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Title: Neotropical primates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00007
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: September 1994
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Full Text

A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodrfguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: William R. Konstant





Page 1 Neoropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Primates are considered by many zoos, especially
in most developed countries, as animals with great
exhibit potential and hence visitor attraction. Not
least amongst their attributes, they offer the
opportunity to enhance people's appreciation and
understanding of the natural world: the sheer
diversity of primates is a feature long since used to
good effect by education departments in zoos, and
increasingly linked to conservation issues in the
more progressive of these institutions. At the same
time, the increase in number and effectiveness of
cooperative breeding programs, such as Species
Survival Plans, indicates a growing concern by the
zoological community that it has no real alternative
but to multiply its resources for primate
conservation. This describes the situation in the
richer countries of the north which have next to no
wild-living primates but do have the resources on
which good exhibits and educational programs can
be run. These resources also extend to publishing
much useful information about where captive
primates are located, population sizes and
dynamics through studbook analyses, and multiple
aspects of captive management. In particular, the
reference sections of the International Zoo
Yearbook have presented useful information, not
least to measure trends, and more latterly the
International Species Information System (ISIS)
presents the possibility of detailed analyses and
access to current status information.

By contrast, the countries with high primate
diversity in the wild (and possibly also in captivity
but we lack the statistics) have fewer resources for
their zoos to make the most of them in promoting
their conservation. Here too the exhibition value is
clearly understood, but the actual exhibits often do
not inspire or educate the zoo visitor. Conversely,
the free-living groups of native species that one can
frequently find in zoos of the tropics represent a
gift for education and study. Limited resources and
organizational difficulties also conspire against
many of these zoos in publicizing the primates that
they maintain and in joining cooperative breeding
efforts. Thus a reasonable first step to addressing
these difficulties is to ensure that the communities
with primate and conservation interests are
informed of what primates are present in the zoos.
Venezuela is a country typical of this situation, and
the objective of this paper is to present the current

status of primates in the zoos as a stimulus for
improving conservation action.

The Fundaci6n Nacional de Parques Zool6gicos y
Acuarios (FUNPZA) currently recognizes fifteen
zoos in Venezuela which, to function properly,
should be legally registered with the Servicio
Aut6noma Profauna of the Ministerio del
Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Renovables
(MARNR). Annual inventories (covering the years
1991-1993) of eleven of these zoos were available
(sent to FUNPZA) and permitted basic analysis.
Species native to Venezuela, with the geographical
range entirely or partly within the country, were
checked using Eisenberg (1989). Separation of taxa
into those with some category of threat and those
not threatened (non-threatened) was made with
reference to the IUCN Mammal Red Data Book
(Thornback and Jenkins, 1982), the 1990 IUCN
Red List of Threatened Animals (IUCN, 1990) and
Rylands et al. (1993). The categories of threat were
thus those traditionally used by IUCN. The lack of
immediate availability of much more demanding
data sets precluded the use of Mace-Lande criteria
of threats (Mace and Lande, 1990).

The representation in captivity of species listed as
globally threatened was also examined by means of
the IZY annual censuses of wild animals bred in
captivity, rare animals, and international studbook
registrations (Olney and Ellis, 1991, 1992), and the
ISIS biannual taxa distribution reports (ISIS,
1991). The IZY figures for captive populations of
selected threatened species, the number of zoos
holding these populations and the number of zoos
reporting breeding the same species were the
rounded averages from the two most recent years of

Table 1 lists the primate species occurring in the
Venezuelan zoos, the number of specimens for
each and the number of institutions involved in
their maintenance. Of the total of 21 species, 14
are New World and 50% of these are native to
Venezuela. Eight threatened species are held and,
based on the present threat categorization, the one
of most conservation concern is the non-native
Saguinus oedipus. However, in terms of relative
security afforded by regularly breeding captive
populations of reasonable size outside of
Venezuela, S. oedipus also had an IZY population
size of 1128 in 104 zoos, and 1,576 were registered
in the third edition of the international studbook
(Olney and Ellis, 1991). With least security in
terms of a captive population, the species
apparently in most need is Ateles belzebuth; the

Cover photograph by Russell Mittermeier: Geoffroy's tamarin (Saguinus geoffroyi).

Neotropical Primates 2(3,), September 1994 Page 2

only threatened species in this listing which is
native to the country. This is perhaps where the
Venezuelan zoological community can do good
work through a cooperative breeding program,
particularly if more zoos can become 'involved.
Absent from zoos in Venezuela, and almost absent
globally (only two registered in two zoos in IZY),
is Cacajao melanocephalus, a species native to
Venezuela and now classified as endangered.
Insufficient attention has been paid to the
requirements of uakaris in captivity. They are
considered difficult in this respect and captive
breeding is not a priority safeguard in their
conservation. This, together with the broad range
of improvements necessary in Venezuelan zoos,
means that conservation of the black-headed uakari
will not be helped by having them in captivity in
the country until we learn much more.

As regards attempting to hold viable captive
populations in Venezuela, there would have to be
the involvement of more zoos and more managerial

responsibility for the allocation of space,
cooperative actions and improved husbandry. Even
the highest number, that of Cebus nigrivittatus
with 95 specimens, conceals as high a proportion
which are free-living in some zoos, thereby posing
difficulties for interactive management. Related to
the space necessary to maintain viable populations
of primates is the issue of subspecies recognition.
Due to previous inattention to the proper recording
of capture location in the wild, coupled with (or the
perception of) limited space available, some
primate species in captivity have populations of
mixed subspecies, which compromises their
conservation utility. This is a global zoo issue, but
none of the primates listed in the Venezuelan zoo
inventories were named to subspecies level and to
discover what subspecies are held could be
difficult. This would involve scrutiny of the few
records available, what some people might
remember, direct examination of the animals and
the final option of genetic studies, which would be
prohibitively costly for the zoos.

Table 1. Captive population statistics on primate species currently held in eleven Venezuelan zoos.

Taxa IUCN No. of No. of Specimens ISIS IZY
Category Venezuelan Zoos M F T Pop. No.of Zoos
Zoos Bred

Lemur catta V 1 1 4 5 902 123 80

Cebuella pygmaea 1 4 6 10
Callithrixjacchus 1 2 2
Saguinusfirscicollis 1 4 4 8
Saguinus oedipus E 1 1 6 7 414? 59 60

Alouatta senicuius* 5 6 1 20
Aotus trivirgatus* 2 1 1 2
Ateles belzebuth V 6 8 18 26 36? 15 4
Atelesgeoffroyi V 1 0 1 1 205 46 20
Ateles paniscus V 2 2 1 3 58 23 10
Cebus albifrons* 3 3 1 12
Cebus apella* 3 3 0 3
Cebus nigrivittatus* 8 31 26 95
Saimiri sciureus 1 1 1 2

Macaca fascicularis 2 4 1 3
Macaca nemestrina 1 1 2 3
Papio hamadryas R 5 8 6 15 342 27 64
Papio sphinx V 2 3 4 7 322 63 43
Cercopithecus aethiops 3 9 8 18

Pan troglodytes V 3 4 2 6 2237 108 49'

Notes: IUCN cat. = IUCN Threat Category (IUCN, 1990; Rylands et al., 1993). No. Venezuelan Zoos = Number of Venezuelan zoos holding
the taxa. No. of Specimens = males, females and total (incl. sex unknown) number present in Venezuelan zoos. ISIS Pop., No zoos = the total
International Species Information System population and number of collections (zoos) reporting Dec. 1991 (ISIS, 1991). IZY Zoos Bred = the
International Zoo Yearbook Census of Species of Wild Animals Bred in Captivity giving the number of zoos which reported breeding (Olney and
Ellis, 1991, 1992). ?Subspecies oedipus (as previously classified) 271 in 39. ?Subspecies belzebuth 6 in 3. Native to Venezuela.

Page 2

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

The financial and bureaucratic obstacles to the
Venezuelan zoos in acquiring primate
representatives from other continents have
increased in recent years and such importation is
now a rare event. Thus the indications are that
these zoos will from necessity concentrate on New
World species, particularly those indigenous to
Venezuela. Lacking sufficient breeding, and
without assistance to import new animals, the
stocks of Old World primates appear set to die out.
Based on so few years data, crude estimates of
natality and mortality rates covering all age classes
for these captive primates (calculated from births
and deaths each divided by living animals) are
respectively 0.185 and 0.13 (0.19 and 0.17 only for
New World species).

I acknowledge the financial support of the
Fundaci6n Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho, logistical
support from FUNPZA, help from Marian Diaz de
Waugh and the collaboration of the zoos which
supplied inventories.

David R. Waugh, Apartado 16324, Candelaria,
Caracas 1011-A, Venezuela.


Eisenberg, J.F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropical
Region: Vol.1., the Northern Neotropics.
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
International Species Information System. 1991.
Distribution Reports for Mammals and Birds.
December 1991. ISIS, Apple Valley, Minnesota.
IUCN. 1990. 1990 1UCN Red List of Threatened
Animals. World Conservation Monitoring Centre,
Cambridge, U.K.
Mace, G.M. and Lande, R. 1990. Assessing
extinction threats: towards a re-evaluation of
IUCN threatened species categories. Cons. Biol.
5: 148-157.
Olney, P.J.S. and Ellis, P. 1991. 1990
International Zoo Yearbook, 30. Zoological
Society of London, London.
Olney, P.J.S. and Ellis, P. 1992. 1992 International
Zoo Yearbook, 31. Zoological Society of London,
Rylands, A.B., Encarnaci6n, F. and Mittermeier,
R.A. 1993. South American primates and the
IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals.
Neotropical Primates, 1(4): 1-2.
Thornback, J. and Jenkins, M. (compilers). 1982.
The IUCN Mammal Red Data Book. Part 1.
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Neotropical primates endemic to the Atlantic forest
are threatened by the degree of human activity in
southeastern Brazil. Less than 5% of the region's
natural cover has resisted human interference since
the Portuguese colonization in the 16th century. As
a result, the Atlantic forest is today restricted to
"islands" of natural vegetation, surrounded and
isolated by pastures, crop plantations and urban
areas. Many of these "islands" belong to private
owners (Diego et al., 1993). Even the legally
protected forests are of diminutive size when
compared to the areas of other Brazilian
ecosystems' reserves. Protecting tracts of Atlantic
forest which still hold natural groups of endemic
primates is therefore an important conservation
measure. One such tract is a 4,000 ha forest patch
located at the north border of the district of Sao
Francisco Xavier (Fig. 1), municipality of Sao Jose
dos Campos, in the state of Sao Paulo (230 12'S,
450 52' W). The forest covers a set of mountain
ranges (Poncianos, Selado, Santa BArbara, Queixo
D'anta, Palmital, Guirra, Guaxindivia and
Roncador), and includes part of the Rio Peixe
basin, a tributary of the Rio Paraiba do Sul and an
important water source in the region. Beyond the
state's northern border, the forest stretches for
another 7000 ha in the Fazenda Levantina
(property of Companhia Melhoramentos), in the
municipality of Camanducaia, state of Minas

Although no systematic faunal surveys have been
carried out, more than eighty bird species have
been identified. Mammals reported and/or observed
in the region include ocelots (Felis pardalis), puma
(Felis concolor), foxes (Cerdocyon thous), otters
(Lutra), capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris),
and agoutis (Dasyprocta). Masked titi monkeys
(Callicebus personatus nigrifrons), brown howlers
(Alouatta fusca), and tufted capuchin monkeys
(Cebus apella) are also known to occur at Sao
Francisco Xavier. In November 1990, a group of
at least 15 muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides)
were located and photographed in the forest
(LAA). Various sightings of the species have
followed since then, and the site was mentioned in
a recent survey of the species (Martuscelli et al.,
1994). With the exception of Cebus apella, the
other three primate species are endemic to the
Atlantic forest. The 1994 IUCN Red List of
Threatened Animals gives Brachyteles arachnoides
and Callicebus p.nigrifrons as endangered, and

Page 3

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994 Page 4

Alouattafusca as vulnerable (Groombridge, 1993).
The forest at Sao Francisco is theoretically
protected by two legal measures. On 4 April 1979,
the entire basin of the Rio Paraiba do Sul was
decreed an Area of Environmental Protection
(APA) (Decree No.87651). In 1992, the municipal
administration passed law No.102/92, giving the
status of APA to the forest at Sao Francisco Xavier.
The municipal administration also launched an
environmental education campaign in 1990, in
order to instruct and gain support from the local
population. Despite past measures, the area is still
subject to illegal hunting and deforestation. One of
the main problems is that the forest covers an area
that belongs to several private properties, and the
owners' attitudes towards conservation range from
support to total indifference. The conservation of
Sao Francisco's biodiversity may therefore depend
on further legal interference.- One possibility is the
transformation of the area from an APA into an
officially protected state reserve. The local
administration of Sao Jose dos Campos has just
endorsed a letter to the State Environmental
Agency (SEMA), requesting the creation of a park
in the region. The involvement of field researchers
and outside conservationists is also important. A
detailed census of the primate population is
currently needed. Comparative ecological and
behavioral data may also provide relevant

information for the development of management
plans for endangered species (i.e., muriqui;
Mendes, 1994). Some of of the large properties in
SIo Francisco Xavier are protected by the
landowners, and may prove suitable for immediate
research. In one of them, with approximately 800
ha of forest, the owner is favorable to the
establishment of a field station on his land. The
continuous presence of scientists has been
instrumental in the protection of other Atlantic
forest reserves (see Strier, 1992), and would
undoubtedly reinforce other actions to protect the
entire forest of Sao Francisco Xavier.

Luiz Alberto Antonietto, Rua Projetada 3, 127,
Sao Francisco Xavier. Slo Josd dos Campos,. Sao
Paulo 12249-000, Brazil, and Francisco Dyonisio
Cardoso Mendes, Departamento de Psicologia
Experimental, Instituto de Psicologia,
Universidade de Sio Paulo, Avenida Professor
Moraes 1721, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo,


Diego, V.H., Ferrari, S.F and Mendes, F.D.C.
1993. Conservabqo do sagui-da-serra (Callithrix
flaviceps): o papel de matas particulares. In: A
Primatologia no Brasil 4, pp. 129-137.
M.E.Yamamoto and M.B.C. Sousa (eds). Editora
UniversitAria, Universidade Federal do Rio
Grande do Norte, and Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia, Natal.
Groombridge, B. 1993. 1994 IUCN Red List of
Threatened Animals. World Conservation
Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, 286pp.
Martuscelli, P., Petroni, L.M. and Olmos, F. 1994.
Fourteen new localities for the muriqui
Brachyteles arachnoides. Neotropical Primates,
Mendes, F.D.C. (1994). Muriqui conservation: the
urgent need of an integrative management plan.
Neotropical Primates, 2(2): 16-19.
Strier, K.B. 1992. Faces in the Forest: The
Endangered Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil. Oxford
.University Press. New York.

0 Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca (1,488 ha) fica
situado no municipio de Lima Duarte, Minas
Gerais, entire 21o42'S e 43053'W (Fig. 1). Quanto A
topografia, o Parque possui varia6oes de altitude

Page 4

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Figura 1. Mapa do Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca
onde se observam as matas inventariadas e a sua
categoria na chave de classificaqao (Tabela 1).

que vAo de 1.050 m a 1.784 m, estando localizado
na Serra do Ibitipoca, complex da Serra da
Mantiqueira. Em terms de diversidade de
primatas, Drumond (1987) cita quatro esplcies
para o Parque: Alouatta fusca, Callicebus
personatus, Callithrix penicillata e Cebus apella.

Este estudo teve como objetivos: a) levantamento
dos primatas a nivel de subesp6cie e a sua
distribuicao na Area de estudo; b) levantamento dos
parAmetros populacionais; e c) mapeamento da
Area de uso dos primatas, visando subsidiary o
zoneamento do Parque. 0 levantamento foi
realizado atravds do registro de vocalizaq6es,
"play-back", censo, enrevistas corn moradores, e
visits de reconhecimento das matas. Para o
zoneamento das matas do Parque e o de seu
entorno, foi elaborada uma chave de classificacqo
corn base em valores ecol6gicos das meamas. Esta
chave constou de seis classes, considerando-se: 1)
conectividade entire as matas; 2) presenqa de
espdcies ameaqadas de extinqio; e 3) nfimero de
grupos observados (ver Tabelas 1 e 2). Foi
investigado um total 17 matas, sendo registrados
50 grupos. A espdcie mais frequent foi
C.personatus nigrifrons com 27 grupos (54%),
seguida de C.penicillata com 14 grupos (28%) e
A.fusca clamitans corn nove grupos (18%). Este
nfimero de grupos 6 muito grande, considerando-se
-o pequeno tamanho das matas inventariadas. A
estimativa da Area amostrada foi 30,8 ha sendo a
distAncia percorrida de 17,4 km em 24,4 horas de

Tabela 1. Chave de classificaqao das matas do
Parque Estadual do ibitipoca e de seu entorno
Classe Chave
A conectividade natural, com esp6cies
B conectividade natural, sem esp6cies
C sem conectividade, mas pr6xima, corn
espdcies ameagadas
D sem conectividade, mas pr6xima, sem
esp6cies ameagadas
E sem conectividade e distant, corn
espdcies ameagadas
F sem conectividade e distant, sem
especies ameaqadas

censo. Incluindo as matas dentro e fora do Parque,
C.p.nigrifrons apresentou uma densidade de 0,74
1,57 ind./ha, Af.clamitans 0,13 0,20 ind./ha, e
C.penicillata 0,11 0,32 ind./ha. A densidade
total de primatas dentro e fora do Parque foi de
0,97 1,72 ind./ha. Por outro lado, a densidade
foi maior em matas fora do Parque; 2,63 2,29
ind./ha fora do Parque e 0,40 0,39 ind./ha dentro
do Parque, ou seja seis vezes maior.

Tabela 2. Classificacqo das matas do Parque
Estadual do Ibitipoca e do seu entorno, em ordem
de importAncia para o zoneamento e a conservagqo
das esp6cies de primatas.
Classe Matas
A Mata Grande, Matinha, Portaria,
Muricis, Maniquinha, Alojamento,
Caetds e Morro do GaviAo
B Gruta do Pigo
C Buraco, Casarao e ChalI
D ---
E Andorinhas, AraucArias, BoqueirAo e
Encosta (Boq.)
F Estrada para Santa Rita

Quanto A distribuicqo geogrifica de duas das
esp6cies encontradas, os dados obtidos confirmam
as citaq6es da literature. Kinzey (1981) citou
C.personatus nigrifrons para a regiao da Serra do
Ibitipoca. A distribuiqiao natural de A.fusca cobre a
regiio de Parque e era esperado que a subespdcie
fosse clamitans (veja Hirsch et al., 1991). Em
relagio a C.penicillata, sua ocorrencia na regiio do
Parque foi, de certa forma, surpreendente, uma vez
que a literature cita vArias localidades pr6ximas
para a espdcie C.aurita (veja de Vivo, 1991). As
localidades citadas mais pr6ximos do Parque para
C.penicillata sAo Lagoa Santa (200 km ao norte) e
Passos (300 km ao noroeste) (Ferrari, 1988; de

Page 5

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Vivo, 1991). Quanto a Cebus apella (nigritus?),
citada por Drumond (1987), nao foi possivel obter
nenhum registro confirmando ou nao a sua
ocorrencia na area percorrida pelos pequisadores.

A partir da chave de classificagqo das matas,
observa-se que na "Classe A" estao agrupadas a
maioria das matas investigadas (Tabela 2) e sao as
que devem ser consideradas de maxima
importincia para a conservagco dos primatas que
nelas habitam. Embora ocorrendo somente tres
especies de primatas na regiao do Parque, a area
pode ser considerada rica em terms de densidade,
e de muita importincia no context regional. Duas
das esp6cies, A.fusca e C.personatus, estAo citadas
no 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals
(Groombridge, 1993). Fica evidence corn os dados
obtidos, que os atuais limits do Parque do
Ibitipoca nao incluem as melhores matas, e os
mesmos precisam ser redifinidos e ampliados.

Os autores agradecem A Engevix Engenharia e ao
Institute Estadual de Florestas (IEF) de Minas
Gerais pelo apoio logistico. 0 estudo foi financiado
pelo BIRD/Pr6-Floresta. 0 Projeto tambem consta
de urn video SVHS "Projeto Primatas do Ibitipoca".

Andr6 Hirsch, Rosana J. Subiri, Departamento
de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biol6gicas,
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, e Elena Charlotte
Landau, Centro de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia,
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,
91501-000 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul,


De Vivo, M. 1991. Taxonomia de Callithrix
Erxleben, 1977 (Callitrichidae, Primates).
Fundagdo Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte. 105pp.
Drumond, M.A. 1987. InventArio preliminary de
mamiferos do Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Lima
Duarte, MG. In: Anais do 1 Encontro sobre
Unidades de Conservagdo Instituto Estadual de
Floresta, 9pp. Diretoria de Parques e Reservas
(DIPRE), Instituto Estadual de Florestas (IEF),
Belo Horizonte.
Ferrari, S.F. 1988. The behaviour and ecology of
the buffy-headed marmoset, Callithrix flaviceps
(O.Thomas, 1903). Ph.D. thesis, University
College, London. 448pp.
Groombridge, B. 1993. 1994 IUCN Red List of
Threatened Animals. World Conservation
Monitoring Centre, Cambridge.
Hirsch, A., Landau, E.C., Tedeschi, A.C.de M. e
Menegheti, J.O. 1991. Estudo comparative das

esp6cies do genero Alouatta Lacdpbde, 1799
(Platyrrhini, Atelidae) e sua distribuigao
geogrifica na Amdrica do Sul. In: A
Primatologia no Brasil 3, A.B.Rylands e
A.T.Bernardes (eds.), pp.239-262. Fundacao
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Kinzey, W.G. 1981. The titi monkeys, genus
Callicebus. In: Ecology and Behavior of
Neotropical Primates, Vol. A.F.Coimbra-Filho
e R.A.Mittermeier (eds.), pp.241-276. Academia
Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.


Since August 1989, we have been studying a black
howling monkey (Alouatta caraya) group in the
southern limit of the species' distribution Estincia
Casa Branca (29 37'S, 59 17'W) (Bicca-
Marques, 1990). Our research began with an
intensive 12-month study (Bicca-Marques, 1991;
Calegaro-Marques, 1992), followed by yearly
surveys of the age-sex composition of the

In January 1994, we observed an adult female
(CAN) nursing and carrying two infant males of
about 9 to 12-months of age. Since we did not
observe the birth, we considered the hypothesis of
adoption of one of the infants by CAN. However,
we believe this to be unlikely due to the evolution
of the group composition since the last survey, in
late December 1992, because all the adult females
present in the group in the January 1994 survey
were also present in the previous survey and no
other reproductively mature female was recruited.
The infants' age indicated that the adoption
hypothesis could be real only if one of the infants
was the son of an immigrating female that died
after giving birth. Information from local people
corroborates the hypothesis of twins. Thus, we
believe that this is a real case of twinning in A.
caraya (for further information regarding the
reproductive behaviour of this A. caraya
population, see Calegaro-Marques and Bicca-
Marques, 1993). Twinning is uncommon in
Cebidae but has been reported for Alouatta
seniculus by Crockett and Rudran (1987) and
Schultz (1921; cited in Hill, 1962), and also
Brachyteles (Strier, 1992).

We thank the Os6rio family for their help and
permission to work on Estancia Casa Branca, and
the Brazil Science Council (CNPq: Project
No.6573) for partial financial support for this

Page 6

Page 7 Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Julio C6sar Bicca-Marques and Claudia
Calegaro-Marques, Departamento de Ciencias da
Natureza and Parque Zoobotinico, Universidade
Federal do Acre, Caixa Postal 1012, Rio Branco,
69908-210, Acre, Brazil.


Bicca-Marques, J.C. 1990. A new southern limit
for the distribution of Alouatta caraya in Rio
Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Primates, 31: 449-
Bicca-Marques, J.C. 1991. Ecologia e
comportamento de um grupo de bugios-pretos
Alouatta caraya (Primates, Cebidae) em
Alegrete, RS, Brasil. Master's thesis,
Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia. 200pp..
Calegaro-Marques, C. 1992. Comportamento
social de um grupo de Alouatta caraya (Primates,
Cebidae) em Alegrete, RS, Brasil. Master's
thesis, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia, 184 pp.
Calegaro-Marques, C. and Bicca-Marques, J.C.
1993. Reproduqao de Alouatta caraya,
Humboldt, 1812 (Primates, Cebidae). In: A
Primatologia no Brasil 4, M.E. Yamamoto and
M.B.C. Souza (eds.), pp. 51-66. Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia, Natal.
Crockett, C.M. and Rudran, R. 1987. Red howler
monkey birth data I: seasonal variation. Am. J.
Primatol., 13:347-368.
Hill, W.C.O. 1962. Primates: Comparative
Anatomy and Taxonomy, V, Cebidae, Part B.
Wiley Interscience, New York.
Strier, K.B. 1992. Faces in the Forest: The
Endangered Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil. Oxford
University Press, Oxford.

Introduction: Field studies on the demography and
behaviour of red howler monkeys, Alouatta
seniculus, at Hato Masaguaral, Estado Guarico,
Venezuela, have been carried out under the
direction of Dr. Rudy Rudran of the Smithsonian
Institution since 1976 (Agoramoorthy and Rudran,
1993). Hato Masaguaral is a wildlife preserve and
working cattle ranch, located in the central llanos
of Venezuela, about 45 km south of the town of
Calabozo, approximately 8 34' N, 670 35' W. At
Masaguaral, the forest and native wildlife species
are protected by the owner, Sr. Tomas Blohm,
while domestic animals are controlled so as to have
a minimal impact on the howlers' habitat and food

resources. The vegetation in this area is semi-
deciduous, and most trees and shrubs lose their
leaves in January and February (Troth, 1979;
Crockett and Rudran, 1987a, 1987b). The red
howlers in the savanna woodlands and gallery
forest are sympatric with wedge-capped capuchin
monkeys (Cebus olivaceus).

Methods: I have been monitoring some 36 groups
in the savanna woodlands and 25 groups in the
gallery forest since 1989 on a monthly basis to
record demographic data. Most of the home ranges
of red howler groups at Hato Masaguaral are
already known. I usually record demographic
details of group composition, sex of individuals,
age classification, physical characteristics (for
example, body size, coat color of infants, size and
shape of nipples and female genitalia, and the size
of the throat/beard of the males), births, emigration
and immigration. Between 1989 and 1993, certain
howler groups were selected to record data on
social interactions. Social interactions of several
groups which had been invaded by males were
observed from dawn to dusk for five continuous
days each month, but were also observed for at
least three or four hours per day during the rest of
the month. In each case, the identity and
approximate age of the invading males, body size
and the physical condition of both invading and
resident males, and the social interactions between
group members were recorded. Social interactions
were recorded in three major categories:
aggressive, affiliative and sexual. All-occurrences
sampling and scan sampling were used as
observational methods (Altmann, 1974).

Recent findings: Red howlers have attracted
attention in recent years because of the occurrence
of infanticide during and after male invasion
(Rudran, 1979a, 1979b, 1974; Sekulic, 1983;
Crockett and Sekulic, 1984; Agoramoorthy, 1992;

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Page 7

Neotropical Primates 2(3,), September 1994 Page 8

Agoramoorthy and Rudran, 1992, 1993, 1994b).
The first evidence for infanticide by a platyrrhine
during male invasion was observed among free-
ranging red howlers by Rudran (1979a, 1979b).
Similarities and some differences were recorded
when compared to infanticidal situations described
for Old World monkeys (Rudran, 1994). A dozen
cases of infanticide have been observed during the
period 1989-1994, and most of the one-male
groups of red howlers became stable multi-male
groups after successful male invasion
(Agoramoorthy, 1992; Agoramoorthy and Rudran,
1994b). Within these multi-male troops, estrous
females interacted sexually with several males
(including the residents) and infanticidal/non-
infanticidal invaders), and in some cases the
resident male(s) stayed with the invader(s) for long
periods of time. However, infanticidal males were
not always observed to have immediate sexual
access to females who had lost infants
(Agoramoorthy, 1992; Agoramoorthy and Rudran
1994b; Rudran, 1994).

Three cases of infant adoptions among red howlers
were observed for the first time in Venezuela. Two
infants were adopted by their relatives and the
third one was adopted by a non-relative
(Agoramoorthy and Rudran, 1992). Twenty-one
males migrated to join new social groups and the
majority of them (61.9%) dispersed at or before the
attainment of sexual maturity (Agoramoorthy and
Rudran, 1993). The age of the dispersing males
ranged from 2.3 to 19 years.

The company of a father or a brother appeared to
be crucial- for the dispersal of immature males
because adult males over five years of age
dispersed singly. The presence of a sexually
mature kin-related females) was a factor
promoting the dispersal of adult males. Infant
killing or infant disappearance resulted after male
immigration into groups that had infants except in
two cases where the immigrants were related to the
resident males. One of the males was observed to
play, groom and lick the infants on several
occasions (Agoramoorthy, unpubl. video
document). This kind of interaction between a
male immigrant and infant had not been previously
reported for howler monkeys (see Agoramoorthy
and Rudran, 1993 for details).

Between 1989 and 1991, 50 howlers monkeys were
captured to ear-mark, measure, and collect hair
and blood samples for a DNA fingerprinting study.
Howlers were immobilized with Telazol or TEL
(tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam
hydrochloride). The mean dosages of TEL used for

adult males and adult females were 22.4 (7.3)
mg/kg and 22.5 (5.0) mg/kg, respectively.
Juveniles of both sexes received a mean dose of
30.5 (5.6) mg/kg. The induction time for TEL
ranged from 1 to 6.2 minutes. Total recovery time
ranged from 39 to 308 minutes. There were no
apparent side effects to the fetuses of two pregnant
females. The mean dose of TEL in this study is
greater than that reported for mantled howler
monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in the wild (Glander
et al., 1991) and in captivity (Bush et al., 1977).
However, wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in
Costa Rica were immobilized with a mean dose of
22.1 mg/kg (Glander et al., 1991) which is similar
to the doses reported here for red howlers. In
general, TEL appeared to be a good immobilizing
agent for this species (see Agoramoorthy and
Rudran, 1994a).

On-going Research Projects: The following
research projects are presently being carried out on
the red howlers at Hato Masaguaral:

1) Demography and social mobility R.Rudran
and G. Agoramorthy;
2) Social interactions within invaded groups -
3) Reproductive physiology involving the study of
urinary estrogen J.Harder, R.Rudran and
4) Population genetics and DNA fingerprinting -
M.Hsu, R.Rudran and G.Agoramoorthy;
5) Vocal communication G.Agoramoorthy;
6) Stress and reproduction in adults R.Lohmann,
G.Agoramoorthy and R.Rudran;
7) Field capture and chemical immobilization -

Acknowledgements: I am grateful to Dr Rudy
Rudran, Director of the Smithsonian Venezuela
Project, for his continued support of the Red
Howler research program, and to Sr. Tomas Blohm
for his hospitality and friendship. Funding is
provided by the Smithsonian Institution
(International Environmental Science Program)
and the Center for Field Research, (Earthwatch).
G.Carucci, R.Lohmann, M.E.Deza, V.Perez,
N.Bank, J.Paine, and S.Peckham and several
Earthwatch volunteers provided invaluable
assistance in the field work.

G. Agoramoorthy, Conservation and Research
Center, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian
Institution, Front Royal, Virginia 22630, USA, and
Department of Biology, National Sun Yat-sen
University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, Republic of

Page 8

Neotropical Primates 2(3), Septeinber 1994

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Agoramoorthy, G. 1992. Infanticide by adult and
subadult males in free-ranging red howler
monkeys of Venezuela. Paper presented at the
NATO/Advanced Studies Institute's Conference
on the Ethological Roots of Culture, Cortona,
Italy, 21 June-3 July 1992.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1992. Adoption
on free-ranging red howler monkeys (Alouatta
seniculus) in Venezuela. Primates, 33: 551-555.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1993. Male
dispersal among free-ranging red howler
monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in Venezuela.
Folia Primatol., 61: 92-96.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1994a. Field
application of Telazol (Itiletamine hydrochloride
and zolazepam hydrochloride) to immobilize
wild red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in
Venezuela. J. Wildl.Diseases. In press.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1994b.
Infanticide by adult and subadult males in free-
ranging red howler monkeys of Venezuela.
Ethology. In press.
Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of
behaviour: sampling methods. Behaviour, 69:
Bush, M., Custer, R., Smeller, J. amd Bush, L.M.
1977. Physiologic measures of nonhuman
primates during physical restraint and chemical
immobilization. J.Am. Vet.Med.Assoc., 171: 866-
Crockett, C.M. and Rudran, R. 1987a. Red howler
monkey birth data I: seasonal variation.
Am.J.Primatol., 13: 347-368.
Crockett, C.M. and Rudran, R. 1987b. Red howler
monkey birth data II: interannual, habitat, and
sex comparisons. Am.J.Primatol., 13: 369-384.
Crockett, C.M. and Sekulic, R. 1984. Infanticide in
red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). In:
Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary
Perspectives, G.Hausfater and S.B.Hrdy (eds.),
pp.173-191. Aldine, New York.
Glander, K.E., Fedigan, L.M., Fedigan, L. and
Chapman, C. 1991. Capture techniques for three
species of monkeys in Costa Rica. Folia
Primatol., 57: 70-82.
Rudran, R. 1979a. Infanticide in red howlers
(Alouatta seniculus) of northern Venezuela.
Paper presented at the VII International
Primatological Congress, Bangalore, India, 8-12
January 1979.
Rudran, R. 1979b. The demography and social
mobility of a red howler (Alouatta seniculus)
population in Venezuela. In: Vertebrate Ecology
in the Northern Neotropics, J.F.Eisenberg (ed.),
pp.107-126. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, D.C.

Rudran, R. 1994. Consequences of male invasions
in red howlers and a review of infanticide in non-
human primates. Current Mammalogy. In press.
Sekulic, R. 1983. Male relationships and infant
deaths in red howler monkeys (Alouatta
seniculus). Z. Tierpsychol., 61: 185-202.
Troth, R.G. 1979. Vegetational types on a ranch in
the central llanos of Venezuela. In: Vertebrate
Ecology in the Northern Neotropics, J.F.
Eisenberg (ed.), pp.107-126. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, D.C.




Following the reports on the captive breeding
program of the muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides,
at the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center (CPRJ) of the
Fundagao Estadual de Engenharia do Meio-
Ambiente (FEEMA) (Coimbra-Filho et al., 1993,
1994), a further three infants have been born, sired
by the male B.a.arachnoides (CPRJ 1091). The
first was a female born on 12 October 1993 to the
female B.a.hypoxanthus (CPRJ 924). It
unfortunately died on the same day. The second, a
male (CPRJ 1475), was born to the female
B.a.hypoxanthus (CPRJ 891) on 25 April 1994.
The female CPRJ 924 gave birth again on 24 June
1994 to a female infant CPRJ 1488. Both surviving
infants are developing well and are in excellent
condition. This brings the total births to six since
the beginning of the program three years ago. Four
are alive and well; three females and one male. All
were births of just two females (Table 1).

Table 1. Muriqui births at the Center
Male CPRJ 1091 x Female CPRJ 891
30.10.91 CPRJ 1286 Female
25.04.94 CPRJ 1475 Male
Male CPRJ 1091 x Female CPRJ 924
10.09.91 CPRJ 1245 Female Died 12.09.91
03.06.92 CPRJ 1335 Female
12.10.93 CPRJ 1430 ? Died 12.10.93
24.06.94 CPRJ 1488 Female
Source: CPRJ Records.

We are most grateful to the Coffin Group
(Refrigerantes Niter6i S.A.) for constant financial
help in the feeding and management of the captive
primate colonies at CPRJ. Likewise, we thank the
Cia.Souza Cruz (Brazil), Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust (JWPT). Wildlife Preservation

Page 9

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Trust International (WPTI), the Brazil Science
Council (CNPq Proc.2.2220414.76), the
Brazilian Institute for the Environment (Ibama)
- Rio de Janeiro State Environment Foundation
(FEEMA) (IBDF-FEEMA Proc.5687/87-AC)
and the Fundaao Biodiversitas, Belo
Horizonte, for continued and invaluable

Alcides Pissinatti, Adelmar F.Coimbra-
Filho, Joio Lourenco dos Santos, Centro de
Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro, Fundaqco
Estadual de Engenharia do Meio-Ambiente
(FEEMA), Rua Fonseca Teles 121, Sala 1624,
20940-200 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, and
Anthony B.Rylands, Departamento de
Zoologia, Instituto de CiEncias Biol6gicas,
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-
901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.


Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands,
A.B. 1993. Breeding muriquis (Brachyteles
arachnoides) in captivity: the experience of the
Rio de Janeiro Primate Centre (CPRJ/FEEMA).
Dodo, J. Wildl. Preserve. Trusts, 29:66-77.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands,
A.B. 1994. Muriquis at the Rio de Janeiro
Primate Centre. Neotropical Primates, 2(1): 5-7.


A field study on the behavioral
ecology of A teles geoffroyi in the
Lacandon Rain forest of Montes
Azules Biosphere Reserve,
Chiapas, Mexico, has been
PO E UCP underway since the Spring of
SIt ILTU U1993. The study is based at the
R T E L E S Chajul Biological Station, at the
south end of the Reserve (see Fig.
1). It is being supported by Conservation
International and will comprise the Ph.D. theses of
the following researchers: Roberto Ruiz-Vidal
(University of Barcelona, Spain), Gabriel Ramos-
Fernindez (University of Pennsylvania, USA), and
Alba Pdrez-Ruiz (National Autonomous University
of Mexico). The aim is an interdisciplinary study
of the species, specifically to contribute to its
conservation considering its endangered status
(Groombridge, 1993).



S 20 Km

90 30OW


91 SOW




Figure 1. Map showing the Chajul Biological Station and
the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

The Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve is located in
the east of Chiapas, and comprises more than
331,000 ha of tropical rain forest. It is one of the
last places in Mexico where this type of forest can
be found, and is believed to be the reserve with the
highest biodiversity anywhere in the country
(VAsquez-Sanchez, 1992). The mean annual
temperature is over 220C, and annual precipitation
is between 1,500 and 3,000 mm. The study site is
in evergreen rain forest in the south of the Reserve,
beside the Rio Lacantin (16 06'N, 90 58'W). The
black howling monkey, Alouatta pigra, also occurs

An interdisciplinary approach is necessary to
understand the behavior of this species in relation
to its ecology. Of the various aspects which will be
dealt with in this project, the first will examine the
relationship between the population of spider
monkeys and their habitat; describing such as
feeding and ranging patterns, and daily activities.
Of particular interest is the diversity of the species'
diet (Van Roosmalen and Klein, 1988).
Comparing the results with other studies of the
same and other Ateles species will shed light on
the ecological factors that shape a spider monkey
population. To this end we are also carrying out
demographic analyses of the local population,
along with vegetation analyses at the study site. A
second project is aimed at understanding the social
relationships between the group (community)
members and between different communities. A
complete description of the fission-fusion social
system in these spider monkeys is needed in order
to obtain an understanding of the relations between
ecology and social organization (Symington,
1990). A study of vocal communication is also
planned, not only as an important component of

Page 10


Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

their social relationships, but also for an
understanding of their cognitive ethology. There
are several reasons to consider that the spider
monkey is an importnat species for this area of
research, not least being their complex social
system. Systematic data are being collected in
order to test hypotheses concerning affiliative,
reproductive, and agonistic behavior, which will
eventually permit the construction of field
experiments to address specific questions on

Roberto Ruiz-Vidal, Alba Perez-Ruiz,
Conservation International Mdxico, Camino al
Ajusco 124, Primer piso, Jardines en la Montafia,
14210 Mexico D.F., M6xico, and Gabriel Ramos-
FernAndez, Graduate Program in Biology,
University of Pennsylvania, 214 Goddard
Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19014-6017, USA.


Groombridge, B. 1993. 1994 IUCN Red List of
Threatened Animals. World Conservation
Monitoring Centre, Cambridge.
Symington, M.M. 1990. Fission-fusion social
organization in Ateles and Pan. Int.J.Primatol.,
11(1): 47-61.
Van Roosmalen, M.G.M. and Klein, L.L. 1988.
The spider monkeys, genus Ateles. In: Ecology
and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol.2.
R.A.Mittermeier, A.B.Rylands, A.F.Coimbra-
Filho, and G.A.B.da Fonseca (eds.), pp.455-537.
World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.
VAsquez-SAnchez, M.A. and Ramos, M.A. (eds.).
1992. Reserva da la Bi6sfera Adontes Azules,
Selva Lacandona: Investigaci6n para su
Conservaci6n. Pubi.Esp.Ecosfera, 1:436pp.
Centre de Estudios para la Conservaci6n de los
Recursos Naturales, A.C., San Crist6bal de las
Casas, Chiapas, M6xico.

Pithecine monkeys remain amongst the most
poorly investigated of the New World primates. In
particular, the black uakari, Cacajao
melanocephalus, has never been studied in the wild
or in captivity, and is therefore one of the least
known. It is restricted to north-western Amazonia,
and is listed as vulnerable in the 1994 IUCN Red
List of Threatened Animals (Groombridge, 1993).

Although very little studied, field observations
have shown that C.melanocephalus lives in groups
of up to one hundred individuals (pers. obs.;

Defler, 1991), representing the largest group size
observed for any New World primate species
(Saimiri may also be found in very large groups but
Terborgh (1983) has suggested they may be
temporary aggregations).

This year, I am starting a systematic field study of
the behaviour and ecology of C.melanocephalus in
the Pico da Neblina National Park, Amazonas.
Emphasis will be given to the ecology of group size
in this primate, investigating, in particular, the role
of food patch size, abundance, and distribution. As
proposed by various authors (see Terborgh and
Janson, 1986, for a review), the size of a social
group is limited by intragroup competition over
access to feeding sites. In this regard, the size,
abundance and distribution patterns of resource
patches on which a species feeds are believed to set
a limit on the number of animals able to feed
(Leighton, 1982). By examining the size,
abundance and distribution of patches of foods
preferred by black uakari in the Pico da Neblina
National Park I will shed light on understanding
the reasons for the formation of the large groups
charactersitic of the genus.

.._,The Pico da Neblina
-.,, National Park of
i F, 2,200,000 ha is located in
ti I the state of Amazonas,
1"-.BRAZIL Brazil, on the border with
Venezuela. It is
contiguous with the
Venezuelan "Serrania de
la Neblina" National Park (1,360,000 ha), and
together they comprise the largest tract of protected
tropical rainforest in South America. The Park is
home for the Yanomami Indians who have been
settled in a village (MaturacA) around a Salesian
Mission since 1955. The Brazilian army also has a
small base in MaturacA, founded in 1987. Since
1986, goldminers have been entering the park
promoting increasing habitat disturbance in certain
areas such as Pico da Neblina and Igarapd Tucano.

During July-August 1991, I conducted a three-
month survey for uakaris in the Park and recorded
six primate species: Aotus trivirgatus, Ateles
belzebuth, Alouatta seniculus, Cacajao
melanocephalus (subspecies melanocephalus, see
Boubli, 1993), Callicebus torquatus, and Cebus
albifrons. Groups of C. melanocephalus were
observed in several different forest types including
Amazonian caatinga or campinarana (forest on
white sands), flooded forest (igap6), terra fire
forest, and in forests on the slopes of mountains. It
is interesting to note that most of the black uakari

Page 11

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

groups were found in forests that are never flooded.
In fact, two groups were observed on mountains at
altitudes between 400 and 600 m above sea level.
This is surprising since primates of the genus
Cacajao are considered to be flooded-forest
specialists (Ayres, 1986).

The diet of the black uakari has not yet been
determined. However, my preliminary observations
recorded that the seeds of unripe fruits of Cunuria
sp, an abundant Euphorbiaceae tree in the Park,
are evidently an important item in its diet.

I am indebted to the Brazilian army for their
logistic support in MaturacA, especially Cel. Eudes
Sampaio, Cel. Castello Branco, Gen. Aparicio,
Gen. D6cio, Cap. Sidnei, and Sgt. Felix and his
wife. I thank Jilio Goes and the Yanomami
Indians for their invaluable help. I am also grateful
to the physical anthropologist Mandy Colombo for
assisting me in the field, and Drs. Katherine
Milton and Marc van Roosmalen for their advice.
The study is being supported by grants from the
Louis Leakey Foundation, National Geographic
Society, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF),
and the National Science Foundation (NSF). My
studies at the University of California are funded
by a scholarship from the Brazilian Science
Council (CNPq).

Jean Philippe Boubli, Department of
Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley,
California 94720, USA.

Ayres, J.M. 1986. Uakaris and Amazonian Flooded
Forest. Ph.D dissertation, University of
Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Boubli, J.P. 1993. A southern expansion of the
geographical distribution of Cacajao
melanocephalus melanocephalus. Int. J.
Primatol., 14(6):933-937.
Defler, T.R. 1991. Preliminary observations of
Cacajao melanocephalus Humboldt, 1811
(Primates, Cebidae) in Colombia. Unpublished
Groombridge, B. 1993. 1994 IUCN Red List of
Threatened Animals. World Conservation
Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, U.K. 286pp.
Leighton, M. and Leighton, D.R. 1982. The
relationship of size of feeding aggregate to size of
food patch: howler monkeys feeding in Trichilia
cipo fruit trees on Barro Colorado Island.
Biotropica, 14:81-90.
Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates: A
Study in Comparative Ecology. Princeton
University Press, Princeton.

Terborgh, J. and Janson, C.H. 1986. The
socioecology of primate groups. Ann. Rev. Ecol.
Syst., 17:111-135.

Cytogenetic studies can contribute to a better
understanding of taxonomic and phylogenetic
relationships among the Neotropical primates.
However, taking into account the rapid
development of new research techniques, there are
still immense gaps in our knowledge, and for many
of the species the karyotypes remain unknown. A
research group in the Department of Genetics of
the Federal University of Pard, Bel6m, has been
working in this field since the early 80's (see
references). The Group is composed of Dr Regina
Maria de Souza Barros, Jdlio C6sar Pieczarka and
Cleusa Yoshiko Nagamachi. In early 1990, they
joined forces with Dr Margarete Sufie Mattevi
(Department of Genetics, Federal University of Rio
Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre), who is supervising
the doctoral theses of both Pieczarka and

Pieczarka's research is examining the nature and
variability of constitutive heterochromatin of a
number of South American primates, namely
Callithrix geoffroyi, C.argentata, C.emiliae,
C.humeralifera, Cebuella pygmaea, Saguinus
mystax, Sf.fuscicollis, Leontopithecus rosalia,
Ateles p.paniscus, and Aotus. The analyses use the
method of banding with restriction endonucleases
which cut the DNA in specific nucleotide
sequences, giving a banding pattern unique for
each enzyme. Seven dierent enzymes are used.
Flourescent dyes (CMA and DA/DAPI) are also
used tg stain DNA's of different base compositions.
CMA stains G-C rich sequences, and DA/DAPI
stains A-T rich sequences. Hopefully, these studies
will permit the determination of the number of
existing heterochromatins in each species, as well
as the constitutive heterochromatins which they

The thesis of Nagamachi involves research into the
chromosomal and phylogenetic relationships of the
Callitrichidae. She is examining the karyotypes of
the following species and species groups through
G- and C-banding and NOR-staining: Cebuella
pygmaea, Callithrix argentata group (5 taxa),
C.jacchus group (5 taxa), Leontopithecus (2 taxa),
Saguinus midas niger, and Callimico goeldii.
Chromosomal differences (rearrangements
involved in karyotypic differentation) will be
determined by comparing the karyotypes of each of

Page 12

Page 13 Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

the taxa of the same genus and by comparing
genera. The results will be transformed into basic
data matrices and analysed using the computer
programs PAUP cladisticc) and NT-sys (phenetic).
The karyotype of Cebus apella will be used as an
outgroup for the cladistic analysis.

Dr Regina Barros has also supervised two Master's
theses. Manoel Alfredo Medeiros studied the
cytogenetics of Ateles, and Sandra M.M.Dantas
carried out a similar study of Saimiri. The aim of
both was to determine chromosomal relations
between the congeneric species for a better
understanding of their phylogeny. In collaboration
with researchers from the University of Barcelona,
Spain, Dr Barros is also carrying out studies of
ateline chromosomes, using G- and C-banding,
NOR-staining, and restriction enzyme banding.

The Group will eventually expand their studies to
all the platyrrhine genera in order to determine
their cytotaxonomic relations and the structure of
the constitutive heterochromatin of the various
taxa. The research is supported by the Universities
of Pard and Rio Grande do Sul along with the
following institutions: in Porto Alegre the Brazil
Science Council (CNPq), the Organization of
American States (OAS), the Financiadora de
Estudos e Pesquisas (FINEP), the Fundaago de
Amparo a Pesquisa do Rio Grande do Sul
(FAPERGS), and the Programa Integrado de
Capacitagdo de Docentes (PICD) of the Brazilian
Higher Education Authority (CAPES); in Beldm -
CNPq, FINEP, and the Centrais Elktricas do Norte
do Brasil (Eletronorte); and in Spain FIS

Julio Cesar Pieczarka, Departamento de Genetica
- CCB, Universidade Federal do Para, Campus do
Guam6, 66075-900 Belem, Pari, Brazil.

Barros, R.M.S., Nagamachi, C.Y. and Pieczarka,
J.C. 1990. Chromosomal evolution in Callithrix
emiliae. Chromosoma, 99: 440-447.
Nagamachi, C.Y. and Ferrari, I. 1984. Cytogenetic
studies of Callithrix jacchus (Callitrichidae,
Platyrrhini) from two different sites in Brazil. I.
Morphologic variability of chromosome Y.
Rev.Brasil. Genetica, 7(3):497-507.
Nagamachi, C.Y. and Ferrari, I. 1986. Cytogenetic
studies of Callithrix jacchus (Callitrichidae,
Platyrrhini) from two different sites in Brazil. II.
NOR on the Y chromosome. Mammalian
Chromosomes Newsletter, (27):81-86.
Nagamachi, C.Y. and Pieczarka, J.C. 1988.
Chromosome studies of Saguinus midas niger

(Callitrichidae, Primates) from Tucurui, Pard,
Brazil: comparison with the karyotype of
Callithrix jacchus. Am.J.Primatol., 14(3): 277-
Nagamachi, C.Y., Pieczarka, J.C. and Barros,
R.M.S. 1990. Cytogenetic studies of Saguinus
midas midas (Callitrichidae, Primates) from Jari,
Brazilian Amazon region. Comparison with the
karyotype of Saguinus midas niger.
Rev.Brasil. Genetica, 13(1): 89-96.
Nagamachi, C.Y., Pieczarka, J.C. and Barros,
R.M.S. 1992. Karyotypic comparison among
Cebuella pygmaea, Callithrix jacchus and
Callithrix emiliae (Callitrichidae, Primates) and
its taxonomic implications. Genetica, 85: 249-
Nagamachi, C.Y., Pieczarka, J.C., Schwarz, M.,
Paiva, C.M.C., Barros, R.M.S. and Mattevi, M.S.
1994. The karyotype of Callithrix mauesi
(Callitrichidae, Primates) and its relations with
those of C. emiliae and C.jacchus.
Am.J.Primatol., 33:309-315.
Pieczarka, J.C. and Nagamachi, C.Y. 1988.
Cytogenetic studies of Aotus from eastern
Amazonia: Y/autosome rearrangement.
Am.JPrimatol., 14(3): 255-263.
Pieczarka, J.C. and Nagamachi, C.Y. 1988. The
karyotype of Callicebus moloch moloch.
Rev.Brasil.Genetica, 11(3): 653-659.
Pieczarka, J.C., Nagamachi, C.Y. and Barros,
R.M.S. 1989. The karyotype of Ateles paniscus
paniscus (Cebidae, Primates): 2n = 32.
Rev.Brasil.Genetica, 12(3): 543-551.
Pieczarka, J.C, Barros, R.M.S., Nagamachi, C.Y.,
Rodrigues, R. and Espinel, A. 1992. Aotus
vociferans x Aotus nancymai : sympatry without
chromosomal hybridation. Primates, 33(2): 239-
Pieczarka, J.C., Barros, R.M.S., Faria, F.M.,Jr,
Nagamachi, C.Y. 1993. Aotus from the
southeastern Amazon region is geographically
and chromosomically intermediate between
A.azarae boliviensis and A.infulatus. Primates,
34(2): 197-204.

Patricia Izar recently completed a Master's thesis in
Experimental Psychology for the Institute of
Psychology, University of Sao Paulo, entitled
"Analysis of the Social Structure of a Semi-Captive
Group of Brown Capuchin Monkeys". The thesis
was supervised by Dr Takechi Sato, and financed
by the University and the Fundaago de Amparo 6
Pesquisa do Estado de Sdo Paulo (FAPESP). The
following is the abstract of the thesis.

Aleotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Page 13

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

"Wild Groups of Cebus apella are distinguished by
a linear dominance hierarchy which determines a
non-random spatial organization of the group
members in terms of the exploitation of food
resources and the advantages of group vigilance.
A semi-captive, artificially-formed group of this
species, with a composition varying between 40
and 47 individuals, was studied to describe the
social structure, investigate the cohesion of the
group members, and verify possible consequences
resulting from captive conditions involving
abundant food and an absence of predators, on its
social organization. Dominance relationships and
spatial organization were similar to that described
for wild groups only at the moment that food was
supplied. During the rest of the day the
significance of food competition for the social
structure of the group was relaxed, and strong
affiliative relationships were observed. The
relationships established between different group
members could be understood in terms of strategies
for the acquisition of allies, enhancing reproductive
opportunities, and the development of social skills,
according to sex, age, and dominance status of the
individuals involved".

Research on C.apella social organization is
continuing with a study of wild groups in Atlantic
forest in the state of Sao Paulo. The main
objectives include the influence of ecological
factors, such as food availability, over the social
structure, and the reproductive strategies employed
by both sexes. The study will be supervised by Dr
Takechi Sato (University of Sao Paulo) and Dr
John Heam (Wisconsin Regional Primate Research
Center, Madison).

Patricia Izar, Departamento de Psicologia
Experimental, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade
de Sao Paulo, Av.Professor Mello Moraes 1721,
Caixa Postal 66261, 05508-901 Sao Paulo, Sao
Paulo, Brazil.

Izar, P. 1994. Analise da estrutura social de um
grupo de macacos-prego (Cebus apella) em
condiqdes de semi-cativeiro. Master's thesis,
Institute de Psicologia, Universidade de Sao
Paulo, Sao Paulo. 119pp.

A group of educational and research institutions
are actively developing a center for the study of
nonhuman primates in Panama. This group

includes the Animal Behavior Research Institute,
the Institute of Tropical Studies of Florida State
University, the University of Panama, the Summit
Zoo, the Panamanian Ministry of Natural and
Renewable Resources (IN.RE.NA.RE), School of
Veterinary Medicine of Tufts University, and the
National Institute of Health (NIH).

The primary focus of the Center is naturalistic
studies of nonhuman primates, with a strong
emphasis on studies of behavior. Psychobiological,
physiological, and medical studies will be
conducted when they contribute to the Center's
goals. The development of a Panamanian Primate
Center will result in the creation of an
international research, education, and ecotourism
resource. It will be located on a group of about a
dozen islands in Lake Gatun, created through the
construction of the Panama Canal.

Our initial efforts are focused on a 33 ha island,
Isla Tigre, which is currently the site of an
intensive study of Panamanian tamarins, Saguinus
geoffroyi, a small group having been released there
in 1987. Tamarins are found in the forests
bordering Lake Gatun, and the release was,
therefore, a reintroduction, the species evidently
having occurred there prior to the creation of the
lake. The tamarins are currently the subject of an
ongoing study on the influences of observers on
their range use.

Isla Tigre will serve as an initial model for the
development of neighboring islands, where other
native species of nonhuman primates will be
introduced: capuchin monkeys, spider monkeys
and howling monkeys. Night monkeys already
occupy some of the islands. An hour-long video
tape on the project ("Isla Tigre: An Island for
Tamarins") is available, and can be borrowed from
the library of the Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center at Madison, Wisconsin, or from
the author. Courses in Primate Social Biology and
several related areas in psychology and biology are
offered at Florida State University, Panama Canal
Branch. International collaborative agreements are
being developed for projects at the Primate Center,
as are direct links with the Association of
Panamanian Primatologists.

Help in the conduct of this study and the
development of the Primate Center has been
provided by Professors F.S.Nufiez and D.Carter,
and by G.Carter, A. de Telesca, J. Torres Miranda,
V. de Telesca, C.A. Rasmussen, R.Valdez, 28
undergraduate field assistants, and the Student
Biology Association (SIBUP) of the University of

Page 14

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Panama. The project has received support from
SFS, NIMH, NIH, NSF, WWF, the L.S.B.Leakey
Foundation, the Smithsonian Tropical Research
Institute, the Ministry of Housing of the Republic
of Panama, and IN.RE.NA.RE. This is publication
number 32 of the Animal Behavior Research

Dennis R. Rasmussen, Florida State University,
Panama Canal Branch, PSC #02, Box 2663, APO
AA 34002, Panama.

The Department of Psychology of the University of
Reading, UK, and the Department of Physiology of
the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte
(UFRN), Natal, Brazil, have recently signed an
Inter-institutional Links Program supported by the
Brazilian Higher Education Authority (CAPES)
and the British Council. This link program has as
its overall aim the development of scientific
cooperation between Brazilian and British
scientists, the exchange of postgraduate students
for training in primate biology, and the eventual
expansion of the Psychobiology postgraduate
program of UFRN from the Master's to the
Doctoral level. The program is focused on the
common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), native to
north-east Brazil. Both universities have traditions
in terms of research projects involving the species,
and collaboration between them is already well
established. Dr Hilary O.Box, the British
Coordinator for the Link, has made several visits to
Natal in recent years. She has given courses in the
Psychobiology Master's program there and played
an important role in advising on a number of the
research projects underway. Dr Maria Emilia
Yamamoto, the Brazilian Coordinator, has
collaborated in the supervision of two students
from Reading: Andrew Smith and David Owens
visited Natal for three-month internships involving
studies of common marmosets in captivity and in
the wild. Dr Yamamoto is currently spending a
sabbatical year at the University of Reading; a post-
doctoral fellowship awarded by the Brazil Science
Council (CNPq). A Brazilian student, Maria
Teresa Mota, recently began her doctoral research
on male reproductive strategies in C.jacchus, a
project supported by CNPq and supervised jointly
by Dr Hilary Box and Dr Maria Bernadete
Cordeiro de Sousa (Natal). Arrangements are also
being made for a student from Reading University
to spend a year in Brazil to study C.jacchus groups
in the wild, at the Nisia Floresta Reserve of the

Brazilian Institute for the Environment (Ibama)
near Natal. This research will be supervised by Dr
Maria de FAtima Arruda (UFRN). The first formal
exchange this year will involve a visit by Dr
Christopher Faulkes, who studies reproductive
physiology at the Institute of Zoology, London Zoo,
to Brazil, with Dr Maria Bernadete Cordeiro de
Sousa going to Reading.

Maria Emilia Yamamoto, Setor de Psicobiologia,
Centro de Bioci8ncias, Universidade Federal do
Rio Grande do Norte, Caixa Postal 1511, 59072-
970 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and
Hilary 0. Box, Department of Psychology,
University of Reading, 3 Earley Gate,
Whiteknights Road, Reading RG6 2AL, Berkshire,

Posici6n preparada por el Grupo de Especialistas
en Cria en Cautividad de la Comisi6n de
Supervivencia de Especies. Adaptada por la 22a.
Reuni6n del Manejo de la Uni6n Internacional para
la Conservaci6n de la Natureza y de los Recursos
Naturales (UICN). Gland, Suiza, 4 de Setiembre de

Sumnrio: la sola protecci6n de los habitat no es
suficiente si el objetivo de la Estrategia Mundial
para la Conservaci6n en cuanto al mantenimiento
de la diversidad bi6tica, quiere ser alcanzado.

El estabelecimiento de poblaciones ciutivas
autosuficientes y una intervenci6n de apoyo serin
necesarios para evitar la pdrdida de muchas
species, especialmente aquellas en situaci6n de
gran riesgo por encontrarse en habitat que se han
visto muy reducidos, altamente fragmentados y
alterados. Se necesitan establecer programs de
cria en cautividad antes que las species se vean
reducidas a una cantidad de ejemplares
criticamente baja, y tambi6n es precise que dichos
programs se coordinen internacionalmente segin
principios biol6gicos acertados, con miras a
mantener o reintegrar poblaciones viables a su
medio natural.

Enuncaci6n del Problema
Los datos de la UICN indican que cerca del 3% de
la superficie terrestre esti oficialmente protegida.
Parte de esta Area y much del restante 97% se esta
volviendo inhabitable para muchas species, y las
poblaciones que quedan estin en gran media
siendo reducidas y fragmentadas. A partir de la

Page 15

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

modern biologia de la poblaci6n se puede predecir
que en esas condiciones muchas species se
perderan. En promedio, en cada afio en este siglo
se ha perdido mAs de una especie de mamifero, ave
o reptil. El ritmo de desaparici6n para todas las
species es much mas elevado, ya que no se
registran las extinciones que ocurren en la mayoria
de las taxas fuera de estos grupos.

Ciertos grupos de species, especialmente aquellas
con una distribuci6n restringida, las de gran
tamafto, las de gran valor econ6mico, aquellas que
estan al principio de la cadena alimentaria, y las
que solamente ocurren en hAbitat climax se hallan
en una situaci6n de riesgo particularmente alto.
Las species de las mencionadas categories son
posiblemente las primeras en perderse, pero corren
el riesgo una amplia variedad de otros tipos. La
conservaci6n a largo plazo requerirA un manejo
para reducir el riesgo, incluyendo poblaciones ex
situ que podrian servir de apoyo e interactuar
demogrAfica y gendticamente con, poblaciones

Mas de 3000 species de vertebrados estin siendo
criados en zool6gicos y otras instalaciones para
animals en cautiverio. Cuando se hacen serious
esfuerzos la mayoria de las species se reproducen
en cautiverio, y poblaciones viables pueden ser
mantenidas por largos periods. Una rica
experiencia esta disponible en esas instituciones en
asuntos que incluyen reproducci6n animal,
medicine veterinaria, biologia reproductive,
comportamiento animal, y g6netica. Ellas brindan
un apoyo a las poblaciones de muchas taxas
amenazadas, usando recursos que no compiten con
aquellos de la conservaci6n in situ. Las
poblaciones en cautiverio han suministrado en el
pasado un apoyo critic a algunas poblaciones
silvestres (por ejemplo el bisonte americano, Bison
bison) y ha sido para otras la fnica manera de
escapar de la extinci6n, al ser reintroducidas a su
medio natural (por ejemplo el oryx aribigo, Oryx

La UICN insta a todas aquellas organizaciones
nacionales e internacionales e instituciones
individuals interesadas en el mantenimiento de
animals silvestres en cautiverio, a comprometerse,
siempre que sea necesario, a desarrollar una
political general de desarrollo demogrifico
autosostenido de poblaciones cautivas de species
en peligro de extinci6n.

Protocolo Sugerido
Que hacer. Se deben tener en cuenta los
problems especificos de la especie en cuesti6n, y
se deben explicitar claramente los objetivos del
program de cria en cautividad.

Cuando. Siempre se ha subestimado la
vulnerabilidad de las poblaciones poco numerosas.
Esto ha llevado a que las poblaciones en cautiverio
se establezcan demasiado tarde, cuando las crisis es
enorme y la extinci6n probable. Por tanto un
reconocimiento temprano de tales situaciones es
decisive y depend de la informaci6n sobre el
status de las poblaciones silvestres, particularmente
la proporcionada por el Centro de Monitoreo de la
Conservaci6n de la UICN. El manejo para mejor
reducir el riesgo de extinci6n require que se
establezcan poblaciones en cautiverio sustentables
con much mis anticipaci6n, preferiblemente
cuando la poblaci6n silvestre estd afin en los
millares. Los vertebrados con un censo actual por
debajo de los mil individuos en su medio natural,
requieren una estrecha y rApida colaboraci6n entire
los conservacionistas que trabajan en el terreno y
aquellos especialistas en cria en cautividad, para
hacer sus esfuerzos complementarios y minimizar
la possible extinci6n de la taxa.

Como. Para asegurar el objetivo primario, que es
la supervivencia de species a trav6s de
poblaciones en cautiverio estables y
autosustentadas, es necesario que dichas
poblaciones en cautiverio sean establecidas y
manejadas segfn principios cientificos vAlidos.
Las poblaciones en cautiverio que sean estables
conservan las opciones para la reintroducci6n y/o
el apoyo a las poblaciones silvestres.

El marco para una cooperaci6n y coordinaci6n
international entire las instituciones de cria en
cautividad que poseen species en situaci6n de
riesgo, se debe establecer en un acuerdo para que
cooperativamente se manejen dichas species, a fin
de lograr una seguridad demografica y una
diversidad gendtica. El Grupo de Especialistas en
Cria en Cautividad de la UICN/CSE es un grupo
consultor apropriado en lo que concierne a la
ciencia y recursos de la cria en cautividad.

Los programs de cria en cautividad destinados a
species en situaci6n de riesgo deberAn dirigirse en
primer lugar a beneficiary a las mencionadas
species, sin que intervengan intereses comerciales.
La adquisici6n de animals para dichos programs
no deberi promover actividades comerciales.
Cuando sea possible, los programs de cria en
cautividad deberan ser llevados a cabo

Page 16

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

paralelamente con los studios de campo y con los
esfuerzos destinados a la conservaci6n de las
species en su medio natural.


After a long delay, Number 11 (1990) of Primate
Conservation has been published (58pp.). With the
creation of separate newsletters (Primate
Conservation started its career as the Newsletter of
the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group in 1981)
for Asia, the Neotropics, Africa (see below) and
Madagascar, Primate Conservation will now take
on the role of a yearbook/journal. As pointed out in
the editorial by Russell Mittermeier (Chairman of
the PSG) and William Konstant (Editor), this
combined format of newsletters and journal is a
first for an IUCN/SSC Specialist Group. The four
newsletters and Primate Conservation are
produced and circulated courtesy of Conservation
International, Washington, D.C. Primate
Conservation is also supported by the Department
of Anatomical Sciences of the State University of
New York at Stony Brook.

As in previous numbers, it is divided into "News
from the Field" (short articles or notes reporting on
such as status, distribution, and protected areas),
"Articles" (longer reports including also
conservation and research projects), and "Primate
Miscellany". Future numbers will maintain "News
from Captivity" for short articles concerning
captive breeding and management, to attend to the
Captive Breeding Section of the Group. Number 11
includes reports on Cacajao calvus ucayalii
(Eckhard Heymann), and Cacajao melanocephalus
ouakary (Alexia C.da Cunha and Adrian Barnett),
and two articles on Brachyteles arachnoides
(Frederico Lane and Rosa Maria Lemos de SA et
al.) (see page 24 for full references).

William Konstant, editor of Number 11, is now at
the Philadelphia Zoological Society, and has
passed the task over to Anthony B.Rylands
(Federal University of Minas Gerais, and
Conservation International Brazil Program).
Anthony Rylands will be counting on the help of
the Regional Vice-chairpersons to bring Primate
Conservation up-to-date, and consolidate its role as
a forum for all aspects concerning the ecology and
conservation of primates worldwide. Please send
manuscripts to either Russell Mittermeier or
Anthony Rylands at the addresses below.

Russell A. Mittermeier, Conservation
International, 1015 Eighteenth Street N.W., Suite
1000, Washington, D.C. 20036, USA, Fax: (202)
887-0192 or Anthony B. Rylands, Conservation
International Brazil Program, Avenida Ant6nio
Abrahio Caram 820/302, Pampulha, 31275-000
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Fax: +55
(31) 441-1795.


A meeting of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist
Group, held during the XIV Congress of the
International Primatological Society (IPS) in
Strasbourg in August 1992, decided on the
decentralization of the Group to allow for greater
efficiency and interaction among its members. Co-
chairpersons were elected for three of the four
principle regions containing wild primate
populations (see editorial in Neotropical Primates,
Vol.1, No.1); Ardith Eudey Asia, Anthony
Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna Neotropics,
and Roderic Mast Madagascar. Ardith Eudey has
been editing the newsletter Asian Primates since
1991. Roderic Mast edited the first edition of
Lemur News in May 1993, and Neotropical
Primates was begun in March 1993. The Africa
section was left unattended, but we are now happy
to announce that Dr Tom Butynski recently agreed
to take on the task of editing a bi-annual newsletter
African Primates. It will be published and
distributed by Zoo Atlanta, Nairobi, in
collaboration with Conservation International, the
National Museums of Kenya, and the Kenya
Institute of Primate Research. As with the other
newsletters, the success of African Primates will
depend largely on the willingness of those involved
in primate conservation in Africa to provide
relevant information such as research findings,
field survey results, advances in field and
laboratory techniques, field action alerts, book
reviews, events, job announcements, funding
possibilities and recent publications (including
reports and theses). African Primates will also
announce letter writing campaigns and other
activities which might benefit from the support of
its readership. It will be distributed free-of-charge
to all interested persons. The deadline for
contributions for the inaugural issue is October 1,

Thomas M. Butynski, Editor African Primates,
Zoo Atlanta, P.O.Box 24434, Nairobi, Kenya.

Page 17

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994 Page 18


O Centro Argentino de Primates (CAPRIM), com
sede em Corrientes, Argentina, esti oferecendo umr
curso "IntroduqAo a Primatologia". Objetivos do
Curso: que os participants a) introduzam-se no
estudo de primatologia, b) conhegam a biologia das
espdcies Saimiri boliviensis, Cebus apella e
Alouatta caraya, c) adquiram treinamento em
manejo, capture, identificacqo, determinagAo de
idades, alimentaq~o, coleta de amostras,
diagn6stico de gestacgo e t6cnicas de observAicAo
destas espdcies. Program: Taxonomia e
distribuicgo dos primatas. 0 modelo primata em
pesquisas biom6dicas. NutriqAo e alimentacao.
Biologia da ReproduqAo. Medicine primatol6gica.
Zoonoses. Etologia dos primatas. Instalaqoes para
primatas em cativeiro. Captura e imobilizacgo.
Identificaqio e registro de dados. Requisitos de
admissao: estudantes avangados de VeterinAria e
Biologia, profissionais ou tdcnicos relacionados
com o assunto. Duraqio: 5 dias (carga horaria 40
horas). Custo: US$250 includee alojamento corn
pensdo complete no CAPRIM e material didAtico,
embora serA necessArio trazer roupa de cama e
banho, botas de borracha e avental). Data: a
determinar. Contato: Centro Argentino de Primates
(CAPRIM), Casilla de Correo 145, (3400)
Corrientes, Argentina. Tel./Fax: (54) (783) 27790.


Since 1998, an annual International Course in
Primatology has been held in the Universitd Louis
Pasteur (ULP), Strasbourg, France, and
occasionally partly in the Ruhr Universitit,
Bochum, Germany. The course provides the
"Certificat Europedn de Primatologie", and is
reserved for graduate students in Biology,
Medicine, Psychology, Veterinary Science, and
Zoology who hold a Master's degree or equivalent,
or have completed two years of studies in a medical
discipline. It is co-organized by Professors Yves
Rumpler and Holger Preuschoft, and lasts three
weeks (full-time: 60 hours of lectures and 40 hours

of practical work), during March-April. The
languages used are English and French, and
lecturers are recruited from a number of European
countries. Assessment is in the form of a written

The Course is divided into three sections: 1) #
Systematics, Evolution of the Brain, # Comparative
Anatomy, Fossils, and Functional Anatomy of the
Locomotor Apparatus (Biomechanics); 2) #
Population Genetics, Phylogeny, # Genetic and
Cytogenetic Factors in Evolution, # Molecular
Biology, and # Application of Genetic Prints to
Reproductive Strategies; and 3) # Ecology, Socio-
Ecology, Cognition, Chronobiology, # Evolution of
Behaviour, Social Structure, # Vocal
Communication, and Mother-Infant Relationships,
# Field Studies of Behaviour, # Conservation
Strategies, and Captive Housing. Lecturers: G.
Anzenberger (Ziirich-Irchel University); R. H.
Crompton (Liverpool University); B. Dutrillaux
(Curie Institute, Paris); H. Erkert (Tuibingen
University); N. Herrenschmidt (Primatology
Centre, ULP, Strasbourg); J. M. Le Minor
(Medicine, ULP, Strasbourg); R. D. Martin
(Ztirich-Irchel University); A. Paul (Gottingen
University); J. J. Petter (National Museum of
Natural History, Paris); P. Picq (College de France,
Paris); H. Preuschoft (Ruhr University, Bochum);
J. J. Roeder (Primatology Centre, ULP,
Strasbourg); Y. Rumpler (Medicine, ULP,
Strasbourg); W. Scheffrahn (Zuirich-Irchel
University); J. A. R. A. M. van Hooff (Utrecht
University); S. Water (Medicine, ULP,
Strasbourg); and P. Winckler (Gottingen

For further information: Professor Yves Rumpler,
Directeur Institut d'Embryologie, Facultd de
MWdecine, Universitd Louis Pasteur, 11 rue
Humann, F-67085 Strasbourg Cedex, France. Tel:
(33) 88 35 87 76, Fax: (33) 88 24 20 05 or (33) 88
35 87 99. Inscriptions: 15 September to 31
December 1994, in Strasbourg.


El nfimero 3(1) de Vida Silvestre Neotropical
(VSN) fue publicado en junio de 1994 y fue
distribuido en la reuni6n conjunto de la Sociedad
de Conservaci6n Biol6gica y Asociaci6n de
Biologia Tropical en Guadalajara, M6xico.
Encabezado por un ensayo escrito por Daniel

Neotropical Primates 2(3),.5eptember 1994

Page 18

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Janzen sobre el manejo de la biodiversidad en los
Areas silvestre de los tr6picos, tambidn incluye
articulos sobre la socioecologia del zorro gris,
Dusicyon griseus, en la Patagonia de Chile
(Johnson y Franklin), la conservaci6n de los
primates en la Argentina (Brown y Zunino) y el
anAlisis microhistol6gico de hAbitos alimentArios
de herbivoros en el tr6pico (Middleton y SAnchez).
AdemAs incluye revisiones de seis libros
importantes para los cientificos neotropicales.
Finalmente present la secci6n de Anuncios que
detalla conferencias, becas, empleo y los objetivos y
political de VSN.

VSN es una revista tdcnica para la publicaci6n de
articulos de alta calidad acerca de la investigaci6n
y manejo de los recursos bi6ticos en el Neotr6pico
y region austral de Sur America. VSN responded a
la necesidad de una revista international para
publicar la informaci6n nueva que se estA
generando rApidamente en el campo de la
conservaci6n biol6gica en Amdrica Latina y
pretend asegurar su disponibilidad a
investigadores, administradores y estudiantes
interesados en este campo. Los manuscritos pueden
ser sometidos en espafiol, portuguds o inglds y
seran publicados en el idioma en que fueron
presentados. Solicitamos manuscritos sobre el
tema principal de 1/SN: el manejo de la vida
silvestre y la conservaci6n biol6gica en el
Neotr6pico y la region austral de Sur Amrrica. Los
costs por subscripciones son: para Amdrica Latina
-estudiantes US$8.00, profesionales US$12.00,
instituciones US$15.00; outros estudiantes
US$15.00, profesionales US$24.00, instituciones
US$30.00. Se reciben pagos mediante tarjeto de
crddito, cheques y ordenes de compra. Para
informaci6n adicional favor escribir a: Vida
Silvestre Neotropical, Programa Regional en
Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Dept. SJO 278, P.O.Box
025216, Miami, Florida 33102, USA o Vida
Silvestre Neotropical, Apartado 1350, Heredia
3000, Costa Rica. El proximo nismero 3(2) saldra
en noviembre de 1994.


The Wildlife Disease Association (WDA), founded
in 1951 and based in Ames, Iowa, is an
international non-profit organization dedicated to
wildlife conservation through the study of diseases
in wild animals and fish. The primary goal is to
advance the understanding of the effects of
infections, parasites, environmental toxins, and

nutritional, physiological, developmental and
neoplastic diseases on free-living and captive wild
animals, and their relationship to man. The WDA
has over 700 members from 45 countries who are
engaged in research, teaching, and service
activities related to wildlife. The concerns of the
organization include game and furbearing
mammals, nongame and endangered species,
wildlife relocation and rehabilitation, zoological
parks, public health, livestock and poultry health,
comparative medicine, and aquatic animal health.
WDA membership benefits include: The Journal of
Wildlife Diseases (quarterly), with reports on
wildlife disease investigations, research papers,
brief research notes, case and epizootic reports, and
information concerning the WDA's activities; The
Wildlife Disease Newsletter, published quarterly
with the journal and which keeps member's
informed of association business and items of
contemporary interest in wildlife diseases; and an
annual meeting (August) sponsored by the WDA.
Graduate and veterinary student participation in
the annual meeting is encouraged with research
recognition and student presentation awards. The
1995 Meeting will be held in East Lansing,
Michigan, in conjunction with the American
Association of Wildlife Veterinarians and the
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.
Latin American members are encouraged to

Till recently the WDA has supported Australasian,
Nordic, and European Sections. However, in July
1994, Dr Alonso Aguirre was appointed temporary
Chairman (until an election is held) of a newly-
formed Latin American Section, in a WDA
Council meeting in Monterey, California. The
creation of the Section was supported by 17 active
members from nine Latin American countries. The
long-overdue formation of WDA's Latin American
Section is an important step to initiate and
maintain contact with Latin American biologists
and veterinarians interested in wildlife diseases. In
addition, the Section will provide a vehicle to open
communication on wildlife diseases that have gone
undocumented in many Latin American countries.
The Wildlife Disease Newsletter will be the means
of communication with a part designated to "News
from WDA's Latin American Section". The official
language is English, but items in Portuguese and
Spanish are welcomed.

For further information please contact: Dr Alonso
Aguirre, Chairman WDA Latin American Section,
P.O.Box 1522, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA. Tel:
(303) 484-6267, Fax: (303) 482-6184.

Page 19

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994



Those with an interest in applied ethology or
animal welfare might be interested in joining the e-
mail network APPLIED-ETHOLOGY, set up for
the exchange of information, discussions,
announcements, and news items. This network
was the initiative of members from the
International Society of Applied Ethology (ISAE),
with the help of computer systems experts from the
University of Saskatchewan. Non-ISAE members
with an interest in applied animal ethology are
welcome to participate. If you wish to join the
network send a message to "applied-ethology-
request@sask.usask.ca". Within the text of your
message (not at the subject header) you must type
the command: SUBSCRIBE applied-ethology
followed by your e-mail address. Alternatively,
send a message to Joe Stookey
(stookey@sask.usask.ca) or Jeff Rushen
(rushenj@cccot2.agr.ca) who will join you up. To
send a message to the entire network: applied-


The World Conservation Monitoring Centre
(WCMC), based in Cambridge, England, has
announced "CITES-L", an electronic listing for
discussion and postings of issues in wildlife trade
and the Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species (CITES). WCMC has had
over 12 years of experience in dealing with wildlife
trade issues and maintains a database of all
reported trade in CITES-listed species on behalf of
the CITES Secretariat, Geneva. The 9th CITES
Conference will be held in November in Fort
Lauderdale, Florida, and WCMC hopes to post
decisions and results of discussions as they take

Messages sent to CITES-L are distributed
automatically and authors are solely responsible for
the content of their postings. WCMC and CITES
do not verify the accuracy of submitted messages
nor do they endorse their content. Those interested
in joining the list should send a one-line message
to listproc@wcmc.org.uk with the command line
(in message body): subscribe cites-I .
It should be noted that replying to a message from
the list will reply to all subscribers. Further
information: Helen Corrigan, CITES-L List
Manager, Wildlife Trade Monitoring Unit, World
Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon

Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL, U.K. Tel: +44 223
277314, Fax: +44 223 277136, e-mail:


The Center for Conservation Biology at Stanford
University seeks an Associate Director for Tropical
Conservation Biology. The Tropical Program
consists of several semi-autonomous research
projects in Latin America. The primary
responsibility is to advance the application of
science in conservation planning and management
in the tropics. Duties include both program
administration and research. Substantial
international travel is involved. Requirements
include: Ph.D. demonstrable experience in research
at the interface between science and public policy
in the tropics, and fluency in English and Spanish.
Latin American citizens are encouraged to apply.
For a full description, contact: Tropical Research
Search, Center for Conservation Biology,
Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford
University, Stanford, CA 94305-5020, USA. Fax:
(415) 723-5920.


The Department of Anthropology, Yale University,
is seeking to fill a junior position in Biological
Anthropology at the level of Assistant Professor,
beginning 1 July 1995. Candidates should
complement the existing research interests of the
faculty: specialization in the ecology and behavior
of nonhuman primates is preferred. Send
curriculum vitae, references, a statement of
research and teaching interests, and writing
samples by 31 October 1994 to Professor Andrew
Hill, Chair, Biological Anthropology, Search
Comm., Department of Anthropology, Box 208277
Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520-8277, USA.



With a strong interdisciplinary interest and
training in Biology, the candidate is required to
take responsibility for long-standing, group-housed
primate colonies at Bucknell, and to involve
undergraduate students in non-invasive research
with primates. Assistant Professor entry-level
preferred. Tenure-track position begins in Fall

Page 20

Page 21 Neotropical Primates 2~'S,), September 1994

1995. Salary competitive and commensurate with
qualifications. Bucknell is a largely undergraduate
(3,200) school with an additional 200 graduate
students studying for MA/MS. A strong
commitment to excellence in teaching and to using
research as a teaching tool is demanded. The
successful candidate will teach part of the core
coursework in Biology, contribute to the General
Education Program, and offer courses and labs in
the Program in Animal Behavior. Send letter
describing qualifications, names and addresses of
references, and reprints to Professor Douglas
Candland, Chair, Program in Animal Behavior,
Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837, USA.
Applications' review beginning December 15 1994.
Women and members of minority groups are
encouraged to apply.

Primate Societies


No period de 24 a 29
de julho de 1994, foi
realizado, corn grande
8xito, o VI Congresso
Brasileiro de Primatologia, na Universidade
Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio do Janeiro. 0
Comite Organizador foi composto pelas seguintes
pessoas: Horacio Schneider (Presidente da
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia SBPr),
Stephen F.Ferrari (Vice-Presidente da SBPr), Aline
Da Rin P.de Azevedo (1a. Secretaria da SBPr),
Iracilda Sampaio (2a* Secretiria da SBPr), Maria
Paula C.Schneider (la- Tesoureira da SBPr) e Jose
de Sousa e Silva Jmnior (20. Tesoureiro da SBPr).
Foram apresentados 87 trabalhos, sendo 22 atrav6s
da programacgo do XX Congresso Brasileiro de
Zoologia (realizado simultaneamente) e 65 atrav6s
da programaqao do Congresso de Primatologia
(veja pp. 29-31). Estes 65 trabalhos foram
distribuidos nas seguintes sess6es:
" Simp6sio I Pesquisas e Conservaqio do
Muriqui, coordenado pela Dra. Karen B.Strier
(Universidade de Wisconsin), 11 trabalhos;
. Simp6sio II Novas Perspectivas sobre a
Ecologia, Comportamento e Taxonomia dos
Sagiiis do Genero Callithrix, coordenado pelo
Dr. Stephen F.Ferrari (Universidade Federal do
Para), 7 trabalhos;
. Simp6sio III Gendtica e Evolugqo dos
Atelideos, coordenado pela Dra. Iracilda

Sampaio (Universidade Federal do Para) 2
. Comunicacqes Orais Quatro sessdes, 42
. Conferencia I Ecologia e Conservagco do
Brachyteles: indicaq6es sobre a viabilidade de
uma populagiao Dra Karen B.Strier;
. Conferencia II Uma Proposta Molecular para
a Taxonomia dos Primatas do Novo Mundo -
Dr Horacio Schneider;
. Mesa Redonda Fontes de Financiamento para
Pesquisas em Primatologia.

Nova Diretoria: Durante a Assembldia da
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, realizada
durante o VI Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia
(24-29 de julho de 1994, Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro) foi eleita uma nova diretoria para o
bi8nio 1994-1996. Uma (mica chapa foi submetida
A Assembldia e a nova diretoria, eleita por
unanimidade, ficou assim constituida: Presidente -
Carmen Alonso (Universidade Federal de Paraiba);
Vice-Presidente Alcides Pissinatti (Centro de
Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro); Ia* Secretdria -
Maria Adl1ia Monteiro da Cruz (Universidade
Federal Rural de Pernambuco); 2a" Secretaria -
Maria de FAtima Ximenes (Universidade Federal
do Rio Grande do Norte); 1 Tesoureira Maria
Bernadete Cordeiro de Sousa (Universidade
Federal do Rio Grande do Norte); 2a' Tesoureira -
Maria de FAtima Arruda (Universidade Federal do
Rio Grande do Norte). Realizagfo dos Pr6ximos
Congressos da SBPr: A proposta aprovada na
Assembl6ia Geral foi a de se realizar congressos a
cada dois anos intercalados com o Congresso da
Sociedade Internacional de Primatologia (IPS).
Aldm disso, por quest6es operacionais, a
Assembleia decidiu desvincular o Congresso de
Primatologia da programagao do Congresso
Brasileiro de Zoologia. Assim, os pr6ximos
congresses deverio ser realizados nas sedes das
diretorias. Ficou acertado, entao, a realizaqAo de
um congress para julho de 1995 em Natal, Rio
Grande do Norte, com data mais exata a ser
definida posteriormente. Valor da Anuidade: Ficou
decidido que a anuidade da SBPr sera de um valor
equivalent a US$30.00 para profissionais e
US$15.00 para estudantes. A Primatologia no
Brasil V: Como de praxe, a Diretoria (1991-1994)
cuidara da edigio do livro A Primatologia no
Brasil V. Em breve sera distribuida um circular
conclamando todos os participants do VI
Congress Brasileiro de Primatologia a enviarem

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Page 21

Neotropical Primateir 2(3), September J994 Page 22

seus trabalhos completes para iniciar a edigqo do

Iracilda Sampaio, 2a. SecretAria da SBPr (1991-
1994), Laborat6rio de Biologia Molecular,
Departamento de Gendtica, Centro de Ciencias
Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal do Pari, Caixa
Postal 8607, 66075-900 Beldm, Para, Brasil.
Tel./Fax: (091) 229-9785.



Na ocasiAo do VI Congresso Brasileiro de
Primatologia (Rio de Janeiro, 24-29 de julho de
1994), a Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia
(SBPr) langou o Cadastro de Pesquisas em
Desenvolvimento na Primatologia Brasileira,
48pp. organizado por Aline Da Rin Paranhos de
Azevedo e Simone Iwanaga. Este cadastro foi o
resultado de um levantamento, a nivel national,
das pesquisas em andamento sobre primatas
neotropicais. 0 levantamento foi executado pelo
PrimatAM Banco de Dados sobre Primatas da
Amazonia, com o apoio da SBPr. Tentando buscar
uma maior cobertura possivel na coleta de dados,
um formulArio foi enviado a todos os s6cios da
SBPr e pesquisadores cadastrados no PrimatAM.
Foram cadastrados 86 projetos Sabe-se que
existem pesquisas que nao se encontram nesta
publicaqao, pordm infelizmente nao foram
recebidas respostas aos formulArios. Neste
cadastro foram registrados 86 projetos de pesquisas
a serem realizadas e/ou em andamento no Brasil:
Regifto Norte 12; Nordeste 38; Centro-Oeste 4;
Sudeste 30; e a Regiio Sul 2. Cada registro
inclui as seguintes informaq6es: titulo do projeto,
objetivos, datas, Area geogrifica, equipe envolvida,
instituiq~o executora, financiadores e endereqo
para contato. Com esta informacgo poderemos
acompanhar a produg~o cientifica na Area de
Primatologia e identificar as lacunas existentes em
pesquisas de espdcies e Areas de estudos dos
primatas neotropicais. Esperamos que esta
iniciativa possa ter continuidade com um
aperfeigoamento nas informaq6es e uma cobertura
total na coleta de dados. Com este produto
informacional esperamos ter contribuido para um
maior conhecimento e intercAmbio da produqco
cientifica sobre primatas neotropicais, resultando
na excel6ncia de pesquisa.

Aline Da Rin P. de Azevedo, Coordenadora do
PrimatAM, Departamento de Zoologia, Museu
Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, Beldm,

ParA e Horacio Schneider, Presidente da SBPr
(1992-1994), Departamento de Gen6tica, Centro de
Ci6ncias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal do ParA,
Caixa Postal 8607, 66075-900 Bel6m, ParA, Brasil.



I The XVth IPS Congress
was held, with great success, in Kuta, Bali,
Indonesia, from 3-8 August 1994. It was most
efficiently hosted by the Indonesian Wildlife
Society, and included 41 symposia, meetings, and
workshops, with topics varying from conservation,
behavioral ecology, cognition, communication,
social organization, demography, evolution and
systematics to the history of primatology, graduate
training, the experimental use of non-human
primates, welfare, ethical challenges to primate
research and conservation, and ecotourism. The
emphasis lay heavily on Asian primates, but two
symposia dealt specifically with platyrrhines. The
first concerning male-female strategies in New
World primates with paternal care was organized
by Hilary Box (Reading University, UK) and
Gisella Epple (Monell Chemical Senses Center,
Pennsylvania). The second, "Social Influences on
Responsiveness to Foods and Food Binding
Situations in New World Monkeys", was organized
by Dorothy M.Fragaszy (University of Georgia,
Athens). See page 31 for a listing of the abstracts
of papers concerning New World primates. The
XVIth IPS Congress will be held in Madison,
Wisconsin, 11-16 August 1996, organized as a
joint meeting of the IPS and the American Society
of Primatologists (APS), and hosted by the
University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin Regional
Primate Research Center. For further details:
Ms.Edi Chan, Congress Coordinator, Tel: (608)
263-3500, Fax: (608) 263-4031.

Recent Publications

Current Primatology: Selected
Proceedings of the XIVth Congress of the
International Primatological Society, 1994.
University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg. In 3 Vols.
Vol.I: Ecology and Evolution, edited by B.Thierry,
J.R.Anderson, J.J.Roeder and N.Herrenschmidt,
398pp. (topics: ecology, conservation, functional

Neotropical Primateu 2(3),,5eptember 1994

Page 22

Page 23 Neotropical Primates 2(3,), .S'eptember 1994

morphology, anatomy, palaeontology, systematics
and genetics). Vol.1I: Social Development,
Learning and Behaviour, edited by J.J. Roeder,
B.Thierry, J.R.Anderson, and N.Herrenschmidt,
404pp. (topics: socio-sexual behaviour, social
dynamics, communication, behavioral
development, social learning, and cognition).
Vol.II: Behavioural Neuroscience, Physiology,
and Reproduction, edited by J.R.Anderson,
J.J.Roeder, B.Thierry, and N.Herrenschmidt,
294pp. (topics: neuroscience, lateralization,
endocrinology, reproduction, physiology, captive
management, and medical primatology). Price:
One volume, 52, DM130, FF450, $75; Two
volumes, 87, DM215, FF750, $125; Three
volumes, 118, DM290, FF990, $170. Available
from: TT4 Promotion, 3 rue Colette, 67800
Bischeim, France. Tel: (33) 88 19 21 21, Fax: (33)
88 19 21 18.

Los que se Van: Especies Argentinas en
Peligro, by Juan Carlos Chebez, illustrations by
Aldo Chiappi, 1994, 605pp. Albatros, Buenos
Aires. ISBN 950-24-0623-0. A Red Data Book for
Argentinian mammals, birds, reptiles and
amphibians. Available from: Albatros, Hip61ito
Yrigoyen 3920, (1208) Capital Federal, Buenos
Aires, Argentina. Tel: 981-1161/982-5439/983-

International Directory of Primatology,
compiled by Larry Jacobsen, 2nd Edition, 1994,
354pp., spiral bound. Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center, Madison, Wisconsin. Price
US$15.00 in USA, US$23.00 in other countries
(incl.postage and packing). The purpose of the
Directory is to enhance communication among
organizations and individuals involved in primate
research, conservation, and education. It can be
used by primatologists as a desktop working tool or
by educators, librarians, students, and the general
public as a guide to primate programs and
information resources. The Directory is divided
into four sections and five indexes. The sections
cover: 1) geographically arranged entries for major
primate centers, laboratories, educational
programs, foundations, conservation agencies, and
sanctuaries; 2) groups involved with nonhuman
primate population management; 3) professional
primate societies, including the membership roster
of the International Primatological Society (IPS);
and 4) major information resources in the field.
Access to this information is supported by
organizational, field site, species, subject, and
name indexes. Prepayment is preferred, but
electronic and phone orders are welcome. Cheques
payable to: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research

Center. Available from: Larry Jacobsen, IDP
Coordinator, Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center Library, 1220 Capitol Court,
Madison, WI 53715-1299, USA. Tel: +1 (608)
263-3512, Fax: +1 (608) 263-4031, e-mail:

Livro Vermelho dos Mamiferos Brasileiros
Ameagados de Extingdo, compiled by Gustavo
A.B.da Fonseca, Anthony B.Rylands, Claudia
M.R.Costa, Ricardo B.Machado, and Yuri
L.R.Leite, 457pp. 1994. Fundacqo Biodiversitas,
Belo Horizonte. In Portuguese. Price (incl.postage
and handling): US$33.00. Information on the 58
mammal taxa on the Official List of Fauna
Threatened with Extinction in Brazil, 26 of which
are primates. The treatment for each taxon
includes: IUCN and CITES classifications, general
information, distribution (including a map) and
habitat, biological and ecological aspects,
population, principal threats, conservation
strategies, occurrence in protected areas, and
principal scientific bibliography. Besides the
compilers, the following also provided the texts for
the species: Ilmar B.Santos, Leandro Silveira,
Ibsen de GusmAo CAimara, Luiz Paulo de Souza
Pinto, Jinio A.dos Santos Silva, Ludmilla M.de
Souza Aguiar, Maria Auxiliadora Drumond, and
Rodiney de A.Mauro. This invaluable reference
was produced with the support of Conservation
International, World Wildlife Fund, The John D.
and Catherine T.MacArthur Foundation,
IUCN/SSC, and the Biodiversity Conservation
Data Center (CDCB) of Fundacqo Biodiversitas.
Available from: Fundaqao Biodiversitas, Rua
Maria Vaz de Melo 71, Dona Clara, 31260-110
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Tel: +55 31
443-2119, Fax: +55 31 441-7037, e-mail:

La Vida Silvestre de Mesoamerica:
Diagn6stico y Estrategia para su
Conservacion, editado por Eduardo Carrillo y
Christopher Vaughan, c.200pp. 1994. Editorial de
la Universidad Nacional, Heredia. US$20.00
(incluyendo el envio adreo). Financiado por la
OEA. Basado en un taller regional llevado a cabo
en Costa Rica en 1990, con participaci6n de
experts de cada pais en la region. Informaci6n:
Fundaci6n UNA, PRMVS, SJO No.278, P.O.Box
025216, Miami, Florida 33102, USA.

Field Guide to the Lemurs of Madagascar,
by Russell A.Mittermeier, Ian Tattersall, William
R.Konstant, David M.Meyers and Roderic B.Mast,
illustrated by Stephen D.Nash, 360pp. 1994.

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Page 23

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994 Page 24

Conservation International, Washington D.C. This
is the first in the Conservation International
Tropical Field Guide Series. It is an invaluable
reference for scientist and non-scientist alike.
Pocket-sized, it is the most comprehensive book on
the five families, 32 species and 50 taxa of lemurs
ever published. It includes chapters on lemur
origins, their discovery and study, and their
conservation, with a special section on the eight
genera and 15 species that have already gone
extinct. A major section of the book is also devoted
to a review of behavior, ecology and conservation
strategy for all known species and subspecies,
together with maps showing their distribution. The
Field Guide also contains 135 black-and-white
postural and behavioral drawings, 35 color plates
depicting all known forms including color variants,
and color photographs of all major lemur habitats.
To order copies at a special pre-publication price of
US25.00 (incl.postage and handling) write to
Russell A.Mittermeier, Conservation International,
1015 Eighteen Street NW, Washington, D.C.
20036, USA. Fax: (202) 887-0192.

Rastros de Mamiferos Silvestres
Brasileiros, by Marlise Becker and J.C.Dalponte,
1991, 180pp. Editora Universidade de Brasilia,
Brasilia. ISBN 85-2300306-1. In Portuguese. An
excellent field guide to the tracks of 48 Brazilian
mammals, including Callithrix, Cebus and
Alouatta. Available from: Editora Universidade de
Brasilia, Caixa Postal 04551, 70919-900 Brasilia,
D.F., Brazil.

Anais de Etologia 11, edited by Ant6nio
Fernandes Nascimento Jr., 1993, 267pp. Editora
UNESP, Bauru. Proceedings of the XI Encontro
Anual de Etologia, Bauru, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 7-9
October, 1993. Price US$10.00 (incl.postage). Also
available for the same price: Anais de Etologia 10,
edited by Mateus J.R.Paranhos da Costa and
Manuela Schmidek, 1992, 235pp. Proceedings of
the X Encontro Anual de Etologia, October 1992,
Jaboticabal, Sto Paulo. Available from: Mateus
J.R.Paranhos da Costa, Treasurer, Sociedade
Brasileira de Etologia, Departamento de
Melhoramento Gendtico Animal, Faculdade de
Ciencias Agrarias e VeterinArias, Universidade
Estadual Paulista (UNESP), 14870-000
Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo, Brazil. E-mail:
uejab@brfapesp (Bitnet).

Bibliografia sobre Primatas da Amaz6nia.
Primates: Cebidae, compiled by Aline Da Rin

P.de Azevedo, Simone Iwanaga, and Carmen
Martins, 1994, 370pp. Sociedade Civil Mamiraud,
Belim. Produced by PrimatAM, Museu Paraense
Emilio Goeldi, Bel6m, with support from The
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS),
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Castro, C.S.S., Menezes, A.A.L. de, Queiroz, W.J.,
and Moreira, L.F.S. Estudo dos ritmos biol6gicos
da catacgo no sagiii-comum (Callithrix jacchus)
em ambiente natural, p.27.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands,
A.B. 0 retro-cruzamento na preservaqgo do
sagiii-da-serra (Callithrix aurita flaviceps),
Callitrichidae Primates, p.29.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands,
A.B. Sobre a posiqco taxonomica de Saguinus
midas niger e seu hibridismo experimental com
Saguinus bicolor bicolor (Callitrichidae,
Primates), p.40.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands,
A.B. Obtengqo simulada de Saguinus bicolor
ochraceus Hershkovitz, 1966, atrav6s de
hibridaqAo de Saguinus bicolor martinsi corn
Saguinus bicolor bicolor (Callitrichidae,
Primates), p.41.
Cruz, M.A.O. and Sato, T. Alometria em
Callithrix jacchus silvestres: uma aplicaqAo da
teoria dos grafos, p.24.

Cruz, M.A.O. and Scanlon, C.E. Mudangas no
tamanho e na composiqAo de grupos sociais de
Callithixjacchus em ambiente natural, p.23.
Diego, V.H. and Ferrari, S.F. Diferengas sazonais
no comportamento dos carregadores de um grupo
de saguis-da-serra (Callithrix flaviceps) na
Estacao Biol6gica de Caratinga (EBC) MG,
Ferrari, S.F. Novas perspectives sobre a ecologia,
comportamento e taxonomia dos sagiiis do
genero Callithrix, p.21.
Ferrari, S.F. and Krause, E.A.K. A unha de
limpeza ("grooming claw") dos cebideos, p.73.
Figueiredo Filho, C.C., Campelo, M.L.C.B., Cruz,
M.A.O.M. and Melo, L.C.D. Alimento da area de
uso e diversificaqao da dieta em Callithrix
jacchus, p.25.
French, J.A., Pissinatti, A. and Coimbra-Filho,
A.F. Factors affecting captive breeding
performance in lion tamarins, genus
Leontopithecus, p.39.
Gomes, M.T. Aspecto de conteido nutricional da
dieta e comportamento alimentar de Brachyteles
arachnoides no Parque Estadual de Carlos
Botelho SP, p.62.
Giudice, A.M. Activity patterns, diet and social
behavior in howler monkeys in Corrientes,
Argentina, p.50.
Iwanaga, S. and Silva Jinior, J.S. Primatas das
areas litorineas da regiao norte do Brasil
(Primates: Platyrrhini), p.74.
Izar, P. and Sato, T. Influencia de abundancia
alimentar sobre a estrutura de espagamento
interindividual e relaq6es de dominAncia em um
grupo de macacos-prego (Cebus apella), p.46.
Kierulff, M.C.M., Kleiman, D.G. and Santos, E.M.
O uso de "play-back" para o levantamento das
populaqoes de mico-ledo-dourado
(Leontopithecus rosalia), p.37.
Lima, M., Sbalqueiro, I., Pinheiro, M. and
Oliveira, E.H. Variabilidade cromossOmica em
quatro espdcies de Alouatta (Primates, Cebidae),
Limeira, V.L.A.G. and Oliveira, L.F.B. Padres de
dieta de Alouatta fusca em period seco e imido
em um fragmento da floresta estacional
semidecidual do vale do Rio Paraiba do Sul, Rio
de Janeiro, p.53.
Lopes. M.A. Densidade e biomassa de primatas na
Amaz6nia oriental, p.75.
Medeiros, M.A.A., PonsA, M., Garcia, M., Garcia,
F., Pieczarka, J.C., Nagamachi, C.Y., Egozcue, J.
and Barros, R.M.S. Radiagao e especiaqao do
genero Ateles analisada sob o ponto de vista
cromoss6mico, p.71.

Neotropical Pritnates 2(3),.5eptetnb& 1994

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Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994 Page 30

Mendes, F.D.C. Comportamento social e
conservagco do muriqui (Brachyteles
arachnoides), p.65.
Mendes, F.D.C. Repert6rio e interaq6es vocais do
muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides), p.67.
Milani, A.S. and Ruiz, J.C. Dimorfismo sexual en
las relaciones materno-filiales de Saimiri
boliviensis durante los primeros 5 meses de edad,
Moraes, P.L.R. Disponibilidade alimentar e
padres de distribuicio espacial de esp6cies
utilizadas pelo muriqui no Parque Estadual de
Carlos Botelho, Sao Paulo, p.61.
Moura, A.C.A. and Alonso, C. Compartilhamento
de alimento entire Leontopithecus chrysomelas e
Saguinus midas midas no cativeiro, p.34.
Nogueira, C.P. Ecologia e comportamento de
femeas de muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) em
diferentes estagios reprodutivos, p.60.
Oliveira, L.P. Como os muriquis (Brachyteles
arachnoides) usam o seu espago: os efeitos do
tamanho do grupo e as implicaq6es de suas
preferencias de habitat para sua conservacao,
Passamani, M., Mendes, S.L., Chiarello, A.G.,
Passamani, J.A. and Ferraz, M. 0 program de
reintroduq~o do sagiii-de-cara-branca (Callithix
geoffroyi): resultados e problems, p.31.
Patiflo, E.M., Ruiz, J.C. and Borda, J.T. Crianza
manual de Saimiri boliviensis (Primates) en
CAPRIM, p.42.
Petroni, L.M. Ecologia e comportamento do mono-
carvoeiro (Brachyteles arachnoides) na Fazenda
Intervales, Serra de Paranapiacaba, Stio Paulo,
Pinto, L.P.S., Costa, C.M.R., and Tavares, L.I.
Levantamento das populaqoes de Brachyteles
arachnoides (muriqui) na parte norte de sua
distribuiqio, p.59.
Pissinatti, A., Cruz, J.B. and Coimbra-Filho, A.F.
Clinical, pathological and therapeutical
observations in "muriquis" (Brachyteles
arachnoides) in captivity, Ceboidea Primates,
Rimoli, A.O. 0 filhote muriqui: aspects gerais do
seu desenvolvimento, p.63.
Rimoli, A.O. and Otta, E. Aspectos gerais do
process de independencia do infante muriqui
(Brachyteles arachnoides) no grupo de Matao,
Estacqo Biol6gica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais,
Rimoli, J. 0 forrageamento dos muriquis
(Brachyteles arachnoides, Geoffroy, 1806): o
papel de sua organizaqilo social na dispersao c
semeadura de esp6cies arb6reas da mata
AtlAntica, p.64.

Rimoli, J. and Ades, C. Estrat6gia de
forrageamento de um grupo de muriquis
(Brachyteles arachnoides, Primates, Cebidae) da
Estaqo Biol6gica de Caratinga MG, p.69.
Rodrigues, F.P., Ruiz, J.C., Ver6n, A.G. and
Verona, C.E.S. Valores hematologicos normales
en Saimiri boliviensis de diferentes edades, p.45.
Sampaio, I., Schneider, M.P.C., Pissinatti, A.,
Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Goodman, M. and
Schneider, H. A radiagco adaptativa dos atelideos
vista sob uma abordagem molecular:
concordlincias e controversial, p.72.
Sampaio, I., Schneider, M.P.C. and Schneider, H.
A evoluqiao do genero Alouatta I. Dados sobre
polimorfismo prot6ico em A.belzebul e
A.seniculus, p.55.
Sant'Anna, T.M.L.. and Pess6a, L.M. Variacao
cranio-dental em populaq6es naturais e de
cativeiro do Leontopithecus rosalia Linnaeus,
1766 (Primates, Callitrichidae), p.38.
Santos, C.V. Cuidado parental em calitriquideos
(Callithrix kuhli e C.geoffroyi), p.32.
Sousa, M.B.C., Silva, G.H.A.G., Pricess, C.,
Gomes, S.C. and Mota, M.T.S. Perfil
comportamental da interaqAo entire casais em
idade reprodutiva do sagiii-comum, Callithrix
jacchus, p.22.
Strier, K.B. Simp6sio sobre as pesquisas e
conservaqfao do muriqui (Brachyteles
arachnoides), p.56.
Zunino, G.E. Evaluaci6n de la estacionalidad
reproductive en el mono aullador negro (Alouatta
caraya, Primates, Cebidae) en el noreste da la
Argentina, p.49.
Zunino, G.E., Reisenman, C.E., Bravo, S.P. and
Ferreira, F.M. Habitat y estructura poblacional
del mono aullador negro (Alouatta caraya,
Primates, Cebidae) en el noreste de la Argentina,
Selected abstracts of the XX Congress of the
Brazilian Zoological Society. In: Resumos: XX
Congress Brasileiro de Zoologia, 1994.
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 24-29
July 1994, 78pp:
Almeida, R.T., Pimental, D.S., Silva, F.J.L. and
Silva, E.M.S. Guariba-de-mAo-ruiva Alouatta
belzebul belzebul no estado de Pernambuco,
Burity, C.H.de F., Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C.A. and
Pissinatti, A. Morfometria do crinio comparando
tris esp6cies do genero Callithrix Erxleben 1777
(Primates: Callitrichidae), p.143.
Calouro, A.M. and Setz, E.Z.F. Interaq6es sociais
em um grupo de parauacus em um fragmento
florestal na Amaz6nia Central, pp. 143-144.

jVeotropical Printates 2(3), &pteinber 1994

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Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Hirsch, A., Moraes, W.B.de, Landau, C. and
Rylands, A.B. Censo de A louatta fusca Geoffroy,
1812 (Platyrrhini, Atelidae) e qualidade do
habitat em duas Areas com remanescentes de
mata Atlantica em Minas Gerais, p. 144.
Hirsch, A., Subird, R.J. and Landau, E.C.
Levantamento e distribuicao de primatas do
Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Lima Duarte, MG,
Kierulff, M.C.M. and Rylands, A.B. Situacgo atual
das populaq6es de mico-ledo-dourado
(Leontopithecus rosalia), p. 140.
Kobayashi, S. Relaq6es infraespecificas em
Callicebus personatus com base na morformetria
craniana (Primates: Cebidae), p. 140.
Lorini, M.L. and Persson, V.G. Densidade
poulacional de Leontopithecus caissara Lorini &
Persson, 1990, na Ilha de Superagiii / PR
(Primates Callitrichidae), p. 145.
Lorini, M.L. and Persson, V.G. ProvAvel
polinizacgo de Norantea brasiliensis
(Marcgraviaceae) por Cebus apella e
Leontopithecus caissara, p. 145.
Marques, A.A.B.de and Ades, C. Alimentaqco, uso
de Area e padres de atividades diArias em
Alouatta fusca clamitans (Primates, Cebidae) na
Estacgo Experimental de Aracuri-Esmeralda, RS,
Marques, A.A.B.de and Ades, C. Estudo da relacao
mAe-filhote em Alouatta fusca clamitans
(Primates, Cebidae) na Estaqao Experimental de
Aracuri-Esmeralda, RS, p. 141.
Marroig, G., Bitner-Math6, B.C. and Cerqueira, R.
VariaqAo morfol6gica em esp6cies amaz6nicas do
g6nero Callithrix, p. 141.
Passos, F.de C. Consideraq6es sobre a estrat6gia de
conservaqAo do mico-lefio-preto, Leontopithecus
chrysopygus, p. 141.
Passos, F.D.C. Dieta do mico-leao-preto,
Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mammalia,
Callithricidae), p.145.
Pereira, A., Muniz, J.A., Guimarges, D. and Vale,
W. Determinacgo do ciclo estral de sagiii
(Callitrichidae) criados em cativeiro na regiio
Amaz8nica, resultados preliminares, p. 141.
Persson, V.G. and Lorini, M.L. Distribuicgo
geogrifica do mico-leAo-de-cara-preta,
Leontopithecus caissara Lorini & Persson, 1990
(Primates, Callitrichidae), p.145.
Pinto, L.P.de S. and Tavares, L.I. Notas sobre a
distribuigco geogrifica e situacgo dos primatas da
Regiao Cacaueira Baiana, p. 142.
Silva, G.S.da and Monteiro da Cruz, M.A.O.
Comportamento e composiq~o de um grupo de
Callithrix jacchus (Primates, Callitrichidae) na
Mata de Dois IrmAos Recife, PE, pp. 142-143.

Souza, S.B.de ManipulacAo e escolha de itens
alimentares por primatas Cebus apella e
Saimiri sciureus em cativeiro, p. 143.

Selected abstracts of the XV Congress of the
International Primatological Society. In:
Handbook and Abstracts: XV Congress of the
International Primatological Society, 1994,
440pp. Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, 3-8 August, 1994:
Albuquerque, F.S. and Arruda, M.F. Distribution
of infant care in the first three months of infant's
life in natural habitat, p.246.
Anaya-Huertas, C., Perez-Ruiz, A. and
Mondragon-Ceballos, R. Ludic behavior between
adults in a non-female bonded primate species
(Ateles geoffroyi) and and a female bonded
primate species (Macaca arctoides), p.239.
Arruda, M.F., Arafijo, A., Santee, D.P. and
Barreto, C. Stability in group composition in
naturally occurring groups of common
marmosets (Callithrixjacchus), p. 151.
Barreto, C.E. and Arruda, M.F. Scent-marking
behavior of two common marmoset Callithrix
jacchus (Callitrichidae) reproductive females in
natural habitat, p. 115.
Bieser, A. Information processing of frequency
modulated sounds in the squirrel monkey's
(Saimiri sciureus) auditory cortex, p.273.
Box, H.O. Behavioural gender differences in
foraging efficiency studies with marmosets and
tamarins (Callitrichidae), p.330.
Box, H.O. and Epple, G. New World primates with
paternal care: male female strategies, p.329.
Box, H.O. and Owens, D.B.C. Social influences on
exploratory and foraging behaviour in marmosets
(Callithrix Callitrichidae): a developmental
perspective, p.353.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M. Environmental enrich-
ment: implications for primates and research,
Canales-Espinosa, D. and Garcia-Ordufia, F.
Situation ofA louatta palliata (howler monkey) in
two communities of Veracruz, Mexico, p. 135.
Cort6s-Ortiz, L., Rodriguez-Luna, E., Martinez-
Morales, M. and Carrera-Sanchez, E.
Reproductive behavior and demographic data of a
group of free-ranging howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata), p.150.
Epple, G. Gender differences in chemosignalling
systems of callitrichid monkeys: a review, p.330.
Erkert, H. and Rappold, I. Age-related changes in
the characteristics of the circadian system in owl
monkeys (Aotus lemurinus), p.67.
Ferrari, S.F. Sex differences in dispersal strategies
and social behaviour in free-ranging marmosets
(Callithrix flaviceps), p.332.

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Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994 Page 32

Fragaszy, D.M. Social influences on
responsiveness to foods and food-finding
situations in New World monkeys, p.352.
Fragaszy, D.M., Mitra, K. and Galloway, A. May I
try some of yours? Social facilitation of feeding
in tufted capuchin monkeys, p.351.
Garber, P.A. One for all and breeding for one:
cooperation and competition as a callitrichine
reproductive strategy, p.331.
Hardie, S.M. and Buchanan-Smith, H.M.
Vigilance and repsonsiveness to novel objects in
two sympatric tamarin species, p.91
Hearn, J.P. The NIH-NCRR Regional Primate
Research Centers Program (USA), p.374.
Hearn, J.P., Becker, R., Seshagiri, P. and
Teresawa, E. Regulation of embryo implantation
in primates, p.296.
Hernindez-L6pez, L., Mayagoitia, L., Esquivel, C.
and Diaz, V. Do female spider monkeys show
menstrual or estral cycle? A cytological
approach, p.230.
Hodgkinson, M.A. and Rogers, L.J. Handedness,
mouthedness and eye preference in the common
marmoset (Callithrixjacchus), p.203.
Jurgens, U. Extralaryngeal muscle activities during
vocalization in the squirrel monkey, p.273.
Kappeler, P.M. Female dominance and primate life
histories: a test of the energetic constraints
hypothesis, p.286.
Kerl, J. Experiences in the application of longterm
heartrate telemetry to common marmosets
(Callithrix jacchus jacchus) kept undisturbed in
their social environment, p.220.
Kobayashi, S. and Langguth, A.L. New titi
monkeys from Brazil, p. 166.
Koenig, A. Group size, composition and
reproductive success in wild common marmosets
(Callithrix jacchus), p.256.
Kowalewski, F. An approach towards an objective
classification of the squirrel monkey's vocal
repertoire, p.271.
Ludes, E. and Anderson, J.R. Use of different
substrates in captive Cebus capucinus, p.159.
Mackinnon, K.C. Age-class differences in foraging
behavior of the white-faced capuchin monkey
(Cebus capucinus), p.79.
Macleod, M.C. The woolly monkey another
patrilineal primate? p.262.
Mason, W.A. and Menzoa, S.P. Parenting in titi
monkeys (Callicebus): who is carrying and who
cares? p.331.
Mello, M.T.de Breeding of primates in source
countries, for research and conservation, p.369.
Mendoza, S.P. Social influences on seasonality in
squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), p.223.

Miller, L.E. Life's ups and downs: activity budgets
and feeding strategies of adult female wedge-
capped capuchins (Cebus olivaceus), p.84.
Morera-Avila, R.A. Activity and habitat selection
by monkeys Cebus capucinus and Alouatta
palliata in dry tropical forest of Costa Rica,
Miller, K.H. Individual separating from the group
and establishment of a new territory in masked
titi monkey (Callicebus personatus) in Brazil,
Norconk, M.A., Conklin, N.L., Kinzey, W.G.
Nutritional and deterrent properties of seeds
ingested by white-faced and bearded sakis
(Pitheciinae) in Venezuela, p.364.
Peres, C.A. Seed predators in thirty Amazonian
primate communities, p.365.
Petto, A.J. and Buchanan-Smith, H.M.
Psychological well-being and other projections of
the human condition their meaning for research
activities with non-human primates, p.359.
Pires, M.R.S. Infant-caregiving relationships in
captive Callithrix jacchus, p.248.
Ploog, D.W. Dialoguing in squirrel monkeys,
p. 114.
Price, E.C. and Feistner, A.T.C. Studies of food
sharing in small New World monkeys, p.352.
Rodrigudz-Luna, E, Martinez-Morales, M., Serio-
Silva, J.C. and Dominguez-Dominguez, L.E.
Foraging behaviour of free-ranging howler
monkeys (Alouatta palliata), p.83.
Ruiz, J.C. Breeding facilities in South America:
primate gathering centers or primate breeding
centers? p.369.
Scott, L., Pryce, C.R. and Schnell, C.R. The
European Marmoset Research Group an
example of interdisciplinary communication,
Sousa, M.B.C.de and Mota, M.T. Allogrooming
patterns in common marmosets (Callithrix
jacchus) couples with and without pregnant
females, p.401 (Poster).
Tojrre, S.de la Feeding habits of Saguinus
nigricollis graellsi in northeastern Ecuador, p.82.
Valderrama, X. An evaluation of potential factors
in callitrichine distribution gaps, p.79.
Vasarhelyi, K. Screening for PCR-based
polymorphic markers in the New World primate
Callimico goeldii, p.422 (Poster).
Vercauteren Drubbel, R. anf Gautier, J.-P. The
acoustical structure of the loud calls of wild red
howlers in French Guyana, p. 166.
Visalberghi, E., Valente, M., Limongelli, L. and
Fragaszy, D.M. Perhaps I will try some too.
Social facilitation of feeding on novel foods in
tufted capuchin monkeys, p.351.

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Neotropical Primates 20), September 1994

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Vitale, A. and Santamaria, F. Response to a novel
object by socially-housed common marmosets
(Callithrixjacchus), p. 158.
Wright, P.C., Tan, C. and Rakotonarina, G.
Comparisons of infant development and
reproductive behavior in New World and
Malagasy primates, p. 187.
Zhang, S-Y. Activity and ranging patterns in
relation to fruit utilization by brown capuchin
monkeys (Cebus apella) in French Guiana, p.77.
Zhang, S-Y. Sleeping habits of brown capuchin
monkeys (Cebus apella) in French Guiana, p.89.


1994, Avenida Independencia 11, Canan6ia, Sao
Paulo. Sociedade Brasileira de Etologia.
Registration: Students R$35.00, Professionals -
R$55.00. Contact: Rafael Resendis Sanches
Hidalgo, Rua Professor Besnard s/n, Caixa Postal
43, 11990-970 Canandia, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Tel:
(0138) 51 1163, Fax: (0138) 51.1108..

CONSERVATION, 21 October 1994. Kaufman
Theater, American Museum of Natural History,
New York. Organized and co-sponsored by the
New York Consortium in Evolutionary
Primatology (NYCEP). Morning session:
Paleontology and Molecular/Genetic Studies.
Afternoon session: Behavior and Conservation.
Information and tickets (by mail only): Dr Eric
Delson, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology,
American Museum of Natural History, New York,
NY 10024, USA.

AND CONSERVATION, 10-13 November 1994,
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Florida,
USA. Contact: Dr Meg Lowman, Director of
Research, Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South
Palm Avenue, Sarasota, Florida 34236, USA.

GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 14-16 November 1994,
Paris. Includes the inaugural workshop of the
European Marmoset Research Group (EMRG) with
the theme "Fundamental and Applied Aspects of
Marmoset Science", including spoken review

papers and specialist spoken posters in six broad
fields of fundamental and applied science. Topics
include: Housing and Husbandry: Nutrition and
Health; Social and Reproductive Biology; Learning
and the Central Nervous System; and Physiology.
Anthony B.Rylands will present the special guest
lecture on "The Callitrichidae: a Biological
Overview". The edited proceedings will be
published as a "EMRG Laboratory Handbook of
Marmoset Science". Contact: Christopher Pryce,
Anthropologisches Institut, Universittit Ztirich-
Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zutrich,

November 1994, Zoological Society of London,
London. Organized by the Mammal Society in
association with the Universities Federation for
Animal Welfare (UFAW). The program includes
sessions on Mammal Game Ranching, Mammal-
oriented Ecotourism, Mammals in Zoos and
Circuses, Sport Hunting of Mammals, and
Mammal Wildlife Trade and Conservation.
Contact: Victoria Taylor, UFAW, 8 Hamilton
Close, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire,
England EN6 3QD.

PSGB WINTER MEETING 1994, 30 November
1994. Education Department, London Zoo,
Regent's Park, London. Organized by the Primate
Society of Great Britain. Including Osman Hill
Memorial Lecture by Professor Robin Dunbar,
University College, London. Contact: Caroline
Ross, Hon. Sec. PSGB, Department of Biological
and Chemical Sciences, Roehampton Institute,
Whitelands College, London SW15 3SN, England.

FOREST '94, 5-8 dezembro de 1994. Centro de
Eventos Sao Josd, Hotel Sio Rafael, Porto Alegre,
Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Informaqoes e
inscriq6es: Coordenaqao Executiva, Jussara
Ribeiro, Superintendente Executiva da
BIOSFERA, Praga Monte Castelo 18, conj.706,
Centro, 20051-030 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro,
Brasil. Tel./Fax: (021) 221-0155, Fax: (021) 551-
1893 e 262-5946.

December 1994, Londrina State University,
Parani, Brazil. Contact: Dr Ndlio Roberto dos
Reis, Coordenador Cientifico do II CBE,
Departamento de Biologia Animal e Vegetal,
Centro de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Campus
UniversitArio, Universidade Estadual de Londrina,

Page 33

Neotropical Primates 2(3), September 1994

Caixa Postal 6001, Londrina 86051, Parana,
Brazil, Tel: (0432) 21-2000, Fax: (0432) 27-6932.

PHYLOGENY, 28 March-I April 1995. Oakland,
California. In conjunction with the American
Association of Physical Anthropology. Focus: New
World primate relationships and evolutionary
history. Abstract deadline: 30 June 1994. Contact:
Jeff Meldrum, Departments of Biological Sciences
and Anthropology, Campus Box 8007, Idaho State
University, Pocatello, Idaho 93209-8007, USA.
Tel: (208) 236-4379, Fax: (208) 236-4570, e-mail:

MEETING, 5-6 April 1995, Institute of Cell,
Animal and Population Biology, Edinburgh
University. Focus: Field studies of primates. The
second day (April 6th) will be held at Edinburgh
Zoo with primate staff talking of their work.
Contact: Elizabeth Rogers, ICAPB, Ashworth
Building, University of Edinburgh, West Mains
Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, Scotland. Tel: +44 31
650-5510, Fax: +44 31 667-3210.

10-17 August 1995, Honolulu, Hawaii. Sponsored
by the University of Hawaii. Contact: Conference
Secretariat, 800 N.W.Loop 410, Suite 150-S, San
Antonio, TX 78216-5674, USA. Tel: (210) 341-
8131, Fax: (210) 341-5252, e-mail:

22-28 Octubre 1995, Universidad de Los Andes,
Merida, Venezuela. Los res6menes de los trabajos
a ser presentados deben ser enviados antes del 30
de Julio de 1995 (Ponencia oral o de Cartel). Los
idiomas oficiales: Espailol y Portugu6s. Se
aceptaran ponencias en Inglds y Francds,
esperindose contar con sistemas de traducci6n
simultinea. Inscripciones: Hasta 30/12/94 -
Profesionales US$70.00, Estudiantes de postgrado
US$40.00, Estudiantes de pregrado US$30.00;
Hasta 30/05/95 Profesionales US$85.00,
Estudiantes de postgrado US$55.00, Estudiantes de
pregrado US$45.00; Al Congreso Profesionales
US$100.00, Estudiantes de postgrado US$70.00,
Estudiantes de pregrado US$60.00. Informaciones:
Dr Jaime E.Pdfaur, Secretario Ejecutivo, III
Congress Latinoamericano de Ecologia, Facultad
de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida,
Venezuela 5101. Tel: (58)(74) 401305, Fax:
(58)(74) 401286, e-mail: clae@ula.ve.


We would be most grateful if you could send us
information on projects, research groups, events
(congresses, symposia, and workshops), recent
publications, activities of primatological societies
and NGOs, news items or opinions of recent events
and suchlike, either in the form of manuscripts
(double-spaced) or in diskettes for PC compatible
text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect, Wordstar).
Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, figures, maps,
tables and references, but please keep them to a

Please send contributions to the editors: ANTHONY
RYLANDS, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de
Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de
Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil,
Fax: (031) 441-1412, or c/o Conservation
International, Avenida Antonio Abrahao Caram
820/302, Pampulha, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Fax: (031)441-2582 or
Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa,
Veracruz 91000, Mdxico, Fax: (281) 8-77-30.

LILIANA CORTIS-ORTIZ (Universidad .Veracruzana)
and MIRIAM MENEZES LIMA (Conservation
International, Belo Horizonte) provide invaluable
editorial assistance. LUDMILLA AGUIAR,
Conservation International Brazil Program, Belo
Horizonte (address above), is responsible for the
distribution of Neotropical Primates. Please keep
us informed of any address changes.

Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to
Anthony Rylands/Ludmilla Aguiar: cibrasil@ax.apc.org
FundaqAo Biodiversitas: cdcb@ax.apc.org

collaboration with Conservation International,
1015 18th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC
20036, USA, and FundaVio Biodiversitas, Rua
Maria Vaz de Melo 71, Dona Clara, Belo
Horizonte 31260-110, Minas Gerais, Brazil. -
Design and Composition YURI L. R. LEITE and
RICARDO B. MACHADO, Biodiversity Conservation
Data Center (CDCB), Fundacgo Biodiversitas.

Page 34

Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Antonio Abrahlo Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil

VA dn Recognizing the outstanding contribution of the IUCN/SSC volunteer networks of
biodiversity experts worldwide for the conservation of endangered species, Earthkind
A (The Humane Society's international arm) has joined us in supporting this newsletter.
The chairman and the editors extend their thanks and welcome Earthkind in this

Earthkind do Brasil, Caixa Postal 91160, 25620 Petr6polis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Tel: +55 24 242-3807, Fax: +55 24 242-3200. Executive Director: Claudia Menezes.

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