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Title: Neotropical primates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00017
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: September 1996
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00017
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
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        Front Cover
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text
ISSN 1413-4703
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A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
__Edifts /r iny B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
S& Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: Anthony B. Rylands
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Page 77

Articles "


The recent article by Rylands et al. (1995) classifying
the Neotropical primates using the new IUCN (1994)
definitions for threatened status categories is an
important contribution to our understanding of the level
of threat for most subspecies and some species. However,
in this article I would like to make some comments.
Firstly, in accordance with the original IUCN document
(1994) and in agreement with Gardenfors (1995),
national lists of primates ought to be categorized on a
regional level whenever possible, rather than a simple
reiteration of international categories. Second, any list
should include the species' status, along with the
subspecies' categories. Let us not forget the importance
and the primacy of the species in contrast to subspecies'
designations, which can at times be rather arbitrary and
artificial. Likewise, a species category is not simply a
summary of the subspecies assessments, as Baillie (1995)
has pointed out.

Here (see Table) I provide a ist of Colombian primates
classified from a regional (Colombian) perspective and
compare it to the international classification of the same

It is worthwhile noting that some Colombian taxa
(Callicebus cupreus, C. c. discolor, Cebus albifrons
yuracus) are considered to be at a higher level of risk
than the international categorization because only a small
population is known within the country, and that in
regions with widespread colonization. Other Colombian
taxa (Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary and Alouatta
palliata aequatorialis) are considered at higher risk
because of the particular situation in Colombia, which
include lower population densities due to less igap6 in
the upper reaches of the Amazonian tributaries, and to
hunting for food by indigenous people in the case of C.
m. ouakary, and the lack of information on the
Colombian populations ofAlouatta palliata equatorialis,
which is here classified as DD.

In Colombia, Ateles geoffroyi grisescens is represented
by a small subset of a total population classified as EN,
and the Colombian population may therefore even be
considered "CR", but no data are available. Although
Rylands et. al. (1995) categorized Lagothrix lagothricha
lugens as CR, I classify it here as VU (see Defler, 1996).

The categorization of the conservation status of many

Species and subspecies (1)

01 Cebuellapygmaea
02 Callimico goeldii
03 Saguinusfuscicollis
S.f fuscus
04 Saguinus geoffroyi
05 Saguinus inustus
06 Saguinus leucopus
07 Saguinus nigricollis
S. n. nigricollis
S. n. graellsi
S. n. hernandezi V
08 Saguinus oedipus
09 Aotus brumbacki V
10 Aotus "hershkovitzi"
11 Aotus lemurinus
A. I. lemurinus
A. 1. griseimembra
12 Aotus vociferans
13 Callicebus cupreus
C. c. discolor
C. c. ornatus
14 Callicebus torquatus
C. t. lucifer
C. t. lugens
C. t. medemi
15 Saimiri sciureus
S. s. albigena
S. s. cassiquiarensis
S. s. macrodon
16 Cebus albifrons
C. a. albifrons
C. a. cesare
C. a. versicolor
C. a. malitiosus
C. a. yuracus
17 Cebus apella
Cebus apella apella
18 Cebus capucinus
19 Pithecia monachus
P. m. monachus
P. m. miller
20 Cacajao melanocephalus
C. m. ouakary
21 Alouatta palliata
A. p. aequatorialis
22 Alouatta seniculus
A. s. seniculus
23 Ateles geoffroyi
A. g. rufiventris
A. g. grisescens E
24 Ateles hybridus
A. h. hybridus
A. h. brunneus E
25 Ateles belzebuth
A. b. belzebuth
26 Lagothrix lagothricha
L. 1. lagothricha
L. 1. luzens



(1) International classification according to the Mace-Lande system
(IUCN, 1994) and Rylands et al. (1995). LR = Lower risk, DD =
Data deficient, VU = Vulnerable, EN = Endangered, CR = Critically
(2) Evaluation of Colombian primate populations, using the same
criteria as the international evaluations of IUCN (1994).
(3) Percentage of total distribution represented by the Colombian
(4) If no subspecies are listed, the species is considered to be without

Cover photograph by Russell A. M ittermeier: a subadult, Wied's black tuffed-car marmoset, Callithrix kuhli, from southern Bahia, Brazil.

lVeotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996





Page 78

(5) Saguinus geoffroyi and S. oedipus are considered to be separate
species, contra Hershkovitz (1977).
(6) HemrnAndez-Camacho and Cooper (1976) and HemAndez-Camacho
and Defler (1985, 1989) consider S. graellsito be a separate species
from S. nigricollis.
(7) The distribution of Aotus brumbacki is poorly known, since
specimens have been karyotyped from the environs of Villavicencio
only. For this reason it seems important to categorize the species
VU/DD. In fact it may be more correct to use only DD.
(8) Aotus "hershkovitzi ", a species with the highest known karyotype,
2n=58, is in the process of being described by Martha Bueno et al.
(pers. comm.).
(9) Saimiri sciureus, sensu Hershkovitz (1984).
(10) Cebus albifrons albifrons = C. albifrons unicolor (Defler and
HemAndez-Camacho, in prep.).
(11) Cebus albifrons versicolor, an extremely variable subspecies
with light and dark phases, includes C. a. pleei and C. a. leucocephalus
(see Hernindez-Camacho and Cooper, 1976).
(12) In this account no subspecies are distinguished for Cebus
capucinus, since they are in doubt. (see Hernindez-Camacho and
Cooper, 1976; Mittermeier and Coimbra-Filho, 1981).
(13) Pithecia monachus, sensu Hershkovitz (1987).
(14) Cacajao melanocephalus, sensu Hershkovitz (1987).
(15) Ateles geoffroyi is considered here to include Atelesfusciceps,
sensu Froehlich et al. (1991).
(16) Ateles geoffroyi rufiventris has priority over A. g. robustus.
(17) Ateles hybridus is considered a full species (Froehlich, pers.
comm., 1993).
(18) Following Froehlich etal. (1991), Ateles belzebuth includes as
subspecies "belzebuth", "chamek", and "marginatus".
(19) Lagothrix lagothricha lugens is considered here to be "VU",
contra Rylands et al. (1995); but see Defler (1996).

of these animals will continue to be in flux, and future
census work will undoubtedly result in some changes to
the classification of many of the taxa listed here.

Thomas R. Defler, Director, Estaci6n Biol6gica Capard,
(Fundaci6n Natura), Apartado A6reo 53200, Santafe de
BogotA, Col6mbia.


Baillie, J. 1995. A closer look at the IUCN Red List
categories: Areas of debate during the red list training
workshop. Species (25):31-34.
Defler, T. R. 1996. The IUCN conservation status of
Lagothrix lagothricha lugens Elliot, 1907. Neotropi-
cal Primates 4(3):78-80.
Defter, T. R. and HemAndez-Camacho, J. In prep. The
true identity and characteristics of Simia albifrons v.
Humboldt, 1812.
Froehlich, J. W., Supriatna, J. and Froehlich, P. H. 1991.
Morphometric analyses ofAteles: Systematic and bio-
geographic implications. Am. J. Primatol. 25:1-22.
Gardenfors, U. 1995. A closer look at the IUCN Red
List categories: The regional perspective. Species (25):
Hernandez-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The
nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: Neotropical Pri-
mates: Field Studies and Conservation, R. W.
Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds.), pp. 35-69. Na-

tional Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.
Hernmndez-Camacho, J. and Defler, T. R. 1985. Some
aspects of the conservation of non-human primates in
Colombia. Primate Conservation (6):42-50.
Hemindez-Camacho, J. and Defler, T.R. 1989. Algunos
aspects de la conservaci6n de primates no-humanos
en Colombia. In: La Primatologia en Latinoamdrica,
C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I. B. Santos
(eds.), pp. 67-100. World Wildlife Fund, Washington,
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini) Vol. 1. University of Chicago Press, Chi-
Hershkovitz, P. 1984. Taxonomy of squirrel monkeys
genus Saimiri (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary
report with the description of a hitherto unnamed form.
Am. J. Primatol. 6:257-312.
Hershkovitz, P. 1987. The taxonomy ofthe South Ameri-
can sakis, genus Pithecia (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a pre-
liminary report and critical review with the descrip-
tion of a new species and a new subspecies. Am. J.
Primatol. 12:387-468.
IUCN. 1994. IUCNRedList Categories. The World Con-
servation Union (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland. Novem-
ber 1994.
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodriguez-Luna,
E. 1995. A species list for the New World primates
(Platyrrhini): Distribution by country, endemism, and
conservation status according to the Mace-Lande sys-
tem. Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.): 113-160.


Recently, Rylands et. al. (1995) published the results of
an evaluation by the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/
SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG) ofthe Mace-Lande
categorization for the conservation status of the New
World primates. In their article Lagothrix lagothricha
lugens was classified as "CR" (Critically Endangered),
which in the new Mace-Lande IUCN system is the most
severe threat in the wild before extinction (IUCN, 1994;
IUCN, 1995). The bases for this classification were the
criteria Bl (populations severely fragmented), B2
(continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in
extent of occurrence, area of occurrence, area, extent
and/or quality of habitat, the number of locations or
subpopulations, and the number of mature individuals),
and C2a (a continuing decline, observed or projected,
or inferred, in numbers of mature individuals and
population structure due to severe fragmentation (i.e.,
no subpopulation estimated to contain more than 50
mature individuals) (Rylands et al., 1995). In this note I
propose that this taxon be categorized as vulnerable
"VU", and I discuss here why I have come to this

Neotropical Primates 4(3), Septemher 1996

Page 79 Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996


Lagothrix lagothricha lugens (sensu Fooden, 1963) may
be endemic to Colombia, although a small (unconfirmed)
population is possibly located in the upper Apure River
system of Venezuela (Hernindez-Camacho and Cooper,
1976). The original distribution was the northern tip of
the Cordillera Central (southern Bolivar) in the Serrania
de San Lucas, isolated from the southern population of
the upper Magdalena River. Also the distribution
apparently included the western and eastern slopes of
the Eastern Cordillera as well as the lowlands of western
Caqueta and Putumayo Departments, southern Meta
Department and the piedmont north at least to the
Venezuelan border (see Fig. 1). The other subspecies in
Colombia (Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha) is
distributed east of lugens throughout the lowland
Amazonian forest.

Lagothrix 1. lugens has been observed at altitudes of up
to about 3,000 m. It is possible that there are other
unknown populations which would enlarge its known
distribution. Nevertheless, this subspecies has the
smallest range of the four subspecies of L. lagothricha.
The original range of this taxon has been fragmented,
and its extent of occurrence reduced due to deforestation

Fig. 1. Geographical distribution of Lagothrix lagothricha lugens,
showing major confirmed populations. I-Serrania de San Lucas
(Bolivar); 2-Purac6 National Park; 3-Cueva de los Guicharos National
Park; 4-Serrania de La Macarena National Park; 5-Tiniguas National
Park; 6-Cordillera de los Picachos National Park.

and colonization along most of the slopes of the
cordilleras and along the piedmont to the east of the
mountains. Nevertheless, there are at least six Colombian
national parks (and perhaps one or two more) which
legally protect L. 1. lugens. Confirmed populations are
located in Purac6, Cueva de los Guicharos, Cordillera
de los Picachos, Tiniguas, La Macarena and El Cocuy
National Parks. The taxon is probably also found in the
Chingaza National Park. Extensive forest on the Eastern
Cordillera of Caqueta Department, extending north to
Picachos, probably protects more L. 1. lugens, but
security problems make it difficult to work there to
census them. Indeed, on-ground protection even within
Colombian parks is often rather difficult, for a number
of reasons.

In order for this taxon to be classified as CR using the
criteria of B I and B2, the extent of occurrence would
need to be estimated to be less than 100 km2 or the area
of occupancy should be estimated to be less than 10 km2,
and estimates should include any two of three points
having to do with habitat fragmentation, decline, and
fluctuation. However, for this note I have analyzed the
minimum extent of occurrence as follows.

First, the subspecies is known mainly from the Serrania
de la Macarena westward to the Cordillera. This includes
a block of three national parks, La Macarena, Las
Tiniguas and Los Picachos. I do not include the area of
La Macarena east of the Serrania since Lagothrix does
not appear to be present there. The extent of this block,
up to an altitude of 3,000 m, is about 8,031 km2 of intact
forest with very little colonization, judging from a
satellite image survey of the Colombian Amazon which
I carried out from the mid- 1980's (Defler, in press). The
subspecies is confirmed in at least three other national
Parks: Puracd, Cueva de los Guacharos and El Cocuy
which adds roughly another 1,000 km2 to the total.

The northernmost population of this taxon is found in a
forest reserve in southern Bolivar, which adds, very
approximately, 15,000 km2. Hopefully a national park
will be established in this region in the future, since it is
the largest area of intact forest in the entire zone, mostly
because it remains dangerous to outsiders, because of
insurgents. Also, along the Cordillera Occidental from
southern Caqueta up to the Cordillera de los Picachos
National Park there are perhaps 7,000 km2 of fairly intact
forest on mountain slopes, which is Lagothrix habitat.
This provides a corridor from La Cueva de los Guicharos
to the Florencia road over the Cordillera, thence to
Picachos. The total area of occupancy here is 30,081
km2 and does not include other forests in the upper
Magdalena and those along the Cordillera Oriental where
populations of this subspecies are known, even though
the habitat is quite fragmented. The conclusion here is

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Page 79

Page 80

that B I and B2 cannot be appropriately used as a basis
for a classification as CR, nor EN (endangered), nor even

The other criterion, C2a is also not valid. This states
that C the population is estimated to number less than
250 mature individuals, 2 a continuing decline,
observed, projected, or inferred, in numbers of mature
individuals and population structure in the form of a
severely fragmented (i.e., no subpopulation estimated
to contain more than 50 mature individuals).

The joint Japanese-Los Andes University project on the
Duda River in Tiniguas National Park has studied some
habituated groups of L. 1. lugens for several years and,
using data found in Stevens et al. (unpublished, 1994), I
have calculated a density of about 28 animals/km2. About
98% of this national park is still forested (Defler, in
press), so that multiplying 98% of the size of the park
(2,019 km2) by the density at this research site yields an
optimistic approximate population of 54,401 Lagothrix.
Using my own age-sex categories for a group of
Lagothrix in the Amazon (another subspecies; Defler,
1996) we can say that roughly half of a woolly monkey
group is made up of adult animals or 27,200 in Tiniguas.
This is probably an overly optimistic calculation, given
that there has been much timber extraction and other
colonist activities in this park. But the total does not
include L. 1. lugens found in Picachos or La Macarena
National Parks, both with sizeable woolly monkey
populations, as well as the known populations in Puracd
and Cueva de los GuAcharos, which are probably smaller
than Picachos, but still contribute to a total which does
not begin to compare to the scanty populations of such
species as Brachyteles arachnoides (EN) or three of the
Leontopithecus species classified as critically

It would be incorrect to certify that there are over 10,000
mature individuals of L. 1. lugens, since no censusing
has been done. Nevertheless, the distinct possibility
exists that there may be twice this number which would
put the taxon out of the range for VU, as well. I personally
believe that it is still possible that the population of
mature individuals may be 20,000, given the large area
of occupancy that still remains.

On the basis of the criteria Alec and A2c, I would place
this taxon into the VU category at this time. All parts of
the area of occupancy are surrounded by human activity.
Following a fuller appraisal of the status of this woolly
monkey, the correct classification may ultimately be
Lower Risk cd (dependent on conservation efforts), but
presently we are far from attaining this.

Thomas R. Defter, Director, Estaci6n Biol6gica Capar6,

Fundaci6n Natura, Apartado Adreo 53200, Santafd de
Bogotd, Colombia.


Defler, T. R. 1996. Aspects of the ranging pattern in a
group of wild woolly monkeys (Lagothrix
lagothricha). Am. J Primatol. 38:289-302.
Defler, T. R. In press. An analysis of the state of the
forest cover in the Colombian Amazon: A study of
the extent and pattern of forest conversion. Conserva-
tion International, Washington, D. C.
Defler, T. R. In prep. Primates of Colombia: Natural
History and Conservation.
Fooden, J. 1963. A revision of the woolly monkey (ge-
nus Lagothrix). J. Mammal. 44(2):213-247.
Hern ndez-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The
nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: Neotropical Pri-
mates: Field Studies and Conservation, R. W.
Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds.), pp. 35-69. Na-
tional Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C.
IUCN. 1994. IUCNRed List Categories. The World Con-
servation Union (IUCN), Species Survival Commis-
sion, Gland, Switzerland.
IUCN. 1995. A new system for classifying threatened
status. Neotropical Primates 3 (suppl.): 104-112.
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodriguez Luna,
E. 1995. A species list for the New World primates
(Platyrrhini): Distribution by country, endemism, and
conservation status according to the Mace-Lande sys-
tem. Neotropical Primates 3 (suppl.): 113-160.
Stevenson, P. R., Quiflones, M. and Ahumada, J. 1994.
Ecological strategies of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix
lagotricha) at Tinigua National Park, Colombia. Am.
J. Primatol. 32:123-140.
Stevenson, P. R., Quifiones, M. and Ahumada, J. 1994.
Relaci6n entire la abundancia de frutos y las estrategias
alimenticias de cuatro species de primates en La
Macarena, Colombia. Unpublished manuscript.


A lo largo de los iltimos aflos se han publicado notas
con el objeto de divulgar los temas y grupos que en la
Argentina desarrollan trabajos de investigaci6n en
primates. Dada la diversidad de publicaciones, result
una tarea dificil obtener informaci6n bibliogrAfica y
conocer los proyectos en desarrollo. En este articulo se
present una resefia de las actividades desarrolladas por
especialistas del Grupo de Investigaci6n en Biologia
Evolutiva (GIBE) y del Museo Argentino de Ciencias
Naturales (MACN).

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Page 81 Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

GIBE Dra. Marta Mudry, Lic. Valeria Szapskievich,
Lic Adriana Hick, Lic. Aldo Giudice y Lic. Maria A.

En los 1ltimos veinte aflos se han realizado trabajos
tendientes a caracterizar bioecol6gicamente a los
primates de la Argentina y paises vecinos, como
Paraguay y Bolivia. De este modo, se desarrollaron
aspects sobre citogen6tica y su aporte a la taxonomia.
Este tema, que en un principio era exclusive de un marco
te6rico, fue incorporado gradualmente al studio de
poblaciones de primates en su imbito natural y al
desarrollo de t6cnicas de manejo en cautiverio.

Los primeros trabajos permitieron la caracterizaci6n
citogen6tica de Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya y Aotus
azarae a partir de ejemplares silvestres y de cautiverio.
Los studios con t6cnicas de bandeo G y C, NOR y G/C
secuencial en cromosomas metafasicos y prometafasicos
identificaron regions fragiles. La relaci6n con los
ordenamientos cromos6micos observados en C6bidos y
su vinculaci6n con regions heterocromiticas se estudi6
tanto a nivel cualitativo como cuantitativo. Se analizaron
Saimiri boliviensis procedentes de Bolivia y otros
alojados en los zool6gicos de Madrid y Barcelona.
Grupos de la Universidad Aut6noma de Barcelona y de
la II Universitd di Roma, participaron en la
caracterizaci6n gen6tica. Actualmente se estudian
proteinas sericas y enzimas eritrocitarias de A. caraya y
Cebus apella, procedentes de fragments de selva
resultantes de la deforestaci6n y de islas del rio Parand
en el NE de la Argentina. El principal objetivo es
caracterizar la variabilidad de esta especie y conocer si
los grandes rios acttian como eficientes barreras
geogrAficas. Los trabajos sobre ecologia de esta especie
muestran diferencias notorias entire las poblaciones de
islas y tierra firme, sin embargo 6stas no se reflejan en
los studios citogendticos pudiendo estar asociadas a la
variabilidad adaptativa de la especie.

Conjuntamente con la aplicaci6n de las t6cnicas de
caracterizaci6n gen6tica de primates en cautiverio, se
desarrolla un studio sobre aspects del comportamiento
de C. apella y A. caraya. El objetivo es caracterizar la
plasticidad comportamental de los primates alojados en
jardines zool6gicos. Para ello se consideran los
conocimientos disponibles, sobre organizaci6n social y
comportamiento de estas species en vida silvestre, con
el fin de lograr un program de mejoramiento basado
en el studio del ambiente fisico y el uso del habitat,
comportamiento alimentario y relaciones sociales. El
trabajo tiene como base que el bienestar y mantenimiento
de los primates puede mejorarse si se logra un equilibrio
entire las necesidades biol6gicas y el ambiente del

MACN Dr. Gabriel E. Zunino, Lic. Susana Bravo, Lic.
Martin Kowalewski.

Interactuan con este grupo un n6mero variable de
bi6logos de campo, como los Lic. Elisabet Wehncke y
Luis Calcaterra. Parte de los proyectos se han
desarrollado en colaboraci6n con investigadores de otras
instituciones, como el Laboratorio de Investigaciones
Ecol6gicas de las Yungas-LIEY (Dr. Alejandro D.
Brown) y el Centro Argentino de Primates-CAPRIM (Dr.
Julio Ruiz).

Todos los temas de investigaci6n estan orientados al
studio de poblaciones silvestres de primates de la
Argentina. Estos comprendieron a lo largo de los filtimos
afios, studios referentes a la variabilidad adaptativa de
C. apella; organizaci6n social, uso del espacio,
comportamiento y dieta en A. caraya y estado
poblacional de A. azarae. La suma de la experiencia
acumulada permiti6 elaborar un perfil sobre la
distribuci6n geografica y estado poblacional de los
primates de nuestro pais.

En la actualidad se desarrollan studios sobre dispersi6n
y germinaci6n de semillas porA. caraya, tomando como
referencia su importancia en la regeneraci6n de selvas.
Otro proyecto relacionado se orienta al conocimiento
de esta especie en la selva de inundaci6n, donde present
caracteristicas particulares en cuanto a organizaci6n
social y uso de los recursos.

Lista de Publicaciones Relacionadas

La informaci6n detallada de los resultados obtenidos
hasta el present en las diversas lines de trabajo puede
obtenerse a travds de la bibliograffa que se cita a
continuaci6n, solicitando copias a la Biblioteca
Primatol6gica Argentina. Dr. Gabriel Zunino. Museo
Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Av. Angel Gallardo
470, 1405 Buenos Aires, Argentina, e-mail:gezunino@

Citogenetica y Sistemdtica

Mudry de Pargament, M. 1980. Los primates y su
utilizaci6n en Biomedicina. Anales de la Academia
Nacional de Medicina 58(25):467-471.
Mudry de Pargament, M. 1980. Los primates modelo
animal en la investigaci6n biom6dica. Medicine
Mudry de Pargament, M. y Brieux de Salum, S. 1981.
Actualizaci6n bibliogrAfica en citogen6tica de c6bidos
argentinos. Mendeliana 5(1):49-51, 1981.
Mudry de Pargament, M, Brieux de Salum, S. y Colillas.
0. J. 1981. Citogendtica en Alouatta caraya. Physis,
Sec. C 40(8):63-70.

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Page 81

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Mudry de Pargament, M., Slavutsky, I. y Brieux de
Salum, S. 1981. Cytogenetic characterization of HVB
4156. A Southamerican primate (Callithrix jacchus)
cell line. Rev. Arg. Microbiol. 13(3):77-82, 1981.
Mudry de Pargament, M., Slavutsky, I. y Brieux de
Salum, S. 1982. Caracterizaci6n citogendtica de
Callithrix jacchus. Zoologia Neotropical. Actas del
VIII Congreso Latinoamericano Zoologia, Pedro Sali-
nas (ed.), Venezuela, pp. 519-526.
Mudry de Pargament, M., Slavustky, I. y Brieux de
Salum, S. 1982. Estudios cariotipicos en una poblaci6n
de Saimiri sciureus de Bolivia. Mendeliana 5(2):81-
Mudry de Pargament, M., Slavutsky, I., Colillas, 0. J. y
Brieux de Salum, S. 1982. The Argentine Aotus
trivirgatus. Int. J. ofPrimatol. 3(3):275.
Mudry de Pargament, M., Labal de Vinuesa, M., Colillas.
0. J. y Brieux de Salum, S. 1984. Banding patterns of
Alouatta caraya. Brazil. J. Genet. 7(2):373-379.
Mudry de Pargament, M., Brieux de Salum, S. y Colillas,
0. J. 1984. Cytogenetic studies of Platyrrhini. Review
article. J. Hum. Evol. 13:217-221.
Mantec6n, M., Mudry de Pargament, M. y Brown, A.
D. 1984. Cebus apella de Argentina. Rev. Mus. Arg.
Cs. Nat., Zoologia 13(41):399-408.
Mudry de Pargament, M., Colillas, 0. J. y Brieux de
Salum, S. 1984. The Aotus from northern Argentina.
Primates 25(4):530-537.
Mudry de Pargament, M., Labal de Vinuesa, M., Colillas,
0. J. y Brieux de Salum, S. 1984. Etude g6ndtique du
cai de la Republique Argentine (Cebus apella). Annales
de Gdndtique 27(2): 102-105.
Mudry de Pargament, M., Labal de Vinuesa, M. y Brieux
de Salum, S. 1985. Quantitation of heteromorphism
of C-bands of Cebus apella. Am. J. Hum. Evol. 14:693-
Mudry de Pargament, M. y Galliari, C. 1985. Algunas
consideraciones sobre la variabilidad en la subfamilia
Aotinae (Cebidae, Platyrrhini). Bol. Primatol. Arg.
Mudry de Pargament, M. 1985. Contribuci6n de la
cariologia comparada a los studios de citotaxonomia
de primates americanos. Bol. Primatol. Arg. 3(2):1-
Mudry de Pargament, M. 1986. Importancia de la
citogenetica en la caracterizaci6n de primates en
cautiverio. Bol. Primatol. Arg. 4(1):31-35.
Mudry, M. D., Brown, A. D. y Zunino, G. E. 1987.
Algunas consideraciones citotaxon6micas sobre Cebus
apella de Argentina. Bol. Primatol. Arg. 5(1-2):65-
Mudry de Pargament, M. y Slavutsky, I. 1987. Banding
patterns of the chromosome of Cebus apella (Com-
parative studies between specimens from Paraguay and
Argentina). Primates 28(1): 111-117.
Fundia, A. y Mudry, M. 1987. Inducci6n de sitios frAgiles

Page 82

en Cebus apella. Bol. Primatol. Arg. 5(1-2):7-12.
Mudry de Pargament, M. y Labal de Vinuesa, M. 1988.
Variabilidad en bandas C de dos poblaciones de Cebus
apella. Mendeliana 8(2):79-86.
Slavutsky, I. y M. Mudry. 1989. Regiones de
organizadores nucleolares (NOR) en dos species de
la familiar Cebidae, Platyrrhini: Saimiri sciureus y
Alouatta caraya. Bol. Primatol. Lat. 1(1):67-73.
Slavutsky, I. y Mudry, M. 1990. Intercambio de
cromAtides hermanas (ICH) e indice de replicaci6n (IR)
en dos species de platirrinos: Saimiri boliviensis y
Alouatta caraya. Bol. Primatol. Lat. 2(1):6-13.
Mudry, M., Slavutsky, I. y Labal de Vinuesa, M. 1990.
Chromosome comparison among five species of
Platyrrhini (Alouatta caraya, Aotus azarae, Callithrix
jacchus, Cebus apella and Saimiri sciureus). Primates
Mudry, M. 1990. Cytogenetic variability within and
across populations of Cebus apella. Folia Primatol.
Arditi, S., Mudry, M. y Brown, A. D. 1990. Estado ac-
tual del desarrollo de la primatologia en la Argentina.
Bol. Primatol. Lat. 2(1):43-66.
Mudry, M., Corach, D., Ponsa Fontanals, M. y Garcia
Cald6s, M. 1991. Genetic studies of Argentinian pri-
mates. En: Primatology Today, A. Ehara et al. (eds.),
pp.617-618. Elsevier Science Publishers (BV), New
Fundia, A., Gorostiaga, M., Delprat, A. y Mudry, M.
1991. Fragile sites analysis and definition of chromo-
some landmarks, regions, and bands in Alouatta caraya
(ACA). Primatology Today, A. Ehara et al. (eds.),
pp.601-602. Elsevier Science Publishers (BV).
Mudry, M., Slavutsky, I., Zunino, G.E., Delprat, A. y
Brown, A. D. 1991. A new karyotype of Cebus apella
(Cebidae, Platyrrhini) from Argentina. Rev. Brasil.
Genit. 14(3):729-738.
Mudry, M. D., Slavutsky, G. E. Zunino, G. E., Delprat,
A. y Brown, A. D. 1991. A new karyotype of Cebus
apella from Argentina. Rev. Brasil. Genet. 14(3):729-
Mudry, M., Zunino, G. E., Slavutsky I. y Delprat, A.
1992. Caracteristicas poblacionales y cariotipicas del
mono aullador negro (Alouatta caraya) en la Argen-
tina. Bol. Primatol. Lat. 3(1):1-11.
Delprat, A., Corley, E., Ruiz, J. y Mudry, M. 1992.
Estudios de caracterizaci6n del ADN altamente
repetido en species de monos del nuevo mundo y su
comparaci6n con el hombre. Bol. Primatol. Lat.
Mudry, M. D., Zunino, G. E., Slavutsky, I. y Delprat, A.
1992. Cariotipo, fenotipo y caracteristicas
poblacionales del mono aullador negro (Alouatta
caraya) de la Argentina. Bol. Primatol. Lat. 3(1):1-
Zunino, G. E. y Mudry, M. D. 1993. Diferencias

Page 83 Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

cariol6gicas y morfol6gicas entire subespecies de Cebus
apella de la Argentina. Bol. Lat. Primatol. 4(1):13-
Mudry, M., Ponsa Fontanals, M., Borrell, A., Egozcue,
J., Garcia Cald6s, M. 1994. Prometaphasic chromo-
somes, G-C, NOR and Res banding of howler mon-
key (Alouatta caraya). Am. J. Primatol. 33(2): 121-
132, 1994.
Garcia, M., Borrell, M., Mudry, M., J. Egozcue, J. y
Ponsa, M. 1995. Prometaphase karyotype and restric-
tion enzyme banding in squirrel monkeys, Saimiri
boliviensis boliviensis (Primates, Platyrrhini). J. Mam-
mal. 76(2):497-503.
Ponsa, M., Garcia, M., Borrell, M., Garcia, M., Egozcue,
J., Gorostiaga, M., Delprat, A. y Mudry, M. 1995.
Heterochromatine variations in Cebus apella
(Platyrrhini, Cebidae). Am. J. Primatol. 37:325-331.
Mudry, M. D., Fundia, A., Hick, A. y Gorostiaga, M.
A., 1995. Labilidad cromos6mica: una possible
explicaci6n en el origen de los reordenamientos
cromos6micos en C6bidos. Bol. Primatol. Lat. 5(1):7-
Mudry, M. D., Delprat, A., Gorostiaga, M. A. y Zunino,
G. E. En prensa. AnAlisis evolutivo e importancia
taxon6mica de Primates de Argentina. Marmosiana.

Ecologia, Comportamiento y Conservaci6n

Zunino, G. E. 1985. Resefla de las teorias sobre el origen
de los monos platirrinos. Bol. Primatol. Arg. 3(2):7-
Zunino, G. E., Rumiz, D. I. y Chalukian, S. 1986.
Infanticidio y desaparici6n de infants asociados al
reemplazo de machos en grupos de Alouatta caraya.
En: A Primatologia no Brasil-2, M. T. de Mello (ed.),
pp.185-190. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia,
Rumiz, D. I., Zunino, G. E., Obregozo, M. L. y Ruiz, J.
C. 1986. Alouatta caraya: Habitat and resource utili-
zation in northern Argentina. En: Current Perspectives
in Primate Social Dynamics, D. M. Taub y F.A. King
(eds.), pp: 175-193. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New
Zunino, G. E., Galliari, C. y Colillas, 0. J. 1986.
Distribuci6n y conservaci6n del Mirikina (Aotus
azarae) en la Argentina. En: A Primatologia no Brasil
2, M. T. de Mello (ed.), pp.305-316. Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.
Zunino, G. E. y Rumiz, D. I. 1987. Observaciones sobre
el comportamiento territorial del mono aullador negro
(Alouatta caraya). Bol. Primatol. Arg. 4(1):36-52.
Zunino, G. E. 1987. Nutrici6n en primates folivoros: La
dieta de Alouatta caraya en vida silvestre. Bol.
Primatol. Arg. 5(1-2):78-87.
Zunino, G. E. 1988. Algunos aspects de la ecologia y
etologia del mono aullador negro en hAbitat

fragmentado. Tesis de doctorado, FCEyN,
Universidad de Buenos Aires, 152pp.
Zunino G. E., 1989. Habitat dieta y actividad del mono
aullador negro (Alouatta caraya) en el noreste de Ar-
gentina. Bol. Primatol. Lat. 1(1):74-96.
Brown A. D. y Zunino, G. E. 1990. Dietary variability
of Cebus apella in extreme hAbitats: Evidence for
adaptability. Folia Primatol. 54(3-4): 187-195.
Zunino G. E.. 1990. Reproducci6n y mortalidad de
Saimiri boliviensis y Cebus apella en cautiverio. Bol.
Primatol. Lat. 2(1):43-49.
Brown, A. D. y Zunino, G. E. 1994. HAbitat, distribuci6n
y problems de conservaci6n de los primates de la
Argentina. Vida Silvestre Neotropical 3(1):30-40.
Zunino, G. E., Mudry, M. D. y Delprat, A. 1995. Estado
actual del conocimiento de las poblaciones silvestres
de primates de la Argentina. Treballs Societat
Catalana de Biologia 46:177-188.
Zunino, G. E., Bravo, S., Reisenman, C. y Murad-
Ferreira, F. En prensa. HAbitat and social organiza-
tion of black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya, Pri-
mates, Cebidae) in northern Argentina. A Primatologia
no Brasil.
Zunino, G.E. 1995. Reproducci6n del mono aullador
negro Alouatta caraya (Primates, Cebidae) en el
noreste de la Argentina. Revista del Museo Argentino
de Ciencias Naturales. En prensa.
Bravo, S.P., Kowalewski, M. M. y Zunino, G. E. 1995.
Dispersi6n y germinaci6n de semillas de Ficus monckii
por Alouatta caraya. Bol. Primatol. Lat. 5(1):27-30.
Kowalewski, M., S.P. Bravo y G.E. Zunino. 1995.
Agressive behavior among males of black howler
monkeys. Neotropical Primates 3(4):179-181.
Zunino, G. E., Bravo, S. y Murad Ferreira, F. y
Reisenmann, C. 1996. Characteristics of two types of
habitat and the status of the howler monkey (Alouatta
caraya) in northern Argentina. Neotropical Primates
4(2): 48-50.

Manejo en Cautiverio

Giudice, A. M. 1993. Relaciones sociales en un grupo
en cautiverio de monos aulladores negros (Alouatta
caraya). Bol. Primatol. Lat. 4(1): 19-23.
Giudice, A. M. y Mudry, M. D. 1995. Monos cai (Cebus
apella) en cautiverio: composici6n de grupos. Bol.
Primatol. Lat. 5(1):25-27.

Marta D. Mudry, Valeria Szapskievich, Adriana
Hick, Aldo M. Giudice, GIBE, Facultad de Ciencias
Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabell6n II,
Piso 4, Lab. 46-47, Av. Cantilo s/n, 1428 Buenos Aires,
y Gabriel E. Zunino, Museo Argentino de Ciencias
Naturales, Div. Mastozoologia, Av. Angel Gallardo 470,
1405 Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Neotrapical Primates 4(3), September 1996

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Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996 Page 84


The muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) is an endangered
primate species endemic to the Atlantic forest of Brazil
(Strier, 1992). Today only a few small and fragmented
populations still remain due to the destruction of the large
majority of the Atlantic forest (Fonseca, 1983, 1985a,
1985b; Mittermeier et al., 1987; Nishimura et. al., 1988).
In this paper we report on the discovery of a new area of
occurrence for the muriqui in the Serra da Mantiqueira,
in the municipality of Pindamonhangaba, state of Sao
Paulo, Brazil.

Description of the Area: Located in the municipality of
Pindamonhangaba (140 km east of the city of Sao Paulo),
the Sao Sebastiao do Ribeirao Grande ranch (220 45'S,
450 28'W) encompasses 1,706 hectares of land at
altitudes of 627 to 1,962 meters (Figure 1). Ofthis, 1,206
hectares are comprised of natural vegetation: rain forest,
scrub and campos (savanna). The remaining 500 ha are
covered by eucalyptus plantations. In addition, the area
borders the Campos do Jordao State Park, which covers
8,300ha, and the Usina Isabel owned by the electricity
company ELETROPAULO (Eletricidade de Sio Paulo
S.A), as well as the privately-owned Vera Cruz ranch of
approximately 1,000 ha. These properties provide a total
of 10,700 ha of continuous forest within the
Environmental Protection Area (APA) of the Serra da
Mantiqueira (Federal Decree 91.304, 6 March, 1985).

Sightings: We obtained three sightings of muriqui in the
Sao Sebastiato do Ribeirao Grande ranch. All of these
were within the same area, Atlantic rain forest at an
altitude of 1,100 m. The sightings occurred in April 1994,
October 1994 and January 1996. The number of
individuals counted during these sightings ranged from
seven to 22 animals, including two dependent infants

Fig. 1. Location of the Slo Sebastilo do Ribeirao Grande Ranch,
state of Slo Paulo.

seen at the first sighting in April 1994.

Other Primate Species: In addition to the muriqui, three
other primate species were recorded in the Sao Sebastiao
do Ribeirao Grande ranch: the brown capuchin monkey
(Cebus apella), the brown howler monkey (Alouatta
fusca) and the masked titi monkey (Callicebus

Conservation: As part of the activities involved in the
preparation of a management plan for the Forest Reserve
of the Sao Sebastiao do Ribeirao Grande ranch (Manna
de Deus et al., in prep.), CEMASI (Centro de
Monitoramento Ambiental da Serra do Itapety) with the
support of the Environment Division of Votorantim
Celulose e Papel, has been carrying out systematic
surveys of the fauna and flora since 1992, besides data
collection on land use and abiotic features of the area.
The Management Plan includes a "Program for the
Natural Environment", which will give priority to studies
on endangered species such as the muriqui.

Acknowledgments: We are most grateful to Fausto R.
A. Camargo (Votorantim Celulose e Papel), Jos6 Roberto
Manna de Deus and Marcos Yamamoto (CEMASI) for
their support in this research.

Maria de Fitima de Oliveira and Lucila Manzatti,
Centro de Monitoramento Ambiental da Serra do Itapety
(CEMASI), Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes,
Universidade Braz Cubas, Caixa Postal 374,08701-970
Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil.


Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1983. The role of deforestation
and private reserves in the conservation of the woolly
spider monkey (Brachyteles arachnoides). Unpubl.
Master's thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1985a. Observations on the ecol-
ogy of the muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides E.
Geoffroy 1806): Implications for its conservation. Pri-
mate Conservation (5): 48-52.
Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1985b. The vanishing Brazilian
Atlantic forest. Biol. Conserv. 34:17-34.
Manna de Deus, J. R., Nicolau, S. A., Espirito Santo, C.
E., Martins, R., Oliveira, M. F., Yamamoto, M. A. M.,
Menezes, A. C. and Camargo, F. R. A. In prep. Piano
de Manejo para a Fazenda Sao Sebastiao do Ribeirao
Grande, Pindamonhangaba SP. Centro de
Monitoramento Ambiental da Serra do Itapety,
Universidade Braz Cubas, Universidade de Mogi das
Cruzes, Votorantim Celulose e Papel, Mogi das Cruzes,
Sao Paulo.
Mittermeier, R. A., Valle, C., Strier, K. B., Young, A.
L., Paccagnella, S. G. and Lemos de SA, R. M. 1987.

Areotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Page 84

Page 85

Current distribution of the muriqui in the Atlantic for-
est region of eastern Brazil. Primate Conservation
(8): 143-149.
Strier, K. B. 1992. Faces in the Forest: The Endangered
Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil. Oxford University Press,
Nishimura, A., Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Young, A. L., Strier,
K. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Valle, C. M. C. 1988.
The muriqui, genus Brachyteles. In: Ecology and Be-
havior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R. A.
Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and
G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.577-610. World Wild-
life Fund, Washington, D.C.


Unusually low infant mortality has characterized one
group of muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) at the
Estagao Biol6gica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil
(Strier, 1991). Long-term demographic records of
recognized individuals indicate that from June 1982
through June 1995, only two of the 49 infants born in
the study group have disappeared or died (Strier, 1993/
1994). One of these infants belonged to a set of twins,
and was last sighted at approximately 13-months of age
struggling to follow her mother, who was carrying the
other twin. The second was a male who died of unknown
causes but was still being carried as a limp and clearly
lifeless form by his mother 5 days after birth. A third
infant was also found abandoned on the forest floor at 4
months of age, and would undoubtedly have died had
observers not intervened and returned her to her mother
(Nogueira et al., 1994).

Although we lack confirmation of the cause of death in
these prior instances of infant mortality, two recent sets
of observations suggest that young muriquis at this site
may be more vulnerable to predation than was previously

Case 1: On 13 July 1995, one observer (RCP) was
accompanying the study group as it foraged along a ridge
top in the central part of its home range. At
approximately 1230 h, group members descended to the
ground and began feeding on samambaia (Rumohra
adiantiformis). Two adult females suddenly gave loud
alarm calls. The group responded by rapidly climbing
back into the canopy, and soon afterward moved away
from the ridge into an adjacent valley. The 13-month
old son of one of the vocalizing females did not flee
into the trees when his mother and another female gave

their alarm. Dense vegetation made it impossible to
observe the infant, but his mother and her associate
remained on the ridge top and continued to vocalize in
what resembled a mixed alarm and lament over the next
two hours. The following day, both adult females were
found with the rest of the study group. The mother of
the infant that had remained on the ground was now
traveling alone, and no evidence of her son was found
despite searches along the ridge top where he was last
sighted. A few days later, the same observer was with
the group when the muriquis gave an alarm call similar
to the one on 15 July. Shortly after the alarm, a large
tayra (Eira barbara) passed close to the observer on the
forest floor.

Case 2: On 17 September 1995, a second observer (CGC)
was accompanying the group as it traveled toward a
patch of primary forest. At 1040 h, the group settled
down along a trail, with some individuals resting and
others feeding in nearby trees. At 1050 h, the observer
began to hear muriqui alarm calls, and went to the area
where the alarms were originating. The alarms continued
until 1140 h. At 1120 h, a female muriqui was sighted
without her 13-month old daughter who had been seen
earlier in the morning. This mother was close to the same
female who had lost her infant less than two months
earlier. Both mothers were vocalizing in a sort of cry,
and embraced one another twice during a 10-minute
focal sample. At the end of the day, the female whose
daughter was missing remained in the area where the
alarm calls had been given, slightly separated from the
rest of the group. The following day, the observer located
a nest ofLeptodon cayanensis (Accipitridae) in the area
where the muriquis had been alarm calling, and where
the mother of the 13-month old infant was first sighted
without her daughter.

In both of these instances, the behavior of the muriquis,
including distinct alarm calls to visible predators, and
the subsequent disappearance of two infants, are strongly
suggestive that predation was the cause of the two
infants' disappearances. Previously, the only reports of
natural predators of muriquis have involved jaguars
(Panthera onca) in large, pristine protected forests
(Olmos, 1994; Galetti, 1996). The circumstances and
coincidental disappearances described above suggest that
young muriquis inhabiting small, disturbed private
forests may also be vulnerable to natural terrestrial and
avian predators.

We can only speculate about the timing and
circumstances of these two suspected predations, and
we cannot rule out the possibility that the muriquis' alarm
calls and the subsequent disappearances of these two
infants were coincidental rather than causally linked.
However, it may also be the case that predation pressures

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

on muriquis may be increasing at this site. First, the
presence of human observers accompanying the
muriquis may have previously inhibited unhabituated
predators from pursuing the muriquis in our study group.
Second, the dramatic increase in the size of the study
group (Strier, 1993/1994) may make mothers less
vigilant toward their infants as they devote more of their
attention to feeding or as they exploit a greater variety
of foods in areas of the forest where they are more
vulnerable to predators. Finally, the predator population,
like the muriqui population, may be growing as a result
of continuing conservation efforts at this site. Indeed,
continuing efforts to preserve and protect the ecosystem
at the EBC may allow us to witness the return of natural
ecological dynamics within this community, including
those between predators and their muriqui prey.

The fact that both infants were the same age at the time
of their disappearances and presumed depredations may
be just a coincidence. Alternatively, it may be indicative
of a life history stage when young muriquis are especially
vulnerable to predation. Although 13-month old
muriquis spend most of their time in proximity to their
mothers and are not yet weaned, they do, nonetheless,
spend significant amounts of their time foraging and
traveling independently (Odalia Rimoli, 1992). Predation
may be an important source of infant mortality during
this critical period of development, with consequences
both for the reproductive success of mothers as well as
for the demographic structure of the population. As we
continue to monitor the demography and behavioral
ecology of muriquis at the EBC, we hope to gain greater
insights into these and other sources of mortality on

Acknowledgments: Permission to conduct research in
Brazil was provided by the Brazil Science Council
(CNPq), with sponsorship by Professors Cl1io Valle,
C6sar Ades, and Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca. The research
was supported by NSF grants BNS 8305322, BNS
8619442, and BNS 8959298, the Fulbright Foundation,
Grant no. 213 from the Joseph Henry Fund of the
National Academy of Sciences (NAS), Sigma Xi, the L.
S. B. Leakey Foundation, the World Wildlife Fund, the
Seacon Fund of the Chicago Zoological Society, the Liz
Claiborne and Art Ortenberg Foundation, the Lincoln
Park Zoo Scott Neotropic Fund, and the Graduate School
of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. E. Veado, F.
Mendes, J. Rimoli, A.O. Rimoli, F. Neri, P. Coutinho,
A. Carvalho, L. Oliveira, C. Nogueira, S. Neto, W.
Teixeira, M. A. Maciel, R. Printes, and C. Costa
contributed to the long-term demographic data records
reported here.

Rodrigo Cambara Printes, Rua Ten. Cel. Fabricio
Pillar 650/01, Mont'Serrat, 90450-040 Porto Alegre, Rio

Page 86

Grande do Sul, Brazil, Claudia Guimaraes Costa,
Estaqao Biol6gicade Caratinga, Caixa Postal 82,36950-
000 Ipanema, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and Karen B. Strier,
Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-
Madison, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706,


Galetti, M. 1996. Comportamentos antipredat6rios de
quatro espdcies de primatas no sudeste do Brasil. Rev.
Brasil. Biol. 56:203-209.
Nogueira, C., Carvalho, A. R., Oliveira, L., Veado, E.
M. and Strier, K. B. 1994. Recovery and release of an
infant muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, at the
Caratinga Biological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Neotropical Primates 2(1):3-5.
Oddlia Rimoli, A. 1992. 0 filhote muriqui (Brachyteles
arachnoides): um estudo do desenvolvimento da
independencia. Unpubl. Master's thesis, Universidade
de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo.
Olmos, F. 1994. Jaguar predation on muriquiBrachyteles
arachnoides. Neotropical Primates 2(2): 16.
Strier, K.B. 1991. Demography and conservation in an
endangered primate, Brachyteles arachnoides.
Conserv. Biol. 5:214-218.
Strier, K.B. 1993/1994. Viability analysis of an isolated
population of muriqui monkeys (Brachyteles
arachnoides): implications for primate conservation
and demography. Primate Conservation (14-15):43-


The endangered golden-headed lion tamarin,
Leontopithecus chrysomelas, is restricted in the wild to
remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in southern
Bahia and northern Minas Gerais states (Pinto and
Tavares, 1994). As for other members of the genus (Seal
et al., 1990), captive breeding is likely to play an
important role in the long-term conservation of this
species. Like other callitrichines, lion tamarins are co-
operative breeders, but exhibit a relatively short gestation
period (Martin, 1992), and a behavioral rather than
physiological suppression of breeding in subordinate
females (French and Stribley, 1987).

As part of a study of reproductive behaviour in captive
lion tamarins, a group of three L. chrsyomelas, containing
a breeding pair and a subadult female daughter (11
months old), was monitored during the period following
the birth of a single infant on the 5th of July, 1995. Data

Page 87 Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

on infant carrying were collected during thirty-minute
continuous focal samples on eleven different days to the
1st of August, when the infanticide occurred. All three
group members carried the infant, but whereas the
breeding female was the only carrier on the first two
days post-partum, the interest of both adults in the infant
declined considerably after the first week (Fig. 1).

On the 28th day following the birth, the male was
observed at the start of the observation session rubbing
the infant forcibly against the ground with both hands,
and continued doing so during approximately eight
minutes. The infant was face up, and emitted a strident
vocalization intermittently. Halfway through this period,
the breeding female approached to within 20 cm of the
male, but did not interfere, and moved away again after
40 seconds. Neither female attempted to impede the
male. The male then moved away, leaving the infant
silent and immobile on the ground. The infant was still
alive when removed two minutes later, but died during
the night. Earlier on the same day the male had dropped
the infant from a height of almost two metres.

Infanticide has only recently been observed in free-
ranging callitrichines (Digby, 1995; A. C. M. Oliveira,
pers. comm.), and it is as yet unclear with what frequency
it may occur in the wild. In both cases, observed
infanticides appeared to be a result of factors -
reproductive competition and nutritional stress,
respectively that are unlikely to be relevant in the.
present case, especially as it involved the breeding male,
rather than the female, as was the case in the previous

The most likely explanation here would seem to be
offered by the "social pathology" hypothesis (Hrdy,
1979), related to the stress of captive conditions, although
it is not exactly clear what factors are most relevant.
The breeding pair had successfully reared the group's
subadult female, but abandoned the subsequent litter
(born prior to the infant in the present study), which
was hand-raised. That the infant in the present study
survived until the fourth week may thus be related to
the presence in the group of the subadult female helper,
although it remains unclear what may have provoked
the change in the behaviour of the breeding animals.
The carrying data (Fig. 1) indicate that the adults had
little interest in taking the infant after the first week, and
while the subadult female was willing to help, the
increasing size of the infant may have eventually reduced
her tolerance significantly. This may have provoked, at
least indirectly, the male's attack.

While the exact causes of the observed infanticide remain
unclear, the present study has shown that a complex
relationship exists between factors such as parental

Figure 1. Percentage observation time spent carrying the infant by L.
chrysomelas study group members (SbF = subadult female; AdM =
adult male; AdF = breeding female).

experience and the successful rearing of offspring in
L. chrysomelas. A more detailed understanding of this
relationship will clearly be vital to successful captive
breeding, which may be so essential for the conservation
of this species. It is hoped that the study reported here
will contribute to such an understanding.

This study is supported by the SLo Paulo Zoological
Garden, and stipends from The Brazil Science Council
(CNPq) and The Higher Education Authority (CAPES).
We would also like to thank Dr. Faigal Simon and Dida

Vania Haddad Diego and Stephen F. Ferrari,
Departamento de Psicologia Experimental,
Universidade Federal do Park, 66075-150 Bel6m, Para,


Digby, L. J. 1995. Infant care, infanticide, and female
reproductive strategies in polygynous groups of com-
mon marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Behav. Ecol.
Sociobiol. 37:51-61.
French, J. A. and Stribley, J. A. 1987. Synchronization
of ovarian cycles within and between social groups
in the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia).
Am. J. Primatol. 12:468-478.
Hrdy, S. B. 1979. Infanticide among animals: A re-
view, classification and examination of implications
for the reproductive strategies of females. Ethol.
Sociobiol. 1:13-40.
Martin, R. D. 1992. Goeldi and the dwarfs: The evolu-
tionary biology of the small New World monkeys. J
Hum. Evol. 22:367-393.
Pinto, L. P. S., and Tavares, L. I.. 1994. Inventory and
conservation status of wild populations of golden-
headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas.
Neotropical Primates 2 (suppl.):24-27.
Seal, U. S., Ballou, J. D. and Valladares Padua, C. (eds.).
1990. Leontopithecus: Population Viability Analysis
Workshop Report. Captive Breeding Specialist Group
(IUCN/SSC/CBSG), Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Page 87

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996 Page 88


The distribution of the four species of callitrichids that
occur in Ecuadorian Amazonia is not completely known.
The available information has come mainly from old
collections, and the localities are in many cases
imprecise. Additionally, there are still some areas,
especially in the south-east, that have not been carefully
explored. The present data are the result of several years
of observations of the different species of callitrichids
in areas in north and central Ecuadorian Amazonia and
of interviews with the local people in each area.

Saguinus tripartitus

The distribution of this species in Ecuadorian Amazonia
appears to be restricted to the southern bank of the Rio
Napo, as was pointed out by Albuja (1994). Groups
ranging from 3 to 7 individuals have been observed in
the area of the Yasuni Research Station of the
Universidad Cat61ica; and in forests close to the Pompeya
Sur-Rfo Iro road constructed by the Maxus Petroleum
Company. All these observations were made between
the southern bank of the Rio Tiputini and the northern
bank of the Rio Yasuni. There is no evidence of its
presence north of the Rio Napo, nor along the Rios
Aguarico, Cuyabeno and Lagartococha.

Fig 1. 1- Yasuni Research Station; 2-Laguna Grande, Cuyabeno
Research Station; 3-Zanoudocacha Lake; 4-San Pablo de Cantesiaya;
5-Limoncocha Reserve; 6-Jalun Research Station; 7-Aflangococha
Lake; 8-Rio Indillama; Dotted line Highway Pompeya Sur-Rio Iro.

Saguinus nigricollis graellsi

This is the only species of tamarin that occurs in the
Cuyabeno Reserve, a protected area in northeastern
Ecuador that includes the northern bank of the Rio
Aguarico and the basins of the Rios Cuyabeno and
Lagartococha. Groups ranging from 2 to 9 individuals
have been observed in forests along these rivers.
Additionally, 10 groups were studied from August 1989
through August 1990 in the area of Laguna Grande, in
the Cuyabeno basin (de la Torre et al., 1995). Other
groups of S. nigricollis have been registered south of the
Rio Aguarico in the areas close to the Zancudococha
lake and of the Secoya community of San Pablo de
Cantesiaya, and in the Limoncocha Reserve, north of
the Rio Napo. Thus, it appears that its distribution goes
from the northern bank of the Rio Napo up to the Rio
Putumayo on the boundary with Colombia.

Saguinus fuscicollis lagonotus

Observations of this species have been made south of
the Rio Napo in areas close to the Jatun Sacha Research
Station, the Afiangococha Lake and along the Pompeya
Sur-Rio Iro highway in the Yasuni National Park, but
never south from the Rio Indillama. Groups ranged from
4 to 8 individuals. Some few observations were also made
in an area close to the Rio Pastaza, in southeastern
Ecuador. To date, there are no reports of sites where any
two of the tamarin species live in sympatry.

Cebuella pygmaea

This species has been observed in the Cuyabeno Reserve
inhabiting flooded forests along the Rios Aguarico,
Lagartococha and Cuyabeno. Additional records are
available from the Yasuni National Park, along the Rio
Tiputini and other small rivers of the area. The species
is apparently widely distributed in Ecuadorian Amazonia,
although the densities in any given area are not high (pers.
obs.). The observed group sizes ranged from 3 to 8

Stella de la Torre, Departamento de Biologia, Pontificia
Universidad Cat61lica del Ecuador( P. O. Box 17-01-2184,
Quito, Ecuador.


Albuja, L. 1994. Nuevos registros de Saguinus tripartitus
en la Amazonia Ecuatoriana. Neotropical Primates
De la Torre, S., Campos, F. and de Vries, T. 1995. Home
range and birth seasonality of Saguinus nigricollis
graellsi in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Am. J Primatol. 37

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Page 88

Page 89 Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996



A one-and-a-half day primate conservation symposium
was held during the joint IPS/ASP Congress held in
Madison, Wisconsin, 11-16 August 1996. It was
organized by the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Chairman, Russell A. Mittermeier, and Deputy
Chairman, William R. Konstant, along with the Regional
Vice Chairpersons, Ardith Eudey (Asia), Tom Butynski
(Africa), and Anthony Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez-
Luna (Neotropics). There were three parts to the
Symposium. The first, held during the afternoon of 13
August, was entitled "Primate Conservation at the End
of the 21st Century A 20-Year Retrospective and a
Look at the Next Millenium". Russell Mittermeier
introduced the Symposium and its objectives and
reviewed global primate distributions, priority countries
and regions, and the current conservation status of the
species and subspecies. Special attention was given to
the role of the World Conservation Union, the Species
Survival Commission and the Primate Specialist Group.
The history of the PSG was reviewed, beginning with
its establishment in the late 1960's under Barbara
Harrison. The PSG's activities were highlighted with
the development of the Global Strategy for Primate
Conservation in 1978, the World Wildlife Fund Primate
Program, begun in 1979, the Primate Action Plans of
the late 1980's and early 1990's, and the creation of
networks for primate conservation around the world.
Mittermeier reviewed the role of these activities in the
past, their relevance to the 20th Century, and the relative
impacts of the principal threats to primates, and their
prospects in the 21st Century. Subsequently,William
Konstant provided a historical review of funding sources
for primate conservation, including multi-lateral
development banks, national and international non-
governmental organizations, U.S. and foreign
government agencies, individual and institutional
foundations, zoos and aquariums, corporations and
private donors. The remainder of the first part of this
symposium was given over to regional reports of PSG
activities and the situations in the Neotropics (Anthony
Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna), Asia (Ardith A.
Eudey), Africa (Thomas Butynski) and Madagascar
(Jorg Ganzhom and Patricia Wright), along with a history
of the role of IPS, ASP, the Primate Society of Great
Britain (PSGB), and other institutions, in primate
conservation (David J. Chivers), a review of the
development and application of tools and processes for

scientifically-based management strategies for
threatened species, based on small population and
conservation biology (Susie Ellis), and, finally, the role
of zoos in primate conservation (Anne Baker).

The second part of the symposium, held during the
morning of 14 August and entitled "Case Studies of the
Critically Endangered and the Future", reviewed the
conservation status of the primates most likely to go
extinct early in the 21st Century. Recent estimates by
IUCN have indicated that almost half of all the primate
species (114 out of 250) are of conservation concern,
and roughly one in five (43 out of 250) are considered
critical or endangered; these taxa being concentrated in
Madagascar, the Atlantic forest region of Brazil, northern
Colombia, West Africa, China, Vietnam, and other parts
of South-east Asia. Considering both species and
subspecies, current estimates show that 33% of primate
taxa are threatened (204/c.620), and 103 (16.6%) are
critically endangered or endangered. Twelve papers were
presented which reviewed the current status of critically
endangered and endangered species and species groups
around the world: the lion tamarins of Brazil's Atlantic
forest (A. B. Rylands & C. Valladares Padua); Brazil's
largest endemic mammal, the muriqui (K. B. Strier &
G. A. B. da Fonseca); the cotton-top tamarin in Colombia
(L. H. Giraldo, A. Savage & L. H. Soto); the mountain
gorilla, prospects in conditions of extreme political
instability (H. D. Steklis, C. N. Gerald & S. Madry); the
critically endangered red colobus subspecies in Western
Equatorial Africa, Cameroon, Nigeria, Ghana, and
Kenya (J. F. Oates); Madagascar's lemurs (K. E.
Glander); the remarkable snub-nosed monkeys of China
(R. M. Ren, R. C. Kirkpatrick & N. G. Jablonski); the
Vietnamese snub-nosed monkeys, langurs and gibbons
(X. C. Le); the Javan gibbons (J. Supriatna, N. Andayani,
D. Buchori, D. Supriyadj & S. Sueryadj); the four
primates endemic to the Mentawai Islands (A. Fuentes);
and the Japanese macaques ofYakushima (D. A. Hill &
T. Maruhashi). Ajith Kumar, who was to review the
status of the lion tailed macaque of the Western Ghats
in India, was unfortunately unable to attend, and in his
place S. M. Mohnot talked about the Indo-U.S. Primate
Project. The reviews provided success stories and
optimism in many conservation efforts, but in some the
conclusions were dramatic, notably concerning the
mountain gorilla and red colobus in Africa, and the
situation in Vietnam.

The final part of the symposium, during the afternoon
of 14 August, involved a round-table discussion
concerning priorities for the future, an action plan
agenda, the role of major multilateral financing and
development agencies and the prospects for survival of
the threatened species' around the world.

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Page 89

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

The PSG officers gratefully acknowledge the support
of the Congress Chairman, Dr. John Hearn, and the Chair
ofthe Scientific Program Committee, Dr. David Abbott,
for allotting a morning and two afternoon sessions for
this most important symposium. It was extremely well
attended, and demonstrated as such the high priority
given to primate conservation concerns by the
International Primatological Society and the American
Society of Primatologists. The proceedings of the
symposium will be published in a special edition of the
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group journal Primate

Russell A. Mittermeier, Chairman IUCN/SSC Primate
Specialist Group, Conservation International, 1015
Eighteenth Street N. W., Suite 1000, Washington D. C.
20036, USA.


In April of 1995, a questionnaire was sent out on behalf
of the Neotropical Primate Taxon Advisory Group to
approximately seventy AZA institutions listed on ISIS
as holding Neotropical primates. The purpose of the
questionnaire was to gain as much information as
possible pertaining to the species of platyrrhines that
various institutions have attempted to house together,
successfully or unsuccessfully, as well as with non-
primate species.

Forty-six institutions responded to the survey. Thirty
three of them described experiences of mixed-species
housing of Neotropical primates. The other 13 reported
that they had no experience in this respect. Responses
to the questionnaire included accounts of mixed-species
housing for 13 of the 16 New World primate genera.
Brachyteles, Chiropotes and Cacajao were the only
primates not mentioned by the respondents. A variety
of reptiles, birds, and other mammals were also reported
to have been involved. The results of this survey will
eventually be included in a husbandry manual for
callitrichids currently being prepared by the Neotropical
Primate Taxon Advisory Group.

If you would like a copy of the results of the
questionnaire, please send a blank IBM-formatted 31/2"
diskette or request a printed copy at the address below.

Vince Sodaro, Head Keeper, Primate Department,
Brookfield Zoo, 3300 South Golf Road, Brookfield,
Illinois 60513, USA.

Page 90


The International Studbook for the golden-headed lion
tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, is a chronology
of the captive population, developed and maintained
under the auspices of the International Recovery and
Management Committee for the species, chaired by
Jeremy J. C. Mallinson (Jersey Wildlife Preservation
Trust, Jersey) and Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho (ex-
Director of the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center, Rio de
Janeiro). The 8th International Studbook (keeper Helga
de Bois), has been published by the Antwerp Zoological
Gardens, Antwerp. It includes data up to 31 December
1995, and contains information on animal identities and
locations, sex, parentage, births and causes of deaths, as
well as a list of addresses of all holders and data on the
current demographic and genetic status of the population.
It is maintained in SPARKS, developed by the
International Species Information System (ISIS). The
studbook is available free of charge from Helga de Bois.

On 31 December 1995, there were 645 golden-headed
lion tamarins in captivity: 272 in Brazil, 101 in North
America, 228 in Europe and 44 in Asia. The population
is distributed through 73 registered institutions: 13 in
Brazil, 24 in North America, 32 in Europe and four in
Asia. The number of founders is 116 to 153 (the range
in genetic parameters reflects two alternative
assumptions: 1. an unknown parent is wildborn or 2.
genes from unknown parents are omitted). The number
of founders which have never bred is 18 to 20. The
heterozygosity lost to the population was 1%. Growth
since 31 December 1994 was 5%: 12% in Brazil, 1% in
North America, 2% in Europe, and 13% in Asia.

Helga de Bois, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp,
Kon. Astridplein 26, 2018 Antwerpen, Belgium. Tel:
+32 3 2024 580, Fax: +32 3 2024 547.


De Bois, H. 1996. Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin,
Leontopithecus chrysomelas, International Studbook
8, 1995. International Recovery and Management
Committee for the Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin and
Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, Antwerp.


A master's thesis "The brown howler monkey Alouatta
fusca clamitans (Cabrera, 1940) (Primates, Cebidae) in
the Aracuri Ecological Station, Rio Grande do Sul:
seasonal variation in foraging" was defended in

Page 91 Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

September, 1996 at the Biosciences Institute, Catholic
University of Rio Grande do Sul. The work was
supervised by Professor Cdsar Ades, Department of
Experimental Psychology, Institute of Psychology,
University of Sao Paulo. It is the first year-long study of
this species in Araucaria pine forest. The project was
supported by the Fundagao 0 Boticario de Prote9go A
Natureza, Sao Jose dos Pinhais, Parand. The following
is a summary of the thesis.

Data was collected on the ecology and behavior of
Alouatta fusca clamitans in the Aracuri Ecological
Station (28 13'S, 51 10'W), Rio Grande do Sul, from
August 1993 to August 1994. The aim was to evaluate
the plant species and items in the animals' diet, as well
as the seasonal distribution of daily activities. Records
of activity patterns were collected using the scan
sampling method. Scan duration was 5 minutes, at
intervals of 15 minutes. Diet was sampled ad libitum.
The group was observed for a total of 765 hours,
comprising 45 complete days (from sunrise to sunset)
and 79 incomplete days.

Leaves (53.1%) are predominant in the diet (see also
Chiarello, 1994; Mendes, 1989). However, seasonal
items comprised a high percentage of the feeding
records, when available. In the spring, young leaves
represented 44.0% of the diet, mainly Zanthoxylum
rhoifolium (18.1%). In the summer, mature fruits were
important (46.70%), with 13.9% of the records being
for Campomanesia xanthocarpa. Seeds of Araucaria
angustifolia were the most important food item in the
fall (42.0%), and mature leaves of Pithecoctenium
echinatum (10.4%) during the winter. Consumption and
the availability of food items showed, in most cases, a
significant positive correlation, indicating that the
animals adjust their diet according to food availability
during the year. Of a total of 43 plant species eaten, the
most important were Araucaria angustifolia,
Zanthoxylum rhoifolium and Mimosa scabrella (22.0%,
13.2% and 10.3% of feeding records, respectively).
Selection rate was highest for Mimosa scabrella, Banara
tomentosa and Tabebuia alba, while A. angustifolia was
in eighth place (due to its very high density).

Throughout the year, resting was the most frequent
behavior category (57.6% of the records), followed by
feeding (19.0%) and travel (18.8%). Play was the activity
with the most significant variation from season to season.
No play episodes were observed in the winters of 1993
and 1994. A significant difference was found between
three sex-age classes (adult males, adult females and
juveniles) for time spent resting in the winter and
summer, for vocalizations in the winter of 1993 and the
spring and summer, for play in the spring, summer and
fall, and for grooming in summer. The results showed

shifts in selectivity and resource acquisition during the
seasonal cycle, indicating that howlers look for strategies
to adapt themselves to the temporal changes in resources
in their home range. The time dedicated to resting was
quite constant throughout the year, and differences in
activity patterns between seasons resulted principally
from the amount of time dedicated to social activities.

Ana Alice Biedzicki de Marques, Rua Carlos Estevao
95/254, 91240-001 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul,


Chiarello, A. G. 1994. Diet of the brown howler mon-
key Alouatta fusca in a semi-deciduous forest frag-
ment of southeastern Brazil. Primates 35(1):25-34.
Marques, A. A. B de. 1995. 0 Bugio-Ruivo Alouatta
fusca clamitans (Cabrera, 1940) (Primates, Cebidae)
na Estagdo Ecol6gica de Aracuri, RS; Varia ges
Sazonais de Forrageamento. Unpubl. Master's thesis,
Institute de Biociencias, Pontificia Universidade
Cat6lica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre. 129pp.
Mendes, S. L. 1989. Estudo ecol6gico de Alouattafusca
(Primates: Cebidae) na Estagao Biol6gica de Caratinga,
MG. Rev. Nokdestina Biol. 6(2):71-104.


The 1995 update of the European studbook for the
emperor tamarin, Saguinus imperator, has been
published by the Lisbon Zoological Garden. The Species
Coordinator for Europe is Eric Bairrao Ruivo, who is
also the studbook keeper for the European collections,
assisted by Cristiane Silveira. The studbook contains a
full historical listing and a listing of the living captive
populations by location for both subspecies, imperator
and subgrisescens, as well as hybrid forms, along with
a list of participants and candidates for participation in
the breeding program in Europe. It also includes the
minutes of the 2nd Emperor Tamarin EEP Meeting, held
in Saumur in 1996.

There is just one female S. i. imperator in captivity in
Europe (Frankfurt Zoo), the remainder being S. i.
subgrisescens, totalling 112 (57.48.7) individuals in 34
institutions. The zoos with the largest populations are
Banham, UK (14), and Mulhouse, France (12). In 1995
18.8.7 animals were born, but only 9.2.4 survived. One
of the problems which the EEP has had to deal with is
that of 14 hybrids (7.7.0) between these two subspecies,
in seven institutions. A solution has been found with the
proposal that all should be sent to one institution (Safari
Peaugres, France), so as to isolate them from the breeding

Page 91

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996 Page 92

program. The EEP recommendation is to increase the
captive population, and management plans (transfers)
are outlined in the studbook. The second complete
edition of the studbook will be published in 1996.

Eric Bairrio Ruivo, Emperor Tamarin EEP
Coordinator, and Cristiane Silveira, Assistant Studbook
Keeper, Jardim Zool6gico de Lisboa, Estrada de Benfica
158-160, 1500 Lisboa, Portugal.


Bairrao Ruivo, E. and Silveira, C. 1996. European Stud-
book for Saguinus imperator (Goeldi 1907) (Emperor
Tamarin) Update, 1995. Jardim Zool6gico de Lisboa,


In April 1995, the Department of Primate Ethology of
the Institute of Anthropology, University of Gbttingen,
moved to a new laboratory on the outskirts of the town.
The new department includes a 6 ha semi-free enclosure
for common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, a new
building containing laboratories and offices, and a
greenhouse of c.400 m2.

The enclosure is fenced by a 2 m high conventional wire
mesh which extends below ground to about 300 cm. It
is covered with high grass; from our experience during
the first year this is effective in preventing the marmoset
from travelling long distances along the ground. There
are 10 wooden huts (c. 8 m2), which are electrically
heated. Each contains sleeping boxes, feeding trays,

Fig. 1. Enclosure for Callithrixjacchus at the Sennic Kerode
Ethological Station.

perches and ropes, and is surrounded by several trees.
The huts are connected to each other by avenues of trees
and, where the trees are not yet fully grown, by running
and climbing structures made from vertical and
horizontal perches. Additional sleeping boxes and roofed
feeding places are installed at various places around each

Currently two families (10 and 11 members) and one
newly-formed polyandrous group of common
marmosets are living in this semifree enclosure. The
"home ranges" of the large groups amount to about one
hectare each, that of the trio to about 3,000 m2. All groups
can approach each other to a minimum of 30 m or
withdraw, respectively, to a maximim distance of several
hundred meters.

During the first year, four studies were carried out: 1)
the influence of abiotic factors on the time budget of the
marmosets; 2) feeding and foraging; 3) temporal and
spatial use of the new home range; and 4) formation of
a polyandrous group.

Colleagues and students who are interested in working
at our new facility are invited to contact me.

Prof. Dr. Hartmut Rothe, Institute of Anthropology,
University of Gottingen, Ethological Station
Sennickerode, 37130 Gleichen-Sennickerode, Germany.
Fax +49-5592-413, e-mail: hrothe@gwdg.de.


Following the full North American regional studbook
for spider monkeys published in February 1995 (see
Neotropical Primates, 4(4): 187-188), Kristi Newland,
the studbook keeper, has published an update covering
the events (births, captures, moves and deaths) from 30
October 1994 to 30 December 1995. The studbook
records the following populations on 30 December 1995:
Ateles belzebuth (no subspecies) 1.1.0 (2) in two
institutions; A. b. belzebuth 2.2.0 (4) in three
institutions; A. b. chamek- 5.7.1 (13) in three institutions;
A. b. hybridus 6.9.0 (15) in eight institutions; A. b.
marginatus none; A. fusciceps fusciceps none; A. f
robustus 37.75.4 (116) in 26 institutions, and A.
paniscus 5.4.0 (9) in five institutions.

Kristi Newland, Species Manager, Sedgwick County
Zoo, 5555 Zoo Boulevard, Wichita, Kansas 67212-1698,


0 Trees
* Eletronic animal '
registration tunnel 021 Q

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

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Page 93 Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Newland, K. 1996. North American Regional Studbook
for South American Spider Monkeys, Ateles belzebuth,
A. fusciceps, A. paniscus, all subspecies. 1995 Up-
date. Sedgwick County Zoo, Wichita, Kansas. 35pp.


The Brazilian Science Council (CNPq) has established
a Brazilian Biodiversity Working Group GTB (Grupo
de Trabalho em Biodiversidade, Edict No.519/96, 4
September 1996) with a view to establishing an inter-
institutional, technical forum for the various levels of
biodiversity (genes, species, communities and
ecosystems), which will periodically and systematically
meet to examine and discuss questions concerned
specifically with the conservation and sustained use of
Brazil's fauna and flora. The Working Group will act as
a point of reference in supplying advice to government
agencies, as well as bilateral and multilateral funding
institutions, and the environment and conservation
community in general, regarding the technical and
scientific aspects required for the identification of
priorities and strategies at the regional and national level.
The GTB will also serve as a reference point for the
Brazilian members of the Specialist Groups of the World
Conservation Union (IUCN) Species Survival
Commission (SSC), making use of the scientific and
intellectual resources of the largest international
voluntary network of experts in biodiversity
conservation, today counting on more than 7,000
participants world-wide.

The secretariat, supported by CNPq, will be based at the
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte,
under the coordination of Dr. Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca.
The members of the GTB are as follows: Jose Marcio
Ayres (Sociedade Civil MamirauA and Museu Paraense
Emilio Goeldi, Beldm), Francisco A. R. Barbosa
(Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte),
Vanderley Canhos (Universidade Estadual de Campinas
and Fundagao Andre Tosello, Campinas), Ibsen de
Gusmgo Camara (Fundacao Brasileira para a
Conservagao da Natureza, Rio de Janeiro), Roberto
Brandao Cavalacanti (Universidade de Brasilia,
Brasilia), Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca (Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais and Conservation International
do Brasil, Belo Horizonte), Ana Maria Giulietti
(Universidade de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana),
Gisela Herrmann (Fundagao Biodiversitas, Belo
Horizonte), Paulo Kageyama (Universidade de Sao
Paulo/ESALQ, Piracicaba), Thomas M. Lewinsohn
(Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas), Carlos
Lima (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia,
Manaus), Miguel Serediuk Milano (Universidade
Federal do Parana, Curitiba, and Fundagao o Boticario

de ProteqAo a Natureza, Sao Jose dos Pinhais), Odete
Rocha (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos),
Anthony B. Rylands (Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais and Fundagao Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte),
Angela Teresinari Bernardes (The Nature Conservancy,

Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Coordenador do GTB, c/o
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio
Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil. Tel/Fax: +55 31 441-1795, e-mail:


The Mesoamerican Society for Biology and
Conservation was formed on 14 January 1996, at Lake
Yojoa, Honduras, by a group of biologists from five
countries and numerous branches of the biological
sciences. The new society will serve biologists and
conservationists throughout Central America and
southern Mexico by publishing a news bulletin
Mesoamericana (bilingual in Spanish and English), and
by sponsoring congresses in Mesoamerica. Those
interested in the Society,as members or potential officers,
are invited to become founding members, and subscribe
to the bulletin. The first general meeting and a
symposium were held in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 21-22
June 1996. The first issue of Mesoamericana has been
published (Vol.1(1), 20pp, June 1996). It includes the
'Acta de Constituci6n' of the Society. The current
officers are: President- Gerardo Borjas, Departamento
de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de
Honduras, Carretera a Suyapa, Tegucigalpa, Honduras,
Tel/Fax: 504-33-9576, e-mail: cmed@ns.hondunet.net;
Vice President Gustavo Adolfo Ruiz, Managua,
Nicaragua; Secretaries Carla Rivera, Tegucigalpa,
Honduras, and Silvia C. Chalukiin, El Zamorano,
Honduras; Treasurer Erasmo Sosa L6pez,
Tegucigalpa, Honduras. A number of country
representatives were also elected: Belize Bruce Miller
and Carolyn Miller, Gallon Jug., Belize; Nicaragua -
Teresa Zufiiga R. and Gustavo Adolfo Ruiz, Managua,
Nicaragua; El Salvador Carlos Rend Ramirez Sosa,
Apopa, El Salvador, and Juan Pablo Dominguez, San
Salvador, El Salvador; Honduras Gerardo Borjas,
Tegucigalpa, Honduras; United States Oliver Komar,
Delaware, Ohio. Carlos Rend Ramirez Sosa, Department
of Biological Sciences, Lehman College and The
Graduate School, The City University of New York,
Bronx, NY 10468, USA, Tel: (718) 960-8658, Fax: (718)
960-8236, e-mail: crric@cunyvm.cuny.edu, was elected
editor of Mesoamericana.

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Page 93

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996 Page 94

To become an ordinary member costs US$20.00 for 1996
(includes three issues of Mesoamericana). To become a
founding member (possible only till the end of 1996)
costs US$50.00 for individuals and US$200.00 for
institutions. Founding members and institutions will be
acknowledged in the bulletin. Benefactors (donations
larger than US$200.00) are also welcomed. Membership
fees and other donations should be sent to Oliver Komar
(address below). Checks should be made out to
"Mesoamerican Society for Biology and Conservation"
or "Sociedad Mesoamericana para la Biologia y la
Conservaci6n". Mesoamerican residents have lower
membership costs, and those interested can contact
directly the Society Secretary, Silvia C. ChalukiAn,
Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Conservaci6n
Biol6gica, Escuela Agricola Panamericana, Apartado 93,
Tegucigalpa, Honduras, Tel: 504-76-6140, Fax: 504-76-
6234, e-mail: eapdm@ns.hondunet.net.

Oliver Komar, Department of Zoology, Ohio Wesleyan
University, Delaware, Ohio 43015, USA. Tel: 614-369-
0175, e-mail: ookomar@cc.owu.edu.


The Department of Biological Anthropology and
Anatomy, Duke University Medical Center, invites
applications for an Assistant Professorship on the tenure
track with primary teaching responsibility in human
gross anatomy, and a research program in some aspect
of mammalian evolutionary morphology, such as
biological anthropology, paleontology, experimental
functional morphology, genetics, or phylogenetic
systematics morphologicc or molecular). Deadline for
receipt of applications is Oct. 15 1996. Send curriculum
vitae, one-page statement of research goals/interests, list
of courses taught, and names and addresses of three
references to: BAA Search Committee, Department of
Biological Anthropology and Anatomy, Box 3170, Duke
University Medical School, Durham, North Carolina
27710, USA. Duke University Medical Center is an
Equal Opportunity / Affirmative Action Employer.


In February 1996, a workshop was held in the Las Cruces
Biological Station in San Vito, Coto Brus, Costa Rica,
discussing the nomenclature of the phytoecology of the
Neotropics. This was the second workshop (the first was
in Caracas in April 1994) aimed at the compilation of
all classification terminology, including

phytosociological terms, published for the Neotropical
region. The first volume, available this year, will include
only continental, Spanish-speaking countries. Other
volumes are planned, and individuals interested in
contributing to the Caribbean, Portuguese and French-
speaking countries should write to: Dr. Otto Huber,
Institute Botanico, Universidad Central, Caracas,


A research assistant with expertise in ecology, biology,
anthropology, or related fields is needed for work in a
comparative study on the use of perceptual cues, spatial
and social information during foraging decisions in three
neotropical primate species. The project will be carried
out in the state of Acre, Brazil, from August 1997 to
July 1998. Lodging and food at the study site will be
provided. Anyone interested in this position must send
a Curriculum Vitae (in Portuguese, English, or Spanish)
and letters) of reference. For more information contact:
Julio Cesar Bicca-Marques, Department of
Anthropology, University of Illinois, 109 Davenport
Hall, 607 S. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, U.S.A.


Ant6nio Rossano Mendes Pontes, estudante de
doutorado na Universidade de Cambridge, Inglaterra,
estA oferecendo estagios para graduandos e recdm-
formados de Ciencias Biol6gicas, interessados em
ecologia de primatas e outros mamiferos frugivoros na
Estagdo Ecol6gica de MaracA (Ilha de MaracA), Roraima,
Brasil, durante o period de fevereiro de 1997 a julho
de 1998. Os interessados deverqo enviar uma carta de
prop6sitos e um Curriculum Vitae de uma pagina, para
o enderego abaixo. Condigqes: A Estagao Ecol6gica de
Maraca possue alojamento, laborat6rios, biblioteca,
comunicaqAo, e toda infra-estrutura necessAria, onde
ficardo hospedados. 0 trabalho sera em tempo integral,
o aluno receberA uma ajuda de custo mensal de 200
d6lares, transport, alimentaqio e, ao final, recebera
certificado de estAgio. 0 Projeto: envolve censo de
frugivoros, estudo sistematico do macaco-aranha (Ateles
belzebuth), levantamento floristico, fenologia,
quantificaiao de frutos e plataformas de observagao. As
diferentes tarefas serao devidamente distribufdas em
sistema de rodizio. Maiores informag6es e inscriq6es:
Ant6nio Rossano Mendes Pontes, Wildlife Research
Group, Department of Anatomy, University of
Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY,
Inglaterra. Tel: +44 1223 333753, Fax: +44 1223
333786, e-mail: arm 1004@cam.ac.uk.

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

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Page 95 Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996


The New World Primate Taxon Advisory Group
(NWPTAG) began as an interest group in 1990 and was
formally approved as a Taxon Advisory Group of the
American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) in
August of 1991. The group was formed to coordinate
and facilitate North American captive breeding efforts
for New World monkeys, insuring that captive
populations are selected and managed to support in situ

Among the specific goals of the NWPTAG are the
provision of logistic and financial support for range
country captive husbandry and breeding efforts, range
country education programs, and in situ conservation
projects. As one effort in addressing these goals, the
NWPTAG has established a conservation and research
fund. Projects that fall within the goals listed above will
be considered for funding (maximum award =
US$2,000). Applicants must be citizens of New World
primate range countries. Students in Master's or Ph.D.
degree programs are especially encouraged to apply.
Project proposals are considered twice yearly, with
submission deadlines of February 1 and July 1.
Applications may be submitted in Spanish, English, or

Recipients are required to acknowledge the NWPTAG
in any popular or technical publication that results from
the project. Additionally, they must submit a progress
report, due one year after receipt of the award.

Application procedure: A cover page is required which
includes: Name, Date, Position, Institution, Address,
Telephone, Fax, E-mail, Project title and Project abstract.
The proposal itself must have the following items: 1)
Statement of the conservation need or issue, 2)
Objectives of the project, 3) Methods, plan of action
and schedule, 4) Methods for evaluating success of
project, 5) Description of any accomplishments to date
on project (Note: Please submit no more than a total of
two pages for items 1-5), 6) Curriculum Vitae for
principal applicants) (Note: Please limit each CV to two
pages), 7) Amount and sources of support other than
the NWPTAG, 9) Amount and nature of request to
NWPTAG (Note: Maximum request = US$2,000), 10)
Name, telephone, fax, e-mail, and address of three
individuals competent to review the proposal, and 11)
Letter of support from academic advisor (for students).
Send three copies of the proposal and attachments to
Dr. Anne Baker, address below. Applications will be
reviewed by a committee of NWPTAG members and
outside advisors.

For further information regarding the New World
Primate Taxon Advisory Group Conservation and
Research Fund, contact: Dr. Anne Baker, Director,
Burnet Park Zoo, 1 Conservation Place, Syracuse, NY
13204, USA, Tel: +1 315 435 3774, Fax: +1 315 435


Primates is an international journal of
primatology which publishes original
papers that contribute to the
development of the scientific study of
primates embracing work in all fields
of investigation, such as morphology,
S physiology, psychology, behavior,
ecology, sociology, systematics, evolution, and
laboratory primate medicine. Short communications,
research reports, notes, review articles and other
information are also published. It is quarterly; four
numbers comprising each volume. Contributors are
advised to read the Information for Contributors printed
inside the back cover of any issue after Volume 36 (4).
The Editor-in-Chief is Yukimari Sugiyama. For further
information, including subscription rates: Primates,
Editorial Office, Japan Monkey Center, Inuyama, Aichi
484, Japan, Tel: +81-568-61-2327, Fax: +81 568-62-
6823, e-mail: ldz05366@niftyserve.ac.jp.


The Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic Fund was initiated
in 1986 by the Lincoln Park Zoological Society and
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens in 1986 to support in
situ conservation efforts throughout Latin America and
the Caribbean. By emphasizing support for young
conservation biologists in their own countries, the fund
assists a new generation of researchers in becoming the
environmental decision-makers of tomorrow and
strengthens the core of conservation leadership
throughout the Americas. The emphasis of the Fund is
to support new conservation initiatives with special
consideration to projects which have: a) direct impact
on wildlife conservation or conservation biology, b)
direct participation by graduate and/or undergraduate
students, c) involvement by students and/or field
assistants from Latin America, or d) links to either the
Lincoln Park Zoo animal collection or conservation
interests of the zoo curatorial staff.

Since its establishment, the Fund has awarded nearly 45
grants in 13 Latin American and Caribbean countries.

Page 95

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Page 96

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Each year, the Fund typically supports between five and
15 projects, including project renewals for a second year.
Awards are seldom more than US$7,500 and most fall
into the range of US$3,000-$5,000. Initial support is for
up to 12 months as from the date of the award. Projects
supported which have particular relevance for primates
include the protection of riverine habitat for black howler
monkeys in Belize, a survey ofthe non-flying mammals
of the Caetetus Ecological Station in Sao Paulo and an
evaluation of the community-based education programs
in support of the golden-headed lion tamarin, both in
Brazil, and three projects in Mexico, two in the Lacandon
forest and a third on long-term studies of forest
fragmentation in Veracruz.

Projects are solicited and reviewed once a year through
an annual call for proposals mailed to institutions,
organizations, and individuals interested in the
conservation of Latin American flora and fauna. The
criteria for evaluation are as follows: Projects should
make direct contributions to conservation of individual
species or habitats, conservation education, applied
conservation biology or conservation policy. Scientific
rigor and potential for application of results are
paramount. Each proposal is evaluated for its research
design, feasibility, and breadth of significance to the
discipline of conservation biology. Evaluation of each
proposal is based on it merit relative to all other proposals
under consideration. Funding request should center on
support for Latin American researchers, students and
field assistants as well as logistical support for North
American students. While field costs will be supported
at reasonable levels, the fund does not usually support
either salaries or the purchase of permanent equipment.

All application materials must be post-marked by 1
September. Late proposals are not considered and are
returned for resubmission at a later date. Each proposal
should contain: a title page (applicants name, complete
address, institutional affiliation, status or job title, degree
being sought or highest degree obtained, tax
identification or social security number, nationality,
telephone, fax and electronic mail address); literature
cited, a one-page non-technical summary, a brief
introduction to the project, a narrative section (defining
specific goals, the bases for the development of the
project, and specific applications of the results), material
and methods, schedule, a summary operating budget,
and a detailed budget. The following supporting
materials are also required: proof that all necessary
permits and visas etc. have been obtained, a two-page
curriculum vitae, and at least two letters of
recommendation. The entire proposal, excluding figures,
tables and curriculum vitae should not exceed 15 single-
spaced typewritten pages at 12 characters per inch. To
apply, 15 copies of the proposal should be sent to:

Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic Fund, Director of
Conservation and Science, 2200 North Cannon Drive,
Chicago, Illinois 60614-3895, USA.


A two-year fellowship of approximately $8,000 per year
will be awarded to the outstanding application for
dissertation research in Nonhuman Primate Growth and
Development. The candidate must have completed all
requirements for the Ph.D. degree except doctoral
research. Preference will be given to studies emphasizing
development to maturation. The application should be
made using the Public Health Service form 398 format,
and will be judged by a 5-person committee.
Applications will be due September 15, 1996, for award
by the end of the calendar year 1996. Questions regarding
this award may be directed to the Chair of the Committee,
Dr. Margaret R. Clarke, 504-865-5336, FAX: 504-865-
5338, e-mail:mrclarke@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu.
Applications should be mailed to; Dr. Margaret R.
Clarke, Dept. of Anthropology, 1021 Audubon Street,
Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA.


Criada em 1990, a
Fundagdo 0 BoticArio de
Prote9do A Natureza, Sgo
Brasil, ja financiou 365 projetos conservacionistas
atrav6s do Programa de Incentivo A Conservagdo da
Natureza. Na primeira selecao realizada em 1996, foram
aprovados 20 projetos para receber apoio financeiro a
partir do mes de agosto. Os projetos se dividem em tres
categories: Unidades de Conservagao, Pesquisa e
ProtegAo da Vida Silvestre, e Areas Verdes. Os que
promovem atividades de pesquisa e conservacao de
primatas incluem: "Conscientizaqao ambiental para
preservagao do Parque Estadual de Itapua", ComissAo
de Luta pela Efetiva9ao do Parque Estadual de Itapua,
Porto Alegre, Viamao, Guaiba e Canoas, Rio Grande
do Sul; "Efeitos da fragmentagao florestal sobre
comunidades animals e vegetais na Reserva de Pogo das
Antas, RJ (II)", Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro,
Institute de Biologia, Silva Jardim, Rio de Janeiro;
"Analise da biodiversidade dos generos Aotus e
Alouatta", Fundaqao Universitaria Jose BonifAcio, Rio
de Janeiro; "Ecologia e comportamento do mico-leAo-
de-cara-preta, Leontopithecus caissara Lorini & Persson,
1990, na ilha de Superaguii PR (Primates, Callitrichidae)
(II)", IPE Instituto de Projetos e Pesquisas Ecol6gicas,

Page 97 Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Parque Nacional de Superagiii e Guaraquegaba, Parand;
e "Protegao e recuperaqao das matas ciliares da Bacia
do Formoso, Bonito, MS", Fundagao Neotr6pica do
Brasil, Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul.

Miguel Serediuk Milano, Diretor T6cnico, Fundagao
0 Boticdrio de Proteq9o A Natureza, Avenida Rui
Barbosa 3450, 83065-260 Sao Jose dos Pinhais, Parand,


Professor Jorg W. Eichberg of the Biomedical Research
Center, Rijswik, the Netherlands has taken over from
Dr. Jan Moor-Jankowski as Editor-in-Chief of the
Journal of Medical Primatology, published by the
Munksgaard Press. The journal will be published
bimonthly, a total of six issues including the special issue
from the Annual Primate Center Meeting. Professor
Eichberg is currently assembling a new Editorial Board,
which will be announced, along with new guidelines
regarding the aim and scope of the journal, in the first
issue of 1996. Due to delays, only four of the eight issues
planned were published in 1995. From: IPS Newsletter
23(1), June 1996.

Primate Societies


The joint IPS/ASP meeting was held in Madison,
Wisconsin, and hosted by the Wisconsin Regional
Primate Research Center (WRPRC) of the University
of Wisconsin, from 11-16 August, 1996. The Director
of the WRPRC and the Congress Chairman was Dr. John
P. Hearn. One of the largest IPS Congresses ever,
attended by approximately 1,300 people, 544 talks were
given and 259 posters were presented covering all fields
of primate research. Forty-three countries were
represented. The enormous success of this, the sixteenth
IPS Congress, was due to a large number of people
running and participating in the various organizational
committees, under the highly competent and friendly
leadership of the Congress Coordinator, Edi Chan, of
the WRPRC. The Executive Committee was run by Dr.
John Heam, and included the chairs of the Scientific
Program Committee and Subcommittees, along with Edi
Chan, Melinda Carr, and Ray Hamel. The Scientific
Committee, which guaranteed the high quality of the
scientific program, was chaired by Dr. David Abbott,
and included a number of topical subcommittees:

Behaviour chaired by Dr. Charles Snowdon;
Biomedicine Dr. Christopher Coe; Ecology and
Conservation Dr. Karen B. Strier; and Paleontology,
Anatomy and Taxonomy Dr. Walter Leutenegger. The
Development Committee was chaired by Dr. Steven
Shelton, the Social Events Committee by Dr. Toni
Ziegler and the Arts Exhibit Committee by the WRPRC
Librarian, Larry Jacobsen. Ray Hamel, Bob Becker and
Kris Paprocki were responsible for the Audio Visual

Five Plenary Lectures were presented: "Stress, Stress-
related Diseases and Personality: Studies of Wild
Baboons" by R. M. Sapolsky, Stanford University,
Stanford, California; "Mahale Chimpanzee Studies: Past,
Present and Future" by T. Nishida, Kyoto University,
Kyoto, Japan; "The Neurobiology of Cognition: Facts
and Concepts from the Study of the Prefrontal Cortex in
Non-Human Primates" by P. Goldman-Rakic, Yale
University Medical School, New Haven, Connecticut;
"Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I
Molecules and the Immune System" by P. Parham,
Stanford Unvertsity Medical School, Stanford,
California; and "Towards a New Understanding of the
Ecology and Phylogeny of the Callitrichidae" by A. B.
Rylands, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo
Horizonte, Brazil.

Besides the oral presentations and poster sessions,
numerous symposia and workshops were held during
the Congress. Symposia: Cebus meets Pan, Behavioral
Convergence? organized by W. C. McGrew & E.
Visalberghi; Asssisted Reproduction and Experimental
Embryology in the Nonhuman Primate K. G. Gould &
W. D. Hopkins; Laterality and Hemispheric
Specialization in Primates: Brain, Behavior and
Evolution J. Fagot & W. D. Hopkins; Predation and
Primate Social Systems: Advances in Theory and Field
Data C. B. Stanford & C. H. Janson; Primates as Seed
Dispersers and Seed Predators in Tropical Forests J. E.
Lambert & P. A. Garber; Variation in Breeding Systems
of Marmosets and Tamarins: Ecology, Phylogeny and
Mechanism D. H. Abbott, L. Digby, J. A. French &
W. Saltzman; Social Behavior of Free-Ranging Lemur
catta A. Jolly, M. Nakamichi and H. Rasamimanana;
The Female Baboon as a Model for Research in
Reproduction F. S. Khan-Dawood; Experimental
Strategies in Primates to Understand Human
Psychopathology and Neurology E. Fuchs & S. E.
Shelton; Group Movement: Patterns, Processes and
Cognitive Implications S. Boinski & P. A. Garber;
Primatology Then and Now S. J. Suomi & C. L. Coe;
What is New in Neuroendocrine Research in Nonhuman
Primates? E. Teresawa; Primate Conservation: A
Retrospective and a Look into the 21st Century R. A.
Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. A. Eudey, T. Butynski

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Neotropical Primates 4(3), Septemher 1996

Page 98

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

& W. R. Konstant; IPS Film Symposium C. Wiesbard;
Importance of Seasonality in Great Ape Behavior and
Ecology F. J. White; Ovarian Physiology and
Toxicology in Non-Human Primates C. L. Chaffin &
R. J. Hutz; Vocal Development in Primates and Other
Higher Vertebrates J. D. Newman & K. Bauers; Aspects
of Genotypic and Phenotypic Variability in Primate
Colonies H. 0. Box & T. B. Poole; The Evolution of
Non-Maternal Care in Primates C. Ross and A. M.
Maclarnon; Identification of Genetic Polymorphisms
and Applications of Studies of NonHuman Primates -
L. A. Knapp & R. D. Martin; Primate Research In and
Ex-Situ: Making the Connection D. L. Forthman; Ape
Mind, Monkey Mind A. Whiten; Resting and Nesting
in Primates: Behavioral Ecology of Inactivity B. I. Fruth
& W. C. McGrew; Slowing Aging by Calorie Restriction:
Studies in Rhesus Monkeys M. A. Lane; and
Environment/Disturbance C. M. Crockett & M. W.

Workshops: Primate Communities J. G. Fleagle; The
Care and Management of Captive Chimpanzees L.
Brent; Complex Approach to the Study of Primate
Ontogeny L. van Elsacker, J. Dupain et al.; Videotaped
Evidence of Self-Recognition in Primates R. W.
Mitchell & K. B. Swartz; The Implications of Non-
Invasive and Remote Monitoring Techniques for Non-
Human Primate Research L. Scott, M. Lankeit & M.
Schwibbe; Private Ownership of Primates: The Role of
Primatologists D. A. Smucny, J. Wallis et al.;The Status
of Research on the Behavior, Anatomy and Ecology of
the Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) H. D.
Steklis & K. Stewart; Health, Welfare and Quality of
Captive Primates R. C. Hubrecht; "Culture" and
"Enculturation" in Great Apes S. T. Parker, W.
McGrew et al.; The Re-Introduction of Ex-Captive
Orangutans: Perspectives from the Wanariset Project -
K. Warren & A. E. Russon; Long-term Care and Use of
Chimpanzees T. L. Wolfle; and New Directions in
Conflict Resolution Research F. Aureli & D. A.

Numerous organizations and companies provided
assistance and financial support for the Congress.
Classified as Benefactors were Data Sciences
International Inc., the Evjue Foundation, Inc. and The
Proctor and Gamble Co. As Garantors: Harlan Teklad,
Keari Co., Ltd., Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., and Wyeth-
Ayerst Research. Sponsors included: Ancare
Corporation, Auragen Inc., A.T. Viri Primate Breeding
Corporation, Berlex Laboratories, Coming Hazleton,
Inc., CSK Research Park, Inc., The Genetics Laboratory
of Trinity University, HRP, Inc., Osage Research
Primates, Rochester Midland Corporation, Siconbrec
USA, Inc., Three Springs Scientific, Inc., Kyowa Hakko
Kogyo Co., Ltd., K.L.A.S.S., Houghton Mifflin Co. and

Sensor Devices Inc. Conservation International,
Washington, D.C., financed a number of participants
through the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation.


The new Council for the International
flOrD CI Primatological Society (IPS), is as
iLI II follows: President Prof. Toshishada
eCaserli on Nishida, Department of Anthropology,
Graduate School of Science, Kyoto
University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 606, Japan, Tel: 81-
75-753-4084, Fax: 81-75-751-6149, e-mail:
nishida@jinrui.zool.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Secretary General-
Dr. Dorothy Fragaszy, Department of Psychology,
University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA,
Tel: 1-706-542-3036, Fax: 1-706-542-3275, e-mail:
cmspsy37@uga.cc.uga.edu; Vice President for
Membership Dr. Richard W. Byrne, Department of
Psychology, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews,
Fife KY16 9JU, Scotland, Tel: 44 334-62051, Fax: 44-
334-63042, e-mail: rwb@st.andrews.ac.uk; Vice
President for Captive Care Dr. Cobie Brinkman,
Division of Psychology, Australian National University,
GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACTY 0200, Australia, Tel: 61-
6-249-2803, Fax: 61-6-249-0499, e-mail: cobie.
brinkman@anu.edu.au; Vice Presidentfor Conservation
- Dr. Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna, Instituto de
Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz
91000, Mexico, Tel: 52-28-12-57-48, Fax: 52-28-17-
65-39 or 52-28-12-57-46, e-mail: saraguat @speedy.
coacade.uv.mx; Treasurer Dr. William Roudebush,
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical
University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina
29425-2233, USA, Tel: 1-803-792-8348, Fax: 1-803-
792-0533, e-mail: roudebwe@lp. musc.edu. From: IPS
Newsletter 23(1):2 June 1996.


Sb P ^ The new Council of the American
Society of Primatologists (ASP) is as
follows: President Dr. Melinda
Novak, Department of Psychology, University of
Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA, Tel: 413 545
0167, Fax: 413 545 0996, e-mail: mnovak@psych.
umass. edu; President-Elect: Dr. Nancy Caine,
Psychology Department, California State University, San
Marcos, CA 92096, USA, Tel: 619 752 4145, Fax: 619
752 4111, e-mail: ncaine@mailhostl. csusm. edu;
Executive Secretary: Dr. Anne Savage, Roger Williams
Park Zoo, 1000 Elmwood Avenue, Providence, RI

Page 99 Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

02907, USA, Tel: 401 785 3510 x 335, Fax: 401 941
3988, e-mail: asavage@brownvm. brown. edu;
Treasurer: Dr. Steve Schapiro, UT MDACC,
Department of Veterinary Research, Rte 2 151-B1,
Bastrop, TX 78602, USA, Tel: 512 321 3991, Fax: 512
322 5208, e-mail: an83000@mdacc.mda. uth. tmc. edu;
Past President: Dr. Joe Erwin, Department of Primate
Ecology, Diagnon Corporation, 9600 Medical Center
Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA, Tel: 301 251 2801,
Fax: 301 251 1260, email: joemerwin@aol.com. This
information was kindly supplied by the ASP Executive
Secretary, Anne Savage, and the President-Elect, Dr.
Nancy Caine.


KP ^ The 1996 Conservation Awards of the
American Society of Primatologists
(ASP) were announced during its XIXth
Conference held in conjunction with the XVIth Congress
of the International Primatological Society in Madison,
Wisconsin, USA, 11-16 August, 1996. Sixteen
subscriptions to the American Journal of Primatology
were continued for individuals in habitat countries where
primate literature is scarce, and nine small grants were
funded, as follows: (1) Mukesh Chalise of Nepal for
"Familiarization of Environmental Problems Through
Conservation Education"; (2) Anwaruddin Choudhury
of India for "A Survey of Primates in the Jaintia Hills
District of Meghalaya"; (3) MaLinda Henry of Miami
University for "Inter-Specific Competition for Food
Resources between Pan paniscus and Homo sapiens in
the Lomako Forest of Zaire"; (4) Zhaoyuan Li of China
for "Impacts of Habitat Fragmentation on the Behavior
and Social Structure of the White-headed Langur,
Presbytis leucocephalus, in China"; (5) W. Scott
McGraw of SUNY Stony Brook for "A Survey of
Endangered Primates in Eastern Ivory Coast"; (6)
Richard Nisbett of the University of Oklahoma for
"Continuation of Radio Broadcasts in Support of the
Society for the Conservation of Nature in Liberia"; (7)
Erwin Palacios of Colombia for "Ecological Bases for
Lake and River-Side Habitat Use of Alouatta seniculus
in Colombian Amazonia"; (8) Anne Savage of the Roger
Williams Park Zoo for "The Use of "Bindes" as an
Alternative to Long-term Resource Consumption in
Colombia"; and (9) Ian Singleton of the Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust for "Seasonal Migration and
Population Structure of Sumatran Orangutans (Pongo
pygmaeus abelii)" in the Gunung Leuser National Park.
In addition, US$500 each toward travel to the Madison
Congress was given to Shu-Yi Zhang of China and
Mukesh Chalise of Nepal. Mukesh Chalise also won the
Conservation Award.

The Senior Biology and Conservation Award went to
Alexander Peal, head of the Division of Wildlife and
Parks in Liberia, for his devoted efforts over two decades,
and under difficult circumstances, to establish and
maintain wildlife parks and reserves in his homeland,
and for his contributions to primate research and
protection.The ASP pointed to Mr. Peal's leadership in
wildlife management and conservation, international
collaboration with conservation NGOs and researchers,
and his role in the establishment of the 505 square mile
Sapo National Park, an area of wilderness rainforest
which is home to chimpanzees and numerous African
primate species. In conferring the award ASP officers
commended Peal for persevering through difficult times
in war-torn Liberia and single-handedly building both
the infrastructure and ethic for the preservation of
Liberian wildlife. Nominators described Peal as "the
individual in West Africa above whom no one could be
placed with respect to the overall advancement of
primate conservation."

Prof. Ramon Rhine, Chair ASP Conservation
Committee, Psychology Department, University of
California, Riverside, California 92521, USA.

SRP ^The 1997 Meeting of the American
Society of Primatologists (ASP) will be
held from 27-30 June at the Bahia Hotel
on beautiful Mission Bay in San Diego. In addition to
what is sure to be a fine scientific program at the ASP
meeting, San Diego is perfect for building a bit of
vacation onto your visit. The location of the hotel is ideal:
minutes from the airport, downtown, and Balboa Park
(San Diego Zoo), and right in the midst of Mission beach.
Contact: Dr. Nancy Caine, Local Arrangements Chair,
CSU San Marcos, San Marcos, CA 92096, USA, e-mail:
ncaine@mailhostl .csusm.edu.

Recent Publications


After a number of years of editorial and financial
difficulties, we are pleased to report that three issues of
Primate Conservation have been published: Number 12-
13 (1991/1992), 42pp.; Number 14-15 (1993/1994),
66pp.; and Number 16 (1995), 74pp. Number 12-13
contains four articles from the Neotropical region. Carlos
Peres and Andrew Johns reviewed primate mortality and

Page 99

Neotropical Primates 4(3), Septemher 1996

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

the rescue operation for the Tucurui Hydroelectric dam
in southern Pard, Brazil. Robert Cameron and Hannah
Buchanan-Smith reported on their primate surveys in
the Pando region of Bolivia, and Anthony Rylands, Ilmar
Santos and Russell Mittermeier reviewed the status and
distribution of the golden headed lion tamarin,
Leontopithecus chrysomelas, in southern Bahia, Brazil.
Finally, an article by Adelmar Coimbra-Filho, Alcides
Pissinatti, Anthony Rylands and Ilmar Santos discussed
the distribution and conservation status of the little-
known buff-headed capuchin monkey, Cebus
xanthosternos, in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Two other
articles in this issue report on the hoolock gibbon in
Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India (R. P. Mukherjee
et al.), and the options for the reintroduction of gibbons
in Thailand (Ardith Eudey).

Number 14-15 includes the proceedings of a symposium
on Population Viability Analyses for Primates, held
during the XV Congress of the International
Primatological Society in Bali, Indonesia, August 1994.
This special section was guest-edited by Robert C. Lacy
of the Department of Conservation Biology of the
Chicago Zoological Society. Following an introduction
and discussion of the PVA approach by Robert Lacy
(What is Population (and Habitat) Viability Analysis?),
case studies are presented for lion tamarins (Anthony
Rylands), muriquis, Brachyteles (Karen B. Strier), the
Tana River crested mangabey, Cercocebus galeritus
galeritus (Margaret F. Kinnaird and Timothy O'Brien),
and the Thailand gibbons, Hylobates (Warren Y.
Brockelman). The PVA Workshops for these species and
species groups resulted from collaboration between the
PSG and the IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG), chaired by Dr. Ulysses S. Seal.
As pointed out in the editorial (Russell A. Mittermeier
and Anthony Rylands), this focus on using current
technologies to assess the long-term status of primates
and to develop the most appropriate approaches to
conserving them in the wild is one that PSG hopes to
use much more in the future. Three other articles in this
number deal with the status and conservation of
chimpanzees and gorillas in Cameroon (Jacques Prescott
et al.), and report on the lemurs in the Ambatovaky (M.
I. Evans et al.) and Ambohitantely Special Reserves,
Madagascar (Peter J. Stephenson et al.).

Number 16 has two articles from the Neotropics: a
review of the long-term research at the La Macarena
study site in Colombia (Akisato Nishimura, Kosei Izawa
and Koshin Kimura); and some observations on the
yellow-tailed woolly monkey, Lagothrixflavicauda, and
the Andean night monkey, Aotus miconax, in the
Cordillera del Condor, Peru (Stuart H. M. Butchart et
al.). Articles from Africa include an extensive review
of the status of the pygmy chimpanzee, Pan paniscus,

Page 100

by Adriaan Kortlandt, with some further observations
by Randall L. Susman, and a report on the gorillas of
the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda, by Esteban
Sarmiento, Tom Butynski and Jan Kalina. Randall Junge
and Della Garell provide some important results of their
veterinary evaluation of ruffed lemurs as part of the
protocol for reintroduction, and Jane M. Wilson, author
of the book Lemurs of the Lost World reviewed in
Neotropical Primates 4(2), and her colleagues report on
some of their latest findings regarding fossil and extant
lemurs at the AnkArana caves in northern Madagascar.
There are five articles from Asia in this issue. Ajith
Kumar et al. report on their findings concerning the
effects of forest fragmentation on the lion-tailed
macaque, Macaca silenus, the Nilgiri langur, Presbytis
johnii, and the giant squirrel, Ratufa indica, in the
Western Ghats of India. T. R. Shankar Raman et al.
discuss the results of a primate survey in Mizoram, north-
east India, and likewise Rob J. Lee of a survey of the
crested black macaque, Macaca nigra, in the
Manembonembo Nature Reserve in North Sulawesi,
Indonesia. The distribution of the endangered Central
Javan gibbons is commented by Vincent Nijman, and
likewise the taxonomy of Presbytis fredericae, an
endangered langur from the same region, by Douglas

Primate Conservation is available for US$15.00 per
issue (incl. postage and packing) from Conservation
International, Department of Conservation Biology,
1015 Eighteenth Street, N. W., Suite 1000, Washington
D. C. 20036, USA. Fax: 202 887 0193. The 1996 issue
of Primate Conservation (No. 17) is in preparation and
we urge you to submit research and review articles on
the conservation and status of primates, including such
relevant aspects as information on threats, protected
areas, distributions, taxonomy, biology and captive

Anthony B. Rylands, Editor Primate Conservation,
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Antonio
Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil. Tel/Fax: +55 (0)31 441-1795, e-
mail: a.rylands@conservation.org.br, and Russell A.
Mittermeier, President, Conservation International,
1015 Eighteenth Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036,


A fully revised edition of the Action Plan for African
Primate Conservation first published by the PSG in 1986
has been compiled by John F. Oates: African Primates:
Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Revised
Edition, 1996, 80pp., IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Group, Gland (see page 102). It deals with the primates
of continental Africa, excluding Madagascar. Sixty four
species (15 prosimians, 46 monkeys and three apes) are
recognized in the plan, which takes account of new
taxonomic research. A revised system is used to rate
species for conservation action. This involves a scale of
1-5 for the degree of threat they face, and either 1 or 2
points are added based on their taxonomic
distinctiveness. The threat ratings are compatible with,
but not identical to, the new IUCN categories. Under
this rating system, the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) is
the highest ranked species for conservation action.

This plan gives more attention to threatened subspecies.
Forty-three subspecies and distinct local populations are
identified as deserving of special conservation attention
and are prioritized for action. Of 12 subspecies with the
highest rating, six are red colobus monkeys: Procolobus
badius waldroni (Ivory Coast and western Ghana), P. b.
"epieni" (central delta of the Niger, southern Nigeria),
P. b. preussi (western Cameroon and possibly far
southeastern Nigeria), P. b. pennantii (endemic to
Bioko), P. b. bouvieri (endemic to Congo), and P. b.
rufomitratus (lower Tana River in Kenya).

As in the previous plan, important sites for conservation
action are identified, based on the recognition of distinct
regional communities. Eleven such communities are
listed. Most of these are tropical forest communities with
high levels of species' richness and endemism.

The original plan listed 42 projects across 11 regional
communities. These projects included both basic surveys
and reserve management schemes. The new plan reviews
what action has been taken on these projects in the last
10 years: some action has been taken on 38 of them, but
in 10 cases interruptions have been caused by civil war
or other forms of political instability, a growing
impediment to effective conservation in Africa. Based
on this project review, specific recommendations for
further action are made. Twenty-four projects are
identified as of very high priority, but in six of these
cases political factors mitigate against immediate
research or conservation efforts. In addition to further
action in previously identified areas, three new areas
with endemic primates are recognized as requiring
attention. These are Southern Somalia, Benin and the
Niger Delta.

Given the large number of highly localized and
threatened populations of red colobus monkeys, it is
recommended that a Red Colobus Conservation Action
Plan be prepared and implemented.

John F. Oates, Department of Anthropology, Hunter
College (CUNY), New York, NY 10021, USA.


The new Checklist of CITES Species has been published
in the three working languages of the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species. Its
production is supported by the CITES Secretariat, at the
Joint Nature Conservation Committee of the UK and
the European Commission. It was produced by the World
Conservation Monitoring Center (WCMC), Cambridge,
as part of its support for CITES. The checklist provides
alphabetical listings of the species of fauna and flora on
Apendices I, II, and III of CITES. It is hoped that thiswill
be an aid to management and scientific authorities,
customs officials, and all others involved in enforcing
the convention. Copies are available from: CITES
Secretariat, Case Postale 456, CH-1219 Geneva,
Switzerland, Tel: (22) 979 9139, Fax: (22) 797 3417, e-
mail: cites@unep.ch.


Besides Neotropical Primates, the IUCN/SSC Primate
Specialist Group (PSG) produces three other newsletters,
Lemur News (Madagascar), Asian Primates and African
Primates. African Primates is produced in collaboration
with Conservation International and the IUCN Eastern
Africa Regional Office, with support from the National
Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, and the Zoo Atlanta's
Conservation Action Resource Center. The second issue
of African Primates (Vol. 1, No.2) was published in
December 1995. It includes articles on Sclater's guenon,
Cercopithecus sclateri, endemic to Nigeria (Zena
Tooze), the black colobus, Colobus satanas, in the
northwestern Congo (Giuseppe Carpaneto), problems
in gorilla conservation in eastern Zaire (Annette
Lanjouw, Greg Cummings and Jillian Miller), a survey
of primates in the Lobeke Forest Reserve, south-east
Cameroon (Leonard Usongo and Cheryl Fimbel), the
possible occurrence of infanticide in the Tana River red
colobus, Procolobus badius rufomitratus (Christopher
Mowry), and the little-known sooty mangabey,
Cercocebus torquatus atys (Deborah Gust).

Asian Primates is also produced in collaboration with
Conservation International. Issue No. 1-2 (September
and June 1995) of Volume 5 of Asian Primates was
published in June 1996 and includes articles on the status
of black gibbons, Hylobates concolorjingdongensis, in
the Yunnan Province of China (Lan Daoying and Lori
Sheeran), the progress of primate studies and
conservation in China (Zhang Yonzu and Quan
Guoqing), the douc langurs, Pygathrix nemaeus, of the
central highlands of Vietnam (Lois K. Lippold and Vu
Ngoc Thanh), and douc langurs and Francois' langur,
Trachypithecus francoisi, in the Endangered Primate
Rescue Center in Vietnam (Tilo Nadler). The second

Page 101

Page 102

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

issue of Lemur News is in press.

The editors of these newsletters are as follows: African
Primates Thomas M. Butynski, Editor, Zoo Atlanta,
Africa Biodiversity Conservation Program, P. 0. Box
24434, Nairobi, Kenya, Tel: 254 2 745374, Fax: 254 2
890615, e-mail: enw@earo.iucn.ch; Asian Primates -
Ardith A. Eudey, Editor, 164 Dayton Street, Upland,
California 91786, USA, Tel/Fax: (909) 982 9832. The
second issue of Lemur News was produced by Roderic
Mast, Conservation International, Washington, D. C.,
but future issues will be edited by J6rg Ganzhom,
Deutsches Primatenzentrum (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, D-
37077 G6ttingen, Germany, Tel: +49 5513851 129, Fax:
+49 551 3851 228.


A new, Brazil-based, English language, international
journal, the Journal of Comparative Biology, has been
launched. It is a publication of the Biology Department
of the Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of
the University ofSao Paulo at Ribeirao Preto. The journal
will be published quarterly (except for the first two
years), in March, June, September and December. The
scope of the journal covers all aspects of comparative
biology, from molecules to ecosystems, from conceptual
issues to philosophical and historical accounts, from
methodological analysis to evolutionary synthesis. There
is no taxonomic restriction, nor fixed disciplinary
boundaries. Papers integrating comparative biology with
physico-geo-chemical and social sciences are also
welcomed. The first number has been published Vol. 1
(1/2), June 1996. Subscriptions (delivery included and
no extra charge for supplements) are as follows:
individuals in Brazil R$40.00, (students half price);
individuals in other countries US$50.00 (students half
price); institutions in Brazil R$60.00; institutions in
other countries US$70.00. The Editor-in-Chief is
Dalton de Souza Amorim, Departamento de Biologia,
FFCLR/USP, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901
Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Fax: +55 16 633 5015,
e-mail: dsamorim@usp.br.


The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates, by
Noel Rowe, foreword by Jane Goodall, introduction by
Russell Mittermeier, 1996, 274pp. Pogonias Press, East
Hampton, New York. 500 color illustrations, including
235 range maps, glossary, popular books, web sites,
bibliography and index. Hardback ISBN 0-9648825-0-
7, Price US$79.95, Paperback ISBN 0-9648825-1-5,
Price US$59.95. Add US$4.95 (USA) or US$10.00
(other countries) for postage and packing. This is a very
beautifully illustrated book., including photographs of

many little known and rare primates. Covering all
species, it gives summarised information on taxonomy
(follows that of Colin Groves), distinguishing
characteristics, physical characteristics, distribution,
habitat, diet, life history, locomotion, social structure,
and behavior of each. Very highly recommended. To
order Pogonias Press, 163 Town Lane, East Hampton,
New York 11937-5000, USA. Mastercard or Visa
accepted toll free 1 800 296-6310.

African Primates: Status Survey and
Conservation Action Plan. Revised Edition, by
John F. Oates, 1996, 80pp. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist
Group, Gland. This is a fully revised edition of the Action
Plan for Primate Conservation, first published by the
PSG in 1986. Available from: IUCN Publications
Services Unit, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3
ODL, UK, Tel: +44 1223-277894, Fax: +44 1223
277175, or IUCN Communications and Corporate
Relations Division, Rue Mauverney 28, CH-1196 Gland,
Switzerland, Tel: +41 22 999 0001, Fax: +41 22 999
0010. See page 100.

Wild Mammals in Captivity: Principles and
Techniques, by Devra G. Kleiman, Mary E. Allen,
Katerina V. Thompson and Susan Lumpkin, Managing
editor Holly Harris, 1996, 640pp. University of Chicago
Press, Chicago. Hardback price US$70.00. ISBN 0 226
44002 8. This book brings together in one
comprehensive volume a wealth of information gathered
from studies of animal behavior, breeding, genetics, and
nutrition, management and welfare. It features
contributions from dozens of internationally respected
experts and is a professional reference of immense
practical value, surveying every significant scientific
technical and management issue. Organized into seven
parts, the 48 chapters cover the basics of husbandry and
nutrition, the design, planning and management of
exhibits in zoos and parks, behavior, reproduction,
breeding genetics and population management, and
research with captive mammals. It is an essential resource
for administrators, keepers, veterinarians, conservation
biologists, and others concerned with the well-being,
conservation and captive breeding of mammals.
Available from: University of Chicago Press, 11030 S.
Langley Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60628, USA.

International Directory of Primatology, edited
by Larry Jacobsen and Raymond Hamel, 3rd Edition,
1996, 385 pp. (approx.). Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
ISSN 1064-3826. ISBN 0-299-15284-7. Price US$25.00
in the USA, US$35 outside USA. This Directory
provides a wealth of information about 300 organizations

Page 103 Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

and 2,800 people active in primate research, education
and conservation. Detailed information is provided for
primate research centers and laboratories, educational
programs, conservation agencies, field projects,
rehabilitation and sanctuary programs, zoological
gardens, international and national societies, foundations
and information agencies. The names of key people in
these programs are provided with complete contact
information. This edition is enhanced by the addition of
more e-mail and World Wide Web addresses. The listing
of field projects from the Primate Eye Supplement
returns to this edition. The International Primatological
Society listing has been expanded and upgraded. The
information resources section has been revamped and
expanded. This directory will help you answer questions,
such as: Which zoos worldwide house bonobos? Who
is the director of the Kunming Institute of Zoology
(China)? Where can I look for educational or
employment opportunities? What field projects are
currently being conducted in Brazil ? How do I subscribe
to the American Journal ofPrimatology? What species
are supported by the Institute of Primate Research in
Kenya? Who are the studbook keepers for the Mandrill?
Can I study primatology at the University of
Pennsylvania and do they offer field work opportunities?
Where do I look for primate information on the World
Wide Web? If you work with primates or are interested
in the field of primatology, you will find the directory
to be a handy and useful resource. Send orders by post
to: Larry Jacobsen, IDP Coordinator, Wisconsin
Regional Primate, Research Center, University of
Wisconsin, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, Wisconsin
53715-1299, USA, or by e-mail to: library@
primate.wisc.edu, or by telephone: 1-608-263-3512.
Checks payable to:Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center. Please allow three to four weeks for

Pollination Redbook, Volume 1: Global List of
Threatened Vertebrate Wildlife Species Serving
as Pollinators for Crops and Wild Plants,
compiled by Gary Paul Nabhan, May 1996, 19pp.
Forgotten Pollinators Campaign, Tucson, Arizona. A
survey of the IUCN (1994) Red List of Threatened
Animals to identify vertebrates which belong to
taxonomic groups generally known to be involved in
providing pollination services. A similar analysis of
threatened invertebrates is underway. The Forgotten
Pollinators Campaign is co-sponsored by the Arizona-
Sonora Desert Museum, Bat Conservation International,
the Sonoran Arthropod Studies Institute, and Xerces
Society. For further information: The Forgotten
Pollinators Campaign, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum,
2021 North Kinney Road, Tuscson, Arizona 85743,
USA, e-mail: fpollen@azstamet.com.

Bradna, Angico, Jacarandd e Outras
Leguminosas de Mata Atldntica: Estaado
Biol6gica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, by Carlos
Victor Mendonga Filho, illustrations by Dulce
Nascimento, foreword by G. P. Lewis. 1996, 100pp.
Editora Littera Maciel, Belo Horizonte. In Portuguese.
An illustrated catalogue of the leguminous plants, the
result of seven years of research, in the Caratinga
Biological Station, an important field research site for
muriquis (Brachyteles) and marmosets (Callithrix
flaviceps). Includes taxonomic keys to the families and
genera and the description of 99 species (the fruits of 50
are illustrated), including common names, their popular
uses, occurrence in Caratinga, listings of the material
examined and a glossary. Available from: Funda~go
Biodiversitas, Avenida do Contomo 9155, 110 andar,
Prado, 30110-130 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil,
Fax: +55 (0)31 291-7658, e-mail: cdcb@ax.apc.org.

The Howling Monkeys ofLa Pacifica, by Kenneth
E. Glander, 1996, 31 pp. Duke University Primate Center,
Durham, North Carolina. This well-illustrated booklet
contains questions and answers on the population of
about 550 howling monkeys, Alouatta palliata, which
have been studied by Kenneth Glander and his
colleagues since 1972 in 600 ha of forests at the Hacienda
La Pacifica in the Guanacaste Province of Costa Rica.
For more information: Dr. Kenneth E. Glander, Duke
University Primate Center, 3705 Erwin Road, Durham,
North Carolina 27705-500, USA.

Investigaci6n, Conservaci6n y Desarrollo en
Selvas Subtropicales de Montana, edited by the
Laborat6rio de Investigaciones Ecol6gicas de las Yungas
(LIEY), Argentina. 1996. Price US$30.00. This
publication contains 26 articles authored by specialists
of the region, on biology, anthropology, archaeology,
geography, climate, agriculture, and forest engineering.
Available from: Miriam Roxana Aragon, Laborat6rio
de Investigaciones Ecol6gicas de las Yungas (LIEY),
Casilla de Correo 34, (4107 Yerba Buena, TucumAn,

Investigaci6n en Areas Protegidas de America
Latina, by Victor Pulido C. and Juan Oltremari A.,
Documento Ticnico No.19, Proyecto FAO/PNUMA
sobre Manejo de Areas Silvestres, Areas Protegidas y
Vida Silvestere en Amdrica Latina y el Caribe, 1995,
90pp. Includes reviews of: The history of research in
protected areas; policies and management categories;
research funding; personnel, training and infrastructure;
themes, research objectives and problems; and research

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needs. Available from: Kyran D. Thelen, Oficial
Regional Forestal, Oficina Regional de la FAO para
Am6rica Latina y el Caribe, Bandera 150, Casilla 10095,
Santiago, Chile, Tel: 699-1005, Fax: 696 1121, 696
1124, e-mail: k.d.thelen-fao@cgnet.com.

Informe del Taller Internacional sobre Uso
Sostenible y Conservaci6n de la Fauna
Silvestre en los Paises de la Cuenca del
Amazonas, 1996, 41pp. Results of a Workshop held
in the Amacayacu National Park, Amazonas, Colombia,
30 August to 5 September 1995, an activity of the
Proyecto GCP/RLA/118/NET "Apoyo a la Secretaria
Pro Tempore del Tratado de Cooperaci6n Amaz6nica",
organized by the FAO Regional Office for Latin America
and the Caribbean. Published by the Colombian Ministry
of the Enviroment and the FAO Regional Office for Latin
America and the Caribbean, Available from: Kyran D.
Thelen, Oficial Regional Forestal, Oficina Regional de
la FAO para America Latina y el Caribe, Bandera 150,
Casilla 10095, Santiago, Chile, Tel: 699-1005, Fax: 696
1121, 696 1124, e-mail: k.d.thelen-fao@cgnet.com.


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XIV Encontro Anual de Etologia, 16-19 October 1996,
Uberlandia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Organized by the
Sociedade Brasileira de Etologia (SBEt) and the
Departamento de Bioci8ncias, Universidade Federal de
Uberlandia. Includes symposia on: Human ethology;
insect behavior; behavior, animal production and
conservation; defensive behavior; reproductive behavior;
and aquatic mammals. Deadline for abstracts: 30 July
1996. For more information: XIV Encontro Anual de
Etologia, Coordenador Prof. Dr. Kleber Del-Claro,
Departamento de Biociencias, Universidade Federal de
Uberlandia, Caixa Postal 593, 38400-902 Uberlandia,
Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fax: (034) 232 8620, e-mail:

Measuring Behavior '96 International Workshop
on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research,
16-18 October 1996, Rudolf Magnus Insititute for
Neurosciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
Registration fee: before 1 August 1996 is NLG 200
(students: NLG 50), after 1 August 1996 is NLG 300
(students: NLG 75). Submission of abstracts: Those who

Page 108

wish to present an oral paper, poster or demonstration
should submit the title and abstract of their contribution.
All submissions should be received before 1 May 1996.
Notification of acceptance of abstracts 1 July 1996.
For program booklet and registration/abstract forms:
Measuring Behavior '96, Workshop Secretariat, Attn:
Rosan Nikkelen, P.O. Box 268, 6700 AG Wageningen,
The Netherlands. Tel: +31 (0)317-497677, Fax: +31
(0)317-424496, e-mail: mb96@noldus.nl. (Information
on the workshop is also available on the World Wide
Web: http://www.diva.nl/noldus/mb96.html).

I Congress APE and European Workshop on Primate
Research, 16-19 October 1996, Hotel Escuela, Madrid,
Spain. Organized by the Asociaci6n Primatol6gica
Espafiola (APE). The European Workshop on Primate
Research, consisting of a panel of invited speakers and
free poster contributions, will take up the last two days
of the meeting. The objective of the Congress is to
provide a forum to assess the current situation and
perspectives on primate research in Spain and the rest
of Europe to facilitate the exchange of information
among European primatologists and to promote the
establishment of co-operative links between European
institutions and research groups working in primatology.
Confirmed speakers include: B. Deputte (Paimpont,
France), B. Thierry (Strasbourg, France), R. Vercauteren
Drubbel (Bruxelles, Belgium), R. D. Martin (Zurich,
Switzerland), E. Visalberghi (Rome, Italy), P.
Timmermans (Nijmegen, Holland), L. Sterck (Utrecht,
Holland), W. Kaumanns (G6ttingen, Germany), M.
Vancatova (Konarovice, Czech Republic), H. Preuschoft
(Bochum, Germany), R. Crompton (Liverpool, UK), H.
0. Box (Reading, UK), G. Norton and D. Hawkins
(Cambridge, UK). Prof. Hans Kummer will also be
elected an Honorary Member of APE and will give a
talk entitled "Through the fieldglasses: a primatologist's
retrospective". For further information: Dr. Fernando
Colmenares, Departamento de Psicobiologia,
Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Campus de
Somosaguas, 28223 Madrid, Spain. Tel: +34 1 3943073,
Fax: +34 1 3943189, e-mail: pspsc06@sis.ucm.es.

56th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate
Anthropology, 16-19 October 1996, American Museum
of Natural History, New York, NY. Program,
presentations, and abstracts, contact: SVP Program
Officer, Kevin Padian, Tel: 510-642-7434, Fax: 510-
642-1822, e-mail: kpadian@violet.berkeley.edu. For
general SVP'96 questions contact SVP Business Office,
401 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60611-4267,
USA, Tel: 312-321-3708, Fax: 312-245-1085, e-mail:

XV Congress Panamericano de CiEncias
Veterinarias, 21-25 October 1996, PalAcio Popular de

Neotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Cultura, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
Associaqao Panamericana de Ciencias Veterinarias,
Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Veterinaria. Contact:
XV PANVET, Comissao Organizadora, Avenida Afonso
Pena 2386, Sala 84, 79002-074 Campo Grande, Mato
Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tel: +55 (0)67 724-7071, Fax:
+55 (0)67 383-4371.

95th Annual Meeting of the American
Anthropological Association, 20-24 November 1996,
San Francisco, California. Theme: "Anthropology: A
Critical Retrospective". Contact: AAA Meetings
Department, 4350 Fairfax Drive, Suite 640, Arlington,
VA 22203, USA, Tel: 703-528-1902 x 2.

2nd EUPREN/EMRG Winter Workshop The
Implications of Housing and Husbandry for Scientific
Quality and Well-Being of Non-Human Primates, 25-
27 November 1996, Conference Hall, Italian National
Research Council, Rome. This Workshop is sponsored
jointly by the European Primate Research Network
(EUPREN) and the European Marmoset Research Group
(EMRG). It will explore the optimal balance between
housing and husbandry requirements for different fields
of biomedical research and the environmental needs of
the species involved. The aim of this workshop is to
improve the quality of research in the respect of non-
human primate's well-being. The scientific programme
will include three sessions: 1) Methodological and
technical aspects of housing and husbandry in specific
research fields; 2) Requirements of non-human primate
species most commonly involved in experimental
procedures; and 3) Scientific and ethical approaches to
optimize and refine the use of non-human primates in
biomedical and biological research. The Workshop will
provide a multidisciplinary forum to exchange
experience and ideas with a view to develop coherent
science-based strategies for advancing research with
non-human primates. All participants are invited to
contribute with posters and oral presentations in the free
sessions. Contacts: Dr. Gemma Perretta, Istituto di
Medicine Sperimentale, CNR, c/o ENEA Casaccia, S.
P. Anguillarese km. 13, 00060 Santa Maria di Galeria,
Rome, Italy, Tel: + 39 6 30484634, Fax: +39 6
30483805, or Dr. Ton Kos, Biomedical Research Center,
Lange Kleiweg 151,2288 GJ Rijswik, The Netherlands,
Tel: +31 152 843013, Fax: +31 152 843900, e-mail:

PSGB Winter Meeting 1996- Social Learning Among
Mammals, 29-30 November 1996, Meeting Rooms,
London Zoological Society, Regent's Park, London.
Organized by the Primate Society of Great Britain
(PSGB), in association with the Mammal Society and
the Zoological Society of London. The program includes
the Osman Hill lecture to be given by Thelma Rowell,

and an address by the first recipient of the new PSGB
Conservation Award, Jane Goodall. Admission by ticket
only. Registration 50 for two days, 25 for one day,
half-price for students and members of PSGB. For further
information please contact: Dr. Hilary Box, Department
of Psychology, University of Reading, Whiteknights
Road, Reading, RG6 2AL, UK. Tel: 01734 316668, Fax:
01734 316604 e-mail: h.box@reading.ac.uk.

Biodiversity, Conservation and Management at the
Beni Biosphere Reserve, Bolivia, 3-6 December 1996,
La Paz, Bolivia. Organized by the Beni Biological
Station, Bolivian Academy of Sciences, and the
Smithsonian/MAB Biodiversity Program. The objective
is to provide a complete overview of the last ten years
of research on biodiversity, conservation and
management at the reserve. Papers and posters are
requested. Proceedings will be published. For additional
information, contact: Carmen Miranda, Academia
Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia, Av. 16 de Julio 1732,
Casilla 5829, La Paz, Bolivia. Tel./Fax: (591-2) 350612,
e-mail cmiranda@ebb.bo, or Francisco Dallmeier,
Smithsonian/MAB Biodiversity Program, 1100
Jefferson Drive SW, Suite 3123, Washington, D. C.
20560, USA. Tel: (202) 357 4793, Fax: (202) 786 2557,
e-mail: icfgd@ic.si.edu.

ASAB Winter Meeting, Behaviour and Speciation,
5-6 December 1996, Zoological Society of London
Meeting Rooms, London Zoo. Organizer: Roger Butlin.
For further information contact: Dr Roger Butlin,
Ecology and Evolution Programme, Department of
Genetics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

Australian Primate Society XVIth Annual
Conference, 6-8 December 1996, Wellington Zoo,
Wellington, New Zealand. Conference Organizer:
Graeme Strachan, Wellington Zoo. Contact: Graeme
Crook, CSIRO Division of Human Nutrition, Animal
Services, Majors Road, O'Halloran Hill, South Australia
5158. Tel: +61 82980336, Fax: +61 83770004, e-mail:


1997 Meeting of the American Society of
Primatologists, 27 June 1 July 1997, Bahia Hotel, San
Diego, California. For more information, contact: Nancy
Caine, Psychology Department, California State
University, San Marcos, California 92096, USA. Tel:
(619) 752-4145, Fax: (619) 752-4111, e-mail:

ASAB Summer Meeting "Biological Aspects of
Learning", 2-4 July 1997, University of St. Andrews,

Page 109

NeotroPiCal Primates 4(3), September 1996 Page 110

Scotland, UK. Association for the Study of Animal
Behaviour (ASAB). Organized by Peter Slater. It is
hoped to include talks on a wide variety of animal
groups,and ranging from neurobiological aspects of
learning to social learning and imitation. Main lectures
will be given by RandolfMenzel (Learning and memory
in the honey bee), Meredith West (Social development),
Peter Tyack (Vocal learning in cetaceans), and Andrew
Whitten (Imitation and social learning in primates).
Offers of talks or posters, the latter not necessarily
restricted to the main subject of the meeting, will be
welcomed, and should be sent to: Professor Peter Slater,
School of Biological and Medical Sciences, University
of St. Andrews, Bute Medical Building, St. Andrews
KY16 9TS, Scotland, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1334 463500,
Fax: +44 (0) 1334 463600, e-mail: pjbs@st-

The Royal Society Meeting, "Evolution of Biological
Diversity: From Population Differentiation to
Speciation", 9-10 July 1997. A discussion meeting at
The Royal Society, Carlton House Terrace, London, UK.
Organized by Robert May and Anne Magurran. Contact:
The Science Promotion Section, The Royal Society, 6
Carlton House Terrace, London SW1Y 5AG, UK, Tel:
+44 (0)171 839 5561, Fax: +44 (0)171 930 2170.

Fifth International Congress of Vertebrate
Morphology, 12-17 July, 1997, University of Bristol,
Bristol, UK. Organized by the International Society for
Vertebrate Morphologists. For all interested in vertebrate
morphology and related areas. Suitable topics for
discussion at the meeting include all aspects of vertebrate
morphology, including anatomy, evolution,
development, biomechanics and locomotion, vertebrate
palaeontology, ecological morphology, morphological
aspects of behaviour, cell structure and function,
neurobiology and neuroanatomy, and morphometric and
other methods.Contact: Professor J. M. V. Rayner,
School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol,
Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 lUG, UK, Fax: +44 (0)117
925 7374, e-mail: icvm97@bristol.ac.uk, WWW: http:/

XXV International Ethological Conference, 18-25
August 1997, Vienna, Austria. Contact: Michael
Taborsky, Chair, IEC Organizing Committee, Wiener
Medizinische Akademie, Alser Strasse 4, A-1090
Vienna, Austria.

ASAB Winter Meeting 1997 "Behaviour and
Conservation", Zoological Society of London, Regent's
Park, London, UK. Association for the Study of Animal
Behaviour (ASAB). Organized by Morris Gosling and
Mark Avery. The organizers aim to use the meeting as
the basis for a multi-author book. Contacts: Professor

Morris Gosling, Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society
of London, Regent's Park, London NWl 4RY, UK, Tel:
+44 (0)171 449 6600, Fax: +44 (0)171 586 2870, e-
mail: suaalmh@ucl.ac.uk, or Dr. Mark Avery, RSPB,
The Lodge, Sandy, Beds. SG19 2DL, UK, Tel: +44
(0)1767 680551, Fax: +44 (0)1767 692365, e-mail:


We would be most grateful if you could send us information
on projects, research groups, events (congresses, symposia,
and workshops), recent publications, activities of
primatological societies and NGOs, news items or opinions
of recent events and suchlike. Manuscripts should be
double-spaced and accompanied by the text in diskette
for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect,
Wordstar). Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, high quality figures,
and high quality maps, tables and references, but please
keep them to a minimum.
Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS, C/O
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio
Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (31) 441 17 95 or
Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Instituto de Neuroetlogia,
Universidad Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa,
Veracruz 91000, Mexico, Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748.

LILIANA CORTES-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana) provides
invaluable editorial assistance.

Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to:



NEOTROPICAL PRIMA TES is produced in collaboration
NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC 20036, USA, and
FUNDACAO BIODIVERSITAS, Av. do Contorno, 9155/11.
andar Prado, Belo Horizonte 30110-130, Minas
Gerais, Brazil.

Design and Composition ALEXANDRE S. DINNouTI -
a.dinnouti@conservation.org.br Conservation
International do Brasil.

lVeotropical Primates 4(3), September 1996

Page 110


This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity
Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, the Houston Zoological Gar-
dens Conservation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Hous-
ton, Texas 77030, and the Grupo de Trabalho em Biodiversidade (GTB), through the Brazilian Na-
tional Science Research Council (CNPq), Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Cootdenador do GTB, c/o Con-
servation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant8nio Abrahao Caram 820/302,31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Anthony Rylands/Emesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil

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