Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00254
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1943
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00254
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text

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Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society


State Plant Board of Florida
Investigations on the control of mole crickets were carried
out in conjunction with the Mole Cricket Control baiting pro-
grams which were conducted in central Florida during the fall
seasons of 1940 and 1941. With the establishment of a more
permanent research program for the study of these insects in
1942 it was possible to devote more attention to the biology of
the different species.
Farms, gardens, lawns and golf courses of central Florida had
suffered severely from Scapteriscus acletus R & H (Southern
Mole Cricket) and Scapteriscus vicinus Scud. (Changa or Puerto
Rican Mole Cricket). The so-called Northern Mole Cricket,
Gryllotalpa hexadactyla Perty, had not increased in such num-
bers as had the two species of Scapteriscus. The major em-
phasis of these studies, therefore, has been placed on the biology
of S. acletus and S. vicinus, with some data accumulated for G.
hexadactyla under Florida conditions.
Barret (1) in 1902 and Van Zwaluwenburg (2) in 1918
treated extensively of S. vicinus in Puerto Rico, while Worsham
and Reed (3) in 1912 described the life history and habits of
this species in eastern Georgia. Scapteriscus acletus from
Georgia was described by Rehn and Hebard (4) in 1916. Cocker-
ham (5) in 1922 reported damage by this species near Mobile,
Alabama, and in 1931 a serious outbreak occurred at Sanford,

1Acknowledgment is made of the supervision of these studies by C. B.
Wisecup, Assistant Entomologist, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine, Agricultural Research Administration, U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture, in charge of Mole Cricket Investigations at Plant City, Florida, and
of the assistance furnished by the other members of the staff.


Florida. Tenhet (6) studied this Florida infestation from 1934
to 1939 and has made his findings available to the present in-
The investigations herein reported were conducted for the
purpose of comparing the biology of the various species as re-
ported from other localities with the life histories of all three
species as obtained under one set of comparable conditions, and
for the further purpose of locating those periods in the biology
during which the insects would be most susceptible to control.

The technique for studying life histories followed closely that
of Tenhet. A total of 140 rearing cages was used in the life
history studies. These cages consisted of eight-inch flower pots
placed upright in the soil with about two inches of the container
above the ground level. The pots were filled with soil, covered
with screen lids, and shaded with individual conical roofs. Grass
and weeds were encouraged to grow around the pots for the
shade which they would furnish. Paired adults and developing
nymphs were both kept in these cages. A plentiful supply of
food in the form of compost and a mixture of wheat bran and
corn meal was supplied on the surface of the soil.
Incubation chambers were made by placing one of the flower
pots upright in the soil, while a second pot filled with soil was
inserted into the bottom container. This arrangement left space
for about twenty salve tins in the bottom where they would re-
main at soil temperature and moisture. The eggs were removed
from the cages and placed in small salve tins. An absorbent
paper disc was inserted in the tin and moisture added to this
disc. The tins were then stored in the incubation chambers.
The developing nymphs and adults were examined weekly
during warm weather for development and egg deposition. The
incubating eggs were inspected daily for hatching and moisture
content. Two to four days after they had emerged, the nymphs
were removed from the tins and placed in one gallon buckets
with soil. These were placed in the laboratory for protection
from ants, and after one week they were placed in the flower
pots as described above.
Glass observation cages were constructed and placed in the
laboratory. It was felt that much could be learned of the habits
and peculiarities of mole crickets from this type of supple-


mentary study. The cages were constructed of panes of glass
24 inches long by 12 inches wide, placed in a grooved frame and
spaced two inches apart. The cages were placed upright upon
a desk where they could be observed.
Frequent observation trips were made to the field to serve
as checks on the technique used in life history studies. Records
were kept of egg deposition and development of the nymphs in
the field. Field oviposition was studied by means of small rect-
angular plots which were carefully examined, using square-
pointed shovels with which the soil was skimmed off in thin
layers, thus exposing all egg cells without destroying them.

(a) Egg
Both species deposit their eggs in sealed, ovate shaped cells
or chambers, the long axis of which measures about one and
one-half inches. These cells are located from one inch to about
one foot beneath the soil surface, depending upon the moisture,
the temperature and the type of soil. Low temperatures and
dry soil resulted in cells being placed deeper, while cells were
made nearer the surface in warm, moist soils. Most of the
chambers were found in the upper five inches of the soil where
truck crops were grown. An average of about 35 eggs were
found in field collected cells. Mole cricket eggs of these species
are oval and unsculptured and are dirty gray or brownish in
color when first laid, although a few are nearly white. Most of
the eggs have a dusty appearing surface, while others are shiny.
As the eggs mature they change color and become larger. When
first deposited the eggs average about one-eighth by one-sixteenth
inch, and just before hatching they are about 25 percent larger.
As development proceeds the color changes to a milky white or
light brown and just before the nymphs emerge the reddish-
brown appendages become visible through the chorion. The eggs
are not cemented together in any way, but lie free in these ovate
shaped cells. The adult female never attends her eggs or young
as does G. hexadactyla.
Table 1 records the data obtained from three field samples
showing egg deposition, each of which comprised 18 square feet.
Samples "a" and "b" were made on the same low moist field at
different dates, sample "a" being made on April 21, and sample
"b" on May 5, 1942. Sample "c" was obtained from a different
field of high, sandy soil on May 6. The difference in depth of


egg cells in the two fields was outstanding, averaging 3.8 inches
for the low moist soil and 7.25 inches for the high, sandy soil.
The average number of eggs per cell was 35, and the average
number of nymphs was 25. The difference, about 30 percent,
between the number of eggs and nymphs was probably due to
cannibalism and imperfect incubation. Five cells per 18 square
feet found on April 21 compared with 12 cells found on May 5
on the same property demonstrates the increase of eggs and
young nymphs. This heavily infested property probably con-
tained over one million eggs and tiny nymphs per acre on May 5.


Cell Number

Depth in Soil

Number Eggs
in Cell

in Cell

a. 1 .-.. -................ ..... 4 31
2 ..................... ... | 3.5 30
3 ..--..-............-...-- 4 31
4 ..--...-..- .... .... ... . i 4 37
5 ........................... 4 34 _
Average .....-..........|.- 3.9 32 -

b. 1 ........................... 1 7
2 ............................ 3 20
3 ....-...-.. ............. .-- 3.5 40
5 ................- ----- 3.5 38 -
6 ........................... 4 56 -
7 ........................... 4 26
8 -...-................. 4 34
9 ...........................- 4 48 -
10 ............................ 4.5 50
11 ............................ 5 Cell destroyed-no count
12 ............................ 4 41_
Average ...................... 3.7 42 25

c. 1 ............................ 4.5 25 -
2 --......................... 5.5 26
3 ....:........................ 5.5 10
4 ............................ 7 41
5 ............................ 7.5 29
6 ............................ 10 40 -
7 ----..-..............-....- 6.5 33 -
8 ............................ 6.5 39 -
9 ............................ 9 27 -
10 ........--.....---....... -10.5 40 -
Average ...................... 7.25 31
Sampling areas (a, b and c) were 3 ft. by 6 ft. in area and at least 18 inches deep.

Egg deposition for both species began the latter part of
March in 1942 in the field and in the laboratory life history
cages. In the rearing cages the peak of egg deposition was


reached in May. As shown in Figure 1, the last eggs were de-
posited by S. vicinus during the latter part of July while S.
acletus deposited eggs until the early part of September. About
77 percent of the S. vicinus eggs and 70 percent of the S. acletus
eggs were deposited from May 1 to June 15. Nearly 99 percent
of the eggs of S. vicinus were laid by the first of July compared
with 89 percent of the S. acletus eggs.



Fig. 1.-Seasonal development of Scapteriscus acletus and S. vicinus.

A total of 146 egg-cells was obtained from S. acletus females
in the life history cages. These cells contained from 1 to 50
eggs, the average being 22 eggs per cell. The average number
of cells for each female was 4.8. A total of 96 cells was obtained
from S. vicinus females. These cells contained from 1 to 38
eggs, averaging 20 eggs per cell. The average number of cells
per female was 3.4. The number of eggs found in 112 field
collected cells of both species ranged from 10 to 59 with an
average of 35.6 eggs per cell. This is a much larger number
than was obtained from the life history cages, but such is to be
expected since the confinement and constant disturbance of the
crickets in the pots probably decreased the amount of egg de-
The period of incubation appears to be definitely influenced


by the temperature. Table 2 shows the decrease in the incuba-
tion period which occurred with an increase in the mean monthly
temperatures. Eggs which were deposited in late March re-
quired 37 days to hatch for S. acletus and 32 days for S. vicinus
during the mean temperature of 69.3 degrees F. Eggs deposited
in July required 16 days for S. acletus and 11 days for S. vicinus
during July and August when the mean temperature was about
84 degrees F. The average incubation period for the entire
period was 21 days for S. acletus and 18.5 days for S. vicinus.
The average percent incubation for the entire lot of eggs was
47 percent for S. acletus and 42 percent for S. vicinus. Observa-
tions have indicated that a larger percent hatch in the field under
normal conditions.

S. vicinus DURING 1942.

I Mean
Month Eggs Tempera- Percent of Eggs Average Period of
Deposited ture Deposited Incubation (Days)
(F.) I S. acletus S. vicinus ] S. acletus S. vicinus
March ................ 63.4 0.7 1.1 37.0 32.0
April ...... ... 69.3 13.5 18.5 30.5 24.5
May ...............--- 75.2 49.8 53.9 22.0 17.9
June .. ............-... 80.5 25.5 25.4 18.4 15.5
July .............--- .... 84.6 8.6 1.1 16.1 11.0
August -........... 83.6 1.2 16.5
September --...... 81.1 0.7 -- -

(b) Nymph
Hatching first occurred during the latter part of April for
S. vicinus and the early part of May for S. acletus in the life
history chambers. The peak of hatching was reached during
the first half of June for both species. The last hatching for
S. vicinus occurred the latter part of July and for S. acletus the
early part of September.
The nymphs escape from the egg by means of a longitudinal
slit in the chorion. The young nymph is almost pure white, but
quickly becomes bluish on the prothorax and on the appendages.
From bluish the nymphs turn blue-black, and then almost black,
with white or gray markings. Some of the nymphs when first
hatched have yellow abdomens. Immediately after hatching, the
young nymphs search and fight for food in the egg cell and
have been observed eating eggs, the chorion, and other weaker


living nymphs. Many of the mole crickets are destroyed in this
manner. The nymphs of S. vicinus are known to remain in the
cell for a week or more after hatching, under laboratory condi-
Two egg cells of S. vicinus which were laid against the glass
in the observation cages were watched for several weeks. Both
of these groups of nymphs required about nine days before they
were able to escape from the burrow, which they accomplished
by digging a small tunnel straight up from the egg cell to the
No record was kept on the number of molts, but the young
nymphs grow rather rapidly during the summer months and
adults begin to appear in September. Very little development
occurs after cold weather arrives, and those nymphs which have
not reached the adult stage by this time overwinter as nymphs,
transforming into adults in the spring. About 75 percent of
the S. acletus and 15 percent of the S. vicinus have overwintered
as nymphs during the past two seasons in this area.

(c) Adult
These subterranean orthopterous insects average about one
and one-fourth inches in length, exclusive of antennae or cerci,
and are about three-eighths inch in width. Their bodies are
well adapted for burrowing, the strong shovel-like forelegs serv-
ing to dig the tunnel and the greatly enlarged heavily chitenized
prothorax serving to shape and firm the soil. The fore wings
which overlap and are rounded on the ends, are shorter than
the abdomen. The hind wings which are thin and transparent
fold fan-like beneath the fore wings and extend over the tip of
the abdomen. A dark spot on the fore wings of the male, re-
sulting from a coalescence of wing veins which forms the file
of the stridulating organ, distinguishes this sex from the female.
This character may be observed in the large wing pads of the
developing nymphs, making possible the separation of sexes be-
fore they become mature.
The morphological characters used in separating the species
of Scapteriscus are found in the fore legs and the terminal
ventral plates. Figure 2 shows these morphological differences.
In the fore-legs of S. acletus the two tibial dactyls are separated
by a space almost as great as the width of one of them, while
in S. vicinus these tibial dactyls are separated by a space de-


cidedly less than the width of one of them; i.e., U-shaped in
S. acletus, but V-shaped in S. vicinus. Another definite char-
acteristic concerns the dark pigmented spot which may be noted
toward the basal end of the trochanter in both S. acletus and
S. vicinus and a dark sclerotized ridge which runs basally on the
apical end of the trochanter. In S. acletus this ridge ends well
above the pigmented spot, while in S. vicinus it is found to end
nearly even with the darkened spot. The terminal ventral plate
of the male S. vicinus is narrowly and conspicuously prolonged
posteriorly, but the corresponding plate of the male S. acletus
is not prolonged. When viewed dorsally the prothorax of S.
vicinus is broader than that of S. acletus.


ScR TO T .



Fig. 2.-Fore leg and terminal ventral plate of: a (S. acletus), b (S.
vicinus), and c (Gryllotalpa hexadactyla). TD = tibial dactyls; Tr = tro-
chanter; PS = pigmented spot; ScR = sclerotized ridge; TVP = terminal
ventral plate.

The color pattern of the two species is usually distinct, but
cannot be depended upon for separation in all cases as there
are extreme gradations within the same species. In general,
S. acletus is brownish-gray with white or greenish markings
on the lateral surfaces of the abdomen, while S. vicinus is red-


dish to creamy brown with darkened areas. S. vicinus has the
habit of "playing possum" when exposed or disturbed, while
S. acletus always burrows into the soil the moment it is exposed,
except when the weather is cold.
There are heavy flights of adults in the spring and fall.
Such flights usually occur following a shower during warm
weather. The mole crickets are attracted to lights and some
of them can be caught in light traps during these flights. Flights
seem to be for the purpose of dissemination alone, since it
appears that mating occurs in the burrows. Flights usually
begin shortly after dark and last for about one hour. The mole
crickets do not fly during bright days, but they have been ob-
served to take wing on dark cloudy days. S. acletus has been
the dominant species collected during fall flights, while both
species took part in the spring flights.
There are two distinct "types" of development; namely, those
nymphs which reach the adult stage in the fall before the weather
becomes cold, and those which pass through the winter as
nymphs, transforming into adults in the spring. In order to
present reliable data, these "types" of development have been
considered separately, as an average would give figures which
would fit neither "type." Table 3 presents a summary of the
life cycles of S. acletus and S. vicinus, separated according to
the stage of overwintering. Egg deposition began about one
month earlier for the overwintering adults, probably giving the
subsequent nymphs a better chance to reach the adult stage
prior to lower temperature than the progeny of the spring
adults. The life cycle of both species appears to be about one
The egg laying period of the two species was quite different
in the life history cages. The oviposition period of each female
S. acletus averaged 61 days, compared with 33 days for S.
vicinus. Many adults died immediately following the deposi-
tion of the last cell of eggs. The peak of mortality for the
S. vicinus adults occurred in June, with the last laboratory
specimens dying on July 17. The peak of mortality for S. acletus
adults occurred in July, and the last specimen died on Septem-
ber 11.
(d) Food Habits
Only a limited amount of information is available on the
food habits of these species. The greatest injury is noted in


Date became adult .....-..........- ......... ....

Preoviposition period ...............................

Date eggs deposited ............ ...... ........

Oviposition period ...........-............

Date female died .......-....... ..........

Length of adult stage ..........--....................

Incubation period .............. ....-- ............

Date nymphs hatched ................................

f fall adult ....................
Nymphal period
Spring adult ..............

f in fall ..........................
Date became adult**
L in spring ....................

S. acletus
Adult Trans-
forming in Fall

Oct. 20

6 months

Apr. 17 June 19

63 days

July 7

81/ months

30 18 days

May 17 July 7

133 days

9 months

Sept. 27 Nov. 17

April 8

S. acletus
Adult Trans-
forming in Spring

April 8
37 days

May 15 July 13

59 days

July 24

107 days

22 16 days

June 6 July 30

133 days

9 months

Oct. 17 Dec. 10

April 8

S. vicinus
Adult Trans-
forming in Fall

Oct. 15

6/2 months

Apr. 26 June 3

38 days

June 13

8 months

24 16 days

May 20 June 19

135 days

10 months

Oct. 2 Nov. 1

April 9

S. vicinus
Adult Trans-
forming in Spring

April 9

43 days

May 22 June 20

29 days

June 29

81 days

18 16 days

June 9 July 6

135 days

9/2 months

Oct. 22 Nov. 18

April 9

* This summary is based upon 10 months laboratory biological studies and one and one-half years field collection records and observations.
** Only a few specimens transformed into adults after October. Most of those not reaching the adult stage by November overwintered as nymphs.





seed beds where the mole crickets uproot plants severely. The
moist loose soil in such locations is a favorite habitat for these
insects. Some damage is done in the truck farms, especially
immediately following the transplanting of young seedlings.
This injury is in the form of uprooting or drying out of the
plants, and in some cases the actual chewing and severing of
both roots and stems of plants. Mole crickets have been observed
cutting off plants and pulling them down into their burrows
in order to feed on the stems. Another possible indirect injury
which is difficult to evaluate is the reduced vigor of the plants
due to the constant burrowing around the roots throughout the
crop season.
Mole crickets are believed to feed largely on decomposing
organic matter in the soil. They are usually plentiful in old
compost piles and are often numerous in poultry yards and
stock pens. They come to the surface and eat ripening straw-
berries and sometimes chew on the crowns of the plants. When
peanuts were planted where S. vicinus was plentiful severe
damage to the developing nuts was experienced. This damage
to peanuts usually consists of holes through the shell with the
kernels eaten. Mole crickets will eat each other, and other
animal matter has been found in their crops. They are attracted
to wheat bran, corn meal and cottonseed meal. Corn syrup, cane
syrup and honey appear to add to the attractiveness of some
slightly attractive materials but does not add to the attractive-
ness of wheat bran.
Most of the surface feeding appears to occur during the time
when the soil is moist and the weather warm; however, some
feeding is done during dry weather. Marked injury has been
noted where transplanted seedlings in dry fields had been wa-
tered, the mole crickets appearing to prefer these moist places
and to burrow and feed around the freshly watered plants. Most
of the feeding occurs at night or in the late afternoon, the crick-
ets then being more active near the surface where they make
the haphazard characteristic burrows. During periods of in-
activity the mole crickets retire to a more permanent burrow
which extends to a depth of about 14 inches. Each individual
has its own burrow, and remains here for long periods of time
during cold weather.
It has been noted that S. acletus has been responsible for a
great proportion of the surface burrowing, the damage from
this species consisting essentially of the mechanical injury re-


suiting from such excessive burrowing. While S. vicinus appears
to do much less surface burrowing, this latter species has demon-
strated that it is responsible for much of the direct feeding
injury which has been found. Much of the S. vicinus damage
to transplanted seedlings has occurred with little or no evidence
of surface burrowing, the insect merely burrowing up under
the plant and feeding on it.
(e) Observations on Natural Control
Cannibalism occurred in the laboratory where it was very
pronounced among the young nymphs, and this probably holds
true in the field. In the adults it is probably of little value in
reducing the population, but it is believed that the tiny nymphs,
in devouring each other, greatly reduce the population even
before they emerge from the egg cell.
No study of natural control has been made, but observations
show that birds, chickens, skunks, and toads take a toll of mole
crickets in this area. The predaceous bug Sirthenea carinata
is found in large numbers in certain areas. Two fungi have
been observed to attack these insects, especially in the adult
stage. The mummified mole crickets are first filled and then
covered with white hyphae which later bear light green spores
in the case of Metarrhizium anisopliae but have a distinct brick
red appearance in the case of Sorosporella uvella. There are
indications that the fungi are more prevalent on S. vicinus and
appear to be materially reducing the population of this species.

The native mole cricket is found in the heavier moist soils,
and is not a problem on most truck farms.
The eggs are deposited in a pocket-like cell opening into the
permanent burrow of the female. Field samples indicate that
from 30 to 70 light gray eggs may be found in each cell. The
female guards over her eggs and young nymphs. Most of the
eggs were deposited in May, and the incubation period averaged
191/2 days in the life history cages. The nymphs develop rapidly
through the summer with most of them reaching the adult stage
by the time cold weather sets in. Nymphs in the life history
cages transformed into adults in October and November. The
adults of this species have never been observed in flight in this
area and it seems very doubtful that the short wings are large
enough for this purpose.

VOL. XXVI-No. 3 45

The information on life history which has been secured at
Plant City, Florida, as summarized in Table 3 and presented in
Figure 1, agrees quite closely with the data of Tenhet regarding
S. acletus. It appears that there has been no change in the
habits of this species during the ten years it has been under
observation in peninsular Florida.
In general, the life history of S. vicinus in Puerto Rico as
described by Van Zwaluwenburg corresponds to that found for
this species at Plant City. He states that individuals were
brought to the adult stage every month of the year, but that
there seemed to be a fairly well defined preponderance of final
molts during the fall months. He further states that females
(in captivity) deposited eggs every month of the year except
December, the greatest activity being shown during April, May
and June.
The observations on S. vicinus in central Florida indicate
that this somewhat tropical species is more restrained by the
climatic conditions which prevail at Plant City and is kept
within more definite limits of development. This species prac-
tically disappears from the upper soil areas during the normal
winter weather, burrowing only during periods of warm weather.
From November until March it is usually possible to find speci-
mens of this species only by digging deeply into the soil where
they are found at the end of their burrows in a sluggish, almost
inactive, condition.
The fact that the egg laying and hatching periods for all of
the species of mole crickets in this area coincide so closely during
April through June indicates that the cultural practice of deep
plowing as suggested by Tenhet for the control of S. acletus
should merit further attention in the study of control measures
for all species in central Florida.

1. BARRET, O. W. 1902. The Changa, or Mole Cricket in Porto Rico. Porto
Rico Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 2, pp. 19, fig. 1.
2. VAN ZWALUWENBURG, R. H. 1918. The Changa or West Indian Mole
Cricket. Porto Rico Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 23, pp. 28, plates III.
3. WORSHAM, E. L., and REED, W. V. 1912. The Mole Cricket. Georgia
Exp. Sta. Bull. 101, pp. 251-263, figs. 3.


4. REHN, J. A. G., and HEBARD, M. 1916. Studies in the Dermaptera and
Orthoptera of the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Region of the South-
eastern United States. In Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., Vol. 68, pt 2,
pp. 278, 279.
5. COCKERHAM, K. L. 1921. Unpublished Report to Bureau of Entomology,
United States Department of Agriculture.
6. TENHET, J. N. 1938. Unpublished MS. and Reports of Investigations
at Sanford, Florida, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine;
United States Department of Agriculture.

Mr. P. W. Fattig, Curator of the Museum at Emory Univer-
sity, has just (July 1st) published a bulletin (Number 1 of the
Museum) which will be of considerable interest to our readers
who are interested in the velvet ants. Undoubtedly a good per-
centage of the species listed in this bulletin are also found in
Florida and his publication should be very useful to one inter-
ested in the Mutillidae of Florida. He has paragraphs on the
hosts of Mutillidae to which he has added 13 new hosts; also
one on the mating of the Mutillidae. He lists 58 species as found
in Georgia giving the localities in which they were collected. In
all he records 3,793 collections. A bibliography of the group is
also included.
Professor Fattig is well known to the older residents of
Florida, as he was connected with the University for several



Carefully Executed 0 Delivered on Time




Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
Gainesville, Florida


J. R. WATSON, Gainesville--..-....---..--..--... ----.................. -Editor
E. W. BERGER, Gainesville...-.....-----.................... Associate Editor
C. B. WISECUP, Box 309, Plant City...... ....... .....Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.

Since 1938 the tropical bedbug, Cimex hemipterus, has been
collected in human habitations in several widely separated locali-
ties in Florida by students studying entomology at the University
of Florida, indicating that this species has become established
and is widely distributed in the state.
The identity of this species was tentatively confirmed by
George M. List of Colorado State College in 1940 and specifically
confirmed recently by R. I. Sailer of the National Museum.
Records of collections indicating the distribution and estab-
lishment of this species are as follows:
Gainesville, March 1938. All stages were collected in a stu-
dent's room by F. J. Bartlett.
Largo, April 1939. All stages were taken in the house of a
negro by Kelsey Privett.
Lakeland, December 1939. Immature and adults were taken
by George Dillard.
Rochelle, December 1939. Adults were taken by Wallace
Sarasota, June 1940. Adults were taken by Norman Hay-
Gainesville, December 1942. Adults were taken by H. C.


Baker Museum of Natural Science, Rollins College
The following notes on the occurrence of Phoebis philea
Linn.1 in Winter Park, Fla. may be of interest, since this locality
would appear to be out of its normal range. It seems all the
more unusual to have these records when at the same time we
have none at all of P. agarithe.
All of my records are of individuals seen or caught in my
yard in the center of the town, where the butterflies were visiting
a young Acacia bush which had reached a size of about 6 ft. high
by 6 ft. in diameter when the first one was seen around it. It
is now (Jan. 1943) about 8 ft. high and 12 ft. in diameter. I
believe that every butterfly seen has been a female; all of those
caught have been.
The first was captured on Oct. 21, 1941; the second was seen
about mid-December 1941 but the exact date is missing. The
third was caught on Jan. 4, 1942, and a fourth was seen on April
7th. From May 10th, 1942 until Oct. 10th, I was away from
Winter Park. On Oct. 31st another was caught, and one more
on Dec. 27. Another was seen on Jan. 17th, 1943 and the most
recent one on Jan. 25th.
Most of the butterflies have been laying eggs on the bush,
but in spite of this I have seen only two very small caterpillars
which may have hatched from them and I do not think these
survived. At the time of writing this bush has probably 60 eggs
on it, presumably from the most recent visitor.
Mr. D. F. Berry of Orlando tells me that during the period
in which I have seen these he has seen three or four, all apparent-
ly females, around Orlando, but has not caught any. He had
never seen any previously. I think that the Acacia bush would
hardly have been big enough much before the fall of 1941 to at-
tract the butterflies. My work prevents me from keeping the
bush under observation. There may well have been 50 visitors
of this species in the time under consideration, without my hav-
ing any chance to see them.
Most of the butterflies have lost many of the scales on their
wings making their color very pale, but otherwise are in very
good condition.

'Callidryas philea in Holland's "Butterfly Books"-The Red-barred
Sulphur. Florida not included in its range-Ed.

VOL. XXVI-No. 3 49


(Continued from Vol. XXVI, No. 2, page 31)

2. Lestes disjunctus Selys. Lake Jackson, May 3, 1942; Natural
Bridge Creek, May 16, 1942; Pond A, May 16, 1942; Flemming Creek. May
23, 1942; in Florala and Lockhart during May 1942. This was the most
common and widespread lestine found during our collecting. These damsel-
flies were especially abundant in the marshy edges of Lake Jackson. They
managed to conceal themselves so well in the short grass and weeds that
the collector had to beat the grass with the net to flush them. As noted
above, several,individuals were taken in the heart of Florala, some distance
from Lake Jackson.

3. Lestes rectangularis Say. Pond A, May 16, 1942. This pond, as
described previously, was an open woodland pond which had undergone con-
siderable drying up. This had concentrated the animals therein. Nymphs
of this species were taken by the dozens in each dip, and tenerals were
seen by the hundreds perching in the waist-high grass and weeds which
encircled the pond. As the collector walked through the grass hundreds of
tenerals of L. rectangularis were flushed before him. Some were so newly
emerged that after flying a few feet they would fall helpless to the ground.
Several clung to the clothes of the collector, too weak to escape. We were
unable to find a single mature individual, although considerable time was
spent in the vicinity of Pond A.

4. Lestes vigilax Hagen. Pond B, May 23, 1942. This pond was sur-
rounded by a dense thicket of trees and shrubs, in which all our specimens
of L. vigilax were taken. Unlike the other two species of Lestes encounter-
ed in the Florala area, L. vigilax seemed to prefer a heavily shaded area.
Individuals are hard to find in such places and must be flushed by beating
the vegetation with a stick while keeping the net ready for a swift swing.
The presence of thorn bushes and briars did not better the condition of
either the net or the collector. In our collections of L. vigilax elsewhere
they have been taken in similar habitats.

5. Argia bipunctulata (Hagen). Svea, May 12, 15, and 20, 1942; Flem-
ming Creek, May 23, 1942. This was the most common and widespread
Argia found during these collections. In several instances, individuals were
taken at considerable distances from water. In the vicinity of Flemming
Creek the greater number of individuals were seen in the open fields border-
ing the creek or in the marshy area bordering the highway. Relatively few
were observed along the creek itself.

6. Argia fumipennis (Burmeister). Pond Creek, May 3, 1942; Lake
Jackson, May 3, 1942; Flemming Creek, May 23, 1942. A not uncommon
species in the areas listed. Along the road that encircles Lake Jackson
many individuals were seen patrolling the edge of the road and darting
back and forth across the road.


7. Argia tibialis (Rambur). Pond Creek, May 3, 1942. Only two
specimens, both males, were taken during these collections. Further col-
lection, especially later in the summer, would undoubtedly produce greater
numbers of this species.

8. Nehalennia integricollis Calvert. Taken only at Pond B on May 23,
1942. This species was common at this pond, being found both in the
heavily shaded area and in the open.

9. Teleallagma daeckii (Calvert). Taken only at Pond B on May 23,
1942. Two males and one female (one pair in copula) were caught and
several others were seen but were not taken because of the briars. This
was our first encounter with T. daeckii and we hope for more. It is a
beautiful and stately insect in flight.

10. Enallagma civil (Hagen). Pond A, May 15, 1942; Pond B, May
23, 1942. Fairly common around the ponds and evidently a pond-lake spe-

11. Enallagma weewa Byers. A single male was taken at Pond Creek
on May 23, 1942. Further collection in the Florala area, especially later
in the season, will undoubtedly show this species to be much more abun-
dant and widespread. Further collecting should also disclose other species
of Enallagma in the area.

12. Ischnura posita (Hagen). Taken throughout the area and even
invading the towns. Never really abundant but always present, the great-
est number being seen around Lake Jackson.

13. Anomalagrion hastatum (Say). Lake Jackson, April 29 and May
3, 1942; Svea, May 12, 1942; Pond A, May 16, 1942; in Florala and Lock-
hart, May 1942; Pond B, May 23, 1942. A widespread but not common

14. Progomphus obscurus (Rambur). Natural Bridge Creek (2
males), May 16, 1942; Pond Creek (1 male), May 23, 1942. This was the
only gomphine seen during our collections. We were surprised to find no
members of the genus Gomphus, as all the streams examined appeared to
be excellent habitats for this group. Further collections will probably
produce additional species.

15. Anax junius (Drury). Lake Jackson, May 3, 1942; Svea, May 15
and 20, 1942; Flemming Creek, May 23, 1942; in Florala and Lockhart,
May 1942.

16. Nannothemis bella (Uhler). Flemming Creek, May 23, 1942.
Flemming Creek at this point consists of a meandering stream, with sev-
eral small falls, heavily shaded by trees along its course and bordered
by a marshy area abounding in pitcher plants. Where it meets the high-
way there is a large marshy area traversed by a drainage ditch which
empties into the creek. Considerable numbers of N. bella were found in
the marshy area bordering the ditch and along the ditch itself. None were
found along the creek or in the bordering marshes. N. bella seemed limited
to within a few yards of the water, none being taken more than several

VOL. XXVI-No. 3 51

feet away. They flew up and down the ditch and perched on the waterside
and emergent vegetation.
17. Celithemis elisa (Hagen). Only one specimen, a male, of this
species was taken during this study, and that from Pond A on May 16,
18. Libellula auripennis Burmeister. Pond Creek, May 3 and 23, 1942;
Svea, May 15, 1942; Flemming Creek, May 23, 1942; in Florala and Lock-
hart, May 1942; Pond B, May 23, 1942. This was a widespread but un-
common species. Along the Gulf coast it is the most abundant member of
the genus and in many places is the dominant species of the area. Around
Florala, however, it has lost out to L. semifasciata.
19. Libellula semifasciata Burmeister. Found throughout the locale.
A very common species but preferring the open areas. Around Lake Jack-
son numbers were taken while perching on canes. They were nervous and
would take flight at the slightest movement of the collector. Frequently,
after a short circular flight, they would return to the same perch or to a
cane close by. Many specimens were obtained by waiting for the dragonfly
at the perch it had just vacated.
20 and 21. Libellula vibrans Fabricius and L. incesta Hagen. Pond A,
May 16, 1942; Pond B, May 23, 1942. These are shade-loving species. A
few individuals of each were taken in the wooded areas around the two
22. Libellula flavida Rambur. Two males were taken at Flemming
Creek on May 23, 1942.
23. Plathemis lydia (Drury). Lake Jackson, April 29 and May 3,
1942. This is a muddy-pond breeder and a few adults were seen about the
swampy areas bordering Lake Jackson. This species is undoubtedly more
abundant and widespread than is here indicated.
24. Pachydiplax longipennis (Burmeister). Found throughout the
area, never reaching the abundance noted along the Gulf coast.
25. Erythemis simplicicollis (Say). Taken throughout the area in
company with P. longipennis. This species also proved to be an uncommon
26. Erythrodiplax connata minuscule (Rambur). Three males and
two females of this species were taken along the edge of Pond B on May 23,
27. Sympetrum ambiguum (Rambur). A single general female was
collected at Lake Jackson on May 3, 1942. This is an interesting record as
the species was found by the writer in his study of Central Gulf Coast
Odonata to be a shade-loving form that appeared in late summer and lasted
until the first frost of winter. All of the species in the genus Sympetrum
are recorded as autumnal dragonflies. The writer wishes to thank Mrs.
Leonora K. Floyd, Chicago Academy of Sciences, for help in determining
this specimen.
28. Tramea carolina (Linnaeus). A not uncommon species found
throughout the area.

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