Title: Florida Entomologist
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00208
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1955
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00208
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Florida Entomologist




DRAKE, CARL J., and ROLAND F. HUSsEY-Concerning the Genus
Microvelia Westwood, with Descriptions of Two New
Species and a Check-List of the American Forms
(Hemiptera: Veliidae) ---------... -......--------...------...-- 95

MUMA, MARTIN H.-Lady Beetles (Coccinellidae: Coleop-
tera) Found on Citrus in Florida ..-------............----......-....-- 117

CROSS, WILLIAM H.-Gomphus australis Needham in North
Florida, with a Description of the Female
(Odonata: Gomphidae) ..-----...-----.. ----.---------.. 125

Published quarterly by the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Box 2425, University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville

No. 3





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For many years the authors have collected and purchased
water-striders from various countries of the Americas. During
this time many specimens also have been determined for fellow
workers, universities, museums, and other institutions. Several
collections are rich in species and in numbers of individual speci-
mens, yet we believe that many undescribed species still remain
to be discovered. This is evidenced by the systematic papers,
with characterizations of new species, which appear year after
year in technical journals.
In order to bring up to date the inventory of scientific names,
classification, distribution, and other data, the authors are now
preparing a catalog of the water-striders of the western hemi-
sphere. As the data are being assembled, it seems desirable to
publish notes from time to time on nomenclature, synonymy,
and distribution, together with descriptions of some new species.
The present paper concerns the genus Microvelia, one of the
largest genera of the Veliidae. It is represented in all the con-
tinents and occurs on many of the oceanic islands. Its species
are most numerous, and individuals most abundant, in tropical
and subtropical regions. A single species, Microvelia buenoi
Drake, has thus far been found in Alaska, where many specimens
were collected by Dr. R. I. Sailer in the summer of 1953.
In 1909, Kirkaldy and Torre-Bueno catalogued only 20 species
of Microvelia from the Americas, including Hawaii. Fifteen
years later, Torre-Bueno (1924) listed and gave a preliminary
key to 28 American species. Since then many new species have
been described, several have been reduced to synonyms, and a
number of other nomenclatorial changes have been made. The
present paper includes a list of 71 species and subspecies of
Microvelia now known from the western hemisphere. Except
for a single one, found thus far only in Hawaii, all of these seem
strictly indigenous in the Americas. Two species are here de-

1Iowa State College, Ames.
2 University of Florida, Gainesville.


scribed as new to science, and new synonymy is indicated for
some previously known forms. The taxonomic and ecological
advances made since 1909 reflect the ever-growing interest and
the rapid progress being made in studying the water-strider
fauna of the New World.

The conclusion seems to us inescapable that Microvelia pulchella
Westwood 1834, must be accepted as the generic type of Micro-
velia, under the Regles as they have stood since 1948. We know
from Burmeister's comment (1835, p. 213, footnote) that Plate
VI, where this species was figured and where the name Micro-
velia Pulchella appeared, was distributed with Part II of Volume
III of the Annales de la Societ6 Entomologique de France, while
the text of Westwood's article was in a later part of that volume.
This "indication" of the species pulchella was sufficient, under
the Regles, to validate the generic name Microvelia, which thus
dates from the publication of Plate VI rather than from the
publication date of the article itself. No other Microvelia was
illustrated or named on this plate. Microvelia was therefore a
monobasic genus at the time it was founded; and pulchella, its
only included species, is the type by monotypy. This, however,
is clearly at variance with Westwood's own concept of the genus
at the time he founded it.
In the text of his article, after describing the new Velia
(Microvelia) Pulchella [capitalization as in the original] and
comparing it with Velia Pygmaea Dufour, Westwood wrote:
"The discovery of a second species of Velia which agrees in its
general structure with Velia Pygmaea makes it necessary to
establish a section or subgenus for their reception." He then
contrasted some characters of Velia and of Microvelia in parallel
columns (p. 648). In later pages of the article the new category
was referred to on three occasions simply as Microvelia, once as
Velia Microvelia [sic].
Throughout this paper the combination Velia Pygmaea was
the only one used for Dufour's species, though Kirkaldy (1899)
stated otherwise. As already noted, Westwood's new Antillean
species was designated Microvelia Pulchella on the plate, but in
the text its name appeared both as Velia (Microvelia) Pulchella
and as Velia Pulchella. However, Westwood's statement quoted
above shows clearly that he intended Microvelia to include both
pulchella and pygmaea.


Six years later Westwood (1840a), treating Microvelia as a
distinct genus, cited M. pygmaea as its "typical species." No
further reference to a generic type appeared in the literature
until 1901, when Kirkaldy accepted pygmaea as the type; and
subsequent writers have very generally followed this practice.
Notable exceptions have been Distant (1903), Horvdth (1916),
and Poisson (1941), all of whom cited pulchella as type but gave
no reasons for doing so.
If it were not for the circumstances set forth above, we too
might have followed the majority action, and might have cited
pygmaea as the type species of Microvelia. Under Opinion 71
of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature,
published in January 1922, all of Westwood's 1840 citations of
"typical species" are to be accepted as valid type designations,
provided (1) such species were available as types of their re-
spective genera, and (2) there had been no earlier valid type
designation for the genus under consideration. If Westwood's
plate had been published simultaneously with the text of his
1834 article, both pulchella and pygmaea would have been avail-
able and his naming of pygmaea would have been valid. But
there would still remain some doubt as to whether Westwood
had correctly identified Microvelia pygmaea Dufour.
Hydroessa Burmeister, 1835, haplotype H. reticulata Bur-
meister, 1835, is technically a subjective synonym of Microvelia
Westwood, 1834, since its type species is undoubtedly congeneric
with, but specifically distinct from, both pulchella Westwood
and pygmaea (Dufour). In the footnote referred to above,
Burmeister remarked that the name Hydroessa was already in
manuscript when he received the illustrations (but not the text)
of Westwood's article, and he did not scruple to prefer that name
to Microvelia since the latter violated a Linnean precept against
making new generic names by "dressing up" older ones that
were already in use.
Although Burmeister stated that reticulata was the more com-
mon of the two Hydroessa species known to him as occurring
at Berlin, he failed to identify the other one as pygmaea. In-
stead, he placed under reticulata, as synonyms, both pygmaea
and pulchella, the latter known to him only from Westwood's
figure where there was no indication given that this was an
extra-European species.
Westwood (1840) reaffirmed the specific distinctness of pul-
chella. Without mentioning reticulata at all, he resurrected


pygmaea as the earliest name applicable to the European species,
noted that Curtis had figured it as Hydroessa pygmaea from
specimens taken in Ireland, and stated that he himself had col-
lected Dufour's species at two places in England some fifteen
years earlier. It seems to us most likely indeed that when
Westwood (1840a) cited pygmaea as "typical species" of Micro-
velia in his "Synopsis of the Genera of British Insects," his
action was based upon this British material.
Blanchard (1840) also resurrected the name pygmaea Dufour,
placing reticulata Burmeister as synonymous with it. This
synonymy was followed by all later authors until Horvdth (1916)
properly identified the two German species referred to by Bur-
meister in 1835, treating them as pygmaea Dufour and reticulata
Burmeister (=schneideri Scholtz, 1846). HorvAth's disposition
of these species has been accepted by most European workers,
though not by Stichel (1934). Microvelia reticulata, M. pygmaea,
and also M. umbricola Wr6blewski, 1938, all are now known to
occur in England, but M. reticulata is reported as being by far
the most abundant of the three. Thus there is a strong possibility
that the species called pygmaea by Westwood in 1840 was in
reality reticulata Burmeister, or perhaps even umbricola Wr6-
blewski. Examination of Westwood's specimens will be neces-
sary in order to resolve the uncertainty which thus surrounds
the identity of his "typical species."
The list of bibliographic citations for the genus Microvelia
which follows is by no means complete. It includes, however,
the references that are most important for generic synonymy,
for citations of generic types, and for summations concerning
the American and other faunas, as well as the references which
have been cited above.

Genus MICROVELIA Westwood, 1834
Type Microvelia pulchella Westwood, 1834
Microvelia 1834 Westwood, Ann. Soc. Ent. France 3(2), P1. 6, fig. 5.
[Monobasic; M. pulchella only included species.]
Velia (Microvelia) 1834 Westwood, Ann. Soc. Ent. France 3(3): 648.
[As "section or subgenus" of Velia. Included: Velia (Microvelia)
pulchella, n. sp., and Velia pygmaea Dufour, 1833.]
Hydroessa 1835 Burmeister, Handb. Ent. 2(1): 213; haplotype reticulata,
n. sp.; both pygmaea Dufour and pulchella Westwood wrongly
synonymized with this. [Unnecessary new name for Microvelia,
rejected as improperly formed. Two other unnamed species, one
German and one Brazilian, mentioned as belonging here.]
Microvelia 1835 Brull, Hist. Nat. Ins. 9: 295. [Synonymy of pygmaea
and pulchella doubted.]


1840 Blanchard, Hist. Nat. Ins. 3: 96. [On p. 97, reticulata and
pulchella placed as synonyms of pygmaea.]
1840 Westwood, Introd. Mod. Class. Ins. 2: 470. [M. pulchella and
M. pygmaea distinct species; the latter reported from England.]
1840a Westwood, Synopsis Genera Brit. Ins., p. 119 (in Introd. Mod.
Class. Ins., vol. 2, separately paged). [M. pygmaea named "typical
species" of Microvelia.]
Hydroessa 1842 Herrich-Schaeffer, Wanz. Ins. 6: 37. [H. pulchella
figured on Tab. 193, fig. 595.]
Microvelia 1843 Amyot and Serville, Hist. Nat. Hdmip. 421. [M. pulchella
redescribed after Westwood; no other species mentioned.]
Hydroessa 1850 Herrich-Schaeffer, Wanz. Ins. 9: 78.
Hydroessa 1860 Fieber, Eur. Hem. 33 [in keys], and 1861, op. c. 104.
Hydroessa 1865 StAl, Hem. Afr. 3: 167. [In generic keys only.]
Microvelia 1865 Douglas and Scott, Brit. Hem. Het. 574.
1892 Saunders, Hem. Het. Brit. Isl. 150.
Veliomorpha 1895 Carlini, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova 35: 120; haplotype
V. maculata, n. sp. [Synonymized with Microvelia by Champion,
Microvelia 1898 Champion, Biol. Centr. Amer., Hem. Het. 2: 126-130.
[Review of Central American species, with key to 8 species, all new;
comments on some Antillean forms.]
Hydroessa 1899 Kirkaldy, Entomol. 32: 113. [Microvelia as genus dated
from Amyot and Serville, 1843, since Westwood, 1834, regarded it
merely as subgenus.]
Microvelia 1900 Kirkaldy, Entomol. 33: 27-28. [Microvelia recognized
as valid generic name from 1834, with priority over Hydroessa.]
1901 Kirkaldy, Entomol. 34: 218. pygmaeaa cited as generotype.]
1903 Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind., Rhynch. 2: 147. [pulchella cited as
1906 Kirkaldy, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 32(2): 154. [Summary of
generic and generotypic synonymies; pygmaea cited as type, with
reticulata as synonym.]
1909 Kirkaldy and Torre-Bueno, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 1908, 10(3-4):
207-208. [Catalogue of 20 American species.]
Kirkaldya 1910 Torre-Bueno, Canad. Ent. 42(5): 186; as subgenus, type
Microvelia americana (Uhler). [Suppressed as subgenus by Parsh-
ley, 1921: 89.]
Picaultia 1913 Distant, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 16: 161; type Picaultia
pronotalis n. sp., from Seychelles. [Synonymized with Microvelia
by China and Usinger, 1949.]
Microvelia 1916 Horv6th, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hungar. 14: 68-71. [Distinc-
tions between M. pygmaea Dufour (=nilicola Costa, 1875) and M.
reticulata Burmeister (=schneideri Scholtz, 1846). M. pulchella
cited as type "without the slightest doubt."]
1916 Torre-Bueno, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 11(3): 56-57. [Key to
species of the Atlantic coastal states.]
1917 Van Duzee, Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent. 2: 432-434. [Bibliographic
catalogue of North American species; generic types and their sy-
noymies cited.]
1921 Parshley, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 16(3-4): 87-93. [Key to ap-
terous forms of eastern North America; morphology of their pronota.]
1921 Pennington, Lista Hem. Het. Rep. Argentina, 31. [M. mendozana
the only species listed from Argentina.]
1923 Torre-Bueno, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 18(4): 138-143. [Review
of generic and specific characters in Microvelia.]


1924 Torre-Bueno, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 19(5): 187-194. [Pre-
liminary key to 28 American species, based largely on descriptions
and figures.]
1926 Blatchley, Heter. e. N. America, 988. [Descriptions of eight
species of eastern North America, with key.]
1933 Lundblad, Arch. Hydrobiol., Suppl. 12: 307-364. [Profusely
illustrated review of 17 Indian, Oriental, Australian, and Indonesian
species, with key to males pp. 369-370.]
1941 Poisson, Rev. franc. Ent. 8(4): 161-188, figs. 1-33. [Review of
14 African species and subspecies, with key. M. pulchella cited as
1943 China, Generic Names Brit. Ins., Part 8: 275. [M. pygmaea
cited as type; list of three British species.]
1949 China and Usinger, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12)2: 352. [In generic
key to Veliidae, subfamily Microveliinae (new subfamily p. 351).]


Since 1950 several subgenera have been erected within Micro-
velia by Hoberlandt and by Poisson for certain African and
Madagascan species, and Xiphoveloidea Hoberlandt, 1951, has
been reduced by Poisson (1952) from generic to subgeneric
status. Actual specimens of the type species of these groups
have not been available to us for study, but it seems from the
descriptions and the figures that none of these subgenera is
represented in the American fauna. Indeed, four of them contain
thus far a single species each, and three are known only from
Madagascar, an island noted for the large number of strictly
endemic forms which occur there. These subgenera are as
Anchorinella 1952 Poisson, Mdm. Inst. Sci. Madagascar (E) 1(1): 45.
[As subgenus of Microvelia; monobasic, haplotype M. (A.) pauliani
n. sp., from Madagascar.]
Annulovelia 1952 Poisson, op. cit., 48. [As subgenus of Microvelia;
monobasic, orthotype M. (A.) itremoi n. sp., from Madagascar.]
Perivelia 1952 Poisson, op. cit., 45. [As subgenus of Microvelia; mono-
basic; orthotype Microvelia betiokyi Poisson, 1951, from Madagascar.]
Pseudovelia 19513 Hoberlandt, Publ. Cultur. Comp. Diamantes Angola,
Lisbon, Sep. No. 10: 33-36. [As subgenus of Microvelia; orthotype
Microvelia major Poisson, 1926; also included Microvelia jeanneli
Poisson, 1941, and M. (P.) lundaensis n. sp. and M. (P.) crinita n. sp.,
both from Angola. If M. major and M. jeanneli are properly placed
in Xiphoveloidea where Poisson (1952) has relocated them, then
Pseudovelia automatically becomes a synonym of Xiphoveloidea, and
a new subgeneric designation may be necessary for the other two
species originally included in Pseudovelia.]
Trichovelia 1951 Hoberlandt, op. cit., 39-41. [As subgenus of Microvelia;
monobasic; orthotype M. (T.) machadoi n. sp., from Angola.]
3 This is the date cited by the Zoological Record, which refers to the
separates dated 1950 as "preprints." Issuance of such preprints is not
considered to constitute publication. We have seen only the 1950 separates.



Xiphoveloidea 1951 Hoberlandt, op. cit., 17-25. [As genus. Included:
X. chinai n. sp. (designated as type) and X. pulchella n. sp., both
from Angola. If Xiphoveloidea is to be regarded as a subgenus of
Microvelia, then M. (X.) pulchella Hoberlandt must be renamed.]
1952 Poisson, M6m. Inst. Sci. Madagascar (E) 1(1): 48. [As sub-
genus of Microvelia, without comment on change of status; Micro-
velia major Poisson, 1926, and several subspecies, also M. jeanneli
Poisson, 1941, transferred to this subgenus; M. (X.) mahajambae
n. sp., described from Madagascar.]
We do not wish to discuss these subgenera extensively, since
we have not been able to study specimens of their type species.
However, it should be noted that the species assigned to some of
them present characters conflicting with the definition of Micro-
velia given by China and Usinger (1949) in their memoir on
the classification of the Veliidae. Among these are the long first
antennal segment of Xiphoveloidea and Trichovelia, and the
modified tarsal claws of the former. Thus our concept of the
genus Microvelia must be considerably revised if these forms are
to be retained in their present status.
Since the appearance of the paper on veliid classification by
China and Usinger (1949), several genera allied to Microvelia
have been described. Two of these, Menuthiasia Poisson, 1952,
and Microveloidella Poisson, 1952, are endemic in Madagascar,
as far as is known at present. A third one, Xiphoveloidea
Hoberlandt, is listed above at the subgeneric level, on Poisson's
authority, and will be further discussed briefly below. A fourth
genus, Husseyella Herring, 1955, is American. It includes the
two species, turmalis and diffidens, that were described in Micro-
velia by Drake and Harris (1933) and were transferred by them
in 1936 to Xiphovelia Lundblad, 1933, a genus whose type species
occurs in Sumatra.
A major diagnostic character of Xiphoveloidea would seem to
be the ensiform modification of some or all of the tarsal claws
so that they become, or are enclosed in, broad, flat, thin struc-
tures preserving a claw-like outline to a greater or lesser degree.
Similar modifications of the tarsal claws are found in the genera
Veloidea Gould (subfamily Veliinae), Xiphovelia Lundblad
(Microveliinae), and Husseyella Herring (Microveliinae). Wher-
ever this is found, there is also at least one other structure (two
in Veloidea and Husseyella) of quite similar size and shape aris-
ing between the bases of the modified claws. Whether such
modifications of the claws are in themselves adequate for generic,
or only for subgeneric, segregation of the species that possess
them is a matter of opinion. In Xiphovelia, and in Husseyella,
there are other characters which, together with the structure



of the claws, definitely distinguish these forms from Microvelia
at the generic level. Xiphoveloidea seems, from description and
figures, to be less obviously distinct.
The seventy American species of Microvelia fall into a num-
ber of groups, some of which may perhaps be suitable for segre-
gation as subgenera. Thus far, Kirkaldya Torre-Bueno, 1910,
is the only such subdivision proposed for American forms, and
this was suppressed when the characters on which it was based
were shown to be wholly erroneous (Parshley, 1921; Lundblad,
The conformation of the male genital segments and the form
of the parameres offer excellent criteria for specific distinctions
in Microvelia. These characters have been illustrated for many
of the Old World species by Lundblad, Hoberlandt, and Poisson,
following the example of Miss Cheesman (1926) who, when de-
scribing Microvelia prompt from Tahiti, gave a figure showing
not only the genital segments and the parameres, but also the
sclerotized parts of the aedeagus. Among the Old World forms,
some species have both parameres rudimentary; some have one
paramere minute and the other one well developed; and still
others have both parameres well developed and symmetrical.
That the male genital characters might be utilized for segrega-
tion of subgeneric groups was suggested by Lundblad (1933),
and some of the subgenera (and genera as well) subsequently
erected have been based in part on genital characters.
Unfortunately, these characters have been largely neglected
by previous authors (ourselves included) in describing American
species of Microvelia. Indeed, figures of the male genital seg-
ments have been published for only two species, M. mimula B.
White and M. quieta Drake and Carvalho, 1954, with the descrip-
tion of the latter species.
Pending further study of the American species, we feel it
would be premature to attempt any subgeneric classification of
them. This phase of the work will be left for subsequent investi-
Micrcvelia pulchella Westwood
1834 Mi e, 1i;n Pulchella Westwood, Ann. Soc. Ent. France 3(2): P1. 6,
fig. 5, a-h.
1834 Velia (Microvelia) Pulchella, Westwood, Ann. Soc. Ent. France 3(3):
1842 Hydroessa pulchella, Herrich-Schaeffer, Wanz. Ins. 6: 37, Tab. 193,
fig. 595.
1843 Microvelia pulchella, Amyot and Serville, Hist. Nat. Hemip. 422.
1850 Hydroessa pulchella, Herrich-Schaeffer, Wanz. Ins. 9: 78.



1857 Microvelia pulchella, Guerin, in Sagra's Hist. Cuba 7(2): 174.
1873 Microvelia pulchella, Walker, Cat. Heter. Brit. Mus. 8: 160.
1896 Microvelia pulchella, Lethierry and Severin, Cat. G6n. H6m. 3: 56.
1907 Microvelia pulchella, Van Duzee, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 8(5) : 23.
1909 Microvelia pulchella, Kirkaldy and Torre-Bueno, Proc. Ent. Soc.
Wash. 1908, 10(3-4): 208.
1923 MIhrs...'i;i, ?pulchella, Torre-Bueno, Univ. Iowa Stud. Nat. Hist.
10(3) : 36.
1924 Microvelia pulchella, Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. Puerto Rico 1923,
7(1) : 244.
1939 Microvelia pulchella, Barber, N. Y. Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. Puerto Rico
Virg. Isl. 14(3): 410-411.
1950 Microvelia pulchella, Wolcott, Jour. Dept. Agr. Puerto Rico 1948,
32(1) : 220.
1952 Microvelia puchella [sic], Drake and Capriles, Gt. Basin Nat.
12(1-4) : 48.
1954 Microvelia pulchella, Drake and Capriles, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash.
67: 220.

Hemipterists are well agreed upon the identity of typical
Microvelia pulchella, and the authors are in accord with this
consensus of opinion. Westwood's types, in the Hope collection
at Oxford, have not been examined.
This species occurs throughout the neotropical region, except
perhaps in Chile, and it is found very uncommonly in its typical
form in the southernmost states of the United States. We have
studied several hundred specimens, both alate and apterous, from
Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Vincent, Grenada, Trinidad, Mexico, Cen-
tral America, Colombia, Venezuela, British Guiana, Brasil, Perl,
Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina. In addition, a few typical
examples of M. pulchella have been seen from Florida, Missis-
sippi, Texas, and Arizona. These agree in size, color, and struc-
tural details with our specimens from Cuba, Grenada, and other
neotropical localities.
Guerin (1857) seems to have been the first to note variation in
M. pulchella, for, after transcribing Westwood's original de-
scription, he added: "The insect which served for Mr. Westwood's
work came from the island of St. Vincent. According to the
description and the figure which he gives, and which was copied
by Herrich-Schaeffer, one might be inclined to consider the Cuban
individuals as varieties with the white spots of the hemelytra
smaller and somewhat obscured."
Microvelia pulchella exhibits greater variability than any other
American species of the genus, and embraces several forms that
have been described under other specific names. Some of these
are indistinguishable from one another; others intergrade with
them; and none of them can be distinguished from M. pulchella



at the species level. It is our opinion that these constitute a
single, highly variable subspecies of M. pulchella. It is possible
that the name capitata Gu6rin, 1857, will prove to be the one that
should be used for this subspecies. However, for reasons set
forth below, we prefer to regard Microvelia capitata Gu6rin as
a species inquirenda at this time, and consequently employ incerta
(Kirby, 1890) as the subspecies designation, this being the
earliest name that is surely applicable.

Microvelia pulchella subsp. incerta (Kirby) (NEW STATUS)
1890 Rhagovelia incerta W. F. Kirby, Jour. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 20: 548.
1894 Microvelia robusta Uhler, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 219.
1894 Microvelia marginata [nec Uhler, 1893], Uhler, 1894, op. cit. 219.
[In part; U. S. records.]
1896 Microvelia robusta, Lethierry and Severin, Cat. G6n. H6m. 3: 56.
1896 Rhagovelia incerta, Lethierry and Severin, op. cit., 3: 258.
1899 Microvelia incerta, Kirkaldy, Rev. d'Ent. 18: 95.
1905 Microvelia pulchella [nec Westwood], Torre-Bueno, Jour. N. Y. Ent.
Soc. 13: 42.
1909 Microvelia incerta, Kirkaldy and Torre-Bueno, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash.
1908, 10(3-4): 207.
1909 Microvelia marginata [in part], Kirkaldy and Torre-Bueno, op. cit.,
1909 Microvelia robusta, Kirkaldy and Torre-Bueno, op. cit., 208.
1910 Microvelia pulchella, Smith, Ins. N. J., 3d ed., p. 141.
1910 Microvelia marginata, Smith, op. cit., 150.
1910 Microvelia borealis [nomen nudum], Torre-Bueno, in Smith, op. cit.,
1910 Microvelia marginata, Banks, Cat. nearc. Hem.-Het., p. 27.
1910 Microvelia pulchella, Banks, op. cit., 27.
1914 Microvelia marginata, Barber, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 33(31):
1916 Microvelia borealis Torre-Bueno, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 11(3):
1917 Microvelia marginata [in part], Van Duzee, Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent.
2: 433.
1917 Microvelia borealis, Van Duzee, op. cit., 433.
1917 Microvelia robusta, Van Duzee, op. cit., 434.
1917 Microvelia borealis, Torre-Bueno, Ent. News 28(8): 354.
1919 Microvelia borealis [in part], Hussey, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ.
Mich. No. 75: 13.
1920 Microvelia borealis [in part], Hungerford, Kansas Univ. Sci. Bull.
1919, 11: 123 and 137 [excl. P1. XII].
1920 Microvelia robusta, Hungerford, op. cit., 126.
1920 Microvelia marginata [excl. synon. and description], Hungerford,
op. cit., 127.
1925 Microvelia borealis, W. E. Hoffmann, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 20(3):
1926 Microvelia borealis, Blatchley, Het. east. N. Amer., 989 [excl. fig.
1928 Microvelia borealis, Blatchley, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 36(1): 21.



1939 Microvelia robusta, Barber, N. Y. Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. Pto. Rico
Virg. Isl. 14(3): 411.
1953 Microvelia robusta, Drake and Plaumann, Dusenia 4(5-6): 415 [with
borealis as variety].
1954 Microvelia incerta, Drake and Capriles, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 67:
220 [with robusta as new synonym; "robusta" thought probably
a subspecies of pulchella].

The types of Microvelia incerta (Kirby), from Fernando
Noronha, and of M. robusta Uhler, from Grenada, are in the
British Museum. These have been examined and found to be
indistinguishable from one another. After studying many hun-
dred specimens of the North American form long known as
lMicr,'i rfi borealis Torre-Bueno, the authors can find no char-
acters to distinguish it from M. incerta. As stated above, all
of these may eventually prove to be inseparable from M. capitata
Except for its distinctly smaller average size, M. p. incerta
does not seem to differ from typical M. pulchella in any essential
way, and cannot be regarded as specifically distinct from it.
Although M. incerta is treated here as a subspecies of M. pul-
chella, this is not done in the sense that the two represent geo-
grapically isolated and distinguishable forms. M. p. incerta
ranges northward in the nearctic region far beyond the limits
of typical pulchella, yet in the neotropical region the distribution
of the two forms is the same. Indeed, specimens from a given
locality, or even from a single school or swarm, sometimes show
perfect intergradation between the smaller incerta and the larger
pulchella, and this is true for males and females alike and for
winged and wingless individuals. In general, specimens from
northern localities are a little smaller than those from tropical
or subtropical places.
Like typical pulchella, this form is quite variable in color and
hemelytral markings, even among individuals taken at the same
time and place. The males show great variation in the curvature
of the hind tibiae: some specimens have these bowed through
an angle of nearly 450, others scarcely half as much.
Besides having been described under several synonymic names,
M. p. incerta was long confused with typical M. pulchella by North
American authors. It seems also to have been misidentified as
M. marginata Uhler, 1893, by Uhler himself (1894), as regards
his North American records-which were accepted by subse-
quent cataloguers (Kirkaldy and Torre-Bueno, 1909; Banks,
1910; Van Duzee, 1917).



Further confusion surrounding the pulchella-incerta complex
arises from the fact that Microvelia buenoi Drake and M. hinei
Drake were not distinguished from M. "borealis" until 1920.
Thus the true identity of specimens reported before that date as
either M. pulchella, M. borealis, or M. marginata can be deter-
mined only by inspection of the specimens concerned. Re-exami-
nation of the material from Douglas Lake, Michigan, identified
by Torre-Bueno and reported as M. borealis by Hussey (1919),
has shown that it included not only that form, but M. buenoi
and M. hinei as well. Figure 198 in Blatchley's "Heteroptera"
(1926), reproduced from Hungerford (1920) and captioned
Microvelia borealis, actually represents M. hinei, as later stated
by Blatchley himself (1928). It seems doubtful that any further
confusion of these species is to be found in the literature since
1926, and for this reason no other bibliographic citations to
M. borealis after that date are given above.
Torre-Bueno (1917) reported that M. borealis has only four
nymphal instars instead of the five reported for other species of
Microvelia. This was confirmed by W. E. Hoffmann (1925),
who found that Microvelia buenoi Drake also has four nymphal
instars. Both these workers obtained their material of M.
borealis in the northern United States. It would be interesting
to learn whether this condition holds true throughout the range
of M. p. incerta, and whether it is true also for M. p. pulchella.

Microvelia marginata Uhler
1893 Microvelia marginate Uhler, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 719.
1936 Microvelia pudoris Drake and Harris, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 49: 105.
This is a distinct species, quite easily separated from the
pulchella complex by the coloration, the very short pre-ocular
part of the head, and the distinctly shorter legs as compared
with the body length. We have seen only a single specimen of
the true marginata collected in the United States. This individ-
ual, now in the U. S. National Museum, was taken at Key West,
Florida, April 6, 1905, by Frederick Knab.

Microvelia capitata Guerin
1857 Microvelia capitata Guerin, in Sagra's Hist. Cuba 7(2): 174.
This species has long been an enigma to students of the genus
Microvelia. Gu6rin's description read as follows: "Fuscous;
head fulvous; neck [collum], spots on thorax, sides of abdomen,
and legs fulvous; hemelytra white-spotted. Length 2, width 3/9



millim. This lovely species is very close to the preceding one
[pulchella], but differs by its smaller size and by the coloration
of the body. As for the hemelytra, they present the same whitish
spots. We have received a single individual from the island of
Cuba, caught by Messrs. Poey and Gundlach."
If the dimensions given by Guerin are correct, his capitata
is an extremely slender species with the body of the alate form
six times as long as wide. These body proportions do not occur
in any alate forms of the pulchella complex. In a small sample
(15 specimens) of alate pulchella and incerta from six neo-
tropical localities, the average ratio of length to width was found
to be 2.56, with standard deviation 0.166; in an equal number of
alate "borealis" from Florida, New York, and Michigan, this
ratio was 2.38, with standard deviation 0.133.
It is possible that the width stated by Guerin for capitata was
a typographical error and that 3/4 millimeter was intended in-
stead of 3/9 millimeter. This would bring the width of capitata
in line with our sample of alate "borealis", whose pronotal
width averaged 0.73 mm., or in line with the narrowest of the
fifteen neotropical specimens measured, where the pronotal width
was 0.77 mm.
The description, to say the least, is inadequate in other ways
as well, and the identity of Microvelia capitata can only be
established by examination of Guerin's type if it is still extant.
It has not been found in the Paris Museum; nor, according to
information kindly furnished us by Dr. Max Beier, is it in the
Vienna Museum where certain of the Guerin types were deposited.
The name capitata has been used by several authors for species
known to us under other names. Torre-Bueno, in several papers
prior to 1916, employed it for the species generally known since
that date as M. albonotata Champion, and Barber, in 1939, again
used capitata for that species in his account of the Hemiptera
of Puerto Rico; but Drake and Capriles (1954) have dissented
from this view. All the specimens we have seen that Uhler
(1894) reported from Grenada as M. capitata Gu6rin are in
reality M. mimula F. B. White.

Microvelia albonotata Champion
1898 Microvelia albonotata Champion, Biol. C. Amer., Hem. Het. 2: 129,
P1. 8, fig. 17. [Type wrongly stated as male.]
So far as we are aware, no American species of Microvelia
has hitherto been reported as having cavernicolous habits. It is
interesting to record, therefore, the finding of this species in


great numbers on the pools in certain bat caves in Alachua and
Gilchrist Counties, Florida. This discovery was made in the
spring of 1954 by Messrs. Robert Cumming and Dale Rice, grad-
uate students at the University of Florida, who reported finding
the Microvelia abundant even on pools that were in total dark-
ness. This species also occurs in Florida on woodland pools
and in the cypress swamps.
A specimen collected at light on the E. S. George Reserve
near Pinckney, Livingston County, Michigan, July 18, 1952 (R.
F. Hussey) establishes the first record of M. albonotata from
Microvelia rufescens Champion
1898 Microvelia rufescens Champion, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Hem.-Het., 2:
130, PI. 8, fig. 18.
1937 Microvelia hidalgoi McKinstry, Jour. Kansas Ent. Soc. 10 (2): 40
Upon comparing the types of M. rufescens in the British Mu-
seum with paratypes of M. hidalgoi loaned from the University
of Kansas collections, we find that the latter must be placed in
Microvelia guatemalensis McKinstry
1937 Microvelia guatemalensis McKinstry, Jour. Kansas Ent. Soc. 10(2):
Comparison of type materials shows that this species and M.
torquata Champion are very similar, but we are not prepared
to say that they are identical with one another.

Microvelia vagans F. B. White
1878 Microvelia vagans F. B. White, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5)1: 374.
1925 Microvelia pacifica [nec Kirkaldy], W. E. Hoffmann, Bull. Brooklyn
Ent. Soc. 20(3): 132.
1937 Microvelia williamsi [nomen nudum] McKinstry, Jour. Kansas Ent.
Soc. 10(2): 41.
1948 Microvelia vagans, Zimmerman, Ins. Hawaii 3: 228, fig. 104.
This is the only species of Microvelia listed by Zimmerman as
occurring in the Hawaiian Islands, and the only one we have seen
from there. We have no doubt that Hoffmann's report of M.
pacifica (a Fijian species) being found abundantly in Oahu
should actually be referred to M. vagans. We are indebted to
Dr. H. B. Hungerford for the information that the "Microvelia
williamsi n. sp." mentioned but not described by McKinstry is
identical with M. vagans White.
Though Zimmerman referred to it as an "immigrant (?)"
in Hawaii, and though Kirkaldy and Torre-Bueno (1909) said



it was undoubtedly introduced there from America, we know
of no specimens of Microvelia vagans taken in North, Central,
or South America. It appears to be strictly endemic in the
Hawaiian Islands.
Microvelia chilena, n. sp.
APTEROUS MALE. Small, oblong, reddish brown (almost orange) with
abdominal tergites 2, 3, 4, and most of 5 and 6, blackish; abdomen beneath
pale testaceous, venter slightly embrowned; sides of abdomen broadly
striped with blackish, bluish-pruinose; dorsal surface sparsely clothed with
pale (and some dark) pubescent hairs. Head broad, convex above, with
indistinct median furrow, sparsely white pubescent and with whitish prui-
nosity near eyes; width across eyes 0.42 mm. Rostrum testaceous, apical
segment black-fuscous, slightly surpassing base of prosternum. Antennae
moderately long, slender, brownish fuscous, basal segment mostly testaceous;
shortly pilose; relative lengths of segments I-IV, 17:12:18:25 (80 units =
1 mm.). Legs moderately slender, brownish above, pale testaceous below;
femora not much enlarged, hind femora unarmed and scarcely as thick
as front pair; tarsal segments I and II subequal in length (13:12) on
both middle and hind legs.
Pronotum moderately produced behind, concealing about half of meso-
notum, wide and subtruncate (feebly concave) behind, much wider than its
median length (40:18), divided into two lobes by a rather deep transverse
furrow on each side of median line which contains deep pits at bottom;
fore lobe about half as long as hind lobe, convexly raised transversely;
hind lobe sloping gently forward, with two fairly large pits in each antero-
lateral corner just behind transverse furrow; metanotum mostly concealed,
with only its hind corners visible at either side. Abdominal tergites scarcely
narrowed posteriorly, last tergite nearly twice as long as preceding seg-
ment; connexival segments dark brown on outer margins and intersegmental
sutures; venter slightly flattened, with last ventrite nearly as long as two
preceding segments combined, without spine or tubercle. Genital segments
moderately large, plump, dark brown above, pale testaceous below; first
genital segment broadly, roundly excavated behind; second segment clothed
with very fine, moderately long, whitish hairs (visible from lateral aspect),
without lateral spine or tubercle on each side.
Winged forms unknown.
Length 1.90 mm., width 0.62 mm.
HOLOTYPE (APTEROUS MALE). Valparaiso, Chile, January 27, 1939 (C.
J. Drake). An apterous female from Chile in the Reed collection is almost
entirely testaceous; it lacks the last two antennal segments, but seems to
be this species. This is the first species of Microvelia reported from Chile.
Separable from M. mimula F. B. White and allied forms by the unarmed
second genital segment. In M. mimula the first genital segment is distinctly
widened behind for reception of the long lateral spines on the second segment.

Microvelia malkini, n. sp.
APTEROUS FORM. Moderately long; female subfusiform, male rather
slender and with the abdomen more narrowed behind. Blackish, slightly
velvety; a narrow transverse stripe near middle of pronotum, a large





Microvelia malkini, n. sp. Head and thorax, dorsal view. (Outline
of head conventionalized.)
Microvelia americana (Uhler). Thorax and base of abdomen,
lateral view.
Microvelia americana (Uhler). Thorax and base of abdomen,
dorsal view.
Microvelia braziliensis McKinstry. Thorax and base of abdomen,
lateral view.
Microvelia braziliensis McKinstry. Thorax and base of abdomen,
dorsal view.

Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.

Fig. 5.




triangular subbasal spot on anterior part of mesonotum, a median spot
on each abdominal tergite, and a central spot in each connexival segment,
brownish testaceous; dorsal surface with patches of silvery white pubes-
cence; body testaceous beneath and on sides, with some blackish on median
line. Head black or fuscous-black, with the usual impressed longitudinal
median line; rostrum testaceous, its apex dark fuscous, slightly surpassing
middle of mesosternum. Antennae long, slender, very shortly pubescent,
dark fuscous, narrow base and under surface of first segment testaceous;
relative lengths of segments I-IV, male 38:36:45:46, female 35:32:45:45
(80 units = 1 mm.)
Dorsal structure of apterous thorax (Fig. 1) basically similar to that
of M. americana Uhler. Pronotum five times as wide as long (60:12), its
front margin broadly but rather shallowly emarginate, hind margin di-
rected slightly backward near lateral margins. Mesonotum divided into
two lobes by an impressed suture; front lobe about twice as long as hind
lobe, whose median length is subequal to that of pronotum; front lobe very
nearly as wide anteriorly as pronotum, moderately narrowed posteriorly,
its rear margin truncate. Metanotal triangles produced media as narrow,
acute points; metapleura narrowly visible from above at either side of
mesonotum. Last abdominal tergite nearly twice as long as preceding
segment in both sexes; connexiva tapering posteriorly, very narrow behind;
venter without spine or tubercle. Legs dark fuscous; coxae, trochanters,
and basal part of femora testaceous; front femora largely testaceous,
moderately stout, with long pale hairs beneath; hind legs long, slender,
about equally long in both sexes, their femora unarmed. Measurements
of legs (80 units = 1 mm.) :
Front Middle Hind
Fem ur ............................ 70 92 120
Tibia ..................--....... .. 48 85 150
Tarsal I .--...---..-..-...-.... 20 14 15
Tarsal II .--............---- 28 30

Length, & 2.40 mm., 9 2.75 mm.; width, & 0.90 mm., 9 1.08 mm.
September 23, 1953 (B. Malkin) ; in California Academy of Sciences.
PARATYPES: One female and one somewhat general male, taken with the
types. Named in honor of the excellent collector and coleopterist, who
found the species living and breeding in seepage on the side of a cliff,
adjacent to a waterfall, where he was collecting beetles.
This species belong to the americana group of Microvelia, which generally
are found close to the banks of streams, on running water. It is at once
separable from other Mexican members of the group by the long slender,
unarmed legs. The genital segments are retracted into the abdomen in the
males at hand, and cannot be exposed without damaging the specimens.
However, they are distinct from those of other species of the group.


Parshley (1921) regarded the pronotum of apterous M. ameri-
cana (and of M. borealis) as composite, formed of two "lobes"


with a transverse suture between them. The mesonotum, ac-
cording to him, is a single, more or less crescent-shaped sclerite,
occupying most of the dorsal surface between the pronotum and
the abdomen, leaving the metanotum exposed only as small tri-
angular areas at the postero-lateral corners of the thorax.
We conclude that only the "anterior lobe" of Parshley is re-
ferable to the prothorax, while his "posterior pronotal lobe"
is in reality an anterior lobe of the mesonotum. Thus the
mesonotum, rather than the pronotum, is composite in the ameri-
cana group and the pulchella complex of Microvelia.
When the thoracic sutures of M. americana are examined from
the side (Fig. 2), the most pronounced of them is the bisinuous
one running nearly vertically from the rear margin of the front
coxal cavity. This indicates that the prothorax is the relatively
short segment of the body lying before this suture. Dissection
of specimens treated with hot KOH and then decolorized shows
that this suture is indeed the most profound of all, and on its
dorsal portion its deeper parts are membranous, so that some
slight degree of movement of prothorax on mesothorax may be
possible. The front edge of the mesonotum is turned down in-
ward to form a distinct apodeme for muscle attachments; and
there is a single row of fairly large, subfoveate punctures along
the hind edge of the pronotum, just within its margin.
By contrast, the suture between what we call the mesonotal
lobes is slight and superficial, scarcely more than an impressed
line bearing a row of much smaller punctures. It has no internal
apodeme along its course, except the two so-called phragmal
pits-which, however, lie just behind rather than in the suture.
Indeed, this suture is virtually obsolete on the mid-dorsal portion
in some specimens of M. americana.
Our viewpoint regarding the identity of these sclerites is sup-
ported by the thoracic structure in some other species of Micro-
velia, such as M. braziliensis McK. Here the pronotum is pro-
duced backward (Figs. 4, 5) so as nearly to cover the whole
anterior mesonotal lobe, yet there can be no question as to what
is pronotum and what is mesonotum. The postero-lateral mar-
gins of the pronotum are shallowly sinuate, and at these sinu-
osities the suture between the mesonotal lobes is left exposed.
In many specimens this suture is visible clear to the mid-dorsal
line (Fig. 5), where it lies just behind the rear margin of the
When the prothorax of the winged form of M. americana (or
of M. pulchella incerta) is removed, the underlying mesonotum




is seen to be composite in much the same way that is found in
the apterous form. The sclerite that we call the anterior meso-
notal lobe is, however, roughly rectangular in the winged in-
dividuals, instead of sub-trapezoidal. Its posterior width is
about the same as in apterous individuals, but its lateral margins
are approximately parallel instead of strongly divergent an-
teriorly. The mesonotum of alate individuals is not at all, or
only lightly, pigmented anteriorly, so that no discolorization is
needed to reveal this structure.
In other wingless water-striders, such as Gerridae and Meso-
velia, the prothorax is a short and very distinct segment of the
body, while the mesothorax is much longer and is immovably
fused with the metathorax. The thoracic structure of the ameri-
cana group and the pulchella complex of Microvelia seems to
stand close to this primitive type.

1. aemulana Drake and Plaumann 1955-Brasil, Argentina.
2. albonotata Champion 1898; =capittat, Barber 1939, nec Gu6rin-U. S.
east of Rocky Mts.; Utah; Mexico; Central America; West Indies;
Venezuela, Peru.
3. americana (Uhler 1884)-U. S. east of Mississippi River; Minn., Iowa,
Kansas, Nebr.; eastern Canada.
4. ancona Drake and Chapman 1954-Panama (in bromeliads).
5. argusta Drake and Capriles 1954-Puerto Rico.
6. atrata Torre-Bueno 1916-Ga., Fla., La.
7. austrina Torre-Bueno 1924; -parallela Blachley 1925-Md., Va., N. C.,
Tenn., Ind., Miss.; Mexico.
8. ayacuchana Drake and Capriles 1952-Venezuela (Amazonas), Brit.
9. beameri McKinstry 1937-Texas, N. M., Ariz., Nev., Colo., Calif.;
Mexico to Oaxaca; Jamaica.
10. braziliensis McKinstry 1937-Brasil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay.
11. buenoi Drake 1920-U. S. (rare in south); Canada; Alaska.
12. californiensis McKinstry 1937-Calif., Oregon; Baja California.
13. capitata Gu6rin 1857; =??pulchella subsp. incerta (Kirby)-Cuba.
14. cerifera McKinstry 1937-Iowa, Kansas, Nebr., Colo., Utah, Calif.
15. chilena Drake and Hussey 1955-Chile.
16. cinchonana Drake and Hussey 1954-Jamaica.
17. circumcincta Champion 1898-Guatemala; Mexico.
18. costaiana Drake and Hussey 1951-Brasil.
19. cubana Drake 1951-Cuba; Dominican Republic.
20. distant Lundblad 1933; insigniss Distant 1912, preocc.-Trinidad;
Dominica (in bromeliads).
21. duidana Drake and Capriles 1952-Venezuela (Amazonas), Brit. Guiana.
22. fasciculifera McKinstry 1937-Texas, Ariz.; Mexico.
23. flavipes Champion 1898-Mexico.


24. fontinalis Torre-Bueno 1916-N. Y., N. J., Pa., Md., Va., Ohio, Mich.,
Ind., Ill., Tenn., Miss., Minn., Iowa.
25. gerhardi Hussey 1924-Nebr., Utah, Wyo., Colo., N. M., Ariz., Calif.;
north and central Mexico.
26. guatemalensis McKinstry 1937-Guatemala.
27. hambletoni Drake 1951-Peru.
28. hinei Drake 1920-Canada to Argentina.
29. hungerfordi McKinstry 1937-Argentina, Paraguay.
30. inannana Drake and Hottes 1952-Argentina, Brasil.
31. intonsa Drake 1951; crinitaa [as crinata, typ. error] Drake 1951,
32. ioana Drake and Hottes 1952-Rio de Janeiro.
33. irrasa Drake and Harris 1928-Mexico.
34. lacunana Drake and Plaumann 1953-Mato Grosso.
35. laesslei Drake and Hussey 1954-Jamaica (in bromeliads).
36. limaiana Drake 1951-Brasil; Panama.
37. longipes [male] Uhler 1894; modesta [female] Uhler 1894-West
Indies; Venezuela, Brit. Guiana, Peru, Ecuador, Brasil, Paraguay,
38. lujanana Drake 1951-Argentina.
39. malkini Drake and Hussey 1955-Mexico (Nayarit).
40. marginata Uhler 1893; =pudoris Drake and Harris 1936-West Indies;
Mexico, Panama; Venezuela, Peru; Florida Keys.
41. mimula F. B. White 1879; capitataa, Uhler 1894, nec Gu6rin; =men-
dozana Jensen-Haarup 1920; =myersi McKinstry 1937-West In-
dies; Panama; Brasil, Ecuador, Paraguay, Argentina.
42. minima Drake 1952-Brasil.
43. munda Drake 1951-Panama.
44. novana Drake and Plaumann 1955-Brasil.
45. oaxacana Drake 1951-Mexico (Oaxaca, in bromeliads).
46. oraria Drake 1952-Costa Rica.
47. paludicola Champion 1898; -alachuana Hussey and Herring 1950-
Mexico, Central America; West Indies; Fla., Miss., Colo., Ariz.,
48. panamensis Champion 1898-Panama.
49. parana Drake and Carvalho 1954-Brasil.
50. peruviensis McKinstry 1937-Peru.
51. pexa Drake and Hussey 1951-Mexico.
52. portoricencis Drake 1951-Puerto Rico; Florida Keys.
53. pueblana Drake and Hottes 1952-Mexico.
54. pulchella Westwood 1834-Neotropical region (except Chile?); Fla.,
Miss., Texas, Ariz.
54a. pulchella subsp. incerta (W. F. Kirby 1890); capitataata Gu6rin
1857; =boreale Torre-Bueno MS. in various lists; =borealis Torre-
Bueno 1916, NEW SYNONYMY; marginataa, Uhler 1894 in part;
=robusta Uhler 1894-U. S.; Canada; neotropical region (except
55. quieta Drake and Carvalho 1954-Brasil.
56. rasilis Drake 1951-Mexico.

SThis NEW SYNONYMY was discovered in August 1955 when the type of
M. mendozana was studied at Copenhagen.



57. recifana Drake 1951-Brasil.
58. rufescens Champion 1898; =hidalgoi McKinstry 1937, NEW SYNONYMY
-Guatemala, Costa Rica.
59. sarpta Drake and Harris 1936-Brasil.
60. schmidti McKinstry 1937-Costa Rica.
61. signata Uhler 1894; =setipes Champion 1898; oreadess Drake and
Harris 1928-Colo., Utah, N. M., Ariz., Calif.; northwestern Mexico.
62. stellata Kirkaldy 1902-Ecuador, Peru, Brasil, Bolivia, Paraguay; Trini-
63. summers Drake and Harris 1928-Grenada, Trinidad; Panama; Brasil,
Brit. Guiana.
64. tateiana Drake 1951-Puerto Rico.
65. torquata Champion 1898-Guatemala; Mexico.
66. trinitatis China 1943-Trinidad.
67. vagans F. B. White 1878; =pacifica, W. E. Hoffmann 1925, nec Kir-
kaldy; =williamsi [nomen nudum] McKinstry 1937-Hawaii.
68. venustatis Drake and Harris 1933-Brasil, Peru, Paraguay.
69. verana Drake and Hottes 1952-Mexico.
70. zillana Drake and Hottes 1952-Puerto Rico.


Montreal, Canada, 1956

The Tenth International Congress of Entomology will be held
in Montreal on August 17-25, 1956. Following the Congress a
number of excursions to places of entomological interest will be

All those hoping to attend the Congress and wishing to obtain
further information should communicate as soon as possible with
the Secretary, Mr. J. A. Downes, Division of Entomology, Science
Service Building, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.


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Associate Entomologist, University of Florida Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred

The following annotated list of lady beetles represents the
known coccinellid fauna of citrus groves in Florida at the present
time. This list has been compiled during the course of an inten-
sive survey of the predators and parasites of citrus insects and
mites. Although it is recognized that the list is probably in-
complete for vagrants, it is believed that most species commonly
feeding on citrus insects and mites have been recognized. The
present list should be considered supplementary to that published
by G. B. Merrill in 1922 which listed and discussed all of the lady
beetles known to occur in Florida.
For each species listed, the original description is cited, intra-
state and seasonal distribution is discussed and food habits on
citrus noted. For the common species only a few selected records
have been included; all records have been cited for species un-
common or rare on citrus. For ease of reference the species
are listed alphabetically.
Acknowledgments are due the survey personnel of the Uni-
versity of Florida Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred
for valuable assistance in obtaining geographic and seasonal
distribution records. The survey staff headed by Dr. R. M.
Pratt includes H. Holtsberg, K. Townsend, W. Davis, J. B. Weeks
and T. B. Hallam. Thanks are also due Dr. E. A. Chapin, West
Medway, Mass., who read the manuscript for systematic errors
and provided several citations.

Chilocorus stigma (Say)
Coccinella stigma Say, 1835, Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Boston, Vol. 1, p. 202.
This species, commonly known as the twice-stabbed lady beetle,
is the most abundant species found on citrus in the state. It is
distributed throughout the citrus-growing areas and normally
reaches a population peak in late winter, spring and early sum-
mer. Although it has been recorded feeding on many species
of scale insects, mealybugs, aphids and whiteflies, its preferred

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 381.



food on citrus is Florida red scale, Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.).
Seasonally abnormal beetle-population peaks are occasionally
found on heavy infestations of this scale.
RECORDS: Goldenrod, 8 spms., Nov. 20, 1951 (W. Davis). Vero Beach,
5 spms., Nov. 13, 1951 (H. Holtsberg). Indian Rocks, 9 spms., Nov. 8,
1951 (K. Townsend). Lake Placid, 2 spms., Dec. 3, 1951 (J. B. Weeks).
Ft. Pierce, 4 spms., July 18, 1953 (M. H. Muma and W. Long).

Cycloneda sanguinea (L.)
Coccinella sanguinea Linne, 1763, Systema Naturae, Ed. 12, p. 11.
This species, known by the common name blood-red lady beetle,
is quite common on citrus in the spring and early summer. It
is widely distributed in the citrus-growing areas. Although the
species feeds predominantly on aphids it has been recorded eat-
ing citrus red mites, Metatetranychus citri (McG.) ; six-spotted
mites, Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (Riley) ; mealybugs and scale
RECORDS: Vero Beach, 4 spms., Nov. 13, 1951 (H. Holtsberg). Avon
Park, 6 spms., March 6, 1952 (J. B. Weeks). Goldenrod, 2 spms., Nov. 14,
1952 (W. Davis). Bamboo, 3 spms., Jan. 9, 1952 (M. H. and K. E. Muma).
Lutz, 6 spms., Mar. 18, 1952 (K. Townsend).

Coleomegilla maculata var. floridana (Leng)
Megilla maculata var. floridana Leng, 1903, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol.
XI, p. 38.
Only two specimens of this vagrant species have been taken on
citrus in Florida. Nothing is known concerning the seasonal and
state distribution.
RECORDS: Unknown locality, one specimen, Oct. 25, 1950 (J. T. Griffiths).
Vero Beach, one specimen, Apr. 14, 1953 (H. Holtsberg).

Cryptolaemus montrouzeri Muls.
Cryptolaemus montrouzeri Mulsant, 1853, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, Vol. 1,
p. 140.
The introduced Australian mealybug lady beetle apparently
is widely distributed in the citrus areas of the state, but is not
common on citrus. Populations occasionally are found on mealy-
bug infestations in the spring. The species has also been col-
lected while feeding on soft brown scale, Coccus hesperidum (L.).
RECORDS: Auburndale, many spms., May 13, 1953 (R. Johnson and M.
H. Muma). Bradenton, 2 spms., May 25, 1954 (M. H. Muma).


Delphastus catalinae (Horn)
Cryptognatha catalinae Horn, 1895, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. 22, p. 83.
This species is included in this list doubtfully. It was intro-
duced on citrus in the Clearwater area in 1917 in an effort to
obtain biological control of the citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri
(Ashm.). No recent specimens of the species have been collected.
RECORDS: Cortez, 2 specimens, Nov. 14-16, 1918 (H. B. Swartsel).

Delphastus pallidus (Lec.)
Oeneis pallidus LeConte, 1878, Proc. Amer. Philosophical Soc., Vol. XVII,
p. 400.
This tiny lady beetle is uncommon to rare on citrus in Florida.
The principal food is whiteflies with all records to date being
from the cloudy-winged whitefly, Dialeurodes citrifolii (Morg.).
At present the species is known from the East Coast, West Coast
and Ridge districts of the citrus growing region.
RECORDS: Vero Beach, one specimen, May 25, 1951 (H. Holtsberg).
Mims, two specimens, July 19, 1951 (H. Holtsberg). Scottsmoor, one speci-
men, June 19, 1953 (H. Holtsberg). Indian Rocks, one specimen, Nov. 8,
1951 (K. Townsend). Lake Alfred, three specimens, Sept. 9, 1953 (M. H.
Delphastus pusillus (Lec.)
Oeneis pusillus LeConte, 1852, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. VI, p. 135.
This small black lady beetle is the second most-common white-
fly-eating species in the state. It is widely distributed in the
citrus growing areas and reaches its peak population in the fall
and early winter. To date it has been recorded feeding on citrus
whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashm.), and cloudy-winged whitefly,
Dialeurodes citrifolii (Morg.). It probably also feeds on the
wooly whitefly, Aleurothrixus howardi (Quaint.).
RECORDS: Plant City, 19 spms., Nov. 21, 1951 (K. Townsend). Winter
Haven, 30 spms., June 16, 1952 (M. H. Muma). Brooksville, 8 spms., Oct.
16, 1951 (K. Townsend). Crescent City, 3 spms., Mar. 11, 1953 (H. Holts-
berg). Vero Beach, 6 spms., June 16, 1952 (H. Holtsberg).

Decadiomus bahamicus (Csy.)
Scymnus bahamicus Casey, 1899, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. VII, p. 159.
This tiny, distinctive species has been taken at only one locality
feeding on citrus mealybugs, Pseudococcus citri Risso.
RECORDS: Auburndale, three specimens, May 13, 1953 (R. Johnson and
M. H. Muma), and one specimen, May 25, 1953 (M. H. Muma).



Exochomus marginipennis children Muls.
Exochomus children Mulsant, 1850, Ann. Soc. d'Agric. Lyon, Vol. 2, p. 1037.
Although this is the most common subspecies of the genus on
citrus, seldom are more than a few specimens seen at one time.
Records indicate that the subspecies is somewhat limited in dis-
tribution to the central citrus-growing region. Although the
species has been recorded feeding on aphids, it is commonly
taken in scale infestations. Insufficient material has been col-
lected to determine seasonal distribution.
RECORDS: Dundee, one specimen, Nov. 28, 1951 (E. D. Harris). Apopka,
18 spms., May 6, 1952 (M. H. Muma). Tavares, one specimen, March 5,
1953 (W. Davis). Lake Alfred, one specimen, May 7, 1952 (R. Johnson).
Minneola, 7 spms., April 19, 1953 (M. H. Muma).

Exochomus marginipennis marginipennis Lec.
Exochomus marginipennis LeConte, 1824, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. N. Y., Vol.
I, p. 174.
This, the typical subspecies of the species, apparently is rare
on citrus in the state and restricted to the south central region.
No data are available on seasonal distribution.
RECORDS: Lake Placid, 2 spms., Oct. 1950 (J. B. Weeks). Lake Wales,
2 spms., August 21, 1952 and one specimen, Jan. 23, 1953 (T. B. Hallam).

Hippodamia convergens Guer.
Coccinella (Hippodamia) convergens Guerin, Icon. Regne Animal, Insectes,
Paris, 1829-1838, p. 321.
Although the convergent lady beetle is reported to have been
common on citrus at one time, it has been comparatively rare in
recent years. Only two recent records are available. It is pri-
marily an aphid feeder.
RECORDS: Lake Magdalene, one specimen, Jan. 31, 1951 (K. Townsend).
Winter Garden, one specimen, June 18, 1952 (W. Davis).

Leis dimidiata quinquedecimmaculata (Hope)
Coccinella 15-maculata Hope in Gray. Zool. Miscell., 1831, p. 30.
The Chinese lady beetle introduced on citrus and at one time
reportedly common in certain areas is now mainly restricted to
a single locality. It is primarily an aphid feeder and reaches
peak population in the spring and early summer.
RECORDS: Winter Garden, 3 spms., Apr. 16, 1952 (W. Davis). Ocoee,
one specimen, June 4, 1952 (W. Davis). Winter Park, 9 spms., Mar. 19,
1953 (W. Davis). Auburndale, 2 spms., April 21, 1954 (T. B. Hallam).



Microweisea coccidivora (Ashm.)
Hperaspidius coccidivora Ashmead, 1880, Orange Insects, p. 10.
This, the little scale-eating lady beetle, apparently is the second
most-common scale-feeding species on citrus in the state. Due
to its small size it is easily overlooked and may actually be more
common than Chilocorus stigma (Say). Although the species
has been recorded from the East Coast, it is much more abundant
in the north central citrus-growing region. The population peak
occurs in late spring and early summer. The species feed on
both purple, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newm.), and Florida red
scale, Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.), but apparently prefers the
RECORDS: Apopka, 2 spms., Apr. 22, 1952 (M. H. Muma). Lake Magda-
lene, 3 spms., Aug. 21, 1952 (K. Townsend). Lake Alfred, one specimen,
May 21, 1952 (D. Ozanne). Winter Park, one specimen, June 26, 1952
(W. Davis).
Nephaspis gorhami Csy.
Nephaspis gorhami Casey, 1899, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. VII, p. 168.
This little black and white lady beetle has been recorded feed-
ing on cloudy-winged whitefly, Dialeurodes citrifolii (Morg.),
citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashm.), and wooly whitefly,
Aleurothrixus howardi (Quaint.). It is the most common species
attacking whiteflies on citrus in Florida. The species is dis-
tributed throughout the citrus-growing areas of the state and
attains a population peak in the winter and early spring.
RECORDS: Weirsdale, 2 spms., Dec. 19, 1951 (M. H. Muma). Indian
Rocks, 7 spms., Nov. 8, 1951 (K. Townsend). Ft. Pierce, 2 spms., Sept.
10, 1952 (H. Holtsberg). DeLand, 10 spms., Nov. 9, 1951 (H. Holtsberg).
Dundee, 12 spms., June 15, 1952 (M. H. Muma).

Olla abdominalis (Say)
Coccinella abdominalis Say, 1825, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. IV, p. 95.
The ash-grey lady beetle has been recorded at least once on
citrus in the northern part of the state; the food was not noted.
RECORD: Bowling Green, one specimen, Sept. 9, 1949 (L. B. Hill).

Olla abdominalis var. plagiata Csy.
Olla plagiata Casey, 1899, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. VII, p. 94.
The southern two-spotted lady beetle is distributed throughout
the citrus-growing areas of the state. Peak populations occur



in the late winter, spring, and early summer. The species ap-
parently is an omnivorus feeder; it has been recorded feeding
on mealybugs, aphids and citrus red mites, Metatetranychus citri
(McG.). During some years the species is quite common but
recently populations have been low except in isolated groves.
RECORDS: Palm Harbor, one specimen, June 2, 1952 (K. Townsend).
Auburndale, 9 spms., May 13, 1953 (M. H. Muma and R. Johnson). Okla-
waha, 8 spms., April 21, 1952 (W. Davis). Lake Placid, one specimen,
March 3, 1952 (J. B. Weeks). Vero Beach, 2 spms., May 12, 1952 (H.
Psyllobora parvinotata Csy.
Psyllobora parvinotata Casey, 1899, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. VII, p. 101.
This little, white, black-spotted lady beetle apparently is a
vagrant on citrus. It has been collected only four times. The
species is believed to be a fungus feeder.
RECORDS: Wauchula, one specimen, March 16, 1951 (W. Davis). Vero
Beach, one specimen, June 27, 1951 and 3 spms., June 16, 1952 (H. Holts-
berg). Merritt Island, one specimen, Mar. 30, 1953 (H. Holtsberg).

Rodolia cardinalis (Muls.)
Vedalia cardinalis Mulsant, 1851, Ann. Soc. d'Agric. Lyon, Vol. II, p. 906.
Since its introduction, the vedalia has become distributed
throughout the citrus-growing areas of the state. Peak popula-
tions occur concurrently with those of the host insect, cottony-
cushion scale, Icerya purchase Mask.
RECORDS: Records of this well known species would be superfluous.

Scymnillodes subtropicus Csy.
Delphastus subtropicus Casey, 1924, Mem. Coleop., Vol. XI, p. 170.
To date this little steel-blue lady beetle has been taken on citrus
only at Vero Beach in the East Coast citrus region. Nothing is
known of the food habits. It is probably a vagrant.
RECORDS: Vero Beach, one spm., May 20, 1953, 2 spms., June 16, 1953
and one spm., Dec. 16, 1952 (H. Holtsberg).

Scymnillus aterrimus Horn
Scymnillus aterrimus Horn, 1895, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. XXII, p. 110.
This little black lady beetle has been collected only twice
from citrus.



RECORDS: Apopka, one spm., April 22, 1952 (M. H. Muma). Auburn-
dale, one spm., Sept. 18, 1952 (T. B. Hallam).

Scymnus melsheimeri WS.
Scymnus collaris Melsheimer, 1847, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. III,
p. 180. Scymnus melsheimeri Weise, 1927, Zool. Jahrb. Suppl. XVI,
Heft I, p. 33 (new name- not collaris Herbst).
This species, commonly known as the collared lady beetle, is
most frequently collected from aphid colonies. Next to the blood-
red lady beetle, it is the most common aphid-feeding species on
citrus at the present time. It is most abundant in the spring
and early summer.
RECORDS: Weirsdale, 2 spms., Oct. 13, 1952 (M. H. Muma). Umatilla,
one spm., April 18, 1952 (W. Davis). Scottsmoor, one spm., June 17, 1952
(H. Holtsberg). Waverly, one spm., May 18, 1953 (T. B. Hallam).

Scymnus partitus Casey
Scymnus partitus Casey, 1899, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. VII, p. 158.
This tiny species has been taken only twice on citrus. It is
believed to be an aphid feeder.
RECORDS: Lakeland Heights, one spm., May 27, 1952 (T. B. Hallam).
Spring Lake, one spm., Nov. 14, 1951 (K. Townsend).

Scymnus flavifrons Melsh.
Scymnus flavifrons Melsheimer, 1847, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol.
III, p. 181.
This is the most common species of the genus found on citrus
in Florida. Although several specimens have been observed feed-
ing on scale insects, the primary food is mealybugs. Largest
populations of the species are found in the spring in groves
heavily infested with mealybugs. The species appears to be well
distributed through the citrus-growing region.
RECORDS: Apopka, one specimen, Apr. 29, 1952 (K. E. Muma). Clear-
water, one specimen, June 2, 1952 (K. Townsend). Lakeland Ieights, 5
spms., May 27, 1952 (T. B. Hallam). Auburndale, 18 spms., June 6, 1952
(M. H. Muma). Merritt Island, one specimen, June 29, 1953 (H. Holtsberg).

Stethorus utilis Horn
Stethorus utilis Horn, 1895, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. XXII, p. 107.
This little mite-eating lady beetle feeds primarily on the six-
spotted mite, Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (Riley), but has been



recorded feeding on the citrus red mite, Metatetranychus citri
(McG.), and Hemitarsonemus peregrinus Beer. Peak popula-
tions of the species occur concurrently with those of the favored
host in the late spring. The species has been collected in every
citrus-growing area of the state.

RECORDS: Umatilla, one specimen, April
Alfred, 11 spms., May 1, 1952 (M. H. Muma).
Mar. 11, 1953 (H. Holtsberg). Vero Beach,
(H. Holtsberg).

18, 1952 (W. Davis). Lake
Crescent City, one specimen,
one specimen, May 18, 1953

Merrill, G. B. 1922. Lady Beetles of Florida. Quar. Bull. Fla. State Plant
Bd., January, Vol. VI, No. 2, pp. 1-46.

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University of Georgia

Arigomphus australis was described as a new species of Odo-
nata from Florida by Dr. J. G. Needham (1897). The species
has since been transferred to the subgenus Gomphus, while
Arigomphus has been given subgeneric standing in the large
and varied genus Gomphus (Needham, 1948). In 1950 Dr. M. J.
Westfall, Jr., adequately discussed the past history and present
relationships of australis, recording a number of recent collec-
tions of the species.

Gomphus australis Needham. Upper figure, ventral view of female
abdominal segment 8, showing the subgenital plate projecting over 9, lower
figure, lateral view of female abdominal segments 8, 9, 10, and appendages
(dense pubescense not shown).

While I was collecting dragonflies at Lake Bradford in Leon
County, Florida on March 31, 1951, I took two female Gomphus.
Because they had an exceptionally long abdominal segment 9
and cross-striped face, I suspected that they might be australis,
the female of which was undescribed. When on April 14 exuviae
of two female australis were found on the bases of cypress
trunks hardly 200 yards from the collecting site of the adults,



the identification seemed even more certain. Dr. Westfall has
looked at both adults and agrees with me that they are australis.
I am therefore submitting the following description:

Gomphus australis Needham
FEMALE: Both females are very similar to Needham's description of
the male.
Head. Face densely covered with blackish hairs, olive-yellow except
for narrow, dark brown fronto-clypeal stripe. Stripe across base of labrum
hardly evident. Rear of frons dark brown below, whole of vertex black.
Occiput yellow, convex, ciliate with long black hairs. Rear of eyes black
above, yellow below. Labium and maxillary bases light yellow.
Thorax. Color pattern as described by Needham for the male except
dark brown on prothorax rather than black. All femora pale internally,
dark brown externally. Tarsi and tibiae, except partially pale knees, black.
Femoral and tibial spines black. All of thorax and outer faces of femora
densely covered with long hairs, mostly dark but becoming pale on venter
of thorax and on hind femora. Wings hyaline with very slight suffusion
of amber yellow at base, costa with yellow edge, stigma yellow-brown.
Abdomen. General color black grading into brown on first two and last
two segments. With yellow areas as follows: dorsal square on 1; dorsal
lanceolate spots on 2-8, a little widened anteriorly and continuing faintly
to or almost to posterior margin along dorsal carinae; an almost continuous
lateral stripe, broad on 1 and 2, more dull and less distinct on 3-7; expanded
portions of 7-9. 10 and terminal appendages pale brown. 7-10 conspicuously
pilose with short brown hairs. The comparative lengths of 7, 8, 9, and 10
are approximately as 9:7:10:4, respectively. See illustrations of the termi-
nal segments and the subgenital plate.
Measurements (in millimeters). Total length, 54; abdomen, 39; hind
femur, 9; hind wing, 29.
DISPOSITION OF SPECIMENS. One female is designated as allotype and
deposited in the Cornell University collection along with the male holotype.
The other female is retained in the writer's collection. No variation is
apparent between the two individuals.
No illustrations appear with the original description. Need-
ham and Heywood (1929) included drawings of the male acces-
sory genitalia and terminal appendages. Westfall (1950) gave
excellent photographs of the exuviae, as well as the genitalia and
terminal segment of the male abdomen.
Since former records for australis are from central and south-
ern Florida (Seminole, Orange, and Highlands Counties), this
Leon County record is a considerable northward extension of its
range. In a recent letter Dr. Westfall has informed me that
he collected a large nymph of australis at Gold Head Branch
State Park in Clay County, Florida, on February 26, 1955. He



has kindly given me permission to include this latest record of
the species.
Needham, J. G. 1897. Preliminary studies of North American Gomphinae.
(Continued portion.) Can. Ent. 29: 181-186.
S1948. Studies on the North American species of the genus
Gomphus. Amer. Ent. Soc. Trans. 73: 307-339.
Needham, J. G., and H. B. Heywood. 1929. A Handbook of the Dragonflies
of North America. p. 108. C. C. Thomas, Springfield.
Westfall, M. J., Jr. 1950. Nymphs of three species of Gomphus. Fla. Ent.
33: 33-39.



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