Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00307
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1928
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00307
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text


Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society


State Plant Board,
Sanford, Fla.
Identity.-The name of the green citrus aphid is somewhat in
dispute. It was first described by Dr. Edith M. Patch in 1914,
but in a later paper Dr. Patch stated that it was probably identi-
cal with Aphis pomi. Dr. A. C. Baker, however, states that a
difference occurs in the male forms (Aphis pomi being wingless
and Aphis spiraecola winged) and for this reason the species
should not be considered identical.
Appearance in Florida.-Altho there are indications of the
presence of this aphid in Florida as early as the autumn of 1922,
it was not until 1924 that its identity was definitely determined
by Dr. A. C. Baker. It first appeared near Tampa, Florida, and
from there spread eastward over the entire state with great
rapidity. Since this is the direction of prevailing winds, it is
assumed that the insect was thereby distributed. It is now
found in Florida, California, Alabama, Cuba and Honduras.
Host Plants.-Considering the two species identical, Dr. Patch
gave some 47 host plants. In Florida it was found to feed on
some 30 plants, but thrives only on a few, namely, citrus,
'The purpose of this paper is to give a summarized report of two years'
work with the citrus aphid carried on at the Citrus Experiment Station at
Lake Alfred, Florida, during 1926 and 1927. All phases of the problem were
studied and all available literature concerning this aphid was consulted.
The writer is greatly indebted to the Entomologist and Director of the
Florida Experiment Station, his advisors at the Ohio State University and
several men of the Bureau of Entomology, United States Department of
Agriculture, for their aid, suggestions and encouragement during the prog-
ress of the work.


spiraea, apple and milkweed." Only very tender growth of citrus
and apple are attacked, but in the case of spiraea the aphid can
survive on quite tough, hard foliage or even on-tender stems.
Seasonal Appearance.-The seasonal appearance of the pest is
shown on the chart. Fig. 1.
% July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mlar Anr MaY June
100 Growth and Infestation -192__
Trees wi h ne gro th
5 --- Trees in-ested

% Growth and Infestation 1926 '27


7 '!,

o"\~__K "

The winged forms become most abundant during March, usu-
ally 7-14, and the migration then takes place. A very great
number of plants are attacked and a few generations completed
there, but by June the aphid can usually be found on only a
few plants again. These are citrus and spiraea.
Life History.-The life history of the green citrus aphid at
Lake Alfred, Florida, differs from that of the same aphid in the
north in that no sexual forms were found at this southern sta-
tion. Consequently no eggs have ever been observed at the
Citrus Experiment Station in Central Florida. The insect passes
the entire year in the active stage and from August, 1926, to
August, 1927, passed through 44 successive first born genera-
tions and 20 last born generations. At Gainesville, Florida, both
'During the past summer it has in places been found in large numbers
on the tender growth of Pittosporum.-Ed.


Days July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec I Jan Feb Mar Apr May June
40 Aphid Development
---- Total e11 e
2v --- nerio&.

Nvmo].s !Ap id R prod uctio
80 --- Tota
A ~ Dai1y

In ~iee their Cond ltion
-- -- ity Rair fall

sexual forms and eggs have been found and there the life cycle
is very similar to that in more northern climates. The eggs were
found on spiraea, apple, pear, and Japanese flowering quince.3
The average time to mature or nymphal period ranged from
4 days during September to 16 days during January. The aver-
age for the year was 6.93 days.
The number of young produced was greatest also during the
month of September and reached a point almost as great in
February. During the week of September 13, 1926, an average
of 7.3 young per female per day was found. The lowest rate
of reproduction occurred in January during very warm, dry
weather. The optimum temperature was between 70 and 790 F.
and 70 % relative humidity. It was found that the aphids reacted
most favorably to this temperature in a controlled temperature
chamber. The average rate of reproduction per day for the en-
tire year was 2.98 per female. Total young produced per female
ranged from 1 to 103, being highest in September and February,
with an average of 29.11 per female for the year.

"Eggs were abundant on wild crabapple at Monticello in extreme north-
ern Florida during November, 1927.--Ed.


Length of Life.-The longevity ranged from an average of
11.8 days for June to 33 days for January with an average of
16.7 days. This total life can be expressed in general as a con-
stant which is the product of the two sides of a parallelogram,
one side of which represents temperature and the other length
of life.
Occurrence of Winged Forms.-In many tests it was found
that when aphids fed on very tender succulent foliage they all
developed wingless, but when they fed on hardening foliage or
on most any unsuitable host they became winged. Since all
stages of foliage were always present, winged aphids could
always be found, but were most abundant during March and
April when most of the tender foliage was hardening.
Occurrence of Sexual Forms.-As has already been stated, no
sexual forms occurred at Lake Alfred, Florida, but were present
during late fall and early winter at Gainesville, Florida. There
is usually a difference of 8 or 100 F. in temperature between the
two points, but the writer is not able to state that this condition
is responsible for the appearance of sexual forms. Work being
done now under controlled temperature and humidity conditions
at Gainesville, Florida, should help to solve the problem.
Economic Considerations.-As is the case among northern
aphids, the more overwintering forms present, the greater will
be the infestation during the next season. If each grower would
so cultivate and fertilize his trees as to keep them dormant dur-
ing the winter, thereby leaving no place for the aphids to live
and at the same time destroy the weed host plants, he would
do many, many times as much good as by spraying diligently
after the aphids have become abundant during the spring. In
other words, this problem, just as many others, resolves itself
into one where cultural practice and timely and accurate obser-
vations will do more toward control than great quantities of
As usual, the natural control factors can be grouped into two
divisions, meteorological and biological. The meteorological fac-
tors are occasionally important for winds, dashing rains, ex-
tremely high or low temperature and high humidity or very low
humidity are all quite destructive to aphids. The biological fac-
tors are much more important.
Since the appearance of the green citrus aphid, Aphis spirae-
cola Patch, in Florida there have been many observations and


many speculations made as to the control derived from its natu-
ral enemies, Professor J. R. Watson- and Mr. A- H.- Beyer of
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and Dr. F. R. Cole
of the United States Department of Agriculture have reported
aphid predators at various times. None of these papers attempted
to give an estimate of the control effected by the natural ene-
mies named. Since little data of this nature have been recorded
and many broad statements as to the natural control of this
aphid are made, the writer has tried to collect information that
will aid in solving the problem.
Method of Study.-In order to determine the value of the nat-
ural enemies one must know when each appears and disappears,
its abundance and efficiency, or how many aphids each can de-
stroy in a definite time. Each week at Lake Alfred, Florida,
10,000 aphids were counted and all the natural enemies of this
number were recorded. By continuing this through the entire
year the appearance and abundance of each predator and para-
site were found.
The efficiency of each predator or the number of aphids de-
stroyed daily was found by life history and feeding records.
Eggs were collected from the field or from caged adults and the
larvae were reared through their complete life cycle with a rec-
ord kept of all aphids eaten. The average of several individuals
was taken as the correct number.
In cases where both adult and larval stages destroyed aphids,
feeding records of the adults were also made and the adults
were included in the counts. The work of parasites, both insect
and fungous, was recorded by actual count of the aphids killed
by each parasite.
The following table shows the average number of citrus aphids
destroyed each day by the more important natural enemies:
Cycloneda sanguine ----.....-...................-26
Hippodania convergens ...------................61
Coccinella oculata ....................................21
Scymnus. sp. ........-...........-----------.----.-20
Baccha clavata ..........------ ......-------..........33
Baccha lugens .................------- ..........----- ......35
Allograpta obliqua .............-- ..................34
Syrphus wiedemani ....---...........----...........--45
Leucopis americana ....----...........--..............------17
Chrysopa sp. ....................... ....-----------28
Hemerobius sp. ........................................20
Lysiphlebus testecoipes ..........................dead aphids found
Empusa fresenii ...........------..-------....dead aphids found
The detailed results of the work are shown in the following


July Aug Sept Oct Nov IDec Jan Feb Mar Apr May ne
No. Lady Beetles pDr 1C.O00 Aphids
Cyc oned sauine
60 ---- HipodamLa cover ns
-- Coc inell a oclata
40 --- Scy mnus .p,


-^-% Aphids Killed per day by Ladv Pl -t.1PS




Fig. 3.-Ladybeetles, appearance, abundance and per cent of aphids
destroyed daily.


No, Syrphus Fly Larvae per 10.000 Ap lds
S Bac ha c avat
60 --- Baccha lens
-*-* Syr hus lede l
40 .... All ra ob ar a


%Anh la kinle rnry ^y hi SyrWu hi 1v T. rvI

Fig. 4.-Syrphus flies, appearance, abundance and per cent of aphids
destroyed daily.

July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May une
No. Miscellaneous Predators per 10.C00 AD lds
LeuCopis americana
60 --- Chr sopa sp.
--- Mic omus post cus
40 _


% Aphid kll ed ner av b liscellane us _redators



\o -
Fig. 5.-Miscellaneous predators, appearance, abundance and per cent of
aphids destroyed daily.


July Aua ISentlOct INnv Dec |.Tan I FphI Mar I Apr I May Tune
No. Parasites and Fu gus er 10.000 Aphid
-- Lys phle us testac ipes

00 --- Eniousa fresens i |

--- -- -



Fig. 6.-Parasites

and fungus disease, appearance and abundance and
per cent of aphids destroyed.


July Au I Septn Oct NnI ec IJan mI Ph Mar IApr IMay InT
90 Aohids kLlled per ay by all Natural Enemies
Lady Bee les
80 rTi Svr hus lies__
70 All othe Nat iral nemiss

40 ____


Fig 7.-Aphids destroyed daily by all natural enemies. Cycloneda sanguine
(blood red ladybeetle) and Baccha clavata are responsible for most of
the aphids killed.

It can be very readily seen that when the aphids were not
increasing the natural enemies were able to destroy great pro-
portions of them; but when they were increasing at all the nat-
ural enemies were not able to control them or even hold them
in check.


Members of the Florida Entomological Society and other
friends of Dr. W. S. Blatchley will be grieved to hear of the
death of Mrs. Blatchley which occurred in Dunedin, Florida,
their winter home, on December 7. Mrs. Blatchley was 72 years

Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,

J.. R, W ATSON .................--......- -...............-..........-...................---ditor
WILMON NEWELL ...........-----........--.....--............ Associate Editor
A. N. TISSOT ......................---...--- ---................ Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.

The fact that a cotton bool weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boh.)
lived 267 days without food in a hibernation cage, in 1922-23,
together with similar occurrences during succeeding years,
stimulated interest in the longevity of the boll weevil in Florida.
In an early publication" the following records are noted: the
maximum record of longevity (period of hibernation included)
of any boll weevil which was fed squares after emergence
from hibernation was a total of over 335 days; the maximum
number of days that a weevil lived in hibernation without food
was 240 days; the maximum number of days that a weevil lived
with food after emergence from hibernation was 130 days.
A later publication" specified that the maximum record of
longevity for a specimen of Anthonomus grandis thurberiae
Pierce was over 333 days, 270 of which were spent in hiberna-
tion. In this publication the author stated that experiments con-
ducted at Washington, D. C., indicated that boll weevils have
been kept in a dormant state for over a year, giving promise of
living considerably longer.
In the fall, November 2, 1927, the present author placed 5000
boll weevils without food in a hibernation cage located in a
damp and sheltered spot in the woods near Gainresville, Florida.

1Contribution from the Department of Cotton Investigations, Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station.
'The Mexican Cotton Boll Weevil, Senate Document No. 305, 62nd
Congress, 2nd Session, Washington, D. C. 1912.
"Coad, B. R., Recent Studies of the Mexican Cotton Boll Weevil. Bul,
231, U. S. D. A. August, 1915.


Wel Date Number Number Total
Weevil emerged from days in Date post-hiber- number
Number hibernation hibernation died nation days days alive
1 June 15 226 July 1 17 243
2 June 15 226 July 1 17 243
3 June 15 226 July 1 17 243
4 June 15 226 July 1 17 243
5 June 15 226 July 1 17 243
6 June 15 226 July 1 17 243
7 June 15 226 July 1 17 243
8 June 15 226 July 1 17 243
9 June 15 226 July 1 17 243
10 June 15 226 July 2 18 244
11 June 15 226 July 4 20 246
12 June 15 226 July 5 21 247
13 June 15 226 July 13 29 255
14 June 15 226 July 13 29 255
15 June 15 226 July 16 32 258
16 June 15 226 July 18 34 260
17 June 15 226 July 25 41 267
18 June 15 226 Aug. 2 49 275
19 June 15 226 Aug. 11 58 284
20 June 15 226 Oct. 4 112 338
21 June 16 227 July 1 16 243
22 June 16 227 July 1 16 243
23 June 16 227 July 1 16 243
24 June 16 227 July 1 16 243
25 June 16 227 July 1 16 243
26 June 16 227 July 1 16 243
27 June 16 227 July 13 28 255
28 June 16 227 July 20 35 262
29 June 16 227 Oct. 6 113 340
30 June 16 227 Oct. 15 122 349
31 June 16 227 Nov. 5 143 370
32 June 21 232 Aug. 8 49 281
33 June 21 232 Aug. 11 52 284
34 June 22 233 Aug. 14 54 287
35 June 24 235 Sept. 3 72 307
36 June 26 237 July 3 8 245
37 June 26 237 July 3 8 245
38 June 26 237 July 20 25 262
39 June 26 237 Sept. 12 79 316
40 June 26 237 Sept. 12 79 316
41 June 26 237 Sept. 18 85 322
42 June 26 237 Oct. 29 126 363
43 June 27 238 July 3 7 245
44 June 27 238 July 3 7 245
45 June 27 238 July 3 7 245
46 June 27 238 July 3 7 245
47 June 27 238 Aug. 8 43 281
48 June 27 238 Nov. 7 134 372
49 June 29 240 July 31 33 273
S (escaped)
50 June 29 240 Oct. 14 108 348
51 June 30 241 Nov. 5 129 370
52 July 4 245 Oct. 13 102 347
53 July 10 251 July 27 18 269
54 July 16 257 Aug. 14 30 287


Though some weevils emerged from hibernation throughout the
winter, no record of emergence was kept until March 1. On this
date all the weevils which were out of hibernation were removed
from the cage and recorded. Daily observations and removal of
those weevils which emerged continued until August 9. The last
weevil to emerge appeared on July 16, having spent 257 days
without food in the hibernation cage. Of the 5000 weevils placed
in the cage, 11.24 percent, or 562 weevils, emerged.
In order to determine the greatest number of post-hibernation
days that weevils would live, all the weevils emerging after
June 14 were provided with fresh cotton squares and placed
individually in lantern globes. The globes were kept in an
insectary where "normal" conditions were simulated as nearly
as possible.
The accompanying table gives the record of all weevils which
emerged after June 14. The following individuals are of inter-
est: weevil No. 54 which spent 257 days without food in the
hibernation cage; weevil No. 31 which lived 143 days after
emerging from hibernation; and weevil No. 48 which lived a
total of over 372 days. This is respectively 17, 13 and 37 days
longer than the previously cited records for Anthonomus grandis

Utah Agricultural Experiment Station
Minuticornicus gen. nov.
Head without prominent antennal tubercles; antennae short-
er than the body, six-segmented and armed with round sensoria;
front wings with the media twice branched; hind wings with
both media and cubitus present; cornicles very small, wider than
high, and situated on slightly swollen bases; cauda well devel-
oped, tapering gradually and armed with a number of fine sen-
silla; anal plate rounded.
This genus resembles Siphonatrophia Swain in general form
but has one more segment in the antennae. Minuticornicus has
a shorter and somewhat different type of cornicle than Pergan-
deidia Schoutenden, although the cauda is very similar.

1Contribution from the Department of Entomology, Utah Agricultural
Experiment Station.
Publication authorized by Director, December 8, 1928.


Type Minuticornicus gravidis Knowlton.-This genus belongs
to the tribe Aphidini.
Minuticornicus gravidis n. sp.'
This tiny green aphid attacks the red cedar, Juniperus vir-
giniana L., apparently feeding on the scale-like needles of the
smaller twigs. While abundant during June and July of certain
years, no apparent damage results from the. feeding.
This aphid was pointed out to the writer by Mr. A. C. Burrill,'
who had been observing the black attending ants and was inter-
ested in knowing the name of the aphid.
The tiny cornicles, the plump abdomens of the wingless fe-
males, and the well-developed cauda are the most interesting
structures of this aphid. The aphids are especially difficult to
find. in early June, when they closely resemble the tiny buds that
are abundant on the twigs. Both the winged and wingless forms
are ordinarily quite inactive, and it is especially difficult to dis-
turb the apterous forms.
The winged forms were abundant during 1928 from June 18
until early July and then they became decreasingly abundant
until mid-August. The apterous forms are present earlier but
disappear at about the same time. The writer so far has not been
able to find this aphid in early spring or after the first of Sep-
tember. Many of the wingless forms become parasitized, and
the dry bodies of these individuals remain over winter on the
Apterous vivipara.-Size 1.25 to 1.7 mm. long; rostrum long,
extending between the third coxae; antennae greenish to slightly
dusky on distal segments, and hardly half the length of the
body; antennal III, 0.13 to 0.15 mm. long; IV, 0.09 to 0.1 mm.;
V, 0.1 to 0.11 mm.; VI, 0.09 + 0.11 to 0.1 + 0.12 mm.; legs short
and inconspicuous; hind tibia 0.45 mm. long; abdomen broadly
rounded and highly arched, resembling a diminutive green pea
in shape and color; cornicles hardly more than elevated pores on
slightly swollen bases, usually less developed than in alate forms,
and hidden from above under the broadly extended sides of the
abdomen; cauda large, green to dusky, sometimes slightly con-
stricted high up near the base, and armed with numerous fine
sensilla; anal plate rounded.
2The writer wishes to thank Dr. P. W. Mason for his opinion concerning
this form.
'A. C. Burrill, Curator of Missouri Resources Museum, Jefferson City,


A. :I':~"_""'-' lr:-;Q;; ;



rj~ -~'y 1

--...,-~-. --~27~7~
-'----'---i I~ ~~ ~" "~d'~ ' ~~"'C .;,~

Fig. 1.-Minuticornicus gravidis n. sp. A, Antenna of alate female; B, an-
tenna of apterous female; C, head of alate female; D, apterous female;
E, cauda of apterous female; F, cauda of alate female; G, wings of
alate female; H, cornicle of apterous female; I, cornicle of alate female.

Alate vivipara.-Size small, 1.1 to 1.6 mm. long; rostrum long,
reaching between third coxae; antennae dusky, reaching to
about the middle of the abdomen; antennal III, 0.17 to 0.21 mm.
long and armed with 4 to 9 (usually about 7) round sensoria;
IV, 0.1 to 0.13 mm., with 1 to 3 sensoria; V, 0.11 to 0.13 mm.;
VI, 0.09 + 0.11 to 0.1 + 0.13 mm.; legs rather short; hind tibia


0.55 mm. long; front wings with two-branched media (but
showing a decided tendency to abort the second branch in many
cases); hind wings with both media and cubitus present (occa-
sionally either is absent) ; abdomen moderately broad; cornicles
slightly more than raised pores on moderately swollen bases;
cauda prominent, dusky, tapering gradually, and armed with a
number of fine sensilla; anal plate dusky and broadly rounded.
Type locality, campus of the Utah Agricultural College, Logan.
In addition to the collection of the writer, cotypes are in the
collections of the U. S. National Museum and the Utah Agricul-
tural Experiment Station.
Aphid bonnecillensis Knowlton
In examining material in the aphid collection of Mr. A. C.
Burrill, two slides of this species were found, collected on the
edge of Soap Lake, Washington, August 16, 1919. The writer
collected this form at Malad, Idaho, on July 17, 1928.
During the latter part of September, 1928, winged and wing-
less forms were collected at Goshen and at Delta, Utah. These
are the first fall alates collected by the writer. The wing-
less forms taken in the fall are a faded yellowish-green and re-
semble the faded leaves of the greasewood as closely as the dark-
er spring forms resemble the darker coloring of the plant in the
early part of the season.
Alate vivipara (fall migrant).-Size small, 1.12 to 1.2 mm.
long; rostrum long, extending between third coxae; antenna
greenish to slightly dusky and slightly more than half the length
of the body; antennal III, 0.17 to 0.19 mm. long, and armed with
2 to 5 round sensoria (usually with 4 or 5); IV, 0.11 to 0.13 mm.;
V, 0.11 to 0.13 mm. VI, 0.09 +- 0.07 to 0.95 + 0.09 mm.; wing
venation normal; legs short; hind tibia 0.45 mm. long; cornicles
short, 0.067 to 0.085 mm. long; cauda long and tapering.
(To be continued)

The outbreak of Xylomyges eridania Cramer noted in our last
issue persisted up into November, but the numbers of the worms
gradually diminished. During November their attacks were
most noticeable on snap beans for the fall market. The behavior
of the worms on beans was rather characteristic. They much


preferred the young pods to the leaves of the beans. They ate
large holes in the pods, much larger than the entrance holes of
the corn earworm. Indeed, where the worms were abundant
the pods were pretty thoroly consumed.
Some damage was also done to the fall crop of beans by the
cabbage looper (Autographa brassicae Riley). Unlike the army
worms, these caterpillars confined their attacks largely to the
leaves, where they fed usually on the under side.
Due perhaps to the depredations of the Mexican bean beetle
in the states further north, fall grown beans have been bringing
a pretty fair price in Florida. It is quite possible that this con-
dition may persist for several years.

Dunedin, Florida
(Continued from page 46)
Subfamily TROGINAE
Oblong, convex, dull brown or blackish beetles of medium or
small size covered with a thick dirt-colored crust. They have
the antennae 9- or 10-jointed, club 3-jointed; elytra roughly
sculptured and usually bearing rows of small tubercles; abdomen
covered by the elytra; ventral segments 5, free; side pieces of
the mesothorax not reaching the rounded contiguous middle
coxae. They live under or about the skins and bones of carrion,
old hides, feathers, etc. All our eastern species belong to a
single genus.
Genus XXIII. TROX Fabricius
This genus, sufficiently characterized above, is represented in
Florida by nine of the 21 known North American species. Un-
less cleaned of their usual encrusted coat of dirt they are very
difficult to name. In the first four species the scutellum is
spear-shaped and the length 12 or more mm.
76. (13328). T. scabrosus Beauv.
Length 15-18 mm. Dull blackish-brown, heavily encrusted with a brown-
ish opaque coating; first joint of antennae with dark brown hairs, club
dark; elytra with rows of oblong tubercles, which are tomentose above;
between each pair of these a row of smaller tubercles and each side of these
a row of granules.


"Not rare" (Sz.); St. Augustine (Ham.); Enterprise (Dietz);
Sevenoaks, near Clearwater (Wick.); Lake City (Ag. Coll.).
*77. (13329). T. monachus Hbst.
Length 13-16 mm. Dark brown or fuscous; first antennal with reddish-
brown hairs, club rufous or ash-gray; elytra each with five rows of rounded
tubercles, their entire surface tomentose and with rows of granules between
Named without definite station (Sz. Ms.). Okeechobee City,
Sarasota and Dunedin, Feb.-March (Bl.).
78. (13330). T. asper Lec.
Length 13-14 mm. Similar to the above, the elytral tubercles oblong,
their front ends glabrous, shining.
St. Augustine (Ham.); Gulfport (Fall).
*79. (13331). T. suberosus Fabr.
Length 13-14 mm. Dull grayish-brown; elytra mottled with piceous,
sometimes almost black, with tubercles indistinct, not tomentose.
Common throughout the State; listed from seven stations and
at hand from seven others, including Jacksonville, Royal Palm
Park, Big Pine Key and Everglades.
*80. (13333). T. tuberculatus (DeG.).
Length 9-10 mm. Black or piceous; head with a transverse row of small
tufts of bristles; thorax with a deep median groove, limited each side by
an entire obtuse ridge; elytral tubercles with suberect setae; hind femora
with a row of spines beneath. In this and the remaining species the
scutellum is oval, and length less than 12 mm.
Sanford and Dunedin, Dec.-Jan.; taken beneath the remains
of carrion traps (Bl.). The first and only records for the State.
*81. (13336). T. erinaceus Lee.
Length 6-7 mm. Dull black, shining when clean; elytral tubercles promi-
nent with erect black setae; hind femora without spinules beneath.
Buck Key (Sz. Ms.). Dunedin, taken frequently, Dec.-March,
by sifting debris of abandoned carrion traps.
*82. (13340). T. insularis Chev.
Length 5-6 mm. Piceous or blackish-brown; thorax narrowed at base,
bifoveate, the ridges sinuous; elytral tubercles less prominent, beset with
short erect brownish setae.
Pensacola (Sloss.); Haulover (Sz. Ms.). The T. foveicollis
Harold is a synonym.
*83. (13341). T. terrestris Say.
Length 5-6 mm. Very similar to insularis. Thorax less narrowed at
base, with sides less rounded; elytral tubercles with yellow, prostrate,
scale-like hairs.
"Not rare" (Sz.); St. Augustine (Ham.): Marion Co. and St.
Mary (Fall); Ft. Myers (Day.). Dunedin and Royal Palm Park;


common at Dunedin throughout the winter at carrion traps and
beneath dried carcasses of dead animals (Bl.).
84. (13344). T. scaber (Linn.).
Length 5-7 mm. Black, feebly shining; elytral tubercles replaced by
tufts of setae, these much smaller in the alternate rows; front tibiae ser-
rulate above the lateral tooth.
St. Augustine and Lake Worth (Ham.).

The members of this subfamily vary much in size and general
appearance and are primarily distinguished by having the ab-
dominal spiracles in part situated on the superior portions of
the ventral segments, the last one usually visible behind the
elytra, the rows of spiracles diverging. They have the mandi-
bles corneous, clypeal suture usually distinct; antennae 7- to
10-jointed, club lamellate, 3- to 7-jointed, often longer in males
than females; pygidium exposed; tarsi 5-jointed. They are usu-
ally of looser, more slender build, with longer legs better fitted
to cling to vegetation, than in the previous subfamilies. Their
food habits are entirely different, as they are all vegetable feed-
ers, the adults occurring, for the most part, on leaves and flowers,
flying about in the evening and often attracted in great numbers
to light, while the larvae live underground and feed mainly on
roots, often doing much damage to cultivated crops.
a. Hind tarsi with two equal claws; tarsi with a bisetose onychium be-
tween the claws; middle and hind tibiae each with two terminal spurs;
body above (except in Macrodactylus) not scaly.
b. Labrum indistinct, connate with under surface of the clypeus; elytra
with more or less distinct sulci or grooves, often iridescent; hind coxae
flat, broadly dilated, last spiracle situated on the fifth ventral;
length less than 11.5 mm. Genus XXIV. Tribe SERICINI.
bb. Labrum distinct, not connate with clypeus; last spiracle placed on
the suture between the fifth ventral and propygidium; elytra with-
out distinct striae or grooves.
c. Hind femora and tibiae short, much thickened; entire under sur-
face thickly pubescent; ventral segments not connate; length 11-13
mm. Genus XXV. Tribe LIPARETRINI.
cc. Hind femora and tibiae slender; under surface, except sometimes
the meso- and metasterna, not densely pubescent.
d. Ventral segments five, not connate, the sixth not visible; apical
margin of thorax membraneous; form short, stout; length less
than 11 mm. Genus XXVI. Tribe DIPLOTAXINI.
dd. Ventral segments six; apical margin of thorax not membraneous.
(To be continued)

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