Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00188
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1960
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00188
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text



Volume 43, No. 3 September, 1960

Eastin, J. L., and G. S. Burden-Tests with Five Silica
Dusts Against German Cockroaches -.......---................. ---99
Whitcomb, W. H., and R. Bell-Ground Beetles on
Cotton Foliage .--..... ----------------------... ..--- ..---- 103
Peterson, Alvah-A Leaf Skeletonizer, Lobesia lirioden-
drana (Kearfott), Olethreutidae, on Magnolia grandi-
flora in Florida ------~~... --.~---.. .. ----- ..---- -----. 105
Clarke, J. F. Gates-A New Species of Moth Injurious to
Pine (Lepidoptera: Blastobasidae) ............................. 115
Summers, F. M.- Eupalopsis and Eupalopsellid Mites
(Acarina: Stigmaeidae, Eupalopsellidae) -...........-......... 119
Woodruff, Robert E.-Suppression of the Genus Roplisa
Casey with Notes on the United States Species of
Trigonopeltastes Burmeister (Coleoptera:
Scarabaeidae) .----. -- ---------------- 139
Causey, Nell B.-The Neotropical Millipeds in Florida,
Including Calyptodesmus schubarti, n. sp. (Stylodes-
midae: Polydesmida) ...---------...... ..................... ..-----147
E rratum -.... .-..........-. ............................. .........-.... ...... ....... .. 117

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


OFFICERS FOR 1959-1960
President .........--------------.... ......................................... Andrew J. Rogers
Vice-President---..-.......... ----............................................ Lewis Berner
Secretary---------........................-......................... Lawrence A. Hetrick
Treasurer ...----...--...-.....-- .....-- ....... ...... ................ Robert E. Waites
SJohn E. Porter
Other Members of Executive Committee G. G. Rohwer
William P. Hunter

Editorial Board
Lewis Berner-.----...... -...-......-....--..................Editor
Norman C. Hayslip.........---....---......Associate Editor
Robert E. Waites.-- ------........... --.. Business Manager

THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription price to non-members $5.00 per year in
advance; $1.25 per copy. Entered as second class matter at the post
office at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
Biology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions and
orders for back numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box 2425,
University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Secretary can
be reached at the same address.
Authors are urged to consult a style manual when preparing manuscripts.
For form of literature citations, see recent issues of THE FLORIDA EN-
TOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are referred to "Suggestions for the prepara-
tion of papers submitted for publication in THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST."
FLA. ENT. 41(4): 193-194. 1958.
One zinc etching, not to exceed one-half page in size, or the equivalent
thereof, will be allowed free. The actual cost of all additional illustrations
must be borne by contributors. In general, the cost of a full page zinc
etching is $7.50. Reprints of articles may be secured by authors if they
are ordered before, or at the time proofs are received for correcting; 25
copies furnished free to authors.

Each additional
No. Pages 50 copies 100 copies 100 copies
1-4 ....................................... $ 5.25 $ 6.25 $ .98
5-8 ...................................... 8.75 10.75 2.10
9-16 ........................................ 13.00 17.10 3.00
17-20 ........................................ 19.25 23.50 4.00
More than 20 pages,
per page ........................... .98 .88 .19
Additional for covers with title and author's name,
First 50 ........................$5.25 Additional, each............$ .02



The recent work of Wagner and Ebeling (1959) has re-emphasized the
insecticidal properties of silica dusts and has created interest in this type
of control, particularly with certain household pests. These compounds
affect insects by causing a water loss which eventually results in death
(Wigglesworth 1957, Ebeling and Wagner 1959).
The effectiveness of CAB-O-SIL, Santocel-C, Estersil-1, SG-67, and
SG-68 was determined in laboratory and field tests against the German
cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), in the Orlando, Florida, area. Ester-
sil-1, a surface-esterfied amorphous silica, and SG-67, which has theoret-
ically 4.7% of ammonium silicofluoride present as a monomolecular layer,
are coated, finely divided silicas. Santocel-C and SG-68 are uncoated finely
divided silicas. CAB-O-SIL is a silica smoke, produced by burning silicon
tetrafluoride in a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. The silica dusts were
used at full strength and mixed with talc, individually and in combination
with malathion. Malathion and Diazinon dust were used as standards.

The dusts were applied to 514-inch-square plywood panels in a dust
tower (Fig. 1). The tower consisted of a bell jar 14 inches high with an
inside diameter of 814 inches. An inverted glass funnel was inserted from
the inside of the bell jar through a one-hole stopper; the stem of the funnel
projected 4 inches above the jar. A small rubber stopper tied to the out-

Figure 1. Unassembled and assembled components of the dust tower
and the plastic dishes used for exposure of cockroaches to treated panels.

1Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., U. S. D. A.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 43, No. 3

side of the glass funnel was placed inside the cone to retain the silica dusts
in the stem until ejection by compressed carbon dioxide.
A 15-ml., volumetric, transfer pipette, with both ends severed 2 cm.
from the bulb, was cut across the bulb to provide two sections of unequal
volume. The dust was weighed in the larger section. The two sections were
rejoined with masking tape and one end was connected to the protruding
funnel stem by a 1-inch piece of rubber tubing, and the other end was con-
nected to a source of carbon dioxide under a pressure of 20 to 30 p.s.i.
(gauge pressure), which was turned on for 0.4-0.6 second to expel the dust.
The interior shape of the dust chamber was modified by the addition of
a glazed paper cone which extended from the funnel to the bottom perimeter
of the bell jar. After ejection of the dust, the panel remained under the
tower for 3 minutes, then the bell jar was cautiously removed to minimize
air movement over the dusted surface. A plastic dish, 31/2 inches in di-
ameter, with a small opening in the bottom was coated with pyrophyllite
and inverted over the panel (Fig. 1). The pyrophyllite coating forced the
cockroaches to remain in contact with the treatment (or silica dust), since
they cannot crawl on pyrophyllite-coated plastic.
Ten normal male cockroaches, which were 8 weeks old, were dropped
through the dish opening onto the dusted surface. After exposure for 30
minutes, they were removed and placed in a Petri dish. Mortality counts
were taken 48 hours later. The tests were conducted at 82-86 F. and at
a relative humidity of 50%-70%.
The full-strength silica dusts-were tested at a range of dosages between
100 and 500 mg./sq. ft. The mortalities and dosages were plotted on log-pro-
bit paper and the LD-50's and LD-90's (mg./sq. ft.) were estimated as fol-

LD-50 LD-90

Santocel-C 205 455
Estersil-1 175 375
CAB-O-SIL 100 240
SG-68 109 150
SG-67 104 130

At the LD-50 level CAB-O-SIL, SG-67, and SG-68 were approximately
equal in effectiveness, but at the LD-90 level SG-67 and SG-68 were superior
to the others.
Tests were also conducted to determine the effectiveness of talc formu-
lations containing 2% of malathion in combination with 10% of Estersil-1,
SG-67, or SG-68 in comparison with the individual materials. Since pilot
tests indicated that maximum mortalities resulted when the dusts were
mixed without a solvent, all the formulations were prepared in this man-
ner. The results are given in table 1. The combinations of malathion and
SG-67 or SG-68 were more effective than malathion alone, but the silica
dusts alone at 10% were ineffective.


Eastin: Dusts Against German Cockroaches


Percent knockdown
Dosage and kill after
Material (mg./sq. ft.) 48 hours

Estersil-1, 10% + malathion, 2% 500 70
1,000 100
SG-68, 10% + malathion, 2% 250 70
500 100
1,000 100
SG-67, 10% + malathion, 2% 250 53
500 98
1,000 100
Malathion, 2% 250 53
500 87
1,000 98
Estersil-1, 10% 500 5
1,000 18
SG-68, 10% 250 13
500 5
1,000 28
SG-67, 10% 250 5
500 3
1,000 55


Tests with Estersil-1, SG-67, and SG-68 were conducted against natural
infestations of German cockroaches in homes. All treatments were made
in a housing project consisting of ground-level units of five or six rooms.
These units were similar in design and were constructed of concrete block.
Pretreatment counts were made in the homes; all areas of cockroach infes-
tation were noted and the percent reduction in live cockroaches was based
on post-treatment counts throughout a period of 29 to 30 days.
The silica dusts and a standard dust containing 1% of Diazinon (0,0-
diethyl 0-(2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinyl) phosphorothioate) in pyro-
phyllite were applied with polyethylene squeeze-bottle dusters fitted with
extension nozzles. These dusters require a minimum amount of air pres-
sure, thereby preventing excessive floating of particles. Great care must be
exercised in applying the silica dusts to prevent them from diffusing into
parts of the home where they would be objectionable. Normally %/ to 1/
pound of dust was required to treat each unit. During the test period the
temperature averaged 79.90 F. and the relative humidity 78.7%.
The results are shown in table 2. SG-67 was the most effective of the
three silica dusts, but it was less effective than 1% Diazinon after 9-10 days.


The Florida, Entomologist

Although the silica dusts gave some control, they were not only less effec-
tive than the Diazinon dust, but gave far less satisfactory results than
oil sprays of the currently recommended organophosphorus insecticides, as
tested under similar conditions by Lofgren et al. (1957).


Pretreat- Percent reduction after indicated days-
Material ment count 1 2 5-6 9-10 12-13 16-17 22-23 29-30

Diazinon (1%) 463 93 92 94 95 92 97 94 91*
SG-67 82 86 94 95 86 83 87 62 69
SG-68 150 29 0 24 1 0 0 0 0
Estersil-1 283 82 80 80 78 72 80 68 60

77% after 90 days.

Based on the LD-50's in laboratory tests, the silica dusts CAB-O-SIL,
SG-67, and SG-68 were more effective than Estersil-1 or Santocel-C against
male German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.). At the LD-90 level
SG-67 and SG-68 were superior to the others.
Combinations of 10% of SG-.67 or SG-68 and 2% malathion in talc were
more effective than 2% of malathion alone, but 10% of the silica dusts alone
were ineffective.
The control of German cockroaches in homes ranged from 29% to zero
percent for 30 days with SG-68, from 82% to 60% with Estersil-1, from
95% to 62% with SG-67, and from 95% to 91% with 1% Diazinon.


Ebeling, W., and R. E. Wagner. 1959. Rapid desiccation of drywood ter-
mites with inert sorptive dusts and other substances. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 52(2): 191-207.
Lofgren, C., G. S. Burden, and P. H. Clark. 1957. Experiments with in-
secticides for the control of German roaches. Pest Control 25(7): 9,
10, 12, 47.
Wagner, R. E., and W. Ebeling. 1959. Lethality of inert dust material to
Kalotermes minor Hagen and their role as preventive in structural
pest control. Jour. Econ. Ent. 52(2): 208-15.
Wigglesworth, V. B. 1957. The physiology of insect cuticle. Ann. Rev.
Ent. 2: 37-54.

Vol. 43, No. 3



The role of species of the carabid genus Lebia as predators of cotton in-
sects has received little attention. Five species of the genus Lebia of the
family Carabidae were found on cotton foliage in Arkansas during 1957,
1958, and 1959. They ranged over the entire plant, tending to concentrate
in the terminals.
A number of species of these small ground beetles are active on the
leaves and stems of various herbaceous plants. Several species have been
found to be predaceous on both adult and immature stages of economic pests.
Glover and Riley (Riley, 1871) observed that Lebia grandis Hentz. fed on
both eggs and larvae of the Colorado potato beetle. Cushman and Isely
(1916) reported Lebia ornata Say feeding on both larvae and adults of the
cherry leaf beetle, Galerucella cavicollis (Lec.). Lebia viridis Say was
observed by D. Isely (1920) to feed on eggs, larvae, and pupae of the grape
flea beetle, Altica chalybea (Ill.). Silvestri (Clausen, 1940) found that
Lebia scapularis Fourc. fed on all stages of an elm leaf beetle, Galerucella
luteola Mull.

ADULTS OF Lebia analis.

Total no. of Av. no. of eggs
Specimen No. of days eggs consumed consumed per day

1 18 71 4
2 21 128 6
3 21 138 6.5
4 8 30 3.7
5 18 131 7.3
6 18 130 7.2
7 13 82 6.3
8 14 83 6.0
9 18 128 7.1
10 13 81 6.2

Average consumed per
day by all specimens 6.03

The 5 species found on cotton in Arkansas have been identified as
Lebia marginicollis Dej., L. pumila Dej., L. abdominalis (Chaud.), L, viridis
Say, and L. analis Dej. L. viridis, L. pumila, L. marginicollis, and L. ab-

SPublished with approval of Director of the Arkansas Agricultural
Experiment Station.
Entomologist, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station.
SGraduate student, University of Arkansas.
Specimens identified by H. Dietrich of Cornell University.

The Florida Entomologist

dominalis were taken near Morrilton, Conway County, in cotton. L. analis
was taken near Morrilton, Warren, Hope, Kelso, Altheimer, and Atkins in
cotton, indicating a state-wide distribution in that crop. L. analis was par-
ticularly abundant in cotton during 1959. As many as 17 beetles to 100
terminals was not uncommon. Except for L. abdominalis and L. pumila,
these species were also found on corn, alfalfa, and soybeans. L. abdominalis
was found only on cotton and soybeans. L. pumila was found only on cotton.
It is possible that Lebia analis is, at times, an important bollworm egg
predator on cotton. Attempts at field observations of feeding habits were
unsuccessful. In the laboratory, L. analis fed freely on eggs of Heliothis
zea (Boddie) but rejected tarnished plant bugs and aphids. Over a 1 to 3
week period, 10 individuals consumed an average of 6 H. zea eggs per day.
First instar H. zea larvae were also eaten. L. viridis consumed H. zea eggs
somewhat less freely.
Blatchley, W. S. 1910. Coleoptera or beetles known to occur in Indiana.
The Nature Publishing Company, Indianapolis, Ind. 1386 pp.
Clausen, Curtis P. 1940. Entomophagous insects. McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
New York. 686 pp.
Cushman, R. A., and D. Isely. 1916. The cherry leaf-beetle, a periodically
important enemy of cherries. U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 352: 1-26.
Isely, D. 1920. Grapevine flea-beetles. U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 901: 1-27.
Riley, C. V. 1871. The Colorado potato beetle again. Mo. State Ent. Third
Ann. Rpt.: 97-101.

Factories and Offices: TAMPA and FORT PIERCE, FLORIDA


Vol. 43, No. 3



On April 20, 1959, Mr. H. A. Denmark called the author's attention to
the presence of a leaf skeletonizer producing considerable damage on two
medium-sized trees of Magnolia grandiflora located on the University of
Florida campus at Gainesville. The following are observations recorded on
the biology of the insect and the type and extent of damage produced during
1959 and the spring of 1960.
DETERMINATION OF SPECIES: Infested leaves, possessing larvae and pu-
pae in cocoons, were collected on April 20, 1959, and moths emerged on
May 2, 1959. These were sent to JVxA-CI-P.-Kimball for determination. He
identified the moths to be Lobesia liriodendrana (Kearfott), a species of
Olethreutidae. This insect was originally described from adults reared
from larvae on Magnolia virginiana.
FOLIAGE INJURY: A single larva may produce a conspicuous, brown to
silvery, elongated, irregular blotch on one half of a mature leaf which is
more or less parallel with the midvein. The silvery blotch is the unbroken
upper membrane of the leaf which the larva did not injure when it consumed
the tissue on the lower surface. If two more or less parallel blotches occur
on the upper surface, one of each side of the midvein, they were produced
by two larvae, each living under its own web on one half of the leaf. Rarely
will one find in the field more than two living larvae under enlarged webs
on a single leaf. Occasionally one may see two or three empty mines or
very small empty webs on a leaf.
The two magnolia trees mentioned in the introduction showed a far
greater degree of infestation during 1959 than any other magnolia trees
seen in Gainesville or other places in Florida. Many magnolia trees were
examined. Some showed no signs of skeletonizer damage, while a few
possessed an occasional injured leaf. Usually the number per tree was
less than one per cent, but the damage on the two trees under observation
was at least 25 per cent. On many branches, 10 to 20 per cent of the leaves
were damaged, while others showed 50 per cent or more. Most of the ob-
servations included in this report were recorded from insects observed on
the two heavily infested trees.
ADULTS: The over-all color of the small moth (Plate 1:1) is a mottled
mixture of shades of brown, made up of light beige, medium to dark brown,
and almost black scales grouped in irregular masses and lines. Each fore-
wing is approximately 7 mm. in length and possesseses two irregular con-
spicuous dark areas, one near the proximal end and the other beyond the
mid-region arising from the costal margin. The metathoracic wings are
folded and located under the forewings when the insect is at rest. They
are somewhat uniform in color, varying from a light beige near their bases

SContribution No. 11 from the Department of Entomology, State Plant
Board of Florida, Gainesville.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 43, No. 3



L 7+ MM.






L 14+ MM.



Life Stages of Lobesia Liriodendrana Kearfott


Peterson: A Leaf Skeletonizer

to a distinct grey near the tip ends. Long, light-colored scales occur on
the outer margins of these wings.
A conspicuous tuft or mass of erect dark-colored scales occurs on the
rear portion of the dorsal aspect of the thorax. The many segmented an-
tennae are light brown with the distal portions near-black. The fairly con-
spicuous dark-colored eyes are deep brown and surrounded with elongated
beige-colored scales which arise from the head and palpi.
In the laboratory adult females lived for 3 to 8 days when they had
access to water. They were most active from the late afternoon until total
darkness. During this period of activity eggs were deposited.
OVIPOSITION: Under field conditions, the female moths deposit their
eggs on the upper glossy surface of magnolia leaves. In the laboratory,
repeated tests were made with a few to many adults in various kinds of
cages in order to obtain eggs. Small screen cages, 12" x 12" x 12", glass
jars and vials lined with polyethylene or paper, and small polyethylene
bags containing magnolia leaves and a water source were tried. All told,
the deposition of eggs under laboratory conditions was unsatisfactory. In
a few tests, a small number of eggs were found on the foliage of poly-
EGGS: Eggs of the magnolia leaf skeletonizer (Plate 1: 2-3) are very
similar to the eggs of several species Tt~fh-e -Olethreutidae. They are
smooth, flat, disc- or scale-like objects measuring approximately one milli-
meter across when viewed from above. Also, they are translucent, and
consequently, when deposited on green foliage, the green color of the leaf

Explanation of Life Stages on Plate I,
Figures 4, 5, 9 and 10 drawn to same scale
Figure 1.-Lateral view of a female moth at rest.
Figure 2.-Outline of the lateral view of an egg.
Figure 3.-Top view of a three-day-old egg deposited on a clear substrate
showing, by transmitted light, a u-shaped embryo within surrounded
by yellowish cytoplasm.
Figure 4.-A first instar, 1 mm. larva with a black, flattened head and
habits of a leaf miner.
Figure 5.-A nearly full-grown, green, fifth instar larva with a light-
colored rounded, prognathous head with external leaf-skeletonizing
Figure 6.-Lateral view of a black, flattened head of a first instar larva.
Drawn to same scale as Figure 7.
Figure 7.-Lateral view of an almost colorless (yellowish-white), rounded
head of a second instar larva showing a lateral pigment area which
also occurs in succeeding instars.
Figure 8.-Enlarged ventral view of the crochets on one fourth abdominal
proleg of a fifth instar larva.
Figure 9.-Ventral view of a light or dark brown pupa.
Figure 10.-Dorso-lateral view of a pupa showing the slit on the dorso-
meson through which the adult emerged, also, the normal position of
the pupa in relation to its black, fecal-pellet covered cocoon at the time
of adult emergence.

The Florida Entomologist

~b:~ ,
:I : :'
.... ~.

'' :'.. ~ .~::i: ..':~' ;


Leaf Injury Produced by Lobesia Liriodendrana Kearfott


Vol. 43, No. 3

Peterson: A Leaf Skeletonizer

is visible through the egg. When eggs are deposited on glass or colorless
polyethylene, they are almost without color except for the slightly yellow-
ish cytoplasm surrounding the nearly transparent embryos. As an egg de-
velops, the embryo takes on a u-shape. Before it completes its develop-
ment, it inverts its position, momentarily assuming an s-shape. The changes
in the embryo can be seen by light reflected through the egg from below.
The incubation period of the eggs during the summer was 4 to 6 days.
About 24 hours previous to hatching, the black head of the first instar larva
shows as a black spot through the egg covering. This black-spot condition
of the egg, when it is ready to hatch, is typical of many eggs of the
Olethreutidae, Tortricidae, Pyralidae and other Lepidoptera. In hatching,
the larva chews an exit opening in the egg covering.
LARVAE: A newly-hatched first instar larva (Plate 1: 4 and 6) approxi-
mates one millimeter in length. It possesses a flattened, black head with
ocelli present on the lateral aspects.

Figures 1-7.-Magnolia leaves injured by single larvae while feeding or
constructing their mines and webs. Figures 1, 3 and 5 show mines
and webbed areas on the lower surface. Figures 2, 4 and 6 show mines
and feeding injury from the upper surface.
Figure 1.-Leaf showing mine produced by a larva during its first instar
and a one centimeter silken web produced by a late first instar or a
second instar larva.
Figure 2.-Same leaf as figure 1 showing a mine and feeding injury from
the upper surface.
Figure 3.-An infested leaf showing a web five centimeters in length, similar
to Figure 5. The webbing has been removed to show the behavior pat-
tern of the larva. Under the web, the downy thread-like hairs have
been cut off and deposited on the outer surface of the web by the larva
as it enlarges its domicile. The larva then proceeds to consume a
portion of the smooth, green denuded surface. The feeding extends
to the epidermis of the leaf's upper surface, producing a dead, brown
to silvery irregular area. In addition to the above behavior, the larva
constructs a white, tough, silken funnel adjacent to the main vein of
the leaf. It uses this as a retreat when disturbed or when it is inactive.
Figure 4.-Leaf showing a v-shaped mine from the upper surface produced
by a first instar larva located on the lower surface.
Figure 5.-A five centimeter web constructed by a third instar larva on
the lower surface of the leaf. It is always located on one half of the
leaf and distad of the mined area. The outer surface of the web is
covered with severed, downy, thread-like leaf hairs which are cut off
by the larva and placed on the outer surface as it builds its web
Figure 6.-Same leaf as Figure 5, showing the mine and feeding injury
from the upper surface.
Figure 7.-The final stage of a 9 to 11 centimeter web constructed by a fifth
(last) instar larva. In many cases the leaf is folded, often not as much
as shown in this figure. Within and under the web the larva constructs
a near-black cocoon attached to the leaf. The cocoon consists of white
silk and is covered with near-black fecal pellets which, at this stage,
are abundant under the web. When the adult is ready to emerge the
pupa partially pushes its way out of the coccoon and splits its covering
on the dorsum of the thorax. Upon emergence, the adult, when ready
to fly, finds a hole in the web and escapes.


The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 43, No. 3

So far as observed, a newly-hatched larva on the upper surface of the
leaf does not enter the leaf from this surface. Apparently, it wanders
over the leaf (upper and lower surfaces) until it finds the mid-vein on
the lower surface and usually enters the midvein not far from the petiole.
A large majority of the mines produced by first instar larvae occur on the
basal half of the leaf and almost invariably are adjacent to the midvein.
Upon entering a leaf, the larva constructs a small v-shaped mine (Plate
2:4) with one arm of the mine parallel with the midvein and the other
portion parallel with a smaller lateral vein. This damage to the leaf is the
work of a first instar larva.
About this time, the larva moults and produces a second instar larva
which is an external feeder. It proceeds to build a web 1 or more centi-
meters in length. This V-shaped web starts at the V-shaped mine and,
almost without exception, projects toward the tip end of the leaf adjacent to
the midvein on one half of the leaf. A second instar larva averages 2 to
4 mm. in length and possesses a rounded, light-colored head (Plate 1:7)
with a distinct pigment spot on each side adjacent to the caudo-lateral
margins. Succeeding instars also have rounded, yellowish- to light-amber
heads with pigment spots on the caudo-lateral margins (Plate 1:5).
After a small web is constructed, leaf feeding may begin under the
web. Before a larva consumes the leaf tissue on the lower surface it cuts
off the thread-like leaf hairs and deposits most of them on the outer sur-
face of the webbing. This leaves a green area of plant tissue without ob-
structions when feeding occurs. A larva, in feeding, will consume all of the
green plant cells at a given point until it reaches the epidermis of the leaf's
glossy upper surface. This it does not destroy; consequently, when this
surface dries and hardens, it appears as a grey or silvery membrane.
During the second instar and later, the larva constructs under its web
and adjacent to the midvein an inner, elongated, firm white, silken, funnel-
like retreat (Plate 2:3). When a larva is disturbed, it backs into this re-
treat. During the daytime, one seldom sees a larva feeding on the leaf as
it is usually at rest in its retreat. It is probable that most feeding and web
construction occurs at night.
As shown later, the larvae apparently passes through five instars. When
the fifth instar larva is almost full grown, the webbing on the leaf may
be 10 to 15 cm. in length and 3 to 5 cm. in width at its broad end. Occasion-
ally, a full-grown larva will pull back the tip end of a leaf or pull over
one edge (Plate 2:7) and anchor these parts with silk. Also, some larvae
feeding on the area adjacent to a midvein will produce a distinct fold in
the injured portion of the leaf under the web. Usually, the brown or light
grey skeletonized dead tissue, seen best from the upper surface, does not
exceed one-half of the area covered by the webbing on the lower surface.
A mature larva is 10 to 14 mm. in length and usually has a dull-green
color. Before a cocoon is constructed, the larva produces a considerable
amount of dark fecal pellets held together in loose masses by silken threads.
Some of these masses may resemble cocoons except they are not compact
and firm. Eventually the full-grown larva constructs a cocoon which it
attaches to the midvein or some portion of the leaf. The cocoon is made
of white silk and covered with dark fecal pellets.
LARVAL INSTARS: Dyar's idea, that the width of the head capsule of a
lepidopterous larva is more or less constant for any instar of a given species,


Peterson: A Leaf Skeletonizer 111

was used to determine the number of instars among larvae of Lobesia lirio-
dendrana (Kearfott) feeding on the leaves of magnolia during the middle
of June at Gainesville, Florida. About 200 infested leaves were collected
and brought to the laboratory for study. Over 150 larvae were removed
from the infested leaves, killed in a K.A.A. mixture, and preserved in 95
per cent ethyl alcohol. The head capsule widths were measured with a cross-
hatched eyepiece located in one ocular of a stereoscopic microscope. Each
square under a 10 X ocular and 7.5 X objective measured 0.13 x 0.13 mm.
Figure A shows the number of head capsules of a given width on the
vertical lines. To obtain an over-all trend, a running-average, plotted line
was constructed. Each point on the line is the average number of indi-
viduals of 5 sizes, 2 to the left and 2 to the right of the line on which the
point is placed. Figure A shows 5 prominent vertical lines and 5 elevations
in the running average line. These points and the elevations on the line
indicate strongly that there are 5 instars.

g-First_ _Second_ _ _Third_ _A___ _Fovrth_ _-FitLh_ _ _-8
Firt - --- T - -FoIrtk - - - -
-1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --- - -b
I----------------------__ ---___-- _---------------7

e A.-- ---Larval I ars Derm d by W s of H d Ca------ ---ps--ul--s a g---------
S_------------------------------ __-_- _-_-_--------_------------^-.

.605, .66, and .75; while, if we assume that there are four instars, the ratios
-4 ----- -- -----------4
a --- ------- -- - - - - -

Figure A.-Larval Instars Determined by Widths of Head Capsules among
153 Larvae Collected at Random During June 1959 at Gainesville, Florida.

One might question the evidence for the second instar because the num-
ber is low. If the collection had been made late in May or early in June,
the number of very small larvae probably would have been greater.
Dyar has also stated that the ioratios of growth between the successive
instars of a given species show a more or less regular geometric progres-
sion. If this idea is applied to the 153 measured larvae of Lobesia lirio-
dendrana (Kearfott), it will be noted that the ratios between the measure-
ments, when it is assumed that there are 5 instars, are as follows: .60,
.605,.66, and .75; while, if we assume that there are four instars, the ratios
are .37, .66, and .75. In other words, the first series agrees much more
closely with Dyar's idea of growth ratios than the second series.
In both series, the ratios between the last and next to the last instar
are somewhat divergent from the previous ratios of .60, .605, and .66. This
also holds for other species of lepidopterous larvae which the author has
Until further study is made, it will be assumed that most larvae of this
species pass through 5 larval instars.

The Florida Entomologist

LIFE CYCLES: When this investigation was started on April 20, 1959,
all stages of the insect were found in the field. Consequently, the observa-
tions to date2 do not reveal the complete life cycles of this insect for any
single year.
As stated previously, eggs deposited on foliage during May to September
required 4 to 6 days to hatch. Lower temperatures undoubtedly will in-
crease the incubation period.
In order to determine the time required for a larva to complete its
growth and transform into a pupa, two practices were pursued. In one
procedure, close to 200 infested leaves were collected and brought into an
air-conditioned laboratory. Some leaves were also placed in polyethylene
bags in a screened insectary. The latter failed to produce results and all
of the larvae died, probably due to the high temperature in the insectary
and the excessive condensation in the containers where the leaves were
During May, June and early July, leaves were brought into the air-
conditioned laboratory, tagged individually and placed in polyethylene bags,
5 leaves per bag. The date of collection, size of the web, and other perti-
nent facts were recorded on the tags. The leaves were examined 3 times
a week and all changes recorded on the tags. When the larvae started to
construct a cocoon this was called the end of its growth period. As soon
as a cocoon appeared, the leaf containing the cocoon was removed, cut
down in size and placed in a separate polyethylene bag, and held for adult
emergence. The above practice gave satisfactory results until early in
July when it was noted that the picked leaves molded and turned dry before
the larvae could complete their development. Another objection to this
method of study is the fact that the leaves were kept in an air-conditioned
room which differs decidedly from an outdoor environment. The 200 larvae
used in these hearings gave the following results: larvae collected under
webs 1 cm. in length, containing chiefly first or early second instar larvae,
completed their growth in 10 to 21 days with an average close to 15 days,
and the pupal period was 9 to 20 days.
The second practice pursued was the tagging of leaves on the tree,
recording the development of the web once a week and the development of
the insect a month or so after the leaves were tagged. When leaves were
tagged, only those that showed normal, uninjured webs were chosen. For
the most part, these were leaves with webs under 5 cm. in length.
Fifty leaves were tagged on June 10, examined twice a week and checked
for final details on July 13th. This lot of tagged leaves had a total of 7
living larvae varying in size from 7 to 10 or more millimeters in length. All
of the webs showed some tears. Most of these were badly riddled.
Fifty leaves tagged on June 18 and examined in detail on July 13th
possessed eleven living larvae, mostly full grown, and two pupae in cocoons.
Again, most of the webs were badly riddled and empty.
Another fifty leaves were tagged on July 14 and examined in detail on
August 17. The results showed one full-grown larva, two empty pupal
skins, two dead larvae in cocoons, and one dead parasite cocoon. All other
webs were empty and torn, and, in most instances, badly riddled. This
method for obtaining life cycle records was unsatisfactory, chiefly due to the

2 The manuscript was submitted for publication in March, 1960.


Vol. 43, No. 3

Peterson: A Leaf Skeletonizer

fact that some predator entered the webs and destroyed the living larvae
and pupae in the cocoons. The tagged leaves did show that some predator
was responsible for the death of many larvae and pupae.
PUPAE IN COCOONS: When a full-grown larva is ready for pupation it
spins a white cocoon which it covers with black fecal pellets (Plate 1:10).
The cocoon is approximately 15 mm. long and 3 to 4 mm. in diameter. It
is always under the webbing on the leaf and usually attached to the leaf
adjacent to the midvein.
When emergence time for the adult approaches, the pupa pushes itself
at least halfway out of the cocoon. At this point, the pupal covering splits
along the dorsomeson and the adult emerges and escapes from the web via
one or more holes found in most large webs.
The time the pupa spent in the cocoon during May to August varied
from 9 to 20 days. Approximately two days of this time was spent in the
prepupal stage. A newly formed pupa is light yellowish-brown but before
emergence of the adult takes place, the color changes to a deep brown.
NATURAL ENEMIES: Natural enemies of the magnolia leaf skeletonizer
are numerous, and, at times, appear to reduce the population decidedly.
Eggs were never plentiful or easy to find on the foliage. During the
season approximately 50 eggs of Lobesia were seen. About one-half of
these were parasitized by some species of Trichogramma. An egg, parasi-
tized by Trichogramma, is black before and after the wasp has emerged.
Larvae and pupae of Lobesia are attacked by predators, hymenopterous
parasites and disease pathogens. Early in the season chrysopid larvae were
plentiful on the foliage. A few were seen feeding on small larvae of
Lobesia liriodendrana (Kearfott).
Some predator, capable of tearing large holes in the webs, was fairly
common early in the season. By midseason most of the webs showed some
to excessive tears. It is evident that a predator larger than an average
insect seeks and feeds on the larvae and pupae in cocoons under the webs.
The author suspects birds. The only birds seen were mocking birds, card-
inals and English sparrows. At no time did these species appear to be
seeking larvae or pupae in the webs.
An occasional lizard of the genus Anolis, commonly referred to as a
chameleon, was seen on the trees. It is suspected that they may feed on
the larvae or pupae; however, it is known that these creatures usually
attack objects that are in motion and not under a web.
An occasional parasite was found among the larvae collected. One
was a species of Macrocentrus. Also, an occasional larva or pupa was found
dead under the webbing covered with the mycelium of some unknown
pathogen or secondary fungus.
In summarizing the information on the natural enemies of this host it
is evident that predators play a decided role in the reduction of Lobesia
liriodendrana (Kearfott), especially during the summer months.
During the months of October through December, there was a decided
reduction in the activity of the predator which produced excessive tears
in the webbing. On November 2, sixty-three leaves which appeared to be
infested were collected. Only two of these were torn badly. Under the
webs there were 33 living larvae, 9 pupae in cocoons, and 2 empty pupal
skins. Again, on December 9, sixty-one leaves with normal webs were

114 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 43, No. 3
collected. Under these webs were found 10 living larvae, 14 pupae in co-
coons, and 15 empty pupal skins. All told, these observations showed that
64 to 70 per cent of the webs collected in November and December possessed
living larvae, pupae or empty pupal skins, while similar collections made
during July and August showed that only 5 to 20 per cent of the webs
possessed living larvae, pupae or empty pupal skins.

P. O. Box 7067


Complete Line of Insecticides, Fungicides and
Weed Killers

California Spray-Chemical Corp.
Located at Fairvilla on Route 441 North

Phone 3-0506



Smithsonian Institution

The species of moth described in this paper was received from Mr. Karl
F. Wenger, Leader, Lake City Research Center, Southeastern Forest Ex-
periment Station, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Lake City, Florida,
through the Insect Identification and Parasite Introduction Research Branch,
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Additional material was collected by
Mr. Charles P. Kimball and a few specimens came from miscellaneous
sources. Mr. Wenger submitted larvae, pupae, and adults for identifica-
tion; some of each are preserved in the U. S. National Museum.
The length of the type series and large quantity of larvae received in-
dicate that the species is abundant, presumably all along the Atlantic sea-
board, within the range of its foodplants, and does considerable damage to
the flowers and young cones of pines.
The figures for this paper were drawn by Mrs. Caroline Lutz, staff artist,
Department of Zoology, United States National Museum.

Holcocera lepidophaga, new species
(Figures 1-2a)
Alar expanse 11-17 mm.
Labial palpus white, shaded anteriorly and laterally on second segment,
with fuscous. Antenna ocherous white with narrow dark annulations; scape
white. Head ocherous white with slight infuscation posteriorly; collar
white. Thorax and forewing ochraceous-buff; extreme edge of costa ocher-
ous white to outer third; underside of wing light fuscous; cilia pale ochrace-
ous-buff. Hind wing grayish-fuscous; cilia pale ochraceous-buff. Legs
white except: foreleg suffused with fuscous on outer side; tarsi of midleg
fuscous; hind tibia tinged with ocherous and hind tarsi suffused with fus-
cous; abdomen white above tinged with ocherous beneath. The entire insect
presents a glossy appearance.
MALE GENITALIA: Costal edge of harpe produced into a bluntly pointed
digitate process; cucullus long, curved, sharply pointed. Anellus composed
of two sclerotized crescentic plates. Gnathos terminating in a broad sub-
rectangular plate; posterior edge produced as a short, blunt point. Uncus
divided distally into three winglike pieces arranged in a triangle. Aedeagus
membranous except for a slender sclerotized rod and, basally, a sclerotized
FEMALE GENITALIA: Ostium membranous. Ductus bursae membran-
ous, somewhat spiraled; inception of ductus seminalis slightly before
ostium. Signum a strongly sclerotized sub-rectangular plate.
TYPE: Male, Baker County, Florida (Em. 15.IV.58. Hopkins U. S.
No. 40170). U. S. N. M. No. 64924.
FOOD PLANTS: Pinus elliottii Engelmann and P. palustris Mill. (Accord-
ing to a note accompanying the larvae: "Larvae mainly feeding into male

The Florida Entomologist

flower buds and flowers or among basal scale leaves of cones and vegeta-
tive buds.)".

Figures 1-2a. Holcocera lepidophaga, new species. 1,Ventral view of
male genitalia with left harpe and aedeagus removed; la, aedeagus; Ib,
oblique view of distal end of uncus. 2, Ventral view of female genitalia;
2a, signum enlarged.

Described from the male type, 31 male and 6 female paratypes as fol-
lows: Florida: 4 & S 2 9 same data as type (April and May emergence
dates); 9, Columbia County, Em. 17.IV.58, B. H. Ebel; 3, Torreya State
Park, 29.IV.52, G. S. Walley; S, Siesta Key, Sarasota County, 1.V.56, C. P.
Kimball; S, Archer, 3-82, C. V. Riley [specimen labelled "Blastobasis n. sp.
Wlsm. .86"]; 9, Camp Pichot, 14.II.32, P. C. Wakeley, No. 169-a'. Massa-


Vol. 43, No. 3

Clarke: A New Species of Moth Injurious to Pine

chusetts: 24 $ $, 2 9 9, Barnstable, June, July, August dates, 1949-52,
C. P. Kimball.
Paratypes in the Canadian National Collection, Ottawa, Illinois State
Natural History Survey, Urbana, State Plant Board of Florida, Gaines-
ville, C. P. Kimball Collection, and the United States National Museum.
In general appearance this species most closely resembles Holcocera
augusti Heinrich, described from Oregon and also occurring in Washington
State, but augusti possesses an antennal notch in the male and the larvae
feed in the cones of Pseudotsuga taxifolia. The uncus of lepidophaga im-
mediately distinguishes it from any other described blastobasid; in augusti
the uncus is pointed. Further, the males of the two species can be sepa-
rated by the sclerotized rod of the aedeagus which is attached to the basal
ring in augusti but detached in lepidophaga. The females can be distin-
guished by the signa. In lepidophaga the signum is a sub-rectangular plate,
not ridged; in augusti the signum is elongate with a high transverse ridge.
Dr. Richard Selander, University of Illinois, who has been studying the
Blastobasidae for the past several years, has kindly supplied the following
notes: . I have specimens from Barnstable, Mass., and Siesta Key,
Florida. Its nearest named relative (as far as I can determine at present)
is Holcocera elyella. Together with elyella, a species from Guatemala, and
three other questionable forms, it constitutes what I have been calling the
Elyella Group of Holcocera. . The group may be defined as follows:
Male antenna without a basal notch; male clasper not enlarged, not plate-
like; first antennal segment (male) with a shield of scales covering pecten;
a sclerotized ring at base of aedeagus, this not attached to sclerotized rod;
aedeagus not forked. Female bursa with a single signum; signum a
rounded oval plate, not ridged; abdominal sternum IX without a pair of
callosities. The form of the uncus easily distinguishes lepidophaga (H22)
from any other species of Blastobasidae I have seen."

ERRATUM: In the article by W. G. Genung, "Comparison of insecti-
cides, insect pathogens and insecticide-pathogen combinations for control
of cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hbn.)", Vol. 43, No. 2, p. 66, line 15,
the sentence should read:

This material was used at a rate of 60 milliliters or 1.6 x 1011 poly-
hedra per 100 gallons of spray per acre.





No insecticide has yet approached malathion's
combination of powerful, wide-range insect control
and low toxicity to man and animals.

One drop of malathion is all it
takes to kill 300,000 aphids... yet
you don't need a respirator or spe-
cial protective clothing to handle
it safely.
For fruit and vegetables,mal-
athion offers control of most major
insect pests. It can be used close
to harvest without residue prob-
lems ... up to 1 day on some crops,
three days on most crops.
For fruit, malathion offers
powerful insect control with safe-

ty for finish of sensitive apple va-
ER'S GUIDE PE-5039: American
Cyanamid Company, Agricultural
Division, 30 Rockefeller Plaza,
New York 20, N. Y.


C VATA flA Z fl



University of California, Davis

The species to be considered here are little known mites which have
been placed in two closely allied families, the Stigmaeidae and the Eupalop-
sellidae. Eupalopsis Can., 1889, appears to belong to the family Stigmaei-
dae. Eupalopsellus was separated from its namesake when Willmann (1952)
proposed a new family, the Eupalopsellidae, and based it on the monotypic
genus Eupalopsellus Sellnick, 1949.
One purpose of this study is to clarify as far as possible the status of
the family Eupalopsellidae and to add to it new genera and species. The
study was undertaken also because it has a bearing on Mediolata Can., an
obscure stigmaeid genus already treated in part by the writer.
Berlese's opinion on the synonymy of Mediolata with Eupalopsis cannot
be appraised because their genotypes are not available. His treatment of
M. longirostris and M. pini as congeners of Eupalopsis maseriensis, the
type species, does not quiet the matter, especially since his schematic il-
lustrations of several generic characters of Eupalopsis (A. M. S. it., fasc.
51, N.8, pl. 78) are difficult to reconcile with the characters of E. pini as
re-described here. Nevertheless there is a need for a definition of Eupalop-
sis when the Eupalopsellidae are set apart. It is possible now to accom-
plish only the latter by distinguishing between the species here called
Eupalopsis and those which are to be described as eupalopsellids.
Review of pertinent literature indicates that all of the species formerly
included in Mediolata have now been accommodated elsewhere. Its type
species, Stigmaeus longirostris Berl. and a companion species, Mediolata
pini Can., were transferred to Eupalopsis by Berlese (Ordo Prostig., p.
59). Berlese also placed M. arvensis Can. in synonymy under Eupalopsis
maseriensis C. & F. Mediolata mali (Ewing) = M. novae-scotiae Nesbitt
and M. terminalis (Quayle) have been removed to other genera (Summers,
Eight species have been referred to Eupalopsis but only three seem to
be valid. The gross features of its type species, E. maseriensis, are known
from its original description by Canestrini and Fanzago (1876) and
from illustrations made by Berlese. Less clearly described is E. longirostris
(Berl.), which Canestrini designated as the type of Mediolata. Only a
third species is available for this study. This one almost certainly has
four names, the earliest of which is E. pini Can., 1889 (= pini Berl., 1893,
= reticulata Berl., 1910 = pinicola Ouds., 1923 = punctulata Ouds, 1923).
Oudemans thought that pini Can. and pini Berl. were distinct but homonyms
and he therefore proposed pinicola for the latter and punctulata for yet
another which Berlese (1910) mentioned but did not name. This complica-
tion in pini arises from the fact that differences in the appearance of the
ornamentation on the skeletal plates-dimpling, coarse reticulation, fine
punctation, or simply no obvious pattern-was accepted as the basis for
distinguishing between the species in question. Although the true genetic
or functional significance of the cuticular dimpling or alveolation is ob-

The Florida Entomologist

he a

oter wc

\I I |


Plate I
Eupalopsis pini. Fig. 1, detail of right palptarsus and tibial claw sep-
arated; fig. 2, dorsal aspect of female, with reticular pattern on plates il-
lustrated only on a small area of propodosoma; fig. 3, left tarsus I male;
fig. 4, venter of female opisthosoma; fig. 5, caudal end of male, dorsal view.
(Millimeter scale applicable only to nearest figure on this plate and on
others which follow).

Vol. 43, No. 3


Summers: Eupalopsis and Eupalopsellid Mites

scure, it is the experience of the writer that, in some of the raphignathoid
mites, optical demonstration of a cuticular ornamentation on specimens
mounted in various media can be a hit-or-miss proposition. The synonymy
given below for E. pini rests upon the writer's belief that cuticular pat-
terns encountered in various populations of the same species were evaluated
differently by Canestrini, Berlese and Oudemans.

Eupalopsis pini (G. Can.)
(Figs. 1-5)
Mediolata pini G. Canestrini, 1889, Atti d reale Ist. Ven. d. Sci., Lettre
ed Arti 7: 526-6.
Eupalopsis pini R. Can., Berlese, A. M. S. it., fasc. 71, N. 10, pl. 81;
Oudemans, 1923, Ent. Ber. 6(130): 149.
Eupalopsis reticulata Berl., 1910, Redia 6(2): 208; Oudemans, 1923, Ent.
Ber. 6(130) : 149.
Eupalopsis pinicola Ouds., 1923, Ent. Ber. 6(130): 149. NEW SYNONYMY.
Eupalopsis punctulata Ouds., 1923, Ent. Ber. 6(130): 149. NEW
FEMALE.-Chelicerae protrude prominently, their slender basal segments
appressed, partly fused together in mid-line; fixed digits drawn out as
slender prongs ensheathing needle-like stylets; both fixed and movable
digits styletss) tend to converge anteriorly. Rostrum slender, conical to
truncated tip, overall length approx. equals combined lengths of palp
trochanter and femur. Palpus unusually long (116p total), diameters of
its 5 segments gradually diminishing from trochanter to tarsus; when
fully extended, tip of palpus projects almost to pretarsus of leg I; tibial
claw diminutive, with one minute seta near its base to resemble accessory
claw of other stigmaeids. Palptarsus (fig. 1) well developed, not pendant
or subordinate to tibial claw; prolongs main axis of palp; without trifid
sensillum. Setae (including seta-like sensilla) disposed on palp segments
as follows: femur 2, genu 2, tibia 3, tarsus 6. Coxal regions of capitulum
with only 1 pair long (32t), flagelliform setae on ventral aspect, situated
well behind baseline of rostrum, their alveoli separated by distance equal
to greatest width of rostrum at base. Idiosoma moderately vaulted dor-
sally, gently tapered to a broadly rounded posterior. Eyes, 1 pair with
dioptric apparatus. Anus subterminal. Dorsal plates thinly sclerotized,
coarsely reticulated, covering almost entire dorsum but not reflected down-
ward at sides to invade pleural integument; one extensive plate on propodo-
soma; three on hysterosoma, viz., one covering metapodosoma, a similar
one covering most of opisthosoma, one suranal plate forms a caudal end-
piece (fig. 2). Humeral platelets not identifiable as discrete elements, these
apparently integral with propodosomal plate. Twelve pairs of slender,
finely denticulate dorsal setae arranged as follows: 4 pairs on propodosoma
including humerals he, 3 pairs on metapodosomal plate, 3 pairs on opistho-
somal plate, 2 pairs on suranal plate. Those of pro- and meta-podosoma
(except verticals ae) with length range 36-43g, lateral pairs Im, li, on
opisthosomal plate just noticeably longer (46-49u) than all others. Venter
without obvious coxal flanges or other plates. Six pairs ventral podosomal
setae arranged as follows: 1 pair very long (474), exceptionally slender,
between coxae II, their alveoli 36u apart; 1 similar pair between coxae III,

The Florida Entomologist

48 apart; 1 pair shorter setae (27g) on hinder part of metapodosoma, 27p
apart; a longitudinal row of 3 pairs on opisthosoma of which 2 pairs are
paragenitals. Ano-genital covers with 4 pairs short setae (fig. 4). Counts
of setae, including special sensilla, on podomeres of legs I-IV are: femora
4-4-2-1, genua 2-1-1-1, tibiae 6-6-6-5, tarsi 12-10-8-8. Eupathid dt well-
developed on tibia I only. Empodium with at least 2 pairs capitate raylets.
Measurements in microns: length idiosoma, vertical setae to posterior end,
308; greatest width, 216; leg I, coxotroch. flexion to claw tips, 189; length
preocular seta be, 41; intercalary seta li, 50; dorsomedian seta c, 40.
MALE.-Closely resembles female in organization of gnathosoma, podo-
soma, legs. Idiosoma width/length ratio 177g/280u. Dorsal plates reticu-
lated. Sex differences apparent on modified opisthosoma (fig. 5). Suranal
plate invades venter to form a complete annular sclerite around opistho-
soma; ano-genital aperture displaced to terminal position behind annulus.
All dorsal setae except opisthosomal pair li approx. three-fourths as long
as corresponding ones of female; pair li equally long in both sexes but, in
male, appears proportionately longer in relation to those nearby. Two
pairs setae on anal part of ano-genital covers reduced, spine-like; one pair
only on genital part of covers. Ventral opisthosoma with but 2 pairs setae
which may correspond to paragenitals of female, both pairs on ventral
face of annular sclerite; anterior pair 25, long, 18 apart; posterior pair 31l
long, 50 apart. Tarsus I with 2 small solenidia situated dorsally, in tan-
dem (fig. 3); tarsus II with 2 similar solenidia, both proximal, almost side
by side; tarsi III-IV with one solenidion each, these equivalent in size to
those of tarsi I-II but corresponding in location to diminutive solenidion of
female tarsi III-IV.
COLLECTION DATA.-2 9 9, Meyers, El Dorado Co., California, May 29,
1949 (Louis Isaak) ex pine leaf mold; 1 $, nr. Meyers, California, August
26, 1950 (S. F. Bailey) ex pine leaf mold.
The numerical measurements given above are applicable to one speci-
men of each sex. Only three specimens are available for this study, two
females, one male. The male and one of the females have coarsely reticu-
lated dorsal plates. The third specimen, a female, differs from the other
female in two respects: its dorsal setae are about 25 per cent longer and
it appears to have no reticulum when viewed with an ordinary microscope.
Phase contrast microscopy, however, reveals a coarse, faint reticulum and
clusters of alveoli which are arranged in polygonal patterns within each
of the cells formed by the reticulum.
The specific descriptions which follow include measurements intended
to be descriptive of relations between parts of one favorable study specimen
and which do not necessarily express parameters for the species. When-
ever possible, some of the measurements are given as means and standard
deviations (M a-) calculated as for small samples.

Eupalopsis acus new species
(Fig. 6)

FEMALE.-A very delicately sclerotized form with 3 pairs marginal in-
dentations which mark sulci between dorsal plates. Basal articles of
chelicerae apparently adnate but with separating walls retained. Palpi not


Vol. 43, No. 3

Summers: Eupalopsis and Eupalopsellid Mites

Plate II
Eupalopsis acus. Fig. 6, dorsal view of female; fig. 7, ventral opistho-
soma, Eupalopsellus ilandicus, male; fig. 8, venter of opisthosoma, Eupa-
lopsellus trudis, male.


The Florida Entomologist

uniquely slender or elongate; tibial claw well-developed; palptarsus not
longer than palptibia, carried as in usual claw-thumb arrangement. Setae
on palp segments as follows: femur 2, genu 2, tibia 2, tarsus 6. Gnathosoma
with but 1 pair ventral, flagelliform setae. Arrangement of dorsal plates
diagnostic: propodosomal plate circumscribes area occupied by 3 pairs pro-
podosomal setae, posterior margin submerged or invaded by striae; humeral
plates isolated in usual position; metapodosoma almost covered by a
single large plate; opisthosoma with 2 unpaired plates over tergum and a
terminal end-plate (suranal). Dorsal setae: 12 pairs, all relatively fine,
slender, faintly denticulate; majority short, of uniform length (ca. 224);
humerals he somewhat longer (34u); intercalary pair li longest (40A); pos-
teriormost setae of opisthosoma noticeably longer, more robust than those
on propodosoma. Ventral setae on podosoma very long, flagelliform; in-
dividuals of anterior pair not appreciably longer than distance apart
(31u); middle pair longer but not overreaching bases of first pair; third
pair between coxae IV shortest (15) and closest together (27g). No gen-
ital plate surrounding ano-genital covers. Counts of setae and sensilla on
legs I-IV: femora 4-4-2-1, genua 3-1-1-1, tibiae 6-6-6-6, tarsi 12-10-7-7.
One inflated solenidion on all tarsi; those on tarsi I-II stubby, each about
5 times as long as its greatest diameter; those on tarsi III-IV similar to
each other, smaller than on forelegs. Distal eupathid dt well developed on
all tibiae; proximal solenidion p nearly identical on all tibiae, each soleni-
dion with truncated tip, length not greater than solenidion of tarsus I.
Measurements in microns: length idiosoma, vertical setae to posterior ex-
tremity, 280; greatest width, 165; leg I, coxo-troch. artic. to claw tips,
134; length preocular seta be, 23; intercalary seta li, 38; dorsomedian c, 18.
MALE.-Not known.
SHOLOTYPE.-Female, Summerland, B. C., Canada, Feb. 26, 1956 (D. H.
Chant), ex apple (Mason Orchard). Deposited in collection of United
States National Museum.
OTHER SPECIMENS.-Female, Iran (intercepted at Washington, D. C.),
Mar. 4, 1954 (H. Y. Gouldman), ex Prunus, budwood.
The peculiarities of the species are found in the pattern of the hystero-
somal plates. The metapodosoma is covered by one large hexagonal plate
having 3 pairs of setae. The opisthosomal armature comprises 2 tergal
plates, an anterior rectangular plate with 2 pairs of setae and a posterior
lenticular plate having but one pair of setae (li); this unit plate undoubt-
edly corresponds to a pair of intercalary plates commonly present in other
Stigmaeidae (Summers, 1960).
It is suspected by the writer that this species is a very close relative of
Eupalopsis longirostris Berl., the type species of Mediolata G. Can.

It is sufficient for present purposes to regard Eupalopsis pini and E. acus
as congeners. The essential problem is to distinguish these and other
stigmaeids from the eupalopsellids.
Although Willmann (1952) proposed the Eupalopsellidae as a new
family, he did not particularize the basis for separating it from the Stig-
maeidae. Separation can be achieved on the basis of three characters. (1)
The Stigmaeidae, including the above species of Eupalopsis, possess a


Vol. 43, No. 3

Summers: Eupalopsis and Eupalopsellid Mites

characteristic empodium. This consists of an erect rod-like axis on which
arise directly or indirectly at intervals several pairs of empodial raylets,
usually 3 pairs. Although the point requires further study, it often ap-
pears that the axial blade or rod branches into 3 unpaired secondary axes,
all in the same plane, and these in turn bifurcate into right and left ray-
lets, 3 pairs for each empodium. The Eupalopsellidae have at least 2
pairs of raylets which are sessile on a median knob of the tarsus; the erect
axial rod is not present (c.f., fig. 11). (2) A terminal sensillum or trident
is present on the palptarsus in most but not all of the Stigmaeidae. Grand-
jean (1946) typed this specialized structure as a multiple eupathid. It
is well-developed in many stigmaeids (e.g., Stigmaeus, Ledermuelleria,
Cheylostigmaeus), barely discernible as a trident in some (e.g., Zetzellia,
Agistemus), supplanted by several independent eupathids (Apostigmaeus),
or single and unbranched (Eupalopsis). The eupalopsellids have only a
single unbranched sensillum on the apex of the palptarsus. (3) The
Eupalopsellidae possess a pair of posterior dorsocentral setae pm on the
propodosoma (fig. 10), the individuals of which tend to lie close together.
Stigmaeids do not have this particular pair, although there may be uncer-
tainty when pairs almost in this position are homologized between Macro-
stigmaeus and Apostigmaeus (Stigmaeidae) and one of the new genera
described in the Eupalopsellidae (fig. 22).
Other tendencies which approach extreme condition in the Eupalopselli-
dae are: pronounced elongation of the mouthparts, complete adnation of
the cheliceral bases, long palptarsi, and reduction or absence of the palp
claw. The dorsal plate patterns are not diagnostic for the family.

Right and left basal articles of chelicerae completely coalesced to consti-
tute a stylophore. No obvious peritremata on gnathosoma. Palps notably
slender, attenuated. Tibial claw reduced or obsolete. Palptarsus at least
as long as tibia, usually much longer, carried as a forward extension
of the main axis rather than as a pendent lobe or "thumb"; its terminal
sensillum a minute spike or pointed brush, not a trident. Fixed cheliceral
digits attenuated, completely ensheathing long, sharply-tipped stylets.
Dorsum with 13 pairs setae, including a posterior dorsomedian pair pm
on propodosoma. Dorsal plates, when present, may be continuous over
entire back or subdivided as a series of unpaired plates of which 3 cover
hysterosoma; sclerotization appears to be continuous when setae are elab-
orate blades or spines with basal tubercles, subdivided or almost absent
when setae are delicate, flexible. Venter of female without plates. Ventral
podosomal setae exceptionally long, flagelliform. Empodium rudimentary,
present as a rounded elevation of tarsus from which roots of tenent ray-
lets take origin; usually 2 pairs raylets, much longer than claws, individuals
of each pair unequally long, all tipped with concave adhesive pads.
The family is amended to include the two new genera and five new
species described below.

Eupalopsellus Sellnick, 1949
Gnathosoma and associated appendages delicate, slender, elongate. Palp-
tarsus approximately as long as tibia plus genu. Idiosoma incompletely


The Florida Entomologist

covered with 4 unpaired dorsal plates: propodosomal, metapodosomal,
opisthosomal, suranal. Species for which males have been identified have
distal seta of palpfemur modified as a short, peculiar, brush-like blade, and
lateral suranal seta le absent.
TYPE SPECIES: Eupalopsellus olandicus Sellnick.

Eupalopsellus blandicus Sellnick, 1949, Ent. tidskr. 70(3): 123-35;
Willmann, 1952, Verofftl. Inst. Meeresf. Bremerhaven 1: 163-5.

FEMALE.-Gnathosoma with appendages slender, total length from idio-
somal union to palpal tips close to 0.7 as long as idiosoma, vertical setae
to anus. Chelicerae with fine, straight, fixed and movable digits set close
together at proximal ends, convergent at tips; length of needles (79A)
exceeds length of fused basal pieces (67j). Rostrum as long as fixed digits,
basal half conical, distal half with parallel margins to notched tip. Palpus
gradually tapered from trochanter to pointed tarsus, total length 0.75 as
long as corresponding parts leg I; ratio lengths genu/femur = 0.7. Palp-
tibia with a very short seta-like structure at position normally occupied
by claw, this one-sixth as long as seta next adjacent. Palptarsus 52P to
end of terminal sensillum, slightly longer than combined lengths of genu
and tibia (45g). Sensilla and setae on palp segments: femur 3, genu 1,
tibia 3, tarsus 7. Ventral setae of gnathosoma long, flagelliform, anterior
pair at least 32u long, 9g apart, on rostral cone; posterior pair at least
43, long, 14g apart, on basis capitulum. Idiosoma an elongate oval; flat-
tened, mounted specimens without emphatic humeral constriction, anus
terminal, visible from above. Dorsum partly covered by 4 median plates-
propodosomal, metapodosomal, opisthosomal, suranal-as illustrated (fig.
10). Each humeral seta he originates on its own separate humeral platelet.
Metapodosomal, opisthosomal plates roughly quadrilateral, each wider than
long. Major plates with small punctations. Dorsal setae normal, pointed,
finely denticulate; 11 of 13 pairs subequal, intercalaries li longer, verticals
ae shorter than others. Ventral setae of podosoma whip-like; anterior pair
at least 75/ long, 34A apart, between coxae I; middle pair at least 75,
long, 68u apart, between front margins of coxae III; posterior pair at least
41A long, 50u apart, between coxae IV. Legs subequal; inclusive counts
of setae and sensilla on individual podomeres: femora 4-4-2-1, genua 2-1-0-0,
tibiae 6-5-5-5, tarsi 11-9-7-6. Seta dt a long eupathid on tibia I only; this
seta absent on tibiae II-IV. Solenidion p of tibiae I-II unusually tiny (5-6A
long), corresponding sensilla on tibiae III-IV further reduced to minute
pegs. Spine k on genu I set close to base, almost directly behind dorsal seta.
Sample measurements in microns (MI,n=9): length idiosoma, vertical
setae to end suranal plate, 27618; greatest width, 205-19; leg I, coxo-
troch. flexion to claw tips, 189-5; length preocular seta be, 343; inter-
calary seta li, 55-3; dorsomedian c, 363.
MALE.-Anatomical features of body plates, their surface architecture,
mouthparts, chaetotaxy essentially as in opposite sex. Sex differences re-
vealed in slightly reduced dimensions, conical opisthosoma, genitalia, unique
sensilla. Opisthosoma a truncated cone, with lateral suranal setae le ab-
sent or with uncertain identity on venter. Genital plate covers posterior
half of opisthosoma, laterally continuous with suranal plate above to form
an annulus; anterior pair genital setae near anterior margin of genital

Vol. 43, No. 3

Summers: Eupalopsis and Eupalopsellid Mites



12 1

Plate III
Eupalopsellus ilandicus. Fig. 9, left palpus of male l6andicus (right)
and trudis (left) ; fig. 10, dorsum of female olandicus; fig. 11, left tarsus I,
male of trudis; fig. 12, left tarsus I, male of 1landicus.

The Florida Entomologist

plate, corresponding in size, location with anterior genitals of female; other
associated setae shortened, closely grouped (fig. 7). Intromittent organ a
slender tube extending backwards from neck of a drop-shaped vesicle, re-
tracted tip sheathed in a chamber of complex pattern. Male solenidion w &
appears on tarsi I-IV in proximal position (fig. 12); very small solenidion
w and larger w & close beside each other on tarsus II. Distal seta of
palpfemur present as a stubby, brush-like rod (fig. 9, right).
COLLECTION DATA.-2 9 9, Cherry Creek, Idaho, Jul. 23, 1949 (G. F.
Knowlton and Shi-Chun Ma), ex sagebrush; 4 9 9, 1 $, Logan, Utah, Nov.
4, 1950 (G. F. Knowlton and E. H. Kardos), ex sagebrush; 5 9 9, Logan,
Utah (Logan Canyon), Oct. 21, 1950 (G. F. K. and E. H. K.), ex Artemisia
sp.; 1 9, Yakima, Washington, May 21, 1951 (E. W. Baker), ex sage;
3 9 9, Harwood, Washington, Jul. 13, 1951 (R. W. Burrell), ex "white
sage", Elliott Orchard.
The diagnostic features of E. olandicus are: dimensions, shapes and
punctate alveolations of dorsal plates, and the setal modifications on the
tibiae. Eupathid dt is well developed on tibia I but is not represented on
tibiae II-IV. The proximal solenidion p of tibiae I-IV is abnormally re-
duced to a minute peg. Supplemental characters include the presence of a
seta-like structure instead of a claw on the palptibia, the occurrence of sep-
arate humeral platelets, and the peculiar modification of the anterior dorsal
seta on the palpfemur of the male.
These specimens from western United States appear to be identical
with E. olandicus as described By Sellnick (1949) from material collected
beneath stones near the coast of Sweden, and with the male described by
Willmann (1952) from lichen-covered pine bark. All of the American
examples so far examined were taken from Artemisia spp. or the mulch
thereunderr. In one instance the eupalopsellids were found in a population
sample of the false spider mite, Brevipalpus aeolus P. and B.

Eupalopsellus rostridius new species
(Figs. 13, 16)

FEMALE.-Length gnathosoma, base to palptarsal sensillum inclusive,
approximately 0.7 as long as idiosoma, vertical setae to anus. Rostral
width at base of conical section less than one-fourth its total length, margins
parallel for most of length. Palp close to 0.85 as long as corresponding
parts leg I; ratio length genu/femur = 0.9; tibial claw present but vestigial,
less than 0.1 as long as adjacent seta; palp setae otherwise distributed as
in olandicus. Ventral gnathosomal setae: anterior pair at least 31P long,
7A apart; posterior pair at least 41l long, 14g apart, on basis capitulum.
Dorsal plates arranged as illustrated (fig. 16), without apparent alveola-
tions; humeral platelets not evident. Dorsal setae fine, very faintly denticu-
late; preoculars be (23A) shorter than postoculars ce (31u). Ventral
podosomal setae originate on small tubercles; front pair at least 90 long,
27u apart; middle pair at least 81i long, 41l apart; posterior pair at least
23A long, 29a apart, between coxae IV. Setae and sensilla legs I-IV; femora
4-4-2-1, genua 2-1-1-1, tibiae 6-5-5-5, tarsi 11-10-7-6. Solenidion p on tibia
I comparatively long (18A), progressively diminishing on successive legs to
9A on tibia IV. Measurements in microns (1 specimen): length idiosoma,

Vol. 43, No. 3


Summers: Eupalopsis and Eupalopsellid Mites

(Il "i, k 13

Plate IV
Eupalopsellus trudis and E. rostridius. Fig. 13, venter of female opisth-
osoma, rostridius; fig. 14, dorsal view, female of trudis; fig. 15, venter of
opisthosoma, female of trudis; fig. 16, dorsal aspect, female of rostridius.


The Florida Entomologist

263; greatest width, 167; leg I, 160; preocular seta be, 23; intercalary
seta li, 47; dorsomedian c, 25.
MALE.-Not known.
HOLOTYFE.-Female, Scotland, Sept. 9, 1937, intercepted at Boston, Lot
37-23283 (J. T. Beauchamp), ex heather. In the collection of the United
States National Museum.
This new species is very closely related to ilandicus. There are a
number of quantitative differences between the two species, but some of
these may not assuredly aid in defining the new species because measure-
ments for the single specimen do not establish accurate parameters for a
population. Several clear-cut distinctions between rostridius and olandicus
are found in the chaetotaxy of certain podomeres. Setae on the genua
are 2-1-1-1 in the former, 2-1-0-0 in the latter. Solenidion p on tibia I of
rostridius is well developed and approximately as long as the dorsolateral
seta next in front; the corresponding sensillum of olandicus is uncom-
monly short and stubby. Additional differences occur in the length and
spacing of the ventral podosomal setae; preocular seta be is shorter than
postocular ce on rostridius, approximately equal in dlandicus. The length
ratios of palp segments genu/femur are 0.9 (rostridius) and 0.7 (olandicus).
The peculiarly narrow basal part of the fused chelicerae, as illustrated, may
not be characteristic. This grotesque condition is perhaps due to collapse.

Eupalopsellus trudis new species
(Figs. 8, 11, 14, 15)
FEMALE.-Slender-bodied, spindle-shaped species with legs in widely
separated groups. Legs short in relation to body, approximately equal to
,greatest body width. Possesses essential features and chaetotaxy of
olandicus but with certain quantitative differences. Palpus 106 long,
approximately 0.6 as long as corresponding segments of leg I; length palp-
tarsus 36g, equal to palp tibia plus genu; seta in claw position on palp-
tibia comparatively long (7,), equals one-third length adjacent dorsal seta.
Ventral setae on gnathosoma: anterior pair 20A long, 8u apart, on rostrum;
posterior pair 29g long, 22A apart, on basis capitulum. Propodosomal plate
invaded by striae laterally, such that postocular setae ce appear to occur
on isolated platelets, one side or both. Humeral platelets absent or repre-
sented only by divarications of striae around bases of setae he. Dorsal
metapodosomal plate barely wider than long; opisthosomal plate almost
rectangular, slightly longer than wide. All plates without apparent sur-
face ornamentation. Dorsal setae short, slender, so faintly denticulate as
to appear almost smooth; setae on propodosoma essentially alike; dorso-
medians a, b, c, on hysterosoma equal to each other but clearly shorter than
dorsolaterals; intercalary seta li, median suranal e longer than other dor-
sals, both more than twice as long as dorsomedian c on opisthosoma. Ven-
tral setae on podosoma flagelliform, so delicate that accurate measurement
very difficult, each arises from a minute tubercle; anterior pair at least
97g long, 32/ apart, between coxae I; middle pair 95/ long, 521 apart, an-
terior to front margins of coxae III; posterior pair 18. long, 32u apart, be-
tween coxae IV. Special sensilla on appendages not describably different
from those of the type species; podomeres with numbers of setae differing
from olandicus are: femur III-3, genu III-1, tibia IV-1, tarsus II-10.

Vol. 43, No. 3


Summers: Eupalopsis and Eupalopsellid Mites

Sample measurements in microns (M only, n = 3): length idiosoma, verticals
to posterior end, 340; greatest width, 168; leg I, 169; preocular seta be, 19;
intercalary li, 40; dorsomedian c, 14.
MALE.-Description of female also applicable to male except opistho-
soma and certain sensilla of appendages. Metapodosoma perceptibly con-
stricted at union with conical opisthosoma. Suranal plate enwraps posterior,
continuous with expanded genital plate below (fig. 8). Ano-genital covers
displaced to terminal position, associated setae shortened, closely grouped.
Lateral suranal setae le absent, or with uncertain identity on venter. Male
solenidion w S in proximal position on all tarsi; distal solenidion w-homo-
logue of slender w of female-inflated on male tarsi I-II, identical in size,
conformation with w ; these sensilla stubby, acorn-like, each not longer
than twice its diameter (fig. 11). Upper distal seta on palp-femur trans-
formed into a blunt, brush-like peg (fig. 9, left).
TYPES.-Holotype female, allotype male, one slide, Ogden Canyon, Utah,
Sept. 16, 1952 (G. F. Knowlton), ex Damparia. Deposited in United States
National Museum. Two paratype 9 9, Logan, Utah, Feb. 24, 1951 (G. F.
K. and E. H. Kardos), ex dead leaves and grass; paratype S, Logan Canyon,
Utah, Oct. 21, 1950 (G. F. K. and E. H. K.), ex grass, sage brushland; 1
deutonymph, Logan Canyon, Utah, Nov. 19, 1949 (G. F. K. and Shi-Chun
Ma), ex red juniper. Paratypes in author's collection, University of Cali-
fornia, Davis.
The distinguishing features of E. trudis are: slender, elongate body
shape, elongate dorsal plate- on opisthosoma, alternation of short dorso-
median setae with longer dorsolaterals, and acorn-like inflated sensilla on
the tarsi of males.
Exothorhis new genus

Dorsal idiosoma entirely covered by a thin skeletal sheath not clearly
subdivided into discrete plates. Dorsal body setae and dorsals of proximal
leg segments stout, coarsely denticulate, subequal, all originate on tubercles.
Humeral setae he displaced upward from pleural position to appear as
supers in dorsolateral series. Tibial claw of palp reduced or obsolete.
TYPE SPECIES: Exothorhis caudata new species.

Exothorhis caudata new species
(Figs. 17-20)

FEMALE.-Smallest representative of its family. Cheliceral basal piece
attenuate, about twice as long to separation of digits as greatest width
near base; movable digits very long, 45u proximal flexure to needle tips,
slender, converging at tips, sheathed to ends by fixed digits. Rostrum sim-
ilarly produced, conical to basal third, distal two-thirds cylindrical. Ventral
gnathosomal setae long, flagelliform; anterior pair 27u long, 13, apart,
on conical base of rostrum; posterior pair 43u long, 16 apart, on maxilli-
coxae. Palpi well proportioned, 90g overall length, or close to one-half
length leg I coxa to pretarsus. Tibial claw present but small. Palptarsus
slightly less than one-third total palp length. Setae and sensilla on palp
segments: femur 3, genu 1, tibia 2, tarsus 7. Idiosoma a blunt spindle

The Florida Entomologist

'< 17 1'



Plate V
Exothorhis caudata, female. Fig. 17, lateral view of opisthosoma to
illustrate blunt, down-curved papilla; fig. 18, venter of opisthosoma with
ano-genital covers; fig. 19, postocular setae ce of two individuals from one
collection; fig. 20, dorsal view of body.


Vol. 43, No. 3

Summers: Eupalopsis and Eupalopsellid Mites

shape, dorsum totally covered with a thin, non-textured skeletal sheath,
individual plates not discernible. Dorsal setae very prominent, stout, almost
straight, coarsely denticulate; all tapered to pointed tips or (many speci-
mens) of uniform diameter to bluntly rounded ends (fig. 19); vertical setae
ae often shorter than pair next adjacent; dorsomedians b, c on opisthosoma
slightly longer than all others; lateral suranals le much shorter, less robust
than median suranals e. All heavy setae on tubercles. Humeral platelets
and setae he not surely identifiable-possibly first lateral hysterosomals
(supers) represent displaced humeral setae; individual setae of anterior
three pairs dorsomedians arise so close together that their tubercles are
contiguous; pressure of coverglass on dorsal setae tends to fold cuticula
into false sutures. Ano-genital covers subterminal, pendant beneath a
papilla-like extension of opisthosoma; papilla forms a blunt, downwardly
curved tailpiece-hence caudata (figs. 17, 20). Anterior pair ventral setae
at least 75A long, 36u apart on propodosoma; middle pair traced to at least
681 long, 48g apart; third pair between coxae IV at least 24, long, 801,
apart. Anterior pair setae on ano-genital covers much longer, second pair
much shorter than posterior 2 pairs nearest anus (fig. 18). Leg I longest,
each succeeding leg shorter, leg IV approximately three-fourths as long as
leg I. Dorsal setae on femora, genua, tibiae are smaller replicas of dorsal
body setae. Distribution of setae and sensilla on leg podomeres: femora
4-4-3-1, genua 2-1-1-0, tibiae 6-5-5-5, tarsi 10-9-7-6. Distal sensillum of
tibia I (corresponding to eupathid dt of other species) reduced to a minute
spine no larger than spine k of genu I, this sensillum absent on tibiae
II-IV. Spine k of genu I so close to base of stout dorsal seta that their
tubercles are confluent. Proximal solenidion of tarsus III not present on
tarsus IV. Sample measurements in microns (M-', n=10): length idio-
soma, insertion vertical setae to cauda, 261 + 18; width, 174 18; leg I,
coxotroch. flexion to claw tips, 190 12; preocular seta be, 51 4; inter-
calary seta li, 54 4; dorsomedian seta c, 60 7.
MALE.-Not known.
HOLOTYPE.-Female, Lake Alfred, Florida, Block 20, University of Flor-
ida Citrus Exp. Sta., May 25, 1959 (D. W. C.), ex Citrus. Holotype and
3 paratypes in author's collection, University of California, Davis. Para-
type female in United States National Museum.
COLLECTION DATA.-One 9, Winterhaven, Fla., Nov. 19, 1953 (M. H.
Muma), ex citrus leaf; 1 9, Fort Pierce, Fla., Oct. 19, 1954 (H. L. G.), ex
grapefruit; 1 9, Fort Pierce, Fla., Aug. 18, 1955 (H. L. G.), ex scale-
infested leaf (citrus?); 2 9 9, Weirsdale, Fla., Jun. 22, 1955 (H. L. G.),
ex ; 1 9, Haines City, Fla., Jun. 6, 1959 (H. L. G.), ex citrus (Fletcher
Grove); 2 9 9, Fort Pierce, Fla., Feb. 17, 1959 (H. L. G.), ex orange leaf;
6 9 9, Orlando, Fla., Apr. 13, 1959 (A. G. Selhime), ex citrus Ivs. with
scales; 1 9, Weirsdale, Fla., Jun. 1, 1959 (D. W. C.), ex -.
The identifying characters of E. caudata are: small size, down-curved
papilla on the posterior tip of the opisthosoma, structure of dorsal setae,
the minute sensillum on the upper, distal part of tibia I, and absence of
this sensillum on corresponding podomeres of the other legs.


The Florida Entomologist

Plate VI
Exothorhis armata. Fig. 21, dorsal view of female with legs folded
and right palp omitted.

Vol. 43, No. 3


Summers: Eupalopsis and Eupalopsellid Mites


Exothorhis armata new species
(Fig. 21)
FEMALE.-A comparatively large, armored species. Cheliceral stylets
118, long, equal to length of slender rostrum. Palptibia with 2 acicular
setae, no vestige of claw. Dorsal skeleton an almost continuous sheath or
cuirass, with imperfect transverse folds which may or may not represent
true sulci; its surface minutely punctate or alveolate. Humeral platelets
integral with general skeleton; humeral setae he possibly represented by
first pair lateral hysterosomals. Eyes: 2 pairs; anterior pair normal,
posterior pair large, prominent. Dorsal setae unique, heavy clubs, cylindri-
cal near bases, flattening near tips to spatula shape; coarsely denticulate;
each with prominent tubercle; all subequal except verticals, suranals. Dor-
sal setae on femora, genua, tibiae similarly fashioned. Middle pair ventral
podosomal setae at least 90u long, their alveoli peculiarly close together
(81). Tibia I possesses only 5 bristles (solenidion p, 2 spatulate setae,
2 acicular setae); distal solenidion dt absent. Measurements in microns:
idiosoma, vertical setae to anus, 375; greatest width, 200; preocular seta
be, 79; intercalary seta li, 71; dorsomedian seta c, 80.
MALE.-Not known.
HOLOTYPE.-Female, Australia, intercepted at Hawaii, Aug. 6, 1954
(L. M. Chilson), ex cuttings of Macadamia sp., Lot 54-10280. In the col-
lection of the United States National Museum.
The species is readily identified by its heavy, spatulate setae, complete
investment of dorsum by skeleton, absence of a claw on palptibia, and ab-
sence of solenidion dt on tibia I.

Saniosulus new genus
Idiosoma elongate, fusiform; no dorsal plate armature except for a pair
of small, ill-defined plates between the eyes and a narrow suranal plate
over tip of opisthosoma.
TYPE SPECIES: Saniosulus nudus new species.
There is a resemblance between the genera Saniosulus (Eupalopselli-
dae) and Apostigmaeus Grandjean (Stigmaeidae). Both genera contain
long-bodied forms having only small areas of the idiosoma covered with
identifiable plates, nondescript dorsal setae, similar positioning of legs,
and some points of close similarity in leg chaetotaxy. In the present state
of taxonomic organization of the Superfamily Raphignathoidea, the two
genera fall into separate families.

Saniosulus nudus new species
(Fig. 22)
FEMALE.-Gnathosoma short, less than one-third length idiosoma, its
appendages not attenuate. Palpfemur twice as long as genu; genu and
tibia short segments with length slightly greater than their diameters; tibia
with stout, curved claw plus one minute spine-like seta close beside its
longer dorsal seta; palptarsus moderately developed, its overall length
barely exceeds tibia plus claw. Setae on palp segments: femur 2, genu 1,
tibia 3, tarsus 7. Anterior pair ventral gnathosomal setae 11, apart, on
rostrum; posterior pair 33/ apart on maxillicoxae. Idiosoma pyriform,



Plate VII

Summers: Eupalopsis and Eupalopsellid Mites

elongate, slightly constricted in mid-section, with coxal groups widely sep-
arated; demarcation between propodosoma, hysterosoma indicated by trans-
verse striae across mid-section of idiosoma, considerably behind propodoso-
mal setae. Two pairs eyes. Dorsum without definable plates except for
one pair of small, non-striated, comma-shaped areas on propodosoma be-
tween first 2 pairs setae, and one small suranal plate. Setae of dorsum
finely denticulate; 10 pairs very short, subequal; 3 pairs on posterior
opisthosoma longer than others; posterior dorsomedians pm on propodosoma
widely spaced, each seta displaced laterally to postocular position; post-
ocular setae ce in marginal position; humeral setae he displaced backwards
and in line with lateral hysterosomals. Venter without plate structures
except ano-genital covers; genital, anal setae normal for family. Ventral
setae of podosoma very long, flagelliform; anterior pair at least 80u long,
41g apart; middle pair at least 72p long, 95, apart; posterior pair at least
45bt long, 60A apart. Inclusive counts of setae and sensilla on podomeres
of legs I-IV: femora 4-4-2-2, genua 2-1-1-1, tibiae 6-5-5-5, tarsi 11-9-7-6.
Solenidion w on tarsi I-II inflated, tapered from base to tip, its length equal
to diameter of tarsus; this sensillum reduced to a tiny peg on tarsus III,
absent on IV. Solenidion p on tibiae I-IV diminutive, bullet-shaped, slightly
longer than its own diameter. Measurements in microns (1 specimen):
idiosoma, vertical setae to anus, 378; greatest width, 230; leg I, 155; pre-
ocular seta be, 14; intercalary seta li, 27; dorsomedian seta c, 15.
MALE.-Not known.
HOLOTYPE.-Female, Mexico, intercepted at Brownsville, Texas, Sept.
22, 1952 (Anon.), ex orchid plants, lot 52-10595. In the collection of the
United States National Museum. Paratype 9, Valverde, Texas, Oct. 6,
1953 (H. A. Dean), ex orange leaf with diaspid scale, USNM.
The spot characters are: elongation of idiosoma, absence of extensive
dorsal plates, extremely short dorsal setae, and wide spacing of dorsome-
dian setae pm on propodosoma. The occurrence of a substantial palp claw
and the diminutive solenidion p on tibia I are helpful combination charac-
Two pairs of dorsal setae on S. nudus intrude a question of homology.
The posterior dorsomedians pm of other eupalopsellids are not similarly
located in S. nudus. But since the species otherwise conforms with the
characters of the family, it is supposed that its setae of the pair pm are
displaced laterally to the usual postocular position and that the homologues
of the true postoculars ce are located in a more marginal position than
usual. The humerals he in this case seem to be placed near the mid-section
of the body, in series with the dorsolaterals of the hysterosoma. The
identification of these setae as humerals he indicated in fig. 22, is supported
by the fact that the transverse striae converge behind the setae of this
pair. The transverse girdle of striae is taken to be the demarcation be-
tween propodosoma and hysterosoma.


Three of the new species included in this study were identified in a col-
lection of slides loaned by the United States National Museum through
the courtesy of Dr. E. W. Baker. This is to thank Dr. Baker for selecting
the specimens and the Museum for lending them.


138 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 43, No. 3

Dr. M. H. Muma, University of Florida Citrus Experiment Station, gen-
erously provided sufficient material to describe Exothorhis caudata. An-
other new species, Eupalopsis acus, was found among specimens contributed
by Dr. D. A. Chant, Canada Department of Agriculture. Dr. G. F. Knowlton
and his associates sent numerous collections of specimens from Utah. Many
thanks also to these gentlemen.

Berlese, A. 1882-93. Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones hucusque in Italia
Reperta. Ordo Prostigmata (Trombidiidae). Patavii, Portici.
Berlese, A. 1910. Acari nuovi. Manipulus V. Redia, 6(2): 199-214.
Canestrini, G. 1889. Prospetto dell'Acarofauna Italiana. Famiglia dei
Tetranychini. Atti d. reale Ist. Ven. d. Sci., Lettre ed Arti (Ser. 6),
7: 491-537.
Canestrini, G. and F. Fanzago. 1876. Nuovi Acari Italiani. Atti d. Soc.
Veneto-Trentina di Sci. Nat., 5(1): 138.
Grandjean, F. 1946. Au subject de l'organe de Clapar&de. Arch. Sci. phys.
et nat. 28(5): 63-87.
Oudemans, A. C. 1923. Acarologischen Aanteekeningen LXXI. Ent. Ber.
Nederland. Ent. Vereen, 6(130): 145-55.
Sellnick, Max. 1949. Milben von der Kiiste Schwedens. Ent. tidskrift
(Entomologiska f6reningen, Stockholm), 70(3): 123-35.
Summers, F. M. 1960. Several stigmaeid mites formerly in Mediolata re-
described in Zetzellia Ouds. and Agistemus n. gen. Proc. Ent. Soc.
Washington. In Press.
Willmann, Carl. 1952. Die Milbenfauna der Nordseeinsel Wangerooge.
Verofftl. Inst. Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven, 1: 139-86.


Entomology Department, State Plant Board of Florida, Gainesville

The genus Roplisa was created in 1909 by Thomas Casey to receive a
unique new species R. floridana (Casey, 1909, p. 284). At the time of the
original description, Casey had only two specimens before him which were
merely labeled "Florida." When he reviewed the North American Cetonii-
nae (Casey, 1915), he listed no additional specimens and redescribed the
types. Blatchley (1928), in his Scarabaeidae of Florida, merely repeated
Casey's description and reported no additional records. No records of this
species, other than the types, have been published for 50 years, even though
a few specimens have been collected during that period. This insect has
long been considered one of the rarest of the United States Scarabaeidae.
The writer, after finding a single specimen of this species in a spider
web at Juniper Springs in the Ocala National Forest, Marion County, Flor-
ida on July 12, 1959, began an immediate search of the vicinity. Twenty-
eight additional specimens from the blooms of the scrub-palmetto, Sabal
etonia, were collected with the help of Mr. H. A. Denmark. As many as
12 individuals were collected from the blooms of a single plant although
few plants were found blooming. This series represented more than the
total number of specimens (16) known at that time.
When this series and additional specimens were studied in detail, several
errors were apparent in Casey's original description. It was also discovered
that the male was undescribed and differed considerably from the female.

Trigonopeltastes floridana (Casey) new combination
Roplisa floridana Casey, 1909, p. 284; 1915, p. 379-380; Blatchley,
1930, p. 32.
Casey separated the genus Roplisa from Trigonopeltastes by the number
of antennal segments and the relative length of the posterior tibiae and
tarsi. He states (Casey, 1909, p. 284) that the antennae are "9-jointed" in
contrast to the "10-jointed" antennae of Trigonopeltastes. The types 2
are females and have 9-segmented antennae. However, all of the male
specimens examined had 10-segmented antennae. Twenty-two females
were examined; 6 specimens had 10-segmented antennae, 13 specimens had
9-segmented antennae, and 3 specimens had 9 segments on one side and
10 segments on the other. Although the majority of females apparently
have 9-segmented antennae, this character is too variable to be considered
of prime importance in a generic separation. He also states (Casey, 1909,

SContribution No. 9, Entomology Department, State Plant Board of
2The writer is indebted to Mr. 0. L. Cartwright, U. S. National Mu-
seum, for information concerning the Casey types and for additional records.

140 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 43, No. 3


1 2




Woodruff: Suppression of the Genus Roplisa 141

p. 284) that the . "posterior tarsii) being not longer than the tibiae."
Apparently he reexamined the specimens for his description 6 years later,
for he states (Casey, 1915, p. 380) "hind tarsi barely longer than the
tibiae." Measurements of 32 specimens indicate the posterior tarsi are
always longer than the posterior tibiae. In the males, the tarsi are
nearly a millimeter longer, whereas in the female they average 1z milli-
meter longer than the tibiae. Casey (1915, p. 380) states that . I do
not know the sex of the two at hand, although it might be inferred that
they are males. . The types are actually females and therefore the
male is undescribed.
Since both of these characters (i. e. number of antennal segments and
relative length of posterior, tibiae and tarsi) are used by Casey to estab-
lish his genus Roplisa, there seems little justification for retaining this
name. The name Roplisa Casey, 1909, is herewith relegated to synonymy
with Trigonopeltastes Burmeister, 1840.
The genus Trigonopeltastes as now defined is strictly American and
contains 10 described species. In addition to the 2 United States species,
there are 7 species in Central America ranging from Mexico to Panama
and 1 described from Brazil.
The genus Trigonopeltastes is characterized among the Cetoniinae by
having a deltoid impressed marking on the pronotum. In T. delta (Forst.),
as in most species of the genus, this impression forms a completed triangle
(Fig. 2). In T. floridana this marking is V-shaped (Fig. 1) with only a
vestige of the tront side of the triangle in the form of a line of a few dense
punctures. This line is more pronounced in some specimens than in others.
This type of marking also occurs in some of the Central American species.
The deltoid impression, as well as the entire impressed border of the prono-
tum, is filled with a bright golden tomentum in T. delta (Forst.). This
same area is white or cream colored in T. floridana (Casey). The genitalia
are quite distinct but of the same general type (Figs. 6 and 7). Although
T. delta (Forst.) and T. floridana (Casey) are similar in general appear-
ance, they are abundantly distinct in specific characters.

1. Impressed pronotal marking in the form of a completed triangle (Fig.
2), tomentum golden yellow; pronotal surface dull, not shining in either
sex; anterior tibia bidentate in female and tridentate in male; antennae
10-segmented in both sexes; genitalia as in Fig. 6; Southeastern United
States ...........-- ..............----- -------------------.....delta (Forst.).
1' Impressed pronotal marking in the form of a V-shaped area (Fig. 1)
filled with a whitish or yellowish tomentum; pronotal surface shining in


Fig. 1. Pronotum of female Trigonopeltastes floridana.
Fig. 2. Pronotum of female Trigonopeltastes delta.
Fig. 3. Lateral view of male genitalia of T. floridana.
Fig. 4. Antenna of female T. floridana (from a slide preparation).
Fig. 5. Posterior tibia and tarsus of T. floridana.
Fig. 6. Caudal view male genitalia T. delta.
Fig. 7. Caudal view male genitalia T. floridana (allotype).
Fig. 8. Posterior tibia and tarsus of T. delta.

The Florida Entomologist

female and velvety in male; antennae 10-segmented in male, and either
9- or 10-segmented in female; anterior tibia bidentate in both sexes;
genitalia as in Fig. 7; peninsular Florida..---...--.........- floridana (Casey).

DESCRIPTION: Female Roplisa floridana (Casey). Similar in general
appearance and shape to T. delta (Forst.); body narrow, oblong-oval,
slightly convex; color somewhat variable but normally with black and
orange-red markings broken by yellowish areas of tomentum, pattern quite
similar to that of T. sallei Bates of Mexico.
Head black, shining, irregularly punctato-rugose; clypeus punctate
medially, longitudinally rugose laterally, nearly as long as wide, parallel
and rounded at the side, thickened, broadly, feebly arcuate, with rounded
angles and feebly sinuate medially at apex; eyes emarginate, not large;
antennae rufotestaceous, 9- or 10-segmented, club oval and 3-segmented
(Fig. 4).
Pronotum black, shining, slightly wider than long, sides nearly parallel,
anterior 1/ sinuate, front angles projected to a point, anterior margin
broadly concave, hind angles rounded after arcuate posterior 1/, making
base broadly lobed. The surface irregularly punctate, broadly open V-
shaped impressed line heavily sculptured and filled with yellowish tomen-
tum. Occasionally a dense line of punctures will tend to reproduce the
markings of T. delta and to close the anterior portions of the V-shaped
impression. However, this line is never filled with tomentum. Entire pron-
otal border slightly depressed and filled with yellowish tomentum similar
to that of the V-shaped marking and becoming broader at the posterior
pronotal angles (Fig. 1).
Elytra longer than wide, only little wider than pronotum, sides sub-
.parallel and broadly arcuate, surface finely, in most part obsoletely punctate
with a very few longitudinally incised lines, the posterior edge finely trans-
versely rugose. Elytral markings irregular but with five areas of yellow-
ish tomentum on each elytron, the elytral suture bordered by an elongate
patch basally which is nearly continuous with the tomentose markings of
the scutellum (reminiscent of quotation marks); at the posterior of these
markings are two small elliptical markings at right angles to the suture,
and two rounded areas of tomentum on the lateral border of each elytron,
the anterior one being larger. Scutellum sparsely coarsely rugose, mostly
covered by tomentum.
Pygidium convex, longer than wide, surface with bioblique and rather
coarsely incised wavy lines, tomentose laterally and along the base, non-
tomentose area black, shining.
Legs rufous, tarsi slightly longer than tibiae, claws not cleft. Middle
and posterior tibiae each with two flattened spurs of unequal length, longer
of the two slightly longer than first tarsal segment. Anterior tibiae broadly
rounded with a single tooth slightly beyond the middle and the tibial apex
prolonged into a pointed tooth opposite the single tibial spur which is longer
than the first tarsal segment.
Ventral surface heavily sculptured with incised lines like those of the
pygidium, with scattered areas of tomentum except medially and posteriorly.
The legs and body are often covered with a dense coating of pollen
grains which tend to make the specimen seem totally tomentose.


Vol. 43, No. 3

Woodruff: Suppression of the Genus Roplisa

ALLOTYPE:-Male, Juniper Springs, Ocala National Forest, Marion
County, VII-12-59, R. E. Woodruff (author's collection). Length from an-
terior pronotal margin to base of pygidium 6 mm; greatest width 3.75 mm.
Similar to female in general appearance and in most structures. The an-
tennae are larger and longer; ventral surface more universally and heavily
tomentose; pronotum and head dull, velvety, less densely punctate; anterior
tibial spur shorter than first tarsal segment. Genital armature smaller
than T. delta (Forst.) and generally similar to those of the genus Trichi-
otinus. Claspers nearly parallel on the outside margin and slightly bowed
on the inner margin; lateral dentations very near the apex with the tips
of the claspers truncate. The males are much less numerous than the
females and very few specimens have been seen. In a series of 28 speci-
mens collected at the same time, there were 24 females and 4 males.
VARIATION:-This species is relatively constant in all major morphologi-
cal structures. Variation was noted primarily in size (length from anterior
pronotal margin to base of pygidium 6.0 to 8.6 mm) and color markings on
the elytra. Additional variation was noted in the extent and denseness of
punctures on the pronotum (especially at the anterior portion of the V-
shaped impression). The lateral tooth of the anterior tibiae is more pro-
nounced in some specimens than in others, generally an indication of wear.
The extensiveness of the dense tomentum is quite variable but much more
pronounced in the males. However, this tomentum can be easily rubbed
off if specimens are not properly handled. A single male specimen was
examined which had practically no orange or reddish markings on the
elytra. The color pattern consisted almost entirely of a contrasting black
with yellow tomentum. This specimen agreed in all morphological char-
acters with other specimens examined.
ECOLOGY:-In 1958, the writer saw two specimens of this species from
the Archbold Biological Station, Highlands County, Florida (listed below),
bearing the labels "at blooms of saw-palmetto." Since this was the only
known reference to the ecology of this species, the writer made a special
search on this plant to obtain additional specimens. The saw-palmetto
(Serenoa repens) is very abundant in Florida and literally hundreds of
blooms were examined for this beetle. No additional specimens have been
found on this plant. Since Sabal etonia is quite similar in appearance to
Serenoa repens and since they occur in the same locality, the writer sus-
pects that the specimens referred to above were actually collected on Sabal
etonia. The blooms of this species are more fragrant and much more at-
tractive to other insects than are those of Serenoa repens. The scarcity
of this beetle even in Florida collections leads the writer to believe that
this species is rather host specific and occurs in a restricted ecological niche.
The scrub-palmetto (Sabal etonia) is rather characteristic of certain
areas in Florida known as "scrub" (Small, 1925). This plant is similar
in general appearance to the young stage of the cabbage palmetto (Sabal
palmetto) and to mature plants of the saw-palmetto (Serenoa repens).
It is an endemic species which is rapidly becoming rare. Small (1925, p.
147) says "if, however, the species is not tending toward extermination
through natural conditions and enemies, then the white man is doing his
part to exterminate it, not only in the clearing of land generally, but in
removing the esculent bud for food. . "


The Florida Entomologist

This plant occurs on two entirely different geological formations which
are unlike in their plant associations. One of these formations is the oolitic
limestone of the Everglades and Keys and which supports a flora similar
to that of the West Indies. The other is a loose sand characteristic of
several areas of peninsular Florida which harbors many rare and endemic
plants and animals. Laessle (1958) has discussed some of the scrub areas
in the Ocala National Forest.
The blooms of Sabal etonia bend near the ground and are difficult to
see, as they are whitish and tend to blend with the white sand background
of the plants. They are extremely fragrant and attractive to a wide va-
riety of insects.
DISTRIBUTION:-The following specimens were examined during the
course of this study: 1 9, Florida, Marion County, Ocala National Forest,
R26E, T17S, Section 10 and 15, VI-10-38, T. H. Hubbell (University of
Michigan, Museum of Zoology); 1 9, Florida, Gainesville, VI-24-40, F. N.
Young, flying in afternoon (UMMZ); 1 9, Florida, Winter Park, VII-16-38,
H. T. Fernald (State Plant Board of Florida); 3 & S, Florida, Vero Beach,
VII-4-32, E. M. Becton (SPBF); 1 9 and 1 $, Florida, Highlands County,
Archbold Biological Station, VI-16-55, H. Dybas, at blooms of saw-palmetto,
Serenoa repens (Chicago Natural History Museum); 1 9, loc. cit. (Henry
Howden); 23 9 9, 3 &$ Florida, Marion County, Ocala National Forest,
Juniper Springs, VII-12-59, R. E. Woodruff, at blooms of Sabal etonia
'(R. E. Woodruff); 2 2 9, loc. cit., H. A. Denmark (SPBF).
In addition to the above records, Mr. O. L. Cartwright supplied the
following data on specimens in the U. S. National Museum: Holotype 9,
Florida; paratype 9, Florida; 1 $, Florida; 19, Florida; 18, Orlando;
1 8, Winter Park; 1 $, Ocala National Forest.

Trigonopeltastes delta (Forst.)
This species is widely distributed in the southeastern United States
and has been recorded from Ohio to Florida and west to Texas and Arkansas.
It is a very common species in Florida and has been found on a variety of
flowers, including the following: Codiaeum variegatum Blume crotonn bud),
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (hibiscus), Rosa sp. (rose), Rhus leucantha Jacq.
(southern sumac), Mangifera indica L. (mango), Thuja sp. (arborvitae),
Ligustrum japonicum Thunb. (privet), Severinia buxifolia Ten. (boxthorn),
Ceiba pentandra Gaertn. ("kapok"), Persea americana Mill. (avocado),
Sabal palmetto Lodd. (cabbage palm), Litchi chinensis Sonner (lychee),
Vanda sp. (orchid), Crotalaria sp. crotalariaa), Quercus muehlenbergii
Engelm. chinkapinn oak), Citrus sp., Magnolia sp. (bay), Dianthus sp.
(carnation), Euphorbia sp. (poinsettia), Cephalanthus occidentalis L. (but-
ton-wood), Senecio sp. groundsell), Ipomoea sp. (morning glory), Zizyphus
sp. (jujube), Schinus sp. (Brazilian pepper), Casimiroa edulis L. & L.
(white sapota), Cyrilla racemiflora L. (leatherwood), Elephantopus elatus
Bertol (elephant-foot), Daucus carota L. (cultivated carrot), Ilex glabra
Gray inkberryy), Rhus copallinum L. (shining sumac), Lachnanthes tinc-
toria (Walt.) Ell. (red-root) and Ceanothus americana L. (New Jersey
It has also been collected in Japanese beetle traps (using geraniol and
eugenol) and fruitfly traps (using angelica oil and sweet baits). Blatchley
(1930, p. 33) also records specimens collected at light.

Vol. 43, No. 3


Woodruff: Suppression of the Genus Roplisa

Variation in this species parallels that of T. floridana (Casey). There
is considerable variation in the shape and distribution of the color pattern
on the elytra, but these variations have not been found to be correlated
with any differences in genitalia.
The sex of this species can be determined readily since the male has
bidentate anterior tibiae while the female has the same structure triden-
tate; the male posterior femur is more greatly swollen and twisted than
that of the female; the male pronotum is duller, more velvety (as in T.
floridana), and less densely punctate than that of the female. The males
seem to be about three times more abundant than the females (this ratio
is reversed in T. floridana).

Blatchley, W. S. 1930. Scarabaeidae of Florida. Fla. Ent., 14(2): 32-33.
Casey, Thomas L. 1909. Studies in the Caraboidea and Lamellicornia.
Canad. Ent., 41(8): 253-284.
Casey, Thomas L. 1915. A review of the American species of Rutelinae,
Dynastinae, and Cetoniinae. Memoirs on the Coleoptera, 6: 1-394.
Laessle, A. M. 1958. The origin and successional relationship of sandhill
vegetation and sand-pine scrub. Ecol. Monog. 28: 361-387.
Small, John K. 1925. The scrub-palmetto-Sabal etonia. Journ. N. Y.
Bot. Gard., 26: 145-151, 2 figs.



TAuT., InEALTHY carrots, celery and asparagus,
luscious red tomatoes, leafy lettuce, big solid
potatoes-all presenting fresh, happy faces for '60
-a tribute to America's up-to-date agricultural
methods. Today, modern farmers are increasing
both yields and quality by utilizing the very
latest techniques available.
Shell Chemical Company, in cooperation with
federal, state and local agricultural specialists, is
continually striving to help farmers reach higher
agricultural goals. Result: products like aldrin,
dieldrin, endrin, methyl parathion, and I'hosdrint'
insecticides; D-D,!', and Nemagon "'soil fumigants;
Aqualin* aquatic herbicide and allyl alcohol for
weed seed control in seed beds.
The never-ending search for superior products
to help grow bigger and better crops is a
welcome assignment to Shell Chemical SHE
Company-chemical partner of agri-
culture and industry.

110 West 51st Street, New York 20, New York


.! m

. .

f; ~

JI i


Fayetteville, Arkansas

The 4 species of Neotropical millipeds that have been collected in Florida
represent 4 of a total of 32 genera that are known in the state. There may
be others that have been overlooked, for millipeds have not been collected
intensively there. The Neotropical species are all small-bodied forms 7 mm.
or less in length that are collected either with a Berlese funnel or by care-
ful examination of the lower surface of logs and boards. Most of the micro-
diplopods that appear in Berlese collections are larval forms, but even
larvae can be of taxonomic value if they have specifically characteristic
surface sculpture, as in the family Stylodesmidae.
The only colobognath milliped that has been collected in southern Florida
is Siphonotus purpureus Pocock, an introduced Neotropical species that ex-
tends through most of the Lesser Antilles and Hispaniola to the northern
coast of South America (Chamberlin and Hoffman, 1958). It is well estab-
lished in southern Florida, often occurring in cultivated areas with two
introduced polydesmids, Oxidus gracilis (Koch) and Orthamorpha coarctata
(Saussure). These polydesmids are tropicopolitan and do not come within
the scope of this paper.
The other three Neotropical millipeds in Florida are polydesmids that
represent three genera of the large, widespread tropical family Stylodes-
midae. Lophodesmus caraibianus (Chamberlin, 1918) has been collected
from under a board in Miami by Mr. Robert E. Woodruff, entomologist of
the Florida State Plant Board. This species has long been known from
Nassau and Haiti (Loomis, 1936). Psochodesmus crescentis Cook, 1895,
the most abundant micropolydesmid on the Florida peninsula, occurs from
Putnam County to the end of the peninsula. It is well established in rural
areas. Calyptodesmus schubarti, n. sp., has been collected once from under
a board in Columbia County; this site approaches the northern limit of the
range of the family Stylodesmidae. The last two species have not been
collected outside Florida, but their affinities are so clearly with the Neo-
tropical fauna they cannot be regarded as indigenous to Florida.
The only other members of the family Stylodesmidae that are known
in the United States are two species of the genus Ilyma from the Louisiana-
Texas coastal area (Loomis, 1959); they also are small-bodied forms and
are included in the key below.


1. With repugnatorial pores on segments 5, 7, 10, 13, and 16 . 2
With repugnatorial pores placed otherwise 3
2. Segment 19 with the posterior processes extending much beyond the
apex of segment 20 Ilyma cajuni
Segment 19 with the posterior processes shorter, extending only
to the apex of segment 20 Ilyma digitata

The Florida Entomologist

3. With repugnatorial pores on segments 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, and
16 Lophodesmus caraibianus
With repugnatorial pores on segments 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, and 15 4
4. All nonporiferous segments with either 3 or 4 lateral lobes on the
paranota Psochodesmus crescentis
All nonporiferous segments except segment 2 with 2 lateral lobes
on the paranota Calyptodesmus schubarti, n. sp.

GENUS Calyptodesmus SCHUBART
Calyptodesmus Schubart, 1944, Acta Zool. Lilloana, vol. 2, p. 367.
Generotype: C. sancta Schubart 1944.
Range: Sao Paulo and Florida.
Species: Two.

DIAGNOSIS: Pores on segments 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, and 15. Pore stalks
project from below the middle lobes. Lateral margin of all nonporiferous
paranota except segment 2 divided into 2 lobes. Margin of anal tergite
divided into 7 lobes, of which the middle one is the broadest. Gonopods un-
Calyptodesmus schubarti, new species
(Figure 1)
DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from C. sancta by the 3 solitary tubercles
on the caudal margin of metatergites 2 through 17 between the 4 longitudi-
nal crests of primary tubercles. The 4 vertical rows of granules on the
vertex also may be a specific character.

Figure 1. Dorsal surface of Calyptodesmus schubarti, n. sp., showing
the entire collum and parts of segments 2 through 5 and 18 through 20.

Vol. 43, No. 3

Causey: The Neotropical Millipeds in Florida

TYPE LOCALITY: Lake City, Columbia County, Florida, 12 9, June 12,
1959, N. Causey.
RANGE: Columbia and Alachua Counties, Florida.
DEPOSITION OF TYPE MATERIAL: Female holotype, American Museum
of Natural History; female paratypes, Florida State Plant Board, U. S.
National Museum, and the author's collection.
DESCRIPTION OF FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Length 5 mm., greatest width 0.7
mm. Color light tan; under magnification irregular red spots can be seen
on the paranota. Dorsum strongly arched. Paranota low and almost hori-
zontal; on segments 2 through 5 they are bent slightly cephalad; on seg-
ments 18 and 19 they are bent slightly caudad; on the remaining segments
they are directed laterad.
Vertex of head covered with granules, the largest of them arranged
in 4 subvertical single series. Antennae short, thick, geniculate, the fifth
segment longest and widest, and the fifth and sixth segments each with
a setose sensory area on the distal margin.
Collum large and dome-shaped, completely hiding the head from above.
Its anterior margin is horizontal and divided into 10 equal, deeply incised
lobes; indistinct radii extend between the lobes. Dome of collum with 10
large, rounded tubercles arranged in 2 curved series of 6 and 4 and between
and around them about 20 smaller tubercles. Metatergites 2 through 19
with 4 longitudinal crests composed of large, rounded, subequal tubercles,
equally spaced horizontally, and in groups of 3 on each metatergite. Three
secondary tubercles are on the caudal margin of metatergites 2 through 17
between the longitudinal crests'. Several secondary tubercles, usually from
5 to 8, are arranged in 3 transverse series on each paranotum. Last seg-
ment with 2 large tubercles.
Lateral margin of segment 2 divided into 3 equal, deeply incised lobes.
Lateral margin of all other nonporiferous segments divided into 2 lobes;
on the anterior segments they are equal and deeply incised; on the posterior
segments the anterior lobe is much the larger. Lateral margin of all porif-
erous segments divided into 3 subequal lobes; the pore stalks project from
below the middle lobes and make them inconspicuous; on the more posterior
segments the third lobe does not extend as far laterad as the first one.
Margin of segment 20 divided into 7 not very unequal lobes; the incisions
between the middle 3 lobes are shallow and easily overlooked.
This species closely resembles Psochodesmus crescentis in size, color,
and shape, but its longitudinal crests are more distinct and the remainder
of the dorsum is not as rough.
I am grateful to Mr. H. F. Loomis for specimens of Lophodesmus caraibi-
anus from Haiti.

Chamberlin, R. V., and R. L. Hoffman. 1958. Checklist of the millipeds of
North America. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 212, pp. 1-236.
Loomis, H. F. 1934. Millipeds of the West Indies and Guiana collected by
the Allison V. Armour Expedition in 1932. Smith. Misc. Coll., 89(14):
1-69, 33 figs., 4 pls.


The Florida Entomologist

Loomis, H. F. 1936. The millipeds of Hispaniola, with descriptions of a
new family, new genera, and new species. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.,
80(1): 1-191, 75 figs., 3 pis.
Loomis, H. F. 1959. Millipeds collected enroute from Florida to San
Antonio, Texas, and vicinity. Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., 49(5):
157-163, 23 figs.
Schubart, Otto. 1944. Os diplopodos de Pirassununga. Acta Zool. Lilloana,
2: 321-440, 86 figs., 2 pls.
Since this paper went to press the following records of the family
Stylodesmidae in Florida and nearby states have been added:
Calyptodesmus schubarti, Hogtown Creek Area, Gainesville, Alachua
County, Florida, 1 9 larva, Oct. 10, 1959, Wm. J. Platt, III.
Psochodesmus crescentis, Lower Matacumbe Key, Monroe County, Flor-
ida, 1 9 larva, Dec. 16, 1959, R. E. Woodruff.
An undescribed species of the genus Ilyma, 1 9 and 2 larvae, George
County, Mississippi, and Baldwin County, Alabama, N. Causey.




Carefully Executed

Delivered on Time




__ I

- ---- sl----- -- ~, -- --L--


Vol. 43, No. 3


University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs