Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00228
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1950
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00228
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Florida Entomologist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society




DOVE, W. E.-Horse Flies (Tabanidae) .......... .

Microvelia from Florida (Hemiptera, Veliidae)

Minutes of the Thirty-Second Annual Meeting of the
Florida Entomological Society -------------........

Published quarterly by the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Box 2425, University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville

Mailing. Date: November 3, 1950

No. 3


...-- 107

..... 117

--.... 121



VOL. XXXIII JUNE, 1950 No. 2


OFFICERS FOR 1949-1950
President .............................. ................. J. A. MULRENNAN
Vice President... ....------------...................... W. G. BRUCE
Secretary-.....---.. ----..-........ ... ........... MILLEDGE MURPHEY
Treasurer...-----... --....-............... ... .............. L. C. KUITERT
Executive Committee -..........-- ...-..-........... .... C. F. LADEBURG

LEWIS BERNER.... ..-..-.....- ..........-........ Editor
H. K. WALLACE--...-.---........ ..........-Associate Editor
L. C. KUITERT --....-........-----.....Business Manager

Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the Society.
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Dr. Lewis Berner, Biology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Subscriptions and orders for back numbers are handled by the Business
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thereof, will be allowed free. The actual cost of all additional illustrations
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authors if they are ordered before, or at the time proofs are received for
correction; 25 copies furnished free to authors.

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U. S. Industrial Chemicals, Inc.

More than twenty species of horse flies and deer flies occur
commonly in the United States and are generally recognized as
serious pests of livestock. The more deadly females puncture
the skin of dairy cows and other animals and drink blood. They
must have blood in order to lay eggs, and they are determined
in their efforts to produce another generation of horse flies so
that they may repeat the performance next year. Up.to the
present time there has been very little opportunity for the stock-
man to protect the animals from these flies (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. The western greenhead horse fly, Tabanus phaenops O. S.

The food bill for horse flies comes high. During the season
for these pests the annoyance that results from their feeding
on dairy cows together with the quantities of blood that are con-
sumed are often responsible for an abrupt loss in the normal
output of milk. Livestock in general are weakened and are more
susceptible to diseases and other parasites. The same flies that
are responsible for these losses are also capable of transmitting
certain blood-borne diseases from one animal to another.
Small numbers of horse flies can cause uneasiness, nervous-
ness, and a bunching together of the animals for protection.


At such times the animals fail to graze and gradually lose in
weight as well as in the production of milk.
A few horse flies can draw a lot of blood. If one watches
the engorgement of these flies, it will be observed that the blood
appears to be pumped into the abdomen of the insects until
this portion of the body is greatly distended. When the blood-
drinking is complete, the fly slowly leaves like a loaded bombing
plane, but instead of dropping its load, it searches for a resting
place in a tree, where it digests its heavy .meal. The skin of
the animal shows a trickle of blood, which marks the general
location of the puncture by the fly, and a lot of blood may flow
from this injury before it can stop bleeding. In Minnesota
Phillips (1931) estimated that during a normal season dairy
cattle lost an average of about one-third of a quart of blood
each day to the visiting horse flies.
In areas where screwworms occur, the screwworm fly may
lay its eggs on the blood-stained injury that is left by the horse
fly, and soon little screwworms develop right in the living flesh.
Cattle that are greatly-annoyed by horse flies will kick or
hook one another, or cause a stampede. They may even be in-
jured by running into a wire, a projecting fence, a building,
or a tree. If possible, they enter dark barns for protection or
hide in the low brushland. They often wade into a lake or pond
until much of the body is submerged in the water. Sometimes
cattle enter swamps, mire in the mud, and are found dead in a
standing position.
Horse flies have long been associated with outbreaks of
anthrax, and they are generally regarded as mechanical trans-
mitters of this disease among livestock. When a fly is inter-
rupted during its feeding upon a sick animal, it may complete
its meal of blood upon a well animal. In this way it mechani-
cally carries the organism of anthrax or other blood diseases
to well animals. The occurrence of sporadic cases of anthrax
some distance in advance of an outbreak certainly suggests that
the disease is spread for long distances by horse flies.
Of great concern to the owner of cattle is the ability of horse
flies to transmit anaplasmosis among the animals. Every year
when horse flies occur, the dairyman and the breeder of beef
cattle want to do something about it. They ask where the flies
develop and what can be done to keep these flies from biting
the animals.



The stockmen cannot control the breeding places of horse flies
because there are no specific procedures that are practicable for
preventing development of this pest. They are found most
abundantly along water courses and in localities where water
remains upon the land more or less permanently. They develop
from larvae that remain in the mud and wet soil for several
months, sometimes almost a year. An important species re-
ported by Dr. H. H. Schwardt (1949) in New York does not
require any free water for its development but emerges from the
sod of pasture land. This means that the breeding place for
this species is even more extensive and far more difficult to
control than those previously known for other species of these
Where horse flies emerge in abnormally large numbers, they
have been known to celebrate the occasion with a dance. In
the Everglades of Florida, where the dance was observed be-
tween early dawn and sunrise, (Moser and Snyder, 1918), there
was a distinct humming sound, and thousands of the flies danced
in mid-air near the top of the trees. Some of the flies were
brought down by gunfire and were examined. They were found
to be males of a single species, so the procedure is regarded as a
mating one.
One to two weeks after the flies emerge from their breeding
places, they gorge themselves with blood and lay eggs. These
are deposited in masses which resemble somewhat the dropping
of a bird. On close examination one will observe that they con-
tain overlapping rows of eggs, which resemble shingles on the
roof of a house. They are found cemented to rocks that are
partly submerged in running water of creeks, or in still water
on edges of ponds or lakes, where they are attached to over-
hanging blades of grasses or to other vegetation. After an
incubation period of a couple of weeks some hatching occurs,
and the newly emerged larvae continue to appear on the egg
mass for a period of about a month or longer. The young larvae
enter the wet soil, where they feed upon decaying animal matter
such as dead earthworms. As they grow and their skins get
too small for them, they molt and pass into the next instar.
This occurs about four different times during development of
the larvae. They usually become fully developed in about nine
or ten months, after which time they become quiet and enter
the pupa, or resting, stage. Some larvae of the greenhead



species, Tabanus lineola, Fab., have been reared under labora-
tory conditions in Oklahoma in twenty-nine to ninety-two days.
In nature, also, it has been observed that two generations of this
species occur in a single season.
When horse fly larvae complete their growth, they become
shorter and quiescent, and the outer skin hardens to form a
protective covering for the pupa stage of the insect. Within
a couple of weeks the pointed end splits open, and the fly emerges
and rests for an hour or so until it becomes dry.

Some horse flies are killed by predacious wasps, and many
are caught by dragon flies, but these two kinds of natural enemies
play only a very small part in the control of these pests. The most
successful method for natural control is probably the natural use
of a small wasp, Phanurus emersoni, Gir., that lays its eggs in
the eggs of the horse fly. These parasitic wasps actually kill
about 90 per cent of the young horse fly larvae before they are
able to hatch. This tiny parasite walks from egg to egg on the
mass of horse fly eggs and carefully places its own eggs in the in-
dividual eggs of the horse fly. Instead of a horse fly larva, a
Little wasp parasite develops and emerges. A single female of
this parasite can prevent development of more than one hun-
dred horse flies. The main difficulty is that the benefactor does
not fly for long distances. Almost twenty-five years ago the
writer, working with D. C. Parman at Uvalde, Texas, found
that this parasite occurred at certain crossings of two creeks
in southwest Texas, and that it was present year after year
in the same locations (Parman, 1928). Carefully made exam-
inations at nearby crossings of the same creeks failed to reveal
the presence of any of these parasites. In order to get distribu-
tion of this valuable insect, collections of egg masses that con-
tained the parasites were made and distributed near the crossings
of two of the creeks in the canyons of southwest Texas where
no parasites could be found. The egg masses were placed in
screened jars so that emerging parasites could become estab-
lished in a natural manner. Because plenty of horse fly eggs
were available, they readily established themselves. Along these
two creeks in two of the canyons of Uvalde County, the little
wasps have continued to parasitize most of the eggs of Tabanus
phaenops. During the past twenty-four years there have been
no outbreaks of horse flies in the two canyons where these para-



sites were distributed. Prior to the distribution of the parasites,
stock men say that outbreaks were of annual occurrence and
were much dreaded by all owners of livestock.

Before combinations of piperonyl butoxide and pyrethrins
were made commercially available, there was no spray that
would protect animals from horse flies. At the present time
such sprays are the only ones that will protect animals against
horse flies. During the past four years suitable combinations
of these two ingredients were developed for emulsions, wettable
powders, and oil solutions, which make it possible for the owner
of livestock to adequately protect animals against horse flies
as well as all other species of biting flies and gnats. The de-
velopment and introduction of them has been a gradual process
in certain areas where tests could be made on animals in pastures.

Fig. 2. Pastured cattle being sprayed with Pyrenone for protection
from horse flies. This spray is highly effective also against other biting



As early as 1946 a preliminary report was made at the meet-
ings of the American Society of Tropical Medicine at Miami,
Florida. In substance it reported that piperonyl butoxide and
pyrethrins, now known commercially in combination as Pyre-
none, had been used to protect animals from Tabanids (horse
flies) from 'two days to two weeks, the degree of protection
depending upon the concentration used (Dove, 1947). The tests
that gave two days' protection of dairy cows were conducted
at Baltimore with dilute sprays, and other tests lasting for at
least two weeks were made in Kansas with an undiluted emul-
sion concentrate (Fig. 2).


Tests Number Diluted Pints Days
Made of with per of Hair Treatment
In: Animals Water Animal Control
Ohio .......... 10 1-11 10 7 Saturated
Oklahoma .. 10 1- 14 1 2-3 Mist
Florida ........ farm 1-15 1 2-3 With brush
New Jersey 55 1-9 1 7 Fan spray
New Jersey 17 1 9 2 5 Fan spray
Illinois .--... 3 herds 1 9 1 4 "Pump-up" sprayer
Kansas ........ 44 1-19 1 13 Sticker used
Texas .......... 5 1-9 1 1-3 Coarse spray

For the past three seasons the results originally reported
at Miami have been confirmed in critically conducted tests on
cattle in Ohio, New Jersey, and Oklahoma. Further confirma-
tion has been obtained also in practical usages on herds of'
cattle in Florida, Illinois, and Oklahoma. All of these tests
were carefully made by trained observers, some of whom were
excellent animal husbandmen. Also, both kinds of reports are
in agreement with other reports received from cattlemen who
purchased and used the sprays on their own animals.
In order that the reader may compare results of tests made
with different dilutions of two sprays, they are summarized
in Tables 1 and 2.



Tests Number Diluted Pints Days
Made of with per of Application
In: Animals Water Animal Control
Ohio ........-.. 10 1 19 10 3-4 Wettable powder
Texas .......... 2 1-19 1 4 Emulsion

In 1947 Dr. Horace Telford (1948) of Ashland, Ohio, worked
with individual cows that were known to be very susceptible to
horse fly attacks. The animals were divided into two groups,
one of which was allowed to graze normally in a pasture. The
other group was staked with ropes and was allowed to graze
in the pasture with the ones that were not tethered. By making
careful observations every half-hour, it was learned that ap-
plications of two ounces of oil solutions, containing 25 mg.
pyrethrins and 200 mg. piperonyl butoxide in 100 ml. of oil,
protected the cows from horse flies for about two to four hours.
For longer protection it was found that a concentrated emul-
sion containing 10 per cent piperonyl butoxide and 1 per cent
pyrethrins was very effectively used when diluted with eleven
equal volumes of water. The latter application, applied in
sufficient quantities to insure a thorough wetting of the hair
of the cows, and to a point where the spray ran off the animals,
protected the cows from horse flies for seven days (Table 1).
Using the same degree of coverage of the animals, it was found
that a wettable powder containing 20 per cent piperonyl bu-
toxide and 1 per cent pyrethrins diluted with nineteen volumes
of water, protected the cows from three to four days. In ex-
periments with both lots of animals the applications of the spray
were much greater than would need to be used in practice by
a dairyman.
In Oklahoma Dr. D. E. Howell (1949) also kept his experi-
mental animals under complete control, and the lot of ten cows
was examined at half-hour intervals. A concentrated emulsion
containing 10 per cent butoxide and 1 per cent pyrethrins was
used at a dilution of one volume of the concentrate with fourteen
equal volumes of water. It was applied as a mist on the surface
of the hair at the rate of one pint per cow. Those treatments
gave protection against horse flies (eleven species present) for
periods varying from two to three days.
Using a slightly greater dilution and the same rate of ap-



plication of that reported in Oklahoma, Mr. W. J. Platt, Jr.,
(1949) obtained equal protection with Pyrenone emulsions in
Florida. In his tests the emulsion was applied with a brush
to the surface of the hair. On three different herds of cattle
the animals were protected from horse flies for two to three
days, with partial protection for about one week.
By using a fan-type spray, a more concentrated material
applied at the rate of one to two pints per animal by Cowling
and Donohue (1948) gave longer periods of protection from
greenheads and other horse flies in New Jersey. Using a dilu-
tion that contained 1 per cent piperonyl butoxide and 0.1 per
cent pyrethrins at the rate of one pint per animal, seventeen
cows were treated in a herd of one hundred and five animals.
The sprayed animals were protected for a period of five days.
At the same time in a different herd, an application of one pint
per animal was made to fifty-five cows in a herd of ninety-one
animals. This treatment gave protection against greenheads
and other horse flies for a period of seven days.
In Illinois Bruce (1949) used the same concentration of
active ingredients as that employed by Cowling and Donohue,
but he applied the treatments twice each week. This treat-
ment schedule gave almost complete control of horse flies. Three
.dairy herds were sprayed twice each week with an average of
one pint per animal. The spray used was Emulsifiable Pyrenone
10-1 diluted with nine equal volumes of water. The owners of
these animals carefully observed a complete protection of the
sprayed cows, while the unsprayed animals averaged about fifty
horse flies per cow. These experiments were so striking that
neighboring dairies soon followed the same spray program as
that used in the experiments, with equal protection of the cows.
For the past two seasons Emulsifiable Pyrenone 10-1 has
been available commercially and has been used at dilutions of
one plus nine volumes of water in dairies of different Corn Belt
States. The experiences of the different dairies has shown a
distinct preference for this dilution and for an average rate of
application of one pint of spray per animal, In a few instances
twice this dilution and two pints per cow was preferred because
it seemed to wet all of the hair of the animals.
Some practical tests made in the late summer of 1949 sug-
gest that a sticker might be used with a Pyrenone emulsion
to prolong its efficiency against flies. Mr. Ray Cuff (1949) of
the Livestock Loss Prevention Board, working in Kansas, used



0.12 per cent of fused bentonite (Kolofog) sticker to a concen-
tration of 0.5 per cent piperonyl butoxide and .05 per cent pyre-
thrins, and applied it at the rate of two quarts of the spray per
animal on forty-four cows. It gave practical protection for a
period of thirteen days, while untreated animals were greatly
In South Carolina a resin was used in diluted Pyrenone
sprays on cattle that grazed along the creeks. These animals
were protected for eight days from the first treatment, and fair
protection was reported for fifteen days following the second
or third treatments. Because these longer periods were obtained
in areas where there was a high relative humidity, it appears
that this may be an important factor in extending the period
of protection of animals by Pyrenones. Further observations
might result in different schedules for spraying, depending upon
the per cent of relative humidity.
Horses are protected from horse flies too. Because these
animals sweat profusely at work, there is a natural dilution
of the spray that reduces the period of effectiveness of Pyre-
none emulsions. At Menard, Texas, Mr. H. E. Parish (1948)
found that horses used for herding cattle were protected for a
period of one day from a single spraying. A spray containing
1 per cent piperonyl butoxide or one containing 0.2 per cent
of this ingredient, with one-tenth as much pyrethrins in each
case, gave about equal protection of horses from horse flies.
Single applications of emulsion sprays made in different parts
of the United States by expert horsemen have given protection
of four to five hours to as long as one day, the period of effective-
ness depending upon the amount of sweating of the individual
horse. These men agree that Emulsifiable Pyrenone is the only
spray that has really protected a horse from horse flies. They
have observed also that it protects horses from stable flies, deer
flies, and biting gnats.
1. Horse flies constitute a serious problem for owners of
livestock, through loss of blood and annoyance to animals and
because of their abilities to transmit blood-borne diseases.
2. The breeding places of horse flies are so extensive and
so inaccessible for control that there is no practicable means
for controlling the breeding areas of these pests.
3. Predacious dragon flies assist in reducing the numbers
of horse flies, but they are not sufficient to afford satisfactory


control of these pests. A hymenopterous egg parasite, Phanurus
emersoni Gir., is effective in preventing hatching of the eggs of
horse flies, but on account of its short range of flight it requires
timely and careful introductions to the exact breeding areas of
horse flies.
4. In eight different states and in as many different locations
where horse flies are serious pests of livestock, cattle were pro-
tected from one to eight days by applications of emulsion sprays
containing piperonyl butoxide and pyrethrins, the degree of
protection depending upon the dilution and rates of application
used on the animals.
5. Emulsion sprays effectively protected riding or work
horses from horse flies for one day or less. The shorter periods
of protection of horses result from excessive perspiration of
the animals.
Bruce, W. N., 1949. Personal communication.
Cowling, J., and Donohue, E. L., 1948. Chemical control of cattle parasites.
Agric. Chems. 3: 28-31, 74. -
Cuff, Ray, 1949. Personal communication.
Dove, W. E., 1947. Piperonyl butoxide a safe insecticide for the household
and field. J. Trop. Med. 27: 339-345.
Howell, D. E., 1949. Piperonyl formulations as horse fly repellents. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 42: 151-152.
Moser, C. A., and Snyder, T. E., 1918. Observations on horse flies. Proc.
Wash. Ent. Soc., 20: 115-126.
Parish, H. E., 1948. Personal communication.
Parman, D. C., 1928. Experimental dissemination of the tabanid egg para-
site Phanurus emersoni Gir. U. S. D. A. Circular 18.
Phillips, C. B., 1931. The Tabanidae of Minnesota. Minn. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Tech. Bul. 80.
Platt, W. J., Jr., 1949. Personal communication.
Schwardt, H. H., 1949. Personal communication.
Telford, H., 1948. Personal communication.

S i



, "' f



ROLAND F. HUSSEY, Florida Southern College
JON L. HERRING, University of Florida

Microvelia alachuana, n. sp.
This new species is very similar to Microvelia gerhardi Hus-
sey 1924, which was described from Colorado and western Ne-
braska. Like that species, it has males which are smaller, yet
with longer legs and antennae (both relatively and absolutely),
than the females. It averages slightly smaller than M. gerhardi
and is distinctly narrower, especially in the males. The colora-
tion is generally paler; the incisures of the connexivum below
are not marked with fuscous; the second and third antennal
segments are dark at base and apex and broadly banded with
testaceous at the middle, or (in paler specimens, especially males)
are ivory white below with the ends of the segments dark, while
the upper surface is as just described. Rarely the pale bands are
obsolete and indistinct. The first genital segment of the male is
without a transverse welt below, and without backwardly directed
setulae. The last dorsal tergite of the female has a sub-marginal
row of long sub-horizontal hairs, often forming a distinct tuft
at the middle, projecting well beyond the apex of the genital
segments. No such arrangement of hairs is found in females
of M. gerhardi, which also has the semi-erect hairs on the lateral
parts of this sclerite shorter and scantier than in M. alachuana.
DESCRIPTION: Color dark gray above, the pronotum with a narrow
transverse ferrugineous fascia more or less interrupted at the middle; dor-
sum with fine prostrate golden pubescence over much of its surface,
ornamented with short silvery pile toward the sides of the pronotum, on
two or sometimes four (2.2) small areas on the anterior lobe of the meso-
notum 1 and on two obsolete para-median vittae of its posterior lobe, at the
sides of the first, fifth, sixth and seventh abdominal segments, on the entire
second and third segments and a small triangular median spot on the fourth,
also on the third, fifth and sixth connexival segments above. Mesonotum
sometimes more or less testaceous on the middle portion. Connexivum flavo-
testaceous above with the extreme lateral margin very narrowly, the
incisures much more broadly fuscous, flavous beneath without fuscous mark-
ings. First antennal segment pale testaceous, its basal third yellowish,

Hussey erroneously referred to this as the posterior lobe of the pro-
notum in his description of M. gerhardi (Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 19: 164;



the apex most commonly infuscated; second and third segments fuscous,
more or less broadly banded with testaceous at the middle (sometimes
obsoletely so), the pale band of the third segment wider than that of the
second and occupying more than half the length of the segment; first three
segments in pale specimens (especially males) often ivory white on the
under side with the apices of the segments, also the bases of the second
and third, dark fuscous; fourth segment always dark fuscous, almost black.
First three segments with fine prostrate pilosity, the fourth one very finely
setulose; third segment thinnest, the second very slightly thicker at its
apex than at the base but nowhere thicker than the first segment. Apex
of the tylus nearly (14/30) reaching the middle of the first antenna
segment in the female, not nearly so (13/35) in the male.
Beneath plumbeous, the pleura with fairly long silvery pubescence, the
venter with a narrow band of short golden pubescence along each lateral
margin and extending onto the connexivum; spiracles and intersegmental
glandular openings black, the spiracles (except the last pair) transverse,
narrowly oval or cuneiform. Tylus, antenniferous tubercles, last rostral
segment and a median vitta on the preceding segment, blackish-piceous.
Acetabula, coxae and legs varying from ivory white or luteous to dark
testaceous, quite variable in the extent of their' infuscation, the femora
often longitudinally vittate with fuscous on the postero-ventral face, or
sometimes similarly vittate on the upper side, the extreme apex most com-
monly blackish; tibiae blackish at base and apex, those of the front and
middle legs otherwise scarcely darker than their femora, those of the hind
legs more definitely embrowned. Fore tarsi yellow on the basal half, fuscous
on the apical half; middle and hind tarsi with the first segment yellow,
the second fuscous. Trochanters with a small piceous spot at the apex below.
Coxae, trochanters and femora rather closely pubescent below and also
with fairly abundant longer pilosity. Fore tibiae quite thickly pilose,
especially toward the apex, the inner face in both sexes shallowly longi-
tudinally excavate toward the apex. Middle tibiae with six to ten long
hairs below on the apical half, the proximal ones distinctly longer than
the thickness of the tibia. Hind tibiae with numerous close-set oblique
spinulae above on the apical half or more, and with a sub-apical comb of
close-set similar spinulae.
Venter flattened on the disk, with a distinct impressed medial line.
First genital segment of the male deeply depressed below the level of the
apex of the last ventral segment, without a transverse ridge and without
backwardly directed setulae, the depressed area blackish, the remainder
of the segment flavous beneath, moderately pilose at the sides. Last dorsal
tergite of the female with a fringe of long sub-horizontal hairs arising
from the apical submargin, often forming a distinct tuft at the middle,
projecting very distinctly beyond the apex of the genital segments.
Male:' Length 2.50 to 2.90 mm. Fore femora with a single short spur
below at about one-third the length of the femur before its apex; fore
tibiae with a black, oval, plate-like comb on the ventral surface, about
one-fourth as long as the tibia, projecting spur-like for a very short dis-
tance beyond the tip of the tibia. Hind femora with two to five distinct
teeth below on the apical third, some of these sometimes reduced to minute
tubercles. i K


VOL. XXXIII-No. 3 119

Female: Length 2.80 to 3.25 mm., more broadly fusiform than the male,
with shorter legs and antennae. Fore femora without a spur, fore tibiae
without a comb, hind femora unarmed below.
Alate male: Length 2.95 mm., humeral width 1.13 mm. Blackish, the
pronotum and veins of the corium with minute golden pubescence, the
antero-lateral part of the pronotum and an oblique fascia each side within
the postero-lateral margin provided with longer silvery pubescence. Pro-
notum with a rusty-brown fascia behind the anterior margin; postero-
lateral margins with a yellow border beginning at either side of the posterior
angle and continuing narrowly under the humeral angles to join the
broadly flavous hind margin of the prostethium. Pronotum anteriorly
with an obsolete median longitudinal carina whose length is more than
half the length of the pronotum. Hemelytra barely surpassing the genital
segments, the membrane with distinct veins; apical part of the two
discoidal cells and of the claval areole sordid whitish, as also a broad
area anteriorly in the anal cell within its transversely wrinkled anal margin.

The following table gives comparative measurements, ex-
pressed in millimeters, for the apterous form of each sex of
Microvelia alachuana and M. gerhardi. The measurements of
alachuana are averages of five specimens of each sex, while those
of gerhardi were taken from the male holotype and female
allotype respectively. The femora were measured on the pos-
terior margin.

M. alachuana M. gerhqrdi

Total length of body ..-......-......... ... 2.74 3.05 3.00 3.23
Maximum width (apterous) .................... 0.97 1.22 1.10 1.31
Total length of antenna ............................ 1.81 1.54 1.77 1.54
Length of head plus thorax .................... 1.17 1.25 1.26 1.31
Width of head including eyes .................. 0.68 0.74 0.76 0.78
Anterior interocular width ...................... 1.32 0.38 0.38 0.41
Antennal segment I .......-.......-...........-- ..-- 0.44 0.38 0.45 0.40
II .....----.... ....-.... .....--.. 0.39 0.30 0.38 0.31
III .........-.............-- .... 0.44 0.36 0.44 0.38
IV .....--.....:................-----.. 0.54 0.51 0.50 0.45
Fore leg: Femur ........................................ 0.73 0.70 0.78 0.76
Tibia ..----....-- ......-.........-..- ....... 0.73 0.61 0.75 0.69
Tarsus ....................................... 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.36
Middle leg: Femur .-.........---..........-- ...--- 0.95 0.88 0.98 0.96
Tibia ...................................... 0.97 0.86 0.99 1.00
Tarsal I ................................ 0.30 0.27 0.26 0.25
Tarsal II .............................. 0.30 0.30 0.31 0.31
Hind leg: Femur ...................................... 1.11 1.03 1.13 1.09
Tibia ......................... ............... 1.40 1.32 1.40 1.44
Tarsal I .................................... 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31
Tarsal II .................................. 0.31 0.31 0.34 0.35


Described from sixty-two specimens taken from Little Hatchet
Creek, near Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida, March 5, 1950
(Jon L. Herring). Apterous holotype and allotype, alate mor-
phoholotype, and paratypes in the collection of the Museum of
Zoology of the University of Michigan; additional paratypes
in the collections of the United States National Museum, the
Snow Entomological Museum of the University of Kansas, the
University of California, Dr. Carl J. Drake, Dr. H. M. Harris,
Mr. J. E. Burgess, Jr., and the authors. We have also seen a
smaller series of specimens taken by the junior author at the
same locality on March 26, 1948.

Microvelia alachuana is known from a single sand bottomed
stream at Alachua Airbase near Gainesville. This stream, known
as Little Hatchet Creek, runs through a canyon whose walls
are thirty or more feet high. Although deepened by artificial
means, the canyon is being cut down by the stream itself during
the rainy season of the year. The walls are steep and are com-
posed of yellowish sands mixed with beds of white to green clays.
Many fossils of Miocene age are present in the stream bed.
The stream is quite narrow in the portions of its course
where M. alachuana was found. In this area the banks of the
stream are only two or three feet wide. Practically no vegeta-
tion exists in the stream but many vines and herbaceous plants
have moved in from the area above and formed dense tangles
of vegetation along the banks. In many places, rocks have
formed dams to the stream so that small, still pools occur along
the bank. These pools are only a foot in diameter and one or
two inches deep.
M. alachuana was observed by the junior author in great
numbers scurrying about over the wet clay banks and in the
small, clear pools along the shore. This form is well concealed
in its habitat as its coloring blends well with the gray of the
clay banks. Several hundred specimens of Rhagovelia choreutes
Hussey were collected with alachuana on March 26, 1948.



(Continued from Last Issue)
Dr. Wilson then moved, and insisted, that Mr. Van Horn
not be permitted to escape his obligation of giving a presidential
address, and that he be required to present a talk along with
Mr. Mulrennan at the 1950 annual meeting of the society. The
motion was seconded and passed by the society.
Dr. Wallace moved that a committee be appointed to study
the constitution with the idea of amending it to permit the
executive committee to elect entomologists to membership in
the society, so that it would be unnecessary to have a full meet-
ing of the entire organization in order to bring in new members.
The motion was seconded by Dr. Wilson and passed by the
Mr. Mulrennan then read two letters inviting the society to
meet in Miami and in St. Petersburg in 1950. It was decided
to refer the matter to the executive committee for study and
The business meeting was adjourned at 2:05 P. M. Twenty-
two members signed the attendance register.
Mr. Mulrennan called a special meeting on the morning of
December 17 at 9:00 A.M. to pass on some additional persons
seeking membership in the society. The meeting was called
to order at 9:00 A. M. in the Hillsborough Hotel. The presi-
dent asked that the names of the nominees be presented for
consideration. The following were submitted for associate mem-
bership-F. G. Butcher, J. O. Pepper, and W. C. Rhoades. Mr.
Van Horn moved that the recommendations be accepted. Mr.
Bruce seconded the motion and it was passed by the members.
Mr. Mulrennan called for other business. Dr. Wilson moved
that the society adjourn as a group and then reconvene as a
resolutions committee. The society adjourned at 9:05 A. M.
Dr. Wilson then moved that the secretary be empowered to
prepare a resolution of commendation for those who have ac-
tively contributed to the success of the meetings in Tampa and
that the resolution be published in the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST.
Also, a paragraph should be included to thank the Tampa of-
ficials for their invaluable assistance. This resolution was
passed by the committee.
The meeting then reconvened at 9:10 A. M. Mr. Van Horn


submitted the following recommendations as a means of increas-
ing the efficiency of the organization:
1. That a post office box be secured in Gainesville.
2. That letterhead, envelopes, statements, etc., be standard-
ized for the use of all officers of the society.
3. That applications for membership be reprinted with the
permanent post office box as the mailing address of the
4. That there be a more vigorous advertising campaign and
that the membership campaign be reinvigorated.
5. That the society consider electing a permanent secretary
and business manager and that some token payment be
made to them. The two officers should be located in
6. That the secretary be empowered to employ student help.
7. That an advertising committee be appointed.
The special business meeting was adjourned at 9:15 A. M.
For the Year Ending December 1, 1949
Balance on hand December 13, 1948 .....-.....-....................... $ 226.78
From Sub. to The Fla. Ent .....-------...-- ........-----..... 86.75
Membership dues (current and back) ~...--.....-----...... 292.00
Sale of back issues The Fla. Ent. .....-..............-...... .... ---72.41
From members for reprints, plates, etc .......................... 189.12
From advertisements in The Fla. Ent ....- .~................. 583.25
From contributions --.--... .........-......---- 1.00

Total -- -.-- --.................................................$1,451.31 $1,451.31
Cost of printing The Fla. Ent. .........-..-....-----...........$1,129.16
Postage, stationery and other supplies ....-----.................... 103.17
Exchange on checks and money orders ...................---......---. 6.19
Miscellaneous .....---...........--.. --.--------.. --. 6.31

Total ------- --........------.......-----------.............$1,244.83 $1,244.83

$ 206.48
Balance an hand December 1, 1949-Cash ............--..----.. ..--- ...$ 4.75
Florida State Bank, Gainesville ................---------- ....-- ....... 201.73


VOL. XXXIII-No. 3 123

Monies received misc. since Dec. 1, 1949 ..................--------------................... $ 47.00
Due from advertisements Fla. Ent. Vol. 32, No. 4 ................................ 172.50
Due from members for plates and reprints, Vol. 32, No. 4.................... 26.10

Total ....-..............................---.... ----............... ....-------... .......$24 .60
Pepper Printing Co., Nov. 30, Balance ....-------......... ..--.....................$21.93
Pepper Printing Co., The Fla. Ent. Vol. 32, No. 4----................Bill Not Received

Respectfully submitted,
Treasurer and Business Manager


We have examined the financial report as shown on the reverse side
of this sheet and find it correct.
We wish to extend the highest appreciation for the very fine work
done by the business manager.



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