Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00209
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1955
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00209
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text


Florida Entomologist

JUNE, 1955
Vol. XXXVIII No. 2

ROBINSON, F. A.-The Effect on Honey Bees of Parathion
Sprays Applied to Florida Citrus Groves .---------------- .. ....... 51
JOHNSON, ROGER B., and C. R. STEARNS, JR.-Effect of Rain
on Control of Purple Scale with Parathion ....-.....-----------. 57
TAMBURO, S. E., and F. GRAY BUTCHER-Biological Studies
of the Florida Dusky Wing Skipper, and a Preliminary
Survey of Other Insects on Barbados Cherry ._..------... --65
HOOD, J. DOUGLAS-Frankliniella welaka, a New Thrips from
Florida .----_...----.........------------. 71
SABROSKY, CURTIS W.-The Taxonomic Status of the Army-
worm Parasite Known as Archytas piliventris (Van der
Wulp) (Diptera: Larvaevoridae) -...........................---------- 77
PEPPER, J. O., and A. N. TISSOT-A New Species of Cinara
from Pennsylvania (Homoptera: Aphidae) .....---------. 85
Notes -....-----------...........-----------....89

Published quarterly by the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Box 2425, University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville





OFFICERS FOR 1954-1955
President ... .. .................................................... F. G. BUTCHER
Vice President .--.....................-...--.....------- F. S. CHAMBERLIN
Secretary -....-......................................... MILLEDGE MURPHEY, JR.
Treasurer --.......-..........-......---..........--- ----- W. P. HUNTER
Executive Committee ... J. W. WILSON
---------- --------------- A. J. ROGERS

LEWIS BERNER .----...-..-.....-----------...------------ Editor
L. C. KUITERT -----....................----- Associate Editor
W. P. HUNTER ...............---------... Business Manager

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VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955



In the last four or five years, the use of parathion has in-
creased tremendously, especially for the control of scale insects
in Florida citrus groves. When this material was first released
for commercial use, there were numerous popular and scientific
articles published concerning the toxic and residual properties
of parathion. One of these articles 3 mentioned tests where
caged honey bees were killed in one to eight hours when placed
above a cage which had been sprayed with one percent para-
thion spray twelve days previously. After reading or hearing
about some of these articles, many of the beekeepers in Florida
formed exaggerated ideas about the toxic effects of parathion.
One beekeeper, in particular had somehow gotten the idea that
a single parathion spray application would kill any living thing
in a citrus grove and remain effective for six months or more.
Since honey produced from various citrus sources accounts
for more than 50 percent of the honey production in Florida,
beekeepers became understandably concerned as to the effects
the use of parathion sprays in citrus groves would have on the
honey-producing industry. There was some fear expressed that
beekeeping might have to be abandoned in areas where para-
thion was used widely. Early in the spring of 1950, reports
were received telling of beekeepers who had had colonies of
bees killed by parathion, or had heard of other beekeepers
whose bees had been killed. These reports were generally very
difficult to trace to the original source and in most cases it
was impossible to determine whether these losses were due
to parathion or to some other cause. As the use of parathion
Sin citrus groves was becoming so widespread, it was important
that controlled tests be made to determine just what effect
parathion sprays have on honey bees under actual field condi-
tions. To obtain this information, tests were conducted in

'Contribution of the Department of Entomology. Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 362.
2 Assistant Apiculturist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville, Florida.
3 Eckert, J. E. 1948. Toxicity of some of the newer chemicals to honey
bees. J. Econ. Ent. 41: 487-491.


the summer of 1950 and spring of 1951 at Lake Alfred, Flor-
ida, in cooperation with Dr. J. T. Griffiths, Entomologist at the
Citrus Experiment Station. The bees used in these tests were
furnished by Mr. George O'Neil of Haines City, Florida.
The first test was made in July 1950, in an eight-acre grape-
fruit grove which was sprayed with two pounds of 15 percent
wettable parathion in 100 gallons of water. This spray was
applied at the rate of 35 gallons per tree.
In the first test, two lots of 3-frame nuclei were used. One
lot, consisting of six nuclei, was placed in the center of the
grove before the spraying operation began. These nuclei were
located so as to receive a heavy application of the spray ma-
terial as the Speed Sprayer passed. The nuclei were inspected
two hours after they were sprayed and very little injury was
detected. The maximum number of dead bees that could be
found in any nucleus was about fifty. Bees in the nuclei be-
haved normally, and flight, which had ceased during the spray
application, was beginning again. The queens in the nuclei
were laying normally and no effects on the brood were observed.
Three more observations"were made at eight hour intervals.
At the end of that time, two nuclei each had about 150 dead
bees, and the others from 30 to 50. The death rate of the bees
in these nuclei was surprisingly low-in fact, with the excep-
tion of the two "nukes" which had 150 dead bees, the death
rate was very little higher than that of normal colonies which
had not been exposed to any insecticidal sprays. Activity and
behavior of the bees remained normal in all respects.
The second lot, consisting of ten 3-frame nuclei, was placed
in the grove four hours after spraying was completed. Ob-
servations were made on these nuclei for 36 hours. At the
end of this time, only five to ten dead bees were found in front
or inside of any nucleus. The behavior of the bees and queens
appeared perfectly normal and no ill effect on the brood was
As the first test was conducted at a time when the citrus
trees were not in bloom, a second test was made in March,
1951, at a time when the trees were in bloom and the honey
bees actively working in the grove. Since parathion sprays
are not normally applied while the trees are in bloom, special
arrangements were made by Dr. Griffiths to have a ten-acre
grove sprayed on March 14 and again on March 26, 1951. The
colonies of bees were placed 30 yards from the north end of

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955

the grove. Two of the colonies were placed on scales and their
weights recorded every other day for a four-week period. Ob-
servations also were made as to the numbers of dead bees found
in front of the hives, activity and behavior of the bees, queen
behavior and effects on brood.

o 40
z 30


12 14 16 18

20 22 24 26 28 30 1 3 5

Figure 1.-Daily weight of two colonies of honeybees collecting nectar from
a citrus grove sprayed with parathion.

The first spray application was made on March 14, 1951.
The rate of application was two pounds of 15 percent wettable
parathion in 100 gallons of water. This spray was applied at
the rate of 35 gallons per tree. The temperature was about
500 F. when the spraying operation began and no bees were
observed visiting the bloom at this time. However, by the
time the spraying was completed, large numbers of bees were
observed visiting the blooms. The second spray application
was made on March 26, 1951, and this time there were bees
working in the grove at the time the spraying operation be-
gan. The activity of the bees ceased for a period of several
hours until the spraying operation had been completed and


spray residue had dried on the trees. Most of the blooms had
already dropped from the trees and the nectar flow was about
over when the second application was made, and this was un-
doubtedly the reason why little or no increase in weight was
recorded after March 26. A graph showing the weights of
these two colonies from March 12 through April 10 is shown
in figure 1. Observations were made as to the number of dead
bees found in front of the hives before and after the spray

t7' 4r

r 6r

* .

.uy:i; "

:: ~:ia :
I' :
I t:

Colony 1

,. .: ....^ . : ,: .,, ..., : o. "'!

Colo, y 2

Colony 2

Figure 2.-Photographs of the ground in front of the scale colonies.
Upper pictures one day before and lower pictures one day after first spray

Photographs were taken of the ground immediately in front
of the two scale colonies. In figure 2, the top pictures were
taken one day before the first application of parathion, and
the bottom pictures were taken one day after the grove was
sprayed. After each observation was made the ground in
front of the hives was cleared of dead bees and a close exami-
nation of these photographs shows little or no difference in
the numbers of dead bees before and after the grove was
sprayed. After failing to note any increase in death rate of
adult bees at the hives, close examinations were made in sev-

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955

eral locations in the grove to determine whether or not the
field bees might be dying before they could return to the hives.
This idea was abandoned after repeated examinations failed to
disclose any larger numbers of dead bees than can be found in
any citrus grove during the time the trees are in bloom.
Each colony was checked before the grove was sprayed as
to the amounts of brood it had and each was checked again
after the sprays had been applied. In no colony was any ad-
verse effect observed on brood production. The queens all con-
tinued to lay eggs normally and the percent viability of the
eggs remained unchanged. The sealed and unsealed brood
matured normally and showed no signs of being affected in
any way by parathion residue which might have been brought
back to the colony by the field bees.

The results of these tests indicate that parathion sprays
used in citrus groves do not present nearly as great a threat
to honey bees as had been expected when this material first
came into widespread use. This conclusion seems especially
justified when one considers that in these tests the bees were
in one case directly exposed to the spray material and in the
other case they were working the blooms within three to four
hours after the sprays had been applied-and yet even under
these conditions there was no detectable adverse effect on the
colonies. Unless the colonies of honey bees were in the grove
at the time the spray applications were made there seems to
be little danger that they would suffer any serious injury.

... 4

~6~LB~i~i~ I:'-i~~(
cc~;g~x~rul :~L

Colony 1

Colony 2





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VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955


Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida

Although the fate of spray residues under grove condi-
tions is of importance to citrus growers, little is known about
the effect of wind, rain, and sunlight on the efficiency of in-
secticidal deposits. For example, the application of parathion
to citrus trees is often followed, or even interrupted, by rain.
It has not been known if removal of the insecticidal deposit by
rain reduced control of purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii
(Newm.) sufficiently to make respraying advisable.
In 1952, a research program was initiated to obtain informa-
tion on this problem. As the aim of this research was to de-
termine what reduction in control of purple scale could be
expected from rain falling at predetermined intervals after
application of parathion, the use of natural rainfall was im-
practical. Again, the physical characteristics of rainfall could
not be duplicated under grove conditions with the equipment
available. It was assumed that removal of parathion residues
from citrus trees by spraying them with water would be more
nearly complete and effect scale control more than would a
natural rain falling at the same interval after the application
of the spray. Therefore, an attempt was made to wash all
parathion from sprayed trees, with the idea that if such re-
moval of residues did not reduce scale control, neither would
reduction of residues by natural rain.
All trees in three experiments were sprayed with 1.7 pounds
of 15 percent parathion wettable powder and 5.0 pounds of
wettable sulfur per 100 gallons of spray, except for one set of
plots in Experiments II and III. These were sprayed with 5.0
pounds of wettable sulfur per 100 gallons of spray, the para-
thion being omitted. Wettable sulfur was used in all sprays
for the control of rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm.).
The interval between the application of parathion sprays and
the removal of toxic residues by washing the trees with water
was recorded for each plot. Plots sprayed with parathion but
not washed were used as the standard or check. Washing was
SFlorida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 374.


accomplished with hand spray guns and an hydraulic sprayer
operated at approximately 500 pounds pressure per square inch
at the pump. Two guns were operated simultaneously. Fifty
gallons of water were used to wash each tree. To wash trees,
the operator walked slowly around each tree while applying
the water from top to bottom as a fine spray. Usually at least
three trips had to be made around each tree to apply the de-
sired volume of water.
Parathion residues on samples of leaves collected immedi-
ately after the spray application and again after each wash
were determined by the method of Averell and Norris (1948).
Estimates of purple-scale populations were obtained through
counts made a few days before sprays were applied and again
about one month after treatment. Such population estimates
were used to calculate percentages of reduction in purple-scale
populations. Percentages of reduction were then converted to
equivalent angles (Snedecor, 1946) for analysis of variance in
Experiments II and III.
Population estimates were also used to calculate "Corrected
Relative Infestations after Sprays" using a formula developed
by Ebeling (1947). The latter value does not show the abso-
lute magnitude of the scale insect infestations, but shows the
relative magnitudes of the populations corrected for differences
that existed before treatment. A parathion spray not removed
by washing was used as the standard at 100 and all other treat-
ments were compared with it.

A block of large Valencia orange trees at Lake Alfred was
divided into plots of four trees each. On June 25, 1952, a para-
thion spray was applied to all trees with a Speed Sprayer equipped
with a volute and drawn through the grove at approximately
one mile an hour. About 25 gallons of spray were applied to
each tree. Two plots of trees were washed one hour after appli-
cation and other sets of two plots were similarly washed two,
three, four and six hours after application.
Pre-application samples of purple scale were collected June
24, 1952, while post-application samples were collected July 24,
1952. Purple-scale populations were estimated by determining
the percentages of leaves infested with live purple scale accord-
ing to the method of Griffiths and Thompson (1949).

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955


Percent Leaves
s o Infested a m

Sulfur, 10 Lbs.
Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs.

Sulfur, 10 Lbs. 2 hours 0.12 83.3% 23.8% 5.8% 574
Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs.
Sulfur, 10 Lbs. 3 hours 0.12 83.3% 17.2% 1.6% 212
PP A- P4W< p;fcqg 4M &42M UI

Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs. hour 0.16 77.8% 18.0 2.0 254
Sulfur, 10 Lbs. 4 hours 0.08 88.9% 14.7% 2.3% 424
Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs.
Sulfur, 10 Lbs. 6 hours 0.12 83.3% 13.7% 1.2% 200
Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs. Not
Sulfur, 10 Lbs. 3 hours 0.12 83.3 17.3% 1.2% 100

SMicrograms of Parathioner Square Centimeter of Leaf Surface.Lbs.
SBaSulfur, 10 Lbs. 4 hours 0.08 88.9 14.7% 2.3 424
Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs.
Sulfur, 10 Lbs. 6 hours 0.12 83.3% 13.7% 1.2% 200
Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs. Not
Sulfur, 10 Lbs. Washed -. -- 27.3% 1.2% 100

Micrograms of Parathion per Square Centimeter of Leaf Surface.
!MI Based on Initial Deposit of 0.72 Mcg./Cm.2

An initial deposit of 0.72 micrograms of parathion per square
centimeter of leaf surface was obtained with the sprays. The
percentages of the initial parathion deposit removed by wash-
ing were similar, regardless of the time before washing (table
1). There was no correlation between the interval before wash-
ing and the corrected relative post-spray infestations of purple
scale. Populations were higher wherever parathion residues
were reduced by washing than where such residues were not
washed, but the difference was not sufficient to justify reappli-
cation of parathion in commercial practice.


Randomized plots of two trees replicated three times were
used for this experiment in a grove of twelve-year-old Valencia
orange trees in the vicinity of Lake Alfred.


Pre-application samples of purple scale were collected July
6, 1953, while post-application samples were collected August 10,
1953. Samples of 50 leaves were picked at random from the
outer branches around the bottom of each tree. These were
placed in plastic bags and kept under refrigeration until the
scale insects could be counted. Samples were examined with
the aid of a binocular microscope. .The total number of live
purple scales which could be identified as females or which could
not be identified as males were recorded.


Average No.
g Live Purple g w
M Scale per Leaf M ,
Treatment P o. o'

Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs.
Sulfur, 5.0 Lbs. 1 hour .020 81.1% 3.63 1.17 181
arathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs.
a). n a) t" a) Cd ( P, o P, 0

Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs.

Sulfur, 5.0 Lbs. 2 hour .015 85.8% 3.04 0.94 174
Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs.
Sulfur, 5.0 Lbs. 4 hours .015 85.8% 4.14 1.01 137
Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs. Not
Sulfur, 5.0 Lbs. 4 hours .015 85.8%cl, 4.14 1.01 137
Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs. Not
Sulfur, 5.0 Lbs. Washed -. .. 4.16 0.74 100
Sulfur, 5.0 Lbs. Washed ... .... 3.01 2.04 382

Micrograms of Parathion per Square Centimeter of Leaf Surface.
** Based on Initial Deposit of .106 Mcg./Cm.'

On July 14, 1953, one set of plots was sprayed with wettable
sulfur while all other trees were sprayed with sulfur plus para-
thion. About 15 gallons of spray were applied to each tree.
Both sprays were applied with hand spray guns and a hydraulic
grove sprayer. A similar sprayer was used to wash the trees.
Data presented in table 2 show that a low initial deposit of
0.106 micrograms of parathion per square centimeter of leaf
surface was obtained with the sprays. Percentages of the para-
thion deposit removed by washing were similar, regardless of

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955

the interval before washing. Corrected relative post-spray in-
festations were higher where parathion deposits were washed
from the trees than where parathion was not removed, but lower
than where no parathion had been applied. Furthermore, cor-
rected relative post-spray infestations were inversely correlated
with the interval before reduction of parathion by washing.
Differences in corrected relative post-spray, purple-scale infes-
tations represented significant differences in purple-scale con-
trol. Differences were significant at odds greater than 99 to 1
and only the reduction obtained where trees were washed four
hours after application of parathion was not significantly dif-
ferent from that obtained where parathion was not washed from
the trees.
Experiment III was similar to Experiment II except that
additional intervals between application and washing of toxic
residues were used. Pre-application samples of purple scale
were collected October 27, 1953, and post-application samples
on December 28, 1953. Sprays were applied October 29, 1953.
Approximately 16 gallons of spray were applied to each tree.
Whereas a high initial parathion deposit was obtained in the
first experiment and a low initial deposit in the second, an inter-
mediate deposit of 0.407 micrograms per square centimeter of
leaf surface was obtained in the third. Parathion deposits were
not similar after washing, but were inversely related to the
interval between spraying and washing (table 3). These dif-
ferences in toxic residues after washing, however, had no appar-
ent effect on scale control.
Corrected relative post-spray, purple-scale infestations were
higher where parathion was washed from trees than where it
was left undisturbed, but these differences were not significant.
Populations were significantly higher, at odds greater than 99
to 1, where only sulfur was used than where parathion was
used. Control of purple scale with parathion was thus ade-
quate in all cases.

Three experiments were performed to determine indirectly
the possible effect of rainfall on the control of purple scale with
parathion. Orange trees were sprayed with parathion and then
washed with water at various intervals to determine how long


parathion must be present to control purple scale. The extent
to which washing removed parathion was determined by analy-
sis of residue samples collected immediately after application
of sprays and again after each wash. Purple-scale populations
were estimated before application of sprays and again one
month later. Such estimates were used to calculate corrected
relative post-spray, purple-scale infestations.


No. Live
0 Purple Scale
S per Leaf U?

Sulfur, 5 Lbs. 1 hour .079 80.6% 1.21 0.21 210
Treatment 15%, 1.7 Lbs
Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs. p
5 L. 4 h s .8 8 4 0.27 185

Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs.
Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs.
Sulfur, 5 Lbs. 1 hours .079 80.6% 1.21 0.21 210
Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs.
Sulfur, 5 Lbs. 2 hours .079 80.6% 1.70 0.24 172
.Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs.
Sulfur, 5 Lbs. 4 hours .058 85.7% 1.74 0.27 185
Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs.
Sulfur, 5 Lbs. 6 hours .027 93.4% 1.52 0.41 321
Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs.
Sulfur, 5 Lbs. 8 hours .001 99.8% 1.07 0.24 268
P iarathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs.
Sulfur, 5 Lbs. 24 hours .011 97.3% 1.39 0.18 157
Parathion, 15%, 1.7 Lbs. Not
Sulfur, 5 Lbs. Washed -- .... 1.58 0.13 100
Sulfur, 5.0 Lbs. Washed -- .... 1.47 1.82 1,494

Micrograms of Parathion per Square Centimeter of Leaf Surface.
** Based on Initial Deposit of .407 Mcg./Cm.2

The outstanding variable among the three experiments was
the initial parathion deposit; this varied from the high of 0.72
micrograms per square centimeter of leaf surface in the first
test to 0.407 in the third and a low of 0.106 in the second. Where

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955

initial deposits were high or intermediate, removal of parathion
within one hour or more after application of sprays had little
effect on scale control. Where the initial deposit was low, how-
ever, removal of parathion within two hours after application
resulted in a significant reduction in control of purple scale.
These data indicate that rainfall one or more hours after appli-
cation of parathion sprays has little effect on scale control where
thorough full-coverage sprays are applied.

Averell, P. R., and M. V. Norris. 1948. Estimation of small amounts of
O,0-diethyl O,p-nitrophenyl thiophosphate. Anal. Chem. 20(8) : 753-6.
Ebeling, Walter. 1947. DDT preparations to control certain scale insects
on citrus. Jour. Econ. Ent. 40: 619-632.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr., and W. L. Thompson. 1949. Identification of Florida red
and purple scales on citrus trees in Florida. Fla. Circ. S-5. 1949.
Snedecor, G. W. Statistical Methods. 1946.

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VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955


University of Miami
Coral Gables, Florida

The Florida dusky wing skipper, Ephyriades brunnea flori-
densis B. and C., was reported feeding on barbados cherry
(Malpighia glabra L.) by the junior author in 1951. Available
literature has not revealed references to the habits or biology
of this butterfly, so a study of this insect has been conducted
during the summer of 1954.
This insect, described as a distinct subspecies in 1948, is a
representative of the subfamily Pyrginae, family Hesperiidae.
The adult (Fig. 1) is well illustrated and briefly described by
Klots, but no reference to the larval forms (Fig. 2) has been
The larvae have been found feeding within webbed leaves
in the barbados cherry plantings at the University of Miami
Experimental Farm, where they have caused noticeable injury
each season. Infestations have not been abundant enough to
cause extensive defoliation of the host plants, but many of the in-
dividual plants have shown a ragged appearance from the leaf
injury. A single caterpillar ties the edges of two or more leaves
together by a rhythmic moving of the head, with a silken thread
exuding from spinnerets. The larvae feed within this protected
area, without destroying it completely but frequently leave it
for other feeding localities, with accompanying leaf-tying.
The full grown larvae in natural resting position are from
25 to 30 mm. long. The body is basically green in color from the
contained food, with a distinct brown- to black-colored head
capsule. There are eight distinct orange-colored spots on the
head capsule, and three distinct white longitudinal stripes along
each side of the body. The uppermost or dorsal stripe of each
side lie close together on the dorsal surface of the body, and
coalesce in the last abdominal segment. Between these dorsal
stripes, irregular translucent spots are observed.

1Student, and Associate Professor and Research Entomologist, respec-


Life history studies were attempted by collecting immature
stages of this insect from field plantings, and rearing them in
the laboratory. Individual larvae were maintained in covered
glass or plastic dishes with host plant foliage, and also on small
potted plants within cheese-cloth cages. In the dishes, food
material was replaced at two-day intervals.
Eggs are deposited singly on the surfaces of leaves, stems
and fruit of the barbados cherry. The complete egg stage was
not observed, since eggs were not obtained from butterflies in
captivity. One viable egg collected in the field hatched after
five days.

Figure 1.-Adult of Florida Dusky Wing Skipper.

Four larval instars were recognized. The first instar has
an almost transparent body until it begins feeding the day after
hatching. Then the normal green color of the older larva de-
velops. One first instar larva molted after 18 days, but two
other representatives of this instar continued active for 22 and
27 days respectively. One second instar larva required 27 days
to reach ecdysis, while another specimen of the 2nd instar con-
tinued active for 36 days without a molt. Three third instar

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955

larvae completed their development in 23, 29, and 34 days
Nine individuals in the fourth instar developed to pupation.
Eight of these 9 larvae pupated in from 15 to 23 days, with an
average period of 19.4 days. One larva required 38 days in this
instar before pupation.

.;r --i
-1. r..

Figure 2.-Larva of Florida Dusky Wing Skipper.

The duration of the pupal stage was observed on nine in-
dividual butterflies. Four of these required 7 days, two of them
8 days, one 6 days, one 5 days, and one individual was in the
pupal stage 12 days. A pupal period of slightly over one week is
thus indicated. The adult butterfly emerges by forcing a neat
split in the anterior portion of the pupal case. Differentiation
between the male and female individuals could not be made
except by examination of the genitalia. In the field, adults
were observed feeding on blossoms of barbados cherry and
spanish needles (Bidens Leucantha L.). In captivity they were
maintained alive slightly over one week, feeding on a sugar-
water solution.
Larvae of this skipper were not found on any plant except
barbados cherry. They were found in various plantings of this


host in the Miami area, but thorough search on other represen-
tatives of this plant family, as well as on other plants, failed
to reveal their presence.
Brief studies on migration of the larvae indicate some con-
siderable movement during their development. Fifteen speci-
mens of 3rd instar larvae were marked on the head capsule,
using nail polish applied with a dissecting needle in recorded
patterns of dashes and dots. These marked larvae were then
released on the host plants at widely separated locations in the
University planting. After one week, 13 of these 15 larvae were
recovered. One had travelled a distance of 10 feet, three bushes
away from the point of release. Three larvae had migrated to
adjoining bushes in the row, and the other 9 larvae were recov-
ered on the same plant where they were released.
Two species of parasitic Hymenoptera attack these caterpil-
lars. The ichneumonid wasp Trogomorpha trogiformis (Cress.)
was reported from this skipper by Butcher in 1951, as the first
host record for any species of this parasitic genus. Additional
specimens of this ichneumonid were reared from Ephgriades b.
floridensis in September, 1953. Another first host record for
a parasite was obtained during the course of the present studies,
when a male and a female chalcid wasp emerged from two
.chrysalids of the skipper. These specimens have been identified
by Dr. B. D. Burks of the U. S. National Museum as Brachy-
meria slossonae (Crawford), with the notation that they are the
first reared specimens of the species and thus the first specimens
from a known host. The chalcid consumes the entire contents
of the chrysalid, and the chalcid pupa is formed within the
empty skipper chrysalid. One of these chalcids emerged from
the pupa of a skipper which had been collected in the field in the
third larval instar and maintained in the laboratory in a glass
cage thereafter. This caterpillar molted four days after it was
collected, required 18 days in the 4th instar, and was in the
pupal stage for 6 days before the parasite emerged. Hence,
a minimum life cycle of approximately one month is indicated
for this species of chalcid.

During the course of these investigations, all other insects
observed feeding on the barbados cherry were collected and
recorded. Representatives of four other insect orders and one

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955

plant-feeding arachnid were found and tentatively identified as
follows 2:-

Family Locustidae-Dichromorpha viridis Scud. feeding on leaves.
Family Blattidae-two undetermined species feeding on fruit.
Family Tettigoniidae-Amblycorypha uhleri (Stal) and Conocephalis fas-
ciatus DeG. feeding on leaves.
Family Coreidae-Leptoglossus phyllopus (Linn.), Acanthocephala femo-
rata (Fab.) and Euthochtha galeator (Fab.) feeding on leaves.
Family Cydnidae-Pangaeus bilineatus (Say) feeding on leaves.
Family Pentatomidae-Euschistus ursus Van Duzee feeding on leaves.
Family Aleyrodidae-an undetermined whitefly found on young leaves.
Family Cercopidae-adults and nymphs of Monecphora bicincta (Say) found
on many twigs and branches.
Family Cicadellidae-two undetermined species of leafhoppers feeding on
Family Cicadidae-one specimen of Diceroprocta viridifascia Walker ap-
parently feeding on twigs.
Family Coccoidae-five species of scale insects were recorded from twigs
and leaves. They are Coccus hesperidum (Linn.), C. viridis (Green),
Saissetia sp., Pulvinaria urbicola Ckll., and Icerya purchase Mask.
Family Fulgoridae-an undetermined species feeding on leaves.
Family Chrysomelidae-Diabrotica balteata Lec. feeding on leaves.
Family Curculionidae-Pachneus opalis Oliv. feeding on leaves.

Family Tuckerellidae-the distinctive mite Tuckerella pavoniformis (Ewing)
found on bark of twigs.


Bell, Ernest L., and William P. Comstock. 1948. Some new species and
subspecies of American Hesperiidae. Amer. Mus. Nov. 1379: 1-23.
Butcher, F. Gray. 1951. Some observations on various insects found on
fruit and ornamentals in the Miami area. Fla. State Hort. Soc., Proc.
64: 251-254.
Klots, Alexander B. 1951. A field guide to the butterflies. Houghton
Mifflin Co., Boston.

2 The authors gratefully acknowledge generous assistance from Dr. F. H.
Strohecker of the University of Miami in the identification of many of these
insects, especially the Orthoptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera.


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VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955


Cornell University

The dark-colored, leisurely river now known as the St. Johns,
along whose banks continually through two centuries fought
Spanish and French and English and Americans and the militia
of the brief-lived Republic of Florida, each opposed or aided by
Indians of the Creek tribes, enlarges itself by tribute from
innumerable, cattail-rimmed lakes and swamps and forms a
pendant half the length of Florida. Its form led the Indians
to call it the "Chain of Lakes", or Welaka-a name perpetuated
in that of the small town near which the present species was
Frankliniella welaka, sp. nov.
(Figs. 1 and 2)
Closely allied to tenuicornis, but differing most noticeably in
the much smaller size, usually paler coloration, in the much
shorter and far less slender antennal segments, and the position
of the interocellar setae.
FEMALE (MACROPTEROUS) .-Length about 1 mm. (distended, 1.3 mm).
Color brown (more or less blackish), darkest in fore part of head and in the
last few abdominal segments; all coxae brown, all trochanters and tarsi
(save for the dark cups of latter) pale yellow; femora paler than body,
yellow apically and basally, shading to brown between; tibiae largely yel-
low, clouded with brown on the morphologically upper surface; fore wings
pale yellowish, usually perceptibly darker apically, but otherwise unmarked;
antennae brown in segments I and II (the former slightly paler), III and
IV whitish yellow but slightly darkened apically, IV also darkened in
pedicel, V-VIII gray-brown, the first of these paler just beyond base, VI
somewhat darker.
Head (Fig. 1) about 0.85 as long as width across eyes, which is con-
spicuously greater than that across cheeks, the latter not noticeable serrated,
nearly straight, and tapering evenly to near base, where they roundly and
abruptly converge; dorsal surface cross-striate in all except ocellar area,
the striae on vertex interrupted; occipital apodeme dark brown and con-
spicuous, closely paralleling posterior margin of head; interocellar setae long
(about 39 I), dark brown, and conspicuous, their bases only about 21 Ik apart
and on a line tangent with inner margins of median and posterior ocelli;
other setae short and inconspicuous. Eyes distinctly protruding, about 63 t
long dorsally, about 40 wide, and about 71 apart. Ocelli normal, their pig-
mentation red. Mouth-cone normal, extending about 77 p, beyond posterior
dorsal margin of head. Antennae (Fig. 2) thoroughly normal, though
much shorter and relatively stouter than in tenuicornis (Fig. 3).


S. .. .. ....... .. ......... ..'.. -

\" )



Fig. 1.-Frankliniella welaka, sp. nov., head and prothorax, 9, holotype;
x 227. (Setae omitted from leg and antennae.)1
Fig. 2.-Frankliniella welaka, outline of segments III-VIII of right antenna;
x 363.
Fig. 3.-Frankliniella tenuicornis (Uzel), outline of segments III-VIII of
right antenna; x 363.

Prothorax (Fig. 1) normal, lightly sculptured (only a few of the darker
and heavier striae shown in figure); major setae dark gray in fully-ma-
tured individuals, the antero-marginals about 28 t, antero-angulars 51,
epimerals (outer pair at posterior angles) 45, inner 55. Pterothorax normal

1 The cost of the line engraving was borne by Cornell University through
its committee on Faculty Research Grants.

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955 73

in all respects; fore wings about 547 It long, costa with about 1 + 18 setae
(those at middle of wing about 44 ~), fore vein with 4 + 11-14, hind vein with
Abdomen normal; setae on terminal segments dark brown, segment IX
with I 80 p, II 111, III 128, X with I 112, II 106.
Measurements of 9 holotypee), in mm.: Length about 1.0 (distended,
1.26). Head, length 0.128, width across eyes 0.150, greatest width across
cheeks 0.141, width at base 0.119. Prothorax, median length of pronotum
0.107, width (exclusive of coxae) 0.153. Mesothorax, width across anterior
angles 0.178; metathorax, greatest width posteriorly 0.189. Abdomen,
greatest width (at segment IV) 0.199.

Antennal segments: I II III IV V VI VII VIII

Length (2): 23 36 41 35 34 48 9 12
Width () : 27 27 18 17 17 17 7 5

Total length of antenna, 0.238 mm.

MALE (MACROPTEROUS).-Length about 0.9 mm. (distended, 1.1 mm.).
Color pale yellow in body, Jegs, and first four antennal segments, the re-
mainder of antennae gray; segment II very slightly darker than I, as are
also the tip of III, pedicel of IV, and varying amounts of the apical portion
of the latter; V paler than VI-VIII, paler just beyond pedicel. Chaetotaxy
and sculpture about as in female.
Measurements of & (allotype), in mm.: Head, length 0.127, width across
eyes 0.145, greatest width across cheeks 0.135, width at base 0.112. Eyes,
dorsal length 0.063. Interocellar setae, length 0.043, interval 0.020. Mouth-
cone, length beyond posterior dorsal margin of head, 0.055. Prothorax,
median length of pronotum 0.101, width (exclusive of coxae) 0.151; antero-
marginal setae 0.025, antero-angular 0.044, outer pair at posterior angles
0.049, inner 0.055. Mesothorax, width across anterior angles 0.167. Meta-
thorax, greatest width posteriorly 0.175. Fore wings, length 0.504. Ab-
domen, greatest width (at segment IV) 0.158.

Antennal segments: I II III IV V VI VII VIII

Length (,): 20 35 43 34 33 45 8 12
Width (M) : 27 26 19 17 17 17 7 5

Total length of antenna, 0.230 mm.

FLORIDA: Welaka, July 10, 1954, J.D.H. and Minter J. Westfall, Jr.,
18 9's (including holotype) and 8 &'s (including allotype), from axils of


This little, dimorphically-colored species is one over which
the writer has deliberated a great many years, and whose status
even now seems a matter of some doubt. It is very closely re-
lated to F. tenuicornis (Uzel), originally described from Eu-
rope, but very common in eastern North America. That species,
however-represented in my collection by Old World material
from some six countries, and by American material from seven
states and the District of Columbia-is apparently confined to
members of the grass family and is roughly twice as large. The
present species appears to be strictly American and to be re-
stricted to cattails (Typha) ; but whether the difference in food
is wholly or partially responsible for the difference in size and
for the much less drawn-out antennae, would be a difficult ques-
tion to answer. It is named now largely because an identifica-
tion has been requested by correspondents.

Frankliniella tenuicornis (Uzel)
(Fig. 3)
This large species probably occurs throughout most of the
Holarctic Realm. The following material has been studied:
CZECHOSLOVAKIA: BOHEMIA: 19 "cotype", from H.
Uzel's collection, received from R. S. Bagnall.
CZECHOSLOVAKIA: SLOVAKIA: 2 9's, det. by Jaroslav
HUNGARY: 1 det. by H. Priesner.
FINLAND: 1 9, det. by 0. M. Reuter.
ENGLAND: 1 9, det. by R. S. Bagnal.
DENMARK: 69's, coll. by Dr. J. Chester Bradley, at Dra-
gor, Amager, Aug. 10, 1938, on grass along beach.
U. S. A.: Many 9's and and S's, from Illinois, Indiana,
Virginia, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey,
Massachusetts, and New York.
The following measurements are of four females, from four
widely separated localities, and permit detailed comparison with
the new species described above. The first measurement in each
case is of a specimen from Denmark, while the next three
measurements (if the condition of the specimens warrants their
being taken), enclosed in parentheses, are, in order, those of
(1) the Uzel "cotype", in italics, (2) a specimen from Slovakia,
and (3) one from New York. Length about 1.4 mm. (1.5, 1.4,
1.3), distended 1.8 (1.6, 1.8, 1.7). Head, length 0.167 (- ,

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2- JUNE, 1955

-- 0.160), width across eyes 0.176 (- 0.185), greatest
width across cheeks 0.163 (- 0.175), width at base
0.139 (- 0.150). Eyes, dorsal length 0.080 (0.082,
). Interocellar setae, length 0.050 (0.049, 0.051,
0.055), interval 0.042 (0.040, 0.042, 0.039). Pronotum, median
length 0.141 (0.157, 0.144, 0.153), width (exclusive of coxae)
0.193 (0.196, - ). Abdominal segment IX, seta I 0.146
(0.150, 0.142, 0.148), seta II 0.167 (0.180, 0.170, 0.163), seta III
0.168 (0.170, 0.177, 0.170) ; segment X, seta I 0.172 (0.174, 0.166,
0.169), seta II 0.157 (0.167, 0.148, 0.147).

segments: I

Length (t)


26 46

30 47

Width (I,): 33-34

( Denmark)
(9, New York)



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VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2- JUNE, 1955


Entomology Research Branch
Agricultural Research Service
United States Department of Agriculture

For many years, one of the most common and easily identi-
fied larvaevorid (tachinid) parasites of armyworms and other
phalaenid larvae in southern United States and southward has
been a large grayish-black species known as Archytas piliven-
tris (Van der Wulp). Occasional records have appeared as
Pseudoarchytopsis piliventris or, more recently, as Archytas in-.
certa (Macquart). In the well-known genus Archytas Jaen-
nicke, this species was readily recognized by the rather heavily
grayish-pollinose abdomen and the parafacials covered with
fine, whitish-yellow hairs. The former feature, in particular,
made it possible to identify the species at a glance in a genus
in which most species have the abdomen polished or with a fine
indistinct "bloom."
Recently I noted some striking differences in the male geni-
talia between specimens from Argentina and from southern
United States. Further study of the numerous specimens in the
collection of the U. S. National Museum, from 24 countries rang-
ing from the United States to Argentina and Chile, revealed
that two closely related species with distinct geographical ranges
have been considered as one species because of their similar habi-
tus. The purpose of this paper is to clarify their identification,
distribution, and nomenclature.
The material before me indicates the distinctness of the
ranges of the two species, the one extending from southern
United States to northern South America and southward down
the west coast to northern Chile, and the other ranging in Argen-
tina, Uruguay, Paraguay and southern Brazil. Unfortunately,
lack of specimens from most of Brazil and Bolivia makes it
impossible even to approximate the boundaries of the two in
central South America, and to say whether or not they overlap.
In the early 1940's a few specimens of "Archytas piliven-
tris" from Argentina and Uruguay were introduced into south-


ern United States as a parasite of the fall armyworm, Laphygma
frugiperda (J. E. Smith). This brief effort was abandoned
when it was pointed out that the species (as then identified!)
already occurred here. It is not known whether incertus ( = pili-
ventris) became established from that one introduction of a
limited amount of material.
At the present time I do not regard these and related species
as distinct from typical Archytas. If or when they are recog-
nized as forming a distinct genus or subgenus, Pseudoarchytas
Townsend (1915) will take priority over Pseudoarchytopsis
Townsend (1927). The generic name Archytas is masculine,
and specific names are accordingly written to agree in gender.
In the past, some authors have treated it as masculine, some
as feminine, and some have been inconsistent in their usage.
Only the essential references and synonymy are listed below.
Most of the published references to distribution and hosts can
be assigned with assurance to incertus or to marmoratus on
the basis of the known general distribution of the two. For a
broad central area in South America, any published records will
have to remain doubtful until verified by reexamination of speci-
mens or more definite information on the ranges of the two in
that region.
Archytas marmoratus (Townsend)
Pseudoarchytas marmorata Townsend, 1915, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus
2: 186 (Peru; holotype in U. S. National Museum).
Archytas (or Pseudoarchytopsis) piliventris (Vander Wulp) of authors,
in part, for the area from southern United States to northern South
America and along western South America to northern Chile.
DISTRIBUTION: Specimens examined from southern United
States (S. C. to Fla. and west to Kans. and Tex.), Cuba,
Jamaica, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Montserrat, Gren-
ada, Trinidad, Surinam, Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico, Guate-
mala, El Salvador, Panama and the Canal Zone, Ecuador, Peru,
Bolivia (Cavinas in Beni Department), and northern Chile
(Camarones, Poconochile). Published records from Costa Rica
and British Guiana are within this range and undoubtedly be-
long here.
Archytas incertus (Macquart)
Gonia incerta Macquart, 1851, Mem. Soc. Sci. Lille 1850: 152 (separate
work: Dipteres exotiques, Suppl. 4, pt. 2, p. 179) (Cited as "Du Bresil,
Corrientes. M. d'Orbigny, Museum," actually Corrientes Province, Argen-
tina; holotype in Paris Museum).

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955

Echinomyia piliventris Van der Wulp, 1883, Tijdschr. Ent. 26: 22 (Argen-
tina; type presumed to be in Leiden Museum).
Pseudoarchytopsis brasiliensis Townsend, 1927 (?1926), Revista Mus.
paulista 15(1): 252, 354 (Brazil; lectotype in U. S. National Museum).
New synonymy.
Archytas (or Pseudoarchytas) piliventris (Van der Wulp) of authors, in
part, for the area of Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and temperate
southern Brazil.
DISTRIBUTION: Argentina (northern: Buenos Aires, Cor-
rientes, Tucumin, etc.), Uruguay, Paraguay (Caacupe), and
southern Brazil (states of Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes).
Males of the two species can be distinguished easily by the
characters of the genitalia (marmoratus, figs. 1-3; incertus, figs.
4-6). Frequently the distinct difference in the posterior (ven-
tral) aspect can be seen without relaxation and dissection of the
genitalia. I have been unable to find any reliable and useful
external differences in either sex of the two species.
In an effort to find other characters, especially for the fe-
males, numerous measurements were made, for such commonly
used ratios as height of cheek to height of eye, width of front
at vertex to width of head, and lengths of second and third an-
tennal segments. The range of variation in those ratios is great,
and only slight differences between the species were found. It
was also demonstrated that ratios will vary greatly according
to the angle at which measures are taken, because of the strong
convexity of front, eye, and cheek, the strong inclination of the
cheek ventrad toward the midline and the impossibility of a
clear focus simultaneously in profile on both ends of such a
structure. For example, on the holotype of marmoratus, the
cheek/eye ratio ranges from .45 to .71 depending on the angle
from which heights are measured. The extremes are obviously
based on measurements from extreme angles that would be
avoided by the observer, but between these there is considerable
room for difference in measurements, and hence in ratios derived
from them. One can avoid such possible differences by shifting
the specimen and measuring first the cheek and then the eye (or
vice versa) at their maximum lengths. However, if measures
are taken in that way, it should be so stated, lest a wrong im-
pression be conveyed of the relative heights of cheek and eye
as seen in profile.
In the material examined, the cheek/eye ratio was usually
slightly less in incertus than in marmoratus when the head was

Figs. 1-3, A. marmoratus; figs. 4-6, A. incertus.1
Figs. 1 and 4, posterior aspect of inner (fused) and outer forceps; figs.
2 and 5, side view, the inner forceps usually more or less hidden; figs. 3 and
6, aedeagus (with thin, translucent, dorsal flange) and clasper (gonapo-

1Drawings by Arthur Cushman.



VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955

viewed in profile, but this difference almost disappeared when
the maximum lengths of cheek and eye were used.
It may be noted that Townsend erected two supposed new
genera for the species considered here, Pseudoarchytas for mar-
moratus Tns. and Pseudoarchytopsis for brasiliensis Tns. (cf.
incertus). I do not regard these two nominal genera as distinct
from each other, from comparison of their type species. The
generic diagnoses given by Townsend are essentially the same,
insofar as they can be compared directly for the female sex. In
Townsend's key to genera (1936, Manual of Myiology, 3: 171), the
two are distinguished as follows:

"Cheeks over 2/ eye length, last section of C1 [ = fifth
vein] not 1/ preceding, MM [ = pair of median margi-
nal bristles] on second segment in female ......--- ..........
----------------- Pseudoarchytas
"Cheeks little over 12 eye length, last section of C1 at least
nearly 1/2 preceding, no MM on second segment in fe-
male ---...---........-----..--------- Pseudoarchytopsis"

From actual measurements, the cheek/eye ratios based
on the maximum possible lengths are .635 holotypee), .66 and
.67 in the type series (all females) of marmoratus, and .61 and
.63 in the allotype female of brasiliensis and a topotypic female
determined by Townsend. Males have lightly lower cheek/eye
ratios than females, and thus the holotype and paratype male of
brasiliensis cannot be included in the comparison. As for the
length of the sections of the fifth vein, the last section measures
.48, .43, and .41 times the preceding section in the holotype and
two paratypes of marmoratus, compared with ratios in bra-
siliensis of .52 in the holotype -male, .48 in both allotype and
male paratype, and .44 in the female determined by Townsend.
Such similar and variable ratios, especially when studied in con-
junction with series of each species, are neither generically nor
specifically distinctive.
Likewise, there is no real difference in the presence or ab-
sence in the female sex of median marginal bristles (MM) on
the second abdominal segment. In brasiliensis, neither the
allotype female nor the Townsend-determined topotypic female
has the bristles, whereas the holotype of marmoratus has a
strong pair present. Each of the female paratypes of marmo-
ratus has only a single bristle of the pair present. However,
from the large series examined, it appears that in both species,


it is normal for females to lack these bristles. In 94 available
females of marmoratus, 83 lacked the bristles, four had only
one bristle of the pair present, either right or left one, and seven
had a pair of bristles. In 45 females of incertus ( = brasilien-
sis) from Argentina, 45 lacked the pair and two had one bristle
only of the pair. In males of both species, the MM pair of
bristles is regularly present on the second segment.

Gonia incerta: The type female is said to be in poor condi-
tion. Dr. J. M. Aldrich examined it in 1929 and recorded in his
notes that it is the same as Archytas piliventris. I am indebted
to Monsieur E. Seguy of the Paris Museum for information that
the "registre d'entr6e" records the following for that specimen:
"S6jour A Corrientes en 1827-1828 et retour A Buenos Ayres.
Cette mouche parait en d6cembre A Iribuena [sic!] sur les fleurs
des Chardons et des Ombelliferes. Le vol est direct et rapide."
Monsieur Seguy informs me that the locality in the above record
is clearly written "Iribuena," but this must certainly be a copy-
ist's error, because the Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenop-
tera from the same lot are recorded as from "Iribucua," and
Sthe latter (but no Iribuena!) is mentioned in d'Orbigny's vol-
umes. With that information, and from study of the maps and
detailed accounts of the travels in d'Orbigny's "Voyage dans
l'Amerique M6ridionale" (e.g., vol 3, part 2, Geographie), it is
possible to locate the actual type locality as Iribucua in Argen-
tina, province of Corrientes, nearly 100 kilometers east of the
city of Corrientes (Iribf-cuA, on the American Geographic So-
ciety's Map of Hispanic America, SG 21).
Pseudoarchytopsis brasiliensis: Described from five males,
one female, from two localities, without designated holotype.
Townsend (1931, Revista de Ent. (Rio) 1: 158, and later and
more specifically, 1939, Manual of Myiology 8: 58) stated that
the holotype male and allotype female were from Itaquaquece-
tuba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the collection at Washington. That
collection now contains two males and one female from Itaqua-
quecetuba, each with a red "Type" label used by Townsend,
but without holotype or allotype labels, though the published
statements can probably be accepted as a restriction as far as
they go. Accordingly, the sole female is automatically the allo-

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955

type, and the best male has been labeled lectotype and is so
designated here.
Archytas pilifrons (Schiner)
Echinomyia pilifrons Schiner, 1868, Reise der Novara, p. 331 (Chile, holo-
type in Vienna Museum).
Jurinia nudigaena Brauer (ex Bigot), 1898, Sitzber. Kais. Akad. Wiss. Wien
(Math.-nat. Classe) 107 (Abt. 1), Heft 6: 500. New synonymy.
This species is mentioned here in order to dispose of the
nominal species Jurinia nudigaena Brauer. Apparently a manu-
script name of Bigot's, it was validated by Brauer with a brief
descriptive note, and cited as "Chili, Montevideo." Aldrich in 1929
saw the three specimens labeled types in the Bigot Collection (in
collection of J. E. Collin, Newmarket, England), and stated in his
notebook and card catalogue that "2 are Archytas piliventris
V.d.W., the other is 9 of Archytas pilifrons Sch." To fix the
name definitely, I hereby restrict nudigaena to the specimen
representing the species Archytas pilifrons (Schiner), as identi-
fied in the Bigot Collection by Dr. Aldrich.

With the increasing need for better communication among
scientists in all countries, an international language of science
has been developed under the leadership of Dr. Alexander Gode.
The language, known as Interlingua, is easily read by anyone
with an elementary knowledge of Latin, Spanish or French.
It is anticipated that were there to be sufficient response to
this message by our foreign readers, abstracts of each article
would be published in Interlingua to accompany it. If you are
interested in seeing such Interlingua abstracts published in the
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST, please notify Professor Lewis
Berner, Editor, c/o Department of Biology, University of Flor-
ida, Gainesville, Florida, U. S. A.






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VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955


J. O. PEPPER 1 and A. N. TISSOTr

The authors acknowledge with thanks the assistance given
by Dr. F. C. Hottes who examined specimens of this species and
expressed the opinion that it is undescribed.

Cinara banksiana n. sp.
Size and General Color.-All notes made from cleared and mounted speci-
mens. Measurements given are based on ten or more individuals. The first
figure is the average and the figures in parentheses show the range. Length
from vertex to tip of anal plate 3.45 mm. (3.33-3.60). Thorax, head and
antennal segments I and II dark brown. Basal half of segment III pale
with apical half and segments IV, V and VI brown. The coxae, trochanters
and femora of all legs dark brown, except sometimes the femora are lighter
at the base. The prothoracic and metathoracic tibiae rather uniform dark
brown. Mesothoracic tibia with dark brown basal area, followed by a short
yellowish area which in turn shades into brown apically. All tarsi dark
brown. Cornicles, cauda and. anal plate dark brown. A transverse brown
pigmented area anterior to the cauda is almost or wholly divided in many
specimens. Another irregular, diffused, and sometimes divided pigmented
area just anterior to the first mentioned one. Dorsum of abdomen with four
longitudinal rows of small brown wax plates.
Head and Thorax.-Width across the eyes .67 mm. (.66-.70). Median
suture of head very dark. Setae on the vertex and dorsum of thorax spine-
like, tapering and about .07 mm. long. Ocular tubercles prominent. An-
tennal segments uneven in profile, diameter of III varying from .03 to .05
mm. in some individuals. Lengths of segments: III .59 mm. (.52-.62), IV
.24 mm. (.21-.26), V .26 mm. (.24-.30), VI .16 mm. (.15-.18) including unguis
which is .04 mm. long. Setae on antennal III spinelike and about .056 mm.
long. Antennal setae inclined at an angle of about forty-five degrees. Seg-
ment III with four to nine (usually six) circular tuberculate sensoria, vary-
ing greatly in size and arranged in a single, somewhat irregular row, ex-
tending along the apical two-thirds of the segment. Segment IV with one
or two sensoria, V with two. Third segment of rostrum .22 mm. in length,
fourth segment .18 mm., fifth segment .09 mm. Fourth segment bearing
four pairs of setae in addition to those at its apex. Media twice branched,
the second branch closer to margin of wing than to first branch. Hind tibia
2.69 mm. (2.45-2.80) in length. First segment of hind tarsus .115 mm. long,
second segment .28 mm., total length of tarsus .336 mm. Setae on hind
tibia spinelike, tapering and sharp pointed, those on the outer margin in the
middle portion of the segment about as long as the width of the tibia, those

1 Department of Entomology Extension, University Park, Pennsylvania.
2 Department of Entomology, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,


at the base somewhat shorter. All setae on hind tibia reclining, those on
the apical portion forming more acute angles.
Abdomen.-Cornicle base somewhat irregular, with projections and in-
dentations around the outer margin, average width .50 mm. Setae sparse
and widely separated over most of the cornicle cone, much more numerous
toward its apex. Setae sparse on dorsum of abdomen, more numerous on
ventral surface. Length of setae on cornicle base and dorsum of abdomen
about .06 mm. Transverse pigmented area anterior to cauda with sharp
pointed setae arranged in a single interrupted row along the posterior
margin of the area with about six setae on either side of the median break.
Length of these setae about .10 mm. In the pigmented area anterior to the
above, six setae about .07 mm. in length form a rather continuous row along
the posterior margin of the area. Surface of the abdomen with fine reticu-
lations and striations which generally are more evident in the region of the

Size and General Color.-All notes made from cleared and mounted
specimens. Length from vertex to tip of anal plate 3.20 mm. (2.80-3.50).
Thorax, head and first two antennal segments dark brown. Third antennal
segment yellowish with short apical portion brown. Fourth segment dusky-
brown with apical portion dark brown. Fifth and sixth segments dark
brown, the fifth sometimes lighter basally. Median suture of head very
dark. Segments three to five of the rostrum dark brown, the apical portion
of segment two, light brown. Femora with a small basal area yellowish,
shading quickly to dark brown. All coxae and trochanters dark brown.
Prothoracic and metathoracic tibiae with a short area at the base blackish-
brown, followed by a short yellowish-brown area which shades into dark
brown apically. Mesothoracic tibia with a short blackish-brown base, fol-
lowed abruptly by a light yellow area which shades gradually into the dark
brown apical portion. All tarsi blackish-brown. Cornicles, cauda and anal
plate dark brown. Dorsum of abdomen with large paired irregular, brown
areas on anterior segments. Small irregular pigmented spots scattered else-
where over the abdomen each bear a single seta. Two longitudinal rows
of small brownish wax pore plates on each side of the abdomen. Anterior
to the cauda is a usually divided pigmented band with several large setae
on each side. Anterior to this band is another greatly diffused pigmented
area with several shorter setae.
Head and Thorax.-Average width of head .71 mm. Antennal segments
III to VI somewhat uneven in profile with the following lengths: III. .55
mm. (.48-.60), IV .22 mm. (.18-.24), V .26 mm. (.22-.29), VI .15 mm. includ-
ing the unguis which is .042 mm. long. Third antennal segment with one
or sometimes two sensoria, fourth with one and fifth with two sensoria.
Setae on antennal III spinelike, strongly tapering and about as long as the
width of the segment, inclined at an angle of about forty-five degrees. Ocu-
lar tubercles present. Setae on head and thorax spinelike, .05 to .06 mm.
in length. Rostral segments with lengths as follows: III .20 mm., IV .17
mm., V .08 mm. Length of hind tibia 2.70 mm. (2.32-2.80). Setae on hind
tibia numerous, spinelike, length equal to about one-half the width of tibia.
Setae reclinate throughout the length of tibia but more so toward its apex.

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955

Abdomen.-Cornicles large, volcano shaped, with somewhat irregular
margins. Setae short and sparse over much of cornicle cone, much more
numerous toward the apex. Setae on dorsum of abdomen spinelike, about
.042 mm. long, many of them arising from small pigmented spots. Ventral
surface of abdomen with more numerous setae which are a little longer and
sharper pointed than those on the dorsum. Cauda and anal plate rounded,
with many long setae. Surface of the abdomen reticulated as in the alate.
TYPES: All type specimens were collected in Pennsylvania
on Pinus Banksiana. Holotype alate viviparous female and
Morphotype apterous viviparous female (mounted on the same
slide with one paratype alate viviparous female), Philipsburg
(Black Moshanon Dam), June 13, 1948. Paratypes: 13 slides
same locality and date as holotype and 14 slides same locality,
June 20, 1954. The holotype, morphotype and four paratype
specimens deposited in the United States National Museum, No.
62796; remaining paratype material in the collections of the
writers and of F. C. Hottes. Type locality: Philipsburg (Black
Moshanon Dam), Pennsylvania.
This species will not key out in Palmer's key to the genus
Cinara in Aphids of the Rocky Mountain Region (1952) or in
Hottes and Frison's (1931) key in The Plant Lice, or Aphiidae,
of Illinois. With minor concessions it keys to atlantica (Wilson)
in Wilson's (1923) key to the genus Dilachnus, Family Aphidi-
dae, in Hemiptera of Connecticut. We have not had authentic
material of atlantica for comparison but Dr. Palmer (1945) gives
measurements and figures based on her studies of a cotype slide
of that species. The measurements agree fairly well with those
of this species but the figures show clearly that the two insects
are distinct. The setae on the appendages and cornicle of atlan-
tica are shown to be fine while in this species they are heavy,
spinelike and strongly tapering. The cornicle cone in atlantica
has an even, regular margin and the setae are distributed evenly
over its surface; in this species the margin of the cornicle
cone is quite uneven with marked identations and the setae are
sparse on most of the cone but numerous around the apex. In
atlantica the fourth segment of the rostrum bears a single pair
of setae in addition to those at its apex, while in this species the
fourth segment bears four pairs of setae in addition to the apical
Specimens taken on Pinus Banksiana at Philipsburg (Black
Moshanon Dam), July 7, 1946 and July 4, 1947 may prove to be
the same as the species described here but there is some question
as to their identity so they are not considered in the description


or included in the type material. The apterous viviparous
females agree fairly well but the alates in the two July collec-
tions are distinctly smaller and there appear to be constant
differences in the sensoria on antennal segments III and IV, and
possibly in other features also.

Hottes, F. C., and T. H. Frison. 1931. The plant lice, or Aphiidae, of
Illinois. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. Vol. 19, Art. 3, pp. 121-447.
Palmer, Miriam A. 1945. Supplementary notes on ten described species of
Lachnini (Aphidae). Ent. Soc. Amer. Annals. 38(3) : 447-453.
---- 1952. Aphids of the Rocky mountain region. Thomas Say
Foundation. Vol. V.
Wilson, H. F. 1923. Tribe Lachnini (In. Hemiptera of Connecticut) State
Geo. and Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. No. 34, pp. 256-271.

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2 JUNE, 1955

The genus Tuckerella has but two known species, pavoniformis and
ornata, both of which are bizarre in form. Baker and Pritchard (1953)1
record pavoniformis only from Australia, Hawaii, and California and from
a limited number of hosts, but during 1954 the writer found this species
in the Miami area and on many hosts. The following list gives these hosts
and for completeness includes the hosts and localities given by Baker and
Pritchard. Their records are indicated by being enclosed in parentheses.







Allamanda cathartica
Caladium bicolor
Polyscias Guilfoylei
(Carica Papaya; Hawaii)
Flaveria trinervia
Persea americana
Buddleia madagascariensis
(Hisbiscus sp.; California, Hawaii)
Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis
Swietenia Mahogani
Khaya nyassica
(Eucalyptus sp., Cypress pine; Australia)
Psidium Guajava
(Privet; Hawaii, Australia)
Jasminum Sambac, Ligustrum japonicum
Grevillea robusta
Licania rigida
(Citrus sp.; Australia)
Litchi chinensis
Achras zapota
Cestrum diurnum
Solandra guttata
Vitex trifolia

Tuckerella pavoniformis breeds chiefly on those parts of woody stems
where most of the outer tissues have turned corky, but where areas of
live tissue are still present. It has also been found breeding on the fruit
of avocado and mahogany. The writer has never observed any stage on
Tuckerella ornata appears to be somewhat more restricted in its host
range than T. pavoniformis. Below is a list of the hosts in the Miami area
from which the writer has collected T. ornata. Included in the list and set
off by parentheses are the records given by Baker and Pritchard for this


Schinus terebinthifolius
Carissa grandiflora
Ilex Cassine
Bursera Simaruba

1 Baker, E. W., and A. E. Pritchard. 1953. The family categories of
tetranychoid mites, with a review of the new families Linotetranidae and
Tuckerellidae. Ent. Soc. Amer., Annals 46: 243-258.


Euphorbiaceae: (Hevea sp.; Florida)
Guttiferae: (Mammea americana; Guatemala)
Lauraceae: Persea americana
Leguminosae: (Bauhinia sp.; Florida)
Tamarindus indica
Myrtaceae: Psidium Guajava
Orchidaceae: (Phalaenopsis sp.; Philippines)
Rutaceae: Citrus mitis, Citrus maxima
Sapotaceae: Achras zapota
The habits of T. ornata are similar to those of T. pavoniformis. On
guava and sapote both species have been taken from the same twig.
Although they may at times damage avocado fruit neither species ap-
pears to be of present economic importance.
Acknowledgment is made to Dr. E. W. Baker, Agricultural Research
Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture who verified the identifications of
the two species from guava, and to Professor R. O. Woodbury, University
of Miami, for the identification of a number of the host plants.
Coral Gables, Florida

Helochares (s. str.) sallaei Sharp (=Philhydrus estriatus Blatchley)
seems to be a very rare insect in collections. Until recently, it was ap-
parently known from Florida. only on the basis of Blatchley's types of
estriatus from Dunedin (Can. Ent., 49: 139, 1917). H. sallaei was origi-
nally based on a single specimen collected at Cordova, Mexico, by SallI
(Biologia Centrali-American, 1 (2):75,1882). The rarity of the species
Sin Florida caused me to conclude that it was a waif introduced by ship-
ping from Mexico (Univ. Florida Biol. Sci. Ser., 5 (1) :31, 174, 1954).
To my chagrin, I now find that I have had at least seven specimens
of H. sallaei in my collection for over a decade. They were recently dis-
covered in a large jar of beetles and other insects taken in a light trap
at Pahokee, Florida, on Jan. 20, 1941 (U. S. Department of Agriculture).
The jar was given to me in 1942 by Dr. A. N. Tissot of the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station. The species will probably be found to be
abundant in the Everglades when its habitat is discovered.
H. sallaei superficially resembles a large Enochrus, but can be dis-
tinguished by the non-laminate mesosternum, complete lack of sutural striae
on the elytra, and by the very long maxillary palpi of which the pseudo-
basal segments are curved with the convexities toward the rear, the re-
verse of the condition in Enochrus. From the only other Floridian species
of Helochares, H. (Hydrobaticus) maculicollis Mulsant, it is immediately
distinguished by the darker color and complete lack of impressed striae
on the elytra. The male genitalia of sallaei are remarkable in having the
aedeagus deeply bifurcate and the parameres broadly overlapping at the
Specimens will be deposited in the University of Michigan Museum of
Zoology, the Florida State Museum, the United States National Museum,
and the American Museum of Natural History. Two cotypes of estriatus
are now in the W. S. Blatchley Collection at Purdue University, Lafayette,
Indiana University, Bloomington

VOL. XXXVIII, No. 2- JUNE, 1955

The next annual meeting of the Florida Entomological So-
ciety will be held in Jacksonville on September 1 and 2 at the
Roosevelt Hotel, 33 West Adams Street, Jacksonville. Mr. M. C.
Van Horn, Florida Agricultural Supply, Jacksonville, is serving
as Chairman of the Local Arrangements Committee. It is hoped
that as many members as possible will attend these sessions.

The American Museum of Natural History has announced
the establishment of The Southwestern Research Station. It is
located on the eastern slope of the Chiricahua Mountains, near
Portal, Cochise County, in southeastern Arizona. The property
is within the limits of the Coronado National Forest at an ele-
vtion of 5,400 feet.
The station was established for the purpose of making avail-
able research facilities for scientists and students in all branches
of science, who have problems that can be investigated through
the utilization of the faunal, floral and geological features of the
area. It will be open during the entire year.
It is operated by the American Museum of Natural History,
Central Park West at 79th Street, New York 24, New York and
under the direction of Dr. Mont A. Cazier, Chairman and Curator
of the Department of Insects and Spiders, to whom all inquiries
should be addressed. Anyone interested in the station should
write to the above named individual for the booklet which gives
the details of the operation and a general description of the area.

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