Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00306
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1929
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00306
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access


This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 1 MBs ) ( PDF )



PDF ( 1 MBs ) ( PDF )

Full Text


Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society

MARCH, 1929





Explanation of Plate-A, head, C, antenna, D, sixth segment more en-
larged showing group of small sensoria, F, cauda, H, cornicle, J, right side
of abdomen showing lateral tubercles and cornicle of alate vivipara; B,
head, E, antenna, G, Cauda, I, cornicle of apterous vivipara.
*Contribution from Department of Entomology, Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station.
Published March 14, 1929




Pergandeidia corni n. sp.
Early in April 1928 a few colonies of this aphid were found
feeding on the underside of the leaves and along the tender
shoots of one of the small flowered dogwoods, Cornus micro-
carpa Nash. The aphids were confined to two or three plants
growing in close proximity to each other and a careful examina-
tion of all other plants of this species growing within several
rods of this area failed to reveal a single specimen of the aphids
and they have never been found in any other locality. At this
time about half of the mature individuals were winged and the
rest wingless. For the next few weeks there was little change
in the number of colonies or of the individuals in them but by
early summer the number of insects decreased rapidly and by
midsummer only a very few specimens could be found; however
they were never entirely absent which would seem to indicate
that they have no alternate food plant or at least that they can
spend the entire time on the dogwood. When the weather be-
came cool in the fall they began to increase in numbers and by
the first of November there were a few flourishing colonies. At
no time in the fall were any winged individuals or any with wing
pads found. By February no sign of any sexual forms had ap-
peared so it seems probable that this species reproduces par-
thenogenetically during the entire year in Florida.
The colonies are always covered with a woolly gray wax, the
insects themselves often being completely hidden from view.
They are not easily disturbed but when they move about they
carry a mass of the woolly matter with them. On dropping the
insects into alcohol or when mounting the live insects in balsam
this waxy material instantly disappears.
These insects appear to be entirely independent of any other
species of insects. Ants have never been observed attending the
colonies and at no time have any parasites or predators been
found. The feeding of the aphids has no apparent effect on the
host plant except that the leaves bearing the colonies may be
somewhat stunted in size. After all living aphids in a colony
have disappeared some of the woolly material and cast skins
often adhere to the under side of the leaf for several weeks or
even months.


Pergandeidia corni n. sp.*

Apterous vivipara.-Body covered with light-grayish waxy material.
When this is removed the brown color of the body is revealed; this brown
color uniform in all parts of the body with the exception of the mid-portion
of the abdomen where the embryoes show through the body wall as lighter
areas; length of body including cauda 1.71 to 2.11 m.m.; head rounded in
front without antennal tubercles, eyes rather small, black; antennae brown,
slightly shorter than the body, armed with a few rather prominent hairs,
without sensoria except the primary apical one on the fifth segment and
a group of small ones at the base of the spur of the sixth segment; an-
tennal III, 0.35 to 0.42 m.m., IV, 0.20 to 0.25 m.m., V, 0.22 to 0.26 m.m.,
VI, 0.14 + 0.18 to 0.15 + 0.24 m.m.; rostrum extending to the third coxae;
legs rather long and slender, uniformly brown in color; tibiae 0.88 to 1.00
m.m. long; thorax and abdomen with prominent lateral tubercles; cornicles
very small and inconspicuous though visible in freshly mounted specimens,
but usually invisible in specimens that have been mounted in balsam for
some time, 0.022 m.m. long, scarcely as long as wide; cauda brown, long,
broad and tapering with only a few (usually four on each side) rather
prominent hairs; anal plate brown, almost hemispherical, with several hairs.
Alate vivipara.-Size 1.44 to 2.17 m.m. long; head olive-brown without
antennal tubercles, rounded in front with very prominent median ocellus,
eyes black with rather large ocular tubercles, rostrum brown reaching to
third coxae, antennae uniformly brown thruout their length with a few
minute hairs, first two segments thick remaining segments slender, an-
tennal III, 0.35 to 0.41 m.m. long and armed with 7 to 10 more or less circu-
lar sensoria which are very irregular in size and arranged in a generally
straight row extending most of the length of the segment; IV, 0.18 to 0.26
m.m. with 0 to 2 sensoria which may be located anywhere on the segment;
V, 0.21 to 0.24 m.m. without sensoria except the apical primary one; VI,
0.13 + 0.17 to 0.14 + 0.22 m.m. with a group of several small seensoria
at the base of the spur; prothorax reddish-brown with a prominent tubercle
on each side, other two segments dark brown; legs long and slender uni-
formly brown except a small basal portion of the femora which is lighter
brown; tibiae 0.82 to 1.04 m.m. long; wings hyaline, veins dark brown or
black, stigma dusky, forewings considerably longer than the body 2.24 to
2.66 m.m. in length, rather narrow, the median vein twice branched the
second fork usually being quite near the tip of wing, hind wing compara-
tively small and narrow, both media and cubitus present; abdomen a uni-
form reddish-brovun except in the central portion where the embryoes
show through the body wall as lighter colored areas, seven prominent lat-
eral tubercles on each side; cornicles brown, inconspicuous, not easily visible
in specimens that have been mounted in balsam for some time but more
easily seen in freshly mounted specimens, 0.033 m.m. long, length about
equal to the width; cauda large with 3 or 4 hairs on each side, dark brown;
anal plate rounded with several slightly curved hairs.

*The writer wishes to express his thanks to Dr. P. W. Mason of the
U. S. Bureau of Entomology and to Mr. G. F. Knowlton of the Utah Agri-
cultural Experiment Station for their opinions concerning this form.


Described from numerous alate and apterous viviparous fe-
males. Color notes made from fresh specimens, measurements
from specimens mounted in balsam.
All specimens were collected by the writer in the grounds of
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station at Gainesville.
In addition to the writer's collection, cotypes are in the col-
lections of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, of the
U. S. National Museum and of Mr. G. F. Knowlton.

Utah Agricultural Experiment Station
Chromaphis juglandicola (Kaltenbach)
This small yellow aphid occurs on the underside of the leaves
of English walnut, Juglans regia L. In Utah, it ordinarily occurs
in small numbers, but during the summers of 1923 and 1925 it
occasionally became abundant enough at Brigham City and at
Salt Lake City to cause a slight smutting of the foliage.
Euceraphis flava Davidson
This aphid was collected in American Fork Canyon, Utah, on
July 6, 1925. The winged female produces a woolly secretion
over the body, and feeds on the underside of the leaves of the
alder, Alnus tenuifolia Nutt. This collection was made at an
elevation of 7000 feet.

Fig. 2.-Euceraphis flava Davidson.-A, anal plate; B, cauda; C, cor-
nicle; D, base of third antennal, showing sensoria; E, sixth antennal, all
of alate female.


Alate vivipara.-Color whitish-yellow; covered with whitish waxy mate-
rial; size 3 mm. long; rostrum short, not reaching second coxae; antennal
tubercles moderately developed; antennae long and slender, with distal
ends of III, IV, V, and all of VI dusky; antennal I, 0.13 mm. long, and rather
thick; II, 0.07 mm.; III, 1.2 mm. long, and armed with 5 to 6 transversely
oval sensoria on basal fourth of segment; IV, 0.75 mm.; V, 0.62 mm.; VI,
0.34 + 0.22 mm.; legs long and slender; hind tibia 2 mm. long; front wings
fairly large, with media twice branched, stigma rather pale, veins slender
and tan; hind wings with the media and cubitus present, veins pale; pro-
thorax with a longitudinal dusky band on either side of the median line
extending the length of this segment; abdomen elongate, narrow, and
armed with dusky dorso-lateral tubercles on segments 2, 3 and 4, and
with a smaller, lighter-colored pair on the segment back of the cornicles;
cornicles blackish-brown, with broadly swollen bases; cauda with slight
constriction but not knobbed; anal plate bilobed but not deeply divided.

Fig. 3.-Callipterus robinae Gillette.-A, front wing; B, anal plate; C,
cornicle; D, lateral tubercle; E, cauda; F, antenna; G, cornicle. All draw-
ings of alate female.
Callipterus robinae Gillette

This tiny little yellow aphid occurs rather commonly in Utah,
feeding on the leaves of locust, Robina neomexicana Gray. The
winged individuals are very active, and either fly or drop at the
slightest disturbance.


Alate vivipara.-Color lemon yellow to pale yellow; size 1.5 to 1.7 mm.
long; rostrum short, not reaching the second coxae; head rounded in front,
with a prominent median ocellus; antennae about the length of the body
and pale except distal ends of segments III to VI, which are dusky; anten-
nal III, 0.5 to 0.63 mm. long, and armed with 6 to 10 rather large, trans-
versely oval sensoria, which are situated on the basal half of the segment;
IV, 0.29 to 0.38 mm.; V, 0.24 to 0.33 mm.; VI, 0.11 + 0.06 to 0.13 + 0.07
mm.; legs moderately long; front wings with radial sector poorly devel-
oped; hind wings with veins rather transparent; cornicles truncate, much
larger at base; cauda knobbed; anal plate bilobed.
On July 7, 1925, this aphid was quite abundant at Fillmore,
Levan, and Meadow, Utah. Since that time specimens have been
collected in Utah at Brigham City, Farmington, Mona, Provo,
Salt Lake City, and Tremonton. The writer has also collected
this form at Preston, Idaho.

Aphis gregalis Knowlton
This rather common rabbit-brush aphid shows considerable
variation as to the length and presence or absence of a bend
in the cornicles. In the case of specimens taken at Lehi, the
cornicles of both alate and apterous forms range from 0.11 to
0.13 mm. in length and are more noticeably bent in the winged
forms. Individuals from Amalga, Smithfield, and Trenton had
cornicles ranging in length from 0.11 to 0.19 mm. in the wingless
and 0.1 to 0.13 mm. in length in winged forms. With the wing-
less forms the cornicles were usually slightly bent, but in some
cases the cornicles were straight. The same variation occurs in
forms from other parts of the state.
This species has been collected in Utah from the following
additional localities: Brigham City, Castle Dale, Harper, and
Forda olivacea Rohrwer
The dark winged form of this species was collected at Cor-
nish, Utah, on June 17, 1926. The host plant was sage brush,
Artemisia tridentata. At Elsinore on July 27, 1927 another
winged form was collected on rabbit brush, Chrysothamnus
parryi. Both of these plants were probably accidental lighting
places for this aphid, rather than regular hosts.
The greenish-yellow wingless females have been collected on
grass roots in considerable numbers at Cedar Canyon, Logan,
and Logan Canyon, in Utah. The writer also collected this form
in Emigration Canyon, Idaho, on June 24, 1925.


The grasses upon which this insect has been collected in Utah
include Bromus marginatus, B. ciliatus, Eriocoma cuspidata,
Hordeum sp., Phleum alpinum and Poa pratensis.
This species has been reported as occurring on wheat, oats,
barley, timothy,4 and a number of other grasses.

Fig. 4.-Forda olivacea Rohwer.-A, Antenna of alate female; B, an-
tenna of apterous female; C, front wing of alate female.

Essigella fusca Gillette and Palmer
A few of these active, small black aphids were collected in
Logan Canyon, Utah, on June 23, 1925. Only wingless forms
were taken, and these were feeding on the needles of lodgepole
pine, Pinus murrayand.
Durocapillata utahensis Knowlton

On August 16, 1927, the wingless forms of this species were
very abundant on rabbit brush, Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus,
in Emigration Canyon and northeast of Preston. The aphids
were heavily attacked by syrphid larvae and ladybird beetles.
The tip growth of affected plants was twisted in the manner
found typically in Blacksmith Fork Canyon,' in Utah, where this
insect commonly occurs.
This aphid presents a peculiar combination of Macrosiphini

4Gillette, C. P. Some Grass-Root Aphids (Hem., Hom.). In ENTOMOL.
NEWS, Vol. XXIX (October, 1918), p. 284.
'Knowlton, G. F. A New Rabbit Brush Aphid From Utah. In Annals
Ent. Soc. America, Vol. XX, No. 2, June 1927, pp. 229-231.


and Aphidini characters. In general body form and in the
length of antennae, this form resembles the Aphidini. The body
hairs, however, are apically enlarged and prominent, the an-
tennal tubercles are somewhat developed, and migration occurs
once a year, for distribution rather than having an alternate
host relationship. The writer places this form with the Macro-
Aphis oregonensis Wilson
This species was collected at Brigham City, Utah, on May 23,
1927. Winged and wingless forms were present, feeding on sage
brush, Artemisia tridentata.
Two very peculiar individuals were observed in this collec-
tion. The front wings were entirely absent, and apparently had
not developed at all, while the hind wings were normal and well-

(Orth., Tettigon., Rhaphidophorinae)
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
The following descriptions and notes are published in advance
of a general revision of the genus which I have in preparation,
in order that the names may be available for use in a forth-
coming list of the Orthoptera of North Carolina. Fuller discus-
sion of the relationships of the new species and of the synonymy
here indicated is reserved for the paper in which the results of
the completed study will be presented.
Certain terms used in this paper should first be explained. In
many-possibly in most-of the species of the genus Ceutho-
philus great variation in adult size is found in series from the
same locality; especially is this true of the male sex. Not only do
the males vary in size, but they show great differences in the
relative size, form, and armature of the caudal femora, and to
a less extent in the form of caudal tibiae; these differences are
correlated to a considerable degree with the size of the body,
but not entirely so. In order to facilitate discussion of these


variations, I have designated one extreme as the robustifemoral
type, the other as the gracilifemoral type, since these terms are
somewhat descriptive of the two conditions. In males of the ex-
treme robustifemoral type the caudal femora show the maximum
development for the species, being relatively broad, stout, and
often having the proximal portion swollen or apparently in-
flated; the number and size of the spines arming the ventral
carinae are increased, and in many species the dorsal and dorso-
internal surfaces are roughened with numerous chitinous spin-
ules. The caudal tibiae are frequently curved and distorted,
sometimes laterally compressed and vertically broadened sub-
proximad. This condition is generally associated with large size,
though not always; whatever their size, the insects exhibiting it
are usually distinctly more robust in habitus than those of the
gracilifemoral type. In the latter the caudal femora are com-
paratively slender, often appearing more elongate in conse-
quence; the spine development is relatively weak, and the dorsal
surface nearly or quite smooth. The caudal tibiae are usually
straight and of nearly equal diameter throughout, of the same
type as those of the female. Examples of these two conditions
in males of C. walker may be seen in figures 12 and 13 of the
accompanying plate. Failure to recognize the extent of such
variation is one of several causes for the confusion which exists
in the classification of this genus.
Another term coined for the purposes of this study, but which
may be serviceable in the general taxonomy of the Orthoptera,
is pseudotelson. This I use to designate the depressed mesal
projection of the 10th tergite, which extends ventrad between
the paraprocts, forming the so-called supra-anal plate. In Ceu-
thophilus (and other genera) the true supra-anal plate, or tel-
son, as has been shown by E. M. Walker,' is attached to the
distal end of the pseudotelson, and, in the genus Ceuthophilus,
may either be visible as a triangular flap above the anus (as il-
lustrated in Walker's figures), or be folded back beneath the
distal margin of the pseudotelson. In the latter case the margin
of the pseudotelson usually overgrows the point of juncture so
that the true telson is completely concealed in the normal rest-
ing position. An occasional specimen will be found in which the
telson was exposed at the time of death, probably through the

11922. The terminal structures of Orthopteroid Insects: A phylogenetic
Study. Part II. Ann. Ent. Soc, Amer., xv, 18, and figs. 26, 27.


act of defecation, causing the distal margin of the pseudotelson
to be bent upward and to project dorso-caudad as a ridge, and
thus changing the appearance of the terminal portion of the
abdomen. In Ceuthophilus the telson shows no useful taxonomic
characters, while the form of the pseudotelson is of great im-
portance in delimiting groups and in characterizing species.
Lastly, the term pseudosternite is used, following Walker
(l.c.:5), for the arched, chitinized plate dorsad of the penis-lobes
and ventrad of the anus, which has been variously named the
epiphallus (Chopard) or peronea (MacGillivray). It varies
greatly in form, often bearing lobes or spinous processes, and
is of the utmost importance in the classification of the species
of this genus, although never heretofore used.
Ceuthophilus crassifemoris n. sp. (Figs. 1-6).
1911. C. spinosus Sherman and Brimley (not of Scudder
1894), Ent. News, xxii, 390. (Southern Pines, N. Car.)
1916. C. spinosus Rehn and Hebard (not of Scudder 1894),
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., lxviii, 275. (In part-cita-
tion of above record.)
Related to spinosus Scudder, but distinguishable from that species by
the following characters: Pseudosternite of male of the same general
type, but larger and more strongly developed, with the cephalic lobe larger
and differently shaped, and the dorsal margin of arch much more strongly
explanate; cephalic femora shorter relative to pronotal length (1.21 in male
type of spinosus, .95 to 1.13, average 1.05 in crassifemoris); caudal femora
shorter relative to pronotal length (3.0 in spinosus, 2.5 to 2.8, average 2.64
in crassifemoris), broader and more robust in form; spurs and calcars of
caudal tibiae distinctly longer in proportion to depth of tibia and to length
of caudal metatarsus; caudal tibiae armed disto-ventrad with a single small
subdistal median spinule in addition to the distal pair in crassifemoris,
with two such spinules in spinosus. Female of spinosus unknown, so that
comparison cannot be made with that sex. The relationship of these two
species is very close, and study of large series from South Carolina and
northern Georgia may reveal intermediate forms, and thus reduce crassi-
femoris to racial status. Resemblance is also shown to davisi Blatchley
(= rehebi Blatchley-see note below), but males are at once separable by
the differences in form of the pseudosternite, the caudal femora, and the
presence (normally) of two subdistal median ventral spinules on the cau-
dal tibiae of davisi, while females may be distinguished by the latter char-
acter and by the longer, more slender ovipositor of crassifemoris.
Description of holotype male: Southern Pines, N. Car., Aug. 5, 1915 (A. H.
Manee). (Robustifemoral type.) (In Hebard Collection.)
Size large,- form exceptionally robust, limbs short and very stout. Head
large; frontal prominence low, terminating ventrad in a small, laterally


compressed, obtuse-angulate cone with abruptly rounded apex; eyes broad-
ly subpyriform, not prominent; antennae short, basally stout, about twice
the length of body. Thoracic tergites of form shown in figure; entire dor-
sum smooth and polished, with microscopic wrinklings subparallel to the
margins of the tergites, and a few minute rounded nodules on the abdo-
men. Spine of cephalic coxae large, acuminate; ventro-cephalic angle of
median coxae laminate-produced, forming an acute-angulate, distally round-
ed lobe. Cephalic and median femora short, unusually stout; cephalic fe-
mora armed on ventro-cephalic carina with a stout subdistal spur as long
as breadth of proximal antennal joint, and with a smaller spur at distal
two-thirds of length; median femora armed on ventro-cephalic carina with
three (left) or four (right) stout spurs, about equally spaced, increasing
in length distad; ventro-caudal margin armed with a long, stout genicular
spur, and proximad with three shorter ones. Ventral and distal spurs of
cephalic and median tibiae stout, the former decreasing in length distad;
dorsal spurs of median tibiae as long as tibial depth. Caudal femora great-
ly incrassate, the proximal four-fifths swollen, subovate in outline, the
margins narrowing strongly distad, the distal one-fifth subequal in
breadth; the medio-longitudinal groove of external pagina distinctly im-
pressed, the portion below it strongly tumid. Ventro-cephalic carina broad-
ly explanate, with thickened margin, that of left leg armed as shown in
figure, of right similar, except that the spine proximad of the middle is
closer to and only a little smaller than the large mesal spine. Ventro-
caudal carina armed throughout its course, except at extreme base, with
14 to 15 stout, conical, disto-ventrally directed teeth, subequal in size and
irregularly spaced. Distad of the middle the dorsal surface of the caudal
femora is roughened with numerous small, sharp-pointed, distally directed
denticulations, which extend onto the upper portion of the internal face,
and arise from the dark scalariform markings on the dorsal portion of
the external pagina; they are especially numerous along the ridge separat-
ing the dorsal from the internal surface, and follow this line proximad for
some distance. Low rounded nodules are scattered over the darker portions
of the middle and lower sections of the external pagina, and these areas
everywhere have a somewhat roughened surface. Vkntral sulcus broad.
Caudal tibiae equal in length to caudal femora, stout, laterally compressed
in proximal portion, and broadened dorso-ventrally at proximal fourth of
their length, the ventral margin convex-sinuate at this point;2 tibial spurs
stout, elongate, gently incurved at tips; longest calcar of cephalic side dis-
tinctly surpassing end of metatarsus; corresponding calcar of caudal side
reaching end of third tarsal joint; ventral face of caudal tibiae armed with a
single subdistal median spinule in addition to the distal pair. Cephalic and
median tarsi short, stout, cephalic metatarsus 2.3 times as long3 as greatest
breadth, second tarsal joint as broad as long; claws more than 1.5 times
as long as second joint. Caudal tarsi stout, metatarsus 2.75 times as long as
broad, second joint 1.3 times as long as broad, claws slightly longer than
second joint. Caudal margin of eighth abdominal tergite faintly thick-
ened and elevated in medio-dorsal line; ninth with caudal margin mesally

'Not well shown in figure.
'All tarsal measurements taken along dorsal side.


subtruncate and thickened, semimembranous, for a distance slightly less
than proximal breadth of pseudotelson. The latter linguiform, broadly de-
pressed mesad, the lateral margins convex-convergent distad, the apex
subtruncate, shallowly emarginate mesad between the faintly tumid, paired
distal callosities. Cerci moderately stout. Pseudosternite -distinctive in
form; the cephalic, semimembranous lobe more heavily chitinized than
usual, broad, its sides straight and moderately convergent to the truncate
cephalic margin; the dorsal margin of the arch produced as a laminate curved
plate, about as broad laterad as mesad, its dorsal surface concave in a
caudo-cephalic direction; in caudal view it forms a projecting hood-like
rim to the dorsal portion of the arch. Subgenital plate cleft to base; the
free dorsal margins of its lobes extending dorso-caudad from the point of
juncture with the tenth tergite, until they are produced as short rounded
lobate processes on either side of the small mesal notch; a pair of faintly
indicated lateral ridges are comparable to those of davisi, but are very
much less prominent than in that species.

Description of allotypic female: Southern Pines, N. Car., July 19, 1915
(A. H. Manee). (In Hebard collection.)
Agrees with the male described above except in the following respects:
Size slightly smaller, and form a little less robust; cephalic and median
limbs, and especially the tarsi, more slender; caudal femora short and un-
usually robust for this sex, but much more slender than in the male; their
ventro-cephalic carina less expanded, armed only with four or five minute
denticulations on distal half; distal two-thirds of ventro-caudal carina
armed with nine or ten small, widely spaced spinules; dorsal face of caudal
femora roughened with minute denticulations as described for the male,
but the area covered is smaller, the denticles more minute and less numer-
ous. Caudal tibiae more slender, approximately one-tenth longer than
femora; longest calcar of cephalic side barely surpassing metatarsus, of
caudal side slightly surpassing end of second joint; tarsi more elongate
and slender. Ovipositor similar to that of davisi, with only four teeth, but
longer and more slender than in that species.
Coloration:' Dorsum highly polished, varying through Haye's russet,
kaiser brown and hazel; in many specimens the dorsum is darkened by
fuscous suffusion, which is especially marked along the caudal margins
of the tergites; front, lower half of lateral lobes of pronotum, limbs and
venter cinnamon-rufous to ochraceous-tawny, the caudal femora marked
with a scalariform pattern varying from cinnamon-brown to mummy-
brown. Antennae ochraceous-tawny to sayal brown. In recessively colored
specimens a pattern similar to that often seen in davisi is more or less
faintly indicated, consisting of lighter markings on the pronotum and
rounded spots and dashes on the meso- and metanota and abdominal ter-
Variation: The present series shows slight variability. All the males
are of the robustifemoral type, but some variation in the relative length
and breadth of the caudal femora may be noted. In one paratype, on one

'The color terms used are those of Ridgeway's Color Standards and
Color Nomenclature, Washington, 1912..


side, there are two large mesal spines instead of the usual one, the caudal
being slightly the larger. The number of teeth on the ovipositor in this
small series is constant, Further data on variation in this species and its
allies will be given in the revisionary study soon to be published.


holotype* ....
holotypet ....
paratype$ ....
paratype ...
paratype ....
paratype ..
paratype ....

allotype ....
paratype ....
paratype -...
paratype --..
paratype ....
paratype ....



















I Crassi-
|Spinosus femoris
Holo- Holo- Para- Allo-
Itype* typet type type

Breadth of cephalic femora ............ 1.25 1.8 1.6 1.5
Length of median femora ................ 6.2 6.8 7.0 6.4
Breadth of median femora .............. 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.2
Length of caudal tibiae ................... 16.2 17.9 17.3 17.2
Breadth of caudal tibiae-
at m iddle ............ .......... ... --... .67 .9 .8 .8,
at subproximal expansion........ .87- 1.4 1.0 .
Length of external tibial spurs........ 1.45 2.2 2.1 2.0
Length of longest internal calcar, .
of caudal tibiae .........................- 3.1 4.0 4.4 3.6
Length of caudal metatarsus .......... 2.5 2.2 2.3 2.3
Length of second joint of caudal
tarsi ..........................................-.. 1.25 1.2 1.2 1.1
Breadth of second joint of caudal
tarsi ................................................ .67 .9 .8 .8
Length of distal joint of caudal
tarsi ................................ ........ 1.7 2.0 1.4 1.8

Material examined: In addition to the holotype and allotype,
the following paratypic material: Southern Pines, N. Car., (A.
H. Manee), July 20 to Aug. 16, 1915, 3 males, 1 female; May


27 to July 7, 1916, 3 males, 3 females (in Hebard collection and
Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool.); Southern Pines, N. Car., (Manee) 1
male; January, 1904, (F. Sherman) 1 female (in U. S. Nat.
Mus.). The following immature material has also been studied:
Southern Pines, N. Car., (A. H. Manee), May 3 to July 4, 1916,
5 juv. males, 12 juv. females; June 30, 1915, 1 juv. male (all in
Hebard collection); Meredith, S. Car., June 17, 1926, (0. Cart-
wright), 1 juv. female (in Clemson College coll.).
Ceuthophilus walker n. sp." (Figs. 7-14).
1908. C. uhleri Brimley (not of Scudder 1862), Ent. News,
xix, 20. (Raleigh, N. Car.)
1916. C. spinosus Rehn and Hebard (not of Scudder 1894),
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., lxviii, 274. (In part-
Raleigh, N. Car.)
1920. C. spinosus Blatchley (not of Scudder 1894), Orth.
Northeastern Amer., 628. (Dunedin, Florida-in open
pine woods.)
The above synonomy is based on examination of the original
material, and comparison with the type of C. spinosus Scudder,
except in the case of Blatchley's Dunedin male; the description
furnished by him, and the study of other Florida material fur-
nish sufficient evidence to warrant the placing of his reference
under this species. Scudder's type is a very different insect,
closely related to C. crassifemoris described above. None of the
material treated by Rehn and Hebard in 1916 is referable to
spinosus, their records being based on material of C. davisi
(= rehebi), C. crassifemoris, and the present species.
A member of the Divergens-Sallei group, distinguishable in
the male sex from all other species of the genus by the form of
the pseudosternite, and from members of the related Davisi
group by the elongate caudal limbs; in the female sex separable
from the species of the Uhleri group by the polished dorsal sur-
face, without pilosity, from the species of the Davisi group by
the slender, 5-toothed ovipositor, and from the remaining mem-
bers of the Divergens-Sallei complex by the size, the slender,
elongate limbs, and the slender, rather elongate ovipositor, with
its less strongly aciculate teeth.

'Named in honor of Mr. F. W. Walker, in recognition of his exceptional
ability as a collector and field student of the Orthoptera, and of the im-
portant contributions he has made to the knowledge of the Orthopteran
fauna of Florida and Colombia.


Description of male holotype: Gainesville, Alachua Co., Florida, Dec. 2,
1924 (T. H. Hubbell). (Robustifemoral type.) (In coll. Univ. Mich.
Mus. Zool.)

Size large, form moderately robust, limbs elongate. Head broad; frontal
prominence a low, declivent cone, abruptly rounded and somewhat laterally
compressed at apex; eyes as described for crassifemoris; maxillary palpi
slender, elongate; antennae moderately slender, more than twice as long
as body. Thorax broad in dorsal view, lateral outlines of thoracic segments
as shown in figure; surface of thoracic tergites strongly, of abdominal ter-
gites weakly polished. Cephalic and median coxae as described for crassi-
femoris. Cephalic and median femora slender, moderately elongate; ce-
phalic femora 1.35 times pronotal length, ventro-cephalic carina bearing a
slender, elongate pregenicular spur, and a very minute spinule mesad;
median femora armed with three slender spurs on ventro-cephalic carina,
increasing in length distad, ventro-caudal carina with one small spur mesad,
and on right side a second minute spinule, in addition to the long genicular
spur. Cephalic and median tibiae slender and elongate, the spines more
slender, but otherwise as described for crassifemoris. Caudal femora elon-
gate, considerably longer than body, marked with a distinct dark scalari-
form pattern, the surface of which is roughened; dorsal surface and upper
portions of external and internal paginae covered with minute sharp den-
ticles, as described for crassifemoris, but these more numerous and more
closely spaced than in that species. Ventro-cephalic carina moderately ex-
planate, bearing a series of spines as shown in figure, the bases of the
larger ones slightly swollen. Ventro-caudal carina armed with a series
of twenty-two (right) or twenty (left) stout spinules, irregularly spaced
and directed distad, most of which are longer than their proximal breadth.
Ventral sulcus wide. Caudal tibiae distinctly curved, scarcely at all
broadened and only faintly sinuate proximad, slightly longer than the fe-
mora; tibial spurs slender, elongate, more widely separated than in crassi-
femoris; tibial margins bearing 5 to 7, usually 6 or 7, sharp serrations be-
tween the spur bases. Longest calcar of cephalic side slender, elongate,
slightly surpassing metatarsus; of caudal side scarcely reaching end of
second joint. Disto-ventral face of caudal tarsi armed with a single median
spinule in addition to the distal pair. Caudal tarsi elongate, metatarsus
4.1 times as long as broad, second joint 1.9 times as long as broad; claws
as long as second joint. Caudal margin of ninth abdominal tergite sub-
truncate, with somewhat thickened margin dorsad. Pseudotelson shield-
shaped, depressed mesad, with a pair of small rounded distal projections
separated by a shallow notch. Cerci rather slender, longer than the dis-
tance between outer margins of eyes. Pseudosternite with cephalic semi-
membranous lobe narrower and shorter in caudal view than that of crassi-
femoris, its cephalic margin broadly parabolic; dorsal margin of arch ex-
planate as a nearly vertical, transverse lamina, its truncate upper margin
rounding rather abruptly into the sides, the whole lying nearly in one
plane. Subgenital plate similar to that of crassifemoris, but showing no
trace of lateral ridges, and the disto-mesal projections of the lateral lobes
less produced.




Holotype* I
Gainesville, Fla. (R)t.. 6.1 8.3 20.0 6.3 21.8 3.18
Gainesville, Fla.
Gainesville, Fla. (R)..... 6.0 7.6 19.1 5.9 20.8 3.24
Gainesville, Fla. (G)...... 4.4 5.8 13.0 3.5 15.0 3.72
Florida (G)...... 4.6 6.3 14.4 3.8 16.2 3.79
Raleigh, N. Car. (R)...... 6.1 7.5 18.0 6.5 18.8 2.77
Raleigh, N. Car. (R) ..... 5.6 6.7 16.1 5.4 17.8 2.98
Raleigh, N. Car. (G)...... 4.1 5.2 12.3 3.7 12.8 3.33
Raleigh, N. Car. (G).....- 3.4 4.2 9.4 2.8 10.2 3.35

Allotypet positor
Gainesville, Fla .............. 5.6 6.8 16.0 4.4 18.1 7.6

Paratypes I
Gainesville, Fla. ...-...--- 5.3 6.5 14.8 4.2 16.5 7.2
Gainesville, Fla .......--- 5.1 6.0 14.3 4.1 15.1 6.9
Ocala, Fla ..................... 5.1 5.8 13.6 4.1 14.0 6.5
Raleigh, N. Car ......---. 5.3 5.9 13.7 4.2 15.0 6.2
Raleigh, N. Car. ........... 5.0 5.6 12.7 3.8 14.1 5.8

6Robustifemoral and gracilifemoral individuals are indicated by (R) and
*Length cephalic metatarsus 2.0; 2nd joint 1.0; claws 1.2; length caudal
metatarsus 3.3; 2nd joint 1.5; claws 1.4; length longest calcar of caudal
tibiae 4.2; length external spurs caudal tibiae 2.2; depth caudal tibiae 0.7.
fLength cephalic metatarsus 1.9; 2nd joint 0.9; claws 1.1; length caudal
metatarsus 3.0; 2nd joint 1.4; claws 1.4; length longest calcar of caudal
tibiae 4.1; length external spurs caudal tibiae 2.0; depth caudal tibiae 0.6.

Description of female allotype: Gainesville, Alachua Co., Florida, Jan. 1,
1929 (T. H. Hubbell-In "high oak" habitat-woods of Quercus cates-
baei and scattered long-leaf pines, on sandy soil). (In coll. Univ. Mich.
Mus. Zool.)
Agrees with holotype male except as follows: Size slightly smaller,
form less robust. Frontal prominence less compressed at apex. All spines
of cephalic and median limbs somewhat shorter and more slender. Caudal
femora less robust, proportionately shorter, the ventro-cephalic carina
armed only with seven very minute denticulations, the caudal carina with
twenty slightly larger ones; mesal portion of dorsal and dorso-caudal sur-
faces denticulate as in the male, but the teeth smaller, much fewer in


number, and more widely spaced. Ovipositor slender, more elongate than that
shown in figure, dorsal valves obliquely truncate, disto-dorsal angle acutely
produced, but less aciculate than in the paratypic female figured; teeth of
lower valves five in number, the proximal two a little more widely separated
than the others, slender and acute, but .shorter and less aciculate than in
the figured specimen.
Variation: The males of this species exhibit great variation in size, and
the extremes of the robustifemoral and gracilifemoral types differ so much
in appearance that were it not for the characteristic genital structures it
would appear unlikely that they represented the same species. The ex-
tremes of the two conditions, as represented in the Raleigh series, are il-
lustrated by figures 12 and 13. C. walker exhibits geographical variation
in limb length, all the North Carolina specimens having proportionately
shorter legs than those from Florida. The material available for study is
insufficient to determine the significance of this variation. The caudal
tibiae normally bear a single subdistal median spinule, as is the rule in
other members of the Divergens-Sallei complex; but in a single specimen,
the male illustrated in figure 12, the left tibia bears two such spinules, the
right the usual single one. It has been found that the number and position
of these spinules are useful, within limits, in characterizing species and
groups of species; the character is subject to considerable individual varia-
tion, which is so great in some cases that the number of spinules is value-
less as a taxonomic character, while in other instances it falls within
certain definite limits, and the number of spinules may be so used.
Coloration: Similar to that of crassifemoris, but usually lighter in
color; a dorsal pattern of lighter markings is faintly distinguishable on
the types and some of the paler individuals, but is seldom pronounced, and
often completely obscured.
Specimens examined: In addition to the holotype and allotype,
the following paratypic material: Gainesville, Alachua Co., Fla.,
Jan. 5-March 2, 1929 (T. H. Hubbell) 3 males, 6 females (Univ.
Mich. Mus. Zool. and Hebard colls.); Florida, 1 male (Scudder
coll.); Ocala, Fla., Nov. 15, 1915 (R. T. Jackson) 1 female (U. S.
Nat. Mus.); Raleigh, N. Car., Feb. 9,' 1904 (under log in pine
woods) 1 female (Hebard coll.); Nov. 1-11, 1904 (G. M. Bent-
ley) 1 male, 2 females (N. Car. State coll., U. S. Nat. Mus. and
Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool.); Dec. 9, 1904 (G. M. Bentley) 1 male
(U. S. Nat. Mus.); Nov. 18-30, 1904 (C. S. Brimley) 2 males, 1
female (U. S. Nat. Mus., Hebard and N. Car. State colls.); early
Nov., 1909 (Z. P. Metcalf) 1 male, 1 female (N. Car. State and
Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool. colls.). The following immature material
has also been studied: Gainesville, Alachua Co., Fla., Aug. 16,
1921, 1 juv. female; Oct. 14, 1925, (T. H. Hubbell) 1 juv. female
(Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool.).


Ceuthophilus davisi Blatchley 1920.
1916. C. spinosus Rehn and Hebard (not of Scudder 1894),
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., lxviii, 274-275. (In part-
all records from Maryland, Virginia, and District of
Columbia, and probably the Georgia females).
1920. C. rehebi Blatchley, Orth. Northeastern Amer., 626.
(Yaphank and Staten Island, N. Y.)
Blatchley designated no types for any of the species described
in his "Orthoptera of Northeastern America," so that all the
material studied by him ranks as cotypic. The material from
which the two species davisi and rehebi were described was col-
lected by Mr. W. T. Davis, and of the series which Blatchley
had before him in describing the species the portions remaining
in the Davis collection are now in my hands for study. From
this material I hereby designate the following lectotypes, which
will remain in the Davis collection.
Ceuthophilus davisi Blatchley: Lectoholotype, an immature
male, "Reeds Valley, Staten Island, N. Y., Aug. 1917 (W. T.
Davis) trapped in molasses jar)," and bearing the notes "Seen
by Blatchley" and, apparently in Blatchley's handwriting, "Note
podigal plates." This specimen agrees with Blatchley's diag-
nosis in the' key, and with the original description. It is an im-
mature male of the species described on the next page as C.
rehebi. The differential characters emphasized by Blatchley,
such as the form of the paraprocts or podigal plates, are not
specific, being more or less characteristic of immature males of
all the species of this section of the genus. Of all the eastern
species, the only ones having prominent paraprocts in the adult
condition are C. maculatus (Harris) and C. tenebrarum Scud-
der, and in these they are specialized and of distinctive form.
The remaining males of the type series of davisi are likewise im-
mature "rehebi," with the exception of a single very small adult
specimen of uhleri of the extreme gracilifemoral type. All of
the females of the type series are uhleri, likewise very small and
dark for the species; the portions of Blatchley's description per-
taining to this sex apply to uhleri only. I have made this assign-
ment of the type on account of the fact that the characters em-
phasized in the key and description are those of the immature
male "rehebi" specimens, rather than the quite different char-
acters of the small individuals of uhleri; and for the further rea-


son that of the two names it seems preferable to retain davisi
rather than the hybrid rehebi.
Ceuthophilus rehebi Blatchley: Lectoholotype, a mature male,
Yaphank, N. Y., Aug. 25, 1916 (W. T. Davis) ; Lectoallotype, a
female with the same data. The female specimen recorded by
Blatchley from Lexington, Kentucky was one of Scudder's co-
types of latebricola, taken in association with adult males of the
same type series. Examination of this material, in the Univer-
sity of Kentucky collection, shows that the males are C. tenebra-
rum Scudder, typical of the species. The female in question
shows no differences from the other females of this series not
attributable to individual variation, except that it has only four
teeth on the lower valves of the ovipositor. However, in another
female of tenebrarum from Lexington (not part of the above
series), almost complete fusion of the two distal teeth of the
ovipositor has taken place, showing that a tendency toward re-
duction of the number of teeth exists in this species. In view
of these facts, and especially since in the large collection as-
sembled in my hands no other material referable to davisi is
found from west of the Alleghenies, I believe Blatchley to have
been in error in his determination.

Ceuthophilus lapidicola (Burmeister) 1838.
This species has been for the most part confused with latens
Scudder, although the two have been distinguished and the fact
of their close relationship pointed out by Rehn and Hebard
(1.c.:272-274) and by Morse.' Examination of large series of
both species, and study of Scudder's material in the Museum of
Comparative Zoology show that Rehn and Hebard were correct
in placing E. M. Walker's species pallidipes as the same as the
species which they, following Scudder, have identified as lapidi-
cola. In case it is decided that Burmeister's name is really un-
identifiable, as Blatchley contends it to be, pallidipes must be
used in its place. Blatchley has placed both pallidipes E. M.
Walker and lapidicola as used by Scudder and by Rehn and Heb-
ard in synonymy under Ceuthophilus gracilipes (Haldeman),
which is incorrect. Lapidicola and latens are both members of
the Gracilipes group, as is shown by the form of the pseudo-
sternite, the subgenital plate, and the specializations of the 9th
'1920. Manual of the Orthoptera of New England. Proc. Bost. Soc.
Nat. Hist., xxxv, No. 6, pp. 381-382.


and 10th abdominal tergites; but they are much more closely
related to each other than to gracilipes. In this connection it
may be stated that in spite of the confusion which at present
exists concerning the status of gracilipes, stygius and lapidicola,
these species and three other members of the Gracilipes group
are distinct and easily separated on the basis of male genital

Ceuthophilus brevipes Scudder 1862.
1894. C. terrestris Scudder, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sci.,
xxx (N. S. xxxii), 46. (Lectotypic male designated
by Rehn and Hebard, 1912-Nahant, Mass.-Not
found in Mus. Comp. Zool. 1928.)
Study of the type series of brevipes in the Scudder collection
at Cambridge shows that terrestris is a synonym of the earlier
described species. Scudder's material from Grand Manan Island,
New Brunswick (not Maine), on the basis of which he described
brevipes, is all immature, and the specimens were dried from
alcohol; they are in consequence light in color and somewhat
abnormal in appearance. Comparison with large series of ter-
restris, both adult and immature, including specimens from near
the type locality of brevipes, has sufficiently demonstrated the
identity of the two. Color pattern, limb proportion (allowing
for distortion due to the mode of preservation), spine arrange-
ment, and other features are the same as those of immature
terrestris. The probability of this synonymy is increased by the
fact that while terrestris is the most common species in the re-
gion from which brevipes was described and the only one with
which it could be easily confused, brevipes has remained un-
recognized. The material recorded by Scudder (1894: 50) and
by Blatchley (1920: 624) from St. Johns, New Brunswick, con-
sists of two immature males. of maculatus (Harris) and one im-
mature male and two immature females of terrestris. The char-
acters used by Blatchley (I.c.: 618, 624) and by Morse (I.c.: 381)
for distinguishing males of brevipes are worthless, since they are
based in part on features common to immature individuals of
many species, and in part on features due to shrinkage and
change of color, brought about by preservation in alcohol and
subsequent drying.

1 131


Ceuthophilus crassifemoris Hubbell
Fig. 1, Lateral view of male holotype, Southern Pines, N. Car. Fig. 2, Caudal view of
pseudotelson of holotype. Fig. 3, Caudal view of pseudosternite of holotype. Fig. 4, Lateral
view of pseudosternite of holotype. Fig. 5, Caudal view of subgenital plate of holotype.
Fig. 6, Ovipositor of female allotype, Southern Pines, N. Car.
Ceuthophilus walker Hubbell
Fig. 7, Lateral view of male holotype, Gainesville, Fla. Fig. 8, Caudal view of pseudo-
telson of holotype. Fig. 9, Caudal view of pseudosternite of holotype. Fig. 10, Lateral view
of pseudcsternite of holotype. Fig. 11, Caudal view of subgenital plate of holotype. Fig. 12,
Caudal leg of robustifemoral male, Raleigh, N. Car. Fig. 13, Caudal leg of gracilifemoral
male, Raleigh, N. Car. Fig. 14, Ovipositor of paratypic female, Raleigh, N. Car.
All figures from camera lucida sketches. Figs. 1, 7, 12 and 13 two and one-half times
natural size, the others eight and one-half times natural size.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs