Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00252
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1944
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00252
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text

Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
VOL. XXVII APRIL, 1944 No. 1




Again the heavy hand of the grim reaper has taken one of
the oldest and most renowned members of our Society, in the
person of Professor P. H. Rolfs who died at Gainesville, February
23rd. Dr. Rolfs was born at Le Claire, Iowa, on April 17, 1865.
He spent his early years on his father's farm; attended the Iowa
State College of Agriculture, from which he received hi B.Sc.
in 1889 and his M.S. in 1891. He received his D.S. from the Uni-
versity of Florida in 1920. With one brief intermission, Dr.
Rolf's professional activities were, until 1921, all in Florida. He
was Professor of Natural Science at the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station and the Agricultural College, then located
in Lake City, from 1891 to 1899. He was botanist and bacteri-
ologist at Clemson College, South Carolina, from 1899 to 1901.
He returned to Florida in 1901 as Plant Pathologist in charge of
the USDA Sub-tropical Laboratory at Miami. In 1905, he came
to the University as Director of the Experiment Station, a po-
sition which he held until 1921. In 1913 there was added to his
duties the position of Director of Agricultural Extension Division
and in 1915 those of Dean of the Agricultural College as well.
In 1921, at the request of the U. S. Department of State, he went
to Brazil to found the Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veter-
inaria of the State of Minas Gerais. This agricultural college,
Dr. Rolfs established in Vicosa and remained at its head until
1928 when he became Consultor de Agricultura Estado de Minas
Gerais, a position which he held until his retirement in 1933.
After thirty years experience in the development of Florida
agriculture and agricultural education, Dr. Rolfs was admirably
adapted to take up his duties in Brazil. He acquired sufficient
Portuguese to read it easily and gave some addresses in that
language. He was elected to life membership in the AAAS in
1938. He was also life members of the Botannical Society of
America and the Florida Horticultural Society.
Dr. Rolfs' interests were very wide. No one was better ac-
quainted with Florida Horticulture than he. His interest in
flowering plants is shown by the fact that two species of flower-
ing plants were named after him-an oak, Quercus Rolfsii Small,
and a milkweed, Asclepias Rolfsii Britton; in entomology by the
whitefly, Aleurodes rolfsii Quaint; and in mycology by two para-
sitic fungii, Lembrosia Rolfsii and Sclerotium Rolfsii Saccardo,
the latter a very wide-spread and destructive parasite on seed-


ling plants. He is the author of two early extensive works on
horticulture; one on "Vegetable Growing in the South for
Northern Markets" (1896) and "Sub-tropical Vegetable Gar-
den" in 1916. He was the author of fifteen bulletins of the
Experiment Station-two on the San Jose Scale and Bulletin
94, "Fungi Destructive to Scale Insects and Whiteflies". He was
a pioneer in this field. He was the author of twenty Press Bulle-
tins-two on entomological subjects and eight circulars of the
USDA. Forty-three of his papers have been published in the
Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society. He
wrote five important bulletins for the USDA; No. 140, on "Pine-
apple Growing"; No. 238, on "Citrus Growing in the Gulf
States"; No. 538, on "Sites, Soils and Varieties of Citrus Groves
in the Gulf States"; No. 539, "Propogation of Citrus Trees in
the Gulf States"; No. 542, on "Culture, Fertilization and Frost
Protection of Citrus Groves in the Gulf States". For the Bureau
of Plant Industry of the USDA, he wrote Bulletin No. 52, on
"Withertip and other Diseases of Citrus Trees and Fruits" and
Bulletin 61, on the "Avocado in Florida". He published in the
Proceedings of the Pomological Society in 1911, an extensive
article on the "Mango in Florida"; in the Botannical Gazette of
1892, one of the "Seed-coats of Malvaceae"; in the Proceedings
of the Society for promotion of Agricultural Science he wrote
"Notes on Citrus Investigation for Florida"; in 1899, in the
Proceedings of St. Louis Academy of Science, an article on the
"Lichens of Florida". In Brazil, with his daughter, Clarissa, as
co-author, he wrote one hundred and fourteen bulletins and ar-
ticles on Horticulture, all but two are in Portuguese. One of
the largest was on the "Muda de Citrus", in 1931. Dr. Rolfs
possessed a talent almost amounting to genius for selecting
plants which might be successful in any given region. The Avo-
cado industry of central Brazil is based on his importing into
that country, better varieties of Guatemalan avocados, which
had been developed in the States.
The first tung oil trees planted experimentally at the Flor-
ida Experiment Station were confided to his care. With his
scientific "coddling" he was instrumental in getting this, now,
important Florida industry off to a flying start.
He was probably the foremost world authority on the horti-
culture of the Flacourtiaceae, including the species from which
the cures of leprosy are made. If returning United States
soldiers establish new foci of this disease, as is feared in some


quarters, Dr. Rolfs' pioneering work in this field may prove of
great value in this country, as it has already done in Brazil.
He was largely instrumental in building up the commercial cit-
rus plantings in Brazil.
Dr. Rolfs was an avid traveler, always studying agriculture
and agricultural education. He had been in all but two of the
American States, and in all but three of the twenty Brazilian
States. He traveled extensively in other South American coun-
tries and in Mexico.
Dr. Rolfs was extremely fortunate in his selection of a life
partner, Miss Effie Stone, whom he married in 1892. Mrs. Rolfs
preceded him in death in 1929. They left two daughters, Miss
Clarissa Rolfs and Mrs. Effie Hargrave and four grand-children.
Mrs. Rolfs and daughters were worthy helpmates, always cheer-
ful, ready for any adventure, always collaborating fully within
their own spheres. Dr. and Mrs. Rolfs and daughter made many
devoted friends in Brazil, where they lived in the interior and
so became thoroughly acquainted with all Brazilians.
Dr. Rolfs always showed an intense and friendly interest in
the members of his force and was constantly in active and close
touch with their activities through both group meetings and
private conferences. He built up the Experiment Station, a
very small institution when he took charge.
The Students of the Minas Agricultural College almost idol-
ized this ideal couple of Americans. At the initiative of the
graduating class of 1942, a bronze bust of Dr. Rolfs was un-
veiled, on March 1st of 1943, in front of the entrance to the main
building of the Agricultural College. Dr. Rolfs found great
amusement in the fact that every freshman was required to sa-
lute this bust every time he passed near it. Dr. Rolfs, Mrs.
Rolfs, and daughter Clarissa did much to cement the friendship
between their native country and Brazil. The opportunity to
do this had much to do with his decision to accept the call to
Brazil. -Eds.

Carefully Executed 0 Delivered on Time

.~ .


Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
Gainesville, Florida

VOL. XXVII APRIL, 1944 No. 1

J. R. WATSON, Gainesville----- -------....----......-------Editor
E. W. BERGER, Gainesville-.......----------.........Associate Editor
C. B. WISECUP, Box 3391, Orlando.... .......--.- Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.

Crambus haytiellus (Zincken) AS A PEST
Entomologist, Research Department
United States Sugar Corporation

Crambus haytiellus (Zincken) has been reported from sev-
eral locations in Florida, as well as from Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto
Rico, Santo Domingo, Panama, and Mexico. It has been re-
ported at least once as a pest of economic importance. Moznette
states that this species caused considerable damage to lawns of
Bermuda and Japanese grass at Miami and Coconut Grove,
Florida, in the spring and summer of 1921. The observations
reported herein, although limited in scope, indicate that this
insect may assume a role of considerable importance as a pest
of Carpet grass pastures, at least in certain areas of Florida.
According to Dr. Carl Heinrich,1 the species was first de-
scribed by Zincken under the name of C. haytiellus in 1821. The
same insect was described later by Walker (1866) under the
name C. profanellus. Thus the latter name becomes a synonym
of C. haytiellus.
Some laboratory work was conducted to supplement the ob-
servations made in the field. While both were carried on con-

1 Senior entomologist, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.


currently, for the sake of convenience, the laboratory results
are presented first.
Field-collected moths were obtained, both by sweeping with
a net and in a light trap, in order to get some information on
oviposition. The eggs are deposited singly and are not attached
in any way to the surface upon which they are placed. Moths
were placed in an enclosure with access to small pots of Ber-
muda, St. Augustine, and Carpet grass. Eggs were deposited
on the surface of the soil or on the litter composed of dead leaves
of the grass and cow manure. A few more eggs were deposited
in the pot containing Carpet than in the one containing St.
Augustine grass. Very few eggs were found in the pot con-
taining Bermuda grass.
In another test, moths were inclosed in a cage with a floor
composed of soil similar to that in the pasture discussed later.
There were two small patches of Carpet grass in each half of
the cage with one being several inches higher in elevation than
the other. One half of the cage was quite wet while the other
was relatively dry. Practically all of the eggs were found in
the wet half of the cage. There was no difference in the num-
bers of eggs found at the higher and lower elevations. All of
the eggs were found on the surface of the bare soil, but most
of them were in close proximity to the patches of grass.
Individual females were placed in test tubes to get oviposi-
tion records. Approximately half of these deposited some eggs.
The total number of eggs deposited by individual moths ranged
from three to fifty-one, with an average of thirty for those that
oviposited at all. These moths were not fed.
The eggs which are creamy white when first oviposited
- were placed in petri dishes on moist paper toweling to hatch.
At prevailing temperatures during October and November, the
duration of the egg stage was from five to seven days.
Newly hatched larvae were placed in two-ounce salve tins
containing foliage of Bermuda, Carpet and St. Augustine grass.
A large majority of these larvae chose the St. Augustine foliage
in preference to the other two grasses. Of the remainder, ap-
proximately equal numbers were found to be feeding on Carpet
and Bermuda grass. A number of field-collected larvae rep-
resenting principally the last three instars were placed in in-
dividual two-ounce salve tins with a choice of the same three
grasses. In every instance the larvae fed on the Bermuda in
preference to the other two grasses. Although this procedure


was repeated later with another group of larvae, the results
were the same.
Other newly hatched larvae were divided into three batches
and one series started on each of the three grasses mentioned
above. High mortality was encountered, apparently due to in-
ability to keep the moisture of the tins at the proper level and
to disturbance of the webbing of the larvae in changing to fresh
food. None of the lot on St. Augustine survived longer than
three weeks. Equal numbers were reared to maturity on Ber-
muda and Carpet grass. The duration of the larval stage was
from 35-40 days in these hearings.
The pupal stage, which is passed in a strong silken cocoon,
was found to average approximately two weeks in duration.
All of the field observations recorded herein were made in
an 80-acre pasture of Carpet grass located about two miles north-
west of Clewiston, Florida. The grass was growing on a sandy
soil which contained 1.5-2 per cent organic matter. The grass
was planted in December, 1941. From 80 to 100 steers were
grazed on this pasture from the summer of 1942 till the end
of July, 1943. All the cattle were then removed to allow the
grass to set seed. The seed was harvested the middle of Septem-
ber and the cattle returned to the pasture. They were removed
a couple of weeks later when the spots of dead grass were noted.
The writer first visited this patsure on October 6, 1943, to
determine, if possible, the cause of the spots of dead grass. At
that time, approximately one third of the stand of grass had
been killed. Observations were made at weekly intervals until
the end of November.
The surface of the pasture was not perfectly level: there
were slight knolls at frequent intervals which were several
inches higher in elevation than the surrounding area. At the
time of the initial examination of the pasture, there were spots
scattered fairly uniformly over the entire area in which all the
grass was entirely dead. These dead spots were roughly circular
in outline, varying from two to several feet in diameter. Almost
invariably, the dead areas were to be found at the higher eleva-
tions. At first glance there appeared to be a very distinct line
of demarkation between affected and unaffected areas. Later
it was found that where the larvae were active there was actually
a transition zone between the dead and healthy grass. The
grass in this area had a small amount of green leaf surface still
showing. The leaf blades were usually eaten down to within a


fraction of an inch of the leaf sheaths and the webbing of the
larvae was very evident. This transition zone was rather con-
stant in width, usually about one foot wide. A large majority
of all the larvae present could be found in this area.
Since the dead areas upon first examination were very similar
in appearance to what might be expected from an infestation
of white grubs, the first step taken was to determine whether
the dead sod could be pulled up freely. It was soon apparent
that the roots of the dead grass were still largely intact. It was
also apparent upon close examination that a great deal of de-
foliation had taken place, although from a distance this was not
evident. Carpet grass grows in such a manner that a healthy
sod appears perfectly green, but the removal of most of the
green leaves uncovers enough dead ones to make it appear that
the grass has died with all its leaves intact. Later, diggings
were made in healthy and dead grass to determine whether or
not root-infesting insects were present. A few wireworms were
found, but in such small numbers that they could not possibly
have been in any degree responsible for the damage.
The margins of the dead spots were then examined and larvae
of all stages except those of the first instar were easily found.
Larvae of all sizes were found in abundance, there being no
evidence of any definite broods. Later examinations tended to
substantiate this conclusion. Adults and pupae were found in
abundance throughout the entire period that the pasture was
under observation. Eggs were not found at any time in the
Following the initial observations, the injury to the grass
progressed rather rapidly, both by increase and coalescence of
the existing dead spots and the appearance of new ones. By the
end of October it was estimated that four-fifths of the total grass
area was dead. The advent of cooler weather seemed to slow
down the rate at which the grass was being killed, but by the
end of November not more than one tenth of the original grass
still remained alive. On the latter date there was still a rather
distinct break between the dead and living grass except for the
intermediate zone, as previously noted. It was not uncommon
at this time to see a spot of apparently noninfested grass pos-
sibly only a foot in diameter surrounded entirely by dead grass.
A few spots of Bermuda grass were present in one corner
of the pasture. The carpet grass surrounding these spots was
entirely killed, while very little evidence of feeding was observed


on the Bermuda. There were also some small spots of carpet
in an adjoining pasture of Bermuda. In many instances the
feeding of the webworms had entirely killed the carpet and left
the surrounding Bermuda intact. Since the field-collected larvae
in the laboratory showed a strong preference for the Bermuda,
this result was surprising. The apparent reason lies in the
difference in the growth habits of the two grasses. The carpet
grass by making a low, dense mat of green foliage in close
proximity to the soil surface, offered an ideal hiding place for
the larvae. The Bermuda on the other hand, with its more up-
right habit of growth, had most of its green foliage a little dis-
tance off the surface of the soil. Also in the laboratory the
adults showed a preference for the areas where carpet grass
was growing as a site for oviposition. It appeared that the
larvae travelled only very short distances from the original point
of hatching.
It seemed that the larval stage, at least, of C. haytiellus was
relatively free of natural enemies. A small spider was found
to be fairly abundant in the infested sod, but was not observed
to prey on the webworms. Ants also were commonly seen in
the infested area and were seen occasionally carrying a dead
webworm back to their nest. Early in October a few cocoons
of an Ichneumonid wasp were collected along with the web-
worms. Adults reared from these cocoons were determined 2
as "Limneria" pattoni Ashmead. A hymenopterous larva issued
from a field-collected larva of C. haytiellus, but died without
pupating. It was presumably L. pattoni. Subsequent collec-
tions of larvae failed to reveal the presence of any more cocoons
of L. pattoni. Thus even though it may have been parasitic on
C. haytiellus it was of little importance.

1. AINSLIE, G. G. Crambinae of Florida
The Florida Entomologist 6: 51. 1923.
2. GROSSBECK, J. A. Insects of Florida IV
Bul. Amer. Museum Nat. Hist. 1: 125. 1917.
3. MOZNETTE, G. F. Notes on a Destructive Lawn Insect
Florida Grower 24 (22): 13. 1921.

2 Determination by Dr. H. K. Townes, Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.


Diatraea saccharalis Linn.

This report covers in summary, an investigation conducted
upon the sugar cane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis Linn., ex-
tending from March through December 1941. It is of signifi-
cance in that it is the only one of its kind ever attempted to date
in Florida. It has attempted to determine some of the facts
concerning the life cycle and habits of the sugar cane borer as
it occurs in the Everglades section of Florida. Although studies
of this nature have been carried on in other areas, the data ob-
tained do not apply to the Florida conditions in many instances.
A very important study of this kind has been in progress
at the United States Sugar Cane Experiment Station at Houma,
Louisiana, for the past several years. Work there has been de-
veloped to a point of considerable efficiency and accuracy under
Ingram, Bynum, Holloway, Mathis and others. Several publi-
cations have been issued as the result of this and closely asso-
ciated studies, from the Houma station. The present work has
been partially based upon some of these investigations.
The writer deeply appreciates the assistance of Dr. John W.
Wilson under whose council and direction this work was per-
D. saccharalis eggs were obtained for daily incubation records
in the laboratory, by collecting pupae and using the eggs laid by
the emerging adults. The pupae were obtained usually from
collections made while determining the percentage of parasitiza-
tion of individual fields of sugar cane. The pupae were kept
in a glass petri dish until the adults had emerged.
Pint ice cream cartons were used for laying quarters for
the adult moths. Waxed paper, which had been crumpled, was
used favorably as a surface for the eggs to be laid upon. The
waxed paper somewhat resembles in texture the natural laying
habitat, the cane leaf.
Each morning the paper, including the eggs which were laid
thereon the previous night, was removed from the carton and
replaced by fresh paper. These eggs were examined daily, each


day's batch having been separated into individual tin pill boxes.
The length of the incubation period was observed and recorded.
In the larval studies the newly hatched larvae were placed
in the tin pill boxes with two pieces of sugar cane leaf. Five
larvae were placed in each box, until immediately following the
first molt in order to save much time and exacting labor.
Following the first molt, the larvae were transferred to in-
dividual glass tubes. These tubes were one inch in diameter,
four inches long, open on both ends to facilitate cleaning, and
stoppered with metal caps. Cane leaf was still used as food.
The lower part with the larger midrib was preferred in this
stage. These were replaced with fresh leaves often enough to
prevent drying out or molding. The larvae would seldom if ever
eat the entire leaf before it needed to be replaced.
The glass tubes were kept in a dark cabinet to simulate the
dark interior of the sugar can stalk. Records were kept during
the daily observations.
After the second or third molt, the cane leaves were discon-
tinued as food and 21/2-inch pieces of cane stalk, cut from the
part above the growing point, were used instead. This food was
replaced as often as necessary as shown above.
Following the third or fourth molt, (larvae about 1 centi-
meter long), the growing stalk was exchanged for solid pieces
of cane stalk about 2 inches long. This food was used until
pupation of the larvae. It was also necessary to change this
for new pieces to prevent the development of fungi.
Corn stalks were occasionally substituted for cane stalks as
food. The larvae apparently developed as rapidly on the corn
as they did on the cane stalks. Usually in warm weather the
corn did not develop fungi as rapidly as did sugar cane, par-
ticularly if it was dried in the open air before being placed in
the tubes.

The summary of the egg laying record of twenty Diatraea
saccharalis females at the Everglades Experiment Station, be-
tween August 23rd and September 10th, 1941, follows:
Average preoviposition period, five unmated females 3.6 days
Average preoviposition period, eleven mated females 2.3 days
Average length of egg-laying period, all females...... 3.2 days
Average length of life of unmated females (5) ........ 6.0 days
Average length of life of mated females (11) -.... 4.4 days


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Average number of eggs laid by unmated females --.. 66.6 eggs
Average number of eggs laid by mated females _...- 221.7 eggs
Av. no. eggs in body of unmated females at death .... 235.8 eggs
Av. no. eggs in body of mated females at death ...--... 119.0 eggs
The duration of the incubation period of D. saccharalis eggs
was studied daily between February 25, 1941 and November 29,
1941. The period of incubation at room temperature, varied
from 15 days on March 7th, to 5 days in July and August, and
to 11 days on November 8th. The percentage of hatch was
recorded also in September, October and November, and aver-
aged around 75 per cent. The writer considers these figures
fairly accurate, due to the close daily observations and recording
of data.
During the time covered in this study 4 generations of
Diatraea saccharalis were observed. These 4 generations were
were consecutive, in fact they over-lapped, with the exception
of the first and the second. A lapse of time from May 23rd to
July 9th occurred between these generations due to factors that
were beyond the writer's control.
The accompanying table is a composite summary of the
studies conducted and shows for the 4 generations the duration
of the various stages.
This study as carried on is insufficient evidence on which to
base definite conclusions as to how many generations occur or
how many molts the larvae of the D. saccharalis go through
under Florida conditions. However, many important facts have
been established which might readily be used as a beginning
for further studies of the ecological relations of the pest in this
locality. Due to the national emergency of war, there will prob-
ably be no further work done here on this particular subject
at least until after peace has been established.

Cryptocephalus marginicollis Suffr. (Col.)
The writer has recently received four tiny beetles from Mr.
Fred O. Somerford of Catalina de Guinas, Cuba. He makes the
following statement concerning the activities of this beetle:
..... "During over thirty years of grove management here
where I own a small grove of mostly Valencia oranges, this is
(Continued on Page 18)


Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Agricultural Research Administration
United States Department of Agriculture

In two previous articles (Fla. Ent. 14: 1-7, 1930 and Fla.
Ent. 17: 21-27, 1933) the author has listed 107 forms of ants
found to occur in Florida. Recently 10 additional ones have
come to his attention, 2 of which are new to science and are
therefore described below. It seems desirable to record these
new additions and, where possible, to comment on their habits.

108. Proceratium croceum (Roger)
Palatka (Wilda S. Ross).
This form nests most commonly in moist, rather well rotted
logs and stumps, especially of pine. The colonies are composed
of only a few dozen individuals.

109. Euponera (Trachymesopus) gilva (Roger)
Palatka (Wilda S. Ross).
Colonies are small, usually containing from a few dozen to
about one hundred individuals. Males and winged females are
generally produced in May and June.

110. Aphaenogaster (Attcmyrma) floridana M. R. Smith

Archbold Biological Station, 10 miles south of Lake Placid
(T. C. Schneirla).
A single worker was collected from the surface of the soil
in an open sandy area covered with a thin stand of scrub pine
and pine needles. The type locality is Gretna, Fla.

111. Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) texana macrospina M. R. Smith
Coral Gables (Robt. E. Gregg) ; Archbold Biological Station,
10 miles south of Lake Placid (T. C. Schneirla).

112. Pheidole dentigula M. R. Smith
Wakulla Springs (Wilda S. Ross).
The species nests in the soil and also in well rotted stumps.
The author has usually found colonies to occur in wooded areas,
especially where the soil contained considerable humus.


113. Cardiocondyla venustula Wheeler
Hollywood, Florida (D. E. Read). Apparently this is the
only record of the occurrence of this species in the United States.
In Puerto Rico this ant nests in the soil, especially in gravelly
places such as sea beaches and creek bottoms.

114. Solenopsis pergandei Forel
Archbold Biological Station, 10 miles south of Lake Placid
(T. C. Schneirla); U. S. Naval Hospital,, Pensacola (R. M.
Lhamon and F. F. Bibby).
At the Archbold Biological Station this species was taken on
several occasions, once as thief ants nesting on the margin of a
colony of the new Formica described below; here numerous
queens and extensive brood were observed. Another time the
ants were collected from small crater nests in sandy loam, in
open semiboggy ground, near scrub. A third nest was found
in loamy soil beneath a shallow layer of moss where the surface
of the moss was covered by a 3-inch layer of pine needles.
Within a space 6 inches in diameter there were numerous crater-
like openings.

115. Strumigenys (Cephaloxys) dietrichi M. R. Smith
Crescent City, collection of Theodore Pergande.

116. Dorymyrmex pyramicus flavopectus, new subspecies
WORKER.-Length 2.6 mm.
Head, exclusive of mandibles, approximately one and one-sixth times
as long as broad, with convex sides, and such well rounded posterior corners
as to give the posterior border an almost rounded appearance. Scape
slender, curved, approximately one and two-tenths times length of head.
Mandible with 7 teeth; the first, second, and fourth teeth larger than the
others. Under surface of head with a psammophore. Thorax slender; in
profile, the dorsum of promesonotum forming a long, low, even convexity.
Mesoepinotal impression weakly developed. Conical elevation approxi-
mately one-half basal length of epinotum. Legs long and slender.
Hairs sparse, confined to under surface of head, mandibles, clypeus,
frontal carinae, coxae, and dorsal and ventral surfaces of gaster.
Mandibles and clypeus, but especially thorax, yellowish; remainder of
body blackish. Legs in some lights not so dark as the head and gaster.
TYPE LOCALITY.-Archbold Biological Station, 10 miles south of Lake
Placid, Fla., collected by T. C. Schneirla, August 24, 1943.
HOLOTYPE.-United States National Museum No. 56764.
The holotype and 12 paratypes were collected by Dr. Schneirla
from a low, craterlike nest in open sandy loam near a growth of


pines. The galleries of the nest led through 6 inches of sandy
loam into a red sandy layer below. Specimens of this new sub-
species were also collected by Dr. Schneirla from a similar nest
in a sandy expanse among sparse pines and scrub. An irregular
column of workers 3 inches broad was observed traveling from
the one-half-inch nest entrance to another crater 3 yards away.
This new subspecies is easily recognized by the slender form
of the worker, the distinctive shape of the head, and especially
by the striking colgr markings.

117. Formica pallidefulva archboldi, new subspecies
WORKER.-Length 6.5 mm.
Head, exclusive of mandibles, approximately one and one-sixth times
as long as broad, with rounded posterior corners, and rounded posterior
border. Scape flattened, curved, approximately one and one-sixth times
length of head. Frontal carinae subparallel, not widely separated from
each other. Clypeus sharply carinate, anterior border entire. Frontal area
triangular, distinct. Teeth on mandibles variable in number, usually rang-
ing from 7 to 10. Maxillary palpus 6-segmented. In profile, dorsum of
promesonotum not strongly convex, the evenness of the line interrupted by
the anterior border of the mesonotum, which protrudes slightly above the
posterior border of the mesonotum. Basal surface of epinotum merging
into the declivity without forming a definite line of demarcation between
the two regions. Petiole convex in front, more flattened behind, with rather
blunt, almost rounded, transverse, superior border.
Head and thorax, especially the former, with a delicate sculpturing
which, in some lights at least, imparts a subopaque appearance to these
regions. Mandibles striate-punctate.
Hairs suberect to erect, sparse on head and thorax, coarse and numer-
ous on gaster. Under surface of head usually with one or more hairs,
occasionally without any, superior border of petiole apparently always with
a few erect hairs; coxae, trochanters, and especially lower surface of legs
with scattered, erect hairs.
Body very dark brown, almost black; gaster, however, darker than
either head or thorax.
TYPE LOCALITY.-Archbold Biological Station, 10 miles south of Lake
Placid, Fla., collected by T. C. Schneirla, October 7, 1943.
OTHER LOCALITIES.-Florida: Sanford (A. B. Gahan). Georgia: 5
miles south of Brunswick (Wilda S. Ross).
HOLOTYPE.-United States National Museum No. 56765.
Paratypes range from 6-7 mm. in length. The erect hairs on the under
surface of the head are absent in about 25 percent of the paratype speci-
mens, but they are constant on the superior border of the petiole in all

This new subspecies is definitely a variant of pallidefulva
Latr. The pilosity of the worker is such that this ant might be


confused with pallidefulva schaufussi incerta Emery. The
worker can be distinguished from that of incerta, however, by
the peculiar subopaque appearance of its body and very dark,
almost black color. Although the worker of moki Wheeler also
has a subopaque body it can be readily distinguished from that
of archboldi by the absence of erect hairs on the thorax, on the
under surface of the head, and on the petiole, and by the bronzy
luster given off in certain lights by the gaster and posterior por-
tion of the head. Moreover, F. moki is known to occur only in
the Western States.
A nest of the new subspecies was found beneath a clump of
grass, where it was concentrated in sandy loam and rootlets, 7
inches above the waterline and over a space not more than 1
foot in diameter. The general nesting site was in an open sandy
area surrounded by palmettos and bushes but near the edge
of a swamp. The colony contained about 1,000 workers, 400
individuals in the brood, and a queen. On several occasions Dr.
Schneirla collected foraging workers from low-growing bushes
in sandy areas.
This subspecies is named in honor of Richard Archbold, the
owner of the Archbold Biological Station, who not only encour-
aged Dr. Schneirla in a study of the ants of the station but who
showed a special interest in the habits of this particular ant.

In 1917, the writer published in the Florida Buggist, Volume
I, Number 1, a notice of the discovery on February 25th, of a
mourning cloak butterfly, Aglais antiopa. None have been seen
since until February of this year when one was taken. This
first observation, made about a mile west of the campus of the
University, was the farthest south the insect had ever been re-
corded. This year's, on February 9th, was made on the shores
of Newnan's lake about three miles east and a mile south of
Gainesville, so this becomes the "furthest south" of any record
of this butterfly in Florida. The only other record from Florida
is St. Augustine, where, according to the record of Grossbeck's
"Lepidoptera of Florida" it is rare. The caterpillar feeds in wil-
lows and elms. There are two broods in the northern states -
how many in Florida we do not know, but it may be of some
significance that the only two records we have have both been
in February. J. R. WATSON


(Continued from Page 13)
the only insect that eats the tiny little oranges in any quantity,
and their ravages are fierce and very costly to the grower, and
especially to late bloom, the only fruit getting a chance to live
and grow thru is that from the very early bloom, say January,
before this insect gets active enough to do any damage; and the
real damage is not the wounded, or scarred fruit that lives and
develops, it is the thousands and tens of thousands that are so
badly eaten they fall off, and in some instances this damage will
run as high as 25% of all tiny fruit; they work mostly at night
and are hard to find, however, late of evenings, especially if it
has rained, they can be found, almost always busy eating on the
tiny fruit, but never on leaves and I really believe they can eat
their weight in fruit every 24 hours. It is not the unsightly
fruit, scarred and wounded that hurts the grower it is the
thousands and tens of thousands that are eaten so badly that
they fall off and are lost."
Never having seen this beetle before, the writer sent it to
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine in Washing-
ton, where it was identified by Mr. H. S. Barber as Crypto-
cephalus marginicollis Suffr.
Mr. Muesebeck makes the following statement about the
distribution and habits of this insect, as far as known: "This
appears to be very common in Cuba, but we have no previous
record of injury to oranges. Since material in our collection
is marked as having been taken from a variety of different
plants, we should assume that the species is a rather general
feeder. The larval habits of the group of Chrysomelidae to
which this form belongs are obscure. However, the meager
records available indicate that the species are probably all case-
bearers and that the larvae feed on dead vegetable material on
the surface of the soil.
All the specimens in our collection are from Cuba, except one
taken by Dr. Schwarz in 1879 at Nassau, in the Bahamas."
Mr. Somerford enclosed some of the young fruit with the
beetles and there was no doubt about their having been severely
chewed by the beetles. He also enclosed the rind of an orange
which was badly scarred, as he says, also, by this beetle.
The beetle is a tiny thing, only about 3/16 of an inch in
length. The ground color of the thorax and the elatra is a
brownish yellow with dark brown or heavy black markings.

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