Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00251
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1944
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00251
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society

VOL. XXVII JULY, 1944 No. 2

(Homoptera: Aphididae)

In August 1941, the writers spent a short vacation in the
mountains of western North Carolina and while there, devoted
some time to the collecting of aphids. An Amphorophora was
taken on rhododendron, mountain laurel, and wild azalea, which
seemed somewhat similar to a species of this genus previously
taken on the wild azalea in Florida. Shortly after returning
home, the junior author took what appeared to be the same
species on rhododendron in Pennsylvania, and the following year
he collected the aphid on rhododendron, mountain laurel, and
wild azalea. Specimens of the North Carolina aphids were
submitted to P. W. Mason, who stated that they belonged to a
species which he had seen before, but which was undescribed.
Through correspondence, it was learned that Clyde F. Smith
of the North Carolina Experiment Station, had on several oc-
casions taken an Amphorophroa on rhododendron and related
plants, and a few slides of the aphids from Pennsylvania and
Tennessee were found in other collections. Although these
aphids all appeared to be alike, it was not known whether all
were the same species, or if more than one species was involved.
The writers, therefore, decided to make detailed studies of all
available material, in an attempt to settle this point. As a result
of these studies we have reached the conclusion that there is
one variable species which extends from north-central Florida,
through North Carolina and into Pennsylvania. Further col-
SDepartment of Entomology, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
SDepartment of Extension Entomology, State College, Pennsylvania.
Published A __ .... .' 1944


lecting may show that its range is co-extensive with the range
of its host plants. In addition to this widely distributed species,
a second species was discovered in a collection of aphids taken
on mountain laurel in Pennsylvania. This proved different from
any known species of Amphorophora.
We wish to express our appreciation of the helpful advice
of Dr. P. W. Mason of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, who has also made available for study, specimens
of the aphid from the national museum collection. We are also
grateful to Dr. Clyde F.. Smith of the North Carolina Experi-
ment Station, who permitted us to use and study his numerous
slides of the aphid and who has given information concerning
its biology and appearance.

Alate Viviparous Female Figs. 1, 3, 6, and 8

COLoR.-Living aphids from the wild azalea in Florida were
principally used in obtaining these color notes though these have
been supplemented by observations made elsewhere. The body
is predominantly light yellowish-brown and the appendages vary
from dark brown to a deep shining black. In some specimens,
the body shows a faint greenish tinge. Head, thorax, and
abdomen usually nearly concolorous, but the head and the pos-
terior portion of the abdomen sometimes more yellowish than
the other parts. Eyes, reddish brown with dark brown ocular
tubercles; ocelli bordered with dark brown rings. Antennal
tubercles dusky brown. Antennae with first two segments
medium brown, the remaining segments dark brown to deep
black. In some individuals a very small basal portion of seg-
ment III is yellowish. Rostrum light brown with apical portion
dark brown to black. Dorsal thoracic lobes slightly darker than
rest of thorax. Wings hyaline, stigma greyish-brown, subcosta
yellowish-brown, remaining veins light brown, the anal and
cubital veins bordered with dark brown shading. Femora of
all legs yellow at the base, middle portion light brown, apical
portion black. Tibiae usually entirely black, the middle portion
sometimes dark brown; tarsi dark brown or black. Cornicles
black, the extreme base sometimes yellowish brown. Cauda
and anal plate yellowish, the cauda often dusky toward the
apex. Some individuals have a row of dark reddish-brown spots
along each side of the abdomen and an area of similar color


around the base of each cornicle. Immature aphids with a
pulverulent coating which gives them an ashy or silvery appear-
ance, this condition sometimes persisting in adult apterae.
HEAD AND APPENDAGES.-Antennal tubercles of moderate
size, strongly diverging. Ocelli rather large, eyes with promi-
nent ocular tubercles. A pair of slightly raised, rounded tuber-
cles usually present on the basal half of the dorsum of head.
These vary greatly in size and in some individuals appear to be
lacking. Antennae one-third to one-half longer than the body,
strongly curved, bent backward and elevated over the body when
insect is at rest. Beak extending nearly to hind coxae. Head
and its appendages with rather prominent, thick spines, those
on front of head and basal antennal segments often definitely
capitate or spatulate. Considerable variation is noted in the
length and prominence of these spines in different individuals
from each of the localities where the aphid has been taken.
Third antennal segment feebly imbricated toward the apex, re-
maining segments with rather strong imbrications. Segment
III with 22-41 large, subcircular, slightly raised sensoria, ir-
regularly scattered over one side and extending nearly its full
THORAX AND APPENDAGES.-Florida speciments with lateral
prothoracic tubercles small and inconspicuous, sometimes ap-
parently entirely lacking; mesothorax with a prominent multiple
tubercle on each side of the anterior margin. In North Carolina
and Pennsylvania specimens, the prothoracic tubercles generally
are better developed, the mesothoracic ones less so. Legs of
moderate length, armed with rather prominent reclining spines,
those on basal part of the tibiae sometimes somewhat capitate
or spatulate.
ABDOMEN AND APPENDAGES.-Dorsum of abdomen rather
sparsely armed with pointed spines which are somewhat less
heavy than those on the head and appendages. Cornicles averag-
ing slightly shorter than antennal III, moderately swollen, the
apical portion sharply constricted; rather feebly imbricated,
the constricted apical portion with definite, coarse reticulations.
In some individuals a small pointed spine is found on the swollen
part of the cornicle. Cauda less than half as long as the cor-
nicles, slightly constricted near the middle, rather strongly im-
bricated, with three pairs of slightly curved lateral hairs and
a single subapical, dorsal hair. Lateral abdominal tubercles in-
conspicuous, sometimes apparently entirely absent. In well-


cleared specimens, two rows of segmentally arranged wax pores
are visible on each side of the dorsum of the abdomen.
MEASUREMENTS.-Careful measurements were made of vari-
ous body parts of ten alate females from each of the three states
where the aphid has been much collected. These measurements
(all measurements given in this paper are mm.) are summar-
ized in the following tables:

Antennal Measurements (Average of ten individuals)
S Sensoria V
Locality III on III IV V VI

Florida ...................... .844 26.5 .556 .497 .136 + .893
North Carolina ............ .942 31.8 .759 .624 .172 + 1.058
Pennsylvania .....--.......... .866 30.1 .679 .610 .165 + 1.046

Other Measurements (Average of ten individuals)

Antennal Measurements (Range in ten individuals)
Lo y Sensoriaj
Locality I III on III 1 IV V VI

Florida .............. .799- .911 22-30 .488-.622 .444-.533 .135-.155 +.844-1.022
North Carolina .866-1.000 28-41 .688-.866 .555-.688 .155-.188 +.977-1.199
Pennsylvania .. .733- .9331 27-37 .577-.777 .511-.688 .155-.177 +.955-1.177

Other Measurements (Range in ten individuals)

Width Width Length
Locality of Width of of Hind
head Length at reticu- cauda tibia
bulge lated

Florida ................ -- .444-.488 .622-.755.073-.085.039-.046 .233-.3111.688-1.955
North Carolina .. .511-.533 .799-.955 .085-.106 .046-.053 .311-.422 2.111-2.422
Pennsylvania ...... 488-.511 .733-.866 .086-.099 .046-.053 .311-377 1.822-2.177


Apterous Viviparous Female Figs. 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12.
COLOR.-Coloration in this form much as in the alate female,
the first two antennal segments somewhat lighter brown, and
more light brown on the legs, than in the alate. The pulverulent
coating sometimes persists to the adult stage in this form, giv-
ing some individuals a silvery or ashy appearance.
HEAD AND APPENDAGES.-Antennal tubercles of moderate
size, strongly diverging. Dorsum of head usually with a pair
of rounded tubercles located in about same position as in alate,
and varying much in size in different individuals. Rostrum
reaching hind coxae. Head and appendages armed with gen-
erally capitate or spatulate spines which vary much in length
but usually are much more prominent than in the alate. Sub-
circular sensoria irregularly placed on one side of segment III,
usually restricted to basal half but sometimes extending beyond
the middle. Apical portion of III feebly imbricated, the follow-
ing segments more definitely so.
THORAX AND APPENDAGES.-Lateral pro- and mesothoracic
tubercles varying much in size but apparently always present.
Legs much as in the alate, the spines usually somewhat more
prominent than in that form.
ABDOMEN AND APPENDAGES.-Lateral tubercles generally bet-
ter developed than in the alate, often present on all but the last
segment. Each side of the dorsum with two rows of wax pores
as in the alate. Cornicles much as in the alate, usually slightly
shorter than antennal III. Cauda somewhat broader than in
alate with the constriction less noticeable.
MEASUREMENTS.-Ten apterous females from three localities
were measured. These measurements are summarized in the
following tables:

Antennal Measurements (Average of ten individuals)
Locality III on III IV V VI

Florida ........................... .886 4.9 .546 .504 .139 + .902
North Carolina --............ 1.009 4.7 .733 .622 .167 + 1.040
Pennsylvania ....--...--..-- .926 4.8 .657 .564 .170 + 1.011


Other Measurements (Average of ten individuals)

Width Width Length
Locality of Width of of Hind
head Length at reticu- cauda tibia
bulge lated

Florida .............. .481 .766 .082 .043 .333 1.864
North Carolina .. .537 .935 .100 .054 .422 2.275
Pennsylvania ....- .504 .848 .095 .047 .411 2.103

Antennal Measurements (Range in ten individuals)
I I Sensorial
Locality III on III I IV I V IVI

Florida .............. 799- .997 2-9 .466-.666 .444-.577 .133-.155 +.822- .955
North Carolina .866-1.133 2-7 .599-.888 .511-.733 .155-.177 +.911-1.132
Pennsylvania ... 799-1.088 3-8 .577-.755.511-.666 .155-.177 +.888-1.088

Other Measurements (Range in ten individuals)

Width Width Length
Locality of Width of of Hind
head Length at reticu- cauda tibia
bulge lated

Florida ........... .466-.499 .688- .844 .079-.092 .039-.046 .288-.399 1.688-2.111
North Carolina .511-.577 .866-1.066 .092-.112 .046-.059 .377-.466 2.177-2.422
Pennsylvania .... .466-.533 .733- .955.086-.111 .046-.053.355-.466 1.911-2.352

HOST PLANTS.-This aphid has been taken on rhododendron,
mountain laurel and wild azalea. It feeds upon the tender leaves
and stems of the growing tips as well as upon the pedicels of
the blossoms and later, on the seed capsules. Ordinarily this
insect is only moderately gregarious and is found in small col-
onies of a few individuals. However, Clyde F. Smith reports
(personal correspondence) that he has seen it very abundant
at times and that the colonies then appeared to be joining.
DIsTRIBUTION.-Florida, N. Carolina, Penn. and Tenn.
TYPES.-The material used in this study consisted of 216
microscope slides bearing 282 alate viviparous females, 212 ap-
terous viviparous females, and a number of immature speci-
ments. An alate female and an apterious female (mounted on
one slide) taken by the writers on Rhododendron maximum L.
at Cashiers, North Carolina, August 22, 1941, are designated as


holotype and morphotype respectively. All of the remaining
specimens are considered and designated as paratypes. The
collection records of the paratypes are as follows: Unicoi Co.,
Tenn., Limestone Cove, June 7, 1919, Rhododrendron maximum,
(Geo. G. Ainslie), A. 1570; same locality, date and collector,
Kalmia latifolia, A. 1571 (an alate of Amphorophora kalmiaflora
n. sp. also mounted on this slide); Blount Co., Tenn., May 27,
1921, leaves of Rhododendron maximum, (Geo. G. Ainslie), A.
1862; White Haven, Pa., Aug. 17, 1922, Rhododendron maximum,
(McCubbin and Stover) ; Monada Gap, Pa., May 23, 1926, on
Azalea, (T. L. Guyton); "Bear Meadow", Pa., Aug. 6, 1927,
Rhododendron, (T. L. Guyton) ; Gainesville, Fla., Hogtown Creek
(west of Golf Course), 4/23/1936, Azalea canescens Mich.,
F-1365-36, (A.N.T.) ; same locality, host, and collector,
4/16/1937, F-1512-37; 4/5/1938, F-1612-38; Marianna, Fla.,
Blue Springs Run, 4/23/1938, Azalea canescens, F-1629-38,
(A.N.T.) ; Pocono Pine, Pa., Aug. 14, 1939, on Rhododendron,
(L. Blevins); Gainesville, Fla., Hogtown Creek, 4/11/1940,
Azalea canescens, F-1879-40, (A.N.T); High Springs, Fla.,
5/1/1940, Azalea canescens, F-1930-40, (A.N.T.) ; Blowing Rock,
N. C., June 12, 1940, white rhododendron, (C. F. Smith) ; Sparta,
N. C., 6/6/1941, Rhododendron maximum L., N. C. 41-108, (C.
F. Smith) ; Park Way, Cumberland Park, N. C., 7/1/1941, white
rhododendron, N. C. 41-132, (C.F.S.) ; Mt. Mitchell, N. C.,
7/2/1941 (Camp Alice) purple rhododendron, N. C. 41-148 &
149, (C.F.S.) ; Park Way, N. C., Deep Creek Gap, 7/2/1941,
flame azalea, N. C. 41-155, (C.F.S.); Blowing Rock, N. C.,
7/30/1941, Rhododendron, N. C. 41-176, (C.F.S.); Cashiers,
N. C., Aug. 17 and 18, 1941, Azalea viscosa L., (J.O.P.); Sun-
burst, N. C., Aug. 19, 1941, Rhododendron maximum, (P. & T.) ;
Cashiers, N. C., 8/20/1941, Kalmia latifolia L., (P. & T.);
Cashiers, N. C., Chimney Top Mountain, Aug. 21, 1941, Azalea
viscosa, (P. & T.) ; Cashiers, N. C., 8/22/1941, Rhododendron
maximum L., (P. & T.) ; State College, Pa., (Shingletown Gap),
Aug. 30, 1941, Rhododendron maximum, No. 100, (J.O.P.);
Pleasant Gap, Pa., May 24, 1942, No. 161, Wild Pink Azalea
(probably A. nudiflora L.), (J.O.P.); State College, Pa., (Camp
62), June 14, 1942, Kalmia latifolia L., (J.O.P.) ; State College,
Pa., June 21, 1942, (Bear Meadow), Rhododendron maximum,
No. 104, (J.O.P.) ; Cooks Forest, Pa., June 26, 1942, Rhododen-
dron maximum, (J.O.P.); Bottom, N. C., June 11, 1943, white
rhododendron, (C.F.S.); Park Way, Cumberland Park, N. C.,


June 11, 1943, white rhododendron, (C.F.S.); Gainesville, Fla.,
Hogtown Creek, (west of Golf Course) 3/9/1944, Azalea
canescens, F-2431-44, (A.N.T.).
The holotype, morphotype, and a number of paratype speci-
mens, deposited in the U. S. National Museum (Cat. No. 56945) ;
the remaining paratype material in the collection of the Ento-
mology Department, Florida Agri. Exp. Sta. and in the personal
collections of Clyde F. Smith, T. L. Guyton, and the writers.
TYPE LOCALITY.-Cashiers, North Carolina.
TAXONOMY.-Four other species of Amphorophora are known
to feed on the same group of host plants as A. rhokalaza. Cer-
tain morphological features readily serve to separate them.
A. rhododendronia Mason differs in having much more promi-
nent antennal tubercles, the antennae and cornicles light colored
except at their apices, and the cornicles more slender, especially
below the bulge. A. mitchelli Mason is easily separated as it
has sensoria on III, IV, and V, whereas secondary sensoria are
restricted to III in this species. In A. azaleae Mason, the tips
of the antennal segments and all of VI are darker, while in this
species III is the darkest segment and the segments are not
darkened at the tip. The spines on the head and the antennal
hairs are very small and inconspicuous in azaleae, but much more
prominent and often capitate in this species. The sensoria ar-
ranged in a single row and the very minute antennal hairs, at
once, separate, A. kalmiaflora n. sp., described below, from
It has been indicated that much variation is found in A.
rhokalaza. This is particularly noticeable in the spines on the
head and antennae, in the dorsal tubercles of the head, and in
the lateral tubercles of the thorax and abdomen. A few care-
fully selected specimens from the many that are at hand, could
easily be separated into what would appear to be three or four
perfectly good species. However, when the entire collection is
studied it is found that there is a gradual variation from one
form to another and one can only conclude that all belong to
the same species.

Alate Viviparous Female Figs. 13, 15, 18 and 20
COLOR.-Definite observations have not been made on the
coloration of fresh specimens of this species but it probably


is some shade of brown, with dark brown or black appendages.
In cleared specimens the head and thorax are medium brown,
the abdomen dusky to light brown. The appendages are dark
brown to nearly black, except for the basal halves of the femora,
a small basal portion of antennal segment III, and the extreme
base of the cornicles, which are light yellowish-brown.
HEAD AND APPENDAGES.-Antennal tubercles moderately
prominent, diverging, their inner margins strongly curved.
Ocelli of medium size, ocular tubercles prominent. A pair of
slightly elevated, rounded tubercles usually present on the dor-
sum of the head. In some individuals these are greatly reduced
in size and in some cases they appear to be entirely lacking.
Dorsum of head with eight fairly prominent spines arranged in
two transverse rows. The dorsal tubercles when present, are
located just behind the median spines of the posterior row. In
most individuals the dorsal surface of the head is slightly
rugose. First antennal segment large, its inner margin some-
what gibbous. Third segment with an irregular row of 12 to
19 subcircular, flat or slightly sunken sensoria. Segments III
to VI definitely imbricated. Anterior part of head and first
two antennal segments are armed with fairly prominent, slightly
curved, pointed hairs. Segments III to VI with very short and
inconspicuous pointed hairs, which are strongly reclining. Ros-
trum rather short, scarcely reaching the middle coxae.
THORAX AND APPENDAGES.-Prothorax rugose, with small,
rounded lateral tubercles, anterior margin of mesothorax with
a large, irregular tubercle on each side. Wings hyaline, venation
normal, legs armed with tapering, pointed, strongly reclining
spines, those on the tibiae being slightly shorter than the dia-
meter of the segment. Femora of all pairs of legs with a rounded
tubercle beneath, near the base.
ABDOMEN AND APPENDAGES.-Abdomen with very minute
lateral tubercles or with these structures entirely absent. Corni-
cles slightly shorter than antennal segment III, moderately swol-
len, the apical portion constricted and definitely and coarsely
reticulate. Cauda about half as long as cornicles, slightly con-
stricted near the middle, definitely imbricated, the lateral mar-
gins appearing strongly serrate, with three pairs of curved
material hairs and a subapical dorsal hair.
MEASUREMENTS.-Various structures of ten alate females
were measured. These measurements are given in the follow-
ing tables:


Antennal Measurements
S Sensoria
Number III on III IV V VI

1 .711 17 .533 .577 .155 + .933
2 .955 19 .688 .711 .177 + 1.066
3 .755 19 .599 .577 .177 + .977
4 .866 17 .644 .644 .177 + 1.022
5 .822 13 .622 .599 .188 + .977
6 .822 16 .644 .644 .177 + 1.000
7 .799 13 .622 .599 .177 + 1.000
8 .844 17 .644 .666 .177 + .955
9 .888 12 .644 .599 .177 + 1.044
10 .933 17 .688 .599 .177 + 1.022

Average .839 16 .633 .623 .176 + 1.000

Other Measurements

Width Cornicle Length
Number of Width Width of of Hind
head Length at reticulat- cauda tibia
II bulge ed area _

1 .466 .599 .073 .046 .266 1.733
2 .533 .777 .086 .046 .344 2.222
3 .488 .711 .073 .040 .299 1.844
4 .488 .755 .086 .046 .311 2.155
5 .488 .711 .073 .040 .311 1.955
6 ? .733 .066 .046 .311 1.844
7 .466 .733 .073 .040 .288 2.000
8 .488 .733 .079 .046 .333 2.000
9 .488 .733 .079 .046 .311 2.044
10 .488 .822 .079 .040 .355 2.177

Average .488 .731 .079 .044 .313 1.997

Apterous Viviparous Female, Figs. 14, 16, 17, 19 and 21.
COLOR.-The coloration apparently is similar to that of the
alate female.
HEAD AND APPENDAGES.-Antennal tubercles prominent, di-
verging, their inner margins strongly curved. Dorsum of head
and the antennal tubercles rugose. A pair of rounded tubercles
usually present on the posterior half of the head in the same
relative position as in the alate female. These vary greatly in
size and in a few cases are entirely lacking. Eyes with large
ocular tubercles. First antennal segment large, the inner side
somewhat gibbous. Third segment with a single row of 2 to 5
subcircular sensoria on the basal portion. All the segments
show imbrications though they are rather faint on the basal
ones. Head and first two antennal segments armed with fairly
prominent, slightly curved, pointed spines. Segments III to VI


with inconspicuous, pointed, strongly reclining spines. Rostrum
reaching nearly or quite to the hind coxae.
THORAX AND APPENDAGES.-Prothorax with a pair of raised,
somewhat irregular, lateral tubercles which vary greatly in size.
Mesothorax with a pair of much larger and more uneven tuber-
cles on the anterior margin. Femora with a raised tubercle
beneath, near the base, these being less prominent than in the
alate. The entire surface of the thorax slightly rugose.
ABDOMEN AND APPENDAGES.-Lateral tubercles very minute
or entirely lacking. Cornicles as in the alate female. Cauda
much as in the alate except that it is somewhat broader, with
the middle construction less evident.
MEASUREMENTS.-The following tables give the measure-
ments of various body structures of ten apterous females.

Antennal Measurements

Number III on III



.755 5
.711 2
.844 3










.166 + .911
.166 + .888
.177 + .933
.177 + .955
.155 + .888
.155 + .777
.177 + .911
.166 + .911
.188 + .933
.177 + .888

.170 + .899

Other Measurements

Width Cornicle Length
Number of Width Width of of Hind
head Length at reticulat- cauda tibia
bulge ed area

1 .488 .644 .059 .040 .311 1.688
2 .466 .688 .079 .046 .333 1.822
3 .488 .733 .066 .046 .355 2.044
4 .488 .822 .079 .046 .377 2.111
5 .444 .577 .066 .040 ? 1.555
6 .466 .666 .059 .040 .311 1.666
7 .466 .733 .079 .046 .377 1.777
8 .466 .666 .072 .040 .311 1.799
9 .499 .755 .079 .046 .388 1.888
10 .488 .688 .079 .046 .355 1.822







HOST PLANT.-Kalmia latifolia L.
DISTRIBUTION.-Pennsylvania and Tennessee.
TYPES.-Holotype alate viviparous female and apterous vivi-
parous female (on same slide), State College, Pennsylvania,
(Camp 62), June 14, 1942, on Kalmia latifolia L., (J. O. Pepper),
deposited in the U. S. National Museum (Cat. No. 56946).
Seventeen slides bearing 14 alate and 14 apterious viviparous
females, same collection data as above, and one alate viviparous
female (on a slide with specimens of A. rhokalaza, Unicoi Co.,
Tennessee, Limestone Cove, June 7, 1919, Kalmia latifolia, (Geo.
G. Ainslie) have been designated as paratypes. Paratype ma-
terial in the U. S. National Museum and in the personal collec-
tions of Clyde F. Smith and the writers.
TYPE LOCALITY.-State College, Pennsylvania.
TAXONOMY.-Four other species of Amphorophora have been
taken from the mountain laurel. They can readily be separated
from this species on morphological characters. The apterous
female in this species differs from the same form of A. azaleae
Mason, in that antennal segments III to VI are uniformly colored
and not darker at the tips and the spines on the head are rather
conspicuous. The alate female differs from the alate of A.
mitchelli Mason, in that the antennae are not tuberculate, sec-
ondary sensoria are confined to segment III, and the antennal
hairs are very inconspicuous. The apterous female of this
species differs from the same form in A. rhododendronia Mason,
in having very inconspicuous, pointed antennal hairs, and the
antennal segments rather uniformly dark brown. Some differ-
ences between this species and A. rhokalaza have been mentioned
in the discussion of that species.

Amphorophora rhokalaza n. sp. Figs. 1-12
1, head, alate viviparous female; 2, head, apterous viviparous female;
3, antenna, alate; 4, antenna, apterous; 5, beak, apterous; 6, cornicle,
alate; 7, cornicle, apterous; 8, cauda, alate; 9, cauda, apterous; 10-12,
show some variations in hairs on basal half of antennal III in apterous
female; 10-A, B, C, from azalea, Florida; 11-A, B, C, from rhododen-
dron, North Carolina; 12-A, B, C, from rhododendron, Pennsylvania.
Amphorophora kalmiaflora n. sp. Figs. 13-21
13, head, alate viviparous female; 14, head, apterous viviparous female;
15, antenna, alate; 16, antenna, apterous; 17, beak apterous; 18, cauda,
alate; 19, cauda, apterous; 20, cornicle, alate; 21, cornicle, apterous.
Figs. 10, 11 and 12 are 75 X, all others are 45 X.









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Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
Gainesville, Florida

VOL. XXVII JULY, 1944 No. 2

J. R. WATSON, Gainesville---.. --.........----....--.....--- ................--Editor
E. W. BERGER, Gainesville--------........-....--.......- Associate Editor
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A member of our society and formerly of the faculty of the Univer-
sity, Prof. P. W. Fattig, has written a bulletin (Bulletin No. 2, Emory
University Museum) on the species of genus Phyllophaga of Georgia, which
will be of much interest and value to the entomologists in Florida. Pro-
fessor Fattig has spent 15 years in this study, during which time he has
collected 18,000 specimens of 70 species of Phyllophaga. This compares
with 31 species of the genus recorded for South Carolina; 36 from Ken-
tucky; 41 from North Carolina; and 49 from Mississippi.
He reports 27 species from Thomasville. Since this is only a few
miles from the state line, probably all of them will be found in Florida
as well. Professor Fattig also has lists of the parasites, predators and
host plants of the May beetles. -Ed.



Carefully Executed 0 Delivered on Time






The purpose of this paper is to report on the unusual dragon-
fly population near New Smyrna Beach, Fla., during the sum-
mer of 1943, and especially on the tremendous swarms of one
species during July and August of that year. Observations on
abundance and distribution of odonates made in this area during
June and early July of 1942 are included in an attempt to pic-
ture the population present during normal years.
New Smyrna Beach is located in about the middle of the
Florida Atlantic Coast some 16 miles south of Daytona Beach.
These observations covered the area from the Tomoka River
marshes just a few miles north of Daytona Beach to the Oak
Hill marshes about 15 miles south of New Smyrna Beach. This
region contains large areas of salt marsh, both on the mainland
and on the numerous islands formed by Mosquito Lagoon and
Indian River (land-locked salt-water lagoons), that are excellent
breeding grounds for the salt-marsh mosquitoes (Aedes sollici-
tans (Walk.) and A. taeniorhynchus (Wied.). The mainland,
just west of the coastal marshes, contains numerous permanent
and semipermanent fresh-water habitats capable of breeding
DRAGONFLY POPULATION DURING 1942.-The following is a
list of dragonfly species and their relative abundance noted in
the coastal areas during June and July, 1942. No species was
observed in sufficient numbers to be listed as abundant.
VERY COMMON: Erythrodiplax berenice (Drury) and Tramea
carolina (Linnaeus).
COMMON: Anax junius (Drury), Coryphaeschna ingens (Ram-
bur), Libellula auripennis Burmeister, Erythemis simplicicol-
lis (Say), and Erythrodiplax connada minuscule (Rambur).
OCCASIONAL: Celithemis eponina (Drury), Libellula vibrans
Fabricius, Pachydiplax longipennis (Burmeister), Cannacria
gravida (Calvert), Enallagma civil (Hagen), and Ischnura
ramburii Selys.
RARE: Celithemis ornata (Rambur), Nehalennia integricollis
SUnited States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine


Calvert, Ischnura posita (Hagen), and Anomalagrion hasta-
tur (Say).
This is not a long list of species but probably represents the
dominant dragonfly fauna of the coastal marshes of this region.
These species do not all breed in the salt or brackish areas, in
fact, only a few would probably be able to survive constant high
salinities. Many of these breed in fresh areas, in the hammocks
and on the mainland, which may be located within a few yards
of the marshes. Others, such as Anax, Coryhaeschna, and
Tramea, are sturdy fliers and may range many miles from their
breeding grounds. Collections during other months in the year
will undoubtedly add a number of species to this list, especially
those forms that appear only late in the summer and in the fall.
Erythrodiplax berenice was numerous and was usually found
only in the salt marsh, although we recorded the presence of a
number of individuals in an orange grove located about one-
half mile from the nearest marsh. Tramea carolina was the
most widely distributed and abundant species noted during this
period. It was present in all types of habitats, and many in-
dividuals were seen perching on electric wires, shrubs, and trees
along the various highways. On June 12, 1942, at about 3:30
P. M., in the vicinity of the South Bridge of New Smyrna Beach,
a swarm composed of several thousand individuals of T. carolina
was noted. They were darting about, in a limited area, as if
they were catching some small insects as prey. This is the first
record of the swarming of T. carolina that we know of. On
June 11, 1942, large numbers of Coryphaeschna ingens were ob-
served swarming along the banks of Mosquito Lagoon at Coro-
nado Beach. The swarm was first noted at 7:30 P. M. and re-
mained in this locale until about 9 P. M. They were feeding on
mosquitoes (mainly Aedes sollicitans) and gnats which were
abundant at that time. The individuals of Enallagma civil seen
were, surprisingly enough, around ponds out in the salt marsh
proper. In several areas the temperature of these ponds (at
the time of our investigation) ranged from 900 to 970 F. while
salinity varied from a low to a fairly high salt concentration.
It is very doubtful if this damselfly breeds in these salt-marsh
ponds. Some species, such as Ischnura ramburii, have been
found breeding in areas having almost twice the salt concentra-
tion of sea water (Pearse, 1932). The few individuals of
Nehalennia integricollis taken were found in the hammocks and
never in the marsh proper. They are strictly fresh-water forms.


Dragonflies composed a large and important part of the
insect fauna of the marshes, but on no occasion during the 1942
period were they present in the tremendous numbers covering
such large areas as was noted during 1943.
to the latter part of May, 1943, practically no rain fell in the
entire area. According to long-time residents, this was the
worst drought they had ever encountered in this region. Periodic
inspections of fresh-water habitats during the fall and winter
showed continuous drying up, and by April almost all were com-
pletely devoid of water. As late as May 14, we were told by
Mr. W. C. White, of the Volusia County Mosquito Abatement
Project, that fresh-water areas known by him to have been
permanent bodies of water for some 23 years were now dry.
The only areas containing fresh water that we were able to find
in the vicinity of New Smyrna were several large, major drain-
age ditches on the mainland. Even these showed very low water
levels, and some were nothing but a series of disconnected pools.
A total of 12 species of dragonflies were found along these drain-
age ditches, but never more than 10 or 12 dragonflies were found
in any area. As late as June 16, inspection of fresh-water areas
showed all ponds and pools to be thoroughly dry and, in addition,
many of the drainage ditches were then dry. One such ditch
that had held water constantly was first noted to have begun
drying early in May. When inspected several weeks later the
water level had so dropped that the only water left within about
one-half mile of the ditch investigated was concentrated in a
pool some 15 to 20 feet long by several feet wide. This pool con-
tained literally thousands of small fish and minnows, and tad-
poles. The area around the pool was covered with dead and
dying fish and tadpoles that had been stranded by the receding
water. This pool ultimately dried up, causing the extinction
of all aquatic life in that section of the ditch. This was typical
of the majority of the permanent areas. There were some areas,
however, with pools deep enough to retain a small amount of
water throughout the drought period. These were few in num-
ber and scattered. The whole area became so dry that grass
and forest fires were a constant menace.
The salt marshes themselves, when not inundated by tidal
action, became extremely dry. Visits to a number of these
showed that few individuals and species of dragonflies were


present. Anax junius, Coryphaeschna ingens, Pachydiplax longi-
pennis, and Tramea carolina were the only species encountered
during the period of drought. T. carolina was by far the more
abundant, but only a few individuals of even this species were
encountered in a given locale. We were surprised to note the
total absence of Erythrodiplax berenice on several survey trips
in salt marshes south of New Smyrna Beach. We are unable
to account for this, as this species has been found breeding in
waters having almost double the salinity of sea water (Pearse,
1932). There were plenty of available breeding areas in the
marshes surveyed.
When the rains finally came in June and July, the marshes
were flooded, and the fresh-water areas temporary and per-
manent, were filled. This resulted in one of the most severe
outbreaks of pest mosquitoes encountered in 'this area for a
number of years. The catches from light traps in the New
Smyrna area, which during the spring had yielded few or no
mosquitoes, rose rapidly until by July many of the nightly counts
contained over 2,000 pest mosquitoes. These were Aedes sollici-
tans and A. taeniorhynchus from the salt marshes and Psoro-
phora columbiae (D. & K.) from temporary fresh-water pools.
The salt marsh breeding sandfly Culicoides furens (Poey) be-
came extremely abundant and annoying at the same time. On
several nights in July as much as three-fourths of a pint of these
small gnats were taken from a single light trap. This repre-
sented thousands of individual sand-flies.
The dragonfly population remained at the same low ebb all
during June and the first half of July. At about 7 P. M. on July
16, 1943, a large swarm of dragonflies was noted along the Mos-
quito Lagoon at New Smyrna Beach. As far as one could see,
the sky was literally alive with dragonflies darting about in
search of prey. Collections and observations showed the swarms
to be almost entirely Pantala flavescens (Fabricius), with an
occasional individual of Anax, Coryphaeschna, or Tramea. These
four species are very distinct in coloration, size, and flight habits
and are easily identified on the wing. Large numbers of sand-
flies and of mosquitoes (Aedes taeniorhynchus and Psorophora
columbiae) were present and were being captured as food by
the odonates. Several of the dragonflies captured showed mos-
quito fragments in their mandibles. Dragonflies were observed
to perch at intervals on the trees and palms and were appar-
ently consuming their prey. Numerous birds of various species


were seen darting in and out of the swarming dragonflies, but
no actual capture of dragonflies was observed. Our field notes
state that this was the first time during 1943 that over a dozen
dragonflies had been seen in any one area. Trips to the Oak
Hill marshes on the south and to the Tomoka River marshes
over 30 miles to the north showed large numbers of drangflies
over the entire area. Trips to points as far as 10 miles inland
also disclosed the presence of swarms of odonates. These swarms
were composed almost entirely of Pantela flavescens and were
observed feeding on mosquitoes throughout the area. Our last
field note, dated August 1, 1943, states that the swarms were
still present. As the writer left the New Smyrna area several
days later and did not return, nothing further is known concern-
ing the fate of these swarms.
The data presented show that due to the severe drought
these large and continuous swarms of dragonflies could not have
bred in the vincity of this area. They would have had to migrate
into the area from points at least 10 miles inland (west). In
the light of the evidence now available it seems that this migra-
tion of the dragonflies into the coastal area was a definite move-
ment for obtaining food. The writer (1944) has shown that
swarms of Anax junius follow the movements of high popula-
tions of dog flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) from the inland areas
of northwestern Florida to the beaches. This is purely a food
migration. It is here suggested that, in the case of Pantala
flavescens, mosquitoes blown inland by easterly winds served as
an attractant and drew the swarms of dragonflies towards the
higher concentration of food along the coast.

Pearse, A. S., 1932. Animals in brackish water ponds and pools
at Dry Tortugas. Carnegie Inst. of Wash., Publi. 435:
Wright, M., 1944. Dragonflies predaceous on the stablefly,
Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) Fla. Entomologist. In Press.

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