Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00204
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1956
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00204
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Volume 39, No. 3

September, 1956



De Leon, Donald-Four New Acarina in the Family
Tarsonemidae -------....... -----


De Leon, Donald-Brevipalpus floridianus, a New Mite
from Southern Florida (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae) ........ 113

Muma, Martin H.-Life Cycles of Four Species of
Ladybeetles ---....------...................... ---115

Carriker, M. A., Jr.-Report on a Collection of
Mallophaga, Largely Mexican (Part II) .-----.

............. 119

Beck, Elisabeth C.-A New Species of Culicoides from
Florida with Additional Distribution Data for the
Genus (Diptera: Heleidae) -------------...---..... ---..... 133

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


OFFICERS FOR 1955-1956

President .......---...-..---.......--- ..-.--.............- ..HERMAN S. MAYEUX
Vice-President ...........................-.....-----..----MILLEDGE MURPHEY, JB.
Secretary ......-----.....-.........---------- ROBERT O. KIRKLAND
Treasurer ................-..-...............................-----HAROLD A. DENMARK
Members of Executive Committee.. ......------- W. P. HUNTER

LEWIS BERNER ----.............-..--- ..... ------...........Editor
NORMAN C. HAYSLIP --..-------....... .Associate Editor
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Coral Gables, Florida

Mites of the family Tarsonemidae feed on green plants or on fungi.
Of the species described below, Steneotarsonemus, paspali and S. furcatus
feed on Paspalum sp.; Hemitarsonemus cocosi, from the coconut palm, has
not been found in sufficient number to make it possible to determine its
feeding habits; H. lodici feeds on several hosts, being most common on
Psychotria undata.
In the descriptions, I have followed Beer's terminology (1954)1 except
in respect to the transverse apodeme; as this is often separated into two
parts, I have treated it as a pair of apodemes. All measurements are in
microns. Corresponding measurements of the opposite side of the same
specimen or of different specimens sometimes vary more than twenty per
cent; in such cases the range has been given. When the measurements are
fairly uniform they have been given in averages.

Steneotarsonemus paspali, n. sp.

The male of S. paspali runs to ananas (Tryon) in Beer's key, but it
differs in many characters from his drawings and from his description of
this species. It appears to be more nearly related to spirifex (Marchal),
but differs from Beer's redescription and drawings of this species by the
first propodosomal being shorter than the other propodosomals, by the an-
terior median apodeme being distinct between apodemes I and II, by the
inner ends of the transverse apodemes being widely separated, and by other
characters. The female differs from Beer's description of this sex of
spirifex by the widened apodeme I, by the C-shaped rudimentary transverse
apodemes, by the capitulum being wider than long and by other characters.
MALE:-Body creamy white, length from anterior end of capitulum (in-
cluding palpi) to posterior tip of genital papilla 200, width 105, widest
just anterior to coxae III; capitulum emarginate basad, size and shape
variable, generally about 28 long (including palpi) and 30 wide, but in
some specimens about 21 long and 21 wide.
Dorsal chaetotaxy: Propodosomal setae approximately in line, 14, 15,
55, and 24 long respectively, distance from preceding seta 8, 10, and 20
respectively; hysterosomal setae 22, 7, 13 and 9 long respectively; first (the
humeral) fine, the others coarse; first at side of body, about 33 from main
body suture; second about in line with and about mid-way between first
and third; third about its length anterior to secondary body suture, dis-
tance between bases 31; fourth at outer edge of basal third of genital papilla.
Ventral chaetotaxy: First propodosomal 2 long, distance behind apo-
deme I variable, often unequal even within a given specimen, ranging from
against apodeme to 13 behind it; second propodosomal, 4 to 10 long, 11
from midline and 10 behind apodeme II; first hysterosomal situated in
curve at anterior end of apodeme III, 22 long, reaching base of second

SBeer, R. E. 1954. A revision of the Tarsonemidae of the western
hemisphere (order, Acarina), Univ. Kans. Sc. Bul. 36 (pt. II, no. 16):

The Florida Entomologist

hysterosomal which is situated close to apodeme IV at a little more than
half the length of apodeme IV from its anterior end, and 7 long.
Apodemes: Anterior median apodeme distinct for about the anterior
half of the distance between the inner ends of apodemes I and II, con-
tinuing indistinctly almost to main body suture; apodeme II short of reach-
ing midline by about one-fifth its length; transverse apodemes slightly
bowed, each 20 long, the ends pointing cephalad and the inner ends 30
apart; anterior end of apodeme III curved posteromedially toward anterior
end of apodeme IV, but not closing with it; area between apodeme III and
IV open at anterior end; posterior median apodeme 60 long, distinct except
for distance of about one-fifth its length near its anterior end which termi-
nates, usually in the shape of a trident, slightly behind a point even with
anterior end of apodeme IV.
Legs: Tarsus I, 10 long, with a long proximal annulated sensilla and
seven normal setae; tibia I, 8 long, with two annulated sensillae, a taper-
ing one, and five normal setae; tarsus II, with two annulated sensillae
and four normal setae. Leg IV (fig. 1); femur 26 long, expansion 22 long,
seta at proximal juncture of expansion 7 long, seta at distal juncture 10
long, seta on anterior margin 10 long; tibia plus tarsus 10 long and 7 wide,
ventral tarsal seta 16 long, dorsal rod-like sensilla 9 long; claw 6 long.

1 2 3

Ventral view of leg IV of males. Fig. 1. Steneotarsonemus paspali;
Fig. 2. S. furcatus; Fig. 3. Hemitarsonemus cocosi; Fig. 4. H. lodici. All
drawings to same scale.

Genital papilla: Shape variable, usually about 31 long and 27 wide,
but in some specimens 30 long and 31 wide, base emarginate; caudal two-
fifths constricted.
FEMALE:-Body slightly brownish, with faint longitudinal grooves dor-
sad; 287 long from anterior end of capitulum (including palpi) to end
of body, and 119 wide; capitulum 27 long (including palpi) and 34 wide,
widest at about middle.
Dorsal chaetotaxy: First propodosomal 20 long, second 70 long, 26 from
first propodosomal and situated just behind pseudostigmatic organ which

Vol. 39, No. 3

De Leon: Four New Acarina

is 18 long (including pedicel 5 long) and 8 wide. Hysterosoma with six
pairs of setae, the first two pairs near anterior margin, 16 and 9 long,
distance between respective bases 109 and 48; third pair at posterior margin
of segment two, 8 long and 60 apart; fourth and fifth pairs at posterior
margin of third segment, outer pair at its lateral angle, inner pair 22
apart, both pairs 7 long; sixth pair near posterior outer margin of segment
four, 15 long.
Ventral chaetotaxy and apodemes: First propodosomal 6 long, situated
at about mid-length on apodeme I which is widened; second propodosomal
close behind apodeme II, near its middle and 5 long; anterior median
apodeme 43 long, not united with apodeme II, indistinct for about a quarter
its length anterior to middle and again indistinct posterior to apodeme II;
a pair of C-shaped rudimentary apodemes, often with one to three spurs,
6 across, 47 apart and 27 diagonally caudad of coxae II, the open part
facing caudolaterally. First hysterosomal 26 long, medial to expanded
anterior end of apodeme III, and situated close to its lower angle, second
hysterosomal 7 long, situated on apodeme IV near its caudal end, anterior
half of apodeme IV indistinct, curved cephalad, not reaching midline; pos-
terior median apodeme absent; a pair of caudal seta 8 long.
Legs: Tibiotarsus 27 long with a distal, annulated sensilla, a group
of three posteroproximal sensillae, the lower one tapering, the other two
annulated and club-shaped, and nine normal setae; tibia II with four
normal setae; genu II with two coarse setae and one normal seta. Leg
IV, 46 long; subapical seta 27, apical seta 80 long.
HOLOTYPE:-Male, Coral Gables, Florida, 5 October, 1955, (D. De Leon)
from Paspalum sp. Allotype, same data as for holotype and on same slide.
Paratypes, 2 females and 2 males, a pair each on two slides, same data
as for holotype. Additional specimens were collected 10 October, 1955,
Coral Gables, Florida.

Steneotarsonemus furcatus, n. sp.
Steneotarsonemus furcatus may be distinguished from all other members
of the genus by the presence of a coarse bifurcate seta on the posterior
margin of femur IV of the male.
MALE:-Body brownish; length from anterior end of capitulum (in-
cluding palpi) to posterior end of genital papilla 166, width 76, widest at
coxae III; capitulum 22 long (including palpi) and 23 wide, widest at basal
third, base not emarginate; genital papilla cordate in outline, 24 long,
23 wide.
Dorsal chaetotaxy: Propodosomal setae nearly in line, 10, 7, 19, and
13 long respectively, distance from preceding seta 7, 7, and 16 respectively.
Humeral seta 12 long, situated at about twice its length from main body
suture; second and third hysterosomals about 12 long, 9 anterior to secon-
dary body suture, the second near side of body slightly anterior to the
third, the bases of third 14 apart; fourth hysterosomal at middle of outer
edge of basal third of genital papilla, 10 long; the humeral fine, the others
Ventral chaetotaxy: First propodosomal 4 long, 5 behind apodeme I and
4 from midline; second 5 long, 7 behind apodeme II and 9 from midline.
First hysterosomal 11 long, its base situated in curve at anterior end of

The Florida Entomologist

apodeme III and touching it; second 4 long, its base situated at about
mid-length of apodeme IV and touching it.
Apodemes: Anterior median apodeme distinct, extending to a point
about even with inner ends of apodemes II; apodeme II short of reaching
midline by 4 and with a semicircular expansion on anterior edge near
inner end; transverse apodemes originating near sides of body, slightly
bowed, inner ends 25 apart; anterior end of apodeme III curving postero-
medially and almost closing with apodeme IV; area medial to apodeme IV
fully open cephalad; posterior median apodeme distinct its full length,
44 long, terminating at a point about even with anterior end of apodeme IV.
Legs: Tarsus I, 12 long with an annulated proximodorsal sensilla and
7 normal setae; tibia I, 11 long with a proximodorsal annulated sensilla,
two proximolateral sensillae on posterior side, the upper annulated, club-
shaped, the lower tapering and 5 normal setae; tarsus II, 10 long, with 5
normal setae and two proximodorsal sensillae one behind the other, the
proximal one annulated, club-shaped, the distal tapering; tibia II, 9 long,
with four setae. Leg IV (fig. 2); femur 22 long with a coarse bifurcate seta
or process at about mid-length of posterior face, the posterior ramus the
longer and stouter, length of process 7; ventral seta of femur 10 long,
dorsal seta 4 long; tibia 11 long and 6 wide with a ventral seta 27 long
and a dorsal rod-like sensilla anterior to it; tarsus 3 long and 5 wide;
claw 7 long.
FEMALE:-Body somewhat darker in colour than male; length from
anterior end of capitulum (including palpi) to end of body 235, width 112;
capitulum 30 long (including palpi), 28 wide, widest at basal third, base
not emarginate; tracheal atria apparently sclerotized, usually crescent-
Dorsal chaetotaxy: First propodoscmal situated at anterior lateral
edge of propodosoma, 13 long; second 17 long, situated posteromedially to
pseudostigmatic organ which is 12 long (including pedicel of 3) and 5 wide;
six pairs of hysterosomals 7 to 10 long, the first fine, the others coarse.
Ventral chaetotaxy: First propodosomal 3 long, 3 behind apodeme I
and 5 from midline; second 5 long, 3 behind apodeme II and 10 from mid-
line. First hysterosomal 11 long, situated slightly medial to inner anterior
end of apodeme III; second 5 long, situated on apodeme IV near its posterior
end; a pair of caudal setae 5 long.
Apodemes: Apodeme I, 5 wide, anterior median apodeme narrow, dis-
tinct for a distance of 13 from apodeme I, indistinct and widening at inner
ends of apodeme II and continuing slightly beyond their indistinct inner
ends; transverse apodemes crescent-shaped, 23 across, the outer ends con-
siderably anterior to inner ends which are 26 apart; apodeme III, 18 long;
apodeme IV thin, 25 long, bent medially at middle, anterior end curving
toward and stopping just short of anterior end of posterior median apodeme
which is 24 long, indistinct and slightly expanded at middle third.
Legs: Femur I with a narrowly elliptic seta dorsad shorter than width
of femur and with two normal setae; genu I, 13 long, with four setae, the
proximal one short and coarse; tibiotarsus 20 long, with two large, annu-
lated, club-shaped sensillae, two smaller sensillae lateral to proximal club-
shaped sensilla, the upper annulated, club-shaped, the lower tapering, and
12 normal setae. Femur II with a short, coarse seta dorsad and two some-


Vol. 39, No. 3

De Leon: Four New Acarina

what longer setae; genu II, 9 long, with two setae; tibia II, 9 long, with
four setae; tarsus II, 11 long, with two proximodorsal sensillae, one an-
nulated, club-shaped, the other tapering, and four normal setae. Leg IV,
43 long; sub-apical setae 23 long, apical seta 53 long.
HOLOTYPE:-Male, Coral Gables, Florida, 5 October 1955 (D. De Leon)
from Paspalum sp. Allotype on same slide as holotype and same data.
Paratypes, two males and a female, same data as for holotype. Additional
specimens were collected 10 October 1955, same locality and host.
This species was found associated with colonies of S. paspali.

Hemitarsonemus cocosi, n. sp.
H. cocosi differs from the three other known species of Hemitarsonemus
by the first two dorsal propodosomals of the male being sub-equal in length
and somewhat less than one-third as long as the third propodosomal, by
the relatively short ventral seta of tibia IV, and by other characters.
MALE:-Length from anterior end of capitulum (including palpi) to
distal end of genital papilla 169, width 91; capitulum 29 long (including
palpi) and 24 wide, widest near base; genital papilla 28 long and 26 wide,
caudal half constricted, basal outline emarginate.
Dorsal chaetotaxy: Propodosomal setae 21, 18, 67, and 10 to 17 long
respectively, the fourth finer than the others; distance from preceding seta
9, 8, and 1 respectively, the fourth nearly lateral to the third. Humeral
seta 25 long situated somewhat less than its length from hysterosomal
suture; the other hysterosomals 14, 17, and 11 long respectively, the second
and third pair situated about half their length anterior to secondary body
suture, their respective bases 65 and 39 apart; the fourth at basal third
of genital papilla.
Ventral chaetotaxy: First propodosomal 7 long, its basal ring touching
or nearly touching caudal edge of apodeme I, distance between bases 6; the
second 8 long, 6 behind apodeme II, distance between bases 23. First
hysterosomal 11 to 19 long, slightly nearer apodeme III than apodeme IV
and near anterior end of area between apodemes III and IV; second 7 to
13 long.
Apodemes: Anterior median apodeme extending to transverse apodemes
and indistinct in part nearest inner caudally directed portion of apodeme
II; apodeme II with a somewhat semicircular expansion near inner end on
anterior margin; transverse apodemes slightly curved and meeting, in-
distinct towards midline. Area between apodemes III and IV and area
between apodeme IV and posterior median apodeme almost fully open at
anterior end; anterior ends of apodemes III and IV each in order somewhat
closer to main body suture than anterior end of posterior median apodeme.
Legs: Tarsus I, 11 long with a club-like, annulated, proximodorsal
sensilla, a short, slender mediodorsal sensilla, and five normal setae; tibia
I, 9 long, with an annulated, proximodorsal sensilla, a tapering one lateral
to it and five normal seta. Tarsus II, 11 long, with an annulated proxi-
modorsal sensilla and three normal setae; tibia II, 9 long, with four normal
seta; genu II and femur II each with three setae. Leg IV (fig. 3); femur
31 to 37 long (measured in a straight line from outer distal edge of coxa
to outer base of tibia), its dorsal seta fine, 10 to 25 long, proximal seta of

The Florida Entomologist

posterior margin 8 long, distal seta 19 long; tibia 22 long and 7 wide, its
dorsal rod-like seta 5 long, ventral seta 27 long; tarsus 4 long and 6 wide;
claw 10 to 16 long, (measured from its outer base in a straight line).
FEMALE:-Not known.
HOLOTYPE:-Male, Coral Gables, Florida, 16 May, 1955, (D. De Leon)
from Cocos nucifera. Paratypes, four males, same date as for holotype.

Hemitarsonemus lodici, n. sp.
The male of H. lodici may be distinguished from the other species of
Hemitarsonemus by the first propodosomal seta being much longer than
the second, and the second being about as long as the first hysterosomal;
although tibia IV is scarcely three times as long as wide the mite clearly
belongs to this genus. The female may be distinguished by the spiracle
being at the base of the second propodosomal seta and apodeme II extend-
ing from coxa II to the juncture formed by the union of the anterior median
apodeme with the transverse apodemes. The mite appears to be most
closely related to H. peregrinus Beer.
The females and larvae carry about on their backs a covering made
up of particles of organic matter and sand; the males are frequently
without this covering. Their feeding appears to be confined to the lower
leaf surface.
MALE:-Body diamond-shaped, widest just below the middle, strongly
convex dorsally; light amber in color. Length from anterior end of capi-
tulum (including palpi) to distal end of genital papilla 144, width 83;
capitulum 30 long (including palpi), 28 wide, widest near base; genital
papilla 25 long, 23 wide, basal outline emarginate.
Dorsal chaetotaxy: Propodosomal setae 31, 19, 83, and 36 long respec-
tively, distance from preceding seta 2, 10, and 2 respectively. Humeral
seta 22 long, 10 to 27 from hysterosomal suture, second, third, and fourth
hysterosomals coarse, 35, 15, and 13 long respectively, the fourth near
margin of body at side of genital papilla; the third directly anterior to
fourth on second body segment near its posterior margin; second about in
line with first and third, somewhat nearer the first.
Ventral chaetotaxy: First propodosmal 7 long, 3 behind apodeme, dis-
tance between bases 16; the second 5 long, 3 behind apodeme II, distance
between bases 35. First hysterosomal 4 long, situated in curve near an-
terior end of apodeme III; the second 6 long, situated at about midlength
of apodeme IV, and close to it.
Apodemes: Anterior median apodeme extending from apodeme I to
transverse apodemes, the caudal two-fifths usually indistinct, especially the
anterior part; apodeme II practically parallel with apodeme I, not reaching
midline by about one-fifth its length; apodeme III extending to a point
about 15 from midline, sub-parallel to apodeme IV which curves fairly
evenly from coxa IV to a point just short of midline and slightly anterior
to distal end of posterior median apodeme; posterior median apodeme 29
long. In some specimens one or two secondary apodemes or folds extend
from apex of coxa III anterolaterally to near margin of body.
Legs: Legs slender; tarsus I, 31 long, 6 wide, with a mediolateral
annulated rod-like sensilla and five normal setae; femur I with two stout
setae ventrad and two normal setae; tarsus II, 25 long, with a proximal,


Vol. 39, No. 3

De Leon: Four New Acarina

annulated rod-like sensilla and four normal setae. Leg IV (fig. 4); femur
45 long (measured from outer distal end of coxa to outer base of tibia),
13 wide, proximoventral seta 4 long, distoventral seta 19 to 27 long, dorsal
seta 4 long; tibia 16 long, 5.5 wide, ventral seta 44 to 61 long, dorsal seta
2 long; tarsus 4 long, 3 wide; claw 6 long, nearly straight.
FEMALE:-Ovate, widest slightly anterior to middle, tapering rapidly
posteriorly, strongly convex dorsad; brownish; length 176, 126 wide, about
80 from dorsum to venter; capitulum about 32 long (including palpi), 33
wide. In mounted specimens the anterior margin of propodosoma usually
extends well beyond tips of palpi, the first propodosomal on the anterior
margin, the second on the anterolateral margin at a point about even
with the anterior end of the capitulum when it is fully retracted. In live
specimens the propodosoma apparently covers about a third of the capitulum.
Spiracle at anterior margin of base of second propodosomal. Pseudostig-
matic organ 13 long (including pedicel of 5), 7 wide.
Dorsal chaetotaxy: First propodosomal 32 to 40 long, distance between
bases 26; second 84 long, distance between bases 48, distance from first
8 to 12. Hysterosoma with three pairs of setae, the first 20 long, situated
near the middle of body; second 26 long, near side of body and near caudal
margin of penultimate segment; the third 29 long, 16 apart and about on
a line with second.
Ventral chaetotaxy and apodemes: First propodosomal 4 long, 1 behind
apodeme I, distance between bases 17; second propodosomal 6 long, on or
close behind apodeme II, distance between bases 48; anterior median apo-
deme extending to transverse apodemes, often with a knob or a pair of
spurs at about midlength, caudal half somewhat indistinct; apodeme II
with caudal third indistinct, uniting with anterior median apodeme just
anterior to or at juncture with transverse apodemes; transverse apodemes
generally distinct, united at midline (the inner ends usually directed slightly
forward a short distance before meeting), bent at about their midlengths,
the lateral portions extending forward almost to outer posterior angles of
coxae II; apodeme III extending anteromedially for about half its distinct
length, then more medially, the remaining part expanded, indistinct, and
usually uniting with arm of fork of posterior median apodeme; apodeme
IV straight to bisinuate, 14 to 18 long, uniting or nearly uniting with
posterior median apodeme about 5 behind fork; posterior median apodeme
20 long to base of fork, interrupted at midlength, a V-shaped fork at anterior
end, arms of fork about 8 long. First hysterosomal anterior to indistinct
part of apodeme III, 3 long, distance between bases 11; second on caudal
end of apodeme IV, 4 long.
Legs: Tibiotarsus with a distolateral annulated sensilla, a longer, slen-
der, apparently sensory seta adjacent to it and nine tactile setae; tarsus
II with a distolateral annulated sensilla and four tactile setae; leg IV,
37 long, terminal segment 13 long, preapical seta 14, apical seta 16 long.
LARVA:-Oval, strongly convex dorsad, pearly white, 61 long, 33 wide.
First propodosomal 15 long; second 32 long, a seta or a seta-like pseudo-
stigmatic organ 7 long arising beside it. Second body segment narrow, a
ventral seta about 4 long, situated just anterior to it near lateral margin
of body; a pair of anteriorly directed spine-like setae 7 long, about 7 an-
terior to secondary body suture, distance between bases 4; two pairs of sub-

The Florida Entomologist

equal, dorsally directed spine-like setae about 5 long forming a transverse
row on fourth body segment; two pairs of spine-like caudal setae, outer
4 long, inner 7 long.
HOLOTYPE:-Male, Coral Gables, Florida, 21 February, 1956, (D. De
Leon) on Psychotria undata. Allotype same data as for holotype and on
same slide. Paratypes 10 males, 14 females and 5 larvae, same data as
for holotype. A few females and larvae were collected from Pithecolobium
guadalupense, Dipholis salicifolia, and Citharexylum fruticosum, Coral
Gables, 28 February, 1956.
The holotypes of these four species will be deposited in the U. S. Na-
tional Musuem, and paratypes in the University of Florida collections,



Carefully Executed

Delivered on Time



Vol. 39, No. 3




Coral Gables, Florida

The genus Brevipalpus is world wide in distribution and is a large one
containing about 50 described species, over half of which have been found
in this country. Nine species have been found in Florida; of these, one,
phoenicis (Geij.), cosmopolitan in distribution according to Pritchard and
Baker,' is a common pest on a wide variety of plants. In South Florida,
I have taken it from mango, avocado, coconut (it is often abundant on the
seedlings), maple, mahogany, Caladium, Hibiscus, Cordyline, and more
than fifty additional hosts. Two others of the species found in Florida,
B. linki Baker, on live oak, and B. floridianus, n. sp., on sweet bay, have
not been found outside the State and both appear to be limited to a single
Brevipalpus floridianus, n. sp.
B. floridianus belongs to the group of mites with six dorsolateral hystero-
somals, two setae on the terminal palpal segment, and a single distal sensilla
on tarsus I of the female. It is readily distinguished from all others in
this group by the area between the anterior and posterior medioventrals
being fully and distinctly covered with areolae. The nymph is also dis-
tinctive; dorsolaterals 2, 3, and 8 are about two-thirds the length of the
body and the remaining ones are relatively long and spiculate.
FEMALE:-Body ovate, reddish. Rostrum extending to a point about
even with middle of femur I; rostral shield ending at a point slightly
behind base of femur I, bilobed. Propodosoma dorsad evenly covered with
areolae irregularly circular to oval in outline, the great majority more or
less of same size (about 3 to 4 microns in short diameter); towards sides
areolae somewhat larger and oval ones more numerous. Areolar pattern
of hysterosoma somewhat similar to propodosoma but areolae more irregular
in shape and larger; areolae in area between dorsocentrals 2 and 3 much
wider than long, many extending nearly full width of area; caudal of this
area and in some specimens anterior to this area, areolae become succes-
sively narrower. Ventrad, areolar pattern similar to dorsal propodosomal
pattern and covering practically entire surface including area between
anterior and posterior medioventrals; areolae of ventral plate predomi-
nantely wider than long in caudal mid-area. First pair of dorsal propo-
dosomals obovate, about as long as distance between bases; second and
third pairs small, narrowly elliptic; hysterosoma with six pairs of serrate,
subequal, narrowly elliptic to oval dorsolaterals, distances between respec-
tive bases of 1 to 5 much greater than setal lengths, distance between 5
and 6 about equal to their lengths; dorsocentrals broadly oval, serrate, first
pair about one-third as long, and second and third pairs about half as long
as transverse distance between respective bases. One pair of pores present.
Posterior medioventrals long, anterior pair short, Terminal palpal segment
with two setae and a sensilla. Legs slender. Dorsal seta of femur I about

1Pritchard, A. E., and E. W. Baker. 1952. The false spider mites of
California (Acarina: Phytoptipalpidae). Uni. Calif. Publ. Ent. 9(1): 1-93.

114 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 3

three-fourths width of femur, broadly elliptic, serrate; dorsal seta of femur
II about one-half width of femur, narrowly elliptic, serrate; dorsal setae of
patellae and tibiae I and II almost setiform, faintly serrate; tarsus II with
a posterodistal sensilla about as long as width of tarsus; femur IV slightly
more than three times as long as wide. Length including rostrum 291,
width 162 microns.
MALE:-Resembles female, but hysterosoma without transverse areolae,
and dorsocentrals somewhat smaller. Dorsolateral hysterosomals slender,
strongly pectinate; 1 to 4
subequal in length (about
22 microns); 2, 3, and 4
about as long as distance
between adjacent bases, 5
and 6 somewhat shorter
than 4 and less than their
length apart. Tarsus II
with an anterior and a
posterior distal sensilla.
Length including rostrum
S|284, width 132 microns.
2); mottled grey, black
and re d. Dorsocentrals
minute. Dorsolaterals 2,
3, and 8 about one-half
to two-thirds length of
/body, sparsely, weakly
Sspiculate; 1 narrow, about
33 microns long, spiculate,
the remaining setae about
one-half to two-thirds as
long as 1 and spiculate;
2 seta 8 arising from a
prominent lateral protub-
erance, seta 9 apparently
Larva and deutonymph of Brevipalpus erance, seta 9 apparently
floridianus, n. sp. Fig. 1. Dorsum of larva; missing; setae 3 and 4
Fig. 2. Dorsum of deutonymph. Scale of draw- more variable in length
ing of larva twice that of deutonymph. than others in a few
specimens seta 3 about
a third as long as 2, and in some specimens seta 4 two to three times as
long as 5.
LARVA:-(Fig. 1); red, dorsal body setae spiculate, 17 to 37 microns
long, except dorsolateral 7 which is minute and 9 which is more than twice
as long as 10 and extremely slender.
HOLOTYPE:-Female, Coral Gables, Florida, 15 November, 1955, (D.
De Leon) from Persea (Tamnala) borbonia. Allotype: same data as for
holotype and on same slide. Paratypes: 9 males, 10 females, 10 nymphs,
and 10 larvae, November 8 to December 20, 1955, other data as for holotype.
The holotype and allotype will be deposited in the U. S. National Museum
and paratypes in the University of Florida collections, Gainesville.



As part of an investigation into the factors contributing to the natural
control of insects and mites injurious to citrus in Florida, the life cycles
of several predators have been determined. The present paper deals with
the life cycles, under laboratory conditions, of four species of ladybeetles;
Exochomus marginipennis children Muls., Microweisea coccidivora (Ashm.),
Stethorus utilis Horn and Delphastus pusillus (Lec.).
Test tubes and petri dishes were used as rearing cages. Cabinets main-
tained at 80F.-the mean June-July temperature for the past 10 years-
were used for the incubation and development. The known or suspected
favored host was utilized as food for each species.

Exochomus marginipennis children Muls.
Exochomus children Mulsant, 1850, Ann. Soc. d'Agric. Lyon, Vol. 2, p. 1037.
Adults of this species are broadly oval beetles that vary from one-tenth
to one-eighth of an inch in length. The head, thoracic segments and legs
are black, with the abdomen and elytra bright orange to red. The elytra
is distinctively marked with a connected pair of black, ovate spots on the
posterior margin. The slender, elongate-oval eggs are light, lemon-yellow,
and were laid singly or in'pairs under the armors of the scale insects
provided as hosts during the study. Larvae in the first and second stadia
are light yellow with grey to brown sclerites and long, slender, black spines
arising from senti. Third and fourth instar larvae are dusky-yellow with
the spines, senti and sclerites dark brown to black, and the first abdominal
segment bright orange on the margins. The new pupa is bright yellow, but
soon darkens to a dark brown, marked with a row of light triangular spots
down the midline, a light yellow median stripe on the prothorax, a pair of
light, lateral, transverse bars on the mesothorax and light yellow to orange
margins on each abdominal segment.
Florida red scale, Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.), was chosen as the food
host for the life cycle study on this beetle. On citrus the species has also
been observed to feed on purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newm.), and
the green citrus aphid, Aphis spireocola Patch, but heaviest infestations
have been associated with Florida red scale.
Data accumulated on the life cycle of this ladybeetle are given in
Table 1. Because of the uncommon occurrence of the species on citrus,
only a few gravid females were obtained, and few eggs were produced.
Mortality was relatively high, but complete data on development was ob-
tained for 10 individuals.
The life cycle of the species approximates that of the average ladybeetle,
varying from three to nine weeks, with an average of about five. It is
possible that the species would develop more rapidly on the green citrus
aphid. Inadequate numbers of ladybeetles have prevented further study.

SFlorida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 469.
2 Associate Entomologist, University of Florida Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion, Lake Alfred.

116 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 3

TABLE 1.-SUMMARY OF LIFE CYCLE OF Exochomus marginipennis children
Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.).

No. Individuals No. Days to Develop Mortality
Stage Total Died Lived Max. Min. Mean per Stage

Egg ...................... 28 6 22 8 6 6.6 21.4
First Instar ........ 22 6 16 9 2 5.0 27.3
Second Instar .... 16 0 16 6 2 4.1 0.0
Third Instar ...... 16 2 14 16 3 5.5 12.5
Fourth Instar .... 14 3 11 16 3 8.7 21.4
Pupa .................... 11 1 10 7 5 6.1 9.9
Total ....- ........... 18 10 62 21 36.0 64.3

Adult Longevity 10 10 0 16 5 9.8

Microweisea coccidivora (Ashm.)
Hyperaspidius coccidivora Ashmead, 1880, Orange Insects, p. 10.
Adults of this ladybeetle are ovate and vary from one-twentieth to one-
sixteenth of an inch in length. The legs, ventral sclerites, head and
prothorax are pale brown to mahogany red; the elytra is dark brown to
black, marked with a wide brown to mahogany-red transverse band that
in some specimens is interrupted to form a series of three spots. The ovate
eggs are light yellow when laid, but soon darken to pink or orange. During
the life cycle study reported here, eggs were laid singly or in pairs under
scale armors. Newly hatched larvae are pale-yellow with pale legs, a
brown head, and a pair of dark sub-parallel sclerites on the dorsal surface
of the prothorax. Later instars are a pinkish-grey with a brown head,
light brown legs and with the dark prothoracic sclerites forming a pair of
parentheses. The pupae are dark grey and provided with numerous dark
TABLE 2.-SUMMARY OF LIFE CYCLE OF Microweisea coccidivora (Ashm.),
phalus aonidum (L.).

No. Individuals No. Days to Develop Mortality
Stage Total Died Lived Max. Min. Mean per Stage

Egg ...................... 55 32 23 10 6 8.2 58.2
First Instar -...... 22 8 14 5 2 4.2 36.4
Second Instar .... 14 8 6 4 2 3.2 57.1
Third Instar ....-. 6 3 3 8 3 5.0 50.0
Fourth Instar -.. 4 1 3 7 6 6.5 25.0
Pupa .................... 3 1 2 5 5 5.0 33.3
Total .................... 53 2 39 24 32.1 96.3

Muma: Life Cycles of Four Lady Beetles

Although little is known of the food habits of this species, the beetles
are invariably associated with purple or Florida red scale infestations.
The latter scale was chosen as food for the beetles because the largest
populations of the species have, to date, been found in infestations of
Florida red scale.
Table 2 summarizes the life cycle data accumulated for this ladybeetle.
Exceptionally high mortality occurred during the study. Although much
of this mortality was due to handling of the eggs, it is possible that purple
scale or a combination of purple and Florida red scale may be a more
satisfactory food. The life cycle obtained with Florida red scale approxi-
mates that of the average ladybeetle but may be different on other foods.
Additional life cycle studies are planned for this species.

Stethorus utilis Horn
Stethorus utilis Horn, 1895, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. XXII, p. 107.
Adult beetles are ovate in outline with the elytra truncate posteriorly
and measure about one-sixteenth of an inch in length. They are dark brown
to black with the appendages pale brown to yellow and are heavily clothed
with dark setae. The elongate eggs are pale yellow to cream colored but
darken to pink shortly after they are laid. During the life cycle study
reported here, the eggs were laid singly on their sides in mite colonies.
First and second instar larvae are pale cream with the head and thoracic
segments light brown. Later instars are brownish-grey with a narrow
median stripe, and the first "and last two segments of abdomen light. The
new pupa is light but soon darkens to a dark brown or black and is pro-
vided with numerous elongate curved setae.
Populations of this ladybeetle are nearly always associated with infesta-
tions of the six-spotted mite, Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (Riley). For
this reason, this mite was used as food during the life cycle study.
Table 3 gives a summary of the life cycle data accumulated for this
species. Owing to their small size, several of the early instar larvae
escaped from the petri dishes and were recorded as deaths. Otherwise,
mortality due to handling was relatively low.

sexmaculatus (Riley).

No. Individuals No. Days to Develop Mortality
Stage Total Died Lived Max. Min. Mean per Stage

Egg ...................... 30 0 30 5 3 3.7 0.0
First Instar ........ 30 4 26 3 1 1.8 13.3
Second Instar .... 26 3 23 3 1 1.4 11.5
Third Instar ........ 23 1 22 3 1 1.6 4.3
Fourth Instar .... 22 4 18 6 1 2.8 18.2
Pupa .................... 18 0 18 3 3 3.0 0.0
Total .................... 12 18 23 10 14.3 40.0

118 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 3

This ladybeetle is the only native species reared to date which has an
average life cycle of approximately two weeks. The two-week period
recorded probably would be even less under natural conditions and in the
presence of abundant food. Additional life-cycle studies are planned for
the species, using the citrus red mite, Metatetranychus citri (McG.), as
Delphastus pusillus (LeC.)
Oeneis pusillus LeConte, 1852, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. VI, p. 135.
Adult beetles of this species are broadly ovate and about one-sixteenth
of an inch in length. They are dark brown to black with the head, pro-
sternum and venter of the abdomen somewhat lighter. The elongate trans-
lucent eggs are laid singly on their sides on leaves infested with the eggs,
larvae and nymphs of whiteflies. Newly hatched and second instar larvae
are an off-white and provided with numerous short pale setae. The third
and particularly fourth instar larvae are provided with numerous small
dark senti and setae which give the larvae a grey-banded appearance.
Pupae are white to light grey with numerous pale setae.
Although this ladybeetle has been recorded feeding on several species
of whitefly, the cloudy-winged whitefly, Dialeurodes citrifolii (Morg.), was
used as food for the life cycle study because of its common occurrence.
Table 4 summarizes the life-cycle data accumulated for this species.
Large mortalities due to handling occurred in the first instar larvae, but
sufficient material was reared to obtain adequate data.

TABLE 4.-SUMMARY OF LIFE CYCLE OF Delphastus pusillus (LeC.), IN
Dialeurodes citrifolii (Morg.), AND CITRUS WHITEFLY, Dialeurodes citri

No. Individuals No. Days to Develop Mortality
Stage Total Died Lived Max. Min. Mean per Stage

Egg ...................... 102 15 87 5 3 3.6 14.7
First Instar ........ 87 59 28 4 1 2.3 67.8
Second Instar .... 28 4 24 3 1 2.0 14.3
Third Instar .....-.. 24 2 22 3 1 1.9 8.3
Fourth Instar .... 22 3 19' 10 3 5.5 13.6
Pupa .................... 19 0 19 5 4 4.4 0.0
Total .................... 83 19 30 13 19.7 81.4

Adult Longevity 15 15 0 47 1 26.7

The 20-day life cycle obtained for this ladybeetle may be shorter with
other species of whiteflies as food, but inadequate food sources have pre-
vented additional study. Life-cycle studies on this predator will probably
not be continued because of the minor importance of whiteflies on Florida


(Continued from p. 84, Vol. 39, No. 2)

Brilelia saltatora, n. sp.
(Figures 64, 65 and 66a)

Types, male and female adults, from Saltator coerulescens vigorsii G. R.
Gray, collected by R. Newman at Xilitla, S. L. P., M6xico, January
22, 1947 (in L. S. U. M. Z. coll.).
DIAGNOSIs.-Resembles somewhat B. eustigma and B. interposita (Kell.),
but is considerably smaller than the former (female: 1.71 x .51 against 1.84
x .62) and larger than the latter (female: 1.71 x .51 against 1.41 x .41). The
head also differs in size and proportion (female: .458 x .456 against .42 x .45
(eustigma) and .31 x .34 (interpositus). The postantennal portion of the
head is quite quadrangular in shape, tapering sharply to the frons, while
in both eustigma and interpositus the whole head is triangular in shape.
The type of eustigma supposedly came from Trochilus anna (California),
which I doubt very much, inasmuch as in all of my collecting I have never
taken Briielia on a hummingbird. Very likely the true host is some species
of Fringillidae. The host of B. interpositus is likewise open to doubt,
supposedly being Dendroica bryanti (Panama), though in my large series
of this genus there is not a single specimen taken on any species of warbler.
Unfortunately, all of the material of this new species is in very poor
condition. Many details are not clearly visible, including the abdominal
sclerites and the male genitalia. Consequently there may be some slight
errors in the figures. The thoracic sternites (see figure) are clearly visible
and are of a type not commonly seen. This chain of hyaline sclerites ex-
tends from the posterior portion of the pterothorax to the oesophageal
sclerite of the head. On the sternal side of the temples are a series of
three, connected curving lines (see figure) which are present in all of the
specimens of both sexes and which I have not seen in other species of the
genus. I have a single female of Briielia from Saltator atriceps (Mexico),
which is very similar to saltatora in general appearance, but the structure
of the anterior portion of the head is quite different, and the temples are
more convex, as well as the sides of the preantennal portion of the head.
B. cedrorum (Piaget) from Bombycilla cedrorum is also of the same
type as saltatora, as well as several other species from Old World hosts,
but apparently they all differ in various details. The new species is rep-
resented by the female holotype, male allotype and 2 male and 2 female
paratypes. Measurements are given with following species.

Brilelia melanococca abbasi, n. subsp.
(Figures 66b and 67)

Type, female adult, from Thraupis abbas (Lichtenstein), collected by R.
Newman at Xilitla, S. L. P., M6xico, January 27, 1947 (in L. S. U.
M. Z. coll.).

The Florida Entomologist

DIAGNOSIS.-This is one of a large group of very closely related forms
parasitic on the Neotropical Thraupidae and some of the tanagerlike finches,
such as Saltator (see saltatora). In my own collection there are specimens
from seven genera of tanagers which are all undoubtedly conspecific with
melanococca (Carriker), while some may not be even subspecifically dis-
tinct. B. ptilogonys (Carriker) also falls into this group, but it has a
longer head than melanococca, longer than wide (female: .38 x .37 against
.38 x .39).
B. m. abbasi differs from melanococca chiefly in the much smaller head
(.337 x .358 against .38 x .39), shorter body and slightly wider abdomen
(1.47 x .48 against 1.65 x .46). Unfortunately the type and only specimen
of melanococca was accidently lost several years ago when it was de-
mounted for clearing, but the original description and figure are ample
for its identification. The males are apparently very scarce, since there
are only two in my series of this group, and there are none in the large
series of abbasi. The genitalia of the two males examined (from different
genera of hosts) are very similar, and very close to those of saltatora, n. sp.
B. brasiliensis (Giebel) from Tanagra brasiliensis undoubtedly belongs
to this group and may possibly be conspecific with melanococca, but the
description is insufficient to warrant a decision. I have specimens from
Tangara vassori which are very similar to abbasi. However, there are
several statements in Giebel's description which do not agree with either
melanococca or abbasi. He says: "the last three segments of the antennae
equal in length, the prothorax with sides very slightly convex," while in
the melanococca group we have the 3rd and 4th segments of antennae
shortest and equal and the 5th longer, while the sides of the prothorax are
decidedly convex. His description of the markings of head and body also
disagrees, but the type and only specimen may have been immature.
The distinguishing characters of melanococca and its closely related
allies are: head triangular, more or less as long as wide, with sides convex
and occipital margin transverse and with temples decidedly angulated (see
figure); frons narrow; the preantennal carinae are broken near anterior
end; the anterior plate is very small and wider than long; the buccal cavity
is very small, but the canal is quite wide.
The pterothorax is sharply angulated medially on posterior margin, is
much wider than first abdominal segment, and has 5 rather long setae on
each side in lateral portion. The abdomen is elongated oval (female), with
dorsal portion of pleurites pitchy black and narrower than the sternal
portion (see figure). The tergites are narrowly separated medially and
are very faintly chitinized; the sternites are continuous medially but
widely separated from the pleurites, are more deeply colored posteriorly,
and are not visible in segment I, and are very faint in II; the genital
sternite is characteristic and quite large, covering segments VI and VII
and anterior portion of VIII, with posterior margin convex and sparsely
set with short, fine setae (see figure). The legs (not shown in figure) are
short and stout, with narrow, pitchy margins and fairly strong claws. The
thoracic sternites are unique and seem to be a good character for separating
the subspecies. This race of melanococca (abbasi) is represented by the
female holotype and 8 female paratypes, also 1 nymph.


Vol. 39, No. 3

Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga

<) 66

Fig. 64. Brijelia saltatora, n. sp. 9, entire body
Fig. 65. B. saltatora, n. sp. &, genitalia
Fig. 66a. B. saltatora, n. sp., thoracic sternites
Fig. 66b. B. melanococca abbasi, n. subsp., thoracic sternites
Fig. 67. B. melanococca abbasi, n. subsp. 9, entire body
Fig. 68. Carduiceps eroliae, n. sp. 9, body complete, except median ab-
dominal segments
Fig. 69. C. eroliae, n. sp. S, genitalia
Fig. 70a. C. pusillus, n. sp., apical segments of abdomen
Fig. 70b. C. eroliae, n. sp. 8, apical segments of abdomen
Fig. 71. C. pusillus, n. sp. 9, body, except median abdominal segments
Fig. 72. C. pusillus, n. sp. S, genitalia
Fig. 73. Anatoecus autumnalis, n. sp. 8, entire body
Fig. 74. A. autumnalis, n. sp. $, genitalia

122 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 3

OF B. m. abbasi.

G. saltatora B. m. abbasi
Male Female Female
Length Width Length Width Length Width

Body ....................... ..... 1.33 ...... 1.71 ...... 1.49
Head (at clavi) .......... ..... .326 .. .37 ...... .31
Head (at temples) ... .423 .434 .458 .456 .369 .375
Prothorax .......--...-.. .12 .24 .13 .26 .14 .217
Pterothorax .................. .155 .35 .152 .39 .155 .31
Abdomen .................. .716 .477 1.04 .51 .95 .456
Antennae ................... .195 .04 .20 .043 .152 .03
Basal plate ...-........... .19 .13
Paramers ..-........-..... .06 .075
Endomera ....--............ .08 .04

Brilelia biocellata nigropicta (Carriker), 1901
Nirmus biocellatus nigropicti Carriker, Jour. New York Ent. Soc. 10, p. 219;
pl. 21, fig. 1. Host: Pica pica hudsonia.
Briielia biocellata (Piaget), 1880, Pediculines, p. 666, pl. 55, fig. 2. Host:
Pica leucoptera, Hopkins & Clay, 1952, p. 54.
This subspecies of biocellata (Piaget) was reduced to a synonym of that
species by Hopkins and Clay in the 1952 Checklist of Mallophaga.
It is true that in appearance the two insects are very similar, with
strikingly unusual body markings, but apparently the measurements were
not taken into consideration when the race was reduced to synonomy.
Piaget did not see the female, his description, figure and measurements
having been taken from the male. On size alone the two forms are clearly
separable, and possibly the male genitalia will show differences. I have
not seen specimens of biocellata.

MEASUREMENTS OF MALES OF biocellata AND nigropicta.

biocellata nigropicta
Length Width Length Width

Body ........... .... ..............- ...... ... 1.50 .... 1.93 .
Head ............................... .... .46 .47 .542 .526
Thorax ........... ........ .......-....... .32 .38 .303 .51
Abdomen .:........... ............. ...- .... .83 .61 1.17 .75

The above measurements of biocellata are taken from Piaget, while
those of nigropicta are made from the type. It may also be noted that the
head is wider than long in biocellata and that the pterothorax in nigropicti
is almost as wide as head, but much narrower in biocellata; the abdomen
is very much longer and wider in nigropicti.
Two females of this species were taken on Pica pica hudsonia (Sabine),

Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga

collected by D. S. Farner at Hamilton, Montana, July, 1945, and are in
the collection of the Louisiana State University Museum of Zoology.

Genus Carduiceps Clay & Meinertzhagen, 1939
Until quite recently little has been published concerning this genus.
In October, 1953, Col. Emerson s described a new species, C. lapponicus, from
a European host (Limosa 1. lapponica), and gave figures of the genitalia
of three other known species (complexivus, cingulatus, and scalaris).
In January, 1954, Mr. Timmermann published a review of the genus,'
but apparently had not seen Col. Emerson's paper of the previous October,
since no mention is made of C. lapponicus. Both authors agree that the
species of the genus are very uniform in appearance, with differences be-
tween them small, and that the male genitalia are the best character for
distinguishing the different species.
The type of the genus is C. complexivus (Kell. and Chap.) whose host
is Crocethia alba. Timmermann would make complexivus a synonym of
C. zonaris (Nit.), from Erolia minute. He also places populations from
Erolia temmincki, E. minutilla, E. testacea, Calidris canutus, Ereunetes
mauri, and E. pusillus all under C. zonaris (Nit.) but says the "different
populations are not absolutely identical."
In addition to the two species of the genus described below, I have
specimens in my own collection from the following hosts: Crocethia alba,
Calidris canutus rufus, Arenaria interpres, Micropalama himantopus,
Charadrius semipalmatus, Erolia melanotos, E. minutilla, and E. alpina
sakhalina. I have not made a minute study of the above series, but a casual
examination shows that there are many small differences between the
specimens from the different hosts in detail of head structure, proportionate
size of various portions of body, marking of the abdomen, and the male
genitalia. Apparently some will be found to be conspecific with others, but
I would not care to say that there are any two which could not be easily
separated subspecifically.
Timmermann states that the differences between C. complexivus (Kell.
& Chap.) and C. zonarius (Nit.) are very small, yet admits that the differ-
ence in shape of the endomera are sufficient for subspecific distinction, "if
one wished to preserve that name [complexivas]." Personally, I am very
much in favor of preserving the name complexivus, especially since it
represents the genotype of Carduiceps, even if it should have to be reduced
to a subspecies of zonaris (Nit.).
To the list of shore birds given by Timmermann, from which Carduiceps
has been recorded, I can add Charadrius semipalmata and Arenaria inter-
pres, and confirm its presence on Micropalama (1 female).

Carduiceps eroliae, n. sp.
(Figures 68, 69 and 70b)
Types, male and female adults, from Erolia fuscicollis (Vieillot), collected
by D. S. Farner at Lawrence, Kansas, May 21, 1947 (type in L. S. U.
M. Z. coll.).

8Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 55(5): 209.
SAnn. Magazine of Nat. History, Ser. 12, VII: 40.

124 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 3

DIAGNOSIs.-Differs from D. complexivus in shape of thoracic segments,
in carinae of the tergites, and in the male genitalia.
The head measurements are the same as in complexivus; the prothorax
has the sides more rounded and is slightly narrower (female, .153 against
.18); the pterothorax is narrower (female, .225 against .29) ; the abdomen
measures 1.09 x .37 against 1.01 x .41.
In the female the dark-colored transverse bands across the tergites are
practically absent, there being merely a slight indication of their presence
at each side of abdomen (see figure), while in complexivus they are of
uniform width and density across the abdomen in both sexes and on all
segments. In the male of eroliae these tergal bands are present but differ
in shape from those of the male of complexivus. In segment VII this band
is practically as in complexivus, but in VI it curves strongly forward in
median portion (see figure), while in complexivus it is transverse. In
the remaining segments (I V) the bands are transverse in both species,
but considerably narrower in eroliae, where they are of uniform width
across the segment, instead of wider in median portion of abdomen, as in
The male genitalia differ in several details. The basal plate is shorter
but of same width (.158 x .09 against .22 x .087). The attachment of the
endomera is distinct, the lateral carinae of the basal plate dividing at some
distance from the posterior end of the plate, the inner branch forming the
attachments for the endomera, the outer for the paramers. In complexivus
the attachment is very similar to that of pusillus (n. sp. described below).
The paramers are of slightly different shape, with decidedly different
marginal carinae.
The endomera is slightly shorter and narrower than in complexivus
(.071 x 0.46 against .08 x .05), while the marginal carinae are very much
narrower and of entirely different shape, especially towards the base, where
they widen strongly in complexivus; the tip of the endomera is wider in
eroliae, with slightly more prominent lateral hooks; the seminal duct is
shorter, with lesser amount extending beyond the basal plate.
The species is represented by the male holotype, female allotype and
1 male and 3 female paratypes.


Male Female
Length Width Length Width

Body ....-.. --------..... ~--. -- .. ----. .-. 1.39 ..... 1.65
Head ........-...........--..-- -...- -........... .33 .27 .37 .295
Prothorax -.......----..-..-----........--- .11 .152 .12 .153
Pterothorax .-...----........-....--.---....---- .15 .206 .163 .225
Abdomen ..----...............---......----- .87 .38 1.095 .37
Antennae ....---....-.......-.---..-------- .105 ...... .108
Basal plate ...-..--....-..----.. ......--...-- .158 .09
Paramers .----...................-------- .076 .02
Endomera .....................- ------ ----.... .071 .046

Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga

Carduiceps pusillus, n. sp.
(Figures 70a, 71 and 72)
Types, male and female adults, from Ereunetes pusillus (Linn6), collected
by G. H. Lowery at Lawrence, Kansas, May 15, 1947 (in L. S. U.
M. Z coll.).
DIAGNOSIS.-Very close to eroliae in measurements, differing as follows:
length (male) 1.35 against 1.39; (female) 1.59 against 1.65; pterothorax
(male) .13 x .195 against .15 x .206, (female) .152 x .205 against .163 x .225;
abdomen (male) .835 x .305 against .87 x .38, (female) 1.04 x .37 against
1.095 x .37. Paramers longer and narrower (.081 x .015 against .076 x .02);
endomera narrower (.073 x .036 against .076 x .046).
In the head both dorsal and ventral occipital carinae differ in positions
and shape from those of both eroliae and complexivus (see figures), in which
these structures are much alike. The sides of the pterothorax are less
convex and the posterolateral angles more rounded, thus resembling com-
plexivus. The dark bands across the tergites are continuous in both sexes,
as in complexivus, but the shape of band in segment VII of the male is dif-
ferent, the median portion being bent sharply forward and more rounded
than in VI (see figures); the incrassations in lateral portion of tergites are
also quite different, more so in the female than in the male (see figures).
The male genitalia differ strongly from those of both complexivus and
eroliae. The paramers are more uniformly circular, with marginal carinae
different from those of eroliae (more as in complexivus), while the endo-
mera is very different from both, being shorter and wider and of entirely
different shape and manner of attachment (see figure), the style of attach-
ment being similar to that of complexivus; the seminal duct is very much
longer than the duct in either of the above species.
Unfortunately all of the material of these two species was in a rather
poor condition for study, many characters being invisible, especially details
of the head.
This species is represented by the male holotype, female allotype,
3 male and 5 female paratypes.

MEASUREMENTS OF THE TYPES OF Cardiuceps pusillus,.

Male Female
Length Width Length Width

B ody .......................... .. ........ 1.35 ...... 1.59
Head ......----..-----...-... -...--.. ....... .33 .268 .35 .28
Prothorax ..... -...... ---....-- ...-- ....-.....-- .108 .14 .12 .152
Pterothorax .......-.... ------........-- ....-- ..... .13 .195 .152 .205
Abdomen ................- ........-.......----. .- .835 .305 1.04 .37
Antennae ....----.....-.....- .....-- -- ......--. .108 ...... .12
Basal plate ........-.....-...-- ...... --.. ...-...... .14 .07
Paramer .....--.....-....-------...-- ........ .081 .015
Endomera -................... ----- ...... ..... .073 .036


126 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 3

Anatoecus autumnalis, n. sp.1O
(Figures 73, 74 and 75)
Types, male and female adults, from Dendrocygna a. autumnalis (Linnd),
collected by C. Shaw at Tamuin, San Luis Potosi, M6xico, September
19, 1946 (in L. S. U. M. Z. coll.).
This is the first record for the genus Anatoecus from any species of
Dendrocygna. In my own collection there is a female from D. b. bicolor
and 2 females from D. autumnalis discolor. The first is undoubtedly
specifically distinct from the present species, autumnalis, while the latter
is probably merely a subspecies of it. Without the males it is not possible
to describe these forms intelligently.
The present species has been compared with five known species of the
genus and material (unstudied) from ten species of New World ducks
and may be easily separated from all of them by just one character, the
series of 12 heavily chitinized bars lying on top of the posterior portion
of the rounded part of the male genitalia (see figure). There is one slightly
immature male of the series which lacks the bars on the genitalia, but in
all the others they are strongly developed.
The head measurements are decidedly different, also, from those of
monteiroi Guimaraes & Barrios Netto. The male of autumnalis has head
measurements of .467 x .445 against .45 x .42 for monteiroi, while the an-
treior portion of head (surrounded by the hyaline margin) measures .14 x .28
in autumnalis against .19 x .23.
The species is represented by the male holotype and female allotype
and 6 male and 14 female paratypes.

MEASUREMENTS OF THE TYPES OF Anatoecus autumnalis.

Male Female
Length Width Length Width

Body ........... ....... ......................... 1.43 ...... 1.53
H ead --............... ............... .............. .467 .445 .52 .49
Prothorax ........----............................. .15 .303 .163 .326
Pterothorax ---........................ ..........---- .175 .412 .175 .43
Abdomen ........--.........---- .......... ........... .76 .55 .79 .61
Antennae ------.......----........ .......... ....- .185 .045 .163 .043
M ale genitalia ....................-- .............. .575 .174

1o Clay and Hopkins go into considerable detail with Anatoecus dentatus
(Scopoli) on pages 16 and 17 of Early Literature on Mallophaga, where a
large figure of the male genitalia is given. In this figure are shown the 12
bars within the genitalia, more or less as in A. autumnalis, but of different
shape. I have two males of dentatus from the type host, and there is no
sign of these bars within the genitalia. I have examined males of 7 species
of American ducks in which no bars are present, but they are present in
specimens of A. obtusus (Giebel), from Somateria m. mollissima. Appar-
ently this character needs further careful investigation.

Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga


Fig. 75. A. natoecus autumnalis, n. sp. 9, apical segments of abdomen
Fig. 76. Lipeurus bakeri, n. sp. 9 im., head, thorax, and portions of
abdominal segments
Fig. 77. Oxylipeurus (Epicolinus) abdominalis, n. sp. 9, entire body
Fig. 78. 0. (E.) abdominalis, n. sp. 8, head and apical segments of ab-
Fig. 79. Anaticola dafilensis, n. sp. o, head, apical segments of abdomen,
and thoracic sternites
Fig. 80. A. dafilensis, n. sp. 9, apical segments of abdomen
Fig. 81. A. dafilensis, n. sp. S, genitalia
Fig. 82. Pectinopygus (Epipelicanus) canadensis, n. sp. &, head and por-
tions of abdominal segments
Fig. 83. P. (E.) canadensis, n. sp. 9, head and portions of abdomen
Fig. 84. P. (E.) canadensis, n. sp. &, genitalia
Fig. 85. P. (E.) canadensis, n. sp. 9, thoracic sternites

128 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 3

Lipeurus baker, n. sp.
(Figure 76)

Type, female immature, from Meleagris gallopavo intermedius Sennett,
collected by Rollin Baker, Kenedy Co., Texas, December, 1941 (in
L. S. U. M. Z. coll.).
At the present time there is no species of the genus Lipeurus recognized
as a parasite of the turkey, either domestic or wild. Hopkins and Clay
(Early Literature of Mallophaga, Part I, p. 261) contend that Pediculus
meleagridis Linn6 refers to the common Chelopistes parasitic on the turkey
and is not a Lipeurus as given by some authors. Harrison restored Linn6's
name to the species in 1916. Undoubtedly this decision is correct, since
it would not be possible to confuse Chelopistes with Lipeurus or Oxylipeurus,
and furthermore, Chelopistes is the common mallophagan parasite of the
turkey, and the one most likely to have been seen by Linne.
DIAGNOSIS.-The present species is clearly a Lipeurus. The type, an
immature female, cannot be confused with either Oxylipeurus corpulentus
or O. polytrapezius, both parasitic on the turkey. The shape of the head
and its internal carinae is that of Lipeurus, as well as the apical segments
of the abdomen, which are entirely different from these segments in im-
mature specimens of Oxylipeurus and may be almost duplicated in the
pre-adult instar of Lipeurus numidae (Denny).
The head is much wider at the base of the clavi than at the temples;
there are no papillae on the inner margin of the marginal carina of the
frons, as in Oxylipeurus; the structure of the posterior portion of the head
is very unusual, possibly unique; the gular plate resembles somewhat that
of L. maculosus Clay. The abdomen is almost parallel-sided and instead of
.having 8 segments, as in the adult female, has 10, with the 6th spiracle
in segment VII, so that VIII, IX and X are combined into a single segment
(VIII) in the adult. Just what the structure of this segment resembles
is problematical.
In segment VIII the tergites are divided medially, as in the anterior
segments, but in IX and X the tergite covers the entire segment, excepting
a small portion of the tip of X. Unquestionably the type of this species
and the single female paratype, of identical appearance, represent the pre-
adult instar of a previously undescribed species of Lipeurus. They possess
no characters suggesting that they might be immature specimens of either
Oxylipeurus polytrapezius or corpulentus, although 7 females of 0. corpu-
lentus and 12 specimens of Chelopistes meleagridis were collected on the


Length Width

Body ......... -------------..--.-..---....--.-....----.---- 2.26
Head ......-...----- .. ---. ........-...-... .. ------ .55 .37
Prothorax ..... ------------------------- ----------- .20 .25
Pterothorax ...--..-...---.-.........-... ---....--.--. ------ .26 .303
Abdomen --....-......-........--.... -----------...... 1.40 .35
Antennae ........ ----......... .... --... --....---------. .37 .12

Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga

same individual host with them. Unfortunately no adults and no males
of the new species were taken.
The fact that these two lice were collected from a wild bird and not a
domestic turkey precludes all possibility of their acquisition from some
domestic fowl. It is greatly to be desired that adult specimens of both
sexes of this interesting louse be secured.

Oxylipeurus (Epicolinus)" abdominalis, n. sp.
(Figures 77 and 78)

Types, male and female adults, from Dendrortyx barbatus Gould, collected
by R. Newman at Xilitla, S. L. P., M6xico, June 12, 1947 (in L. S. U.
M. Z. coll.).
DIAGNOSIS.-This species is typical of the subgenus Epicolinus Carriker,
as would be expected from the close affinity of its host with the genus
Colinus. However, it differs considerably from all of the other known
species of that genus in having a shorter head and much wider abdomen
in both sexes, as well as a shorter and wider pterothorax.
The tip of the abdomen in both sexes resembles somewhat those of E.
ovaticephalus, but it lacks the conspicuous sexual dimorphism of the abdo-
men found in that species, both sexes having a rather short abdomen of
the same shape, wider even than in the female of ovaticephalus.
The male genitalia are typical of the genus, the genitalia themselves
being very minute, lying normally far back inside the sheath. There are
two rather strong setae set on the upper side of the tip of the genital
sheath, a character not hitherto seen in this group. The species is repre-
sented by the female holotype, male allotype and 2 male and 4 female

MEASUREMENTS OF THE TYPES OF Oxylipeurus abdominalis.

Male Female
Length Width Length Width

Body ..................... ..................... ...... 1.87 ...... 2.03
Head (at clavi) ........---- ............-- ..--- .... ..... .326 ...... .37
Head (at temples) ................................. .50 .37 .564 .44
Prothorax ........................... ................ .217 .30 .205 .326
Pterothroax ........................-.................. .25 .49 .27 .53
Abdomen ...................-- ...-..-- ..- .....--- -- .93 .51 1.19 .71
Antennae ...................... .......... ..--- .... .27 .078 .27 .043
M ale genitalia ......................................... .36 .043

The genus Epicolinus Carriker was described in 1945, the genotype
being Lipeurus clavatus McGregor, from Colinus virginianus texensis (Rev.
Brasil. Biol. 5, 104). It was reduced to a subgenus of Oxylipeurus by
Hopkins and Clay in the 1952 Checklist of Mallophaga. With all due re-
spect to the authors of the Checklist, I do not think that it is congeneric
with Oxylipeurus.


130 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 3

Anaticola dafilensis, n. sp.
(Figures 79, 80 and 81)

Types, male and female adults, from Dafila acuta (Linn6), collected by
M. A. C. at Lincoln, Nebraska, February 28, 1901 (in coll. of M. A. C.).
I have compared this series of 4 males and 9 females from Dafila acuta
with authentic specimens of A. crassicornis, A. cairinensis, A. mergiserrati,
A. lepidotus, A. depuratus and A. rubro-maculatus, and they differ in
greater or less degree from all of them.
DIAGNOSIS.-Resembles more closely crassicornis in shape of head, but
differs in various details. The penis is longer than in crassicornis and
shorter than in mergiserrati (.195 against .152 and .22). Three males of
crassicornis measure .152, .152, and .14, while the measurements for mergi-
serrati given by Clay and Hopkins are (1).20, (6).22, (3).23.
A. dafilensis also differs from crassicornis in the shape of the thoracic
sternal plate. I have 2 females of mergiserrati from the type host, which
differ strongly from dafilensis, as well as from my specimens of crassicornis,
the abdomen being long and slender, sharply constricted at junction of seg-
ments II and III, and with apical segments tapering to a slender point,
without trace of bifurcation; the large thoracic sternite is elongated oval,
without lateral wings, and with bluntly pointed anterior end, but the small
posterior sternite is rounded, as in dafilensis.
The color pattern of the tergites is different, as well as the shape of
the genital sternite.
The present species differs from cairinensis in shape of head, cephalic
carinae, abdominal markings, male genitalia and thoracic sternal plates.
From depuratus it differs in the shape of the head, the front in that species
Being very narrow, tapering uniformly from eyes to frons; cephalic carinae
also differ. A. lepidotus (from Aix sponsa) is very different, with a very
narrow frons, narrower, even, than in depuratus; the cephalic carinae
differ strongly as well as the thoracic sternite and abdominal tergites.
A. rubro-maculatus is also quite different, the abdomen in the male being

MEASUREMENTS OF THE TYPE OF Anaticola dafilensis.

Male Female
Length Width Length Width

Body ....................~~ ....---------. ...... 2.78 ...... 3.56 -
Head (at clavi) --......---.. ....--- ...-- ... --- ......- .324 ...... .39
Head (at temples) ......-----....-............... .65 .38 .695 .46
Head (at frons) ......................--.--- ... ...... .185 ...... .19
Prothorax .........--- ......... ..--------- ..-.. ..- .238 .314 .27 .347
Pterothorax ...................... ........-..-... .465 .456 .50 .50
Abdomen ..........--........ ...--...........-- .. 1.595 .42 2.28 .673
Antennae ......................--..-----.... .36 .07 .27 .046
Basal plate .---....--..... ..---- ... ..-----------. .56 .11
Paramers .........---....---------................. .174 .10
Penis ......--- ..--......... --... ...... ---- .195 .075

Carriker: Mexican Mallophaga

short and strongly expanded posteriorly and constricted at I and II; the
prothorax is as wide as pterothorax; and the head is short and wide, with
preantennal portion narrowing and more tapering in the female.
From constrictus (Kellogg) it differs in being longer and narrower in
the abdomen (male: 2.78 x .42 against 2.31 x .50); the head is longer and
narrower (male: .65 x .38 against .53 x .41). In females the differences
in measurements are greater. In dafilensis there are four fine, pustulated
setae on each side of the canal posterior to the tips of the paramers, which
I have not seen in other species and which are difficult to see and may be
easily overlooked. The type series consists of the male holotype, female
allotype, 2 male and 8 female paratypes. In addition, there is one male
from the type host collected by R. Newman at Tamuin, S. L. P., M6xico,
November 17, 1946. This single male agrees in all respects with the holo-
type, and is in the Louisiana State University Museum of Zoology collection.

Pectinopygus (Epipelicanus) canadensis, n. sp.
(Figures 82 85)
Types, male and female adults, from Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin,
collected by C. Shaw at Ajinche, S. L. P., M6xico, November 10,
1946 (in L. S. U. M. Z. coll.).
DIAGNOSIS.-Of the same general type as the various species of this
genus found on the pelicans, but most closely related to P. occidentalis
Thompson, from Pelecanus. o. occidentalis (type from Kingston, Jamaica).
When Thompson described occidentalis 12 he had not seen specimens from
P. erythrorhynchos but was correct in assuming that they would also prove
to be a new species.
I have compared a series of 5 males and 3 females of canadensis with
2 males and 3 females of occidentalis Thompson (from the type host) and
with 4 males of forficulatus (Nit.), also from the type host, and find them
to be different in many small characters. Thompson has published excellent
figures of occidentalis, which may be compared with those here given for
P. canadensis differs from occidentalis as follows: there is but a very
faint indication of striations in the anterior portion of the anterior plate
(well marked in occidentalis); the premarginal carinae differ decidedly
in shape and chitinization; the gular plate is smaller; the thoracic sternites
are quite different in shape (see figures); the abdominal tergites and
sternites are also differently shaped, the former less widely separated
medially; the male genitalia differ in shape of basal plate and paramers;
the apical abdominal segments differ slightly in both sexes. In canadensis
the male is larger (2.95 x .62 against 2.70 x .59) as is the female (3.12 x .93
against 2.80 x 1.00).
The species is represented by the male holotype, female allotype, 1 male
paratype, also 3 males and 2 females from the type host, collected by J. C.
Crawford, Jr., at Lincoln, Nebraska, November 30, 1900, the latter in the
collection of M. A. C.

12 Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (II), 14, p. 318, figs. 1 9.

The Florida Entomologist

MEASUREMENTS OF THE TYPES OF Pectinopygus canadensis.

Male Female
Length Width Length Width

Body ..---... ---... ....--- --- .......----- .. 2.95 ...... 3.12
Head ..-...-.............-.. .....---........---- ..- .65 .54 .65 .635
Prothorax ................~.. .....- ..-..-- ......--- .27 .456 .27 .50
Pterothorax .........-...-....-- ..-- ........--- ... .347 .49 .38 .564
Abdomen .....---.... --...... .. ---..-......-... 1.85 .62 1.95 .93
Antennae ....-.....-..--. -- ...... .....----- .43 .108 .27 .054
Basal plate ...............--...--.. ...........--- .56 .175
Paramers ..........- --......... ...........- .06 .033

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Vol. 39, No. 3


Florida State Board of Health, Bureau of Entomology, Jacksonville

In the course of examining mosquito light trap material at the Florida
State Board of Health, Bureau of Entomology, a new species of Culicoides
has been found and four other species taken which are new records for
the State. Type specimens of the new species are deposited in the United
States National Museum in Washington, D. C., and paratypes are in the
University of Florida Collection, Gainesville.
Culicoides venustus Hoffman:-This species has now been found in
eleven Florida counties across the northern part of the State from Escam-
bia to Clay and south to Alachua County. In Jackson and Madison Counties
some specimens have only one light spot in the tip of cell M1 (others have
a faint second spot), but all other characters, including the spines on the
hind tibiae are typical of venustus. Tibial spines are an excellent char-
acter for separating venustus from inamollae where any doubt exists, as
there are five spines on the hind tibiae of venustus and six on inamollae.
Culicoides inamollae Fox and Hoffman:-In a previous paper (1952)
the writer accepted Lane's (1950) synonomy of inamollae as guttatus, but
an opportunity to examine further specimens of guttatus, and the apparent
confusion of the status of inamollae in the literature, has led the author
to believe it wisest to retain the name inamollae for Florida specimens until
such time as the taxonomy is straightened out. There appears to be no
question but that Florida's specimens are the same as specimens from the
type locality of inamollae, so whatever the taxonomic status of that species
becomes, Florida specimens will be the same. This species has been re-
corded from thirty-five counties throughout Florida. C. inamollae and C.
venustus have been taken from the same light traps in several northwestern
counties in the State.
Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) :-Reported formerly only on the basis
of a single female specimen from Marion County, this species has now
been taken in Lake, Highlands, and Alachua Counties. A single male was
captured in Alachua County.
Culicoides canithorax Hoffman.-This species was previously reported
as occurring both on the coast and inland. It is now evident that the speci-
mens recorded from inland counties were not this species. C. canithorax
has been taken in twenty-four counties, all coastal.
Culicoides biguttatus (Coquillet) :-This species has been found in two
new counties, Jackson and Baker. A number of males have been taken.
The species was found to be most abundant during April and May in 1954.
Culicoides travisi Vargas:-Records for the State were formerly based
on female specimens. Males have now been taken and the species found
in north and central Florida counties.
Culicoides nanus Root and Hoffman:-This species has been taken in
Escambia, Alachua, and Flagler Counties. In all counties males were taken.

134 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 3

Culicoides niger Root and Hoffman:--Previously recorded only from
Citrus and Walton Counties in Florida, it has now been taken in light
traps in sixteen counties as far south as Highlands County. The period
in which it is abundant is apparently short; most specimens taken in light
traps occurred in February and March, both in 1954 and 1955. Males are
common in light trap collections.
Culicoides haematopotus Malloch:-This species has been taken in thirty-
six counties, coastal and inland, from northwest Florida to the southern
tip of the State. It is one of our most widely distributed species.
Culicoides spinosus Root and Hoffman:-This species has been identified
from Escambia and Volusia Counties on the basis of male genitalia. It
undoubtedly occurs in many other counties, but females are difficult to
separate from similar species.
Culicoides piliferus Root and Hoffman:-This species, originally re-
ported as occurring only in Escambia County in Florida, has proved to be
rather widespread in the State, and in some localities very abundant. It
is recorded from seven counties as far south as Highland County. Most
county records are based on the identification of male genitalia.
Culicoides loughnani Edwards:-All previous Florida records were from
the extreme southwestern coast. Four new county records: Levy, Flagler,
St. Lucie and Duval, extend the known range northward on the western
coast, and represent the first records on the east coast. It should be re-
marked, however, that only occasional specimens have been found in these
northern counties, and all specimens from there have been females.
Culicoides floridensis Beck:-Originally described from Sarasota County,
Florida, this species has now been found in Volusia, Marion, Broward,
and Highlands Counties. It apparently is most abundant in midsummer.
The following species have not previously been recorded from Florida:
Culicoides variipennis (Coquillet) :-This species has been taken in
Walton and Jackson Counties. Apparently the western section of Florida
represents the extreme southern limits of the range of this species in the
Eastern United States.
Culicoides ousairani Khalaf:-This species, described from Oklahoma,
(1952), has been found in light traps in Escambia, Taylor, Jackson,
Alachua and Volusia Counties. Males taken in these traps were compared
by Dr. W. W. Wirth with specimens in the National Museum and found
to agree.
Culicoides pusillus Lutz:-Specimens have been taken in Volusia,
Alachua, Marion and Okeechobee Counties. A comparison of male geni-
talia with specimens which Dr. Irving Fox kindly sent from Puerto Rico,
established that the Florida specimens were C. pusillus.
There are no new distribution data of interest for the following species
occurring in Florida: C. arboricola Root and Hoffman, C. villosipennis
Root and Hoffman, C. crepuscularis Malloch, C. melleus (Coquillet), C,
furens (Poey), C. stellifer (Coquillet), and C. baueri Hoffman.
Culicoides bermudensis Williams:-This species recently described from
Bermuda (1956) has been taken in a light trap at Santa Rosa in Walton

Beck: New Species of Culicoides

County, Florida, during July and August in 1955. As the male has not
been described, a description of the male genitalia follows.

cl.Venfral view of male genitaia-parameresomn;4ed.
b. Paromeres


MALE GENITALIA (Figure 1): Apicolateral processes of the ninth tergite
well-developed; posterior margin of the ninth tergite with a rather broad
rounded notch; ninth sternite with a broad V-shaped notch dividing the
sternite almost to its base, the membrane of the ninth sternite spiculate;
basistyle stout, dorsal root rather short and blunt, ventral root lacking.
Aedeagus consists of a low wide arch with a broad tip having a curved,
well-chitinized apex. Parameres with heavy footed bases, tips tapering to
a narrow point.
The females of this species taken in Florida differ in several respects
from the specimens taken in Bermuda. In general, Florida specimens are
more grayish and darker with less distinct wing spots, while the Bermuda
specimens are lighter, more yellowish, with more distinct wing spots.
Bermuda specimens have an apical light spot in cell Rs; no such spot occurs
in Florida specimens. Also the radial cells of Florida specimens are
entirely dark and more closed, while the radial cells of Bermuda specimens
are more open and there appears to be a light spot cutting across the tip
of the 2nd radial cell. As there is a general agreement in other characters,
it is probable that the Florida form represents, at most, a subspecies, and
much wider collecting would be necessary before that status could be as-


136 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 39, No. 3

Culicoides knowltoni, n. sp.

FEMALE: Length 1.8 mm.; wing 1.3 by 0.65 mm.
Head and appendages dark brown, except antennae lighter; eyes bare,
well separated with hair socket between. Antennae with flagellar seg-
ments in proportion of 18:12:12:12:12:12:14:14:30:32:36:38:46, antennal
ration thus 1.6. Distal sensory tufts on segments 3 14, inclusive. Palpal
segments in proportion of 8:15:18 x 8:7:7, third segment swollen just
beyond middle with broad fairly shallow pit contain many spoon-shaped
Mesonotum light brown pruniescent; darker brown on humeri, in-
distinctly along a narrow median line, a small spot posterior to sensory
pits, and in prescutellar depression, the hairs light yellowish. Scutellum
dark brown with four long brown bristles. Postscutellum and pleuron
dark brown. Legs light brown with very dark knees; hind tibial comb of
four long brownish bristles.
Wing with radial cells complete, costa .6 as long as wing. Macro-
trichia dense over entire wing. Wing background gray with numerous
more or less confluent light spots. Four light areas along costa, one across
wing base confluent with large light area in base of anal cell; one from
costa, over r-m crossvein into base of cell M to cubital vein; one just
beyond and under 2nd radial cell; and one in cell R5 about halfway be-
tween 2nd radial cell and wing apex. Aside from light area at base cell
M1 has two light spots, not open to wing margins. Cell M2 also has two
light spots. Cell Cui has one light spot open to wing margin. Anal cell
is light at base and has an hourglass-shaped spot close to vein Cue. In
some specimens these spots tend to be largely confluent. This wing pattern
differs from that of crepuscularis only in the light area under the 2nd
radial cell. Halteres white.
Abdomen dull light brown; spermatheca (Figure 2c) single, dark,
elliptical, at least four times as long as wide, the duct not chitinized, but
with short fork at the posterior fourth, no apparent ring or rudimentary
MALE GENITALIA (Figure 2a, 2b): Ninth sternum with broad shallow
excavation, the posterior membrane spiculate; ninth tergum only slightly
tapered, with well developed apicolateral processes, the posterior margin
between them with a deep notch, and minute serrations between the notch
and apicolateral processes. Basistyles broad, the dorsal root short and
almost truncate, the ventral root lacking; dististyles tapering and slightly
curved inward. Aedeagus consisting of a broad heavily chitinized, footed
arch, the tip broadly rounded and only lightly chitinized. Parameres very
heavy footed and tapering to long, slender, curved pointed tips.
I take pleasure in naming this species for Dr. George F. Knowlton, Ex-
tension Entomologist, Utah State Agricultural College.
C. knowltoni is very close to crepuscularis. Females are separated from
crepuscularis by the distinctive spermatheca and by the presence of a
continuous light area beyond and under the 2nd radial cell. However, this
light area is sometimes also present in crepuscularis. The male genitalia
has broader basistyles, the aedeagus heavier with broader more truncate
tip, and irregular serrations between the apicolateral processes and the
notch on ninth tergum. C. knowltoni has been collected in twelve counties,

Beck: New Species of Culicoides

inland and coastal, throughout peninsular Florida. It has been taken
throughout the year, but one light trap checked weekly indicates that it is
predominant March through May. Specimens apparently of this species
have been previously recorded from Florida by Foote and Pratt (1954)
and Beck (1952).


(NMS Species)
a.Vnrral vieLuoFmoaegeni+ala-giaira s
b. Parameres
C. Female sperma+4eca

FIGUI2E-2. c.

The five species which this paper adds to the previously known fauna
of Florida brings the number of known species of Gulicoides in Florida to
a total of twenty-seven. This includes Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillet)
recorded from Escambia County by Foote and Pratt (1954), and Culicoides
tricoloratus Wirth recorded from Palm Beach County by Wirth (1953),
species which have not yet been taken in State Board of Health light traps.
Four of the twenty-seven species are probably of West Indian origin;
C. inamollae, C. pusillus, C. tricoloratus, and C. loughnani, are thus far
recorded only from Florida in the United States. C. floridensis and C.


The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 39, No. 3

bermudensis have been recorded only from Florida and Bermuda, suggest-
ing possible endemicity. Twenty species are known throughout the eastern
United States, although Florida apparently is the extreme southern limit
of the ranges of some species such as venustus, variipennis, and guttipennis.
Appreciation is expressed to J. A. Mulrennan, Director of the Bureau
of Entomology, Florida State Board of Health, for encouraging this study,
to Chester Turknett, Bureau of Sanitary Engineering, Florida State Board
of Health, for preparing the drawings, and to Dr. W. W. Wirth, United
States National Museum, for aid in determining the taxonomy of the
species and for reviewing the manuscript.

A new species of Culicoides from Florida, C. knowltoni, is described and
the male of C. bermudensis Williams is described. Florida distribution
records on four species new for the State are given, together with new
county records on previously recorded species. This brings the number of
known species of Culicoides in Florida to twenty-seven.

Beck, E. C. 1952. Notes on the distribution of Culicoides in Florida. Fla.
Ent. 35(3): 101-107.
Foote, R. H., and H. D. Pratt. 1954. The Culicoides of the eastern United
States. Pub. Hlth. Monog. No. 18. U. S. Dept. Hlth., Educ., and Wel-
fare. 53 pp.
Lane, John. 1949. Sinonimias en Culicoides guttatus (Coquillet, 1904).
Rol. Ent. Venezolana. 8: 115-117.
Khalaf, K. T. 1952. The Culicoides of the Wichita Refuge, Oklahoma.
Taxonomy and seasonal incidence. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 40(2): 348-358.
Williams, R. W. 1956. The biting midges of the genus Culicoides found in
the Bermuda Islands (Diptera, Heleidae) 1. A description of C. ber-
mudensis n. sp. with a key to the local fauna. Jour. Parasit. 42(3):
Wirth, W. W., and F. S. Blanton. 1953. Studies in Panama Culicoides
(Diptera: Heleidae) II. Descriptions of six additional species. Jour.
Parasit. 39(3): 229-236.



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