Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00187
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1960
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00187
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

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Volume 43, No. 4 December, 1960

Rogers, Andrew J.-Mature Science-Retarded Profession 155
Porter, B. A., and L. D. Christenson-A Review of the
Fruit Fly Research Program of the U. S. Department
of Agriculture Entomology Research Division .----.......... 163
Philip, Cornelius B.-New North American Tabanidae.
XII. A New Variety of Tabanus Imitans Walker ...-. 171
De Leon, Donald-The Genus Brevipalpus in Mexico,
Part I (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae) -................................... 175
Gouck, H. K., and I. H. Gilbert-Field Tests with New
Tick Repellents in 1955, 1956, and 1959 .......................... 189
Emerson, K. C.-A New Species of Chelopistes
(Mallophaga) from Texas and Mexico -............................. 195
Baranowski, R. M.-Notes on a Parasite of the Citrus
Root Weevil, Pachnaeus Litus (Germ.) ....-..................... 197
Minutes of the Forty-third Annual Meeting .--.....................- 199
Notice to M embers ------- ----.....-----....--.. ............... 169, 196
Book Review ........___--------------__. ...-..---------............... 187
Hetrick, L. A.-Nepytia semiclusaria (Wlk.) as a
Defoliator of Pine (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) ........ 205

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


OFFICERS FOR 1960-1961

President -....--....-........................ --------------Lewis Berner
Vice-President .....--------- -----------W. C. Rhoades
Secretary -----------.. ...........-------- Lawrence A. Hetrick
Treasurer --- .-----..--------------Robert E. Waites
I John R. King
Other Members of Executive Committee R. W. Baranowski
Andrew J. Rogers

Editorial Board
Lewis Berner -_-- .----.......... ............-......---------- Editor
Norman C. Hayslip..---... --...............Associate Editor
Robert E. Waites..----....... ---._ Business Manager

THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription price to non-members $5.00 per year in
advance; $1.25 per copy. Entered as second class matter at the post
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Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
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orders for back numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box 2425,
University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Secretary can
be reached at the same address.
Authors are urged to consult a style manual when preparing manuscripts.
For form of literature citations, see recent issues of THE FLORIDA EN-
TOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are referred to "Suggestions for the prepara-
tion of papers submitted for publication in THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST."
FLA. ENT. 41(4): 193-194. 1958.
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Selection of the subject of this address culminates an interest in the
professional status of entomology extending over a period of 20 years.
Time and space will permit only some of the highlights of the impressions
gained in that time.
In the use of examples to emphasize key points, there is no intent to
be personal. On the other hand, no effort has been made to compromise
the issues. To present the subject in that manner would defeat the pur-
pose, namely, to try to arouse interest and action in a problem which to
the speaker cries out for our best efforts in behalf of the profession of
It seems doubtful that any historian 8 could set a date marking the
beginning of the science of entomology that would be accepted by all work-
ers in this field. But we need not be concerned so much with a date; it
is well known that the study of insects is ancient in origin and continuous
in the scientific interests and investigations of scholars down to the present
time. Perhaps it could be agreed that the science of entomology took a great
stride forward in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries when the early
masters of insect taxonomy established a broad base for the orderly study
of insects. These early workers were not paid for their services, thus they
were not "professional" entomologists in the present meaning of the term.
They included many men who were trained in other professions, such as
medicine, law, and the ministry, and others who had no special training
and little formal education. In spite of the difficulties and hardships under
which they labored, these early scientific workers laid a solid foundation
upon which our present science is built, and we owe them more than per-
haps most of us will ever fully appreciate.
Based upon this firm background of basic entomology, upon which all
other entomological activity depends, the science of entomology in the mid-
twentieth century has progressed to a position of respect and leadership
second to none in the vast field of the biological sciences. To support this
assertion, we need only to pick up a modern journal on the subject and
marvel at the intricate and complex experiments described therein on in-
sect control; or to read through the recent volumes of the Annual Review of
Entomology and realize that insect taxonomy, physiology, genetics, morph-
ology, toxicology, and other facets of the science have advanced so far as
to be hardly identifiable with the concept of entomology just 100 years
ago. Then reflect for a moment on the role that scientific entomology as-
sumes in the protection of crops, livestock, commodities of all kinds, and
even the very health and comfort of man.

1 Presidential address, 43rd annual meeting of The Florida Entomolog-
ical Society, Jacksonville, September 7-9, 1960.
2 Entomological Research Center, Vero Beach, Florida.
3 Unless otherwise noted, data relating to entomological history up to
1930 are from Howard (1930).

The Florida Entomologist

When the use of the atom for applied science became a reality, entomol-
ogy was among the first of the sciences to use it for the good of mankind.
And yet, even before the ink is well dried on reports describing this modern
technique in insect control, deep thinkers in our science are proposing still
other advanced ideas and tools for use in the perpetual battle that must be
waged against insects. For instance, lethal genes (Knipling, 1960), like
the sterilized-male technique, might well lead to better control and eradi-
cation without most of the undesirable side effects of present methods
such as chemical control.
So vast and complex has our science grown that we who call ourselves
modern entomologists might well experience a sense of awe, as well as
pride, when the full realization of it is apparent, and yet we also must
realize that these advancements which seem so great now are really only
a preview of things to come. The point to make for the purpose of this
address is that scientific entomology has grown to maturity in the mid-
twentieth century. However, before we become too complacent about this
great scientific progress, let us reflect honestly and soberly for a few
moments on another aspect of entomology-the professional aspect.

This brings us to the principal subject of this address and again it
Sis necessary to step back into history, though not so far, to introduce the
Although Dr. T. W. Harris was paid a small sum in 1841 for his report
on the injurious insects of Massachusetts, most workers seem to agree that
the appointing of Dr. Asa Fitch as State Entomologist of New York and
SMr. Townend Glover as the first Federal Entomologist in 1854 marks the
real beginning of professional entomology. We celebrated the centennial
of professional entomology in 1954, and although the speaker worked dili-
gently in that program, it must in all honesty be admitted that this was
done with an inner feeling that we had not made the progress in profes-
sional entomology that we should have made in 100 years.
Space and time will not permit, and reason does not dictate, that the
history of professional entomology in the last half of the nineteenth cen-
tury be retold here in detail. But as a background for thought, it seems
desirable to name this period the "Golden Age" of entomology.
We all are aware of the many great scientific workers and teachers of
that period, but it seems more germane to the point of this address to
mention a few of the men who are typical of those whose activities in
public affairs really laid the groundwork for our profession.
If no other man had lived and worked as a professional entomologist
from 1850 to 1900 except C. V. Riley, we still could classify this period as
the "Golden Age" of our profession. He obviously was a man of extra-
ordinary ability, and wherever the circumstances demanded a strong per-
sonality and a champion for professional entomology in public affairs, he
was there. He is credited, among many other things, with wresting from
the U. S. Congress the bill that established the United States Entomological
Commission in 1876.
Dr. L. 0. Howard also was among the staunschest professional entomol-
ogists of his time. He must be credited with saving the Division of En-


Vol. 43, No. 4

Rogers: Mature Science-Retarded Profession

tomology from being consumed by the newly created Bureau of Animal
Industry in 1898.
Benjamin Dann Walsh, in addition to being a man of exceptional sci-
entific ability, obviously was a professional entomologist of great stature.
His gifted pen recorded the nature of his strong convictions in defense of
his profession. "Quack entomologists" and their equally "quack" concoc-
tions for controlling insects were a drain on the public pocketbook 100
years ago just as they are today, and Benjamin Walsh did not hesitate to
use his writings to expose and condemn these parasites who bilked the
public in the name of his profession. This might also be called the period
of State Entomologists, men equal in professional rank to State Chemists,
State Veterinarians, etc. Their work and prestige lent much stature to
professional entomology.
In this infant but golden age of professional entomology, these men
and others whom they typify built for us a strong foundation in public
affairs relating to our science and much of their influence carried over
into the early decades of this century.
The Division of Entomology in the U. S. Department of Agriculture
became the Bureau of Entomology in 1904. The first federal insecticide law
aimed primarily at protecting the public against fake insecticides was
passed in 1910, largely through the efforts of a permanent committee on
insecticides in the Association of Economic Entomologists. The first
federal quarantine law was passed in 1912, largely through the efforts of
Dr. C. L. Marlatt, working directly with the Congress and in spite of
opposition from the National Nurserymen's Association. Thus the Golden
Age of professional entomology extended at least from 1854 to the second
decade of this Century.
Scientific entomology continued to progress and grow and, as previously
stated, has became mature in our times. But it is the speaker's firm im-
pression that the professional side of entomology, beginning sometime in the
first quarter of this century, became retarded and has not kept pace with
the development of the science. All of the causes for this would be hard
to define, but it seems worthwhile to speculate on a few factors which seem
obvious and to consider the present situation.
Entomology, more than any other branch of the biological sciences,
affects almost every major facet of human activity. One of the effects of
this, as the science expanded, was to bring men of other professions into
the field of entomology-men trained in professions already firmly estab-
lished, such as medicine, engineering, and chemistry. With their strong
professional status, backed by strong organizations, these men were in a
position to take charge and direct certain entomological programs in which
they shared a common interest, and this situation has continued to a great
degree up to our time.
This analysis is not intended to be a general criticism of other profes-
sions working in entomology. In all fairness we must admit that many
of the early "greats" in entomology were trained in other professions. And
it was medical men who made the early discoveries of such far reaching
importance to medical entomology in the last century. And with these dis-
coveries came the engineers who were needed for drainage projects. And
with expanding agriculture there was a demand for better insecticides and
spray machinery which required the help of chemists and again the en-

158 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 43, No. 4

gineers. It also must be said that some of these workers forsook the prin-
ciple activities of their own profession and have devoted long and useful
lives to a particular facet of entomology. There are the many eminent
malariologists among medical men, and some engineers have devoted their
professional careers to mosquito control. These men are not the subject
of the main point of this discussion; they usually are eminently qualified
for their particular work with insects and are accepted as such by pro-
fessional entomologists. But it does not follow that all medical men and
all engineers are innately qualified to direct entomological programs.
A good case in point may be quoted from Gushing (1957), writing on
entomology in World War II, "When the United States obtained bases in
the Caribbean the problem of malaria control again arose (at Trinidad)
.... Representatives of the medical department of the Army, without ade-
quate training in malaria control, surveyed the situation, and upon their
recommendations several million dollars were spent in effecting the com-
plete drainage of suspected breeding places, without noticeably reducing
the local incidence of malaria. An entomologist was chosen to make a study
of this problem. After a few weeks investigation, he discovered that the
responsible vector was breeding in water-holding bromeliads growing para-
sitically upon the forest trees surrounding the base. A treatment devised
to destroy the bromeliads quickly brought malaria in the cantonment under
control. This example clearly indicates the need for well-trained entomol-
ogists who know the varied biologies and habits of Anopheles mosquitoes,
to advise or direct the efforts in any future mosquito-control campaign."
In the Secretary's Report to the Fifty-Sixth Annual Meeting, American
Association of Economic Entomologists, 1945, Dr. Ernest N. Gory had this
to say in support of combining the two national entomological societies,
"If we can judge by the history of organization in medicine, engineering,
and chemistry, it would seem that a consolidation would improve conditions
within the profession of entomology. Entomology has been subservient
to engineering and to the medical sciences in this war and although there
has been a greater realization of the importance of entomology, there has
been no admission by either of those professions that their technique in
meeting disease conditions is predicated on entomological knowledge."
(Cory, 1945).
In spite of their handicap of lesser professional status, entomologists
in and out of service set an enviable record in the service of their country
in World War II. But that story need not be retold here.
Misplaced and unqualified direction of entomological activities are not
limited to medical and veterinary entomology. For example, a well known
horticulturist gained control over state direction of insect control in Cali-
fornia near the end of the last century and, in the opinion of some, retarded
the progress of economic entomology in that state for about 20 years be-
cause of his unjustified zeal for biological control to the exclusion of other
methods (Howard, 1930).
Another related factor that, in the speaker's opinion, has had an im-
portant part in retarding the growth of professional entomology again
relates to the division of the science into a great many more or less unre-
lated activities. With expanding agriculture and other areas of human
activity, entomology became more specialized and more divided. Today we
are a very loosely joined group of specialists, each absorbed in a narrow

Rogers: Mature Science-Retarded Profession

line of work and thought, more or less unilateral thought, directed toward
a particular field of interest in entomology. This is in direct contrast with
conditions 75 years ago when professional entomologists had more interest
in common and worked and acted as a closely-knit group.
Under the present conditions it is easier for administrators in allied
fields to absorb here and there a specialized facet of entomological work
and workers. This is one of the most fatal things that can happen to
any profession. The fight has been uphill since Dr. L. O. Howard's struggle
with this problem in 1898, and in this present decade the Bureau of En-
tomology was finally dismembered in the Department of Agriculture. Any
entomologist or entomological society who did not do all within their power
to prevent this must accept their share of the responsibility for this set-
back to entomology in our times.
Turning attention now to the state level, let us take a brief look at the
present situation in Florida, for example. There are at least five state
boards, commissions, advisory committees, or technical committees defined
and established by law in this state which function entirely or in large
part in some field of entomology, and it is not required by law that an en-
tomologist be appointed to any one of these. In fact, several of these laws
do not even mention the words entomology or entomologist. This indeed
is a sad commentary on the present status of professional entomology in
this state. It seems highly improbable that there could be a law establish-
ing a state board to supervise or advise on drainage problems that would
not require engineers on the board.
The field of structural pest control offers another opportunity to evalu-
ate the professional status of entomology in Florida. There is a large
segment of this industry which offers the public a much-needed service in
insect control on a high level of efficiency and business ethics. This legiti-
mate segment in pest control, including some members of this Society,
has too often been forced to work under a stigma of adverse public opinion
imposed upon their industry by the depredations of the same kind of public
parasites that Benjamin Walsh wrote about almost 100 years ago.
In 1947 a law was passed with the hope that the problems of this in-
dustry could be solved for the benefit of the legitimate industry, the
public, and the profession of entomology. Although some progress has
been made, it seems clear to one who has observed this situation over a
period of years that this law has only been partly successful. Information
from the files of the State Board of Health on violations of this law by
certain firms, including some still licensed to do business in this state, is
enough to convince the speaker that this law is not adequate to keep this
element of the industry from pursuing its nefarious practice of fleecing
the public in the name of structural pest control. To read the record of
some of these violations, especially those affecting elderly widows, will
chill the heart of the most insensitive.
To try to fix the blame for the apparent failure of this law to fulfill
its objectives is beyond the scope and purpose of this address. But one
thing seems clear: the time is far past due when the professional entomol-
ogists of this state should have assumed their rightful responsibilities to
the responsible segment of this industry and to the public in this important
branch of economic entomology. This leads directly to the field of public


The Florida Entomologist

In the final analysis, professional status and prestige are only measures
of the esteem in which a profession is held in the public view. It must
be remembered that legislative bodies are important segments of the public
and it is in these bodies that laws are passed and appropriations made for
most entomological work.
Important laws relating to entomology are introduced, considered, often
amended by actions of pressure groups with a selfish motive, and passed
in nearly every session of the Florida Legislature. The Legislature and
the Governor are able to judge these laws only by the information pre-
sented in support of, or opposition to them. To the speaker's knowledge,
the professional entomologists of Florida, acting as a group, have never
offered their advice and counsel to the State Government or to the public
in these matters. Legislators cannot justly be blamed for their shortcom-
ings in passing on appropriations and other laws relating to our science
and profession if we refuse to advise them on these laws and to inform
them on the nature and value of entomology to the citizens of the state.
Outstanding public contributions through the science of entomology
such as, for example, the dramatic screwworm eradication program, offer
excellent opportunities to enhance the professional status of entomology
through a well-planned public relations program. But these contributions
are of doubtful value for this purpose so long as entomologists do not
occupy the top-level positions in directing these projects.
Well-meaning but often poorly-informed conservationists and others
who frequently write in the public press continually harass the field of
economic entomology with unfounded and often fantastic claims against
the use of insecticides, and no one publicly refutes these claims. This in-
deed is poor public relations. It is respectfully suggested that this offers
another opportunity for the Florida Entomological Society to set a good
example in support of professional entomology in Florida.
It has been the speaker's observation that we in entomology have too
often confused the matter of public relations and professional responsi-
bility with getting into politics. When considered in their true perspec-
tives, there is no relationship between these two concepts. Assuming re-
sponsibility in matters affecting one's profession in the public interest is
simply good scientific and professional citizenship in the same way that
taking a public stand on moral issues in one's community is good Christian
It also seems pertinent to the subject to see how entomologists fare
salarywise as compared to similar professions. For instance, physical
scientists entering the U. S. Public Health Service in the grade GS-5 today
start at the top of the salary range, $5335, and entomologists start in this
same grade at the bottom, namely $4335. This presumably is justified by
the physical scientist being in short supply whereas entomologists are not,
a contention which many of us who have been trying to hire qualified en-
tomologists find hard to accept.
When one considers that no fewer than 46 employees of the Bureau
of Entomology were making $4000 to $4600 thirty years ago (Howard,
1930), the starting salary of $4335 for the entomologist entering Federal
service as a GS-5 today does not reflect much progress. Until just a few
weeks ago the Florida Merit System was offering $3960 for the beginning
grade of entomologist. This has recently been raised to $4320. The start-


Vol. 43, No. 4

Rogers: Mature Science-Retarded Profession

ing salary for Entomologist II in the Florida Merit System is $4800; for
Sanitary Engineer II it is $5520.
Another interesting comparison of this type may be cited from data
published by the National Science Foundation (1960) for the years 1956-
1958. Of 14 scientific classifications considered, agricultural sciences ranked
second from the bottom in median salaries and the biological sciences ranked
third from the bottom. In terms of median salaries for academic degrees
earned, salaries for chemists and sanitary engineers with less than the
master's degree stood well above those for the Doctor of Philosophy degree
in the agricultural and biological sciences.
It is not intended to imply that lesser professional status is the only
factor accounting for this state of affairs, but it would be equally unrealistic
to disregard this factor in evaluating this situation.
We might also profit by reflecting for a moment on current student
enrollments and their relationship to providing trained workers for the
future. Undergraduate enrollments in agriculture at Land-Grant institu-
tions declined 31 percent from 1948 through 1959.4 The causes for this
probably are numerous and complex, but again it would seem unrealistic
to disregard professional status and salary conditions such as those just
quoted as important factors to consider.
In an effort to determine trends in entomological training in the period
1948 through 1960, a survey was made by the speaker of a cross section
of departments of entomology in the United States. Replies to this survey
are incomplete at this time, but data from eight schools indicate that the
number of undergraduate degrees conferred in entomology fell abruptly
by about 50 percent after 1950-51, the peak years for graduations in the
veterans training program after World War II, and remained, on an aver-
age, at this lower level from 1952 through 1960, with no definite trend in-
dicated. These data also show a slightly upward trend in graduate degrees
conferred in entomology since 1948 and in six schools which confer de-
grees in entomology at all levels, there were more graduate than under-
graduate degrees conferred in 1960, with the doctor's degree taking first
rank, the master's second, and the bachelor's last. The indicated increase
in graduate training in entomology is encouraging, but there seems to be
reason for some concern about undergraduate enrollments.
Numerous plans have been tried for attracting bright students to en-
tomology, with the main effort aimed at arousing the student's interest in
insects. These plans have helped but they have not solved the problem.
It seems reasonable to suggest that these efforts now be supplemented
with a method which obviously works so well in some other areas of study,
namely, to take steps to offer the bright student a chance to enter a stronger
profession where he can reasonably expect to earn a standard of living at
least equal to that which he well knows can be had in similar areas of study.
His interest in insects can be as valuable when acquired in the course of
study as when aroused prior to this time.
The science of entomology has progressed because it has dared to change
to keep abreast of new and expanding problems. If the profession of en-
tomology is to resume its interrupted development, we who comprise this

SBased upon statistics furnished by the College of Agriculture, Uni-
versity of Florida.

The Florida Entomologist

profession also must dare to change a philosophy which, in the speaker's
opinion, has retarded the growth of our profession. As individuals we must
rise above being just taxonomists, insect physiologists, insecticide testers,
etc.; we must first be professional entomologists in the broadest meaning of
the term. And as societies we must rise above being just once-a-year
conventioners and publishers of scientific journals; we must assume our
appropriate responsibilities in public affairs relating to the science and
profession of entomology and take a more tangible interest in problems
affecting the individual members of our societies. We must pursue this
task with a renewal of the spirit that motivated men like Riley and Howard.
The problem will require appropriate tact and dignity, but also firmness
and resolution. It is difficult to imagine how the science of entomology
can continue to grow indefinitely without the support of a stronger pro-
fessional organization.
These would be well-meant but empty words if they were not backed
up with some positive suggestions for proceeding at least within the limita-
tions of our own society. In closing, it is a pleasure to advise you that
your Executive Committee and several special committees have given much
attention and thought this year to the matter of enhancing the status of
professional entomology in Florida. There is good reason to believe that,
as this meeting progresses, the membership will be able to observe and
consider these efforts.
Cory, Ernest N. 1945. Proceedings of the fifty-sixth annual meeting,
Amer. Assoc. of Econ. Ent. Report of the Secretary. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 38(1): 131-132.
Gushing, Emory C. 1957. History of entomology in World War II. Pub-
lication 4294, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C.
Florida State Board of Health. 1960. Regulations governing commercial
spraying of lawns and ornamental shrubbery in residential areas with
highly toxic pesticides.
Florida State Board of Health. Records relating to Ch. 24364 (No. 750),
1947; Ch. 482, 1955; Ch. 482, 1959; Florida Statutes.
Florida Statutes: Ch. 487; 581; 585; 59-261.
Howard, L. 0. 1930. A history of applied entomology. Publication 3065.
Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C.
Knipling, E. F. 1960. Use of insects for their own destruction. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 53(3): 415-420.
National Science Foundation. 1960. Scientific Manpower Bulletin. No. 11.
Washington, D. C.

Vol. 43, No. 4



Entomology Research Div., Agr. Res. Service, U. S. Dept. Agr.,
Beltsville, Maryland

A lengthy discussion of the importance of fruit flies in areas in which
they are established, and their potential importance to horticulture else-
where, is unnecessary before a group of Florida entomologists. In the last
30 years or so you have seen two outstanding eradication campaigns against
the Mediterranean fruit fly, each one costing many millions of dollars. And
the Mediterranean fruit fly is only one of dozens of species that might be
serious handicaps to the horticulture of this State if they should become
permanently established here. Some thirteen of such species are shown
in the exhibit in the lobby at this meeting, placed there by the State Plant
Board of Florida.
The threat of these fruit flies is steadily increasing, with the stepping
up of the volume and speed of airplane traffic from foreign countries and
the finding of more and more areas infested by the Mediterranean fruit fly
in South and Central America. The hazard of another accidental intro-
duction into Florida will continue to grow unless there is a corresponding
increase in our ability to keep infestation out or render it impotent by
radiation or other treatment of incoming luggage and parcels. Undoubt-
edly advances in both of these fields will occur. Our standard procedure
in dealing with fruit flies should always be their prompt detection, and
eradication before extensive areas of infestation can develop.
In recognition of the continued threat imposed by the various species
of fruit flies, and in order that we may be in a position to meet, on short
notice, any fruit fly emergency that might develop, the Department main-
tains a continuing strong effort to find even better detection, commodity
treatment, and control and eradication techniques for several major species
of fruit flies, that can be used safely without appreciable public inconven-
ience. This program is actually not new; it has been going on, with numer-
ous ups and downs, for nearly 50 years. From 1912 to 1917 the late E. A.
Back and C. E. Pemberton made intensive studies of the biology of the
Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.) and the melon fly (Dacus
cucurbitae Coq.) in Hawaii, and published papers that are still consulted
extensively. In 1928, following the finding of the Mexican fruit fly (An-
astrepha ludens [Loew]) in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, A. C.
Baker, C. I. Bliss, and M. McPhail undertook work with this species in
Mexico. Field studies and laboratory research (the latter under rigid safe-
guards) were carried on with the Mediterranean fruit fly in Florida in
1929. As the eradication effort approached its successful conclusion, this
work was transferred to Hawaii, where abundant infestations still existed.
This program was greatly expanded in the late 1940's, soon after the de-

1A talk presented at the 43rd annual meeting of the Florida Entomol-
ogical Society, Jacksonville, September 7-9, 1960.

The Florida Entomologist

velopment in Hawaii of alarming populations of the extremely destructive
oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel). In the early 1950s the finding
of the Mexican fruit fly in Southern California, close to the Mexican border,
also stimulated our fruit fly research.
With a history of research over a period of nearly 50 years, the question
might be logically asked whether we couldn't finish the job and go on to
some other pressing problem. The answer is that it isn't that kind of a
job. New conditions are continually developing, new fruit fly species may
threaten, and new materials and control procedures should be developed
and thoroughly evaluated in order that our defenses may always have the
maximum effectiveness.
Although the title of this paper refers only to work of the U.S.D.A. we
wish to point out that many phases of it have often been carried on jointly
with State and other non-Federal agencies. Time and space limitations
prevent a detailed discussion of the contributions made to our fruit fly knowl-
edge by numerous cooperators over the years. Such cooperation has been
extensive, especially when emergencies existed or appeared imminent. The
original work in Hawaii was cooperative with local agencies, and this co-
operation is still in effect. During both "medfly" campaigns in this State,
Florida workers made important research contributions to meet practical
problems encountered in the eradication program. Beginning in 1949, a
University of California research team, under the direction of the late
Harry S. Smith, participated very actively for several years in the oriental
fruit fly research program in Hawaii. They also designated P. S. Messen-
ger, a member of this team, to represent California in bioclimatic studies
of the Mexican fruit fly, carried on at Brownsville, Texas. Numerous other
contributions have been made by State and other agencies. In Mexico, of
course, the cooperation is with the Mexican Government. These are but a
few instances of active cooperation. Some of the most important advances
have evolved from the work in which other agencies have actively partici-
Our fruit fly research has several unusual features. For one thing,
most of this research is being carried on in advance of any practical im-
mediate need for control measures. The Mediterranean fruit fly, the ori-
ental fruit fly, and the melon fly, although present in Hawaii, are not known
to occur in the continental United States (although two oriental fruit flies
were recently found near Anaheim, California, intensive survey has not
revealed any additional specimens, so these may not represent an established
infestation). The Mexican fruit fly invades the southern Rio Grande Val-
ley of Texas annually and flies are trapped occasionally in the Tijuana area
in Mexico. Although we know of no permanent established infestation of
these fruit flies in the continental United States, it has seemed the part
of wisdom to develop as much information about them as possible in order
that methods of survey, field control, and commodity treatments may be
available for immediate use in case any of these or related species should
appear in our southern fruit-producing areas. As you all know, this policy
paid off when the "medfly" was found in your State in April, 1956. If the
research workers had been obliged to start from scratch and had had no
experience with the new insecticides and other newer approaches to con-
trol, the eradication program, although it would undoubtedly have been
successful, might have required much more time and more extensive financ-

Vol. 43, No. 4


Christenson: Review of Fruit Fly Research Program 165

ing. Our research is being continued on a moderately large scale so that
we can continue to be prepared for any emergency that may develop in
the future.
A second feature in which this research program differs from most
others is the fact that it is being carried on mostly outside of the conti-
nental United States. We are fortunate in not having infestations on the
mainland. We therefore have large, well-organized laboratories in Hono-
lulu and Mexico City. In Mexico we are dealing with the Mexican fruit fly
and some other species in what is probably their native home. In Hawaii
we are dealing with the three migrant species mentioned earlier. They are
not in their original home but are present in sufficient numbers for effective
In developing our fruit fly research program we are giving special em-
phasis to several of the newer approaches to insect control. Such ap-
proaches are essential if we are to meet effectively the numerous challenges
that we face, such as spray-residue problems, and problems of increased
resistance to insecticides formerly effective in insect control. The fruit
fly project is in an unusually good position to explore a number of these
other approaches.
A major undertaking which we now have underway is an effort to ex-
tend the sterile-male technique to fruit fly control. You are, of course,
familiar with the remarkable success of the screw-worm campaign which
was completed here in Florida a year or two ago following an earlier success
on the Island of Curagao. By flooding the area with male flies made sterile
by irradiation it was possible lo cause practically all female flies to lay only
sterile eggs, and the species disappeared. Although many details would
be different and larger numbers of sterile males might be needed, we see
no essential reason why this method would not work against fruit flies. It
should be remembered, however, that a few months would probably be
needed to develop the facilities and fly stocks that this procedure requires.
In dealing with incipient infestations of an emergency nature, other eradi-
cation methods would have to be employed immediately. The liberation of
sterile males might later provide the final push needed for complete eradi'
Methods have been developed whereby certain of our species of fruit
flies can be economically produced in tremendous numbers, and sterile-fly
experiments are being inaugurated on isolated islands in the Western
Pacific in cooperation with the Military and Trust Territory Authorities.
Probably the first sterile flies will be dropped from U. S. Navy aircraft
within a few weeks. The use of isolated islands is necessary to prevent
reinfestation from nearby sources. Fruit flies of many different species
range over a great deal of territory. Mexican fruit flies apparently move
over 100 miles or more of semi-arid terrain to invade citrus areas in Texas
every year. Marked oriental fruit flies have been retaken in traps as far
as 26 miles from a liberation point, having crossed at least 9 miles of water
in the course of their flight. In one recent experiment, 133 oriental fruit
flies were recovered in traps located 9 to 11 miles from the release site.
Similar results have also been obtained with the melon fly. It is easy to
see that an experiment in eradication in a limited area adjacent to sources
of infestation would be doomed to failure from the outset, although the
population might be brought down almost to the vanishing point.

The Florida Entomologist

Chemical means of sterilizing insects or otherwise affecting their repro-
duction, growth, or genetic makeup are also receiving intensive attention
in Mexico and Hawaii. Highly effective compounds which have already been
discovered give rise to the hope that we may some day be able to use anti-
reproduction agents in combination with protein hydrolysates or other lures
in entirely safe ways in the field to eliminate fly populations. If found un-
safe where warmblooded animals are involved, such materials might be
used in rearing media to produce sterile flies for liberation.
Another possible means of large-scale control of fruit flies involves the
use of powerful chemical attractants. Fruit fly lures, especially those
such as methyl eugenol and protein hydrolysates that incite feeding re-
sponses, are ideal vehicles for administering poisons, pathogens, and hor-
mones that may induce unfavorable activity or behavior. Perhaps even
antibiotics can be so dispensed through their destruction of essential sym-
biots in the guts of the fruit flies, they may limit biotic potential.
In the lure research, chemicals that attract males have been found with
much greater frequency than those that attract females. Promising re-
sults were obtained with methyl eugenol against the oriental fruit fly in a
large area in the Hawaiian Islands; since practically all the male flies were
eliminated in that experiment, arrangements have been completed for an
eradication experiment involving the entire Bonin Islands group south of
Japan. Aerial drops of cane fiberboard wafers impregnated with a methyl
eugenol-dibrom mixture, which attracts and kills the male flies, are cur-
rently getting underway. Also-under consideration are similar experiments
in controlling the melon fly with cue-lure a recently discovered attractant
for male melon flies. This method of control is called the "male annihila-
tion technique" by our workers in Hawaii.
Although we are emphasizing newer lines of attack, we are by no means
neglecting the older approaches. An important part of the fruit fly research
program is the effort to develop better and more attractive chemicals
for use as lures in traps or with insecticides for direct control. A quick,
ready method of detecting the presence of the fruit flies is essential to an
effective eradication program. The finding late in the winter of 1955-56
of a material extremely attractive to the "medfly"-oil of angelica seed-
was a most fortunate circumstance when the "medfly" reappeared in Florida
about 6 weeks later. The subsequent development of effective synthetic
lures by workers of our Hawaii laboratory and chemists of the Entomology
Research Division at Beltsville, Maryland, saved the day when the world
supply of angelica seed approached exhaustion. The later availability of
even better lures for the "medfly", synthesized by Division chemists, bodes
well for the success of any further eradication campaign which may be-
come necessary.
Our work with the lures is continuing, although we now have extremely
effective ones for the oriental fruit fly (methyl eugenol), the melon fly
(cue-lure), and the "medfly" (trimedlure). A good male lure that can be
used in a dry trap is still badly needed for the Mexican fruit fly. The screen-
ing of several thousand candidate materials, including many that have
proved of value on other species of fruit flies, has not revealed anything
of much value. Although no spectacular lure for the Mexican fruit fly has
been found, a fairly good one for use in liquid-containing traps is a mixture
of water and corn protein hydrolysate (SIB-7). This mixture has the ad-

Vol. 43, No. 4

Christenson: Review of Fruit Fly Research Program 167

vantage of attracting female flies as well as males, and it has been attrac-
tive to most, if not all, of the tropical fruit flies on which it has been tested.
A fermenting liquid lure containing sugar, yeast, and pyridine is also at-
tractive to both sexes of the Mexican and other fruit flies. The pure chem-
ical lures attract mostly male flies, and are quite specific in their action,
usually attracting only one species of fruit fly. Someday the Mexico City
laboratory will find an outstanding lure that will greatly facilitate any
eradication or suppression program against the Mexican fruit fly and that
may be of value for measuring populations in connection with the research
Further studies are being made of traps, with special reference to those
in which several lures can be used, to capture as many species as possible
in the course of a detection program. The so-called multi-purpose dry
traps were developed to attract the oriental fruit fly, melon fly, and Med-
iterranean fruit fly. Observations elsewhere have revealed that the lures
used in these traps will also attract a few other kinds, including the Queens-
land fruit fly (Dacus tryoni) that is so damaging in Australia. Obviously
the many dozens of fruit flies occurring the world over include numerous
other species that are also of concern to us. The conventional McPhail
traps containing fermenting or protein hydrolysate liquid lures provide the
best insurance of quick detection of fruit flies in general, since they are
more effective specieswise than dry Steiner traps baited with presently
available male lures. Detection systems should make frequent use of these
liquid traps. The strong role liquid traps play in the Mexican fruit fly
program and the need for them in precautionary detection programs have
given continuing significance to the research underway in Hawaii and
Mexico to improve liquid lures and our methods of using them.
Our laboratories are still doing considerable work with new insecticides
and bait spray combinations, although in Hawaii most of this work has
been temporarily slowed down to permit major emphasis on the new meth-
ods of large-scale control already outlined. Most of you are familiar with
the bait spray which was used so successfully in the eradication program
here in Florida in 1956 and 1957. The development of this spray combina-
tion is a striking illustration of the value of cooperation and of basic re-
search. As part of the cooperative effort on the oriental fruit fly organized
under the direction of Walter Carter, entomologist of the Pineapple Re-
search Institute, Honolulu, basic studies on nutrition, conducted by Ken-
neth Hagen and Glenn Finney of the University of California, revealed that
certain hydrolyzed proteins are either essential or very important in the
diet of the adult fruit flies. When such materials were included in their
diet, the adult flies developed sexual maturity and were much more vigorous,
lived longer, and laid more eggs. It is believed that similar materials are
the normal food of the adult flies and are usually available in deposits of
insect honeydew and other secretions and materials present on fruit trees
and elsewhere in nature.
While this basic work on nutrition was going on, L. F. Steiner was mak-
ing an intensive study of insecticide materials. He decided that a com-
bination of one of the protein materials, to which the flies were attracted
and on which they fed, with one of the quick-acting insecticides, should be
very effective in control. This was promptly confirmed in laboratory and
field experiments. The attractant material in the new bait spray was much

The Florida Entomologist

more effective in causing the flies to concentrate their feeding on the spray
deposits than the sweetened materials used previously, and the quick acting
poison killed them shortly after they started to feed. With the use of such
a mixture a complete, thorough coverage is not essential, since in moving
around the fruit flies are certain to find deposits and feed on them. A
heavy deposit is likewise unnecessary; a light spray will do the work.
These combinations worked very effectively in small plot experiments; they
were better in commercial use in certain orchards in Hawaii, and apparently
gave perfect results in Florida against the medfly.
What started out as a cooperative fundamental study of insect nutrition
formed the basis only a few years later of a formulation that was the main-
stay of a $10,000,000.00 practical control operation. As the late L. 0.
Howard used to say, all entomology is economic.
Soil insecticides are currently being investigated for their supplemental
usefulness in fruit fly eradication campaigns. The extent to which their
residual effectiveness may be influenced by weathering, and the degree of
control that may be expected from soil insecticides alone when they are
used in large area applications are currently under study in long-range
tests in both wet and dry climates in Mexico.
The development of commodity treatments which provide greater cover-
age of the different kinds of fresh fruits and vegetables that may be subject
to regulation in eradication campaigns is an ever-present challenge. Treat-
ments which can be used on some hosts and not on others because of injury
or other factors impose undue hardships on some growers and cause mis-
Important among the conventional commodity treatments is the use of
ethylene dibromide. The promise of this fumigant against fruit flies was a
joint discovery of J. W. Balock of our fruit fly laboratory in Hawaii and
D. W. Lindgren of the California Experiment Station at Riverside. Its
later development into approved fumigation treatments has helped solve
many fruit fly introduction risk problems. In the Rio Grande Valley of
Texas it has replaced the vapor heat process, which was effective but time-
consuming and was claimed to injure the fruit under some conditions. The
ethylene dibromide treatment was also used to good advantage in the recent
medfly eradication program in this State.
Ethylene dibromide residue data are being developed that will ulti-
mately permit establishment of tolerances for additional Florida commodi-
ties. In the most recent campaign, blanket approval was given for use of
ethylene dibromide fumigation in the emergency situation then existing.
Policy with respect to further campaigns cannot be predicted. Studies to
provide information on the tolerance of fruits and vegetables to fumigation
and other treatments and on fumigation procedures, conducted by the Flor-
ida Experiment Station, are a most welcome and significant phase of our
present preparedness research program.
Considerable work is still being done with commodity treatments in
Hawaii and Mexico. Studies are being made of possible fumigants other
than those now in regular use, with dips containing fumigants in solution,
and with fruits that do not stand the usual type of fumigation or in which
present fumigations are inadequate. The avocado falls in the two classes
last mentioned, but we are hoping to find some way of conditioning avocados

Vol. 43, No. 4

Christenson: Review of Fruit Fly Research Program 169

so that they can stand an effective fumigation treatment. Time limitations
prevent us from discussing this work in any more detail.
In the research to find treatments with broader spectrums of application
some attention is now being devoted to irradiation. This has appeared to
be very promising from the standpoint of mortality of the fruit fly. How-
ever, the problem of rapid application of the required dosage to large
volumes of produce, and the need for food wholesomeness and biochemical
studies to make certain that radiation will not cause toxic or carcinogenic
byproducts in the treated produce, suggest that it may be some time be-
fore this development can reach a practical application stage.
Further attention, on a limited scale, is being given to the biology,
ecology, behavior, and biological control of fruit flies. Mention has already
been made of the flight and dispersion habits of some of the fruit flies. Bio-
climatic studies of several fruit fly species, carried on in Hawaii and Browns-
ville in specially constructed cabinets to determine the climatic require-
ments of the fruit flies, are being continued on a reduced scale at the latter
point. Questions are regularly coming up on the host status of various
fruits, questions to which an unqualified answer is usually impossible,
although we try to reach as definite conclusions as we can. Further ob-
servations are being made on the biological control of fruit flies, and para-
site material is being sent from time to time for introduction in various
other countries.
In the development of precautionary fruit fly detection programs, the
relative importance of fruit flies from the standpoint of the hazard of in-
troduction and potential for-damage if established in Florida or elsewhere
in the United States furnishes interesting speculation. Our experience with
the "medfly", oriental fruit fly, and melon fly, and the frequency with
which they are intercepted at our borders certainly establish these species
as major threats. The emphasis assigned to them in detection programs
appears to be fully justified. For many of the other fruit flies, hazard to
United States agriculture is probably best measured for practical purposes
by the hosts they infest, the geographic location of infestations, and the
frequency with which they make their way into trade and travel channels.
It is good policy to consider that all fruit flies will do well in the United
States and have potential ability to become serious pests, until an adequate
biological basis for concluding otherwise becomes available.

The Board of Governors of the Entomological Society of America, at
the 1960 Annual Meeting of the Society in Atlantic City, approved the affili-
ation of the Florida Entomological Society with the national organization.
The application for affiliation was submitted in accordance with the wishes
of the Florida Society expressed at the 43rd Annual Meeting in Jacksonville.




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Tabanus imitans Walker shows variation in the southeastern coastal
states from North Carolina to Texas. Stone (1938) described variety
excessus from Florida which lacks the dorso-basal extension of the an-
tennal plate in both sexes. Described below is another variety, pechumani,
which has typical, hooked antennae, but shows other consistent differences.
The hairs of the legs, subepaulets, and often palpi, are rufous; the female
frons (Figure 1C) averages a little narrower with triangular callosity
tapered moderately above into the median callus, and the upper area of
enlarged facets of male eyes (Figure 1D) are more reduced, than in the
typical form (Figures 1A and B). The holotype and allotype are in the
author's collection.
This is a large reddish-brown variety with red-haired appendages,
strongly excised antennal plates, and subhyaline wings with infuscated
costal cells and isolated clouds on the cross-veins.
HOLOTYPE FEMALE: 22 mm. Eyes bare. Frons parallel-sided, buff-
yellow, paler below and darker above in certain lights, with short yellow
and brown hairs; callosity, median line, and an evanescent spot at vertex
deep red, the first subtriangular, narrowly separated from the eyes below,
with a pair of small lateral indentations on lower margin. Subcallus and
outer cheeks yellow, an irregular, bare orange band across the top and
continuous with the callosity. Face and inner cheeks buff with brown hairs.
Beard brown. Antennae and palpi orange, shaped as figured, hairs rufous.
Notum red-brown, scutellum red, indistinctly lined anteriorly with gray
pollen, hairs short, yellow and black. Pleura pinkish gray, bi-colored;
tufts of brown and pale yellow pile beneath, and pale tufts behind, the
wing bases. Legs red; fore tibiae unicolorous red, not darker-haired
apically; hind-tibial fringe prominent, entirely deep red. Alula and squamae
smoky. Subepaulets red-haired in contrast to black-haired costa. Halteres
yellow with red stems.
Abdomen red-brown, covered with appressed black hairs, a median row
of small whitish, white-haired triangles on all but the last tergites and
patches of white hairs on the outer corners of 2-4. Venter entirely pale-
haired, accentuated on the incisures; a few black hairs mesally and caud-
"Gunntown." Levy Co., Fla., 1918, P. Laurent (no such post office now
listed). From Dr. K. L. Hays, Auburn University.
ALLOTYPE MALE: 19 mm. In close agreement with the holotype and
readily associated, except for the usual sexual differences. The brown
pile on cheeks extends upward to base of antennae. Palpi long ovoid, black-
haired. Dark-haired patches on pleura larger than in holotype. Hairs on
femora and coxae predominantly blackish. Body with some darker integu-
mental shades, and a small dark triangle behind the scutellum, the dorsal,

'U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health
Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and
Infectious Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana.

The Florida Entomologist

abdominal pale-haired patches less conspicuous. Pale
fined to incisures, elsewhere mixed red and black.
18.v.28, Alexander-Walker.


Vol. 43, No. 4

hairs of venter con-
Alachua Co., Fla.,

i -7

Figure 1.-Fronts, antennae and palpi of females of: A. Tabanus imi-
tans var. imitans Walker (Umstead St. Park, North Carolina), and C.
T. imitans var. pechumani nov. (Pasco Co., Florida).
Comparison in outlines of upper areas of enlarged facets of respective
males, B. (Lake Placid, Florida) and D. (allotype).

PARATYPES (MALES) : Georgia, Waycross, 8.v.33, P. W. Fattig (Emory
Univ. Coll.). Florida, Gainesville, 13.v.19, P. W. Fattig (Coll. L. L. Pech-
uman); Georgana, m. Whitfield, and "Fla. Palm"; Coll. J. M. Aldrich
(U. S. National Museum); Alachua Co., May 1958, F. S. Blanton.
(FEMALES) : Georgia, Longwood, 23.iii.35, F. E. Lutz; St. Simon Isl.,
22.iv to 12.v.11, J. C. Bradley; 7, Fargo, 3.v.35, and 10, Okeefinokee, Clinch
Co., 4-6.v.35, D. G. Hall. on ne, same data as holotype; 8, Gaines-
ille various dates Apr. and May, P. W. Fattig, C. M. Jones and D. W.
Anthony (3 off cow, horse and man); eight, Alachua Co. 31.v. and May.
58, W. P. Hunter and F. S. Blanton; one, Alachua Co., 29.iv.57, Malphurs;


Philip: New North American Tabanidae

two, Alachua Co., May 1954, Clements; one, Gulf Hammock (Levy) 17.v.57,
Clements; 33 from various counties, Volusia. Brevard Fllaha. Indian River,
and Melbourne), Seminole (Goldenrod), St. Johns (St. Augustine). Pinellas
(Pas-a-grille and Tarpon Springs), Columbia (Lake City). Pasco (Elfers),
Indian River (Vero). Marion (Silver Spring's). Hillsbnrnough (Plant City
and Tampa), Dade (Miami), Bay, Hernando, Manatee (Oneco). and Char-
lotte (Charlotte Harbor) on various dates from 19 March to 31 May by
various collectors; one each from: Ft. Reed, 26.iii.1876, Highland Hammock
St. Park, 20.iii.57 (H. Dietrick), Parker Is., 25.iii.59 ("Ac"), and "Cor.
Fa., Apr.," (0. S. Wescott). In the collections of U. S. National Museum
(including the topotypic female), Canadian National Collection, American
Museum of Natural History, Cornell University and University of Florida,
Florida State Plant Board, K. L. Hays, L. L. Pechuman, Calvin Jones, and
the writer. Records thus extend over the entire state of Florida except for
the northern "panhandle".
The general color varies from more over-all reddish, especially in worn
specimens, to deep brown with heavier wing markings basally compared
to the holotype. Two females from Florida and one from Georgia have
predominantly black-haired beards, pleura and fore coxae, but the hairs of
the tibiae and subepaulets are dark red as in the other paratypes. No
females have the broader callosities nor males the more extensive enlarged
facets of the typical form. It is likely that the frons and callosity figured
by Stone (1938) were drawn from a specimen of this variety. A paratype
female with characteristic callosity and red vestiture was taken at Gaines-
ville, Florida, by P. W. Fattig within 10 days of a female of typical variety
imitans with broader callosity, and mostly white hairs in beard and on
For comparison with these are 18 males and 41 females from various
southeastern coastal states including a considerable series of both sexes
from Lake Placid. Florida, in the collections of Cornell and L. L. Pechuman.
Some of these females have entirely white hind-tibial fringes; in others
the fringes vary from mixed black and white to entirely black in a few
North Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, and Texas females. Four darker
females from Bratt, Florida, one each from Alabama, Lucedale and Ocean
Springs, Mississipi, and Fred, Texas, appear to lack the median row of pale-
haired triangles (not because of wear), and one from Raleigh, North Caro-
lina, has these reduced to a few inconspicuous hairs on only three tergites.
These triangles are less conspicuous in most males.
Intergradations occur in a few other North Carolina specimens with
black-haired tibiae and subepaulets. A male from Kill Devil Hills has
the small facets and three females from there have triangular callosities
similar to new variety pechumani. A fourth female taken earlier in May
in the same locality has the typical subquadrate callosity, and is the only
specimen in the entire series with mixed black and rufous hairs on the
subepaulets and hind-tibial fringe. One male from Gainesville has the
smaller facets but black-haired tibial fringe and subepaulets.
In spite of these few variants, var. pechumani is readily distinguished
in the bulk of material on hand or studied at USNM, and Emory University
(Fattig Collection).
The differences of var. excessus are consistent in combination of non-
hooked antennal plates, hind-tibial fringes mostly red but darker apically,


The Florida Entomologist

subepaulets black-setulose, wings with clouds intensified, and, in females,
callosities broadly ovoid. The enlarged upper eye facets of males are ex-
tensive as in the typical form. The only specimen with antennae inter-
mediate between the typical form, and var. excessus is a male from Lake
Placid, Florida, which is otherwise typical imitans. The allotype male of
excesses was described by Philip (1954) from Alachua Co., Florida, and,
while in press, this sex was redescribed by Pechuman (1955).
I saw the respective types of T. imitans Walker and T. fuscopunctatus
Macquart in British and Paris Museums in 1953, but was not then aware
of present variation. However, subsequent information on these types.
supplied by Mr. H. Oldroyd and Professor Seguy has confirmed the
Variation had also been noticed by Dr. L. L. Pechuman (1955). It is
a pleasure to name this variety for him, who has shared both his extensive
knowledge of Nearctic Tabanidae and much exotic material.

Pechuman, L. L. 1955. Some undescribed or little known males of Ta-
banidae (Diptera). Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc., 50: 57-69.
Philip, C. B. 1954. New North American Tabanidae (Diptera). VI.
Descriptions of Tabaninae and new distributional data. Ann. Ent.
Soc. Amer., 47: 25-33.
Stone, A. 1938. The horseflies of the subfamily Tabaninae of the Nearctic
Region. U. S. Dept. of Agri., Misc. Publ. No. 305, pp. 1-172.

The following catalog information regarding lectotype establishment
should have been included in Part X (Philip, 1959, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc.,
85: 193-217): Diabasis ataenia Macquart is generally credited as a synonym
of Diachlorus ferrugatus Fabricius and to preserve this concept, one of
two syntypes in the Paris Museum seen in 1953 from "Carolinie," and
labelled by Macquart "ataeniata," is herewith designated lectotype. The
other from Brazil is a different species. Of the original three syntypes of
T. vicarius Walker in the British Museum, only one from "North America"
agrees with assignment in Part X as synonym of T. nigrovittatus Mac-
quart, and is designated lectotype. The "Honduras" syntype is now miss-
ing, and the "Mass." syntype is a specimen of T. similis Macquart (syn.
scutellaris Walker).


Vol. 43, No. 4


Erwin, Tennessee

Mites of the genus Brevipalpus feed on plants and several of them are
important economically.
All of the Brevipalpus described in Part I of this paper belong to the
species group with 6 pairs of dorsolateral hysterosomals, 2 setae on the
last segment of the palpus, and tarsus II of the female with 1 sensory rod.
Except for the first species, hypti, all have the anterior medioventral meta-
podosomals much shorter than the posterior pair and in the first 6 species
the rostrum extends beyond the distal end of femur I; in the others the
rostrum does not extend beyond the distal end of femur I. Except as
noted, the tarsal claws have distinct hooks. These characters will not be
repeated in the individual descriptions.
All measurements are in microns and body length includes the rostrum.
The drawings of the nymphs are of the deutonymphal stage unless other-
wise stated.
Brevipalpus hypti, n. sp.
(Figures 1A and 1B)
Brevipalpus hypti resembles B. salviae McG. (1949) in having long
plumose dorsolateral setae, but differs from that species in having the
dorsocentrals shorter and the areolae of the dorsum much smaller.
FEMALE: Body reddish, dorsal setae white; body length 284, width 157.
Markings of dorsum and shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 1A;
venter smooth medially except for ventral plate with distinct areolae (in
some specimens areolae longer than wide, in others small and round) and
genital plate with areolae wider than long.
MALE: Resembles female, but rostrum extends barely beyond distal
end of femur I, the 4 pairs of posterior dorsolateral hysterosomals are pro-
portionally longer, and tarsus II has 2 sensory rods.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure lB.
Holotype: Female, Ixtlan del Rio, Nayarit, March 24, 1957, (D. De
Leon) from Hyptis albida. Paratypes: 5 females, 2 males, other data as
for holotype; 4 females, 1 nymph, Guadalajara, Jalisco, March 22, 1957,
from same host species.

Brevipalpus quercicolus, n. sp.
(Figures 2A and 2B)
The female of Brevipalpus quercicolus is distinguished from other mem-
bers of this subgroup by its having the dorsum very finely reticulate. The
male is not known.
FEMALE: Length 253, width 135; reticulations of the dorsum and shapes
of dorsal setae as shown in figure 2A. Venter smooth medially except for

SThis work has been aided by a grant from the Sigma Xi-RESA Re-
search Fund.

The Florida Entomologist

genital plate which bears faint polygonal reticulations. Tarsal claws with-
out hooks.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 2B. Tarsal claws
with hooks.
Holotype: Female, near km post 134, route 71, Mex., March 10, 1957,
(D. De Leon) from Quercus sp. Paratypes: 2 females, 3 nymphs, other data
as for holotype.
Brevipalpus pseudoleptoides, n. sp.
(Figures 3A and 3B)
Brevipalpus pseudoleptoides is distinguished from other members of this
subgroup by its elongate body.
FEMALE: Length 271-318, width 126 to 139; markings of dorsum and
shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 3A; rostrum extends to distal end
of genu I. Venter practically smooth except for genital plate with areolae
much wider than long.
MALE: Resembles female, but tarsus II with 2 sensory rods.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 3B.
Holotype: Female, near km post 681, route 190, Oaxaca, January 31,
1957, (D. De Leon) from Dodonea viscosa. Paratypes: 6 females, 1 male,
1 nymph, Etla, Oax., February 1, 1957, from Dodonea viscosa.

Brevipalpus serratus, n. sp.
(Figures 4A and 4B)
Brevipalpus serratus is distinguished from other members of this sub-
group by its having strongly serrate dorsal setae and the areolae of the
.disk of the hysterosoma transversely coalesced. The male is not known.
FEMALE: Length 349, width 177. Markings of dorsum and shapes of
dorsal setae as shown in figure 4A. Ventral plate smooth medially with
small rounded areolae at sides, genital plate with transverse striae.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 4B.
Holotype: Female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January 21, 1957, (D.
De Leon) from an unknown tree. Paratypes: 3 nymphs, other data as for
Brevipalpus lagasceae, n. sp.
(Figures 5A and 5B)

The female of Brevipalpus lagasceae resembles B. crotoni, n. sp., but the
rostrum extends farther forward, both setae of the palptarsus are of about
the same length, and the dorsal setae of the body are oval.
FEMALE: Body bright red, length 342, width 174. Markings of dorsum
and shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 5A. Venter smooth medially
except for ventral and genital plates which have areolae wider than long.
MALE: Resembles female, but dorsal setae somewhat longer propor-
tionally and tarsus II has 2 sensory rods.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 5B.
Holotype: Female, Arenal, Jalisco, March 24, 1957, (D. De Leon)
from Lagascea angustifolia. Paratypes: 6 females, 2 males, 1 nymph, other
data as for holotype.


Vol. 43, No. 4

De Leon: The Genus Brevipalpus in Mexico

Brevipalpus crotoni, n. sp.
(Figures 6A, 6B, and 6C)

Brevipalpus crotoni resembles B. essigi Baker (1949), but differs most
notably in having one of the setae of the terminal segment of the palpus
much shorter than the other and the male with 2 sensory rods on tarsi I
and II.
FEMALE: Length 275, width 156; markings of dorsum and shapes of
dorsal setae as shown in figure 6A. Venter smooth medially except for
ventral plate with areolae wider than long and the genital plate with areolae
about as wide as long.
MALE: Resembles female, but tarsi I and II each with 2 sensory rods.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 6B.
Holotype: Female, Ciudad Victoria, Tam., June 12, 1957, (D. De Leon)
from Croton ciliato-glandulosus. Paratypes: 3 females, 1 male, and 1
nymph, other data as for holotype.

Brevipalpus tuberellus, n. sp.
(Figures 7A and 7B)
Brevipalpus tuberellus belongs to the floridianus-fleschneri subgroup,
but differs from these 2 species in having the dorsum tuberculate mediolat-
FEMALE: Length 317 to 344, width 190 to 204. Markings of dorsum and
shapes of dorsal setae as -shown in figure 7A. Venter covered medially
with small, rounded areolae except for a smooth area between and just
posterior of anterior medioventrals and for genital plate with areolae wider
than long.
MALE: Resembles female, but tubercles of dorsum reduced, dorsocen-
tral hysterosomals setiform, and tarsus II with 2 sensory rods.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 7B. The lengths
of the humeral and first 3 dorsolateral hysterosomals vary somewhat be-
tween individuals.
Holotype: Female, near Antiguo Morelos, Tam., December 20, 1956,
(D. De Leon) from Phoebe tampicensis. Paratypes: 3 females, 2 males,
3 nymphs, other data as for holotype. Specimens which vary somewhat from
the types, but probably belong here were collected near Matias Romero,
Oax., from Phoebe mexicana; at Santa Maria del Oro, Nay., from an un-
known lauraceous tree, and at San Bias, Nay., from Nectandra tabascensis.

Brevipalpus formosus, n. sp.
(Figure 8)

The female of B. formosus resembles tuberellus closely in dorsal mark-
ings, but is smaller and the seta of the second palpal segment is palmate.
The male and nymph are unknown.
FEMALE: Body dark red; legs, rostrum, and hysterosomal setae white;
length of body 271, width 172. Dorsum with low tubercles mediolaterad
and at sides of body; disk of propodosoma smooth except for scattered
small sunken areas or pits; disk of hysterosoma with transverse ridges


178 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 43, No. 4

3A 3

"'. 'V '. 3A'. 3B



De Leon: The Genus Brevipalpus in Mexico

posteriad. Venter with rounded areolae medially except for ventral plate
which is closely more or less transversely striate and genital plate which
has areolae somewhat longer than wide. Dorsal surface of legs with small
circular raised areas.
Holotype: Female, Aticama, Nay., April 8, 1957, (D. De Leon) from
Licaria sp. Paratypes: 4 females, other data as for holotype.

Brevipalpus chucumayi, n. sp.
(Figures 9A and 9B)
The female of Brevipalpus chucumayi may be distinguished by its short
rostrum, plumose dorsolaterals, and finely areolate dorsum. The male is
not known.
FEMALE: Body dirty white, length 266, width 165. Markings of dor-
sum and shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 9A. Venter smooth
medially anterior of posterior metapodosomals, with small rounded areolae
between these setae and anterior part of frame of ventral plate which is
wide and with 3 transverse striae; ventral plate with small rounded to some-
what elongate areolae; genital plate with areolae much wider than long;
anterior metapodosomals about 20 long, posterior pair about 65 long. Tarsal
claws with very small hooks.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 9B; dorsocentral
2 is missing.
Holotype: Female, Trinidad, Oax., January 26, 1957, (D. De Leon)
from Styrax argentata. Parcaypes: 2 females, 1 nymph, other data as for
Brevipalpus albus, n. sp.
(Figure 10)

Brevipalpus albus is allied to B. ogmus Pritchard and Baker (1952);
it differs from that species in having smaller, more rounded areolae, in
lacking hooks on the claws, and in other characters. The male and nymph
are not known.
FEMALE: Body dirty white; length 262, width 135; markings of dor-
sum and shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 10. Venter smooth
medially except for genital plate which has small oval areolae slightly
wider than long. Tarsal claws without hooks.
Holotype: Female, Santa Maria del Oro, Nay., March 24, 1957, (D.
De Leon) from Quercus aristata. Paratypes: 11 females, other data as
for holotype.

Plate 1
Figures 1A and 1B. Brevipalpus hypti, n. sp.
Figures 2A and 2B. Brevipalpus quercicolus, n. sp.
Figures 3A and 3B. Brevipalpus pseudoleptoides, n. sp.
Figures 4A and 4B. Brevipalpus serratus, n. sp.
Figures 5A and 5B. Brevipalpus lagasceae, n. sp.
Figures 6A, 6B, and 6C. Brevipalpus crotoni, n. sp.; 6C, palpus.
Figures 7A and 7B. Brevipalpus tuberellus, n. sp.
Figure 8. Brevipalpus formosus, n. sp., palp of female.
Figures 9A and 9B. Brevipalpus chucumayi, n. sp.
Figure 10. Brevipalpus albus, n. sp., female.


The Florida Entomologist

Brevipalpus oreopanacis, n. sp.
(Figures 11A and 11B)
The female of Brevipalpus oreopanacis resembles that of B. chucumayi,
but differs most noticeably from that species by having the rostral shield
and the anterior margin of the propodosoma with only a few scattered
striae, and the tarsal claws with large hooks.
FEMALE: Body white; length 305, width 182; markings of dorsum
and shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 11A. Venter smooth medially
except for the wider than long areolae on the area posterior of the posterior
pair of metapodosomals, and on the ventral and genital plates.
MALE: Resembles female, but tarsus II with 2 sensory rods.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 11B.
Holotype: Female, Santa Maria del Oro, Nay., March 24, 1957, (D.
De Leon) from Oreopanax peltata. Paratypes: 3 females, 2 males, 1
nymph, other data as for holotype.

Brevipalpus insinuatus, n. sp.
(Figures 12A and 12B)

Brevipalpus insinuatus, resembles B. ogmus P. & B. (1952), but differs
from that species in having a mediolateral depression on the propodosoma
and in having propodosomal 1 broadly oval.
FEMALE: Length 284, width 156; markings of dorsum and shapes of
dorsal setae as shown in figure 12A. Areolae of venter broader than wide.
MALE: Resembles female, but areolae appear to be missing in places
from the disk of the propodosoma giving it a pitted appearance, and tar-
sus II with 2 sensory rods.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 12B.
Holotype: Female, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, January 15, 1957, (D.
De Leon) from Quercus sp. Paratypes: 3 females, 1 male, 1 nymph, other
data as for holotype. Additional specimens were collected from Quercus
laurina near km post 277 east of Morelia, Mich.

Brevipalpus ewpristori, n. sp.
(Figures 13A and 13B)

The female of Brevipalpus ewpristori resembles B. essigi Baker (1949),
but the venter of ewpristori is almost completely covered with small rounded
areolae. The nymph is also distinctive.
FEMALE: Length 348 to 365, width 181 to 199; markings of dorsum
and shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 13A. Most of venter includ-

Plate 2
Figures 11A and 11B. Brevipalpus oreopanacis, n. sp.
Figures 12A and 12B. Brevipalpus insinuatus, n. sp.
Figures 13A and 13B. Brevipalpus ewpristori, n. sp.
Figures 14A and 14B. Brevipalpus oaxacensis, n. sp.
Figures 15A and 15B. Brevipalpus perseae, n. sp.
Figures 16A and 16B. Brevipalpus filifer, n. sp.
Figures 17A and 17B. Brevipalpus alni, n. sp.

Vol. 43, No. 4


De Leon: The Genus Brevipalpus in Mexico


The Florida Entomologist

ing ventral plate covered with small, rounded areolae, genital plate with
reticulations wider than long.
MALE: Resembles female, but tarsus II with two sensory rods.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 13B.
Holotype: Female, Jalapa, Ver., March 3, 1957, (D. De Leon) from
Baccharis !conferta. Paratypes: 3 females, 3 males, 5 nymphs, other data
as for holotype. Additional specimens were collected from an unknown
host, same locality as for holotype and from Fuchsia sp. and Senecio aschen
borneanus, June 5, 1957, near km post 258 east of Morelia, Mich.

Brevipalpus oaxacensis, n. sp.
(Figures 14A and 14B)
The female of Brevipalpus oaxacensis resembles B. sayedi Baker (1949)
in the reticulations of the dorsum, but the lack of markings on most of the
venter of oaxacensis is distinctive.
FEMALE: Length 266, width 142; markings of dorsum and shapes of
dorsal setae as shown in figure 14A. Venter smooth medially except geni-
tal plate which has large, polygonal reticulations.
MALE: Resembles female, but areolae of propodosoma and metapodo-
soma smaller and more rounded and tarsus II with 2 sensory rods.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 14B.
Holotype: Female, Oaxaca, Qax., February 1, 1957, (D. De Leon) from
Quercus conzatii. Paratypes: 12 females, 3 males, 3 nymphs, other data
as for holotype.
Brevipalpus perseae, n. sp.
(Figures 15A and 15B)
Brevipalpus perseae belongs in the floridianus-fleschneri group, but is
distinguished from those species by its much narrower dorsocentrals.
FEMALE: Length 288 to 322, width 172 to 244. Dorsum strongly ridged
medially, its markings and the shapes of the dorsal setae as shown in figure
15A. Metapodosoma with small rounded areolae except for smooth oval
area between metapodosomals; ventral plate with small rounded areolae,
genital plate with areolae wider than long.
MALE: Resembles female, but dorsocentrals setiform and tarsus II
with 2 sensory rods.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 15B.
Holotype: Female, Tepic, Nay., March 25, 1957, (D. De Leon) from
Persea hintoni. Paratypes: 3 females, 3 males, 3 nymphs, other data as
for holotype.
Brevipalpus filifer, n. sp.
(Figures 16A and 16B)
The female of Brevipalpus filifer may be distinguished from other mem-
bers of the group by its rather long, very slender dorsolateral setae and
the very broad anterior part of the frame of the ventral plate.
FEMALE: Length 266 to 280, width 159; markings of dorsum and shapes
of dorsal setae as shown in figure 16A. Venter smooth medially anterior
of posterior metapodosomals, reticulations between these setae and an-


Vol. 43, No. 4

De Leon: The Genus Brevipalpus in Mexico 183

terior part of frame of ventral plate coarsely reticulate, anterior part of
frame of ventral plate very wide, composed of 4 to 5 smooth bands. Ven-
tral and genital plates with areolae wider than long.
MALE: Resembles female, but tarsus II with 2 sensory rods.
PROTONYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 16B.
Holotype: Female, near San Cristobal, Chiapas, January 22, 1957,
(D. De Leon) from Persea schideana. Paratypes: 5 females, 1 male, 1
nymph, other data as for holotype.

Brevipalpus alni, n. sp.
(Figures 17A and 17B)
Brevipalpus alni resembles B. delus P. & B. (1952), but differs from that
species most noticeably by the areolae of the hysterosoma being longer than
wide in the mediolateral area. The male is not known.
FEMALE: Length 272, width 165; markings of dorsum and shapes of
dorsal setae as shown in figure 17A. Venter of metapodosoma covered
with rounded areolae except for smooth, oval area between metapodoso-
mals; ventral plate with rounded areolae, genital plate with areolae wider
than long.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 17B.
Holotype: Female, near San Cristobal, Ch., January 22, 1957, (D.
De Leon) from Alnus arguta. Paratypes: 1 female, 2 nymphs, other
data as for holotype.

Brevipalpus striatus, n. sp.
(Figures 18A and 18B)
The female of Brevipalpus striatus is distinguished by the striate medio-
lateral area of the propodosoma and the hysterosoma and the deep mediolat-
eral groove of the later. The male is unknown.
FEMALE: Length 290, width 153; markings of dorsum and shapes of
dorsal setae as shown in figure 18A. Venter smooth medially anterior of
posterior metapodosomals, area between these setae and frame of ventral
plate with areolae wider than long; ventral and genital plates with areolae
wider than long.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 18B.
Holotype: Female, Trinidad, Ch., January 26, 1957, (D. De Leon)
from "mata gusano", a large tree. Paratype: 1 female, other data as for
Brevipalpus levis, n. sp.
(Figures 19A and 19B)
Brevipalpus levis resembles B. xystus P. &. B. (1958), but is distin-
guished from this species by having a nearly smooth dorsum with shallow
pits on the disk of the propodosoma and oval dorsolaterals.
FEMALE: Dark reddish brown; length 290, width 154. Markings of
dorsum and shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 19A. Venter smooth
medially anterior of posterior metapodosomals, area between these setae
and frame of ventral plate with areolae wider than long; ventral plate
with mostly rounded areolae, the others wider than long; genital plate with
areolae wider than long.

184 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 43, No. 4

PROTONYMPH: The shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 19B.
Holotype: Female, Veracruz, Ver., December 25, 1956, (D. De Leon)
from Cordia glabra. Paratypes: 3 females, 2 nymphs, other data as for
holotype. Additional specimens were collected in the same locality Feb-
ruary 19, 1957, from an unknown tree.

Brevipalpus rugosus, n. sp.
(Figure 20)

Brevipalpus rugosus, is distinguished by the rugose surface of the medio-
lateral area of the propodosoma and the rather long, narrow-elliptic dor-
solateral setae. The nymph is unknown.
FEMALE: Length 289 to 308, width 163 to 172; markings of dorsum
and shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 20. Venter smooth medially
anterior of posterior metapodosomals, area between these setae and frame
of ventral plate with both rounded and wider than long areolae; ventral
plate with areolae much wider than long; genital plate with both rounded
and wider than long areolae.
MALE: Resembles female, but dorsum not as rugose and tarsus II with
2 sensory rods.
Holotype: Female, Nochitlan, Oax., February 1, 1957, (D. De Leon)
from Quercus magnoliaefolia. Paratypes: 7 females, 1 male, other data as
for holotype.
Brevipalpus mori, n. sp.
(Figures 21A and 21B)
Brevipalpus mori is distinguished by the pits on the disk and the nearly
.smooth mediolateral area of the propodosoma. The male is not known.
FEMALE: Length 282, width 154; marking of dorsum and shapes of
dorsal setae as shown in figure 21A. Venter medially with rounded areolae
from about half way between anterior and posterior medioventrals to frame
of ventral plate; ventral and genital plates with areolae wider than long.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 21B.
Holotype: Female, Trinidad, Oax., January 26, 1957, (D. De Leon)
from Morus alba. Paratypes: 4 females, 1 nymph, other data as for
Brevipalpus variolatus, n. sp.
(Figure 22)
The female of Brevipalpus variolatus is distinguished by its small size,
by the somewhat raised disk of the propodosoma with numerous small pits
and the serrate propodosomals. The male and nymph are unknown.

Plate 3
Figures 18A and 18B. Brevipalpus striatus, n. sp.
Figures 19A and 19B. Brevipalpus levis, n. sp.
Figure 20. Brevipalpus rugosus, n. sp., female.
Figures 21A and 21B. Brevipalpus mori n. sp.
Figure 22. Brevipalpus variolatus, n. sp., female.
Figures 23A and 23B. Brevipalpus testudinalis, n. sp.
Figures 24A and 24B. Brevipalpus religiosae, n. sp.

De Leon: The Genus Brevipalpus in Mexico

The Florida Entomologist

FEMALE: Length 259, width 136; markings of dorsum and shapes of
dorsal setae as shown in figure 22. Venter smooth medially anterior of
posterior metapodosomals, between these seta and anterior frame of ventral
plate areolae wider than long; ventral and genital plates with areolae wider
than long.
Holotype: Female, Trinidad, Ch., January 18, 1957, (D. De Leon)
from Ceiba acuminata. Paratypes: 10 females, other data as for holo-
type. The tree was without leaves and the mites were in groups of 5
to 10 on the buds in among the coarse hairs.

Brevipalpus testudinalis, n. sp.
(Figures 23A and 23B)
The elongate body and the raised margin of the dorsum is distinctive for
B. testudinalis.
FEMALE: Dirty white; length 282, width 159; markings of dorsum and
shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 23A. Metapodosoma areolate
except for smooth oval area between anterior and posterior metapodoso-
mals, areolae much longer than wide except towards frame of ventral
plate where areolae are mostly rounded; ventral plate with narrow areolae
directed posteromedially; genital plate with areolae slightly wider than
long and somewhat polygonal.
MALE: Resembles female, but tarsi I and II each with 2 sensory rods.
Second segment of palp with seta nearly as long as that of female's.
PROTONYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 23B.
Holotype: Female, San Blas, Nay., April 23, 1957, (D. De Leon) from
an unknown tree. Paratypes: 9 females, 2 males, 3 nymphs, other data
as for holotype.
Brevipalpus religiosae, n. sp.
(Figures 24A and 24B)
Brevipalpus religiosae is distinguished by its large size, by having the
median ridge with broad coalesced areolae and the mediolateral area with
large polygonal reticulations.
FEMALE: Length 398, width 220; markings of dorsum and shapes of
dorsal setae as shown in figure 24A. Metapodosoma with small rounded
areolae between coxal bases and metapodosomals and extending to frame
of ventral plate where areolation meets at center. In some specimens areo-
lae cover metapodosoma except for small oval area between the meta-
podosomals, and in some specimens areolae in clusters. Anterior part of
frame of ventral plate composed of 2 to 4 bands; ventral plate with small
rounded areolae, genital plate with areolae wider than long.
MALE: Resembles female, but tarsus II with 2 sensory rods.
NYMPH: Shapes of dorsal setae as shown in figure 24B.
Holotype: Female, east of Morelia, Mich., near km post 270, route 15,
June 5, 1957, (D. De Leon) from Abies religiosa. Paratypes: 2 females,
1 male, 4 nymphs, near Mexico, D. F., March 10, 1957, from same host
species. Additional specimens were collected from Pinus sp. near San
Cristobal, Chiapas.
Brevipalpus essigi Baker and B. russulus (Boisduval) belong in the
species group treated in this paper and are recorded from Mexico by Pritch-
ard and Baker (1958), but were not collected by the writer.

Vol. 43, No. 4,


De Leon: The Genus Brevipalpus in Mexico

Types of the above new species are in the author's collection; paratypes
will be deposited in the University of Florida Collections, Gainesville.


The drawings are of the dorsal halves of the adult females, indicated
by the letter A and of the dorsal halves of the nymphs, indicated by the
letter B.

I wish to thank the following botanists for the identification of plants:
Mr. Miguel Palacios Rincon, Instituto de Historia Natural de Chiapas, for
those in the region round Tuxtla Gutierrez; Dr. Rogers McVaugh, University
of Michigan, for those of Jalisco and Nayarit, and Dr. Faustino Miranda,
Institute de Biologia, Casa del Lago, Mexico, D. F., for those from other
parts of Mexico.

Baker, E. W. 1949. The genus Brevipalpus (Acarina: Pseudoleptidae).
Amer. Mid. Nat. 42(2) : 350-402.
McGregor, E. A. 1949. Nearctic mites of the family Pseudoleptidae. Mem.
So. Calif. Acad. Sc. 3(2): 1-45.
Pritchard, A. E., and E. W. Baker. 1952. The false spider mites of Cali-
fornia (Acarina: Phytoptipalpidae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent. 9(1):
Pritchard, A. E., and E..W. Baker. 1958. The false spider mites (Ac-
arina: Tenuipalpidae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent. 14(3): 175-274.

ell. 1960. N. C. Agr. Exp. Sta., Tech. Bul. 141, 538 p., illus. Price $10.00.
This is the first of two volumes covering the bee fauna of the United States
east of the Mississippi River. It treats the families Colletidae, Andrenidae,
Halictidae, and Melittidae with 92 new species and subspecies described.
The general introduction includes the materials and methods, ecology,
morphology, and classification, as well as a key to the eight families recog-
nized. All 437 species described in the text can be determined through the
generic keys. The double column format, as well as the organization of
the material, make the volume particularly easy to use. All illustrations
are line drawings, prepared to show characteristics that are useful in dis-
tinguishing species treated in the volume. The book is an outstanding con-
tribution to entomology by its consolidation and updating of information
about bees and it will be a boon to specialist and student alike. Dr. Mitchell
is to be congratulated on the publication of this first volume and its users
will certainly look forward to the early appearance of Volume II.-L. B.


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*. -/
'^^ 1^

'- I


: i

)' n.
-i r
;arr L

IN 1955, 1956, AND 1959

H. K. GoucK, and I. H. GILBERT
Entomology Research Division, A.R.S., U.S.D.A.

Field tests were conducted near Richmond Hill, Georgia, during the
springs of 1955, 1956, and 1959, in areas heavily infested with nymphs and
adults of the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum [L.]). Aging tests
were run in all these years, and in 1956 two series of wear tests were also
conducted, one in cooperation with the 714th Medical Company (Preventive),
U. S. Army, at Fort Stewart, Georgia, and the other at Richmond Hill.
The repellents were selected on the basis of their performance in lab-
oratory screening tests. The studies that preceded this work have been
reported by Smith et al. (1946, 1948, 1949, 1954), Cole et al. (1950), and
Gouck et al. (1955). The repellents were cleared for limited experimental
use as clothing impregnants by the Army Environmental Health Laboratory,
Army Chemical Center, Maryland, but many of them have not been com-
pletely evaluated toxicologically.
Regulation two-piece army fatigue uniforms and coveralls of herring-
bone twill were impregnated with 2 grams per square foot of the individual
repellents, 2.5 to 3.6 grams of the mixtures, and 1.6 and 1.7 grams of the
active ingredient in the pressurized spray. The individual repellents and
most mixtures were applied in acetone solutions, but one mixture (M-
2089E) was applied in an emulsion. About 1,500 ml. of solution or emul-
sion was used to saturate a single coverall or a uniform consisting of fatigue
jacket, trousers, and socks. About 70 grams of pressurized spray was
used to treat a uniform. Three uniforms or coveralls were treated with
each material, if a sufficient quantity was available. In aging, the uniforms
were tested weekly for 4 to 6 weeks, or until they became ineffective, and
in the wear tests after consecutive 8-hour periods of wear.
Subjects wearing the treated uniforms were exposed in tick-infested
areas for 1 to 2 hours, depending on the abundance of the ticks. They
alternately walked about, sat, and lay on the ground, in attempts to give
all the uniforms equal exposure. Each day one subject wore an untreated
uniform as a check. After exposure the subjects continued to wear the
uniforms for about 45 minutes to give the ticks time to attach or drop off,
according to the effectiveness of the repellent. The uniforms were then
removed and all ticks on the clothing and body were counted. The effective-
ness of the repellent was determined on the basis of the total number of
attached and unattached ticks on the subjects wearing treated and un-
treated uniforms.
The results obtained in the aging tests are given in table 1.
In 1955 no individual repellent was as effective as the standard mixture,
M-1960, which gave an average repellency of 97% for 6 weeks. Hexyl
dipropionate averaged 97% repellency for 4 weeks and 87% for the next

'C. H. Schmidt, R. L. Fye, Nelson Smith, R. A. Sutton, H. R. Ford,
and D. Adams took part in the testing and Capt. T. E. Sicay, of the 714th
Medical Company (Preventive), U. S. Army, Fort Stewart, Georgia, as-
sisted in the special wear test.

190 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 43, No. 4


Percent repellency during indi-
cated weeks after treatment

1 2 3 4 5 6

1955 Tests
Individual repellents
6319 1,6-Hexyl dipropionate 99
5550 N-Benzoylpiperidine 94
20128 Heptyl mandelate 99
22542 Diethyltoluamide 88
17586 O-Chloro-N,N-diethylbenzamide 88
6269 Isopropyl N,N-dipropylsuccinamate 95
8296 2-(o-Allylphenoxy) ethanol 90
6024 Diisobutyl glutarate 93
12142 5-Ethyl-2,4-heptanediol ** 88
15995 n-Butyl o-methoxybenzoate 88
5868 o-Hexyloxybenzaldehyde ** 63
5903 4-p-Methoxyphenyl-2-butanol **, t 91
6259 10-Hendecen-l-ol **, t 98
12166 4,5,6,7(or 7a)-tetrahydrospiro[cyclo-
hexane-1,3'-indan]-1"-one **, f 100
Diethyltoluamide pressurized sprays
OM-859 Coarse 89
OM-860 Fine 98
OM-855 Aerosol 93
Mixtures *, $
M-1960 3775 (30%), 2484 (30%),
523 (30%) 100
M-2097 2484 (30%), 523 (30%),
22542 (30%) 100
M-2099 523 (30%), 5974 (30%),
22542 (30%) 99
M-2107 5974 (35%), 22542 (55%) 99
M-2105 16807 (3%), 22542 (87%) 75
M-2106 20128 (35%), 22542 (55%) 96
M-2089E 15463 (18%), 22542 (72%) 98
M-2091 523 (18%), 22542 (72%) 90
M-2104 5974 (30%), 15463 (30%),
22542 (30%) 95
1956 Tests
M-1960* 3775 (30%), 2484 (30%),
523 (30%) 100
20595** N,N-Diethyl-p-isopropylbenzamide 95
6312 N-Ethyl-N- (2-butyroxyethyl)-
butyramide 95
M-2112* 523 (30%), 22542 (60%) 89

96 98 99 92 96

98 98 85 96 89

88 91 90 78

98tt -
83tt -

69tt -
89ft -


Repellent *


Gouck: Field Tests with New Tick Repellents


Percent repellency during indi-
cated weeks after treatment
ENT-No. Repellent* 1 2 3 4 5 6

22542 Diethyltoluamide 93
6435 1,2-Cyclohexyl diisobutyrate 91
5856 p-sec-Butoxybenzaldehyde 99
6251 Propyl N,N-dipropylsuccinamate 91
5854 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-2-naphthyl
butyrate 89
M-2091* 523 (18%), 22542 (72%) 91
6375 Methyl N,N-diisopropyl-
glutaramate ** 70
6383 1,5-Pentyl dipivalate ** 67
3882 2(x,x-Diethylphenyl) ethanol t, $ 96
5947 4-Methyl-3,5-nonanediol f 94
6245 Propyl N,N-dibutylsuccinamate f 94
6390 sec-Butyl N,N-diisopropylsuccina-
mate f 94
6393 sec-Butyl N,N,-dipropylsuccina-
mate f 97
6408 Ethyl N,N-diisobutylsuccina-
mate t 97
11009 Cyclohexyl phenyl ketone f, $ 81
1959 Tests
M-1960* 3775 (30%), 2484 (30%),
523 (30%) 100
30146 N,N-Dibutyl-p-toluamide 98
30126 N,N-Dibutyl-m-toluamide 99
6365 Ethyl N,N-dipropylglutaramate 99
7447 N-Allyl-3-methyl-4-cyclo-
hexene-1,2-dicarboximide 97
6373 Methyl N,N-dipropylglutaramate 93
18014 Reduced alcohol of butadiene
furfural copolymer 95
8184 N-Octyl bicycloheptene
dicarboximide 97
5511 trans-2-(2,5-Xylyl)cyclohexanol 97
22542 Diethyltoluamide 98
25211 2-Butoxyethyl octyl sulfoxide 99
21987 2- (2-Butoxyethoxy) ethyl
o-toluate 92
4133 N-Octylsuccinimide 90
30002 N,N-Dibutyl-o-toluamide t 100
25028 Octyl propyl sulfoxide f 99
9047 o-Cyclohexylphenol t 98

81 90ft- -
86 62ft 52tt- -
73 891 $- -
89 82t -

88tt 82ft -
78 - -

75 -
87$- -

99 99 95 97 -
99 96 97 93f -
99 98 98 95t -
99 97 91 62 -

95 88 89tt 941: -
93 79 83ft 615$ -

98 77 79ft 68$$ -

94 92ff 90ft 965$ -
93 79tf 97$ -
96 73 985t -
80 52f -

88 87ft 801: -
98ft 871$ 891$ -


The Florida Entomologist


Percent repellency during indi-
cated weeks after treatment

ENT-No. Repellent 1 2 3 4 5 6

25209 Allyl octyl sulfoxide t 91 -
6560 Diethyl 2,6-dimethyl-4-oxo-2-
cyclohexene-1,5-dicarboxylate 89 96tt 92tt 84ff 97$$ -
1395 N-propylphthalimide 87 59ft -
25027 3-Chloropropyl octyl sulfoxide t 86 95tt -
30133 2-(2-Butoxyethoxy) ethyl
m-toluic acid 83 395$ -
30366 2-(alpha-Pentylstyryl)-m-dioxane 82 -
21050 cis-N-Heptyl-4-cyclohexene-
1,2-dicarboximide 76 95 885$ 881$ -
30276 2-(2-Butoxyethoxy) ethyl 2-(2-ethoxy-
ethoxy) ethyl acetal of
acetaldehyde 66 23$$ -
21559 o-Methylbenzyl chrysanthemu-
mate $ 45 -
12079 N-n-Butylformanilide -

All mixtures contained 10% of an emulsifier, in addition to two or more of the follow-
ing ingredients, which are indicated in the table by ENT number:
523-benzyl benzoate
15463-o-phenyl phenol acetate
20128-heptyl mandelate
** Only 2 uniforms treated.
t Uniform caused burning or irritating sensation on the skin.
tt Only 2 uniforms tested, one having failed in previous test.
$ 1 uniform treated.
$$ Only 1 uniform tested, the others having failed in previous tests.

2 weeks, and benzoylpiperidine averaged 94% for 4 weeks and 75% for
the next 2 weeks. Heptyl mandelate gave at least 84% repellency for 6
weeks and diethyltoluamide at least 86% for 4 weeks. Diethyltoluamide
was about as effective in pressurized sprays as in the impregnation treat-
ment. All the mixtures except the standard contained diethyltoluamide.
M-2097, M-2099, and M-2107 were only slightly less effective than M-1960.
M-2097 and M-2099 were similar to M-1960, but both contained diethyltolua-
mide in place of butyl ethyl propanediol, and M-2099 also contained butyryl
tetrahydroquinoline in place of butylacetanilide.
In 1956 mixture M-1960 was the only treatment that consistently pro-
vided more than 90% repellency for 4 weeks. Diethyl isopropylbenza-
mide, ethyl butyroxyethyl butyramide, and mixture M-2112 were effective
for 3 weeks. Diethyltoluamide gave only 81% repellency during the sec-
ond week.

Vol. 43, No. 4


Gouck: Field Tests with New Tick Repellents 193

In 1959 M-1960 was again the most satisfactory, and consistently gave
at least 95% protection for 5 weeks. The para and meta isomers of di-
butyltoluamide also were effective for 5 weeks, but when high humidity
was accompanied by profuse sweating they caused severe irritation to the
skin. Ethyl dipropylglutaramate was effective for 4 weeks, and six re-
pellents, including diethyltoluamide, were effective for 2 weeks.
The results of wear tests with diethyltoluamide, a mixture of diethyl-
toluamide and benzyl benzoate (M-2091), and the standard mixture (M-
1960) are shown in table 2. The tests in series 1 and 2 were conducted at
Richmond Hill, using uniforms impregnated with acetone solutions, and those
in series 3 at Camp Stewart, using uniforms impregnated with emulsions.
In series 1 and 3 the periods of wear were begun on the day after treatment,
and in series 2 they were begun after 7 days. The uniforms treated with
M-1960 were highly effective after 32 to 48 hours of wear, whereas M-2091
and diethyltoluamide gave good protection through only 8 to 16 hours of


Percent Repellency after Indicated
Hours of Wear
Repellent* 8 16 24 32 40 48

Series 1 (2 Uniforms)
M-1960 99 91 92 96 92 93
M-2091 98 78 64 90 85 77
Diethyltoluamide 52 55 40 75 51 51**
Series 2 (2 Uniforms)
M-1960 99 99 97 97 87 -
M-2091 95 91 77 -
Diethyltoluamide 93 95 75 85** 82** -
Series 3 (4 Uniforms)
M-1960 98 100 98 85 95t
M-2091 88 88 82t 68t 89t
Diethyltoluamide 89 82t 79 18 65t

Mixture formulas given in table 1.
** Only 1 uniform tested, 1 having failed in previous test.
t Only 2 uniforms tested, others having failed in previous test.


Field tests were conducted in 1955, 1956, and 1959 with 54 individual
repellents, 13 mixtures, and 3 pressurized sprays in areas heavily infested
with nymphs and adults of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.).
None of the new repellents was as effective as the standard, M-1960. Three
mixtures containing various concentrations of diethyltoluamide with butyryl
tetrahydroquinoline and/or butylacetanilide and benzyl benzoate were only
slightly less effective than the standard. The most effective individual re-

The Florida Entomologist

pellents were 1,6-hexyl dipropionate, N-benzoylpiperidine, heptyl mandelate,
N,N-diethyl-p-isopropylbenzamide, N-ethyl-N- (2-butyroxyethyl) butyramide,
and ethyl N,N-dipropylglutaramate. The meta and para isomers of N,N-
dibutyltoluamide were also highly effective but were irritating under ex-
treme sweating conditions. Diethyltoluamide and six other compounds were
next in effectiveness.
Cole, M. M., and C. N. Smith. 1950. Tick repellent investigations at Bull's
Island, S. C. 1948. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42(6): 880-883.
Gouck, H. K., and I. H. Gilbert. 1955. Field tests with new tick repellents
in 1954. Jour. Econ. Ent. 48(5): 499-500.
Smith, C. N., and D. Burnett, Jr., 1948. Laboratory evaluation of repellents
and toxicants as clothing treatments for personal protection from fleas
and ticks. Amer. Jour. Trop. Med. 28(4): 599-607.
Smith, C. N., M. M. Cole, I. H. Gilbert, and H. K. Gouck. 1954. Field tests
with tick repellents-1949, 1950, and 1952. Jour. Econ. Ent. 47(1):
Smith, C. N., M. M. Cole, E. A. Jones, and J. C. Clark. 1949. Investigations
of tick repellents at Camp Bullis, Texas, 1948. Jour. Econ. Ent. 42(5):
Smith, C. N., and H. K. Gouck. 1946. Observations on tick repellents.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 39(3): 374-378.


Factories and Offices: TAMPA and FORT PIERCE, FLORIDA



Vol. 43, No. 4



Stillwater, Oklahoma

A new species of Chelopistes, collected in Texas and Mexico off the Cha-
chalaca, is herewith described and illustrated. Chelopistes meleagridis
(Linnaeus, 1758), a common parasite on the turkey, is the only other species
of this genus known from North America (north of Mexico). Species of
the genus are rather common on neotropical gallinaceous hosts found south
of the United States.

Chelopistes texanus n. sp.
MALE. General shape and chaetotaxy as shown in figure 2. Minute
setae of head, omitted in figure 2, normal. Male genitalia as shown in
figure 3.
FEMALE. General shape and chaetotaxy as shown in figure 1. Minute
setae of head, omitted in figure 1, normal. Internal bands of pleurites as

Explanation of figures.
All figures pertain to Chelopistes texanus n. sp. Figures 1 and 2 are drawn
to the same scale.
Fig. 1. Dorsal-ventral view of female.
Fig. 2. Dorsal-ventral view of male.
Fig. 3. Male genitalia.

The Florida Entomologist

in C. latifrons (Carriker, 1945).1 Small setae on posterior margin of vulva
more abundant than in C. latifrons.
DISCUSSION. This species is closest to C. latifrons (Carriker, 1945)
found on Ortalis guttata adspersa (Tschudi). The two posterior, thoracic,
sternal plates of C. latifrons each possess 2 long setae; in C. texanus these
plates each have 1 long setae. In the male, C. texanus possesses 2 long setae
on the median posterior margin of the head, while C. latifrons possesses 4
long setae. Central chaetotaxy of abdominal sternites II-VII is more abun-
dant in C. texanus. In addition, C. texanus is much larger in all measure-
ments for both sexes. The male genitalia do not appear to be distinctive.
TYPE HOST: Ortalis vetula mccalli (Baird), Chachalaca.
TYPE MATERIAL: Holotype male collected at Rio Atoyae, Vera Cruz,
Mexico, April 12, 1947, by E. P. Edwards; 1 male paratype with the same
data. Allotype female collected on November 7, 1954, in Southeast Texas
(exact location and collector unknown); 1 female paratype with the same
data. Three female paratypes collected at Zamorina, Tamaulipas, Mexico
on May 10, 1949, by W. B. Heed. One male and 1 female paratype collected
at Wibank Rio, Tamaulipas, Mexico on February 18, 1949, by W. B. Heed.
Paratypes in the British Museum (Natural History) are: 3 collected in
October, 1921, in South Texas; 2 collected in Yucatan, Mexico; and 4 col-
lected in September, 1889, in Guatemala. The specimens from Yucatan,
Mexico, are off Ortalis vetula vetula (Wagler); and the specimens from
Guatemala are off Ortalis vetula leucogastra (Gould). The holotype and
allotype will be deposited in theXU. S. National Museum.
Carriker's figures of C. latifrons are in error in certain details. In his
figures, abdominal tergites II-VII are shown as sternites. The faintly col-
ored abdominal sternal plates are omitted. The chaetotaxy of abdominal
segments II-VII is all shown as ventral.

1 Carriker, M. A. 1945. Studies in Neotropical Mallophaga (VII),
Goniodes and allied genera from gallinaceous hosts. Rev. Acad. Colomb.
Sci. 6: 355-399.

The 44th Annual Meeting of the Florida Entomological Society will be
held in association with the Entomological Society of America. These meet-
ings are scheduled for November 27-30, 1961, at Miami, Florida, and will
be held at the McAllister and Columbus Hotels.

Vol. 43, No. 4



Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
Homestead, Florida

The citrus root weevil, PacFnaeus litus (Germ.), is not considered a
major pest of citrus in Florida but occasionally causes serious damage, par-
ticularly along the lower east coast. The adult weevils feed on the foliage,
the injury typically appearing as notches along the leaf margin. The larvae
cause much more serious injury by feeding on the root cortex, usually on
the underside of the roots but where high populations are present complete
girdling often occurs.
During the course of investigations on the citrus root weevil in 1957,
several egg masses were collected and brought to the laboratory to obtain
a supply of newly hatched larvae to infest potted trees. A trichogrammatid
wasp emerged from a high percentage of the eggs. Specimens were sent to
Dr. P. W. Oman of the Insect Identification and Parasite Introduction Re-
search Branch, U. S. D. A., and subsequently they were identified by Dr.
B. D. Burks as Ufens osborni Dozier. According to Dr. Oman's report (in
litt, May 21, 1959) this species has not been known previously from the
United States.
Dozier (1932)1 described U. osborni from a series of specimens reared
by H. T. Osborn at Central Aguirre, Puerto Rico, from eggs of the sugar
cane root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus L.
From a series of egg masses obtained during May and June, 1957, less
than 2% of the weevil larvae hatched out of the 623 eggs. Adult U. osborni
emerged from 81% of the eggs. During the month of September, 11 addi-
tional egg masses were collected. Of these, 2 masses were not parasitized,
8 produced parasites only, and 1 yielded an equal number of citrus root
weevil larvae and parasites.
The appearance of citrus root weevil populations has always been spo-
rodic, adults appearing in a grove one year and disappearing the next.
Occasional adults have been collected since 1957, but no egg masses have
been seen. This is not to infer that they are not present, but that the citrus
root weevil population has remained at a very low level.
It is tempting to speculate that the conditions during 1957 were such
that parasitization by U. osborni reduced the citrus root weevil population
to such an extent that it has not been able to build up again to significant
numbers. It is hoped that the effectiveness of this parasite as a biological
control agent can be fully evaluated in the future.

SDozier, H. L. 1932. Descriptions of new trichogrammatid (Hymenop-
tera) egg parasites from the West Indies. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington
34 (3): 29-37.


First Step toward Improved Pesticides

From the Hercules Research Center and Agricultural
Chemicals Laboratories come an ever increasing number
of products that contribute to more productive farming
and increased comfort for leisure hours. Here are the ,
established members of the Hercules family: Toxaphene
agricultural insecticide; Thanite for oil base and aerosol
insecticides; Delnav* phosphate pesticide; meta Delphene
insect repellent.
Today in the laboratories, research continues on the
products that will join them in the future. But before they
become available you can be sure that thousands of
compounds have been carefully screened and extensive
tests conducted in the field because only the best is good
enough to meet the standards of Hercules research.
That's why you can look to Hercules for leadership in
the development of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides.
Agricultural Chemicals Division, Naval Stores Department
900 Market Street, Wilmington 99, Delaware


A pre-meeting "bull session" was held in the Oxford-Dover Room of the
Robert Meyer Hotel, Jacksonville, on Wednesday evening, September 7,
1960, from 7:30 to 9:30 P.M.
The meeting convened in the Windsor Room of the Robert Meyer Hotel,
Jacksonville, at 9:00 A.M. on Thursday, September 8, 1960, with President
Andrew J. Rogers presiding. The two day program consisted of 28 sub-
mitted papers, 4 invitational papers, 2 symposia, and one panel discussion.
The Annual Banquet was preceded by the hospitality hour, sponsored by
members of industry, on the evening of September 8th.
The first business session convened at noon on September 8th with Presi-
dent Rogers presiding. Since the minutes of the Forty-second Annual Meet-
ing had been published in the Florida Entomologist (42[4]: 179-182), they
were approved as printed.
The President appointed the members of the Auditing and Resolutions
committees. President Rogers informed the members of the decision of the
Executive Committee to hold the Society's 1961 Annual Meeting in Miami
jointly with the 1961 Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of Amer-
ica. A committee is to be formulated from those who plan to attend the
1960 E.S.A. meeting in Atlantic City, N. J. This committee would then
guide arrangements for the 1961 joint meeting of our Society and E.S.A.
The Report of the Treasurer-Business Manager was presented by Dr.
R. E. Waites who has served in this important capacity since 1958.
Registration Fees ......................................... ................... $ 393.00
Banquet Fees ......-....---------- ---------....--... .. 343.50
Membership Dues (1959-60) .---------...... ------...--....---...-- 1299.00
Subscriptions ..----....--.......---....-...-------------.----....... 410.25
Advertisements .............. .----..-.. ............--- --- .--........- 1317.31
Reprints ......---...---..................----....----....------- 226.76
Back N um bers ....................................... ....................... 242.00
Plates and Etchings ...........--.... ..-........---..--..- .....-- .. 177.59
Sale of Slides-Entomology in Action .---......---...........----..----....--.. 28.40
Cash on Hand 8/31/59 .--...-.....-....... ...--- --...- .. 1587.33

Keystone Press of Miami ...-......-..--.-- ....--.---.........--... $ 50.00
Cole's Flowers-Centerpiece for Banquet ....--........--.. --------- 10.30
Boulevard Piano Co.-Rental of Organ for Banquet -------------- 25.00
Bud Snyder-Banquet Expenses (Musicians, Food, etc.) .......... 56.36
Alfred S. Mills-Reimbursement for Plastic Badges .............. 10.82
McAllister Hotel-Banquet Charges .........-.............-................ 438.96
L. A. Hetrick- Secretary- Postage ..............................-............ 51.00
Lewis Berner- Editorial Expenses ...............................-............ 10.00
Business Envelope Manufacturing Co.-
5M Return Address Envelopes --....--.......-..-.- -------- 22.85
Railway Express Agency-Shipping Charges on Envelopes ---. 3.15
Chesnut Office Equipment Co.-Record Book for
Business Manager .......--.............--------- ......-..................---- 3.77
Pepper Printing Co.-Printing of "The Florida Entomologist".. 2229.97
Postmaster, Gainesville, Florida-Postage and Box Rent ........ 30.90
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc.-3 sets slides "Entomology
in Action" ----..................--..------ ............. ...-............... 35.49
Chesnut Office Equipment Co.-File Drawer for Secretary..... 8.86
Bank Service Charge ------.........--------------............. .10


The Florida Entomologist

Cash on Hand 8/31/60 ........------..................--- ---.----. 3037.61
Respectfully submitted,
R. E. Waites, Business Manager

The report of the Treasurer-Business Manager was adopted by voice
vote. (Although the work of the Auditing Committee had not yet been
done and their report was not presented until the following day, it is re-
corded at this point in the minutes for continuity).
The Auditing Committee has carefully examined the records and reports
for the Florida Entomological Society for the period ending August 31,
1960, and finds them correct.
The committee wishes to commend Dr. R. E. Waites, for the neat and
orderly manner in which we received the records.
The Auditing Committee
G. H. Beames
H. D. Woofter
G. W. Dekle, Chairman

The Report of the Special Committee to make Recommendations on Im-
proving the Standards and Status of Professional Entomology was pre-
sented by Dr. John W. Wilson. The report, with modifications from the
final business session, was as follows:
Recommendations of this committee follow:
(1) That Article II, Section 6 of the bylaws be amended at the next
annual meeting to increase the membership of the Public Relations Com-
mittee from 3 to 11 members and that the scope of the Public Relations
Committee be broadened.
(2) That the incoming president appoint an interim committee to be
known as the Advisory Council which shall have the following duties:
A. To supply information to the Public Relations Committee on
matters of interest to the entomological profession and the public.
B. To appear at public hearings on matters which affect the inter-
ests of the entomological profession.
C. To keep informed on all public affairs affecting entomology,
including legislation, and to represent the Society in all such mat-
ters by offering advice and council to the State Government and to
the public in these matters.
D. To make an annual report at each annual meeting to the Society
on activities conducted.
E. Improve the status of professional entomology.
(3) That the membership of the Interim Advisory Council will consist
of 11 members with one member representing the following phases of the
profession: 1. Industrial Entomology; 2. Structural Pest Control Industry;
3. The U.S.D.A. Agricultural Research Service (Entomology Division); 4.
The Agricultural Experiment Stations; 5. Educational Entomology; 6. Reg-
ulatory Entomology (Federal); 7. Florida State Plant Board; 8. Control
(State or Federal); 9. Public Health Entomology (State or Federal); 10.
Extension Entomology; 11. Forest Entomology.
(4) That the chairman of the present Public Relations Committee be a
member of the Interim Advisory Council.
(5) That the membership of the enlarged Public Relations Committee

Vol. 43, No. 4


Minutes of the Forty-Third Annual Meeting

represent the phases of entomology specified for the Interim Advisory Coun-
cil and that the duties of the enlarged Public Relations Committee include
the duties of the Interim Advisory Council.
(6) That, in order to give the membership time to consider the above
report and to make suggested modifications of the recommendations, action
on the report be deferred to the final business session of this annual meeting.
John T. Creighton
J. T. Griffiths,
M. L. Wright
John W. Wilson, Chairman

Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger presented the report of the Honors and Awards
The purpose and function of this committee is to honor and to present
appropriate awards to entomologists who make outstanding contributions
to science and to the public. Members of this committee recognized that
there were many problems in connection with selecting and honoring indi-
viduals and organizations. These members recognized the need to promote
interest, incentive, and drives to extend entomological progress. They rec-
ognized also the value, however, of bringing to the attention of the public
something of entomological progress.
The Committee recommends:
1. A committee be appointed each year to examine and evaluate en-
tomological progress, to search for worthwhile candidates for
2. The committee consider all instances but it need not necessarily
honor any individual nor organization.
Dr. J. T. Griffiths
Dr. E. G. Kelsheimer
Dr. Milledge Murphy, Jr.
Dr. A. A. Whipp
Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger, Chairman

(This committee selected Dr. Loren F. Steiner as the recipient of the
1960 Award for his outstanding work on the biology of fruit flies and the
development of attractants for these insects. Dr. Steiner is associated with
the U.S.D.A. Fruit Fly Laboratory, Honolulu, Hawaii. The award of a suit-
able plaque was made to Dr. Steiner "in absentia" by Dr. Wolfenbarger and
received by Dr. B. A. Porter of U.S.D.A.).
The second business session convened at 4:00 P.M. on September 8th
with President Rogers presiding. The Report of the Committee on History
of the Society was given by Dr. Tissot.
An article entitled "History of the Florida Entomological Society" was
prepared and a copy of the manuscript sent to Dr. E. C. Nance, President
Emeritus, University of Tampa, who accepted it for use in his forthcoming
History of Florida. A copy also was submitted to the Florida Entomologist
and Editor Lewis Berner reports that the article may appear in the Decem-
ber, 1960 number.
L. A. Hetrick
Andrew J. Rogers
A. N. Tissot, Chairman

Dr. Milledge Murphey reported for the Committee on Necrology. The
Society regrets the death of member J. William Decker, Fernandina Beach.
(The Secretary wrote to surviving members of Mr. Decker's family shortly
after his death. Also a short obituary note was carried in the Florida
Entomologist (43[2]: 93). Mrs. Decker was most appreciative of these


The Florida Entomologist

Mr. M. Lewis Wright, Chairman of the Entomology in Action Commit-
tee, did not attend the meeting and no report was submitted by this com-
mittee. The Secretary reported that during the year the Executive Commit-
tee had authorized the printing of additional copies of the Entomology in
Action Kodachrome slide series. Three additional sets of these pictures were
made. One set was sold to Entomological Society of America for use by the
Executive Secretary in support of talks given before various groups. One
set was sold to Kilgore Seed Co., Plant City, Florida. The third set is cur-
rently held by the Secretary and the original series has been returned to
Mr. Wright. There is no record of how many people have viewed these
pictures during the past year.
Mr. James E. Brogdon reported on the activities of the Membership Com-
Dr. Lewis Berner presented the report of the Committee on Sustaining
It is the opinion of this committee that the Florida Entomological Society
should not institute sustaining memberships. The members of this com-
mittee feel that the Society is already being adequately subsidized by com-
mercial organizations through advertising and through their contributions
to our hospitality hour and that any further request to these organizations
would produce an unfavorable reaction toward the Society.
This committee consulted the minutes of the Entomological Society of
America to determine how that Society handled its sustaining associates.
Their associates contribute $100.00 per year or more to the Society.
The committee then estimated that it costs the Florida Entomological
SSociety approximately $10.00 per page to print an advertisement in the
Florida Entomologist for which the advertiser is currently charged $35.00.
This means that an organization that carries an advertisement in the Florida
Entomologist is, to all intents and purposes, subsidizing the Society to the
extent of $25.00 per issue or $100.00 per year. Those organizations carry-
ing a half page ad are supplying the Society with $60.00 per year above the
Cost of printing.
Each year, at least for the last ten, commercial entomologists have been
donating a sum of money to the Society to be used at its annual meeting
for the hospitality hour. This has been a very successful and enjoyable
affair. Not only has it enabled its members to get together socially at the
meetings, but the Society has also gained financially through the residue
left after all costs are paid. When the sums supplied for the hospitality
hour and advertising are considered it becomes very clear that the Florida
Entomological Society is already being subsidized to the extent of more than
$100.00 by those organizations which carry full page advertisements in the
Florida Entomologist and to a lesser degree by those who do not carry ad-
vertising. This committee therefore recommends that the Florida Entomo-
logical Society withdraw the proposal for instituting sustaining member-
L. A. Hetrick
R. E. Waites
Lewis Berner, Chairman

Dr. Lewis Berner presented the report of the Committee on Exchanges
of the Florida Entomologist.
This committee considered at some length the matter of exchanges of
the Florida Entomologist with other journals published by other biological
or entomological societies. The recommendation of this committee is that
the policy of exchanges be continued. Presently, from the best information
that was available to the committee, there are four subscriptions being given
as gifts, all of which were approved by the executive committee or by the


Vol. 43, No. 4

Minutes of the Forty-Third Annual Meeting

Society as a whole, and eighteen exchanges. Many years ago the Florida
Entomological Society approved the deposit of these exchanges in the Uni-
versity of Florida Libraries where they are available to any entomologist
in the state. This committee feels that this has been a most worthwhile
activity on the part of the Society especially in view of the fact that the
organizations with which exchanges are made are almost entirely foreign.
These foreign organizations are small biological or entomological societies
which would not have adequate funds to subscribe to the Florida Entomolo-
gist. The Florida Entomological Society, also being a small organization,
benefits by receiving their publications and many of the journals received
are much more voluminous than the Florida Entomologist and most of them
are producing important basic information in the field of entomology.
In addition to recommending that the policy of exchanges be continued,
this committee also recommends that the Society authorize the expansion
of exchanges on a limited scale. No exchange is to be instituted without the
approval of both the business manager and the editor.
Presently, the Society prints an issue of 650 numbers. Approximately
450 of these are put in the mail to subscribers and members leaving a residue
of about 200. This residue over the course of years has created a storage
problem. The committee feels, therefore, that the mailing of a small num-
ber of exchange items benefits the Society additionally by reducing the
backlog of unsold copies.
L. A. Hetrick
R. E. Waites
Lewis Berner, Chairman

President Rogers thanked the members of the Program Committee for
their fine work. Mr. Herman S. Mayeux, Chairman of this Committee, pro-
posed the continuation of the pre-meeting "bull session" and exhibits in
future years and so moved: This motion was seconded by John Wilson.
Discussion followed. Continuation of annual exhibits was adopted by voice
vote. The "bull session" was further discussed and amended by Lewis
Berner to permit more flexibility in the future. F. Gray Butcher moved, and
Frank Mead seconded, a motion to "table" the "bull session" motion. The
motion was "tabled" by voice vote.
The session adjourned in time to permit the members to prepare for the
Hospitality Hour and Banquet.
The final business session was convened at 2:15 P.M. on Sept. 9th by
President Rogers.
Chairman of the Local Arrangements Committee, John A. Mulrennan,
reported on the work of his group to assure the success of the Meeting.
President Rogers commented on the fine work of the Public Relations
Committee. The proposal of a change in the by-laws to permit a larger
Public Relations committee was given further attention. Minor changes
were moved and adopted. (These changes have been incorporated into the
report of the Committee on Improving the Standards and Status of Pro-
fessional Entomology as printed in these minutes.)
President Rogers commented on a proposal that Florida Entomological
Society become an affiliate of Entomological Society of America. A motion
was made and seconded that the incoming President appoint a committee
to investigate the advantages and responsibilities of affiliation with E.S.A.
If favorably impressed, this committee is then to have the power to act for
the Society prior to the annual E.S.A. meeting in November-December 1960.
The motion was passed by voice vote.
Herman Mayeux requested that the winners of the exhibits awards be
recorded in the minutes. The Executive Committee had authorized an award
of 2 years Society dues for the best member exhibit and 1 year student mem-
ber dues for the best junior exhibit. The award of 2 years dues was won
by John Porter and his daughter for their exhibit on preservation of spider
webs. The junior exhibit award was made to William J. Platt, III for his
exhibit of butterflies.
Mr. Henry S. Chubb, Chairman of the Resolutions Committee, thanked


204 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 43, No. 4

the Committees on Program and Local Arrangements, industrial contribu-
tors to the hospitality hour, the hotel, invitational and out-of-State speakers,
and exhibitors.
President Rogers thanked the various Society officers and committee
members for their cooperation during the past year.
President Rogers requested the report of the Nominating Committee.
President ........................................---------------------Lewis Berner
Vice-President ----......................... ------------ ---------W. C. Rhoades
Treasurer-Business Manager ....... ............------- R. E. Waites (continuing)
Secretary ..-......- ------.--......----------..--- L. A. Hetrick
Executive Committee-....................-.-----------------------..-...---John R. King
(replacement for G. G. Rohwer for 1 year)
Executive Committee-- -....-...-----------R. W. Baranowski (2 year term)
Editor .. ------.....................--------...... ----...........---------Lewis Berner
Associate Editor ......................---------- -----------Norman Hayslip
Respectfully submitted,
F. Gray Butcher
Joseph Nicholson
W. B. Tappan
Paul J. Hunt, Chairman

There were no additional nominations from the floor. It was moved,
seconded, and voted that the Secretary be instructed to cast a ballot to elect
the slate of officers presented by the Nominating Coommittee.
The newly elected President, Dr. Lewis Berner, was escorted to the plat-
form and retiring President Rogers conveyed the Society's gavel to him.
Dr. Berner thanked the members of the Society for the confidence and trust
placed in him. President Berner adjourned the meeting at 3:05 P.M.
Currently, the Society has 303 members. The following new members
joined the Society since the last annual meeting.
Bargren, Wm. C. 1840 N. W. 44th Ave., Rt. 3, Gainesville.
Beck, Elizabeth C. (Mrs.) 1621 River Bluff Rd., Jacksonville.
Blackwell, Wm. L. P. 0. Box 868, Ft. Pierce.
Boike, Arthur H. 402 N. W. 35th St., Gainesville.
Burditt, Arthur K., Jr. 2120 Camden Road, Orlando.
Clements, B. W., Jr. 1663 31st Ave., Vero Beach.
Cowperthwaite, Wm. G., State Plant Board, Seagle Bldg., Gainesville.
Davis, A. Nelson, Jr. 3610 Chelsea Ave., Orlando.
Golsen, Eugene W., 3640 N. W. 64th Ave., Miami Springs.
Grant, V. F., 307 Interbay Ave., Warrington.
Platt, Wm. J., III. Rt. 3, Box 627 A, Gainesville.
Rathburn, Carlisle B., Jr. P. 0. Box 308, Vero Beach.
Schmidt, Claude H., 1525 Vantage Drive, Orlando.
Shields, S. E., 2241 Saul Drive, Jacksonville 11.
Sparkman, Perry L., P. 0. Box 952, West Palm Beach.
McKay, Don, 142 174th Terrace Drive, Reddington Shores, St. Petersburg 8.
Weidhaas, Donald E., 2217 Buckminster Circle, Orlando.
Wilkinson, Robert C., Jr., Newell Hall, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.
Sessions of the Executive Committee were held on the evening of Sep-
tember 7th and during the noon hour on September 9th.
L. A. Hetrick


College of Agriculture, University of Florida

On a trip through Lake County, Florida, in April, 1960, defoliation of
sand pine, Pinus clause Vasey, was readily apparent to me from the high-
way. Although the presence of sawfly larvae was suspected, this defoliation
was being caused by relatively large geometrid larvae.
These larvae were approximately 2 inches in length, pale yellow, and
marked with a wide orange-red dorsal stripe and thin longitudinal lines of
black and white. Head capsules, thoracic legs, and prolegs were orange
marked with flecks of brown. Although the larvae were colorful, they were
difficult to see among the pine foliage on which they were feeding.
Preserved larvae were sent to the U. S. National Museum for possible
identification. Mr. H. W. Capps was unable to associate the larvae with
adults though identical larvae from sand pine at Orlando had been submitted
to the Museum in 1931 by W. W. Others.
Additional larvae were collected and held for rearing of adults. Larvae
were in their last feeding instar at the time of collection. Feeding of the
larvae was confined to the pine needles produced during the previous year
and was not observed on the tender expanding needles of the new growing
Pupation occurred among there green needles of the previous year. Prior
to pupation, a larva would loosely tie a number of needles together with
strands of silk. This could hardly be called a "cocoon" yet it did serve to
protect the beautiful tan and white pupal stage which lasted about 2 weeks.
Under field conditions some pupae occurred among Spanish moss, Tilland-
sia usneoides L., growing on heavily infected trees.
When adults were recovered from the hearings, they could readily be
identified as Nepytia semiclusaria (Wlk.), a species which had been collected
at lights in Gainesville during previous seasons. The occurrence of adults
at Gainesville argues against the species being restricted to sand pine as
this tree does not grow in the vicinity of the city. Tietz (1952) lists food
plants as Abies sp. (firs), Larix laricina DuRoi (larch), Picea sp. (spruce),
Pinus sp. (pines), and Tsuga canadensis L. (hemlock) and records adult
specimens collected from the Upper Austral, Transition, and Canadian life
zones in Pennsylvania. Although Packard (1873) described the adult of
this insect under a synonomous name, his specimens were from Albany,
N. Y., and Maine. Holland (1915) states that "the moth occurs in the
northern portions of the United States".
Caged adult moths from the hearings were observed for information on
oviposition habits. These moths repeatedly refused fresh pine foliage for
oviposition, however, when corky bark from loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L.,
was introduced into the cage, this was readily accepted. Eggs were laid in
masses of a few to a hundred or more beneath the loose bark scales. The
eggs were pale green, oblong, somewhat flattened, and with a sunken cap
on one end. After a few days, the color of the eggs had changed from green
to brown.
Although eggs have been held under observation, hatching did not occur.

The Florida Entomologist

Adult specimens have been collected in May and June at Gainesville. Col-
lections in Pennsylvania have been made in September and October (Tietz,
1952). This indicates that the species likely has a single annual generation
wherever it occurs in North America. Low winter temperatures, followed
by higher spring temperatures, appear to be needed to stimulate egg de-
velopment. It is estimated that hatching of the eggs, under conditions
prevalent in central Florida, would occur about the middle of March.
Since this insect has a single annual generation, and the larvae con-
sume only those needles of the previous year's production, it is not expected
to become a serious defoliator of pine. New growth is underway at the time
the larvae are feeding on the older needles. The trees recover rapidly and
by mid-summer show little indication of the spring defoliation. Since the
insect is native, it has its own complement of natural enemies though none
of its parasites were recovered in the course of the rearing studies.


Defoliation of sand pine trees in a part of Lake County was caused by
larvae of Nepytia semiclusaria (Wlk.). Identification of the species from
the larvae could not be made but as adults were reared a name could be
applied. Hearings have shown that pupation takes place among green
foliage on the trees. Adults of this species have been collected at lights
in Gainesville, which indicates that larval feeding is not restricted to sand
pine. Eggs are laid beneath the bark scales on the trunks of pine trees.
Apparently the insect has a single annual generation wherever it occurs
in North America.
Holland, W. J., 1915. The moth book. Doubleday, Page & Co., Garden
City, N. Y., p. 343,
Packard, A. S., 1873. Fifth Report Peabody Academy of Science, p. 78.
Tietz, H. M., 1952. The Lepidoptera of Pennsylvania. Penn. Agric. Exp.
Sta., p. 145.

Vol. 43, No. 4


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