Title: Florida Entomologist
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00270
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1939
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00270
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society

VOL. XXII AUGUST, 1939 No. 3

With Descriptions of Two New Species
(Homoptera: Aphiidae)1
A. N. Tissot
For the past several years the writer has been interested in
the aphids of Florida. During that time several thousand slides
have been prepared and there has been accumulated a large
volume of information on the distribution of aphids, their host
relationships, and other matters pertaining to their biology. As
this information may be of some interest to other workers this
paper dealing with one tribe of the family Aphiidae has been
prepared with the idea of making some of it available to them.
Similar papers dealing with other aphid groups are contemplated.
All available Florida material of the species considered has
been carefully studied in an attempt to correctly determine them.
The writer is well aware that there may be some disagreement as
to the identity of some of the species and in order that one may
more easily ascertain just what species are concerned there have
been included under each species a few notes regarding structural
characteristics and important biological facts as well as camera
lucida drawings of some of their structural features.
The arrangement of the genera follows Baker's "Generic
Classification of the Hemipterous Family Aphididae", U. S. D. A.
Bul. 826, 1920.
Genus ESSIGELLA Del Guercio
Figs. 1-4, Plate I
Essigella pini Wilson, Ent. News, XXX, 2, 1919.
This small, elongate aphid is light yellowish green with rows
of brown spots on the abdomen. The antennae are five segmented
'Contribution from the Department of Entomology, Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Florida. Published Aug. 15, 1939.


with very inconspicuous hairs. The cornicles are little more
than rings and are devoid of hairs. The cauda is prolonged at the
middle into a long conical process. This aphid feeds upon the
needles of pines and the apex of the rostrum is very obtuse. It
is very easily disturbed and at the least jarring of the branch on
which they are found the individuals of a colony scurry very
rapidly about the bases of the needles.
Collections.-Gainesville, Florida, March 22, 1928, (F-320-28); March
23, 1928, (F-323-28), (Pond A); April 6, 1932, (F-886-32), (Agr. Exp.
Sta.); May 4, 1933, (F-1012-33), (Devils Mill Hopper); March 26, 1936,
(F-1332-36). (Sugarfoot); Sanford, Florida, February 23, 1929, (F-480-
29). All collections from Pinus taeda and all made by the writer.

Genus CINARA Curtis
Key to the Florida Species of the Genus Cinara

Alate Viviparous Females
1. Unguis of the sixth antennal segment a mere stub, shorter than the
diameter of the primary sensorium of the segment; feeding on
Arborvitae .......................... ........... ..... tujafilina (Del Guercio)
Unguis of sixth antennal segment a conical thumb-like or finger-like
process, longer than the diameter of the primary sensorium .......... 2
2. Head with lateral extensions bearing the eyes, the posterior margin
of these extensions being almost as great as the diameter of the
eyes; eyes without ocular tubercles ...................... longispinosa Tissot
-. Head without or with only slight lateral extensions; eyes with distinct
ocular tubercles .-........--..---...----..---...-- --- -- ...........-... .. -....... 3
3. Tibial hairs reclinate along the whole length of the segment; all hairs
of cornicle bases approximately the same length ................................ 4
-. Tibial hairs rather erect along much of the segment; cornicle bases
with a few long hairs and many more about one-third the length
of the long ones .......................... .. .... ...................... watsoni n. sp.
4. Tibiae of at least some of the legs with mid-portion light colored
and contrasting with the darker bases and apices; feeding on
P inu s .................. .................. .. .. ............. ...................... 5
-. Tibiae of all the legs uniformly colored; feeding on Juniperus
-juniperivora (Wilson)
5. Third antennal segment with one to four sensoria; hairs at middle
of hind tibia but little longer than the diameter of the tibia at
that point .................... --. --------- ... ... ........---- ...--- 6
-. Third antennal segment with five to ten sensoria; some of the hairs
at middle of hind tibia nearly twice as long as the diameter of the
tibia .......................... ..... ............. .. ........... carolina Tissot
6. Hind tibia uniformly colored throughout its length; hairs of hind
tarsus reclinate, scarcely longer than the diameter of the tarsus
-taedae Tissot


-. Hind tibiae with base and apex darker and contrasting with the
middle portion; hairs of hind tarsus rather erect, fully twice as
long as the diameter of the tarsus .........------------. .. ......-- newelli n. sp.

Apterous Viviparous Females
1. Hairs on antennal segment III rather erect and long, the longest two
and one-half to three times the diameter of the segment ...........--- 2
-. Hairs on antennal segment III not over one and one-half times the
diameter of the segment, usually reclinate or if erect their length
less than the diameter of the segment .-----..................--------............ 4
2. Tibiae of all the legs uniformly colored or with mid-portion pale and
contrasting with the darker bases and apices; cornicles with long
and short hairs --..-----.........................----------------.-- 3
-. Tibiae of all the legs pale yellow except at the apices which are
darker; all hairs on cornicles about aqual in length
-tujafilina (Del Guercio)
3. Tibiae of all the legs uniform brown or only slightly lighter near the
base .....---------....--........- --- ....---------------..... longispinosa Tissot
-. Tibiae of fore legs uniform brown, middle and hind legs with a definite
lighter area near the base ......................----......---- ..... watsoni n. sp.
4. Sixth antennal segment including the unguis nearly or quite as long
as the fifth, distinctly longer than the fourth; feeding on Juni-
perus ...----......... ......-- .... ....---- ........------- juniperivora (Wilson)
-. Sixth antennal segment distinctly shorter than the fifth, subequal to
or shorter than the fourth; on Pinus ............................-.............-...--- 5
5. Third antennal segment without sensoria; tibiae of hind legs uniformly
colored throughout .........-......-- ..... ....--- ......-- ............-- taedae Tissot
.Third antennal segment usually with one or two sensoria; tibiae of
all the legs with a light area contrasting with darker apices and
bases ..... ..............-- ..................------.... --- -- ...............--- 6
6. Dorsum of the abdomen with numerous scattered rounded spots; hairs
of hind tarsus reclinate, scarcely longer than the diameter of the
tarsus _---...........--------- -...---. ..---.. ......---- ........ carolina Tissot
Dorsum of abdomen with only a few spots and these arranged in
longitudinal rows; hairs of hind tarsus more erect, twice as long
as diameter of tarsus --..................... -------..---. --...... .... newelli n. sp.


Lachnus australi Ashmead, Can. Ent., XIII, 67-68, 1881.
Ashmead's description though very general does not agree
entirely with any of the Florida species of Cinara examined and
it seems probable that it has not been taken since his collections
were made from Pinus australis in the vincinity of Jacksonville.
If Ashmead preserved any specimens these apparently have since
been lost. As no specimens are available for study the species is
not included in the key.



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Figs. 5-9, Plate I
Cinara carolina Tissot, Florida Entomologist XVI, 1-4, 1932.
Lachnus pini L., Mason, A. C., Florida Entomologist V, 24, 63,
This is easily the most common species of Cinara found in
Florida. The most distinctive characteristic is found in the
sensoria of the third antennal segment. These are large, clear-
cut, and distinctly tuberculate. The colonies are found mostly
near the tips of the branches. Slides prepared by Mason and
labelled Lachnus pini have been examined and found to be caro-
lina. The following species of ants have been found attending
this aphid: Camponotus abdominalis subsp. floridanus Buckley;
C. socius var. oceola Wheeler; Crematogaster laeviuscula Mayr.
Collections.-Lake City, Florida, March 28, 1897, on Pinus sp. (A. L.
Quaintance) : Gainesville, Florida, March 4, 1914, April 16, 1914, on Pine,
(A. C. Mason) ; seventeen collections, all from Pinus taedae made by the
writer during February-May, 1928-39; March 22, 1937, (F-1474-37), Pinus
taeda, (Geo. R. Swank): Lamont, Florida, April 22, 1938, (F-1632-38),
P. taeda, (Tissot): Marianna, Florida, April 22, 1938, (F-1664-38), P.
taeda, (Tissot): Welaka, Florida, April 8, 1939, (F-1747-39), on P. taeda;
(F-1748-39), on P. palustris; (F-1750-39), on P. clausa, (Tissot): Key-
stone Heights, Florida, April 14, 1939, (F-1753-39), on P. palustris, (Tis-
sot) : Doctors Inlet, Florida, April 14, 1939, (F-1755-39), on P. taeda,
Figs. 10-15, Plate I
Lachnus juniperivora Wilson, Ent. News, XXX, 6-7, 1919.
Aside from its different host plant the most distinguishing
feature of this aphid is the fineness and abundance of hairs on
its appendages. Only one collection has been made: Gainesville,.
Florida, April 15, 1939, on Juniperus silicicola, (Merrill and

Explanation of Plate I
Figs. 1-4-Essigella pini, head and antenna, beak, hind leg, and cauda,
alate viviparous female.
Figs. 5-9-Cinara carolina, antenna, beak, cornicle, hind tarsus, and base of
hind tibia, alate viviparous female.
Figs. 10-15-C. juniperivora, antenna, beak, cornicle, base of hind tibia,
hind tarsus, and cauda, alate viviparous female.
Figs. 16-20-C. longispinosa, antenna, beak, cornicle, base of hind tibia,
and hind tarsus, alate viviparous female.
Figs. 21-31-C. newelli, head, antenna, beak, wings, cornicle, base of hind
tibia, hind tarsus, and cauda, alate viviparous female; head,
antenna, and cornicle, apterous viviparous female.
Fig. 24 is 16X, all others 45X.


Tissot). The aphids were found on the trunk of a cedar beneath
the loosened edges of bark where it had been broken by an injury.
They were being attended by numbers of ants, Crematogaster sp.
Only apterous viviparous females were found in the colony and
the accompanying figures were made from alate specimens re-
ceived from Louisiana.

Figs. 16-20, Plate I
Cinara longispinosa Tissot, Florida Entomologist, XVI, 4-5, 1932.
The laterally expanded head, the eyes without ocular tubercles
and the uniformly brown tibiae of all the legs serve to identify
this species. The hymenopterous parasite, Aphidius bicolor
Ashm., has been reared from a colony of this aphid. Camponotus
abdominalis subsp. floridanus Buckley is the only ant that has
been found attending this species.
Collections.-This aphid has been taken only in the vicinity of Gaines-
ville, Florida, March 8, 1929, (F-486-29), March 22, 1929, (F-505-29), on
P. taeda, (Tissot); April 21, 1937, (F-1518-37), April 5, 1938, (F-1620-38),
on P. glabra, (Tissot); April 30, 1939, (F-1771-39), on P. glabra, (Tissot
and R. K. Buckley).

CINARA NEWELLI new species

Alate Viviparous Female
Figs. 21-28, Plate I
Size and general color.-Length of body from vertex to tip of anal
plate 2.2* to 2.4, average 2.3. Body and appendages various shades of
brown, ranging from light yellowish brown to very dark blackish brown.
In life a pruinose waxy covering of the body causes the dark areas to
appear much lighter and gives the insects a grayish brown appearance.
This waxy material is particularly heavy on the sides of the thorax.
Head blackish brown, shining on the dorsum. In some specimens the
median suture, a border around the antennal sockets, and a ring around
the lateral ocelli darker than the general surface of the head; in others
the whole head is uniformly colored. Eyes concolorous with the head.
Antennae brown, the first two and last segments chestnut brown, much
lighter than the head; third, fourth and fifth segments yellowish brown
with chestnut brown apices, each successively darker at the apex than
the preceding one. Beak with basal third yellowish, middle third yellowish
brown mottled with dark brown, apical third dark chestnut brown, except
last segment which is blackish brown. Thorax brown; the prothorax dark
chestnut brown, much lighter than the head; the dorsal lobes of the thorax
and the pleural region of the mesothorax blackish brown, concolorous with
the head; remainder of the thorax and membranes yellowish brown to light
*All measurements in this paper are in millimeters.


chestnut brown. Wings smoky; the costal border, stigma, veins, and the
hind border in the region of the anal vein olive brown; the subcosta, radial
sector and medial veins with a golden cast in some specimens probably
due to air in the veins; veins of hind wing light olive brown. Coxae and
trochanters of all the legs dark chestnut brown; femora dark chestnut
brown, a small basal area yellowish brown; tibia of all the legs yellowish
brown with the bases and the apices chestnut brown; tarsi chestnut brown.
Abdomen yellowish brown with two pairs of transverse irregular shaped
dark brown patches anterior to the cauda, and a row of four brown spots
on each side anterior to the cornicles. Cornicles and conical bases dark
chestnut brown. Cauda and anal plate chestnut brown.
Head and appendages.-Width of head across the eyes, .58 to .61,
average .60. Head definitely convex, well rounded in front. The median
suture distinct but not sulcate. Eyes rather large, ommatidia large, cir-
cular; ocular tubercles definite though not particularly prominent. The
median ocellus situated far down on the front, the lateral ocelli fairly
close to the eyes. Surface of the head with short, slightly curved, mostly
reclinate hairs, the longest measuring .04. Antennae with first two seg-
ments short and thick; third segment cylindrical; fourth, fifth and sixth
segments narrow at the base and widening apically. Comparative lengths
of antennal segments as follows: III-.24 to .29, average .26; IV-.13 to
.16, average .14; V-.15 to .21, average .17; VI-.11 to .13, average .12
plus .05 to .06, average .06. Sensoria distributed as follows: third seg-
ment with one or two sensoria usually situated near the apex; fourth with
one sensorium near the apex; fifth with one secondary sensorium in addi-
tion to the apical primary one which is very large, (in one specimen the
fifth segment of one antenna had two small secondary sensoria instead
of the usual larger one); sixth segment with four to six small sensoria
clustered along one side of the large primary sensorium. Antennae rather
thickly set with fine, slightly curved, reclinate hairs, the longest measur-
ing .05. Beak lance-like, very long, extending at least to the tip of the
abdomen and usually well beyond that point.
T' ,i r and appendages.-Thorax with a small conical tubercle on
each side near the hind border of prothorax. Fore wings with subcosta
well developed and prominent; radial sector, cubitus, and first anal vein
definite and bordered with a narrow light brown band; medial vein very
faintly indicated once forked or unbranched (of seventeen individuals ex-
amined, six had the media unbranched in both wings, four had it once
forked in both wings, seven had it unbranched in one wing and once
forked in the other) ; radial sector straight, terminating behind the extreme
tip of the wing; the stigma slightly curved, nearly parallel sided, its outer
apical angle extending well beyond the base of the radial sector; hind
margin of the wing in the region of the first anal vein slightly thickened
and forming a narrow fold for the engagement of the hooklets of the hind
wing; the wing membrane of both the fore and hind wings appearing
smoky due to the very closely spaced short, curved ridges or imbrications
of the surface. Hind wing with subcosta well developed, undulate, two
cross veins present but the first one very faintly indicated. Near the base
of the subcosta of the fore wing a group of seven or eight clear oval areas
resembling small sensoria, arranged in one or two irregular rows; the


subcosta of the hind wing with a group of eight to ten similar structures.
The stigma of the fore wing with a few scattered clear, circular areas
each bearing a very minute hair or spine. Legs rather long and slender,
particularly the metathoracic pair; tibiae of all the legs curved, the hind
tibiae presenting a double curve; tarsi slender with large apical claws.
All segments of the legs thickly set with slightly curved slightly reclinate
hairs, the longest near the middle of hind tibiae measuring .07 and the
longest on the hind tarsi .09. Length of hind tibia 1.3 to 1.5, average 1.4;
length of first joint of hind tarsus .07 to .08, average .075, second joint
.24 to .29, average .26.
Abdomen.-The pleural regions of the abdomen rather thickly beset
with fine hairs but the dorsum almost devoid of hairs, the few that are
present measuring .02 in length. Cornicles situated on conical bases
whose height equals about one third the greatest width; bases rather
thickly set with hairs, the longest of which measure .07. Height of cornicle
and base .08 to .10, average .09; greatest width of conical bases .24 to .30,
average .26. Cauda nearly semicircular in outline, thickly set with the
longest hairs found anywhere on the body, the longest measuring .13.

Apterous Viviparous Female
Figs. 29-31, Plate I
Size and general color.-Length of body from vertex to apex of
abdomen 2.7 to 3.1, average 2.9. Prevailing color brown; head chestnut
brown, somewhat lighter posteriorly. Eyes dark brown or slightly reddish.
Antennae with first two and last segment concolorous with the head, third,
fourth and fifth segments yellowish brown with chestnut brown apices.
Beak as in alate female. Prothorax chestnut brown, somewhat lighter
than the head, with posterior margin yellowish brown; remainder of thorax
and abdomen light yellowish brown, almost orange in some individuals.
Dark brown markings on thorax and abdomen as follows: mesothorax
with a large patch on the pleural region, metathorax with a smaller one;
the dorsum of these segments with brown flecks forming two rather definite
patches on each segment; the first abdominal segment with two patches
on the dorsum; on each side of the abdomen a row of spots, and four
longitudinal rows of very small spots on the dorsum; two pairs of rather
elongate patches just anterior to the cauda. Legs, cornicle bases, cauda
and anal plate colored much as in the alate female. In life the apterous
females with a pruinose covering as in the alate form.
Head, thorax, abdomen and appendages.-Width of head across the
eyes .58 to .62, average .60. Median suture forming a definite sulcus on
the dorsum, front of head definitely bilobed. Eyes large with large cir-
cular ommatidia; ocular tubercles prominent. Antennae with segments
shaped much as in the alate female, length of the segments as follows:
III-.25 to .28, average .26; IV-.12 to .15, average .13; V-.13 to .17,
average .15; VI-.09 to .12, average .11 plus .05 to .07, average .06. Third
and fourth segments each with one sensorium; the fifth with one sensorium
in addition to the primary one; sensoria of the sixth segment as in the
alate female. Antennal hairs similar to those of the alate female. Beak
as in the alate, reaching nearly to the apex of the abdomen. Legs very
similar to those of the alate female. Length of hind tibiae 1.2 to 1.3,


average 1.3; first joint of hind tarsus .07 to .08, average .08, second joint
.23 to .25, average .24. Cornicles shaped much as in alate female but
with outer border somewhat more irregular. Height of cornicles .07 to
.09, average .08; greatest width of base .28 to .30, average .29. Cauda
very similar to that of the alate female.
Types.-Holotype-Alate viviparous female; Welaka, Florida, April 8,
1939, (F-1749-39), on Pinus palustris, (Tissot). Morphotype-Apterous
viviparous female, same colony and data as the holotype. Paratypes--
Twenty-one slides containing sixteen alate and seven apterous viviparous
females, same data as the holotype. Holotype and morphotype in the
U. S. National Museum Collection, paratypes in the collection of the Ento-
mology Department, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, and in that
of the author.
Type locality.-University of Florida Conservation Reserve, Welaka,
Collections.-The above collection is the only one that has been made.
The insects were found in small groups on both sides of the cut face of
a slash pine that had been turpentined some years previous. The aphids
were found from about eight inches above the ground to a height of three
and one-half feet. The projecting edges of the old bark served to hide
and protect the aphids which were feeding on the new bark growing over
the scarred surface. Ants running up and down the trunk served as
guides in locating groups of the aphids. Some of the alate aphids possessed
mere stubs of wings, these organs apparently having been broken off by
the ants. Specimens of the ants were identified as Camponotus abdominalis
subsp. floridanus (Buckley).
This aphid appears to be very different from all known
species of the genus Cinara. Some of the outstanding charac-
teristics which will serve to identify it are: the almost total ab-
sence of hairs on the dorsum of the abdomen in the alate female;
the relatively long hairs of the hind tarsus of that form; the
media of the fore wing never with more than one fork and often
unbranched; and the prominent median suture and bilobed head
of the apterous female.
This species is dedicated to Dr. Wilmon Newell, Director of
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, who for many
years has been interested in the insects of Florida, and who has
played a leading part in the advancement of entomology in the
Figs. 32-36, Plate II
Cinara taedae Tissot, Florida Entomologist, XVI, 5-7, 1932.
This aphid exhibits no outstanding characteristics though the
secondary sensoria are fainter than in the other species studied.
The features mentioned in the above key will serve to separate
it from other Florida species of the genus. The ant Camponotus


abdominalis subsp. floridanus Buckley has been taken in attend-
ance on this species.
Collections.-Pinus taeda, Gainesville, Florida, March 15, 1928, (F-311-
28), April 6, 1932, (F-887-32), May 5, 1939, (F-1783-39), (Tissot) : Pinus
sp., Winter Garden, Florida, March 1, 1933, (F-987-33), (H. K. Winter):
Slash pine, Homestead, Florida, April 23, 1935, (F-1242-35).

Figs. 37-41, Plate II
Lachniella tujafilina Del Guercio, Redia V, 287, 1907 (1908).
The writer is very uncertain as to the exact identity of this
aphid and is doubtful what name rightfully belongs to it. There
appears to be much confusion in literature regarding the species
and even the spelling of its name varies. The Florida species
evidently is the same as the one described and figured by Essig,
Pom. Jour. Ent. III, 541, 1911, under the name Lachnus juniperi
(De Geer), and which Swain, Univ. of Cal. Publ., III, 50, 1919,
lists as Lachnus tujafilinus (Del Guercio). The apterous female
is easily recognized by the peculiar color markings of the dorsum
of the body. The reddish brown ground color of the body shows
through the whitish waxy covering as two transverse lines join-
ing areas around the cornicles, and two longitudinal lines begin-
ning behind the cornicles and extending forward over the ab-
domen and thorax to the front of the head where they converge.
This is a fairly common species on Arborvitae and occasionally
becomes numerous enough to cause some injury to the plants.
Collections.-All collections from various horticultural varieties of
Arborvitae. As there is considerable confusion in the naming of varieties
of this evergreen no attempt will be made to give scientific names. Col-
lections were made at the following Florida localities. Avon Park, July 12,
1933, (F-1047-33), (M. R. Brown): Bagdad, May 31, 1932, (F-956-32),
(P. F. Robertson) : Cottage Hill, March 7, 1932, (F-876-32), (Robertson) :
Fruitland Park, April 21, 1927, (F-213-27), (Bosanquet) : Gainesville,
September 13, 15, 22, 1922, April 26, 1923, (Beyer) ; February 5. 1929,
(F-465-29), (Tissot); March 18, 1931, (F-769-31), (G. F. Weber); March
7, 1936, (F-1308-36), (R. J. Wilmot); March 17, 1936, (F-1316-36),
(Tissot): Glen St. Mary, April 4, 1930, (F-583-30), (Bett and Kerr):
Gonzales, June 13, 1933, (F-1043-33), (Robertson): Jacksonville, October
18, 1929, (F-536-29); January 21, 1930, (F-559-30), (Knight); June 5,
1936, (F-1382-36), (Lawton): Lakeland, December 2, 1935, (F-1280-35):
Leesburg, October 18, 1928, (F-408-28), (Bergmaier); February 15, 1936,
(F-1297-36), (D. M. Newell): Little River, November 16, 1937, (F-1568-
37), (C. A. Bass): Miami, August 22, 1922, (Beyer) : Orlando, May 23,
1933, (F-1025-33), (R. L. Miller): Palm Beach, September 15, 1926,
(F-151-26), (LeRoy) : Tavares, April 1, 1937, (F-1499-37), (J. Chaffin).

VOL. XXII-No. 3 43

CINARA WATSONI new species

Alate Viviparous Female
Figs. 42-48, Plate II
Size and general color.-Average length from vertex to tip of anal
plate, 3.4. Body mostly shades of brown; in life with the surface covered
with a waxy bloom giving the insects a grayish appearance. Head and
sclerotized portions of thorax dark chestnut brown, the membranes of the
thorax and the wing insertions lighter brown. The median suture of the
head and a narrow border around the ocelli very dark brown. Eyes reddish-
brown. Abdomen cinnamon brown with scattered more or less circular
dark brown spots and two somewhat elongate dark brown patches anterior
to the cauda. First two antennal segments chestnut brown, somewhat
lighter than the head: the remaining segments with basal portion light
yellowish brown and apex dark chestnut brown, the dark portions com-
prising a larger portion of each successive segment to the sixth which has
only a small light portion. Wings hyaline, the costal margin suffused with
brown, stigma brown. Coxae and trochanters of all legs very dark brown;
femora of all legs very dark blackish brown, the first and middle pair with
a narrow yellow ring at the base, the hind femora with about one-sixth
their length yellow; the tibiae of the fore legs entirely dark blackish brown,
the tibiae of the other legs with a small basal band dark blackish brown
followed by a yellow or yellowish brown portion comprising about one-third
the length of the joint, the apical portion blackish brown; the tarsi of all
the legs blackish brown. The three apical segments of the beak shining
blackish brown, the long second segment mostly yellowish with the apex
light brown and mottled with dark brown. The cornicle bases, cauda and
anal plate chestnut brown, darker than the abdomen but lighter than the
Head and appendages.-Width of head across the eyes, .82 to .89,
average .85. Head short and broad with definite lateral projections sup-
porting the eyes. Joints III to VI of the antennae rather uneven in profile
with slightly bulbous hair bases and slightly raised sensoria. Comparative
lengths of the segments as follows: III-.45 to .50, average .47; IV-.24
to .30, average .28; V-.29 to .32, average .30; VI-.16 to .17, average .16
plus .04 to .05, average .05. Sensoria distributed as follows: third seg-
ment with six to eight sensoria arranged in a relatively straight line, the
first sensorium usually located about one-third the length of the segment
from the base and the last usually near the apex; with the exception of
the apical one or two, the sensoria faint and not easily visible; the fourth
segment with two to four sensoria (four in most cases) in a row, unevenly
spaced and faint except for the apical one or two; the fifth segment with
a small secondary sensorium in addition to the apical primary one which
is very large; the sixth segment with large primary sensorium and four
or five secondary ones, one of the latter being about half the diameter of
the primary one. The unguis of the sixth segment narrowly conical,
definitely imbricated and with five or six short spiny hairs which are
slightly capitate in some individuals. Antennal hairs rather sparse, promi-
nent, reclinate and long, the longest nearly four times as long as width
of segments and measuring .10. The compound eyes coarsely granulated,





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Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
Gainesville, Florida

VOL. XXII AUGUST, 1939 No. 3

J. R. WATSON, Gainesville-------....--... --.. .....-....-- ..-............----Editor
E. W. BERGER, Gainesville----..-. ---......--..-...--...... Associate Editor
J. W. WILSON, Belle Glade.--...-.........-.....-......-. Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.

the ocular tubercles present but not particularly prominent. The beak
reaching slightly beyond the hind coxae.
Thorax and appendages.-Fore wings with subcostal vein prominent
and dark brown; radial sector, cubitus, and first anal veins definite but
not prominent; medial vein twice forked and feebly developed; the stigma
parallel sided, its apex extending in a curve beyond the base of the radial
sector and terminating in a rather acute point. A narrow fold on the hind
margin extending on either side of the apex of the first anal vein serving
to engage the hooklets of the hind wing and thus forming the wing coupling.
Hind wings with the costal margin suffused with brown particularly on
the basal portion; two cross veins present and well developed. Femora of
all the legs rather thickly beset with slightly curved hairs which are mostly
erect on the fore femora and somewhat reclinate on the middle and hind
femora; tibiae of all the legs slightly curved, the degree of curvature pro-
gressively increasing from the fore to the hind legs; all tibiae armed with
prominent hairs which are rather erect at the base of the hind and fore
tibiae but becoming more reclinate toward the apices of the segments,
middle tibiae with all hairs reclinate, the longest hairs near the middle
of the hind tibiae measuring .21; length of hind tibia-2.1 to 2.4, average
2.2. Tarsi of all the legs armed with rather short hairs which are reclinate

Explanation of Plate II
Figs. 32-36-Cinara taedae, antenna, beak, cornicle, base of hind tibia, and
hind tarsus, alate viviparous female.
Figs. 37-41-C. tujafilina, antenna, beak, cornicle, base of hind tibia, and
hind tarsus, alate viviparous female.
Figs. 42-50-C. watsoni, head, antenna, beak, cornicle, base of hind tibia,
hind tarsus, and cauda, alate viviparous female; antenna and
cornicle apterous viviparous female.
Figs. 51-55-Unilachnus parvus, antenna, beak, cornicle, base of hind tibia,
and hind tarsus, alate viviparous female.
Figs. 56-57-Longistigma caryae, beak and cornicle, alate viviparous female.
All figures 45X


forming an angle of about 45 degrees with the surface; length of hind
tarsus, exclusive of the claws, .33 to .39, average .36.
Abdomen.-The dorsum of the abdomen is rather thickly beset with
slightly curved hairs measuring .06 to .13 with an average of .07. The
cornicles situated on rather steep sided cones having rather regular outer
margins; height of cornicles .17 to .19, average .18; width of cones at the
base .37 to .42, average .39. The cornicle bases armed with a few scattered
long hairs and with numerous shorter ones about one-fourth to one-third
the length of the long ones. The cauda is broadly rounded and is armed
with hairs of varying lengths, the longest measuring .21.

Apterous Viviparous Female
Figs. 49-50, Plate II
Size and general color.-Average length of body from vertex to tip
of anal plate 3.5. General color of body and appendages nearly identical
with color characters found in the alate viviparous female.
Head and appendages.-Width of head across the eyes, .79 to .88, aver-
age 85. Front of head broadly rounded, somewhat more convex than in the
alate female; the median longitudinal suture distinct as in the alate. Eyes
large, prominent and coarsely granulated; ocular tubercles present but
not very prominent. Length of antennal segments as follows: III-.47 to
.53, average .49; IV-.28 to .30, average .29; V-.29 to .31, average .30;
VI-.16 to .19, average .17 plus .05 to .07, average .06. Thiid segment without
sensoria; fourth segment without sensoria except in the case of one indi-
vidual having one sensorium near apex of this segment in one antenna;
fifth segment with one secondary sensorium in all cases in addition to the
large apical primary one; sensoria of sixth segment as in alate female. An-
tennal hairs much as in the alate female except that they are slightly short-
er in proportion to the width of the segments. Beak much as in alate fe-
male, reaching beyond the hind coxae.
Thorax, abdomen and appendages.-Legs very similar to those of the
alate female except that the curvature of the tibiae is somewhat less marked.
Length of hind tarsus exclusive of the claws .37 to .42, average .38. The
dark spots on the dorsum of the abdomen are much more numerous than in
the alate female and as in that form they appear to have no regular ar-
rangement but are scattered indiscriminately but rather evenly, over the
surface. Abdominal hairs much as in the alate female. Cornicles with the
conical bases somewhat more flattened and with more irregular outer mar-
gin than in the alate female, hairs much as in that form; height of cor-
nicles .17 to .18, average .18; greatest width of cone at base .38 to .47, aver-
age .43. Shape of cauda and caudal hairs as in the alate female.
Types.-Holotype-Alate viviparous female; Gainesville, Florida (Dev-
ils Mill Hopper), May 4, 1933, (F-1011-33), on Pinus taeda, (Tissot). On
slide with morphotype apterous female. Morphotype- apterous viviparous
female; same data and on slide with holotype. Paratypes-Six slides with
four alate and three apterous viviparous females, same data as holotype;
six slides with three alate and three apterous females, Raiford, Florida,
November 17, 1933, (F-1066-33), on Pinus taeda, W. E. Tew, collector; three
slides with three apterous females, Otter Creek, Florida, April 2, 1936,
(F-1345-36), on Pinus taeda, Tissot, collector. Holotype and morphotype


in U. S. National Museum; paratypes in the collection of the Entomology
Department, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, and in that of the
author. Type locality, Gainesville, Florida.
Collections.-In addition to the above the following collections have
been made: Gainesville, Florida, April 23, 1936, (F-1362-36), on Pinus
taeda, March 24, 1937, (F-1482-37), on P. taeda, March 24, 1938, (F-1601-
38), on P. glabra; Keystone Heights, Florida, April 14, 1939, (F-1753B-39),
on P. palustris; these four collections made by the author.
This aphid is very similar in many respects to Cinara longi-
spinosa Tissot but there are certain constant differences that
serve to separate them. In longispinosa the lateral extensions of
the head are more pronounced and the eyes are without ocular
tubercles. There is a slight difference in the relative lengths of
the antennal segments. In watsoni the fourth and fifth segments
are longer in proportion to the third than in longispinosa; in
watsoni the sixth segment, including the spur, is distinctly
shorter than the fourth while in longispinosa the sixth segment
is as long as or longer than the fourth. There is a marked dif-
ference in the coloration of the tibiae. In longispinosa all the
tibiae are wholly dark brown; in watsoni the tibiae of the middle
and hind legs have distinct yellowish areas on the basal half. This
species is named for Professor J. R. Watson who has shown a
sincere and helpful interest in the aphid studies of the writer
since he first began working with the aphids of Florida.

Figs. 51-55, Plate II
Lachnus parvus Wilson, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XLI, 104, 1915.
This aphid is a needle feeder and is met with rather common-
ly on pines. The individuals usually are ranged in single file
along one side of a needle, and often are completely hidden by a
grayish white, waxy secretion. The antennae and legs are armed
with rather erect long hairs, the apex of the beak is obtuse and
the median vein is faint and unbranched.
Collections.-Pinus taeda, Gainesville, March 16, 1928, (F-313-28);
March 19, 1928, (F-316-28); March 22, 1928, (F-321B-28); March 8, 1929,
(F-487-29); March 29, 1929, (F-510-29); May 2, 1930, (F-631-30); April
7, 1932, (F-888-32); January 26, 1934, (F-1078-34); March 19, 1936,
(F-1318-36); March 23, 1936, (F-1328-36); March 26, 1936, (F-1333-36);
(all above by Tissot); February 5, 1931, (F-757-31), (H. E. Bratley); San-
ford, February 23, 1929, (F-479-29), (Tissot); Winter Park, April 14, 1932,
(F-911-32), (Brown and Dyson); Welaka, April 8, 1939, (F-1752-39),
(Tissot). Pinus glabra, Gainesville, March 24, 1938, (F-1596-38), (Tissot).


Figs. 56-57, Plate II
Aphis caryae Harris, A Report on the insects of Massachusetts
Injurious to Vegetation, p. 190, 1841.
The exceptionally large size of this aphid and the elongated
stigma reaching to the tip of the wing will readily serve to dis-
tinguish it from all other species. In the North it is widespread
and common, occasionally becoming a pest. In Florida it is much
less common and apparently never becomes very numerous. In
contrast to most Lachnids which normally feed on conifers, this
aphid feeds upon deciduous trees.
Collections.-Gainesville, February 2, 1927, (F-179-27), on Quercus
nigra, (Tissot); December 9, 1931, (F-833-31), on Q. michauxii, (Tissot);
March 4, 1932, (F-873-32), on Myrica cerifera, (H. E. Bratley); January
18, 1932, (F-852-32), on Pecan, (Tissot); MacClenny, April 29, 1926,
(F-108-26), on Walnut, (Betts); Quincy, February 3, 1932, (F-855-32),
(Feinberg); River Junction, March 7, 1932, (F-877-32), on Pecan, (A. O.
Duke); Tampa, January 7, 1937, (F-1424-37), on Quercus sp.


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of Syrbula admirabilis (Uhler)
By K. Princis (Riga Latvia).
Some time ago I received a small lot of Orthoptera collected
in September, 1937 by S. B. Smalley at Cincinnati, Ohio, U. S. A.
Among these specimens I was surprised to find a male of Syrbula
admirabilis (Uhler) with the right
tegmen considerably reduced, but
with the wing of the same side and
both tegmen and wing of the left
side fully developed (Fig. 1). Such
cases of partial reduction of the
organs of flight are rather uncom-
mon in Orthoptera, and the pecul-
iarities of this specimen warrant a
short description.
The measurements of the speci-
men are as follows: length of body
21.4 mm.; length of pronotum 3.9
mm.; length of left tegmen 16
mm.; length of right tegmen 9
mm.; length of wings 15.4 mm.; length of hind femora 15.4 mm.
All of these measurements are more or less below the minima
given for the species by Blatchley', and the stunted condition of
this individual may indicate that it was subjected to less favor-
able general growth conditions than usual. However, the speci-
men is by no means to be considered as a cripple, for all parts of
its body are normally developed except the right tegmen, and
the latter is not malformed. The reduced tegmen looks more
or less like a normally developed tegmen, and at first sight
appears to be merely a dwarfed reproduction of a normal tegmen.
However, more detailed study shows at once the incorrectness of
such a conclusion, only the basal half of the tegmen being more
or less like that of a normal specimen, while the apical half is
greatly reduced.
The reduction has proceeded from the apical end towards the
base, and from the whole apical half of the tegmen there is left
only a small part which forms the apex of the tegmen. The net-
work of this reduced apical part is represented only by the be-
iBlatchley, W. S.-Orthoptera of North-Eastern America, Indianapolis,
1920, p. 209.


innings of the branches of the principal veins; the cross-veinlets
which are so well and regularly developed in normal tegmina are
almost wanting, except for a few quite irregular remaining ones.
The basal half of the tegmen is almost like that of a normal
individual, but careful inspection shows deviations from the
normal condition in this part of the tegmen also, though here the
indications of reduction are less evident than in the apical half.
In the first place the size is less than that of a normal tegmen.
Furthermore, the venation shows some peculiarities when com-
pared with that of a normal tegmen. The costal vein is well-
developed, and has its usual shape. The mediastinal vein shows
an interruption at its base, so that the vein is divided into two
parts: a basal one and a distal one. The distal part, instead of
being connected with the basal part, joins with the humeral vein
near its base, but the short basal part of the mediastinal vein ends
freely, and can be traced only for about one-fifth of the length of
the tegmen. A further peculiarity concerns the discoidal vein,
which is fully conjoined with the humeral vein. All the other
principal veins are present and almost normally developed ex-
cept for slight modifications. The cross-veinlets are more irregu-
lar in course than normal.
On the whole we can state that the reduction shown by this
tegmen is of "normal" type-that is, the reduced tegmen is simi-
lar to the tegmina of short-winged forms of Acrididae-even
though such reduction constitutes a rare abnormality in Syrbula
admirabilis. This agrees fully with the statement of Karny2
concerning the reduction of flight organs of Orthoptera, in which
he says: "Die Reduktion der Flugorgane bei den Orthopteren
erfolgt in ganz gesetzmassiger Weise, und zwar nicht etwa durch
gleichmassige Verkleinerung oder Riickbildung aller Teile,
sondern vielmehr gewissermassen vom Apikalende aus, so dass
der distale Teil bedeutend starker reduziert wird als der proxi-
We have, perhaps, to seek the cause of the teratological struc-
ture of this specimen in some inner physiological disturbance.
Unfortunately the specimen was received in dried condition, so
that it was impossible to study its internal anatomy. Detailed
anatomical studies of such cases are desirable, since it is quite
possible that such investigations would bring us much closer to
an understanding of brachypterism and macropterism than at
2Karny, H. H.-Ueber die Reduktion der Flugorgane bei den Orthop-
teren. Zool. Jahrb., xxxiii: 27-40. 1912.


present. Thus Ramme3 studying long-winged individuals of
Metrioptera roeselii (Hgb.), has found a correlation existing be-
tween macropterism and the development of the gonads. All of
the macropterous specimens examined by him showed definite
signs of reduction in their gonads.
Some years ago a similar case of reduction of the left fore-
wing in a dragon-fly, Leptetrum quadrimaculatum L., was de-
scribed by O. John4, but without any examination of the internal

sRamme, W.-Verlust oder Herabsetzung der Fruchtbarkeit bei
macropteren Individuen sonst brachypterer Orthopterenarten. Biol. Zen,
tralbl., li: 533-540. 1931.
4John, O.-Reduktion eines Flugels bei einer Libelle. Folia Zool. et
Hydrobiol., Riga, I: 177-180. 1930.

An index to volumes 1 to 19 inclusive of the Florida Ento-
mologist is now in preparation. This index contains a table of
contents arranged by volumes and an index of the insects by
specific and varietal names. This index is to be sold at 75c a
copy. Subsequent volumes will have an index in the last number
of each volume.
Complete sets of the Florida Entomologist from Volume I,
Number 1 to date are available at this time. Missing numbers
from sets can also be supplied. Orders should be sent to J. W.
Wilson, Business Manager, Belle Glade, Florida. Prices supplied
on request.



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