then weekly on foot for
group composition determination. The animals dispersed
between 400m and 13,000 m (mean 3,800 m) from the
release site. The study focused on seven females for which
the study lasted between nine and 18 months. They settled
down after a period of one day to three months, and the
mean value of their established home ranges was about
50 1-ha quadrats, ranging from 18 to almost 100. Three
major tendencies were observed: immediate local settle-
ment, quick but farther dispersal and settlement, or pro-
longed instability before settling down. Most of the troops
split-up after release and the animals were observed merg-
ing in new associations with members of the resident popu-
lation. A twin birth was recorded but the infants probably
died. The adult and juvenile males were observed carry-
ing one newborn. The home range size of red howlers
under undisturbed conditions was very similar to our re-
sults, although somewhat smaller, and we think that most
of our monitored females may have formed associations
with extra-troop animals as described in other studies in
fragmented habitats (Rudran, 1979; Crockett, 1984); this
may explain their temporary social and spatial instability.
Home ranges of white-faced sakis (Vid and Richard-
Hansen, 1996). Sakis are rare and shy animals, impos-
sible to study in a high continuous forest. They do not
make any noise when moving, observations are rare and
visual contact is lost very quickly. Several studies have
been conducted in Brazil and Venezuela, but in fragmented
habitats (Oliveira et al., 1981; Setz, 1991; Kinzey and
Norconk, 1993) or are based, as in Surinam, on few ob-
servations (Buchanan et al., 1981; Mittermeier and van
Roosmalen, 1981; Kinzey and Norconk, 1991). Radio-
tracking is the only way to study this species at least in a
high and non-fragmented forest such as in French Guiana,
but they are impossible to capture in their natural habitat;
the rescue was a unique opportunity to radio-tag a few
individuals. Three animals were habituated and observed
during 1013 hours (181 days). Only one group was trans-
located and split-up after release. We observed that trans-
located animals formed associations with resident animals.
Moreover white-faced sakis have much larger home ranges
than previously thought (Buchanan et al., 1981). 150 1-
ha quadrats were used by a resident couple with one trans-
located animal in about three months. Finally they can
accomplish long straight moves of up to 10 km within a
few days.


Our primate translocation experiment gave encouraging
results. As previously demonstrated for other howler spe-
cies (Horwich et al., 1993; Rodriguez-Luna et al., 1993),
this method may be used as a conservation tool for rein-

Page 2

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997 Page 3

production or population reinforcement, with a fairly good
probability of success. The positive results of the translo-
cation, the large amount of original data, and the interest
of the international scientific community for our samples,
confirm our initial conviction that this operation was
worthwhile once the political decision of building the dam
had been taken.
Acknowledgments: We thank the "Faune Sauvage" team
who made this project possible, the Centre National
d'Equipement Hydraulique which provided total support
and freedom to conduct this study, and Robin Sinha for
checking the English.
Jean-Christophe Vie and Cicile Richard-Hansen,
Programme Faune Sauvage, EDF/CNEH, Savoie
Technolac, 73373 Le Bourget-du lac Cedex, France.

Buchanan, D. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and van Roosmalen,
M. G. M. 1981. The saki monkeys, genus Pithecia. In:
Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol I.
A. F. Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.),
pp.391-417. Academia Brasileira de Ci8ncias, Rio de
Crockett, C. 1984. Emigration by female red howler mon-
keys and the case for female competition. In: Female
Primates: Studies by Women Primatologists, M. Small
(ed.), pp. 159-173. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York.
De Thoisy, B. and Richard-Hansen, C. 1997. Diet and
social changes in a red howler monkey (Alouatta
seniculus) troop in a highly degraded rainforest. Folia
primatol. In press.
Horwich, R. H., Koontz, F., Saqui, E., Saqui, H. and
Glander, K. 1993. A reintroduction program for the con-
servation of the black howler monkey in Belize. Endan-
gered Species Update 10(6): 1-6.
Julliot, C. 1992. Utilisation des resources alimentaires
par le singe hurleur roux, Alouatta seniculus (Atelidae,
Primates) en Guyane: impact de la dissemination des
graines sur la r6g6ndration forestibre. Th6se de
l'Universitd de Tours, France.
Kinzey, W. G. and Norconk, M. A. 1993. Physical and
chemical properties of fruit and seeds eaten by Pithecia
and Chiropotes in Surinam and Venezuela. Int. J.
Primatol. 14(2): 207-227.
Mittermeier, R. A. and van Roosmalen, M. G. M. 1981.
Preliminary observations on habitat utilization and diet
in eight Surinam monkeys. Folia Primatol. 36: 1-39.
Oliveira, J. M. S., Lima, M. G., Bonvincino, C., Ayres, J.
M. and Fleagle, J. G. 1985. Preliminary notes on the
ecology and behavior of the Guianan saki (Pithecia
pithecia, Linnaeus 1766; Cebidae, Primates). Acta
Amazonica 15(1-2): 249-263.
Rodriguez-Luna, E., Garcfa-Ordufia, F. and Canales-
Espinosa, D. 1993. Translocaci6n del mono aullador
Alouatta palliata: una alternative conservacionista. In:
Estudios Primatoldgicos en Mexico, Vol 1, A. Estrada,
E. Rodrfguez-Luna, R. L6pez-Wilchis and R. Coates-

Estrada (eds.), pp.129-177. Biblioteca Universidad
Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
Rudran, R. 1979. The demography and social mobility of
a red howler population in Venezuela. In: Vertebrate
Ecology in the Northern Neotropics, J. F Eisenberg (ed.),
pp.107-126. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington
Setz, E. Z. F. 1991. Comportamentos de alimentagio de
Pithecia pithecia (Cebidae, Primates) em um fragmento
florestal. In: A Primatologia no Brasil 3, A. B. Rylands
and A. T. Bernardes (eds.), pp.327-330. Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia, FundaqAo Biodiversitas, Belo
Richard-Hansen, C. and Vid, J.-C. 1996. Post transloca-
tion behavior of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus)
in French Guiana. In: Abstracts from the XVIth Con-
gress of the International Primatological Society and
the XIXth Conference of the American Society of Pri-
matologists. #213. August 11-16, Madison, Wisconsin,
Vassart, M., Guddant, A., Vie, J.-C., Kdravec, J., S6gu6la,
A. and Volobouev, V. T. 1996. Chromosomes ofAlouatta
seniculus (Platyrrhini, Primates) from French Guiana.
J. Heredity 87(4):331-334.
Vi6, J.-C. 1996. Wildlife rescue in French Guiana: objec-
tives, methodology and preliminary results. In: Proceed-
ings of the Annual Conference of the American Asso-
ciation of Zoo Veterinarians. November 3-8, Puerto
Vallarta, Mexico.
Vi6, J.-C and de Thoisy, B. 1996. Anesthesia of red howler
monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) with medetomidine-
ketamine and reversal by atipamezole. In: Proceedings
of the Annual Conference of the American Association
of Zoo Veterinarians. November 3-8, Puerto Vallarta,
Vi6, J.-C. and Richard-Hansen, C. 1996. Ecology and be-
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Wisconsin, USA.


Cebuella was proposed by Gray (1866) as a subgenus of
Hapale (later Callithrix), and soon after as a distinct ge-
nus (Gray, 1870). Generic recognition was reinforced by
Cabrera (1917) on account of dental characteristics, and
by Thomas (1922) on certain cranial characters. The type
specimen of Cebuella pygmaea was collected near
Tabatinga, on the north bank of the Rio Solimoes by Spix
and Martius and described in 1823 (Spix, 1823). The ven-
tral surface of the type specimen is ochraceous. In 1940,

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

Page 3

Page 4 Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997

Lonnberg described a second subspecies, Cebuella
pygmaea niveiventris from Lago Ipixuna, south bank of
the Rio Solim6es, based on its sharply contrasting whit-
ish chest, belly, and inner surface of arms and legs. Cruz
Lima (1945) and Napier (1976) also recognized and de-
scribed the two subspecies. With this taxonomic arrange-
ment, Cebuella pygmaea pygmaea Spix, 1823 occurs in
the state of Amazonas, Brazil, north of the Rio Solim6es
and south of the Rio Japura, southern Colombia north of
the Rfos Maran6n and Putumayo and south of the Rio
CaquetA (Japura), eastern Ecuador, and eastern Peru south
of Rio Putumayo, north of the Rio Maran6n and east of
the Rfo Pastaza. Cebuella pygmaea niveiventris L6nnberg,
1940 occurs in eastern Peru south of the Rfo Maran5n
and east of the Rfo Huallaga, and in the state of Amazonas,
Brazil, south of the Rio Solim6es and west of the Rio Purus.
Heltne et al. (1976) reported its presence in the Pando
region of Bolivia, and Izawa (1979) and Izawa and
Bejarano (1981) indicated that it may occur as far south
as the Rfos Orthon and Manuripf, northern tributaries of
the Rio Madre de Dios. Brown and Rumiz (1986), how-
ever, confined it to the north of the Rfo Tahuamanu (see
also Cameron et al. 1989). As argued by Rylands et al.
(1993), its presence in northern Bolivia indicates that it
should occur in the eastern part of the Brazilian state of
Acre, including the upper reaches of the Rio Abuna, a
tributary of the Rio Madeira. According to Hershkovitz
(1977), the color of the underparts is individually and lo-
cally variable and does not justify the subspecific status of
In July and August, Van 1996, while searching for a new
species of marmoset (Roosmalen et al., in prep.), we sur-

veyed both sides of the lower Rio Madeira, from its mouth
with the Rio Amazonas, upriver to beyond the mouth of
the Rio Manicor6. Local residents were interviewed and
shown photographs of the monkeys to be expected in the
region. Cebuella pygmaea was said to be common, but
ranging only in terra fire forest, and as such sharply
contrasting with Cebuella pygmaea pygmaea, which, at
least in the upper Amazon, is found mainly in white-wa-
ter seasonally inundated (vdrzea) forest (Soini, 1982, 1988)
and in very low densities in black-water (igapd) creek for-
est and secondary growth near permanent forest streams
(Fess, 1975; Freese, 1975; HernAndez-Camacho and Coo-
per, 1976; Peres, 1991). Most of the east bank of the Rio
Madeira is fringed with vdrzea forest and lakes, but in
some places terra firme forest extends right up to the
riverbank. We confirmed the presence of pygmy marmo-
sets, observing them gouging exudate-source trees, in the
following places: Democracia, west bank of the Rio Ma-
deira, 15 km south of the town of Manicor6 (548'S,
61026'W), Lago Matupiri (Santa Maria, 533'15"S,
6115'47"W), Lago Matupirizinho (Novo Jerusalem,
533'28"S, 6107'20"W), Vencedor (520'S, 60045'W)
and Bonfim (opposite the town of Borba) (4o20'S,
59040'W). All animals observed in the wild, as well as
one live specimen obtained in the community of
Democracia, showed the typical characters of the
niveiventris subspecies. We, therefore, follow the
L5nnberg, Cruz Lima, Napier arrangement, and, for the
subspecies Cebuella pygmaea niveiventris, confirm the
extension of its range to the interfluvium of the Rios Purus
and Madeira.
Cebuella has not been previously reported from the upper

1. The distributions of the two subspecies of Cebuella pygmaea: C. pygmaea pygmaea and C. pygmaea

Page 4

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997 Page S

Rio Madeira, although Ferrari (1993) argued that it was
likely to occur there. Ferrari et al. (1996) mentioned that
local residents at the Serra dos Tres Irmaos Ecological
Station, northwestern Rond6nia, reported the presence of
Cebuella on the west bank of the Rio Madeira nearby. Its
occurrence between the Rio Tahuamanu and Rio Acre in
Bolivia indicates that it would also occur in the basin of
the Rio AbunA, a western tributuary of the Rio Madeira.
However, until further fieldwork in the region reveals the
presence of Cebuella pygmaea further south, we assume
that, in Brazil, the Rio Ipixuna (or Rio Paranapixuna)
forms the southern limit of the monkey between the Rios
Purus and Madeira. The northern limit in this basin is
formed by the extensive vdrzeas along the Rio Amazonas-
Solimoes (Fig. 1).
The exudate source trees that were seen to be used by the
pygmy marmosets (the trunk being covered with gouge
holes from the base to the lowest boughs and branches)
were identified as Enterolobium schomburgkii
(Mimosaceae), Inga edulis (Mimosaceae), Inga ingoides
(Mimosaceae), and Ficus guianensis (Moraceae). Of these,
the "orelha de macaco" (Enterolobium schomburgkii)
seemed to be the principal source, being visited on a daily
Acknowledgments: The fieldwork reported here was sup-
ported by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, Vir-
ginia, Conservation International, Washington, D. C. and
Conservation International do Brasil, Belo Horizonte. We
thank Anthony B. Rylands for his comments on an earlier
draft of this paper. We are also grateful to Gustavo A. B.
da Fonseca and Russell A. Mittermeier for confirming our
observations during a reconnaissance trip to the area in
November 1996. Stephen Nash kindly drew the map.
Marc G. M. van Roosmalen, Instituto Nacional de
Pesquisas da Amaz6nia (INPA), Caixa Postal 478, 69083-
000 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, and Tomas van
Roosmalen, Colgate University, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton,
New York 13346, U.S.A.


Brown, A. D. and Rumiz, D. I. 1986. Distribuci6n y
conservaci6n de los primates en Bolivia estado actual
de conocimiento. In: A Primatologia no Brasil 2, M.
T. de Mello (ed.), pp.335-363. Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia, Brasflia.
Cabrera, A. 1917. Mamfferos del viaje al Pacifico
verificado de 1862 a 1865 por una comisi6n de
naturalists enviada por el gobierno espafiol. Trab. Mus.
Nac. Cienc. Nat., Madrid, Ser. Zool. (31):1-62.
Cameron, R., Wiltshire, C., Foley, C., Dougherty, N.,
Aramayo, X. and Rea, L. 1989. Goeldi's monkey and
other primates in northern Bolivia. Primate Conserva-
tion (10):62-70.
Cruz Lima, E. da. 1945. Mammals of Amazwnia, Vol. 1.
General Introduction and Primates. Contribuiqges do
Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi de Hist6ria Natural e

Etnografia, Beldm do Pard.
Ferrari, S. F. 1993. The adaptive radiation of Amazonian
callitrichids (Primates, Platyrrhini). Evolucidn Bioldgica
Ferrari, S. F., Cruz Neto, E. H., Iwanaga, S., Corr8a, H.
K. M. and Ramos, P. C. S. 1996. An unusual primate
community at the Estagio Ecol6gica Serra dos Tres
Irmaos, Rond6nia, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 4(2):55-
Fess, K. J. 1975. Observations of feral and captive Cebuella
pygmaea with comparisons to Callithrix geoffroyi and
Oedipomidas oedipus. J. Marmoset Breeding Farm
(1975): 12-21.
Freese, C. 1975. A census of non-human primates in Peru
and Colombia. Unpublished Report, National Academy
of Sciences, Washington, D. C. Project AMRO-0719,
March 1975, pp.17-41.
Gray, J. E. 1866. Notice of the new species of marmoset
monkeys (Hapale and Midas). Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.
(1865): 733-735.
Gray, J. E. 1870. Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-
eating Bats in the Collection of the British Museum.
Trustees of the British Museum, London.
Heltne, P. G., Freese, C. H. and Whitesides, G. 1976. Field
survey of nonhuman primates in Bolivia. Unpublished
report, Panamerican Health Organization (PAHO),
Washington, D. C.
HernAndez-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The
nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: Neotropical Pri-
mates: Field Studies and Conservation, R.W.
Thorington, Jr. and P.G. Heltne (eds.), pp.35-69. Na-
tional Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini), With an Introduction to Primates Vol. 1,
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Izawa, K. 1979. Studies on the peculiar distribution pat-
tern of Callimico. Kyoto University Primate Research
Institute, Reports of New World Monkeys (1979): 23-
Izawa, K. and Bejarano, G. 1981. Distribution ranges and
patterns of nonhuman primates in western Pando, Bo-
livia. Kyoto University Overseas Research Reports of
New World Monkeys (1981): 1-12.
L6nnberg, E. 1940. Notes on marmosets. ArkivforZoologi,
32A (10): 1-22.
Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of Primates in the British
Museum (Natural History). Part 1: Families
Callitrichidae and Cebidae. British Museum (Natural
History), London.
Peres, C.A. 1991. Ecology of mixed-species groups of
tamarins in Amazonian Terra Firme Forests. Unpubl.
Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier, R.
A. 1993. Systematics, distributions and some notes on
the conservation status of the Callitrichidae. In: Mar-
mosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecol-
ogy, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.11-77. Oxford University
Press, Oxford.

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

Page 5

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Soini, P. 1982. Ecology and population dynamics of the
pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea. Folia Primatol.
Soini, P. 1988. The pygmy marmoset, genus Cebuella.
In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol.
2, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-
Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.79-129. World
Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.
Spix, J. de. 1823. Simiarum et Vespertilionum
Brasiliensium species novae ou Histoire Naturelle des
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observes et recueillies pendant le voyage dans l'int&rieur
du Brdsil. Typis Francisci Seraphici Hubschmanni,
Thomas, 0. 1922. On the systematic arrangement of the
marmosets. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9)9: 196-199.


Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are usually placed in
two species groups on the basis of their morphology and
distribution: The Callithrix argentata and the Callithrix
jacchus groups. The tufted-ear marmosets, Callithrix
jacchus group, are found in central and eastern Brazil,
represented by the following distinct parapatric forms: C.
jacchus, C. aurita, C.flaviceps, C. geoffroyi, C. penicillata
and C. kuhli: the taxonomy of which has been the subject
of some discussion (Hershkovitz, 1977; Mittermeier and
Coimbra-Filho, 1981; Vivo, 1988; Rylands et al., 1993).
The presence or absence of natural hybrids has been a
moot point for the discussion of the taxonomy of the
Callithrixjacchus group (Coimbra-Filho and Mittermeier,
1973; Hershkovitz, 1977; Coimbra-Filho et al., 1993;
Marroig, 1995). Unfortunately, much of the debate has
been based on museum specimens or captive animals
which, in the majority of cases, are not representative of
contact zone populations.
In an interesting article discussing the controversy about
whether the Atlantic forest and central Brazilian marmo-
sets are species or subspecies, Marroig (1995) proposed
that the debate be postponed until new data on hybrid zones
arise. He stated that there are few localities where hybrids
exist between the species of eastern Brazil, and that records
of hybrid zones are absent, beyond that of C. jacchus and
C. penicillata reported by Alonso et al. (1987).
Contrary to Marroig's assertions, my field data have indi-
cated that there has always been hybridization in contact
zones between species of the Callithrixjacchus group (see
also Coimbra-Filho et al., 1993). In fact, the only contact
zone where I failed to find evidence of natural hybridiza-
tion was between C. aurita and C. penicillata in the state
of Sao Paulo. I believe, however, that further fieldwork
will probably uncover a hybrid zone there as well.

The buffy-headed marmoset, C. flaviceps, inhabits the
highlands of the Atlantic Forest of Espfrito Santo and east-
ern Minas Gerais, south of the Rio Doce, and has the small-
est geographical range among the forms of C. jacchus
group (Hershkovitz, 1977; Coimbra-Filho et al., 1981;
Ferrari and Mendes, 1991; Mendes, 1993). It is listed as
endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and
as threatened in the Brazilian national list (see Bernardes
et al., 1990). As in other marmosets, habitat destruction
is the major threat, although recent studies have shown
that these monkeys are relatively tolerant of habitat dis-
turbance and fragmentation (Ferrari and Mendes, 1991;
Diego et al., 1993).
As was pointed out by Rylands et al. (1993), the occur-
rence of typical C. flaviceps in the north of the state of
Rio de Janeiro is unlikely. I found C. aurita as far north as
Natividade, and in the extreme north of this state there is
probably a hybrid zone between C. aurita and C. flaviceps
(Mendes, 1993). Recent attempts to obtain new informa-
tion on the geographic distribution of these marmosets
have revealed contact zones of C. flaviceps with C.
geoffroyi in the state of Espfrito Santo, and with C. aurita
in the state of Minas Gerais. Hybrids were found in three
sites in Espfrito Santo in the contact zone between C.
flaviceps and C. geoffroyi, in the municipalities of Santa
Teresa and Santa Leopoldina, and in three sites in Minas
Gerais, in the contact zone between C. flaviceps and C.
aurita, in the municipality of Carangola and Ipanema
(Mendes, 1993).
In the two sites in Santa Teresa, there were mixed groups
containing hybrids as well as apparently typical C.
flaviceps and C. geoffroyi. At one of these sites, the Santa
Ldcia Biological Station, I saw a group composed only of
C. geoffroyi about 500 m from the mixed groups. Groups
consisting only of hybrids were not observed. In Santa
Leopoldina, groups of C. flaviceps were found at altitudes
between 500 and 650 m asl, while a group of hybrids was
seen at 500 m asl. It was not possible, however, to deter-
mine whether the latter contained animals other than hy-
brids. A group consisting only of C. geoffroyi was ob-
served at a site approximately 1 km to the southeast of
this area.
In many ways, the coloration of the head and ear tufts of
the C. flaviceps x C. geoffroyi hybrids is similar to that of
hybrids of C. flaviceps x C. jacchus and C. aurita x C.
kuhli described by Coimbra-Filho et al. (1993). The simi-
larity of these hybrids with C. penicillata would account
for Avila-Pires' (1969) identification of a specimen from
Santa Teresa as C. penicillata, which Hershkovitz (1977)
considered to be a C. flaviceps x C. geoffroyi hybrid.
Groups composed of individuals appearing to be C.
flaviceps x C. aurita hybrids were observed at two locali-
ties in forest fragments near Carangola. Some of the indi-
viduals were similar in coloration to either C. flaviceps or
C. aurita, while the majority exhibited intermediate pat-
terns. A group with similar intermediate color patterns

Page 6

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997 PaRe 7

was observed in Ipanema, about 10 km from the Estacgo
Biol6gica de Caratinga, where C. flaviceps has been stud-
ied by Ferrari and Diego (1992).
The formation of reproductive mixed groups and the pro-
duction of hybrids between C, geoffroyi and C. flaviceps
indicates that reproductive isolation is incomplete. None-
theless, the presence of apparently non-hybrid groups next
to the hybrids suggest that genetic interchange is reduced,
indicating a degree of reproductive isolation consistent
with the view of these two forms as distinct species. This
is reinforced by the aberrant color patterns of the C.
flaviceps x C. geoffroyi hybrids, which possibly resemble
an ancestral phenotype. The existence of reproductive
groups apparently composed entirely of hybrids of C.
flaviceps with C. aurita with intermediate color patterns
suggests that reproductive barriers between these two forms
are less well defined than those between C. flaviceps and
C. geoffroyi. The closer phylogenetic proximity between
C. flaviceps and C. aurita in relation to other C. jacchus
group forms has been pointed out by Hershkovitz (1977)
and Natori (1986), supporting Coimbra-Filho's (1990)
position that they are forms of the same species and the
suggestion of Rylands et al. (1993) for a new grouping:
the "Aurita group" (C. aurita and C. flaviceps) and
"Jacchus group" (C. penicillata, C. jacchus, C. kuhli, and
C. geoffroyi). My analyses of the vocalizations of the tra-
ditional C. jacchus group are consistent with this group-
ing, but stronger evidence may be required to justify treat-
ing the "Aurita group" as a single species and the new
"Jacchus group" as four species.
I agree with Marroig (1995) that natural hybridization in
itself does not justify classifying the Callithrix forms as
subspecies. However, the present data demonstrate that
there are different degrees of reproductive isolation among
neighboring forms of the C. jacchus group and across dif-
ferent hybrid zones. Genetic studies on hybrids and neigh-
boring populations are needed. Unfortunately, habitat de-
struction in eastern Brazil has been a serious problem for
the native marmoset population and makes these kinds of
studies sometimes extremely difficult to conduct.
Perhaps the controversy about Callithrix will persist de-
spite our efforts to understand the phylogeny and taxonomy
of these primates. I believe that the debate is, in fact, very
useful in that it has stimulated new research in compara-
tive morphology, biogeography, genetics, behavior and
ecology, and has been a driving force in the development
of our knowledge of these marmosets.
Acknowledgments: I thank K. B. Strier, S. F. Ferrari and
A. B. Rylands for revising the English text and for helpful
comments. Part of the work was supported by Fundacao
Sirgio Lucena Mendes, Museu de Biologia Prof. Mello
Leitao, Avenida Jos6 Ruschi 4, 29650-000 Santa Teresa,
Espfrito Santo, Brasil. E-mail: mbml@npdl.ufes.br.

Alonso, C., Faria, D. S. de, Langguth, A., and Santee, D.
F. 1987. Variagao da pelagem na area de intergradacgo
entire Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata. Rev.
Brasil. Biol. 47(4):465-478.
Avila-Pires, F. D. 1969. Taxonomia e zoogeografia do
g8nero Callithrix Erxleben, 1777 (Primates,
Callitrichidae). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 29(1):46.
Bemardes, A. T., Machado, A. B. M., and Rylands, A. B.
1990. Fauna Brasileira Ameagada de Extinga.o.
Fundaglo Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1990. SistemAtica, distribuigao
geografica e situagqo atual dos simios brasileiros
(Platyrrhini, Primates). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 50:1063-1079.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F., and Mittermeier, R. A. 1973. New
data on the taxonomy of the Brazilian marmosets of the
genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777. Folia Primatol. 20:241-
Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Mittermeier, R. A. and Constable,
I. D. 1981. Callithrixflaviceps (Thomas, 1903) recorded
from Minas Gerais, Brazil (Callitrichidae, Primates).
Rev. Brasil. Biol. 41(1):141-147.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Pissinatti, A., and Rylands, A. B.
1993. Experimental multiple hybridism and natural hy-
brids among Callithrix species from eastern Brazil. In:
Marmosets and Tamarins; Systematics, Behaviour, and
Ecology, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.95-120. Oxford Uni-
versity Press, Oxford.
Diego, V. H., Ferrari, S. F. and Mendes, F. D. C. 1993.
Conservacgo do sagili-da-serra (Callithrixflaviceps). 0
papel de matas particulares. In:A Primatologia no Brasil
4. M. E. Yamamoto and M. B. C. de Sousa (eds.),
pp.129-137. Editora Universitaria, Universidade Fed-
eral do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal.
Ferrari, S. F. and Diego, V. H. 1992. Long-term changes
in a wild marmoset group. Folia Primatol. 58:215-218.
Ferrari, S. F. and Mendes, S. L. 1991. Buffy-headed mar-
mosets 10 years on. Oryx 25:105-109.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini), With an Introduction to Primates, Vol. L
Chicago University Press, Chicago.
Marroig, G. 1995. Esp6cies ou subespdcies em Callithrix.
Neotropical Primates 3(1):10-13.
Mendes, S. L. 1993. Distribuiqao geografica e estado de
conservagao de Callithrix flaviceps (Primates:
Callitrichidae). In: A Primatologia no Brasil 4. M. E.
Yamamoto and M. B. C. de Sousa (eds.), pp.139-154.
Editora Universitaria, Universidade Federal do Rio
Grande do Norte, Natal.
Mittermeier, R. A. and Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1981. Sys-
tematics: Species and subspecies. In: Ecology and Be-
havior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1, A. F. Coimbra-
Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.29-111. Academia
Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.
Natori, M. 1986. Interspecific relationships of Callithrix
based on the dental characters. Primates 27(3):321-336.
Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F and Mittermeier, R.
A. 1993. Systematics, geographic distribution, and some

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

Page 7


Page 8

notes on the conservation status of the Callitrichidae.
In: Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour,
and Ecology, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.11-77. Oxford
University Press, Oxford.
Vivo, M. de. 1991. Taxonomia de Callithrix Erxleben,
1777 (Callithrichidae, Primates). Fundagao
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.

Muriqui monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides) have been
the subjects of systematic studies at the EstaqAo Biol6gica
de Caratinga (EBC) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, since 1983
(Fonseca, 1983; Strier, 1986, 1992; Mendes, 1990, 1995;
Odalia Rimoli, 1992; Rfmoli, 1994; Nogueira, 1996). As
in many other populations, the EBC muriquis are con-
fined to a protected tract of forest isolated from other for-
est patches by pasture and fields (Strier and Fonseca, in
press). Over the years, researchers have occasionally ob-
served members of the main study group descend to the
ground to cross gaps in the canopy or to drink or feed
within the forest (Valle et al., 1984). Observations of qua-
drupedal terrestrial travel have increased over the years
as the group has become more habituated to the presence
of researchers in remote parts of the forest (Strier, 1992).
Nevertheless, it is still rare for muriquis to travel more
than a few meters on the ground before climbing back
into the canopy, where they spend most of their time and
where, until recently, all of their long distance travel oc-
On 18 November 1996, a subgroup of 41 individuals be-
longing to the 59 member main study group was moni-
tored as it crossed an open clearing in the forest measur-
ing 20 meters in width. Researchers had been accompa-
nying the muriquis in a part of the forest they seldom use.
After a long rest period, the muriquis started to travel until
they reached the edge of the open clearing. They stopped
suddenly at the forest edge, and began to embrace one
another while vocalizing in a prolonged display. Their
display was typical of their response during tense situa-
tions, such as intergroup encounters (Valle et al., 1984;
Strier, 1992) or the proximity of potential predators
(Printes et al., 1996). Adults of both sexes participated in
the display, which persisted for 39 minutes without pause.
At 1220 h, AR, the only adult female in the subgroup
without an infant, was identified at the other side of the
clearing although she had not been observed to cross it.
She emitted a series of long neighs, which were answered
by other members of the group from the far side of the
clearing. At 1259 h, CL, one of the oldest adult males
present, descended to the ground and walked
(quadrupedally) across the 20 m clearing. The rest of the
subgroup followed after him in a single line. The sequence

of the progression following him was: nine other adult
males, then the other 12 adult females with their infants
and juveniles, and the last two adult males in the sub-
group at the rear. Once the muriquis reached the trees on
the far side of the clearing, they resumed traveling in the
direction they had originally been heading.
Such a progression is not exceptional, for muriquis at the
EBC commonly travel in a single file through the canopy
when they are moving rapidly from one part of the forest
to another, or when they descend to the ground between
adjacent trees. It is also common for older adult females
or males to take the lead in group movements, as they did
when they crossed the clearing.
Adults are usually active participants during displays to-
ward potential threats. They may have displayed at the
clearing in the same way they respond to other threats
because they were surprised to discover such an extensive
gap in the forest, or because they perceived their vulner-
ability to predators if they were to cross such an open ex-
panse. Despite their obvious tension, the fact that they
ultimately crossed the clearing instead of returning by safer
arboreal routes to where they had previously been sug-
gests that foraging needs may have outweighed these other
The risk of attack from terrestrial predators may be high
for muriquis traveling long distances on the ground, par-
ticularly in rural areas where semi-feral dogs frequently
hunt. The only other report of long distance terrestrial
travel we know of for muriquis involved a solitary female
from the Rio Casca population, whose only dispersal op-
tion from her natal group required her unsuccessful at-
tempt at crossing a pasture to reach a different forest tract
(Lemos de Sa, 1988).
Although the EBC muriquis were evidently disturbed when
they reached the forest clearing, the fact that this large
social unit traversed an expanse of ground may be indica-
tive of their potential to move between forest patches to
increase the area of forest available to them. As protected
populations such as that at the EBC expand in size (Strier,
1996), such terrestrial movements may permit them to
colonize new forests.
Acknowledgments: KBS is grateful to the Brazil Science
Council (CNPq) for permission to conduct research in
Brazil and to Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca for his sponsor-
ship. The research during the study period described here
was supported by grants from the National Science Foun-
dation (NSF) (BNS 8959298), the Liz Claiborne and Art
Ortenberg Foundation, and the Scott Neotropic Fund of
the Lincoln Park Zoo. We thank J. W. Lynch and C. P.
Nogueira for stimulating discussions during the writing
of this note.
Laiena R. T. Dib, Andriia S. Oliva, Estaago Biol6gica
de Caratinga, Caixa Postal 82, 36950-000 Ipanema, Minas
Gerais, Brazil, and Karen B. Strier, Department of An-

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997

thropology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1180 Ob-
servatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Fonseca, G. A. B. 1983. The Role of Deforestation and
Private Reserves in the Conservation of the Woolly Spi-
der Monkey (Brachyteles arachnoides). Masters thesis,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
Lemos de Sa, R. M. 1988. Situagao de uma Populaqclo de
Mono-Carvoeiro, Brachyteles arachnoides, em
Fragmento de Mata Atlantica (M.G.), e Implicaq6es para
sua Conservaqao. Masters thesis, Universidade de
Brasilia, Brasilia.
Mendes, F. D. C. 1990. Afiliaqio e Hierarquia no Muriqui:
0 Grupo Matao de Caratinga. Master's thesis,
Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo.
Mendes, F. D. C. 1995. Interaqtes Vocais do Muriqui
(Brachyteles arachnoides). Ph.D. thesis, Universidade
de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo.
Nogueira, C. P. 1996. Comparaqao entire as Dietas de
Fdmeas de Muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides, Primates,
Cebidae) em Diferentes EstAgios Reprodutivos. Master's
thesis, Universidade de Guarulhos, Sao Paulo.
Odalia Rfmoli, A. 1992. 0 Filhote Muriqui (Brachyteles
arachnoides): Um Estudo do Desenvolvimento da
Independencia. Master's thesis, Universidade de Sao
Paulo, Slo Paulo.
Printes, R. C., Costa, C. G. and Strier, K. B. 1996. Pos-
sible predation on two infant muriquis, Brachyteles
arachnoides, at the Estacao Biol6gica de Caratinga,
Minas Gerais, Brasil. Neotropical Primates 4(3):85-86.
Rfmoli, J. 1994. Estrat6gias de Forrageamento de um
Grupo de Muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides, Primates,
Cebidae) da Estacao Biol6gica de Caratinga-M.G.
Master's thesis, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo.
Strier, K. B. 1986. The Behavior and Ecology of the Woolly
Spider Monkey, or Muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides,
E. Geoffroy 1806). Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University,
Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Strier, K. B. 1992. Faces in the Forest: The Endangered
Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil. Oxford University Press,
New York.
Strier, K. B. 1996. Viability analyses of an isolated popu-
lation of muriqui monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides):
implications for primate conservation and demography.
Primate Conservation 14-15 (1993-1994):43-52.
Strier, K. B. and Fonseca, G. A. B. In press. The endan-
gered muriquis of Brazil's Atlantic forest. Primate Con-
servation (17).
Valle, C. M., Santos, I. B., Alves, M. C. and Pinto, C. A.
1984. Algumas observaq6es preliminares sobre o
comportamento do mono (Brachyteles arachnoides) em
ambiente natural (Fazenda Montes Claros, municfpio
de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil). In: A Primatologia
no Brasil, M. T. de Mello (ed.), pp.271-283. Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.

Page 9

Callithrix geoffroyi occurs in the south of the state of Ba-
hia, almost the entire state of Espfrito Santo, and east of
the Serra do Espinhago in the state of Minas Gerais (Vivo,
1991). Rylands et al. (1995), using the Mace-Lande sys-
tem (see IUCN 1994 for further explanations), recently
considered this species threatened in the category "Vul-
nerable". Another species occurring in Minas Gerais is
Callithrix penicillata, which is known to hybridize with
C. geoffroyi. C. penicillata has a very wide geographical
distribution, occurring in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais,
Goids, and adjacent areas of Maranhao and Sao Paulo (De
Vivo, 1991). These two species occur in contact in south-
eastern Minas Gerais, and hybrids were reported at the
Peti Development and Environmental Research Reserve
(Rylands and Costa, 1988) and the Serra da Piedade (I. B.
Santos and C. M. C. Valle, pers. comm.). Here, we report
on hybridization between these two species at new locali-
ties, with information on group composition, and suggest
some possible reasons for this phenomenon.
These observations were made during a faunal survey at
the Guilman-Amorim Private Reserve. A hydroelectric
dam, under the supervision of Ecodinimica Ltd., will be
established in this area. Belgo Mineira S.A., one of the
most important steel companies in Brazil, is the owner of
this land, composed of small fragments and areas of gal-
lery forest isolated by an extensive Eucalyptus plantation.
During February and April 1996, we conducted a survey
in this area using "play back" recordings of marmoset
vocalizations. We identified five groups of marmosets
along the C6rrego Machado, one of the tributaries of the
Rio Piracicaba, in the municipality of Antonio Dias (Fig-
ure 1). In three of these five groups we observed at least
one hybrid (an individual with characteristics of the two
species). The pelage characteristics of these individuals
are similar to C. geoffroyi, although they have a conspicu-
ous white spot on the median forehead, and the rest of the
face is grayish-white. Other members of the groups showed
pelage characteristics of C. geoffroyi individuals follow-
ing the description of Hershkovitz (1997) and De Vivo
These groups were found in gallery forests and forest frag-
ments, dense in lianas, characteristic of secondary veg-
etation. The members of the groups were eating gums of
angico (Anadenanthera peregrina), arranha-gato (Acacia
paniculata), inga (Inga sp.), Jacar6 (Piptadenia
gonoacantha) and an unidentified species of Sapindaceae;
all abundant at the site.
The original distribution of these species might be lim-
ited by the Serra do Espinhago. Nevertheless, in the south,
C. penicillata seems to be entering the areas along the
Rio Piracicaba and its tributaries, where it meets C.

Page 10

I I I,-,-- -, -.I "I I ".0I-.-:I

o o
DF MinasGer o ,

0 -0

SP .Legend
MS --" &
S J *0 Occurence of hybrids
S- -~ .i C thrixgeofhyl
PR i" '0 CaHithrixpencillata
-[ -I .I .1 -I 1 "1
Figure 1. Geographical distribution of C. geoffroyi and C. penicillata and localities where hybrids were observed
(black circles).

geoffroyi, resulting in hybrids. This area was devastated
early in this century (see Fonseca, 1985), and the hybrid-
ization of these two species is probably a consequence of
habitat destruction. According to Coimbra-Filho et al.
(1993), natural cases of hybridization between Callithrix
species are sporadic but hybrid zones are to be expected at
the limits of the Atlantic forest (domain of C. geoffroyi)
and the Cerrado (domain of C. penicillata) in southeast-
ern Minas Gerais. The Serra da Piedade and the munici-
pality of Santa Barbara, where hybrids between these two
species have been recorded, are also characterized by habi-
tat disturbance (widespread forest cutting). More surveys
are required in the contact zones between these species
(transition between Atlantic forest and Cerrado) in order
to establish their extent, and the possibility that the rea-
son for the occurrence of hybrids lies in the range expan-
sion of C. penicillata resulting from forest destruction.
Acknowledgments: We thank S. L. Mendes and L. V. Silva,
for their help with "playback" recordings and the identifi-
cation of the plant species, respectively. Our thanks also
for support from the US Fish and Wildlife Service through
the postgraduate course in Ecology, Conservation and
Wildlife Management (ECMVS), Instituto de Ciencias
Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo
Marcelo Passamani, Departamento de Ecologia e
Recursos Naturais, CEG, Universidade Federal do Espirito
Santo, Avenida Fernando Ferrari s/n., 29055-090, Vitdria,
Espirito Santo, Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar, Ricardo B.
Machado, Departamento de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 04355,
Universidade de Brasilia, Asa Norte, 70919-970 Brasilia,
D. F., and E. Figueiredo, Ecodinamica Consultores

Associados. Rua Monte Silo 167, 30240-050 Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.


Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands, A. B.
1993. Experimental multiple hybridism and natural hy-
brids among Callithrix species from eastern Brazil. In:
Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour and
Ecology, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.95-120. Oxford Uni-
versity Press, Oxford.
Fonseca, G. A. B. 1985. The vanishing Brazilian Atlantic
Forest. Biol. Conserv. 34:17-34.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini) with an Introduction to Primates, Vol.1.
Chicago University Press, Chicago.
Rylands, A. B. and Costa, C. M. R. 1988. Observaq6es
preliminares sobre as populag6es de Callithrix geoffroyi
(Humboldt, 1912) na Estaqio de Pesquisa e
Desenvolvimento Ambiental de PETI-MG. Unpubl. re-
port, Companhia Energ6tica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG),
Belo Horizonte.
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodrfguez-Luna,
E. 1995. A species list for the New World primates: Dis-
tribution by country, endemism, and conservation status
according to the Mace-Lande system. Neotropical Pri-
mates 3 (suppl.): 113-160.
IUCN, 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. The World Con-
servation Union (IUCN), Species Survival Commission
(SSC), Gland.
De Vivo, M. 1991. Taxonomia de Callithrix Erxleben 1777
(Callitrichidae, Primates). Fundaqao Biodiversitas, Belo

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997 Page 11


On 30 May, 1996, at approximately 07:00 hrs, we ob-
served a pair of Callicebus cupreus discolor foraging while
perched on the axil of a Euterpes edulis palm in the
Sucusari Tributary, off the north bank of the Rio Napo
(315'S; 73005'W Fig. 1). The subspecies was easily
discernible by the thick, continuous, white eyebrows. As
we approached closer the pair fled into the forest followed
by three other individuals, at least two of which appeared
to be subadult based on their smaller size. There were five
people in our party, all of whom saw the monkeys: LPV,
DMB, Gaspar Pistango, J. Shannette, and B. Weinberg.
Other naturalists working in the area indicated later that
they had also seen C. c. discolor in the region (Angel
Ocmin-Petit and Roldan Hidalgo-Pezo, pers. comm.).
Aquino and Encarnaci6n (1994) indicated that this sub-
species occurs south and west of the Rio Napo and west of
the Rfo Ucayali. East of the Ucayali, this species is re-
placed by C. caligatus in the northern portion of its range
and by C. cupreus cupreus in the middle and southern
portion of its range. Along the Napo C. c. discolor is sym-
patric with C. torquatus as far as the Rio Nanay. The Nanay
marks the southern distributional limit of C. torquatus.
Our observations suggest that C. c. discolor is also sym-
patric with C. torquatus in at least some regions north of
the Napo. The fact that we saw sub-adults within the fam-
ily group suggests that C. c. discolor is breeding north of
the Napo and suggests it may be widespread between the
Rfos Napo and Putumayo, on the Colombian border. We

would appreciate hearing from others who have also en-
countered this subspecies north of the Rfo Napo.
Acknowledgments: We are indebted to CONEPAC and
INRENA for permission to work in the region, and grate-
ful to Peter Jenson of Explorama, Inc. and Charlie Strader
of Explorations, Inc. for their logistic and financial sup-
port. Our thanks also to Thomas Lacher and Anthony
Rylands for commenting on the text.
Daniel M. Brooks, Department of Wildilife and Fisher-
ies Sciences, Texas A&M University. Address for corre-
spondence: c/o Ecotropix, 1537 Marshall, Suite #1,
Houston, Texas 77006, USA, and Lucio Pando-Vasquez,
Explorama, Box 446, Iquitos, Peru.

Aquino R. and F. Encarnaci6n. 1994. Primates of Peru /
Los Primates del Perd. Primate Report (40): 1-127.


It is with great sadness that we report on the death of
Professor Philip Hershkovitz, Emeritus Curator of Mam-
mals at the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, on
15 February, 1997. Professor Hershkovitz was one of the
most distinguished mammalogists of this century. His ex-
pertise and research extended to all New World mammals,
including notably rodents and marsupials, but his contri-
butions to New World Primatology have been enormous.
The current taxonomies of the majority of the genera and
our knowledge of their distributions are a result of his
numerous encyclopedic works, and no one can doubt that
he has been, and will be for many years to come, the in-
spiration and basis for countless studies of platyrrhines,
underpinning the great increase in our knowledge of their
morphology, taxonomy, distributions, phylogeny, ecology,
behavior and conservation.


In September 1996, Silke S. Singer completed a Diploma
Thesis at the German Primate Center (DPZ), G6ttingen,
on handedness in Callithrix, Saguinus and Leontopithecus.
The research was supervised at the University of
Regensburg by Prof. Dr. M. Vater and at the DPZ by Dr.
M.H. Schwibbe and Dr. J. U. Ganzhorn. It was supported
by the German Primate Center, the University of
Regensburg and the Zoological Garden Magdeburg. The
following is a summary of the thesis.
Handedness in non-human primates is a disputed and little
understood phenomenon. The purpose of the present study
was to investigate hand-use in 45 individuals of nine spe-

Figure 1. Location of the sighting ofCallicebuscupleusdicolorin northern
Peru. Saded area indicates geographic distribution according to Aquino an
Encarnacion (1994).

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997

Page 11

Page 12

cies and three genera of the Callitrichidae: Callithrix,
Saguinus and Leontopithecus. Based on the theory of the
postural origin of handedness by Macneilage et al. (1987,
Behav. Brain Sci. 10(2): 247-63) and on the concept of
handedness and manual specialization by Fagot and
Vauclair (1991, Psychol. Bull. 109: 76-89) five experi-
ments were carried out, which differed with regard to sen-
sory modality, postural requirements and task demands.
All individuals exhibit hand preferences, which are largely
consistent over different types of hand movements as well
as over different tasks. Callithrix and Leontopithecus dif-
fer with respect to the preferred hand. Leontopithecus
shows a greater proportion of right hand preferences,
whereas Callithrix rather prefers the left hand. Saguinus
is intermediate between these two genera, with slightly
more individuals being right-preferent. Following the
theory of Macneilage et al. (1987), the differences in hand
preference between the three genera can best be explained
through distinct postural habits and foraging strategies,
characterizing the species in question. Sex and age influ-
ence hand preferences. Leontopithecus females show a
greater preference for the right hand than do males. This
sex difference is due to the fact, that nonadult males actu-
ally favor the left hand. The high incidence of left hand
preferences in nonadult Leontopithecus males agrees with
Geschwind and Galburda's testosterone-hypothesis (1987,
Cerebral Lateralizations: Biological Mechanisms, Asso-

Left Right



i_ I ___ I Leo" topit"ecus
m 20 10 0 10 20 30i
Individual preferences for hand (Frideman's Q)
Hand _____Mouth

. ........ a..... ithrix


S : __ Leontop thecus
40 30 20 1 01 10 21 30 40
Individual preferences for hand or mouth (Frideman's Q)
L an Mot

ciations and Pathology, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massa-
chusetts). When feeding on freely accessible non-mobile
food items, most individuals show a clear preference pick-
ing up either with the mouth or with one hand. Callithrix
take objects predominantly with the mouth, Leontopithecus
prefers the hand and Saguinus favors neither mouth nor
hand. These genera differences in mouth-hand-use can be
linked to genera differences in manipulative propensities
and supporting functions of the callitrichids' hand. The
preference for hand or mouth is also influenced by sex
and age. In Leontopithecus there is a higher proportion of
mouth preferences among males and nonadults than
among females and adults, respectively. Sex-specific hor-
monal influences may account for the effects of sex and
age on mouth-hand-preference in male and female lion
tamarins. The results of this study suggest that the evolu-
tion of handedness in marmosets and tamarins corresponds
with phylogenetic and ontogenetic models of lateraliza-
tion in primates and strengthen the significance of etho-
ecological factors influencing the expression of handed-
ness in different primate species.
Silke S. Singer and M. H. Schwibbe, Abteilung EDV
und Kommunikation, Deutsches Primatenzentrum,
Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 G6ttingen, Germany.


Singer, S. S. 1996. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur
Haendigkeit bei Marmosetten und Tamarinen
(Platyrrhini: Callitrichidae). Diplomarbeit, Universitit
Regensburg, Regensburg.


Sifn Waters, EEP Co-ordinator for the White-faced Saki,
has compiled the first studbook for the European popula-
tions of this species, the only member of the genus held in
captivity in any numbers. Although Pithecia pithecia have
been kept and bred since the mid-seventies, information
on their husbandry is sparse, and the studbook, therefore,
includes the results of a husbandry survey of 29 collec-
tions carried out by Waters in 1989. A series of Tables
provides information on the dimensions, substrates and
furnishing of enclosures, mixed-species housing (in nine
collections), and diets (vegetables, fruits, nuts and seeds,
and dietary additions and supplements). The complete
husbandry survey is available on request from the address
below. Waters plans to undertake a second similar survey
of the European collections in order to formulate husbandry
guidelines for the species.
The EEP (European Endangered Species Programme) for
this species was begun in 1994, and complements a simi-
lar breeding program in the United States, currently co-
ordinated at the Roger Williams Park Zoo, Rhode Island,
by Tracy Frampton (see Vecchio and Miller, 1993; Shoe-
maker, 1995). The Species Committee has nine members:

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997 Page 13

Jaap Govers (Amsterdam), Warner Jens (Apenheul), David
Armitage (Banham), Bengst Holst (Copenhagen), Miranda
Stevenson (Edinburgh), Paul Vogt (Krefeld), Douglas
Richardson (London), Stewart Muir (Shaldon Wildlife
Trust) and Istvan Egyhazi (Szeged).
The studbook covering just the European region, is cur-
rent up to 31 December 1995, and includes a full histori-
cal listing of the captive animals. At this date, the captive
population in Europe was 120 (56.61.3), a small increase
of six animals from the 1994 survey, in 26 institutions.
Adult mortality was considered high in 1995, 11 deaths
(2.8.1), four of which were founders originally imported
in the early 1980's. There were 19 births (10.8.1) and
only 2 (1.1) died. Waters concludes that the population is
increasing, but there are still more potential holders than
there are animals. Most holders have increased the num-
bers maintained in the family groups, which Waters
(1995a) argues is good husbandry practice because male
and female offspring have been observed helping to raise
(carrying) younger siblings, and thus gain important breed-
ing experience.
The number of living founders is 21, and, considering the
entire founder population, there are a number which are
over-represented, and although this signifies a small
amount of inbreeding, zoos are understandably unwilling
to break up stable family groups. The age pyramid was
found to be healthy. The oldest wild caught animals were
estimated to be 23 years old, the oldest captive bred 21
years old. A Table provides information on rank order
according to genetic importance and sex. The mean kin-
ship for the population is 0.0433, gene diversity 0.9567,
and founder genome equivalents, 11.5460. Females have
bred successfully at the age of 18-20 years.
The recommendations that arise from the studbook con-
template the difficulty of obtaining unrelated mates for
some of the collections, in which case breeding needs to
be curbed, and the possibilities are discussed of contra-
ceptive programmes in certain cases. Recommendations
are also made concerning the relocation of animals within
the European population.
Siin S. Waters, Scientific Officer, Bristol Zoo Gardens,
Clifton, Bristol BS8 3HA, England, UK.

Shoemaker, A. 1995. Captive management programs for
New World primates. Neotropical Primates 3(1): 15-
Vecchio, A. and Miller A. 1993. 1993 North American
Regional Studbook Pithecia pithecia. Roger Williams
Park Zoo, Providence.
Waters, S. S. 1995a. A review of social parameters which
influence breeding in white-faced saki (Pithecia pithecia)
in captivity. Int. Zoo Yb. 22: 124-127.
Waters, S. S. 1995b. European Studbook for the White-
faced Saki (Pithecia pithecia), No.1. 65pp. Bristol Zoo
Gardens, Bristol.


The first edition of the North American Regional Stud-
book for Ateles geoffroyi, organized and compiled by
Kathryn Pingry, has been published by the Chicago Zoo-
logical Society, Brookfield Zoo. Information and data are
current up to December 1995. At that time there were 388
(138.227.23) A. geoffroyi in 74 North American institu-
tions. The studbook includes a list of addresses of the par-
ticipating institutions, analyses of the population size of
wild caught, captive born, and animals of unknown ori-
gin, and the total population, an analysis of the age struc-
ture and age-specific survivorship, Life-Tables for males
and females, age-specific fertility for males and females,
and analyses of the genetic structure of the population and
the assumed and known founders, along with a full his-
toric listing for North America from 1995.
According to the studbook, the New World Primate Re-
gional Collection Plan for North America has identified
the management of a nucleus population of A. geoffroyi
by reducing the numbers to approximately 125-150 ani-
mals, while preserving as much genetic diversity as pos-
sible. Karyotypes will be obtained for all animals recom-
mended for breeding, and DNA analyses run on all wild-
caught animals. In the future it is hoped that Central
American Zoos will be included in this studbook. Anyone
wanting a copy of the studbook or further information can
contact Kathryn Pingry at the address below. Central
American Zoos and institutions holding Ateles geoffroyi
are encouraged to enter into contact.
Kathryn Pingry, Population Manager Ateles geoffroyi,
Chicago Zoological Society, 3300 Golf Road, Brookfield,
IL 60513, USA, Tel: 708 485 0263 x 408, Fax: 708 485

Pingry, K. 1996. Ateles geoffroyi Central American Spi-
der Monkey. Issue 1. June 1996. Chicago Zoological
Society, Brookfield. 179pp. Data current through 31
December 1995.

Jonathan D. Ballou of the National Zoo, Washington,
D.C., published the 1995 studbook for Leontopithecus
rosalia in November 1996. The studbook includes infor-
mation on animal identities, sex, ownership, and genetic
relationships. In addition, data are presented on juvenile's
parental care experience, proven breeders, hand rearing
and evidence for diaphragmatic hernias or other medical
conditions. Information (unpublished) concerning causes
of death is maintained by the studbook keeper. The 1995
studbook contains a list of all specimens alive on 31 De-

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

Page 13

Page 14

cember 1995, sorted by holding institution, and listings
of all births, deaths and transactions which occurred dur-
ing 1995. The number of living animals was 485, the %
growth rate since 1994 was zero, the number of partici-
pating institutions 143, the number of founders was 44
with seven still alive, the number of founder genome
equivalents was 13.87, the expected heterozygosity re-
tained was calculated at 96.4%, and average mean kin-
ship was 0.0360.
Other reports available through the studbook keeper in-
clude the Husbandry Protocol (in English and Portuguese)
and a lion tamarin bibliography. Information regarding
the Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Program can now
be obtained on the World Wide Web at: http://www.si.edu/
glt. Additional information on the captive population or
the Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Program can be
obtained by contacting the studbook keeper directly.
The management and distribution of the captive golden
lion tamarin population is administered by an interna-
tionally elected Management Committee with 19 mem-
bers, chaired by Devra G. Kleiman (acting chair, Jonathan
D. Ballou). Zoos holding golden lion tamarins are asked
to sign and adhere to the Cooperative Research and Man-
agement Agreement, a series of management protocols
developed by the committee. Zoos wishing to join the
Conservation Program as holders of breeding or non-breed-
ing golden lion tamarins must sign the agreement and be
approved by the Management Committee. The golden lion
tamarin is also a designated species in the Species Sur-
vival Plan (SSP) program of the American Zoo and
Aquarium Association (AZA). Institutions that wish to
pursue obtaining golden lion tamarins should contact
Jonathan Ballou, address below.
Jonathan D. Ballou, Studbook Keeper Golden Lion
Tamarin, Department of Zoological Research, National
Zoological Park, Washington, D. C. 20008, USA, Tel: 202
673 4815, Fax: 202 673 4686.


Ballou, J. D. 1996. 1995 International Studbook Golden
Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia. National Zoologi-
cal Park, Washington, D. C. (update through 31st De-
cember 1995).


There is currently a widespread and enormous expendi-
ture of foreign aid for development and conservation in
the tropics. In addition to the World Bank and the Euro-
pean Community, aid is particularly prominent from Ja-
pan, the United States of Amerca, the United Kingdom,
France, Germany, Finland, Sweden, Norway, and the Neth-
Although more time, effort, and money are being expended

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997

for conservation in the tropics than ever before, the loss of
natural resources and areas of conservation value is oc-
curring at an unprecedented rate. Numerous proximate
variables contribute to this increasing loss, but ultimately
the problem revolves around the issue of ever increasing
rates of consumption due to a combination of expanding
human populations in most tropical countries, and to ex-
cessive consumption tied to policies encouraging economic
growth in the so-called developed nations.
In the short and medium term, however, much of the loss
in the conservation race can be attributed to inappropriate
foreign aid development programs and projects. These for-
eign aid efforts either threaten conservation areas directly,
or are ineffective in their attempts at conservation. This
ineffectiveness is often due to excessive administrative
costs, poor planning, contracting inappropriate advisors,
and lack of accountability in terms of performance. Un-
derlying these flaws is the practice by government aid
agencies of subcontractiong the administration and imple-
mentation of their bilateral aid grants to commercial com-
panies and NGOs who, all too often, have little or no ex-
perience in, or deep-seated concern for the countries and
problems they are dealing with. In essence, these are some
of the problems resulting from collaboration between gov-
ernment bureaucracies, commercial enterprises, and con-
sulting firms.
Many of us who have participated in conservation in the
tropics over the past 25 years feel that it is time for a
change. Specifically, we feel that government aid agen-
cies have an obligation to both the donor constituency (the
tax payers) and the recipient nations to use foreign aid
grants in the most effective manner possible.
Biologists working in the tropics are often in a unique
position to observe and collect information on foreign aid
programs and projects that influence natural resources and
conservation areas. How can this information be used ef-
fectively to bring about positive change? There is no simple
formula that will apply to all cases. However, once the
facts are assembled and alternative plans for more effec-
tive conservation projects are developed, a lobbying cam-
paign can be implemented. This depends on effective team-
work between field workers and conservation lobbyists who
have access to the decision makers and the media.
We are in the early stages of developing a coalition be-
tween field biologists working in the tropics and Friends
of the Earth (USA), an NGO based in Washington, D.C.
that specializes in lobbying for conservation, and has had
long experience in influencing domestic and foreign gov-
ernment expenditures.
One of our first objectives is to develop a network of indi-
viduals who are prepared to participate in the resolution
of problems involving foreign aid and conservation. We
are seeking the collaboration of individuals who are in a
position to collect information on specific cases of con-
servation and foreign aid. Initially we will focus our at-
tention on problems of tropical forest conservation. The

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997

immediate goal is to identify and collect information on
projects that influence the conservation status of specific
Although most of our efforts will concentrate on projects
that either threaten these forests or represent an inappro-
priate or ineffective approach to conservation, we will also
highlight projects that are implementing conservation in
an effective and appropriate manner. Understanding the
basis of successful conservation projects is as important
as identifying and describing the threats and failures.
The kinds of projects we will focus on include a wide range
of activities, such as so-called development projects that
will destroy tropical forests outright, as well as conserva-
tion projects that are inappropriate or ineffective. The spe-
cific cases selected for action will depend on the type and
amount of information collected by ourselves and our col-
leagues while in the field. Once sufficient information is
collected on a specific project, it will be presented as a
case study to FoE in Washington, D.C. Friends of the Earth
is committed to examining these reports to determine what
the potential and capacity for action are. Actions might
include lobbying and publicity efforts that aim to improve
the conservation status of the particular area in question,
obtaining congressional oversight hearings, etc. The fol-
lowing is a checklist of the types of information needed
for each case study.
1) Present status of area
physical description: size, altitude, terrain, etc.
biological attributes
legal status and future plans; administrative agency
current conservation activities
regional setting, i.e., general status of surrounding
2) Details of project being evaluated
objectives and activities of project
project administration and managers
monitoring plans and current status
3) Financial details of project
total budget and itemized allocations
donors (sources of funding)
financial administrators
overhead costs and an evaluation of effectiveness
4) Details of the problems
direct conflict of interest
inappropriate or ineffective use of funds
sources of problem: the perpetrators and beneficia-
5) Sources of information, except where confidential-
ity is imperative. Includes documents (written con-
tracts, proposals, reports, letters, newspaper articles,
etc.), observations, interviews, photographs, etc.
6) Names and addresses of potential allies with simi-
lar concerns
7) Recommendations for resolution of problems

Page 15

detailed suggestions for project improvement
details of agencies or other contacts that might be
able to influence the project
Throughout the study of forest conservation problems, the
observer must continually think in terms of what infor-
mation is needed to make a compelling case for action to
remedy the problem. The more corrobarative information,
the better. Detailed notes on all information and sources,
as well as copies of relevant documents will help to build
a convincing case.
If you are able to prepare a case study, can contribute to
the development of such a study, or are simply interested
in the problem, please contact Carrie Oren. Please include
your e-mail address and areas of interest (professional,
geographic, specific projects).
Carrie Oren, Friends of the Earth, Duke/Triangle Initia-
tive, PO Box 3264, Durham, NC 27715-3264, USA, Tel:
(919) 419-8418; e-mail: 76601.1273@compuserve.com,
and Thomas T. Struhsaker, Department of Biological
Anthropology and Anatomy, Duke University, Box 90383,
Durham, NC 27708-0383, USA, Tel: (919) 490-6286, Fax:
(919) 490-5394, e-mail: tomstruh@acpub.duke.edu.


S In 1996, the Ford Motor Company, in part-
nership with Conservation International,
established the "The Ford Motor Company
SBrazilian Conservation Awards", a scheme
which will identify and support a wide
CONSERVATION range of successful conservation and en-
INTERNATIONAL vironmental initiatives, empower new
leaders, and reward lifetime achievements in biodiversity
conservation and sustainable use in Brazil. The concept
draws on the successful experience of the Henry Ford
European Conservation Awards, founded in 1984, with
positive repercussions among the political, business and
cultural elite, as well as achieving widespread media at-
tention. This initiative will fill a vacant niche in the country
and is expected, within just a few years, to generate a high
level of interest from the media and the public in general.
The association with Conservation International, active
in 23 countries, and having in Brazil one of its largest
programs, will provide the awards with the necessary cred-
ibility, furthering Ford's commitment to the preservation
of the country's wealth of natural resources.
The award categories were conceived to meet the need to
support both individuals as well as organizations and com-
munity groups in the field of environmental conservation.
Awards will be presented on a yearly basis, each compris-
ing a cash sum of US$10,000 and an accompanying medal.
The categories are: 1) Lifetime Achievement Award for
individuals who have committed their lives to promoting
environmental and biodiversity conservation and who

Page 16

serve as an example to younger generations; 2) Young
Conservationist Award for leaders up to the age of 40 who
have already achieved some level of recognition in the
national arena, and for whom the award can help in fur-
thering their cause; 3) Conservation Enterprise Award for
individuals, organizations or community groups respon-
sible for outstanding initiatives in conservation, particu-
larly in the design and implementation of businesses and
other strategies that promote job creation, alleviation of
poverty and the sustainable use of biological resources; 4)
Conservation Science Award for individuals, organizations
or research groups that have excelled in the area of con-
servation science and technology, especially in the devel-
opment of low-cost tools that can be widely used through-
out Brazil and other developing nations; and 5) Conser-
vation Achievement of the Year Award for organizations
or community groups, in some cases individuals, respon-
sible for the most outstanding and innovative achievement
in the area of environmental and biodiversity conserva-
tion during the year preceding the award, emphasizing
particularly those that can be replicated throughout Bra-
The award scheme was officially launched on the occa-
sion of the Conservation International annual board meet-
ing held on the Island of Comandatuba, near Ilh6us, south-
ern Bahia, on 21 February 1997, when the first Lifetime
Achievement Award (1997) was presented. The award had
been earmarked specifically for those who, during decades,
had fought for the conservation of the Brazilian Atlantic
forest. Four major figures in the Brazilian conservation
arena were contemplated: Jose Pedro de Oliveira Costa,
architect with a doctorate in geography, ex-Secretary of
the Environment for the state of Sao Paulo, the moving-
force behind the creation of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere
Reserve, and one of the leading figures in the defense the
Atlantic forest; Admiral Ibsen de Gusmdo Camara, pale-
ontologist and an expert in marine mammals, ex-Presi-
dent of Brazil's oldest conservation NGO, the Brazilian
Foundation for the Conservation of Nature in Rio de
Janeiro, currently Director and President of the Brazilian
Society for Environmental Protection (SOBRAPA), and
vice-president of SOS Mata Atlantica, Sao Paulo, partici-
pated actively in the establishment of parks in the Brazil-
ian Amazon in the 1970s and 80's, in the development of
a National system for protected areas (SNUC), and nota-
bly in the protection and management of the Superagtii
National Park, as Chair of the International Committee
for the recently discovered black-faced lion tamarin; Cdlio
Murilo de Carvalho Valle, biologist, ex-Professor of the
Federal University of Minas Gerais and of numerous lead-
ing Brazilian conservationists and biologists, the moving-
force behind the creation of the Caratinga Biological Sta-
tion, now one of the most important protected areas for
the muriqui, ex-director of Parks and Wildlife at the Bra-
zilian Institute of the Environment (Ibama) during which
time numerous significant parks and reserves were cre-
ated and consolidated, and currently Director of the Minas
Gerais State Forestry Institute (IEF); and Adelmar Faria

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997

Coimbra-Filho, a renowned scientist and conservation-
ist, member of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, one of
the first to draw attention to the plight of the Atlantic
forest and its fauna and flora, and a totally dedicated cam-
paigner throughout his life, internationally famous most
of all for his pioneer work on the behavior, ecology, con-
servation and breeding of lion tamarins and other Atlan-
tic forest primates, for the creation of the Pogo das Antas
and Una Biological Reserves, for his rediscovery of the
black lion tamarin resulting in the protection of its last
stronghold, the Morro do Diabo State Park, and for the
creation of the internationally-recognized center for breed-
ing and research on callitrichids and other threatened
Brazilian primates the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center
(CPRJ/FEEMA), Rio de Janeiro.
It is with great pleasure that we report that a jury, com-
posed of major figures in conservation, academia, gov-
ernment, business and the press, elected Adelmar F.
Coimbra-Filho as the first recipient of the Henry Ford
Environmental Conservation Lifetime Achievement
Award for Brazil, for his pioneer and lifelong dedication
to the conservation of the Atlantic forest.
Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Director, Conservation Inter-
national do Brasil, Avenida Antonio Abrahio Caram 820/
302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil.


FUNBIO 6 um fundo voltado para aportar
recursos a projetos de conservacao e uso
sustentavel da biodiversidade no Brasil. Tem
sua origem associada a uma doagqo de
recursos do Fundo para o Meio Ambiente Mundial (Glo-
bal Environment Facility) para serem administrados na
Fundaqio Getulio Vargas (FGV), Rio de Janeiro, visando
a constituiglo de um mecanismo de fomento eficiente,
transparent e de long prazo, capaz de atrair o setor
privado como parceiro para o alcance de seus objetivos. A
decisAo de instalar o FUNBIO em uma fundaaio de direito
privado, sem fins lucrativos, deveu-se A necessidade de se
dispor de uma estrutura administrative flexfvel, capaz de
atuar de maneira independent, transparent e sustentivel.
Essas caracteristicas visam a viabilizar a tarefa de atrair o
setor privado para investimento conjunto na conservagao
e no uso sustentivel da biodiversidade national.
0 FUNBIO compoe-se de um Conselho Deliberativo e uma
Secretaria Executiva. Ao Conselho Deliberativo cabe,
autonomamente, as decisoes e a definiqAo de suas polfticas
gerais e prioridades. 0 Conselho 6 formado por liderangas
provenientes de diferentes segments envolvidos na
questao da biodiversidade no Brasil, visando a garantir
representatividade e transparencia a suas aqges. i
auxiliado, no exercfcio de suas atribuig0es, pela Secretaria
Executive, A qual podem ser delegadas as principals
atividades de coordenaqao, gerencia e execugqo. A
Secretaria Executiva 6 dirigida pelo Diretor Executivo,

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997 Page 17

responsavel por coordenar o funcionamento cotidiano do
Fundo, seguindo a orientagao do Conselho Deliberativo.
O Conselho Deliberativo 6 constitufdo por 16 individuos
(aldm dos respectivos suplentes), representando
informalmente os interesses: da Fundagco Getulio Vargas
(2); do Ministdrio do Meio Ambiente, dos Recursos.
Hfdricos e da Amaz6nia Legal (2); de organizac6es nao-
governamentais sem fins lucrativos (4); de empresas
privadas (4); e de instituigfes academicas (4).
Considerag6es com respeito a representaqao geogrifica e
de genero slo levadas em conta na composiqao do
Conselho, embora a principal enfase seja dada A capacidade
de os individuos contribufrem significativamente para os
objetivos do FUNBIO. Os membros iniciais do Conselho
Deliberativo foram selecionados pelo MMA e pela FGV,
ap6s consultas a diferentes stores representados (ONG's,
academicos, empresdrios).
Para intensificar sua participaqao na direNAo do Fundo, o
Conselho Deliberativo organizou-se em Comiss6es. Fo-
ram formadas as Comissoes de Planejamento e Estrat6gia,
Fomento, Acompanhamento e Avaliaqao de Projetos,
Captaqao de Recursos e Finanqas.
Atualmente o Conselho Deliberativo do FUNBIO 6
presidido por Roberto Konder Bornhausen, Presidente do
Conselho Administrativo do UNIBANCO, tendo como
vice-presidente Gustavo A. Bouchardet da Fonseca, Vice-
presidente da Conservation International. 0 Diretor
Executive do FUNBIO, responsdvel pela Secretaria
Executive, 6 Pedro W. LeitAo Filho. Arminda Campos 6
assessora responsavel pela Area de fomento do FUNBIO.
Cabe ao Conselho Deliberativo definir tanto as principals
linhas de atuagqo quanto As prioridades do FUNBIO. Essas
orientag6es sao expresses em editais de convocaqao de
projetos elaborados pela ComissAo de Fomento do
Conselho Deliberativo com apoio da Secretaria Executiva.
Serao publicados periodicamente editais de convocaqao
de projetos voltados para a conservacao e o uso sustentavel
da biodiversidade national.
Os editais especificarao a dotaqao global de recursos
disponiveis para cada chamada e, quando possfvel e
desejAvel, o valor mfnimo e miximo admitido para cada
projeto. 0 FUNBIO nao estard obrigado a comprometer
todos ou nenhum dos recursos disponiveis, se os projetos
apresentados nao forem considerados adequados ou
elegfveis. Os editais serao anunciados em jornais
brasileiros de maior circulagao national e regional; por
mailing list; e nas conferencias e redes voltadas para o
meio-ambiente, al6m de na homepage do pr6prio FUNBIO.
Quem pode pedir apoio ao FUNBIO? Em principio,
podem receber apoio do FUNBIO:
empresas e entidades pdblicas federals, estaduais e
organizag6es privadas, corn ou sem fins lucrativos
(haverd crit6rios diferenciados para organizacoes corn
fins lucrativos)

* cooperatives e associaqoes legalmente constituidas;
* cons6rcio entire empresas do setor pdblico e do setor
No entanto, a cada edital, agents especificos poderao ser
considerados preferenciais para o seu desenvolvimento,
dependendo das caracteristicas das chamadas de projetos.
Nesse caso, tais preferencias serAo indicadas a cada
Que projetos podem ser apoiados? Em principio, o
FUNBIO pode apoiar projetos voltados para uma ou mais
das seguintes modalidades:
* a conservagao da biodiversidade, especialmente
iniciativas de long prazo de gestao da conservacao
da biodiversidade;
o uso sustentavel da biodiversidade associado a
atividades produtivas, envolvendo a participarlo da
comunidade local na concepqio e execulAo do projeto;
o desenvolvimento de pesquisa aplicada, cujos
resultados possam subsidiary a conservacao e o uso
sustentavel da biodiversidade;
anAlises ou estudos de polfticas e medidas de
conservagio A biodiversidade e de estimulo a seu uso
No entanto, a cada Edital, enfase e prioridades podem ser
atribufdas a uma ou a outra modalidade. Em outras
palavras, o FUNBIO nao tem o compromisso de convocar
projetos para todas essas modalidades a cada Edital.
0 Edital Inaugural 96-97 foi publicado em dezembro de
1996. Neste o FUNBIO convidou as instituig6es
interessadas a apresentarem carta-consulta para projetos
nas seguintes modalidades: Manejo Sustent6vel de
Florestas Naturais; Conservagao de Ecossistemas Naturais
em Propriedades Privadas; Manejo Sustentavel de Recursos
Pesqueiros; Agricultura e Biodiversidade; e Gestao de
Unidades de Conservagao. Maiores informa9qes sao
disponfveis no endereqo abaixo.
Pedro W. Leitio Filho, Diretor Executivo, Fundo
Brasileiro para a Biodiversidade FUNBIO, Fundacao
Getulio Vargas, Praia de Botafogo 184, Sala 101, 22253-
900 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, Tel/fax: (021)
536 9492.

Ecologia da Floresta AmazOnica, um curso intensive em
nfvel de p6s-graduagqo, sera realizado pela quinta vez nas
matas dmidas da Amaz8nia, pr6ximas a Manaus; 14 de
julho a 15 de agosto de 1997. O0 curso segue o model da
discipline de p6s-graduacgo ministrada pela Organizagio
para Estudos Tropicais (OET), "Biologia Tropical: uma
Abordagem Ecol6gica", que corn sua forte enfase na
problemAtica da biodiversidade tropical, al6m de ser um
grande sucesso como iniciagio A pesquisa de campo, ajudou
a catalisar o mundialmente reconhecido program de

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

Page 17

Page 18

conservagAo, em conjunto corn ecoturismo, atualmente
praticado na Costa Rica. "Ecologia da Floresta
Amaz6nica" sera oferecido pela OET urn cons6rcio de
55 instituiq6es norte-americanas e centro-americanas
promovendo cursos de campo em espanhol e em ingles
desde 1962 e os Programas de Ecologia da Universidade
Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP corn dezoito anos de
experi8ncia em cursos de campo no Brasil) e do Instituto
Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia (INPA). Estas
instituigces contain corn a ajuda das infra-estruturas do
INPA e do Projeto Dinamica Biol6gica de Fragmentos
Florestais (PDBFF), da Smithsonian Institution, que
administram estag6es e acampamentos de pesquisa na
Floresta Amaz6nica.
Objetivos: 0 curso tern como objetivos gerais prover os
seguintes t6picos: (1) a biodiversidade excepcional dos
organismos da Floresta Amaz6nica, (2) a heterogeneidade
de habitats dentro das florestas dmidas incluindo as de
terra firme, vArzea e igap6, (3) a gama de metodologias
empregadas para conduzir pesquisas ecol6gicas no
ambiente tropical dmido, e (4) a aplicacqo dos m6todos e
principios cientfficos em situacqes em que o conhecimento
prdvio e apoio logfstico sao mfnimos. Aldm disso, a
interagAo dos participants corn pesquisadores experiences
da regido e de outros centros internacionais promove, al6m
da contribuigao pedag6gica, sua integraqao em redes
cientificas internacionais e nacionais, e abre as
possibilidades de colaboracgo a long prazo durante suas
carreiras profissionais.
Organizafdo: 0 curso 6 realizado inteiramente no campo.
Possui pesquisas didrias, corn etapas de planejamento,
coleta e anAlise de dados, e apresentagAo vespertina dos
resultados. As noites sao aproveitadas para seminarios,
excursoes noturnas e a redagao de relat6rios cientificos.
Os alunos compartilham condigqes simples e rdsticas nas
bases principals do INPA (Reserva Ducke, Estaggo Ex-
perimental de Silvicultura Tropical, e os barcos) e do
PDBFF (os fragments florestais e a mata contfnua no km
41 da estrada ZF-3), onde interagem corn pesquisadores
renomados. 0 curso culmina corn um projeto individual
de pesquisa de oito dias em que cada aluno planeja e
implement um estudo sob a supervisAo do corpo docente.
Inscrifao: Candidatos ao curso de qualquer pafs devemrn
apresentar at6 1 de abril de 1997 (data de selo do correio)
os seguintes ftens: 1) Ficha de Prd-Inscriqao Padrdo
preenchida, 2) Carta de Exposicgo de Motivos,
descrevendo seus interesses e os motives para participar
da discipline, 3) Curriculo atualizado, 4) Hist6rico Esco-
lar de graduagAo (e p6s-graduaqio, se tiver), 5) c6pia do
Diploma do Curso de Graduaqio, 6) duas Cartas de
Recomendacgo de professors ou profissionais de sua Area
de interesse (uma deve ser do orientador de tese, se tiver),
7) esboqos curtos de dois projetos alternatives para
desenvolver num prazo de 8 dias (corn introdugao e
justificativa, hip6teses a serem avaliadas, metodologia,
referencias, e lista de materials necessarios, indicando
aqueles que podem ser fornecidos pelo pr6prio aluno).

Selegfo: 0 curso tern 20 vagas. Prefer8ncia 6 dada para
alunos corn pelo menos um ano de p6s-graduaqao em
ecologia ou numa area relacionada de trabalho nos
neotr6picos. Um comit6 de seleqlo formado por um dos
coordenadores e dois outros cientistas de outras instituicqes
visa maximizar a diversidade dos alunos tanto nos
interesses e disciplines quanto nos pauses e instituiq6es.
Os alunos aceitos poderio se matricular como alunos
especiais no Curso de P6s-GraduaqAo do INPA e receber 8
cr6ditos ou da UNICAMP e receber 5 creditos (= 225 horas
de atividades) academics. 0 curso serd realizado em
portugu8s, consequentemente os candidates de pauses de
linga espanhola precisam entender o portugues, mesmo
que falem espanhol. Esperamos vArias palestras dos
convidados em linguas estrangeiras, principalmente o
ingles e o espanhol.
Corpo Docente: Em 1977, os coordenadores slo Dra. Rita
Mesquita, pesquisadora em Ecologia Vegetal, e Dr. Carlos
Lima, pesquisador em Biologia AquAtica, ambos do INPA.
V6rios professors convidados participarAo por periods
Custo: 0 curso fornece alimentagco, redes de dormir,
alojamento e transport local enquanto no campo. 0 curso
tamb6m tenta providenciar a cada participate dos pauses
neotropicais uma passage area de ida e volta da cidade
da instituiqAo A qual o aluno estA vinculado at6 Manaus,
classes turfstica. Durante os deslocamentos entire
localidades, gastos corn alimentagao e demais despesas
sergo de responsabilidade de cada aluno. Cada participate
deve levar consigo ftens de uso pessoal, equipamentos e
bibliografia especializados referentes a sua pesquisa indi-
vidual e dinheiro para gastos pessoais (US$ 100,00 devem
ser suficientes). No caso de alunos matriculando-se para
crdditos, a UNICAMP fornece, mediante pagamento de
uma taxa nominal, um Hist6rico Escolar-Certificado ap6s
a conclusAo da discipline.
ColeVfes Bioldgicas: Durante a discipline, nao seri
permitida a coleta de material biol6gico para terceiros.
No caso de precisar coletar grupos especfficos para fins
de pesquisa, o aluno deve indicar o(s) de interesse e a
natureza da pesquisa na correspondencia de inscricgo. Em
qualquer caso, o aluno deve obter todas as autorizarqes
exigidas pelo IBAMA para as coletas pretendidas. Nas
reserves do INPA e do PDBFF 6 necessAria tamb6m a
permissao destas instituicqes.
Prazos: Existem prazos para a inscrigio e para a
divulgagio dos resultados da selegio do curso "Ecologia
da Floresta AmazOnica". As inscrig6es devem ser postadas
at6 o dia 1 de abril de 1997. As divulgagio do resultado
da selegAo ocorrerd atd o dia 15 de maio de 1996.
Enderefo para correspondencia: Dr. Claude Gascon,
PDBBF/INPA, CoordenaqAo de Pesquisas em Ecologia,
Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia (INPA),
Caixa Postal 478, 69011-970 Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.
Tel: (092) 642-1148, Fax: (092) 642-2050, e-mail:

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

Neotopial rimtes (1) Mach 997Page 19


Introdufao: Trabalhando corn 11 fragments perto de
Manaus, Brasil, o PDBFF comeqou em 1979 corn objetivo
de estudar os efeitos ecoldgicos da fragmentaiao do habi-
tat de floresta tropical contfnua. Complementando esses
estudos existem pesquisas relacionadas corn a biologia de
exting o, os efeitos de bordas de florestas, os processes de
regeneragao de florestas, e a gendtica de esp6cies tropicais
em relaqao a fragmentagao. Existe tamb6m, um program
de treinamento intensive de alunos de p6s-graduaqao e de
difusAo de informaq6es para a Area de conservagao tanto
dentro do Brasil como no cenArio international. Os
resultados da pesquisa term implicaq5es importantes para
o manejo de reserves de floresta que permanecem em Areas
desmatadas para a manutenqao da maior diversidade de
esp6cies possfvel e das funq6es ecol6gicas da floresta. Mais
informages sobre o funcionamento do ecossistema intacto
sAo obtidas atrav6s de comparag6es de floresta perturbada
corn areas de control nao perturbadas. 0 process de
fragmentacao de florestas tern, por definiqlo, criado
extensas bordas de florestas e grandes Areas de derrubadas,
pastagens e capoeiras. Muitas das pastagens ao redor das
reserves isoladas de floresta term sido abandonadas depois
de varios tratamentos que vdo de derrubada simples (semr
queima ou implantarao subsequent de pastagem) atd
derrubada corn uso contfnuo para gado, e a maioria dos
est~gios intermedidrios entire estes. Fortuitamente, isto temr
proporcionado uma excelente oportunidade para estudar
a regeneraqao das florestas.
Fragmentos Florestais: 0 entendimento do impact
relative dos processes de fragmentagao de florestas requer
como base de dados inventArios detalhados, conhecimento
da biologia de esp6cie, e um entendimento do ambiente
abi6tico existent dentro da floresta contfnua. A floresta
contfnua no local de estudo, localizado em quatro
diferentes fazendas ao norte de Manaus, 6 relativamente
nao-perturbada, contend grandes predadores como a onqa
(Pantera onca), o puma (Felis concolor), a arpia (Harpia)
e o gaviao (Morphnus guianensis). 0 desenho experi-
mental original do PDBFF foi de ter o maior ndmero de
replicatas de fragments de floresta de diferentes tamanhos
como fosse logisticamente possfvel. A seguinte tabela in-
dica o ndmero e os tamanhos de fragments isolados
originalmente planejados, aqueles que estao sendo
estudados nas condiq6es de pr6 e p6s-isolamento, e o
ndmero de fragments isolados na atualidade.
Reconhecendo a importancia da manipulagao experimen-
tal al6m daquela que 6 prevista pelo isolamento de uma

Tamanho do fragmento de floresta (ha.)
1 10 100 1000 (Controle)
#deFragmentos 8 9 5 2 1
Em estudo 8 8 5 2 1
Isolado 5 4 2 0 0

sdrie replicada de reserves de floresta, vdrias reserves (tres
de 10 ha e uma de 1 ha) tem sido designadas como
"experimentais". Esta nio 6 uma autorizacgo carte blanche
para remover ou introduzir organismos nas reserves, mas
implica que tais propostas serao consideradas e avaliadas
de acordo corn seus efeitos potenciais na pesquisa em
andamento nestas reserves.
Propostas: Propostas devem encaixar-se dentro de um dos
objetivos seguintes: 1) estudos dos efeitos da fragmentaqco
da floresta sobre esp6cies, comunidades, processes
ecol6gicos, interaq6es, micro-clima, recursos, ou estrutura
gendtica de esp6cies; 2) estudos sobre o process de
regeneraqao florestal; 3) estudos de grupos taxon6micos
pouco conhecido e/ou corn alta diversidade; 4) estudos de
ecologia tropical bAsica que pode servir para estudos
futures dos efeitos da fragmentagAo da floresta; 5) estudos
de recuperaqAo de Areas degradadas. Somente propostas
de pesquisadores qualificados (corn Ph.D.) serao aceitas.
Caso o projeto represent o trabalho de pds-graduadao
de um aluno, a proposta deve ser acompanhada de uma
carta do pesquisador principal (orientador) indicando o
progress do aluno naquele program de pds-graduagdo.
O PDBFF oferece apoio financeiro para pesquisa na forma
de apoio logfstica transportt, rancho, t6cnico), material
de consume, e equipamento. Propostas acompanhadas de
CVs atualizados, devem ser enviadas at6 o dia 15 de maio
de 1997, impreterivelmente, para o seguinte enderego: Dr.
Claude Gascon, Coordenador Cientifico, PDBFF, INPA
Ecologia, C.P. 478, 69011-970 Manaus AM, Brasil, Tel:
(092) 642-1148, Fax: (092) 642-2050. Propostas recebidas
em qualquer outra 6poca serao avaliadas, mas existe pouca
possibilidade de obter recursos financeiros. 0 Diretor
distribuirA as propostas para revisdo. Todas as propostas
serfo avaliadas pelo Comite Cientifico Consultor e
aprovadas pelo Comit8 de Manejo do projeto. A decisAo
final serd dada pelo Comite de Manejo no final de
setembro. Novos projetos que requeiram financiamento
pelo PDBFF terAo infcio em outubro. Os pesquisadores
estrangeiros devem organizar-se para trabalhar corn uma
contra-partida brasileira e devem planejar utilizar
estudantes brasileiros como estagifrios de campo, se a
ajuda de campo for necessdria. Os investigadores nao
familiarizados corn a infra-estrutura ou com a informagqo
de base disponivel sobre o PDBFF devem contactar o
Coordenador Cientifico em Manaus (Claude Gascon). Os
pesquisadores devem submeter 6 c6pias de cada proposta
junto corn os CV's de cada participants. A proposta deve
seguir o padrao abaixo (nao serdo aceitas propostas fora
desse padrdo).
PAgina 1: la) Pesquisador Principal Endereqos, Afiliag o
Institucional, lb) Colaborador Brasileiro (caso o
Pesquisador Principal seja estrangeiro), Ic)Alunos de P6s-
GraduaCao Nome e program de estudo, 2) Titulo do
Projeto. PAginas 2-3: 3a)Resumo do trabalho ji feito (caso
projeto em andamento); 3b)Problema e Objetivos Incluir
uma declaragAo da relevAncia do estudo proposto com os
objetivos globais do PDBFF. A bibliografia relevant deve

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

Page 19

Page 20

ser citada. PAginas 4-5: 4) Mdtodos Discutir as t6cnicas
de coleta de dados e os pianos de andlise. Seja tio especifico
quanto possfvel sobre as t6cnicas, o equipamento requerido
e o desenho experimental; 5) Cronograma Indicar as
datas a serem passadas no campo e o cronograma proposto
para a andlise e a produgao das publicacqes resultantes.
Pagina 6: 6) Orfamento Passagens areas, apoio t6cnico
(dias no campo) (os pedidos de apoio t6cnico sem
justificaqao nao serao aceitos), apoio logfstico (dias de
trabalhadores no campo), material de consume e
equipamento (discriminar incluindo o prego estimado de
cada item). Um mdximo de US$1000 sera considerado
para projetos que representam teses de mestrado e US$2000
para teses de doutorado (max. 1 pagina). Pagina 7: 7)
Fontes Alternativas de Financiamento Favor procurar
apoio extemo e indicar as iniciativas que tiver tornado.
Pagina 8: 8) Bibliografia (max. 1 pagina).
Procedimento de amostragem, dados e material coletado:
Cada colaborador 6 cientfficamente e editorialmente
independent, por6m, os dados devem ser coletados para
que possam ser adaptados a um format comum de
computador e compativeis com outros estudos em
progress. Os pesquisadores deverao deixar c6pias dos
dados em planilha eletr8nica e c6pia papel para arquivar
no projeto. Os pesquisadores serao encorajados a participar
em andlises e publicaqoes "inter-subprojeto". Toda
publicagao resultante de pesquisa dentro do Ambito do
PDBFF deverd incluir o enderego institutional do PDBFF
como segundo endereqo do autor assim como menglo do
apoio do PDBFF nos agradecimentos e um ndmvero da
sdrie t6cnica do PDBFF.
Cada cientista esta sujeito aos regulamentos de pesquisa
do Brasil e em particular do INPA. Isto inclui os
regulamentos sobre a coleta de material e o dep6sito do
mesmo. Todo material coletado pelos participants do
projeto pertence ao INPA. Doaq6es a outras instituicqes
podem ser discutidas, por6m pelo menos metade de todo
material e todos os holotipos tem que permancecer no
Brasil. Os acordos a respeito do dep6sito no Brasil dos
hol6tipos podem ser negociados individualmente.
Solicitagoes para autorizaqao de coleta dentro das Areas
de estudo e arredores imediatos deverao ser analisadas
caso a caso pelo Comite de Manejo do PDBFF.
Estagidrios: Pesquisadores doutores podem empregar
estagidrios na realizagio dos seus projetos. 0 PDBFF tern
um banco de currfculo de candidates a estAgios que pode
ser consultado. 0 uso de um estagiario deve serjustificado
dentro da proposta. Serd permitido o uso do estagidrio
somente enquanto o pesquisador principal se encontrar
em Manaus.
Financiamento: A Smithsonian Institution depend de
contribuig6es de corporaq5es, fundaq6es, e doadores
individuals para prover o financiamento necessArio para
manter o PDBFF em andamento. A primeira prioridade
de financiamento deverd ir para a manutenqao de infra-
estrutura necessdria para que os pesquisadores possam

fazer seus estudos. Fora disto, os funds serio utilizados
para apoiar projetos em andamento e novos, corn
prefer8ncia ao apoio de propostas de pesquisa de teses e
dissertagtes de estudantes brasileiros. Todos os
pesquisadores que desejem trabalhar no projeto ou utilizar
a sua infraestrutura devem submeter propostas, mesmo
no caso de nao solicitar apoio financeiro direto dos funds
do PDBFF. Nao serao pagos salaries de pesquisadores.
Nossa capacidade de fornecer suporte financeiro para os
estudos dos processes de regeneragao da floresta dependerd
do grau em que as propostas sio diretamente relevantes
para os problems relacionados corn as mudangas globais
ou provem informag6es que sao demonstradamente titeis
para os responsiveis pelo planejamento do
desenvolvimento regional.
Claude Gascon, Coordenador Cientifico, Projeto
Dinamica Biol6gica de Fragmentos Florestais (DBFF),
Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas
da Amaz8nia (INPA), Caixa Postal 478, 69011-970
Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.


Marenco Biological Reserve, located in the last area of
tropical rainforest on the Pacific side of Central America,
is interested in offering its facilities toward developing its
potential as a center for scientific studies, education and
ecotourism. This biological reserve was created by a
Costarrican family who bought the land in 1971 land to
protect the forest and a great variety of endangered spe-
cies including: black garlic (Anthodiscus chocoensis), red
macaw (Ara macao), ocelot (Felis pardalis), and primates
such as Cebus capucinus, Ateles geoffroyi, and Alouatta
palliata. The reserve of 1,200 hectares includes primary
rain forest, swamp, mangroves, cloud forest, and a littoral
zone. Research carried out there includes observations on
the migratory and resident bird communities. There are
20 different species of marine mammals registered at
Marenco, and it is a paradise for whale-watching. Marenco
also provides a base for visiting the Corcovado National
Park and the Cafio Island Reserve, well known for their
great biodiversity and beautiful settings, and the mangrove
swamps of the Sierpe-Terraba River. Facilities include:
25 bungalows with private bath, restaurant, reception (with
phone, fax, and e-mail), electric generator, maritime trans-
portation, and a network of well-marked trails that cover
the entire reserve. There are also possibilities for univer-
sities to establish permanent scientific laboratories. There
are no roads to Marenco, and access is by sea, requiring
first a flight from San Jos6 to Palmar Sur. For further in-
formation, please contact Nelson Vega J. at the address
Nelson Vega J., Marenco Beach and Rainforest Lodge,
P.O. Box 4025-1000, Costa Rica. Toll free numbers:1-800-
2339101 (USA) or 1-305-2339101 (Europe), Tel: (506)

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

Neotopial rimtes (1) Mach 997Page 21

221 1594, Fax: (506) 255 13 46, http://www.elparaiso.com/


Vinte e quatro projetos
foram aprovados para
financiamento pela
de Protegao A Natureza, Sao Josd dos Pinhais, Parana,
Brasil, atravds do Programa de Incentivo h Conservacgo
da Natureza, a partir do mes de janeiro de 1997. Os que
promovem atividades de pesquisa e conservagAo de
primatas incluem: "Avaliacio das populag6es selvagens
de Saguinus bicolor bicolor e proposta de estrat6gia para
sua conservagao", Rosana Junqueira Subird, Manaus, AM;
"ReuniLo Preparat6ria para o Workshop A 6es Prioritrias
para a Conservaglo da Biodiversidade do Bioma Cerrado",
Funatura, Brasilia, DF; "Floresta Atlantica: Composiqao
Florfstica, Estrutura e Dinamica de Regeneragao Natu-
ral", Associacgo de Defesa e Educagqo Ambiental Reserva
Volta Velha, Itapoa, SC; "Andlise Multitemporal da
Ocupaglo Urbana sobre Ecossistemas Naturais 0 Caso
de Boa Vista, RR", Fibio Bonatto, Boa Vista, RR.
Miguel Serediuk Milano, Diretor Tdcnico, Fundacgo 0
BoticArio de Proteao h Natureza, Avenida Rui Barbosa
3450, 83065-260 Sao Jose dos Pinhais, Parana, Brasil.


Applications are being sought for the position of Field
Station Manager at Cano Palma Biological Station,
Tortuguero, Costa Rica. This is not primarily an academic
position, but the candidate should possess a biology/envi-
ronmental studies background. Emphasis will be placed
on those who have some or all of the following
attributes:Bilingual (Spanish/English); Experience in re-
mote areas, particularly in the tropics; Boating and other
outdoors knowledge; Small engine repair knowledge;
Construction experience; Book-keeping knowledge;
Knowledge of cooking; Ability to get along with visitors
and co-workers; Knowledge of Central American flora and
fauna; Computer experience. Preference will be given to
Canadians. We are seeking a self-motivated individual who
is willing to put up with low pay and isolated conditions
in exchange for a unique job in a Canadian conservation
organization. Interested individuals are asked to send a
detailed resume to: Marilyn Cole, Executive Director, Ca-
nadian Organzation for Tropical Education and Rainforest
Conservation (COTERC), Box 335, Pickering, Ontario
L1V 2R6, Canada, Fax: (905) 683-5897, e-mail: coterc@


Jtilio C6sar Bicca-Marques, doutorando em Antropologia
Biol6gica na Universidade de Illinois Urbana, oferece
estigio junto ao projeto "Percepqio, Cognigo e
Aprendizagem Associados ao Forrageamento em Primatas
Neotropicais Noturnos e Diurnos" para graduandos e
rec6m-formados em Ciancias Biol6gicas, Ecologia ou areas
afins, interessados em ecologia comportamental de
primatas. 0 projeto serd desenvolvido no periodo de agosto/
97 a julho/98 no Parque Zoobotanico da Universidade
Federal do Acre, Rio Branco, e envolverd capture,
marcagdo, morfometria e coleta de dados comportamentais
das esp6cies Saguinus imperator imperator, Saguinus
fuscicollis weddelli e Aotus nigriceps. 0 trabalho sera em
tempo integral. 0 aluno receberA uma ajuda de custo
mensal de US$200, transport, hospedagem e alimentacgo
na drea de estudo e certificado de estagio. Os interessados
devem enviar carta(s) de recomendagAo, uma carta de
prop6sitos e Curriculum Vitae para o enderego abaixo.
Maiores informacges e inscrigqes: Jdlio Cdsar Bicca-
Marques, Department of Anthropology, University of Illi-
nois at Urbana-Champaign, 109 Davenport Hall, 607 S.
Mathews Avenue., Urbana, IL 61801, USA, e-mail:


The Animal Behavior Society was founded in 1964 to pro-
mote the study of animal behavior in the broadest sense,
including studies using descriptive and experimental meth-
ods under natural and controlled conditions. Membership
is open to persons engaged in the scientific study of ani-
mal behavior, or interested in advancing such study, and
includes all sorts: ethologists, naturalists, vegetarians,
zoologists, zoo keepers, biologists, psychologists, behav-
ior geneticists, primatologists, etc. Current member's re-
search activities span the invertebrates and vertebrates,
both in the field and in the laboratory, and include experi-
mental psychology, behavioral ecology, neuroscience, zo-
ology, biology, applied ethology, and human ethology, as
well as many other specialized areas. Advantages of mem-
bership include: A subscription to Animal Behaviour, an
international monthly publication, produced jointly with
the Association for the Study of Animal Behavior (ASAB),
UK, and a leading journal in the field with over 1,800
pages a year, containing articles, short communications,
and book reviews; A quarterly newsletter with informa-
tion about jobs, fellowships, and research grants in ani-
mal behavior, meetings of the ABS and other societies
with related interests, and the biennial International Etho-
logical Conference, laboratory exercises for teachers, and
animal care guidelines; a regularly updated listing of
graduate programs in animal behavior; a directory with
names and addresses of all members; a regularly updated
list of textbooks and other volumes of interest to members
of the ABS; a regularly updated list of films with topics of

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

Page 21

Page 22 Neotropical Primates So), March 1997

interest to members of ABS (nominal charge for postage
and handling); a brochure describing careers for individu-
als interested in animal behavior (on request); and the
opportunity to attend and present papers at annual and
regional meetings of the ABS at reduced rates. Annual
membership fees: Ordinary member US$41.00; Student
member US$20,00; Emeritus member US$20,00; and
Spouse member (receive newsletter only) US$28,00.
B. Diane Chepko-Sade, Membership Chair, Animal Be-
havior Society, Department of Biology, State University
of New York (SUNY) Oswego, Oswego, New York
13126, USA. Tel: (315) 341-2776.


The Graduate Program in Population Biology, Ecology,
and Evolution at Emory University takes advantage of the
presence of a large number of faculty at Emory University
specifically interested in evolutionary issues. These fac-
ulty members have active research programs in the fol-
lowing schools and departments as well as at two interna-
tionally renowned institutions in the Atlanta area: De-
partment of Anthropology, Department of Biology, De-
partment of Psychology, School of Medicine, School of
Public Health, U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Pre-
vention (CDC), and the Yerkes Regional Primate Research
Center (YRPRC).
The program offers an opportunity for students to famil-
iarize themselves with the widest possible range of appli-
cations of Darwinian thinking, from the cell level to en-
tire organisms and the social organizations that they de-
velop. Research opportunities are unique in the nation,
perhaps the world. The Centers for Disease Control are
an immense resource devoted to the understanding of in-
fectious disease. The CDC employs nearly five thousand
people in the Atlanta area alone, where its headquarters
are based (see http:// www.cdc.gov/cdc.html). The Yerkes
Primate Center is the largest such center in the world,
with approximately 3,000 nonhuman primates housed at
facilities on the Emory campus as well as on the grounds
of a 117-acre field station outside the metropolitan area
(see http:// www.cc.emory.edu/WHSC/YERKES/). Both
institutions are well-established: the CDC has existed since
1946, and the Yerkes Primate Center since 1930. Further
research opportunities exist outside these two institutions
at various Emory departments and the Schools of Medi-
cine and Public Health.
Tailor-made curriculum: PBEE is a truly interdisciplinary
program designed to lead to a Ph. D. in population biol-
ogy, ecology, and evolution, and a career in teaching and
research at leading colleges and universities. The program
provides students with formal classes and seminars nec-
essary for a solid background in the theoretical and ex-

perimental components of all of the subdisciplines in-
volved. Beyond this common core, each student is encour-
aged to develop a class curriculum and research program
tailored to his or her specific interests.
For further information: Program Secretariat:
mfox@grad.gsas.emory.edu (Ms. Meri Fox); Web pages:
http://WWW.EMORY.EDU/PBEE/pbee.html; Program
Director: blevin@biology.emory.edu (Dr. Bruce Levin);
Director of Graduate Studies, PBEE: dewaal@rmy.emory.
edu (Dr. Frans de Waal).

The 2nd European Primate Research Network (EUPREN)/
European Marmoset Research Group (EMRG) Winter
Workshop: "The Implications of Housing and Husbandry
for Scientific Quality and Well-Being of Non-Human Pri-
mates", was held on 25-27 November 1996, in Rome. The
abstracts of this meeting can be viewed on Internet: http:/
/www.dpz.gwdg.de/eupren/abstrom.htm. Information sup-
plied by Prof. Dr. M. Schwibbe, e-mail: mschwib2@gwdg.


Conservation International has moved of-
fices. The new address is: 2501 M Street,
N.W., Suite 200, Washington D. C. 20037,
CONSERVATION U.S.A. Telephone and fax numbers remain


S 0 VIII Congresso Brasileiro de
Primatologia se realizard nos dias 10-15
agosto de 1997, em Joao Pessoa, Parafba.
A data foi mudada para baratear o custo de
passagens (devido ao fato que julho esteja ainda no perfodo
da alta estagio). A ultima data para a entrega de resumes
6 10 de maio de 1997. Para maiores informacges, favor
entrem em contato com Carmen Alonso, Presidente da
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia.
A Sociedade estd realizando um levantamento de projetos
primatol6gicos no Brasil. Formuldrios foram enviados aos
s6cios mas atd agora poucas pessoas responderam.
Ficarfamos agradecidos se pudesse enviar as informag6es
o mais rdpido possfvel para permitir a conclusdo desse
A Diretoria da SBPr em reuniao ordindria decidiu outorgar

Page 22

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997

ma ajuda para estudantes carentes s6cios (que estejam em
dia corn a Sociedade) que pleiteiam a participagco em
events nacionais ou internacionais, na condigAo de
apresentador de trabalho cientffico como primeiro autor.
Ficou estabelecido: para events nacionais o valor de
R$ 100,00 e para events internacionais R$200,00. A quota
de ajuda dependerd da situacgo financeira da Sociedade
no moment da solicitaqAo e do currfculo do estudante.
Os estudantes interessados devem enviar a Secretaria da
Sociedade o resume do trabalho e o currfculo corn 45 dias
de antecedencia.
Carmen Alonso, Departamento de SistemAtica e Ecologia
- CCEN, Universidade Federal da Parafba, 58059-900 Joao
Pessoa, Parafba, Brasil, Tel: +55 (0)83 216 7471, Fax:
+55 (0)83 216 7464, e-mail: sagui@vm.npd.ufpb.br.

7 The Napier Memorial Medal was insti-
tuted by the Primate Society of Great
Britain in memory of its founding Presi-
dent, Professor John Napier, following a
bequest to the Society. The Medal is
awarded every two years to young pri-
matologists in order to provide encouragement through
public recognition of their work. The first Napier Memo-
rial Medal (1991) was awarded to Dr Christopher Pryce
(Behaviour and Endocrinology of Maternal Behaviour in
Callitrichids), the second (1993) to Marta Lahr (The Ori-
gins of Modem Humans: A Test of the Multiregional Hy-
pothesis), and the third (1995) was awarded to Carlos
Drews in 1995 for his Ph.D. examining psychological
warfare and the management of relationships between male
Nominations for the fourth Napier Memorial Medal (to
be awarded at the Winter 1997 meeting and Annual Gen-
eral Meeting) are invited by (or on behalf of) recent post-
graduate students. Under the rubric approved by Council,
the nominations are considered by a committee of three
members appointed by Council (one of whom is always
an officer of the Society); the committee will present their
final choice to Council for ratification at its meeting in
September, 1997.
To be eligible for consideration, candidates must: (1) be
either a British subject or a foreign national who was com-
pleted a Ph.). at a U.K. Institution of Higher Education
(2) normally be under the age of 30 years on 1 December,
1997 although in exceptional circumstances older appli-
cants will be considered and (3) have submitted their Ph.D.
thesis after 1 June 1995.
Candidates should normally be nominated by a member
of the Society, but may, in cases of difficulty, nominate
themselves. A full CV (including an Abstract of the Ph.D.
thesis and a full list of publications) and two letters of

Page 23

reference (one of which should normally be from the ex-
ternal examiner of the Ph.D. thesis) should be forwarded
to Dr. Hilary 0. Box, President of the Primate Society of
Great Britain. Address: Department of Psychology, Uni-
versity of Reading, Reading, RG6 2AL, UK. The closing
date for nominations is 1 September, 1997.
Information supplied by Hannah Buchanan-Smith, Hon.
Secretary, Primate Society of Great Britain.


The following is a listing of the officers
of the Primate Society of Great Britain
(PSGB), along with the members of the
two Working Parties of the Society (Cap-
tive Care and Conservation) as from No-
vember, 1996.

President: Dr. Hilary 0. Box, Department of Psychology,
University of Reading, 3 Earley Gate, Whitenights Road,
Reading RG6 2AL, Berkshire, UK, Tel.:01734 316668,
Fax: 01734 316604, e-mail: h.box@reading.ac.uk; Hon.
Secretary: Dr. Hannah Buchanan-Smith, Department of
Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scot-
land, UK, Tel.: 01786 467674, Fax: 01786 467641, e-
mail: h.m.buchanan-smith@stir.ac.uk: Hon. Treasurer:
Dr. Geoffrey Hosey, Division of Psychology and Biology,
Bolton Institute, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB, Tel.:
01204 528851 ext. 3647, Fax: 01204 399074, e-mail:
GH2@bolton.ac.uk, Membership Secretary: Dr. Kate
Hill, Department of Anthropology, University of Durham,
43, Old Elvet, Durham DH1 3HN, Tel.: 0191 374 7206,
Fax: 0191 374 7527, e-mail: c.m.hill@durham.ac.uk;
Editor Primate Eye: Dr. Bill Sellers, Department of
Anatomy, University of Edinburgh, Medical School, Teviot
Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Tel.: 0131 650 3110, Fax:
0131 650 6545, e-mail: bill.sellers@ed.ac.uk; Convener
of the Captive Care Working Party: Dr. Robert Hubrecht,
Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), 8
Hamilton Close, South Mimms, Hertfordshire EN6 3QD,
Tel.: 01707 658202, Fax: 01707 649279; e-mail:
hubrecht@ufaw.org.uk. Convener of the Conservation
Working Party: Dr. Sian S. Waters, Bristol Zoo Gardens,
Clifton, Bristol BS8 3HA, UK, Tel.: 0117 970617, Fax:
0117 9734 6814, e-mail: 106130.3335@compuserve.com.
Members of the Captive Care Working Party: Hilary
Box (Reading University), David Buist (Huntingdon Re-
search Centre), Nick Ellerton (North of England Zoologi-
cal Society), Angela Glatston (Rotterdam Zoo), Keith
Hobbs (Biosim), Cyril Rosen (International Primate Pro-
tection League), Leah Scott (CBDE, Porton Down),
Miranda Stevenson (Royal Zoological Society of Scotland),
Robert Hubrecht (UFAW), Roger Curtis (Home Office),
Udo GansloBer (Institut fur Zoologie der Universitit
Erlangen-Ntirnberg), Mark Matfield (RDS), David
Edwards (Syntex Research Center), Sarah Wolfensohn

Page 24 Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997

(Oxford), Anita Patel (Ciba Geigy), Malcolm Welshman
(Mediprime), and Sian Waters (Bristol Zoo Gardens).
Members of the Conservation Working Party Full
members: Simon Bearder (Oxford Brookes University);
Hilary Box (University, of Reading), Adam Britt (North
of England Zoological Society); John Buchan (Zoological
Society of London), Julia Casperd (Liverpool University),
David Chivers (University of Cambridge), Alan Dixson
(University of Cambridge), Anna Feistner (Jersey Wild-
life Preservation Trust), Caroline Harcourt (Chester),
David Hill (University of Sussex), Kate Hill (University
of Durham), Paul Honess (Oxford Brookes University),
Phyllis Lee (University of Cambridge), Ian Redmond
(Bristol), Cyril Rosen (International Primate Protection
League), Ernie Thetford (Howletts Zoo Park), and SiAn S.
Waters (Bristol Zoo Gardens) Local Corresponding
Members: Debbie Curtis (Anthropology Institute, Ziirich),
John Fa (Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust), Juan-Pedro
Gonzalez-Kirchner (Colegio Universitario "Cardenal
Cisneros", Madrid), Robert Hubrecht (UFAW), Anne Par-
ton (Bolton Institute), Elizabeth Rogers (University of
Edinburgh), and Miranda Stevenson (Royal Zoological
Society of Scotland) Overseas Corresponding Members:
Russell A. Mittermeier (Conservation International, Wash-
ington, D. C.), Anthony B. Rylands (Conservation Inter-
national do Brasil, Belo Horizonte, Brazil), Caroline Tutin
(SEGC, Libreville, Gabon), Malcolm Whitehead (Ardastra
Gardens, Nassau, Bahamas), and Elizabeth Williamson
(Karisoke Research Center, Ruhengeri, Rwanda).
Information kindly supplied by the PSGB Hon. Secretary,
Hannah Buchanan-Smith; the Convenor for the Captive
Care Working Party, Robert Hubrecht; and the Convenor
for the Conservation Working Party, Sidn Waters.


Libro Rojo de Los Vertebrados de Bolivia, edited by
Patricia Ergueta S. y Cecile de Morales, 1996, 346pp.
Centro de Datos para la Conservaci6n, La Paz, Bolivia.
In Spanish. A Red Data Book for the Bolivian vertebrates
following the Mace-Lande system for categorizing threat-
ened species adopted by IUCN/SSC in December 1994. It
provides information on 250 species of fishes, amphib-
ians, reptiles, birds and mammals considered threatened
in the country. Also information on protected areas, eco-
logical zones, and river basins. PSG member Teresa Tarifa
Suarez wrote up the species' descriptions for the mam-
mals. The following primates are included: Alouatta
caraya, Pithecia irrorata, Atelespaniscus (Ateles chamek),
Saguinus imperator, and Alouatta seniculus (Alouatta
sara), Cebuella pygmaea, Callithrix argentata (Callithrix
melanura), Saguinus labiatus, and Saguinus fuscicollis.
Available from: Centro de los Datos para la Conservaci6n,

20 de Octubre No.2672 esq.Campos, Casilla 11250, La
Paz, Bolivia, Tel: (591-2) 432567, Fax: (591-2) 432657.
Gula para la Categorizacidn de Vertebrados
Amenazados, by Marco Octavio Ribera, 1996, 105pp.
Centro de Datos para la Conservaci6n, La Paz, Bolivia.
In Spanish. An excellent and useful compilation of infor-
mation on CITES, the IUCN/SSC threatened species cat-
egories, the elaboration of the Bolivian red data book for
vertebrates, the role of IUCN in Bolivia, principal threats
to wildlife in the country, and the current pertinent legis-
lation. Appendices include a glossary, a list of Bolivian
members of the IUCN/SSC Specialist Groups, Bolivian
institutions involved in wildlife conservation and man-
agement, a listing of the protected areas, and another of
the key species and vegetation types in them. Highly rec-
ommended for anyone interested in Bolivian wildlife.
Available from: Centro de los Datos para la Conservaci6n,
20 de Octubre No.2672 esq.Campos, Casilla 11250, La
Paz, Bolivia, Tel: (591-2) 432567, Fax: (591-2) 432657.
The Tropical Rain Forest, The Late P. W. Richards, 2nd
edition, 1996, 594pp. Cambridge University Press, Cam-
bridge. Hardback ISBN 0 521 42054 7. Price: 90.00.
Paperback ISBN 0 521 42194 2. Price 32.50. The first
edition of this book is firmly established as one of the
classics of botanical literature. In this new and completely
revised edition, the author provides a personal view of the
field, based on over sixty years of involvement in rain
forest ecology. Climatic changes and human pressures have
a major impact on the rain forests and it is now possible
to envisage their complete destruction. This book repre-
sents an important record of the rain forest in the 20th
Century. Contents: Part 1. Structure and Physiognomy -
Structure of primary forest; Regeneration; Trees and shrubs
(i) Vegetative features; Trees and shrubs (ii) Reproductive
biology; The ground herbs and the dependent synusiae.
Part 2. The Environment Climate (by R. P. D. Walsh);
Microclimates and hydrology (by R. P. D. Walsh); Phe-
nology; Soils of the humid tropics (by I. C. Baillie). Part
3. Floristic composition of climax communities Compo-
sition of primary rain forests (i); Composition of primary
rain forests (ii). Part 4. Primary successions Primary
xeroseres and the recolonization of Krakatau; Hydroseres
and freshwater swamp forests; Mangroves and other
coastal vegetation. Part 5. Tropical rain forest under lim-
iting conditions Rain forest, deciduous forest and savan-
nah; The tropical rain forest at its altitudinal and latitudi-
nal limits. Part 6. Human impacts and the tropical rain
forest Secondary and deflected successions; Postscript -
the future of the tropical rain forest. Appendix 1. Tree
recognition in the field and the use of vernacular names.
Appendix 2. Application of numerical methods in rain
forest (by P. Grieg-Smith). References. Index of Plant
names. General index. Available from: Customer Services
Department, Cambridge University Press, Freepost (within
the UK), The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU,
England, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1223 325970, Fax: +44 (0)1223

Page 24

Neotropical Primates 5(f), March 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997 Page 2S

315052. Internet Service Catalogue: http//:www.cup.cam.
Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide, by
Louise H. Emmons and Francois Feer, 1997, 392pp. (esti-
mated), 29 color plates, 7 b&w plates, 9 halftones, 195
maps, 14 line drawings 6 x 9. Second edition. Chicago
University Press, Chicago. Cloth ISBN: 0-226-20719-6.
Price: US$80.00. Paper ISBN: 0-226-20721-8. Price: US$
25.95. Shipping and handling US$3.50. This is the re-
vised edition of the highly successful field guide first
printed in 1990. A total of 226 species are treated in full
(206 were included in the first edition), all species ac-
counts from the first edition have been updated, 195 maps
showing the distribution and geographic range of each
species have been revised to reflect the most current in-
formation, 29 beautiful color plates illustrate more than
220 species, and seven black-and-white plates contain
more than 60 images of individual species. Forthcoming
in July 1997. Available from: University of Chicago Press,
11030 South Langley Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60628,
Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management,
and Conservation of Fragmented Communities, ed-
ited by William F. Laurance and Richard 0. Bierregaard,
Jr., 1997, 504pp. (estimated), 4 color plates, 12 halftones,
33 maps, 93 line drawings, 85 tables 7 x 10. Chicago
University Press, Chicago. Clothbound ISBN: 0-226-
46898-4. Price: US$ 105.00. Paperback ISBN: 0-226-
46899-2. Price US$ 38.00. By the year 2000, more than
half of all tropical forests will have been cut, causing in-
creased soil erosion, watershed destabilization, climate
degradation, and extinction of as many as 600,000 spe-
cies. Tropical Forest Remmants provides the best infor-
mation available to help us understand, manage, and con-
serve the remaining fragments. Covering geographic ar-
eas from Southeast Asia and Australia to Madagascar and
the New World, this volume summarizes what is known
about the ecology, management, restoration, socioecono-
mics, and conservation of fragmented forests. "The field
of habitat fragmentation has a variety of intellectual roots.
Obvious among them are Charles Darwin's and Alfred
Russell Wallace's pioneering studies of islands and Rob-
ert MacArthur and E. 0. Wilson's elegant models of is-
land biogeography. To these roots has been grafted the
intellectual tradition of wildlife biology, which has to a
large extent evolved into conservation biology. In particu-
lar, wildlife biologists' interest in habitat edges has en-
riched a field once preoccupied exclusively by habitat
area... Clearly, the time has come to assess what we have
learned, and we all owe a debt of gratitude to Bill Laurance
and Rob Bierregaard for organizing this volume on tropi-
cal forest fragments." Thomas E. Lovejoy, from the fore-
word. With 70 Contributors. Contents: Foreword; Pref-
ace; Section I: The Scale and Economics of Tropical De-
forestation; Section II: Physical Processes and Edge Ef-
fects; Section III: Tropical Forest Faunas; Section IV:
Plants and Plant-Animal Interactions; Section V: Resto-

ration and Management of Fragmented Landscapes; Sec-
tion VI: Site Selection and Design of Tropical Nature
Reserves; Section VII: Summary and New Perspectives.
Forthcoming in June 1997. Available from: University of
Chicago Press, 11030 South Langley Avenue, Chicago,
Illinois 60628, USA.
Biodiversity II: Understanding and Protecting Our
Biological Resources, edited by Marjorie L. Reaka-
Kudla, Don E. Wilson and Edward 0. Wilson. 1997,
55 pp. National Academy Press, Washington, D. C. Price:
US$34.95. The follow-up to Biodiversity, edited by E. 0.
Wilson and Frances M. Peter, published in 1988. An In-
troduction by E. 0. Wilson and 35 chapters organized
under the following headings. Part I The meaning and
value of biodiversity (the first chapter asking what it is,
by Thomas E. Lovejoy, and the second why it is impor-
tant, by Ruth Patrick). Part II Patterns of the biosphere:
How much biodiversity is there?. Part III Threats to
biodiversity: What have we lost and what might we lose?
Part IV Understanding and using biodiversity. Part V -
Building toward a solution: New directions and applica-
tions (includes a chapter by James M. Dietz on conserva-
tion of biodiversity in Neotropical primates). Part VI -
Getting the job done: Institutional, human, and informa-
tional infrastructure. Part VII Conclusions. Available
from: Joseph Henry Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue N.
W., Washington, D. C. 20418, USA.
Metapopulations and Wildlife Conservation, edited by
Dale R. McCullough, 1996, 429pp. Island Press, Wash-
ington, D. C. Paperback. An understanding of
metapopulation theory and analysis is critical to the mod-
ern practice of wildlife conservation and management. This
volume provides a comprehensive overview of the sub-
ject, addressing the needs of an applied professional audi-
ence for comprehensible information to integrate into their
practices. Leading conservation biologists, ecologists,
wildlife managers, and other experts consider the emer-
gence and development of metapopulation theory and ex-
plore its applicability and usefulness to real-world con-
servation programs. Available from: Island Press, Suite
300, 1718 Connecticut Avenue N. W., Washington, D. C.
20009, USA.
Grooming, Gossip, and The Evolution of Language
by Robin Dunbar, 1996. Harvard University Press, Cam-
bridge, MA. ISBN: 0-674-36334-5. Price: US$22.95.
Chatting plays the same role for us that grooming plays
for monkeys and apes is the theme. A century of intensive
research in linguistics, psychology, and speech science
have taught us much about how language is produced,
how it is structured, and how children learn it. Yet we
know almost nothing about why we alone possess this
extraordinary ability. Recent developments in evolution-
ary biology have far-reaching implications for understand-
ing the nature and origins of human language. In this
book, Robin Dunbar examines not only what we do with
language, but also why we have it, where it came from,
what the first languages sounded like, and how long ago

Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

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Page 26 Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997

language first appeared. Looking at apes and monkeys,
he first shows how like us they are in the intensity of their
relationships-with their joys and frustrations, friends and
enemies, whining children and exasperated parents. Their
grooming is less about hygiene than about cementing
bonds, making allies, and influencing others. Our talk-
ing, Dunbar argues, is a similar instrument of social or-
der and cohesion. How did we get from grooming to gos-
sip? For early humans, grooming to maintain relation-
ships would have posed a serious problem. Given their
large social groups of 150 or so, our earliest ancestors
would have had to spend half their time grooming one
another an impossible burden that would interfere with
other essential tasks. What Dunbar suggests is that hu-
mans developed language to serve the same purpose as
grooming, but far more efficiently. He challenges the view
that language developed among males during activities
such as hunting in order to communicate such complex
information as the location of prey. His studies suggest
otherwise that language evolved in response to our need
to maintain alliances with friends and family. Just as
grooming has its limit, it does not work well in large
groups, human language has restrictions we cannot over-
come. Dunbar explores those restrictions in fascinating
discussions of how many people a conversation can in-
clude before it falls apart, how large a committee can be
before it is rendered ineffective, and the ways new com-
munications technologies, from conference calls to the
internet, clash with the limits of language and our inher-
ited need for face-to-face contact. Available from: Harvard
University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massa-
chusetts 02138, EUA. Tel: 1-800-448-2242, Fax: 1-617-
Canopy Arthropods, edited by Nigel E. Stork (Natural
History Museum, London), Joachim Adis (Max-Planck
Institute for Limnology, Plon), and R. K. Didham (Impe-
rial College, London University), February 1997, c.500
pp. Chapman and Hall, London. Price c.69.00. ISBN 0-
412-74900-9. In the last twenty years there has been a
dramatic increase in interest in the canopy of tropical and
temperate trees due to a variety of factors. The role of
forests, especially tropical forests, in carbon and water
cycles, and hence global climate, is now widely recog-
nized. As forests are cut down, altered, and fragmented
the organisms that are associated with them are also af-
fected. Predictions of species extinctions for animals and
plants based on forest loss range from 1-10% of all spe-
cies per decade. Comprising as they do the major part of
animal species richness, this inevitably means that excep-
tionally large numbers of arthropods will become extinct.
Studies of canopy arthropods have also been critical in
providing new understanding of the total number of spe-
cies on earth, with the the implication that most species
are arthropods in the canopy of tropical forests. Canopy
arthropod research has therefore played an important part
in elevating biodiversity issues on the political agenda.
This volume brings together for the first time the most

up-to-date work on canopy arthropods and includes many
of the presentations at a two-day international symposium
held in Manchester, UK, as part of the INTECOL Con-
gress of Ecology in August 1994. The book is divided into
five parts: Part One Methods of studying arthropods in
trees; Part Two Community structure of Coleoptera as-
semblages; Part Three Community structure of non-co-
leopteran assemblages; Part Four- The biology of canopy
arthropods; Part Five The management and conserva-
tion of canopy arthropods. Available from: Chapman and
Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, UK, Tel:
(0)171 865 0066, Fax: (0)171 522 9623.
I've Been Gone Far Too Long: Field Trip Fias-
coes and Expedition Disasters, edited by Monique
Borgerhoff Mulder and Wendy Logsdon, 1996, 296pp.
RDR Books, Oakland, California. Paperback US$14.95.
An excellent, entertaining, close-to-the-bone for many,
nicely presented, little book with 21 tales of mishaps,
brief encounters, difficulties and cultural shocks and
even love affairs, by field workers, a number of them
primatologists. There is a preface by John Heminway,
an afterword by Nigel Barley, and five sections which
clearly indicate the book's contents. Section I: Terrible
Mistakes: The Gun by Kelly Stewart; The Great Parrot
Hunt by James Serpell; and The Stubborn Snake by
Monica Udvardy and Thomas Hakansson. Section II:
Physical Dangers; Bushmaster in the Bidet by Rich-
ard 0. Bierregaard, Jr.; The Ghost in the Machine by
Phyllis Lee; An East African Survival Course by
Herbert H. T. Prins; and Wildlife in Kilgoris Hospital
by Pieter van den Hombergh. Section III: Coping with
Adversity: Paper Trail to the Rain Forest by Lisa Halko
and Marc Hauser; My Family, Food, and Fieldwork by
A. Magdalena Hurtado; Little Criminals by Truman P.
Young; and The Hottest Data in Town by Tim Caro.
Section IV: Clash of Cultures: A Trip to the Che-Wong
by Elizabeth L. Bennett; Social Anthropology at the
Emali Hotel by Dorothy L. Cheney; Gitangda Is Great
by Monique Borgerhoff Mulder; and Bush-League
Medicine by Kate Kipischke. Section V: Research Com-
munities: In the Forest Without a Dog by Andrew
Grieser Johns; Siete de Enero by Margaret Symington;
Jungle Love by John Symington; The Birth and Death
of a Very Fine Pit by Ronald E. Cole; Innocents Abroad
by Robin Dunbar; and Back Seat Observers by David
Bygott and Jeannette Hanby. A final section describes
who the unfortunates or lucky people were in all these
comic (often only on hindsight) tales. The author roy-
alties from the book are being donated to the Wildlife
Conservation Society and Cultural Survival for their
conservation, education, science, and human rights
programs. Highly recommended, especially for those
about to embark on field trips. Available from: RDR
Books, 4456 Piedmont Avenue, Oakland, California
94611, USA, Tel: (510) 595 0595, Fax: (510) 595 0598,
e-mail: rdrbooks@lanminds.com.

Page 26

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Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997 Page 27

Evolution and Environment in Tropical America, ed-
ited by Jeremy B. C. Jackson, Ann F. Budd and Anthony
G. Coates, 1996. The University of Chicago Press, Chi-
cago. ISBN 0 226 38942 1 (Cloth), ISBN 0 226 38944 8
(Paperback). Contents: Evolution and environment: In-
troduction and overview J. B. C. Jackson and A. F. Budd;
The geologic evolution of the Central American isthmus -
A. G. Coates and J. A. Obando; Graphic correlation of
marine deposits from the Central American isthmus: Im-
plications for Late Neogene paleoceanography H. J.
Dowsett and M. A. Cotton; Biotic and oceanographic re-
sponse to the Pliocene closing of the Central American
isthmus T. M. Cronin and H. J. Dowsett; The oxygen
isotopic record of seasonality in Neogene bivalves from
the Central American isthmus J. L. Teranes, D. H. Geary
and B. E. Bemis; Environmental changes in Caribbean
shallow waters relative to the closing tropical American
seaway L. S. Collins; Plio-Pleistocene turnover and ex-
tinctions in the Caribbean reef-coral fauna A. F. Budd,
K. G. Johnson and T. A. Stemann; Speciation, extinction,
and the decline of arborescent growth in Neogene and
Quarternary cheilostome Bryozoa of Tropical America -
A. H. Cheetham and J. B. C. Jackson; Paciphilia revis-
ited: Transisthmian evolution of the Strombina Group
(Gastropoda: Columbellidae) J. B. C. Jackson, P. Jung
and H. Fortunato; Diversity of Pliocene-Recent mollusks
in the western Atlantic: Extinction, origination, and en-
vironmental change W. D. Allmon, G. Rosenberg, R. W.
Portell and K. Schindler; Molecular comparisons of Tran-
sisthmian species pairs: Rates and patterns of evolution -
T. Collins; Late Cenozoic evolution and the neotropical
mammal fauna S. D. Webb and A. Rancy; Quaternary
environmental history and forest diversity in the Neotropics
- P. A. Colinvaux. Available from: University of Chicago
Press, 11030 South Langley Avenue, Chicago, Illinois
60628, USA.
Social Stratification and Socioeconomic Inequality.
Volume 1: A Comparative Biosocial Analysis. Vol-
ume 2: Reproductive and Interpersonal Aspects of
Dominance and Status, edited by Lee Ellis. Volume 1 -
1993, 256pp. ISBN 0-275-93262-1. Price: US$59.95.
Volume 2 1994, 262pp. ISBN 0-275-94526-X. Price:
US$65.00. Forewords by Lionel Tiger (Vol. 1) and Robert
D. Retherford (Vol. 2). This two-volume series gives seri-
ous consideration to both biological and social environ-
mental influences on social stratification and human in-
equality. Available from: GPG Greenwood Publishing
Group, Inc., 88 Post Road West, P. 0. Box 5007, Westport,
CT 06881-5007, USA, Tel: (203) 226-3571, Fax: (203)
The Multimedia Guide to The Non-Human Primates,
by Professor Frances Burton, University of Toronto, with
Matthew Eaton. There are 3 versions including CD-ROM
for Macintosh. ISBN: 0-13-210899-2. Available from:
Prentice Hall/Simon and Schuster, The Order Processing
Center, P. 0. Box 11071, Des Moines, IA 50336-1071,
USA. Tel: 1-800-947-7700, Fax: 515-284-2607.

Anonymous. 1996. 1996 export quotas for specimens of
species included in the CITES Appendices. TRAFFIC
USA 15(3):16-22.
Aruguete, M. W., Brannon, E. and Rosenblum, L. A. 1996.
Effect of infants on adult relations in the squirrel mon-
key (Saimiri sciureus). Psychological Reports 79(2):
Balmford, A., Mace, G. and Leader-Williams, N. 1996.
Designing the ark: setting priorities for captive breed-
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Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 1996. Enriching the lives of mar-
mosets and tamarins in captivity. Shape of Enrichment.
5(4): 3-5.
Bush, M., Beck, B. B., Dietz, J., Baker, A., James, A. E.,
Jr., Pissinatti, A., Phillips, L. G., Jr. and Montali. R. J.
1996. Radiographic evaluation of diaphragmatic defects
in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia):
Implications for reintroduction. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 27(3):
Byrne, G. and Suomi, S. J. 1996. Individual differences
in object manipulation in a colony of tufted capuchins.
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Cadavid, L. F, Hughes, A. L. and Watkins, D. I. 1996.
MHC class I-processed pseudogenes in New World pri-
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Caldecott, J. 0., Jenkins, M. D., Johnson, T. H. and
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Galliari, C. A., Pardifias, U. F. J. and Goin, F. J. 1996.
Lista comentada de los mamfferos argentinos.
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Sio Paulo, SE Brazil. Diss. Abstr. Int. C57(4):1151. (In
Hall. C. L. 1996. Dominance and foraging in white-faced
capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Master's Abstracts 34(4):
1404. To order #AADAA-IMMO6346. University Mi-
crofilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA.
Hook-Costigan, M. A. and Rogers, L. J. 1996. Lateraliza-
tion of emotional expression in the common marmoset
(Callithrixjacchus). Int. J. Psychol. 31(3-4): 462.
Kay, R. F., McFadden, B. J., Madden, R. H. Anaya, F. et
al. 1995. New radiometric dates confirm Late Oligocene
age of Deseadan Salla Beds, Bolivia and the oldest known
South American primate. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 15(3,
suppl.): 38A.
Mackinnon, K. C. 1996. Age differences in foraging pat-
terns and spatial associations of the white-faced capu-
chin monkey (Cebus capucinus). Master's Abstracts
34(4): 1404. To order #AADAA-IMM06359. Univer-
sity Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA.
Neri, F. M. and Lane de Melo, A. 1996. Parasitismo natu-
ral em sauds, Callicebus personatus resultados
preliminares. In: V Encontro de Pesquisa do ICB/
UFMG: Resumos, p.132. Nticleo de Assessoramento h
Pesquisa, Instituto de Ciencias Biol6gicas (ICB),
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo
Horizonte. 15-18 October, 1996.
Roush, R.. S. 1996. Food-associated calling behavior in
cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus): Environmen-
tal and developmental factors. Diss. Abstr. Int.
B57(6):3605. To order: #AAD96-27068, University
Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA.

Selected abstracts of the 11th Meeting of the Italian
Primatological Society, Pistoia, 28-30 September 1995.
In Folia Primatologica 67(2), 1996.

Bardi, M. Infant maltreatment in a captive colony of cot-
ton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus). p.64.
De Lillo, C., Visalberghi, E. and Aversano, M. The
economy of capuchin monkey search behaviour in small-
and large-scale environments. pp.64-65.
Taglioni, A. Casetti, A. R. Bernardini, A. and Perretta,
G. Effects of Ketamine hydrochloride on haematological
and serum biochemical parameters in Callithrixjacchus.
Vitale, A. and Queyras A. The influence of motivation
and social context on the consumption of novel foods by
young common marmoasets (Callithrixjacchus). p.66.
Ferrucci, L., Mudry, M., Derme, V., Nicolai, F., Zunibno,
G. and Romano, E. In situ restriction enzymes-nick
translation procedure: A method to detect intraspecific

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997

Pae3 etoia rmts51,Mrh19

variability of consitutive heterochromatin in Cebus. p.69.
Sineo, L. Failli, M. and Martini, R. Non-human primate
genetic typing by polymerase chain reaction. pp.70-71.
Spinozzi, G. and Castorina, M. G. Hand preference in the
use of a tool by tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). p.73.
Visalberghi, E. and Chalmeau, R. Capuchin monkey
(Cebus apella) performance in a task requiring coop-
eration. p.73.
Moggi-Cecchi, J., Agnelli, P. and Falconetti, A. The Pri-
matological Collection of the Zoological Museum 'La
Specola', University of Florence, Italy. p.77.
Palagi, E. The Primate Gallery in the Natural History
Museum of the University of Pisa. p.77.
Tilotta, G., Vernesi, C., Caramelli, D., Veracini, C., Sineo,
L. and Chiarelli, B. DNA hair typing: A RAPD taxo-
nomic reconstruction of the Order Primates. p.79.

Selected abstracts of the 7th Meeting of La Socihit
Francophone de Primatologie, ENVT, Toulouse, 12-13
October 1995. In Folia Primatologica 67(2), 1996.

Deshaies, N., Deputte, B. L., Cohalion-Buisson, A., Brana,
M. and Baudoin, C. Intepretation of brown capuchin
vocalizations by human subjects. p.87.
Lernould, J.-M. and Moisson, P. Relations between zoo-
logical gardens and research centres: Example of
Mulhouse Zoological and Botanical Park. p.96.
Ludes, E. and Anderson, J. R. Peat-bathing in a captive
group of capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus). p.98.

Abstracts of the Winter Meeting of the Primate Soci-
ety of Great Britain: Biology and Conservation of New
World Primates, The Zoological Society of London, 29
November 1995. In Folia Primatologica 67(2), 1996.

Barnett, A. and Brandon-Jones, D. Ecological knowledge
of Cacajao. p.104
Box, H. 0. Behavioural gender differences among mar-
mosets and tamarins (Callitrichidae): New perspectives
in an underexplored area. p.105.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M. and Hardie, S. M. Why do tama-
rins form mixed species groups? Tests of
predictions.pp. 105-106.
Heymann, E. W. Ecological and evolutionary consider-
ations of mixed species troops in the genus Saguinus.
Peres, C. A. Effects of selective hunting and forest types
on the structure of Amazonian primate communities.
Pryce, C. Evidence for a monogamous social organisation
in Goeldi's monkey in captivity: A psychobiological
experiment in a phylogenetic context. p. 107-108.
Rylands, A. B. Ecology and conservation of the lion tama-
rins, Leontopithecus. p.108.
Strier, K. B. Sex and reproduction in muriquis (Brachyteles
arachnoides). p.109.
Visalberghi, E. and Fragaszy, D. The opportunistic lifestyle
in Cebus. p.109.


XII Congress of the Italian Primatological Association,
16-19 April 1997, Turin, Italy. Focus of main sessions:
(1) Molecular biology, cytogenetics and systematics and
(2) Ecology and behaviour. Contact: Augusto Vitale, Sec-
tion of Comparative Psychology, Laboratorio di
Fisiopatologia o.s., Instituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale
Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome, Italy, Tel.: 39-6-
49902107, Fax: 39-6-4957821, e-mail: fos@iss.it.
VII Iberoamerican Congress for Biodiversity and Ver-
tebrate Zoology, 22-25 April, 1997, University of
Concepci6n, Concepci6n, Chile. The objective of the con-
gress is to bring together researchers from Spain, Portu-
gal and Latin America to discuss and exchange informa-
tion at the highest level on the directions and advances
concerning biodiversity, conservation, and zoology of ver-
tebrates. The Congress will cover the following topics:
Biology of Development, Biology of Conservation, De-
cline of Species, Biodiversity, Ecology, Ethology, Evolu-
tion, Physiology, Phylogenetics, Genetics, Morphology,
Paleontology, Parasitology, Fisheries, Protection and Man-
agement of Wildlife, Taxonomy and Zoogeography. The
Proceedings will be published in the journals Gayana and
Boletin de La Sociedad de Biologia de Concepci6n. Fees:
Students until 30/09/96 = US$25, until 31/12/96 = US$35,
at the Congress = US$50; Professionals until 30/09/96 =
US$70, until 31/12/96 = US$85, at the Congress =
US$100. Payment: 1. Electronic transfer; Bank of America
6550-1-28650. 2. Check made out to the Universidad de
Concepci6n. Electronic information available from the
homepage: http://buho.dpi.udec.cl/~cibiozve/. Contact:
President Comite Organizador: Dr. Juan Carlos Ortiz,
VIII Congreso Iberoamericano de Biodiversidad y Zoologia
de Vertebrados, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidad
de Concepci6n, Casilla 2407, Concepci6n, Chile, Tel: (56)
41 234985 x 2157 or 4152; (56) 41 204672, Fax:(56) 41
243379, e-mail: jortiz@halcon.dpi.udec.cl.
New World Primate Symposium: Improving Captive
Environments for Cebids, 18 May 1997, hosted by the
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo in conjunction with the Ameri-
can Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Central
Regional Conference. Registration for the one-day sym-
posium is US$30.00. Participants are invited to speak on
a wide variety of topics about cebids. Please contact Lee
Nesler, General Curator, Pittsburgh Zoo, Tel: (412) 665-
3651, Fax: (412) 665-3925, email: nesler@zoo.pgh.pa.us,
to obtain registration information and abstract/poster sub-
mission forms. Contact Alan Sironen, Curator of Mam-
mals, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, 3900 Brookside Park
Drive, Cleveland, OH 44109, USA, Tel: (216) 661-6500,
Fax: (216) 661 3312, for all other information.

Page 30

Neotropical Pfimates 5(1), March 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997
Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de Parques
Nacionales y otras Areas Protegidas, 21-28 del Mayo
de 1997, Santa Marta, Colombia. Entre los objetivos mas
importantes del Congreso, se encuentra el efectuar un
andlisis de los progress alcanzados en la regi6n en los
l1timos cinco ailos, desde febrero de 1992, y de las
experiencias mis exitosas de estos afios. Asi mismo, el
event se propone elaborar un diagn6stico de la situaci6n
actual en parques nacionales y otras dreas protegidas y
definir las prioridades asf como las estrategias para los
pr6ximos cinco alios, antes del Congreso Mundial de
Parques Nacionales que ha de realizarse en Africa en
2.002. Minister del Medio Ambiente, Colombia,
Organizaci6n de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura
y la Alimentaci6n (FAO) Oficina Regional para Am6rica
Latina y el Caribe, Uni6n Mundial para la Naturaleza
(IUCN) Comisi6n Parques Nacionales y Otras Areas
Protegidas, Red Latinoamericana de Cooperaci6n T6cnica
en Parques Nacionales, Otras Areas Protegidas, Flora y
Fauna Silvestres. Informaci6n: Secretarfa T6cnica
International de la Red Latinoamericana de Cooperaci6n
T6cnica en Parques Nacionales, Otras Areas Protegidas,
Flora y Fauna Silvestres, Kyran D. Thelen, Oficial Re-
gional Forestal, Oficina Regional de la FAO para Amdrica
Latina y el Caribe, Bandera No. 150, 7 a 10 piso, Casilla
10095, Santiago, Chile, Tel: (562) 699 1005, Fax: (562)
696 1121, (562) 696 1124.
Zoological Society of London Scientific Meeting: Win-
ner Takes All? Social Control of Reproduction in Co-
operative Breeders, 10 June 1997, Meeting Rooms, Zoo-
logical Society of London, London. Admission free. Con-
tact: The Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park,
London NWl 4RY, London, UK. Tel: +44 (0)171 449
Annual Meeting of the Animal Behavior Society, 21-26
June, 1997, University of Maryland, Maryland, USA.
Contact: ABS 1997, Conference and Vistor Services, 0101
Annapolis Hall, College Park, Maryland 20742-9122,
USA. Fax: +1 301 314 6693, Web site: WWW: http://
XX Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists,
27-30 June 1997, Bahia Hotel, San Diego, California.
Hosted by California State Univiersity at San Marcos.
Deadline for abstracts: January 15 1997 postmark. Pro-
gram and abstracts will be published in the June issue of
Am. J. Primatol. 42(2). The program will include four
invited addresses, a symposium Cognition in the Wild,
five workshops, a pre-conference workshop, 91 oral pa-
pers (in 10 sessions), and 71 posters (in two evening ses-
sions). Chair Program Committee, Evan L. Zucker, De-
partment of Psychology, Box 194, Loyola University, New
Orleans, LA 70118, USA, Tel: (504) 865 3255, Fax: (504
834 4085, e-mail: zucker@beta.loyno.edu. For more in-
formation, contact: Nancy Caine, Psychology Department,
California State University, San Marcos, California 92096,

Page 31

USA. Tel: (619) 752-4145, Fax: (619) 752-4111, e-mail:
ASAB Summer Meeting "Biological Aspects of Learn-
ing", 2-4 July, 1997, University of St. Andrews, Scotland,
UK. Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour
(ASAB). Organized by Peter Slater. It is hoped to include
talks on a wide variety of animal groups,and ranging from
neurobiological aspects of learning to social learning and
imitation. Main lectures will be given by Randolf Menzel
(Learning and memory in the honey bee), Meredith West
(Social development), Peter Tyack (Vocal learning in ce-
taceans), and Andrew Whitten (Imitation and social learn-
ing in primates). Offers of talks or posters, the latter not
necessarily restricted to the main subject of the meeting,
will be welcomed, and should be sent to: Professor Peter
Slater, School of Biological and Medical Sciences, Uni-
versity of St. Andrews, Bute Medical Building, St.
Andrews KY16 9TS, Scotland, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1334
463500, Fax: +44 (0) 1334 463600, e-mail: pjbs@st-
The Royal Society Meeting, "Evolution of Biological
Diversity: From Population Differentiation to Specia.
tion", 9-10 July 1997. A discussion meeting at The Royal
Society, Carlton House Terrace, London, UK. Organized
by Robert May and Anne Magurran. Contact: The Sci-
ence Promotion Section, The Royal Society, 6 Carlton
House Terrace, London SWlY 5AG, UK, Tel: +44 (0)171
839 5561, Fax: +44 (0)171 930 2170.
Fifth International Congress of Vertebrate Morphol-
ogy, 12-17 July, 1997, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
Organized by the International Society for Vertebrate
Morphologists. All those interested in vertebrate morphol-
ogy and related areas are invited to attend. Suitable topics
for discussion at the meeting include all aspects of verte-
brate morphology, including anatomy, evolution, devel-
opment, biomechanics and locomotion, vertebrate
palaeontology, ecological morphology, morphological as-
pects of behaviour, cell structure and function, neurobiol-
ogy and neuroanatomy, and morphometric and other meth-
ods. The closing date for submissions is 16 December 1996.
Contact: Professor J. M. V. Rayner, School of Biological
Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol
BS8 lUG, UK, Fax: +44 (0)117 925 7374, e-mail:
icvm97@bristol.ac.uk, WWW: http://www.bio.bris.ac.uk/
VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, 10-15 Au-
gust, 1997, Joao Pessoa, Parafba, Brazil. Deadline for sub-
mission of abstracts: 10 May 1997. Contact: Carmen
Alonso, Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia,
Departamento de Sistemitica e Ecologia CCEN,
Universidade Federal da Parafba, 58059-900 Joao Pessoa,
Paraiba, Brazil, Tel: +55 (0)83 216 7471, Fax: +55 (0)83
216 7464, e-mail: sagui@vm.npd.ufpb.br.
XXV International Ethological Conference, 20-27 Au-

Page 32

gust, 1997, Vienna, Austria. This meeting will highlight
new synthetic approaches to problems in animal behav-
ior, and links between behavior and other disciplines, in-
cluding neurobiology, sensory physiology, population ecol-
ogy, conservation biology, and evolution. Deadlines: Sub-
mission of abstracts, budget registration, financial aid
application 28 February 1997; Hotel reservation, stan-
dard registration 15 July 1997. For additional informa-
tion, contact: XXV IEC, Wiener Medizinische Akademie
(WMA), Alser Strasse 4, A-1090 Vienna, Austria, Tel:
+43 1 405 1383 21, Fax: +43 1 405 1383 23, e-mail:
Forum on Wildlife Telemetry: Innovations, Evaluations
and Research Needs, 21-23 September, 1997, Snowmass,
Colorado, USA. In conjunction with 1997 Annual Con-
ference of the Wildlife Society. Contact: Jane Austin, Na-
tional Biological Service, Northern Prairie Science Cen-
ter, Jamestown, North Dakota 58401. Tel.: +1-701 252-
5363, Fax: +1-701-252-4217, e-mail: jane_austin@nbs.
Vth Congress of the German Primatological Society,
1-5 October, 1997, Berlin, Germany. A meeting of the
Council of the European Federation for Primatology will
be held on 5 October. Contact: Prof. Dr. Carsten Niemitz,
Freie Universitit Berlin, FB 23,WE 5, Fabeckstrasse 15,
D-14195 Berlin, Germany. Tel: +49 (0)30-838-2900, Fax:
+49 (0) 30-838-6556, e-mail: cniemitz@zedat.fu-
Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Human Evolution,
4-8 October, 1997, Long Island, New York. Organized by
Luigi Cavalli-Sforza and James Watson (President of
CSHL). Five sessions will cover human molecular evolu-
tion (e.g., mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosomes, genetic
markers). Other sessions include paleoanthropology, ge-
netic variation and multifactorial disease, and primate
behavior. Frans B. M. de Waal is organizing a session
"Primate Behavior and the Reconstruction of Human
Social Evolution." Invited speakers include Robin Dunbar,
Richard Wrangham, Karen Strier, Anne Pusey and Bill
McGrew. There will also be Poster Sessions for which
abstracts can be submitted. The official abstract deadline
is July 16, 1997. Further information is expected soon at
the following WWW site: http://www.cshl.org/meetings/
3rd International Conference on Wildlife Management
in Amazonia, 3-7 December, 1997, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
Co-organized by the School of Agricultural Science of the
Universidad Autonoma "Gabriel Ren6 Moreno", the Natu-
ral History Museum "Noel Kempff Mercado", and the
Tropical Conservation and Development Program of the
University of Florida. This event will be a forum for prac-
titioners, students, researchers and other professionals from
all parts of Central and South America to evaluate ap-
proaches, share knowledge and exchange ideas about wild-
life and fisheries, conservation and management,

Neotropical Primates 5(1), March 1997

biodiversity, the environment, and sustainable develop-
ment, along with other themes intimately linked with
Amazonian wildlife. Since the problems of wildlife and
fish of the Amazon basin are similar to those of most Neo-
tropical regions, we invite all those interested in these is-
sues to participate. Sharing experiences throughout the
Americas will be beneficial to all aspects of wildlife man-
agement, conservation and sustainable development. The
Conference will be a forum to review recent research and
management programs and discuss how to integrate in-
formation on wildlife and fisheries population biology with
the socio-economic realities of rural people to insure sus-
tainable use. The conference will host a variety of sympo-
siums and workshops, including several IUCN/SSC Spe-
cialist Group Meetings and a workshop to evaluate com-
munity-based wildlife management in Amazonia. The
Conference builds on the success of the previous meet-
ings on Wildlife Management in Amazonia, which were
hosted in Belem, Brazil in 1992 and Iquitos, Peru in 1995.
Call for Papers: Persons interested in presenting papers
are requested to submit abstracts (maximum 200 words)
for review and selection by 1 June 1997. Please send ab-
stracts via e-mail to: tcd@tcd.ufl.edu. Please do not send
as attachments. For more information. National partici-
pants and observers: National Conference Coordinator,
Dr. Mario Sudrez Riglos, Facultad de Ciencias Agricolas,
Universidad Aut6noma "Gabriel Ren6 Moreno", Museo
de Historia Natural "Noel KempffMercado", Casilla 1321,
Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, Tel/Fax: (591) 336-6574.
International participants and observers: International
Conference Coordinator, Dr. Richard Bodmer, Tropical
Conservation and Development Program, University of
Florida, P.O. Box 115531, Gainesville, FL. 32611-5531,
USA, Tel: (352) 373-3186, Fax: (352) 392-0085 ,e-mail:
tcd@tcd.ufl.edu. For updated information, please visit the
conference web site at: http://www.tcd.ufl.edu./tcd/
ASAB Winter Meeting 1997 "Behaviour and Conser-
vation", 4-5 December, 1997, Zoological Society of Lon-
don, Regent's Park, London, UK. Association for the Study
of Animal Behaviour (ASAB). Organized by Morris Gos-
ling and Mark Avery. The organizers aim to use the meet-
ing as the basis for a multi-author book. Current ideas for
possible contents include links between mating systems/
dispersal and genetic structure of populations; dispersal
and other movements in relation to habitat fragmentation
and reserve design; individual foraging behaviour and
habitat carrying capacity; mate choice, signalling, and
manipulation of captive breeding; learning and pre-release
training; and practical use of behaviour in conservation
(eg., use of songs for censusing). Contacts: Professor
Morris Gosling, Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society
of London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, UK, Tel:
+44 (0)171 449 6600, Fax: +44 (0)171 586 2870, e-mail:
suaalmh@ucl.ac.uk, or Dr. Mark Avery, RSPB, The Lodge,
Sandy, Beds. SG19 2DL, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1767 680551,

Neotropical Primates S(J), March 1997 Page 33

Fax: +44 (0)1767 692365, e-mail: bird@rspb.demon.co.

VII International Congress of Ecology, New Tasks for
Ecologists after Rio 92, 19-25 July 1998, Centro Affari
& Palazzo Internazionale Congressi, Florence, Italy. Or-
ganized by the International Association for Ecology
(INTECOL) in conjunction with the Italian Ecological
Society (SItE). Themes include: Perspectives in global
ecology; Perspectives for the ecological management of
natural resources; Problems and perspectives in Mediter-
ranean ecosystems; Diversity concepts at different scales;
Perspectives in ecological theory and modeling; Key is-
sues in aquatic ecosystems; Perspectives in landscape ecol-
ogy; Perspectives in sustainable land use; Key issues in
microbial ecology; Patterns and interactions in popula-
tions and communities; Perspectives in environmental
chemistry and ecotoxicology; Integrating ecology into eco-
nomic and social development; Ecological engineering;
Progresses in ecological education. Contact: Almo Farina,
Vice-President INTECOL, Secretariat VII International
Congress of Ecology, Lunigliana Museum of Natural His-
tory, Fortezza della Brunella, 54011 Aulla, Italy, Tel: +39
187 400252, Fax: +39 187 420727, e-mail:
afarina@tamnet.it, web site: http://www.tamnet.it/
Euro-American Mammal Congress, 20-24 July, 1998,
University of Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain.
Organized under the auspices of the American Society of
Mammalogists (ASM), Societas Europea Mammalogica
(SEM) and the Sociedad Espafiola para la Conservaci6n y
el Estudio de los Mamiferos (SECEM). Also participat-
ing: University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) through
its Colleges of Sciences and Pharmacy as well as the
Consejeria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, y Montes of the
local government (Xunta de Galicia) through the inter-
mediacy of its Direcci6n General de Montes y Medio
Ambiente Natural. The meeting will emphasize the cut-
ting edge and little known aspects of scientific knowledge
of mammalian species, and communities and ecosystems
of the Holarctic. However, contributions of interest relat-
ing to mammals from other regions will also be welcomed.
Contributions will be grouped in sessions that will cover
general subjects, symposia or workshops. General mat-
ters currently projected: Behavioral Ecology, Biogeogra-
phy, Community Ecology, Conservation, Development,
Molecular Systematics, Morphology and Morphometrics,
Natural History, Paleontology, Parasites and Diseases,
Physiology, Population Dynamics, Population Genetics,
Systematics and Evolution, and Wildlife Management.
Those interested in organizing a symposium should con-
tact a member of the Steering Committee. Deadlines for
proposals: 11 March 1997. The organizers request that
electronic mail be used for contact whenever possible. For
more information, all queries and requests: galemys@

pinarl.csic.es. Circulars will also be sent by electronic
mail, and distributed through a variety of distribution lists
and list servers. Postal address: Euro-American Mammal
Congress, Laboratorio de Parasitologia, Facultad de
Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15706
Santiago de Compostela, Spain, Fax: (34) 81 593316.
XVII Congress of the International Primatological So-
ciety, 27 September 2 October, 1998, Antananarivo,
Madagascar. Contact: Secretariat XVII IPS Congress,
Madame Berthe Rakotosamimanana, Faculte des Sciences,
Batement P, Porte 207, BP 906, Antananarivo 101 Mada-
gascar. Tel: 261 (03) 805 70, e-mail: ralaiari@syfed.refer.

We would be most grateful if you could send us information
on projects, research groups, events (congresses, symposia,
and workshops), recent publications, activities of
primatological societies and NGOs, news items or opinions
of recent events and suchlike. Manuscripts should be
double-spaced and accompanied by the text in diskette
for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect,
Wordstar). Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, high quality figures,
and high quality maps, tables and references, but please
keep them to a minimum.
Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS, c/o
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio
Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (31) 441 17 95 or
ERNESTO RODRIGUEz-LUNA, Parque de La Flora y Fauna
Silvestre Tropical, Instituto de Neuroetologfa, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz
91000, Mdxico, Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748.
LILIANA CORTES-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana) provides
invaluable editorial assistance.
Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to:
a.rylands @ conservation.org.br


NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in collaboration
Suite 200, Washington DC 20037, USA, and FUNDArAO
BIODIVERSITAs, Av. do Contorno, 9155/11. andar -
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Design and Composition: ALEXANDRE S. DINNotIr -
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Neotropical Primates 5(l), March 1997

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ISSN 1413-4703


FO ND ATON ADMlonoftheHouon G B
Parks and Recreation Depadmient

This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foun-
dation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Con-
servation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas
77030, USA, the Grupo de Trabalho em Biodiversidade (GTB), through the Brazilian National Sci-
ence Research Council (CNPq), Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Coordenador do GTB, c/o Conservation
International do Brasil, Avenida Antonio Abrahao Caram 820/302,31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brazil, and the Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB), President Hilary 0. Box, Depart-
ment of Psychology, University of Reading, Reading RG6 2AL, Berkshire, UK.

Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodrfguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Antonio Abrahao Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil

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