Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00174
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1964
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00174
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

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Volume 47, No. 1 March, 1964

RUSSELL, LOUISE M.-Dialeurodes kirkaldyi (Kotinsky), a Whitefly
New to the United States (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) ........................ 1
MUMA, MARTIN H.-The Population of Phytoseiidae on Florida Citrus.... 5
CAPPS, HAHN W.-Description of a New Pachyzancla Species Reared
on Sweet Potato in Southern United States (Lepidoptera: Pyraus,-
tidae) ......--------------------....................---......................-----------------.....------.........-----.........-----................. 13
DAVIS, ROBERT-Some Eriophyid Mites Occurring in Georgia with De-
scriptions of Three N ew Species ................................................................ 17
BLICKLE, R. L.-Horsemeat as Food for Rearing Diptera (Phoridae and
T abanidae) ..................................................-.. ................. ................................ 29
MORGAN, PHILIP B., AND G. C. LABRECQUE-Studies of the Effect of Meat
Exposed to Gamma Radiation or Chemosterilants on the Reproduc-
tive Capacity of a Blow Fly Phaenicia cuprina (Wiedemann)........ 31
mycin as a Control of American Foulbrood Disease of Honey Bees 35
DE LEON, DONALD-Two New Podocinum from the United States with
Distribution Notes on Three Described Species (Acarina: Podo-
cinidae) ....-................... ..... ..........---------------------------------------------.-----.. ............--... 39
PHILLIPS, ARTHUR M.-Control of Pecan Nut Casebearer ........................ 45
CAPPS, HAHN W.-Description of a New Species of Euzophora Zeller
Attacking Magnolias and Note on Two Related Species. (Lepidop-
tera: Phycitidae) ........................---------------....----------.................................------------------.................... 49
SCOTT, HAROLD GEORGE-Filter Fly Larva (Psychoda alternate) from
Human Sputum .....---..........--...................---------------------------------------........................ 53
ROBINSON, F. A.-The Effects of the December 1962 Freeze on Citrus
Honey Production in Florida .....................--------............-------------------------.......................--....... 55
WILKINSON, R. C.-Attraction and Development of Ips Bark Beetle
Populations in Artificially Infested Pine Bolts Exposed on Firetow-
ers and Turntables in Florida --..........-...-........... ..---------......-------------...................... 57
NEWS NOTES .............. .....----------------------------------------------------................. 15, 27
BOOK NOTES .....-....-........---------.------------------------ ---------------................. 44, 52
INDEX TO VOLUME 46, 1963 ..............-......-----------------------...---.....----............. Back Cover

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


President...........................--...............................................--------------------G. W. Dekle
Vice-President..........................................................---------------------N. C. Hayslip
Secretary-..................................................-..................-...... S. H Kerr
Treasurer............................................................... --------------------------Robert E. Waites
W. G. Genung
Other Members of Executive Committee ........ A. K. Burditt, Jr.
Henry True

Editorial Board
Thomas J. Walker.--.-------.....--.......-.............................---------Editor
Stratton H. Kerr--------.........-..---.......---.......- Associate Editor
Robert E. Waites----..........----.----.......Business Manager

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Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research Service,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

Dialeurodes kirkaldyi (Kotinsky) was first collected in North America
at the U. S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla., 8 November 1962, on Morinda
citrifolia, by J. A. Knowles of the Florida Department of Agriculture. The
presence of kirkaldyi on the original host tree was noted again in April
1963, and in May a survey for the species was made by personnel of the
Plant Pest Control Division, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture. Starting at the original location on the Naval Base,
the inspectors collected in and northward from the Key West area. It was
soon determined that kirkaldyi occurred in various locations as far north
as Broward County, north of Miami, Dade County. The insect was found
commonly only on Morinda citrifolia, the Indian mulberry, and on various
species of Jasminum. Although kirkaldyi was not found on citrus, the
presence of the aleyrodid in a citrus-producing state is somewhat alarm-
ing because citrus serves as a host of the species in the Pacific islands.
Although kirkaldyi is newly discovered in the United States, it has been
known in the New World for 51 years. Material in the collection of the
U. S. National Museum was received from British Guiana in 1913; and
it was intercepted by federal or state quarantine inspectors, from Jamaica
at New York in 1937, from Trinidad at New York in 1938, and from Cuba
at Key West in 1958.
The species was described from Hawaii by Kotinsky (1907) as Aley-
rodes kirkaldyi, and was transferred to Dialeurodes by Quaintance and
Baker (1914). It has been redescribed and/or illustrated by Quaintance
and Baker (1917), Priesner and Hosny (1934), Corbett (1935), Zimmer-
man (1948), and Takahashi (1956). The insect frequently is abundant,
literally covering the leaves of Morinda citrifolia and Jasminum spp. Con-
cerning kirkaldyi, Zimmerman (p. 46) stated, "Heavy infestations on
Morinda citrifolia ("noni") cause a crinkling of the leaves and dulling or
browning of their color so that the plants have a generally unhealthy ap-
pearance." He (p. 45) also stated that the insects were attacked by un-
identified hymenopterous parasites. Most of the collections I have ex-
amined, including those from British Guiana and the Caribbean, have con-
tained parasitized pupae, but none of the numerous specimens observed
from Florida were parasitized.
D. kirkaldyi is here recorded from plants of 17 genera belonging to 10
families and from one host identified only by a common name. The hosts
and distribution of the aleyrodid, based on my determinations of specimens
in the collection of the U. S. National Museum unless followed by the re-
porter's name, are given below.
HOSTS: Allamanda neriifolia, Beaumontia grandiflora (Kotinsky),
"bell flower" (from India), Citrus sinensis, Coffea sp., Fagraea fragrans
(Corbett), Gardenia sp., G. tahitiensis, Hiptage mandablota, Jasminwm

The Florida Entomologist

Fig. 1. Dialeurodes kirkaldyi. Outline of body, and dorsal surface of
pupa not showing sculpturing, pores and porettes, and minute subdorsal
setae. a, median brown area; b, first abdominal seta; c, eighth abdominal
seta; d, rim of vasiform orifice, anterior to orifice. (Drawing by Arthur
D. Cushman.)

Vol. 47, No. I

Russell: A Whitefly New to the United States

amplexicaule, J. arabicum, J. grandiflora, J. multiflorum, J. nitidum, J.
sambac, Jasminum sp., Lagerstroemia indica, Malva sylvestris (Priesner
and Hosny), Morinda citrifolia, Plumeria acuminata, P. acutifolia (Cor-
bett), Plumeria sp., Premna integrifolia (Takahashi 1956), Syringa ? sp.,
Tabernaemontana sp., Terminalia sp., Trachelospernum jasminoides.
DISTRIBUTION: North America: Florida. South America: British Gui-
ana. West Indies: Cuba, Jamaica, Trinidad. Atlantic islands: Azores.
Africa: Egypt, Gold Coast. Asia: Burma, Ceylon, China, India, Lebanon,
Federation of Malaya, Pakistan, Syria. Pacific islands: Caroline Islands
(Ponape), (Yap, Takahashi 1941); Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui,
Molokai, Oahu); Japan; Marianas Islands (Guam, Rota), (Saipan, Taka-
hashi 1941); Palau Islands (Korror, Takahashi 1939), (Ngerkabesang);
Philippine Islands; Society Islands (Bora Bora, Dumbleton 1961), (Tahiti);
Tuamotu Islands (Makatea); Taiwan (Takahashi 1956). Australia.
D. kirkaldyi closely resembles Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), a species
that occurs on some of the same plant genera and in some of the same
localities as kirkaldyi. The latter species can be separated from citri and
other species of Dialeurodes by the characters discussed here and illustrated
in Figure 1.
In virtually all pupae of kirkaldyi there is a brown area, in the median
area of the dorsum, that ranges from a spot at the junction of the longi-
tudinal and transverse molting sutures to a line extending from the ceph-
alic segment to the vasiform orifice. Also, the pupae usually have a char-
acteristic outline with the body margin slightly constricted on the thorax
posterior to the tracheal pores, and with the posterior third of the body
moderately rounded. The body outline (Fig. 1) and the brown area
(Fig. la) can be noted under a hand lens as well as under a microscope.
Microscopic characters that distinguish the species are the presence of
the first abdominal setae (Fig. ib); the location opposite the midlength of
the vasiform orifice, of the eighth abdominal setae (Fig. ic); the length
(4/7 to 5/7 length of operculum) of the rim (Fig. Id) of the vasiform
orifice anterior to the orifice; and the absence of a median tooth from the
posterior end of the vasiform orifice.


Corbett, G. H. 1935. Malayan Aleurodidae. Fed. Malay States Mus.
Jour. 17: 722-852. Illus.
Dumbleton, L. J. 1961. Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera: Homoptera) from the
South Pacific. New Zealand Jour. Sci. 4: 770-774. Illus.
Kotinsky, Jacob. 1907. Aleyrodidae of Hawaii and Fiji with descriptions
of new species. Hawaii Bd. Comm. Agric. and Forestry, Div. Ent.
Bull. 2: 94-102. Illus.
Priesner, H., and Mahoud Hosny. 1934. Contributions to a knowledge of
the white flies (Aleurodidae) of Egypt (II). Tech. and Sci. Serv.
(Entom. Ser.) Bull. 139. 21 p. Illus.
Quaintance, A. L., and A. C. Baker. 1914. Classification of the Aleyrodi-
dae, Part II. U. S. Dept. Agric., Bur. Ent., Tech. Ser. 27: 95-109.
Quaintance, A. L., and A. C. Baker. 1917. A contribution to our knowl-
edge 'of the white flies of the subfamily Aleyrodinae (Aleyrodidae).
U. S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 51: 335-445. Illus.

4 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 47, No. 1
Takahashi, Ryoichi. 1939. Some Aleyrodidae, Aphididae, and Coccidae
from Micronesia (Homoptera). Tenthredo 2: 234-272. Illus.
Takahashi, Ryoichi. 1941. Some species of Aleyrodidae, Aphididae, and
Coccidae from Micronesia (Homoptera). Tenthredo 3: 208-220.
Takahashi, Ryoichi. 1956. Homoptera: Aleyrodidae. Insects of Micro-
nesia. 6: 13. Illus.
Zimmerman, E. C. 1948. Aleyrodidae in Insects of Hawaii, Homoptera:
Sternorhyncha, 5: 39-52. Illus.


Complete Line of Insecticides, Fungicides and
Weed Killers
Ortho Division
Located at Fairvilla on Route 441 North
P. 0. Box 7067 ORLANDO Phone CY 5-0451


Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida


In the past 10 years the taxonomy of phytoseiid mites on citrus trees
in Florida has been intensively studied (Muma 1955, 1961, 1962, and Muma
and Denmark 1962). Some biological studies have been initiated (Muma
1961a), and a few attempts have been made to evaluate phytoseiids in the
biological control of injurious citrus mites (Muma 1955a, 1958, and 1961b).
The present investigations were initiated to determine the specific make-
up of the phytoseiid population on citrus trees, to study the distribution of
the different species in the several citrus-growing areas and during the
seasons of the year, to determine intraspecific population fluctuation, and,
if possible, to relate these findings to the control of spider mites on Florida
citrus. A secondary purpose was to determine the comparative numbers
of six closely related species that are impossible to identify in routine
counts under a low magnification microscope.


Leaf populations of phytoseiids were selected as representatives of the
population on citrus trees because preliminary analysis of data from a
synecological study of mites indicated that 93.4 per cent of the phytoseiids
found on the arboreal parts of the trees were located on the leaves, 4.3
per cent were on the fruit, and only 2.3 per cent on the bark. Per unit
of area, 1 phytoseiid occurred on every 18 square inches of leaf surface
whereas 1 phytoseiid occurred on every 500 square inches of fruit or bark
Each leaf sample was comprised of at least 40 leaves taken from at
least 4 trees in each grove at each season. Although some samples were
larger, all were believed adequate to reflect the proportion of each species
composing the phytoseiid population in each grove at each season.
All phytoseiids from each leaf sample were mounted on 1 slide and
were considered to represent the phytoseiid population in that particular
grove at that particular time. Each slide was then examined with a com-
pound microscope, the species identified and counted. Results were or-
ganized according to the geographical citrus-growing areas delineated in
Muma, Selhime, and Denmark (1961), and according to seasons (spring:
March, April and May; summer: June, July and August; fall: September,
October and November; and winter: December, January and February).
Forty-seven groves already under study for other purposes were uti-
lized for this analysis of the phytoseiid population. Twenty-five groves
were unsprayed, 22 were sprayed. Fourteen groves were located in the
north citrus area, 13 in the central, 10 in the south, 4 on the east coast
and 6 on the west coast. Seventy-two samples were taken in the north,

1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 1667.

The Florida Entomologist

60 in the central, 40 in the south, 24 on the east coast, and 32 on the west
coast. A total of 228 samples was taken in each season.
Because of area differences in the number of groves and samples, in-
terspecific comparisons are valid only within each area. Because of sea-
sonal uniformity in the number of groves and samples such comparisons
are valid within and between seasons. Intraspecific variation is not con-
sidered notable unless the numbers involved were strikingly different.

When all of the specimens collected from May 1960 to February 1962
were organized in a single table to show the specific make-up of the pop-
ulation being studied (Table 1), it was found that only 8 of 15 species
were sufficiently common to be of interest. Of these, Amblyseius pere-
grinus (Muma) represented 62.9 per cent of the total population; whereas
the least common of these 8, Amblyseius largoensis (Muma), represented
only 1.5 per cent. None of the species approached the common occurrence
of A. peregrinus.
Eight of the species were sufficiently common to permit determination
of a sex ratio. These ratios are expressed as per cent females in Table 1.
Aside from Typhlodromina conspicua (Garman), a species of which no
male has ever been collected, Amblyseiella setosa Muma and A. largoensis
were 90 per cent females and Galendromus floridanus (Muma) and Am-
blyseius quadripilis (Banks) were 80 per cent females. The remaining 3
forms exhibited a relatively high percentage of males with Amblyseius
hibisci (Chant) having equal numbers of males and females.
When the population was examined for relative abundance of the sev-
eral common species in each of the 5 citrus-growing areas (Table 2), it
was at once apparent that the most common form in each region was
A. peregrinus. Among the other species, A. quadripilis, was relatively
common in the north and south and on the west coast, Amblyseius simpli-
cissimus (DeLeon) in the north and on the east coast, A. hibisci in the
north and south, T. conspicua in the north and on the west coast, G. flori-
danus in the central and on the west coast, and A. setosa and A. largoensis
on the west coast.
Analysis of the population for specific abundance during the different
seasons revealed a variation similar to that found for the geographic areas
(Table 3). A. peregrinus was the most common species in all seasons, and
it reached peak abundance in the spring. A. quadripilis was the second
most common species in the spring, fall and winter and attained maximum
abundance in the spring. T. conspicua was the. second most common spe-
cies in the summer and attained peak abundance during that season. A.
hibisci, A. simplicissimus, G. floridanus, A. setosa, and A. largoensis all
were more abundant in the spring and were less common in the order
Certain common species comprising the population were rather easily
identified and segregated. These were A. quadripilis, T. conspicua, G.
floridanus, A. setosa and A. largoensis. The remaining common forms and
some rare species were easily confused with A. peregrinus in the routine
examinations used in biological control studies. For this reason, the col-
lected specimens of these species were identified under high magnification,

Vol. 47, No. 1

Muma: Population of Phytoseiidae on Florida Citrus 7


Total Per Cent Per Cent
Species Collected Population Females

Amblyseius peregrinus (Muma) 1,328 62.9 74.6
Amblyseius quadripilis (Banks) 323 15.3 80.7
Amblyseius simplicissimus (DeLeon) 111 5.3 77.8
Amblyseius hibisci (Chant) 95 4.5 50.0
Typhlodromina conspicua (Garman) 61 2.9 100.0
Galendromus floridanus (Muma) 60 2.8 80.0
Amblyseiella setosa Muma 42 2.0 93.3
Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) 32 1.5 92.6
Amblyseiulus dorsatus Muma 22 1.0 -
Amblyseius dentilis (DeLeon) 13 0.6 -
Amblyseius aerialis (Muma) 10 0.5 -
Amblyseius dillus (DeLeon) 6 0.3 -
Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma 3 0.1 -
Amblyseius deleoni Muma 2 0.1 -
Amblyseiulus solens DeLeon 1 0.1 -
Amblyseiulus rotundus Muma 1 0.1 -

Total 2,110


Number Specimens Collected
Each Area*


Amblyseius peregrinus (Muma)
Amblyseius quadripilis (Banks)
Amblyseius simplicissimus (DeLeon)
Amblyseius hibisci (Chant)
Typhlodromina conspicua (Garman)
Galendromus floridanus (Muma)
Amblyseiella setosa Muma
Amblyseius largoensis (Muma)


Mites per sample

North Central South East West

820 225 46 101 136
133 26 26 9 129
49 0 10 52 0
77 0 17 0 1
37 4 2 7 16
9 24 0 6 21
0 0 0 0 42
0 1 0 5 26

1,125 280 101 180 371
15.6 4.6 2.5 7.5 11.6

* Based on 72 samples in the north, 60 central, 40 south, 24 east, and 32 west.

The Florida Entomologist


No. Specimens Collected
Each Season*

Species Spring Summer Fall Winter

Amblyseius peregrinus (Muma) 815 109 79 325
Amblyseius quadripilis (Banks) 189 5 35 94
Amblyseius simplicissimus (DeLeon) 66 15 14 16
Amblyseius hibisci (Chant) 83 11 1 0
Typhlodromina conspicua (Garman) 28 30 1 2
Galendromus floridanus (Muma) 56 4 0 0
Amblyseiella setosa Muma 42 0 0 0
Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) 31 0 0 1

Total 1,310 174 130 438
Mites per sample 5.7 0.8 0.6 1.9

228 samples taken each season.


Number Specimens Collected Each Species
and pere- simplicis-
Area grinus simus hibisci dentilis dillus deleoni

Spring 815 66 83 8 5 0
Summer 109 15 11 4 0 0
Fall 79 14 1 0 1 2
Winter 325 16 0 1 0 0

Total 1,328 111 95 13 6 2

North 820 49 77 0 0 2
Central 225 0 0 0 0 0
South 46 10 17 12 5 0
East 101 52 0 0 1 0
West 136 0 1 1 0 0

Total 1,328 111 95 13 6 2

Vol. 47, No. 1

Muma: Population of Phytoseiidae on Florida Citrus 9

and the numbers of each were tabulated to show the relative abundance
of the various forms in the different areas and seasons (Table 4). In
the northern, central and western areas, A. peregrinus represented 80 per
cent or better of these closely related species during all seasons. In the
south and east, however, A. hibisci and A. simplicissimus were sufficiently
numerous to invalidate routine counts.


Phytoseiid populations on Florida citrus are remarkably homogeneous
despite the fact that 16 species are recorded. Only eight species are com-
mon enough to indicate a need for further study; these are discussed below.
A. peregrinus, the yellow mite, is by far the most common species
although in the south, east and west during the fall it is not preponderately
so, owing to the common occurrence of other species. Because of this
abundance in all seasons and areas, its food habits are being investigated
and its potential as a predator evaluated.
A. quadripilis, the button mite, is the second most abundant species on
citrus in the State. It is quite common in the fall, winter and spring,
especially on the west coast and in the north. In fact, on the west coast
it is nearly as abundant as A. peregrinus. Because of its common occur-
rence, the food habits of the species are being investigated.
A. simplicissimus, the third most abundant species, is relatively com-
mon on the east coast. As it is half as common as A. peregrinus on the
east coast, food habit and evaluation studies will be initiated to determine
its importance.
A. hibisci, the hibiscus mite, also exhibits surprising relative abundance.
The wide variation in geographic abundance is an enigma as the species
is known to occur on many cultivated and uncultivated plants throughout
the State. It has been collected from both spider mite colonies and from
clean leaves, but no food habit or evaluation studies have been conducted.
T. conspicua, the conspicuous mite, is more common in the north and
on the west coast during the spring and summer. Although much less
abundant than the species discussed above, occasional groves exhibit heavy
infestations which merit further study.
G. floridanus, the tan mite, has been known for some time to be a com-
mon, probably critical, predator in colonies of Eotetranychus sexmaculatus
(Riley) (Muma 1955 and 1958). Because of this association, its abundance
in random samples from the central and west coast citrus-growing regions
is surprising. The fact that it was taken only in the spring and summer
in these areas does, nevertheless, correlate with six-spotted mite abun-
dance (unpublished data, Citrus Exper. Sta.). For this reason further
studies on the species are planned.
A. setosa, the crowned mite, was described in 1955 from 7 specimens
collected on the west coast; then it was "lost." In 1961, 2 specimens were
taken from citrus litter; then it began to appear in the spring in west
coast leaf samples. Nothing is known concerning its food habits or im-
portance. Further studies are needed.
A. largoensis presents about the same problem as A. setosa. The
species was described from the Florida Keys in 1955 and until the present
study had been additionally collected in one east coast grove and on

10 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 47, No. 1

Ligustrum in the central part of the State. From the data presented here
it would appear that it is predominantly coastal on citrus, with a popula-
tion peak in the spring. Under field conditions, it is frequently associated
with Brevipalpus populations. Additional studies are planned.
The importance of sex ratio in a predator may be interpreted in several
ways. A species exhibiting a limited number of males may be evolving
toward a parthenogenetic form wherein population stability or fluctua-
tion is independent of fertilization, it may simply possess a low reproduc-
tive potential, or it may require only one fertilization for the entire egg
production period. A species exhibiting a large number of males may be
primitively bisexual, it may possess a high reproductive potential, or it
may require several fertilizations during the egg-laying period. Any or
all of these interpretations may be applied to the phytoseiids studied
here. It is almost certain, for instance, that T. conspicua, a well-known
predator, is a parthenogenetic species, indicating that mites of the family
can attain the condition. The other suggested possibilities may, however,
apply to the inadequately studied A. setosa and A. largoensis. G. floridanus
reproduces rapidly and is a potentially important predator. The most
likely interpretations of the limited male population in this species would
seem to be evolution toward parthenogensis or a single fertilization re-
quirement. In A. hibisci the reverse would seem to be true with abundant
males possibly, indicating a primitive bisexual condition or a multiple
fertilization requirement.
Several economically important facts are indicated by the above dis-
cussions. First, only eight species are common enough to be worthy of
further study. Of this number, only A. peregrinus and A. quadripilis are
relatively abundant. If an effective predator of vagrant spider mites exists
in Florida citrus groves, it will probably be one of these. G. floridanus,
a known tetranychid predator, apparently prefers to feed on the colonial
tetranychid E. sexmaculatus with which it is usually associated under
grove conditions. Should A. simplicissimnus, A. hibisci, T. conspicua, A.
largoensis, or A. setosa prove to feed on citrus red mite, Panonychus citri
(McGregor), or Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banks (McGregor),
the question of why these species do not occur commonly on citrus in cen-
tral Florida will have to be investigated.

Muma, Martin H. 1955. Phytoseiidae (Acarina) associated with citrus
in Florida. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 48(4): 262-272.
Muma, Martin H. 1955a. Factors contributing to the natural control of
citrus insects and mites in Florida. Jour. Econ. Ent. 48(4): 432-438.
Muma, Martin H. 1958. Predators and parasites of citrus mites in Flor-
ida. Proc. 10th International Congress of Ent. 4: 633-647.
Muma, Martin H. 1961. Subfamilies, genera and species of Phytoseiidae
(Acarina: Mesostigmata). Bull. Fla. State Mus. ;5(7): 267-302.
Muma, Martin H. 1961a. Mites associated with citrus in Florida. Univ.
of Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 640: 39 p.
Muma, Martin H. 1961b. The influence of cover crop cultivation on pop-
ulations of injurious insects and mites in Florida citrus groves.
Fla. Ent. 44(2): 62-68.

Muma: Population of Phytoseiidae on Florida Citrus 11
Muma, Martin H. 1962. New Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata)
from Florida. Fla. Ent. 45(1): 1-10.
Muma, Martin H., Allen G. Selhime, and Harold A. Denmark. 1961 An
annotated list of predators and parasites associated with insects
and mites on Florida citrus. Univ. of Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech.
Bull. 634: 39 p.
Muma, Martin H., and Harold A. Denmark. 1962. Intraspecific variation
in Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata). Fla. Ent. 45(2): 57-65.




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Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research Service,
U. S. Department of Agriculture

The purpose of this paper is to provide a name for a sweetpotato-feed-
ing species heretofore confused with the beet webworm, Pachyzancla bi-
punctalis (F.).

Pachyzancla ipomoealis, new species
Figs. 1-4a
Male. Alar expanse 23-25 mm. Antenna simple, pubescent. Frons
round. Vestiture of head, thorax, patagia, and abdomen straw yellow.
Labial palpus with ventral and lateral surface of first, and basal half of
second segment white; remainder of second, all of third, and dorsal sur-
face of first segment dark fuscous with a tinge of red. Upper surface of
wings straw yellow, with brownish suffusion along costa of forewing and
area adjacent to outer margin of fore and hind wings. Forewing with two
conspicuous brownish fuscous spots; one on discocellular vein, the other in
the cell; that on discocellular about two times as large as the one in cell;
non-worn specimens with an additional small fuscous patch on hind mar-
gin near base; two transverse lines, well-defined, sinuate; the antemedial
line smooth, postmedial distinctly denticulate. Hind wing with postmedial
line appearing as a continuation of postmedial of forewing, strongly bent
outward between veins 2 and 6; fuscous patch on discocellular vein con-
spicuous. When discernible, subterminal line of fore and hind wing den-
ticulate; often obscured by brownish suffusion. Hind tibia normal, with
two pairs of spurs; outer spurs one-half as long as inner. Third abdom-
inal segment without a pair of subdorsal patches of fuscous scales. Geni-
talia (Fig. 4, 4a) resembles that of bipunctalis but the harpe more elongate
and basal third of costa more strongly arched; uncus longer, slenderer,
more attenuate distally; aedeagus wider, longer and cornutus stronger.
Female. Alar expanse 21-27 mm. Antenna simple, slenderer than in
male. Coloration and maculation similar to male. Genitalia (Fig. 3) of
ipomocalis somewhat similar to that of bipunctalis but with ductus bursae
much shorter and bursa copulatrix with well-defined longitudinal furrows
from signum to junction with ductus bursae (in bipunctalis, the length of
the ductus bursae is about equal that of the bursa copulatrix, and the
bursa copulatrix is without longitudinal furrows).
Type. Male, in U. S. National Museum. USNM Type No. 66606.
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Sept. 29-15.
Food plant. Sweetpotato.
Paratypes, 24 (date citations as on labels). Alabama: Curley, VII-11-
1905, 1 S. District of Columbia: no date, 1 9. Florida: Altamont, IX-16,
1 9 ; Bradenton, X-26-55, 1 S ; Daytona, no date, 1 9 ; Highlands Co. (Arch-
bold Biological Station), 12-17-59, 1 9; Homestead, X-22-1959, 1 9; Ft.
Lauderdale, Mar. 6, 1923, 1 S; Monroe Co., July 22-31, 1 S; Pensacola,

The Florida Entomologist

IV-6-1962, 1 9; Pensacola (Myrtle Grove), 21 July 61, 1 3; 12 Sept. 62,
1 9; Sarasota (Siesta Key), Apr. 30, 1959, 1 9; Stemper, Sept. 10, 1911,
1 ; Florida, no date or locality, 1 9. Louisiana: Baton Rouge, 7 Sept.
15, 1 9; 9 Sept. 15, 1 9. Mississippi: Jackson, 15 July 61, 1 8; 16 July
61, 2 S; 30 Sept. 61, 1 9; 14 Oct. 61, 1 9; Pearl, 6 May 61, 1 9; 12 Aug.
61, 1 9. Paratypes are in the collections of the U.S. National Musuem;
Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville; C. P. Kimball, Sarasota,
Florida; Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh; Bryant E. Mather, Jackson, Mis-
sissippi; and the Canadian National Collection, Ottawa.

* *..




I 7
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Fig. 1. Pachyzancla bipunctalis (F.), male.

Fig. 2-4a. Pachyzancla ipomoealis, new species. 2. Male type. 3.
Female genitalia, ventral view. 4. Male genitalia with part of one harpe
omitted and aedeagus removed, ventral view. 4a. Aedeagus, lateral view.
Delineations of genitalia prepared by Arthur D. Cushman. Photographs
of adults natural size.

Vol. 47, No. 1

l' ,


Capps: Description of a New Pachyzancla Species 15

Distribution. Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and District
of Columbia.
P. ipomoealis resembles bipunctalis superficially but is readily separated
from it by the following characters: The presence or absence of two small
subdorsal fuscous patches on the third abdominal segment will suffice
for specimens with abdomens intact; they are present in bipunctalis and
absent in ipomoealis. The male antenna of ipomoealis is pubescent and that
of bipunctalis is distinctly ciliate, with the cilia as long as the width of
the shaft. In maculation, the margin of the postmedial line on the fore-
wing of ipomoealis is distinctly denticulate, and from vein 2 to vein lb is
convex outwardly; in bipunctalis, the margin of such line is smooth or
nearly so, and from slightly before vein 2 to vein lb is convex inwardly.
In ipomealis, the upper outer spur is one-half as long as the inner; in
bipunctalis, the length of such spur is one-third that of the inner.
No immature-stage material is available. Although the type and para-
types from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, bear labels indicating they were reared
on sweetpotato by C. E. Smith in 1915 under Chittenden numbers 4170-2
and 4299-1, efforts to locate related immature stages, correspondence, or
field notes have been unsuccessful. None of the other specimens was


At the last business session in St. Petersburg, the membership voted
to have the Executive Committee reconsider the announced tentative dates
of the 1964 annual meeting, and have it later in September, if possible.
No conflict with other events appears in late September, and, accordingly,
the Executive Committee announces that our 47th annual meeting will be
held at the Beach Club Hotel, Fort Lauderdale on 24 and 25 September
1964. A pre-meeting "Bull Session" will be held the evening of 23 Sep-
Additional information and a call for papers will soon be sent to the
membership by the Program Committee.

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Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens Georgia.

This paper increases the number of species known to occur in Georgia
from 6 to 34. The species are listed below with their host(s), type of
damage, and collection data. All host relationships listed are the same
as those accompanying the original descriptions, except where specific ref-
erences are cited. Unless otherwise stated, all species were collected by
the author. All new species have been examined by Mr. H. H. Keifer, Cali-
fornia Department of Agriculture. Specimens collected during the early
summer months in 1961 were mounted in Hoyer's medium and are now
beginning to deteriorate. All other specimens have been treated and
mounted as prescribed by Keifer (19.54).

Aceria caulis (Cook) n. comb.
Acarus caulis Cook, 1904. Rep. Indiana Geol. 29: 859.
Eriophyes caulis: Nalepa, 1929. Marcellia. 25: 74.
Eriophyes caulis: Keifer, 1940. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 29: 24.
The mite attacks black walnut, Juglans nigra L., and induces and lives
in a purselike erineum gall on the leaf petioles. It was collected by Mr.
U. G. Moore, 12 June 1961, Cherokee County, Georgia.
Aceria neocynodonis K.
Aceria neocynodonis Keifer, 1960. Calif. Dept. Agr. Series B-1: 2.
The mite is recorded from bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon (L.). It
causes a typical rosetting and tufting of the growth resulting from a
shortening of the internodes and often killing the plants (Tuttle and But-
ler 1961). The species was collected by Mr. Elmer Beck, 25 October 1962,
Tift County, Georgia.
Aceria nyssae (Trotter)
Eriophyes nyssae Trotter, 1902. Marcellia. 2: 63.
Aceria nyssae: Keifer, 1961. Calif. Dept. Agr. Series B-3: 7.
The mite attacks black gum, Nyssa sylvatica Marsh., causing the forma-
tion of beadlike galls on the undersurface of the leaves. It was collected
15 June 1961, Bulloch County, Georgia.
Aceria theospyri K.
Aceria theospyri Keifer, 1960. Calif. Dept. Agr. Series B-1: 7.
The mite is recorded from persimmon, Diospyros virginiana L., inducing
the formation of small bead galls that protrude on the upper surface and

1 Journal Paper No. 299 of the College Experiment Station of the Uni-
versity of Georgia College of Agriculture Experiment Stations.
2 Supported in part by funds from the Society of Sigma Xi, Committee
on Grants-in-Aid of Research.
Present Address: Southern Grain Insect Research Laboratory, Tifton,

The Florida Entomologist

open on the undersurface of the leaf. It was collected 1 June 1961, Clarke
County, Georgia.

Aceria vaccinii (K.)
Eriophyes vaccinii Keifer, 1939. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 28: 329.
Aceria vaccinii: Keifer, 1946. Jour. Econ. Ent. 39: 570.
The blueberry bud mite attacks several species in the plant genus
Vaccinium. Keifer (1941) lists Georgian hosts as V. elliotti Chapm.,
collected at Midway; V. fuscatum (Ait.), collected at Valdosta; V. amoe-
num Ait., and V. aff. austrole Small, collected at Brunswick. The mite
was also collected 7 June 1961, from V. (Polycodium) sp., in Johnson
County, Georgia, by the author.
The typical injury caused by the mite is an unnatural succulence and
epidermal roughening or blistering at the bases of the fruit bud scales,
causing them to hang in a tight rosette. The damage apparently has
little effect on normal fruit production other than a shortening of the
fruit stems. No damage is usually associated with the mite living on the
vegetative parts.

Eriophyes insidiosis Keifer and Wilson
Eriophyes insidiosis Keifer and Wilson, 1955. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr.
44: 145.
The presence of the mite in Georgia, has been confirmed by Mr. George
Kaloostain (personal communication 1961), formerly with the USDA,
Fort Valley, Georgia.

Aculus caryfoliae K.
Aculus caryfoliae Keifer, 1961. Calif. Dept. Agr. Series B-2: 15.
The mite is recorded as a leaf vagrant on shagbark hickory, Carya
ovata Mill., and as causing severe leaf rusting. It was collected from
pecan, Carya pecan (Marsh.), a. new host record, 7 July 1961, Clarke
County, Georgia. Some leaf rusting was noted to occur on pecan also.

Aculus grandidentatus K.
Aculus grandidentatus Keifer, 1960. Calif. Dept. Agr. Occas. Paper
2: 4.
The species is recorded as an undersurface leaf vagrant causing little
damage to big-tooth aspen, Populus grandidentatus Michx., and eastern
cottonwood, P. deltoides Batr. It was collected from P. deltoides, 7 June,
1961, Washington County, Georgia.

Aculus ligustri (K.)
Phyllocoptes ligustri Keifer, 1938. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 27: 190.
Vasates ligustri: Keifer, 1952. Calif. Ins. Surv. Bull. 2: 45.
Aculus ligustri: Keifer, 1959. Calif. Dept. Agr. Occas. Paper 1: 5.
The privet rust mite, recorded as a leaf vagrant on privet, Ligustrum
sp., was collected from that genus on 4 July 1961, Clayton County, Georgia.

Calacarus adornatus (K.)
Epitrimeres adornatus Keifer, 1940. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 29: 32.
Calacarus adornatus: Keifer, 1952. Calif. Ins. Surv. Bull. 2: 41.

Vol. 47, No. 1

Davis: Some Eriophyid Mites Occurring in Georgia 19

The purple camellia mite is recorded as attacking snowball bush, Vibur-
num opulus L., and Camellia japonica L. The mites are vagrants on both
surfaces of the leaves, causing little damage but leaving conspicuous white
cast skins adhering to the leaf surfaces. The species was collected by Dr.
C. M. Beckham, from camellia, 17 April, 1961, Spaulding County, Georgia.

Calepitrimeres gibsoni K.
Calepitrimeres gibsoni Keifer, 1953. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 42: 72.
The mite is recorded as attacking California huckleberry, Vaccinium
ovatum Pursh. It inhabits the fresh succulent twigs around the lateral
buds on the shaded portions of the plants. The species was collected as
an undersurface leaf vagrant on Vaccinium (Polycodium) sp., 7 June
1961, Johnson County, Georgia.

Cecidophyes quercialbae K.
Cecidophyes quercialbae Keifer, 1960. Calif. Dept. Agr. Occas. Paper
2: 8.
The mite is recorded as an undersurface leaf vagrant, especially along
the leaf ribs, on white oak, Quercus alba L. It was collected 6 September
1961, Clarke County, Georgia.

Cenalox nyssae K.
Cenalox nyssae Keifer, 1961. Calif. Dept. Agr. Series B-3: 7.
This undersurface leaf vagrant is recorded as inhabiting areas along
the leaf ribs of black gum, Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. The species was col-
lected 15 June 1961, Bulloch County, Georgia.

Coptophylla caliquerci K.
Coptophylla caliquerci Keifer, 1944. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 33: 26.
The mite is recorded from valley white oak, Quercus lobata Nee., in
California and causes no apparent damage. It is an upper surface leaf
vagrant and usually does not appear in great numbers until late in the sum-
mer. The species was collected 23 August 1961, from blackjack oak, Quer-
cus marilandica Muench., a new host record, in Clarke County, Georgia.

Epitimeres trilobus (Nal.)
Cecidophyes trilobus Nalepa, 1890. Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien. 27: 2.
Epitrimeres trilobus: Keifer, 1942. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 31: 122.
The mite is recorded as attacking black elder, Sambucus nigra L., and
elderberry, S. glauca Nutt., often causing a yellowing and curling or stunt-
ing of the leaflets, particularly on the terminals. It was collected 7 June
1961, from common elder, S. canadensis L., a new host record, in Washing-
ton County, Georgia. The new host showed extensive curling of the mar-
gins of the terminal leaflets.

Johnella virginiana K.
Johnella virginiana Keifer, 1959. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 52: 652.
This undersurface leaf vagrant lives among the stellate pubescences on
the leaves of live oak, Quercus virginiana Mill., and causes no apparent
damage. It was collected 15 September 1961, Clarke County, Georgia.

The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 1. Oxypleurites erigerivagrans, n. sp.; D, dorsal view;
claw; GC, genital flap and coxae; S, side view.

Oxypleurites erigerivagrans, new species (Fig. 1)
0. erigerivagrans is distinguished by the short dorsal setae, simple 4-
rayed featherclaw and the sublateral type of granulations beneath the dor-
sal shield.
FEMALE: 185g long, 50 thick, wedge-shaped, light amber in color.
Rostrum 20A long, projecting down. Dorsal shield 50, long, 60 wide,
design absent except for submedial lines; dorsal tubercules 34[ apart, pro-
jecting backwards from rear margin in a short distance; setae 4A long and
projecting backwards. Forelegs 37, long; tibia 6/ long; tarsus 6A long;
claw 5a long, knobbed; featherclaw undivided and 4-rayed. Hindlegs 33p
long. Coxal design absent. Abdomen somewhat convex above; tergites
numbering about 15, moderately broad and smooth, giving away to 4 or 5
sternites; sternites numbering 75 to 80. Lateral seta 22/ long, on about

F, feather-

Vol. 47, No. 1

Davis: Some Eriophyid Mites Occurring in Georgia 21

sternite 16; first ventral seta 19p long, on about sternite 32; second ventral
seta 9t long, on about sternite 54; third ventral seta 11A long, on 5th
sternite from rear; accessory seta missing. Genitalia 20% wide, 10 long,
coverflap with 14 to 16 longitudinal scores; seta 101 long.
Male not studied.
The species was collected 7 June, 1961, from Erigeron strigosus Muhl.
(Compositae), in Hancock County, Georgia. It attacks all green portions
of its host and causes little apparent damage. The type material includes
the holotype and 17 paratypes. The holotype and 11 paratypes are in the
author's collection, and 3 paratypes each will be deposited in the Univer-
sity of Georgia and the California Department of Agriculture collections.

Oxypleurites simus K.
Oxypleurites simus Keifer, 1940. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 29: 165.
This undersurface leaf vagrant is recorded from alder, Alnus rugosa
(Du Roi). It was collected from common alder, Alnus serrulata (Ait.),
a new host record, 7 June 1961, Wilkinson County, Georgia.

Phyllocoptes cribratus K.
Phyllocoptes cribratus Keifer, 1961. Calif. Dept. Agr. Series B-2: 9.
The mite is recorded as an undersurface leaf vagrant on persimmon,
Diospyros virginiana L., and as causing rusting of the leaves. It was col-
lected 1 June 1961, Clarke County, Georgia.

Phyllocoptes liquidambaris K.
Phyllocoptes liquidambaris Keifer, 1940. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 29: 162.
The mite is recorded as an upper surface leaf vagrant on sweet gum,
Liquidambar styraciflua L., and as causing no apparent damage. It has
been collected by Mr. H. H. Keifer, 14 May 1940, Brunswick, Georgia, and
by the author, 15 May 1961, Clarke County, Georgia.

Vasates cornutus (Banks)
Phyllocoptes cornutus Banks, 1905. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 7: 141.
Phyllocoptes paracornutus Keifer, 1943. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 32: 214.
Vasates cornutus: Keifer, 1952. Calif. Ins. Surv. Bull. 2: 43.
The silver peach mite is recorded as a leaf vagrant on both sides of the
leaves of peach, Amygdalus persica Batsch; almond, Prunus sp.; and nec-
tarine, Prunus sp. The effect on the host is a silver sheen on the older
leaves and a mottling or yellow dots or a longitudinal rolling of the young-
er leaves. The presence of the species in Georgia has been confirmed by
Mr. George Kaloostain (personal communication, 1961), formerly with the
USDA, Fort Valley, Georgia.

Vasates laevigatae (Hassan)
Phyllocoptes laevigatae Hassan, 1928. Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent. 4: 379.
Vasates laevigatae: Keifer, 1952. Calif. Ins. Surv. Bull. 2: 45.
The mite is recorded as forming bead galls with openings on the under-
surface of the leaves of red willow, Salix laevigata Bebb. The galls are
usually clumped in distribution, often one limb having many and other
limbs none. The species was collected from willow, Salix sp., 7 June
1961, Hancock County, Georgia.

The Florida Entomologist

Vasates lycopersici (Massee)
Phyllocoptes lycopersici Massee, 1937. Bull. Ent. Res. 28: 403.
Phyllocoptes destructor Keifer, 1940. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 28: 160.
Vasates destructor: Keifer, 1952. Calif. Ins. Surv. Bull. 2: 44.
Vasates lycopersici: Lamb, 1953. Bull. Ent. Res. 44: 342-350.
The tomato russet mite is recorded as a vagrant on the green parts of
many solanaceous plants. The reader is referred to Rice and Strong
(1962) for a complete host list. Perennial hosts are usually affected by
some discoloration of the leaves but annuals such as tomatoes are usually
killed by heavy infestations. The species was reported from Georgia by
Anderson (1954).
Vasates magnolivora (K.)
Phyllocoptes magnolivora Keifer, 1939. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 28: 486.
Vasates magnolivora: Keifer, 1952. Calif. Ins. Surv. Bull. 2: 46.
The mite is recorded as living among the pubescence on the undersurface
of the leaves and occasionally around the flower buds of Magnolia grandi-
flora L., the evergreen magnolia, and as causing no apparent damage. It
was collected 8 August 1961, Clarke County, Georgia. The collection was
made from a heavy infestation, and yellowing, browning, and premature
dropping of the leaves were noted.
Vasates toxicophagus (Ewing)
Phyllocoptes toxicophagus Ewing, 1917. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 24: 323.
Vasates toxicophagus: Keifer, 1952. Calif. Ins. Surv. Bull. 2: 47.
The poison oak leaf-gall mite is recorded as forming bead galls on the
leaves and in some cases causing a yellowing and deforming of the term-
inal leaves on poison oak, Rhus diversiloba T. & G. The species was col-
lected 15 August 1962, Clarke County, Georgia.
Tetra robiniae K.
Tetra robiniae Keifer, 1959. Calif. Dept. Agr. Occas. Paper 2: 7.
This undersurface leaf vagrant is recorded from black locust, Robinia
pseudoacacia L., and as causing little damage. It was collected 17 August
1962, Clarke County, Georgia.


Apodiptacus, cordiformis K.
Apodiptacus cordiformis Keifer, 1960. Calif. Dept. Agr. Series B-1: 18.
The mite is recorded as an undersurface leaf vagrant appearing as a
tiny tuft of flocculent white wax on butternut hickory, Carya cordiformis
(Wang.). It has been collected several times in Georgia from seven dif-
ferent host species. The following is a list of hosts and collection data.

Amygdalus persica Batsch. 23 August 1961 Clarke County
Carya ovata (Mill.) 12 September 1962 Clarke County
Carya pecan Marsh. 23 August 1961 Clarke County
Carya pecan Marsh. 1 September 1961 Clarke County
Juglans nigra L. 7 July 1961 Clarke County
Juglans nigra L. 15 August 1962 Clarke County
Liquidambar straciflua L. 26 August 1962 Clarke County
Morus alba L. 4 July 1961 Clayton County
Quercus phellos L. 15 August 1962 Clarke County

Vol. 47, No. I

Davis: Some Eriophyid Mites Occurring in Georgia 23

Fig. 2. Diptacus georgiana, n. sp.; D, dorsal view; F, featherclaw;
GC, genital flap and coxae; S, side view.

Diptacus georgiana, new species (Fig. 2)
D. georgiana is similar to D. rubra Keifer. It differs in having shorter
dorsal setae and by possessing only three rays on each side of the divided
FEMALE: 165/ long, 82g thick, robust-spindleform, amber in color.
Rostrum 42A long, projecting down. Dorsal shield 38g long, 521t wide,
design consisting of admedian and one submedian as figured. Dorsal seta


The Florida Entomologist

111 long, projecting forward. Forelegs 38p long; tibia 10 long with seta;
tarsus 8A long; claw 5/ long, knobbed; featherclaw divided, 3-rayed on a
side. Anterior coxae nearly touching, design absent; first coxal tubercule
farther from midline than the second; second tubercules well ahead of
transverse line through third tubercules. Abdomen with about 45 tergites
with about 2 sternites per tergite for the anterior two-thirds. Sternite
microtuberculate, becoming less prominent dorsally. Lateral seta 19,u
long, on about sternite 17; first ventral seta 32, long, on about sternite 33;
second ventral seta 12g long, on about sternite 50; third ventral seta 20O
long, on 7th sternite from rear; accessory seta missing. Genitalia 22A
wide, 20A long; coverflap smooth; seta 7, long.
Male not studied.
The species was collected 12 September 1961, from willow oak, Quercus
phellos L., Clarke County, Georgia. The mites are undersurface leaf va-
grants appearing as tiny tufts of flocculent white wax and apparently cause
little damage. The type material includes the holotype and 11 paratypes.
The holotype and 5 paratypes are in the author's collection and 3 paratypes
each will be deposited in the University of Georgia and the California De-
partment of Agriculture collections.

Diptacus gigantorhynchus (Nal.)
Phyllocoptes gigantorhynchus Nalepa, 1892. Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien.
23: 191.
Epitrimeres gigantorhynchus: Nalepa, 1896. Denks. Acad. Wiss.
Wien. 64: 302.
Diptilomiopus prunorum Keifer, 1939. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 28: 149.
Rhyncaphytoptus gigantorhynchus: Liro, 1943. Ann. Zool. Soc. Fen.
Vanamo. 9: 40.
Diptacus prunorum: Keifer, 1951. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 40: 99.
Diptacus gigantorhynchus: Keifer, 1952. Calif. Ins. Surv. Bull. 2: 60.
The big-beaked plum mite is recorded as a vagrant on the undersurface
of the leaves and as causing no apparent damage to prune, Prunus do-
mestica L.; peach, Amygdalus persica Batsch; plum, Prunus sp.; black-
berry, Rubus vitifolius C. & S.; flowering almond, Prunus trilobus Lindl.;
and grape, Vitis californica Benth. The mite was collected on Vitis sp.,
7 June 1961, Hancock County, Georgia.

Rhynacus abronius (K.)
Diptilomiopus abronius Keifer, 1939. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 28: 492.
Rhynacus abronius: Keifer, 1951. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 40: 99.
The mite is recorded as living among the hairs on the undersurfaces
of the leaves on native blackberry, Rubus vitifolius C. & S. It was col-
lected from blackberry, Rubus sp., September 1961, by Mr. Minter Dupree,
in Spaulding County, Georgia.

Rhynacus breitlowi, new species (Fig. 3)
R. breitlowi fits this genus very well except for possessing a very short,
weak setae I on the forecoxae. Other distinguishing features are the 20-
22 longitudinal scores on the genital coverflap and the divided 5-rayed

Vol. 47, No. 1

Davis: Some Eriophyid Mites Occurring in Georgia 25


Fig. 3. Rhynacus breitlowi, n. sp.; D, dorsal view; F, featherclaw;
GC, genital flap and coxae; S, side view.

- f-

The Florida Entomologist

FEMALE: 187g long, 82/ thick, spindleform, amber in color. Rostrum
50u long, projecting down. Dorsal shield 35A long, 70A wide; indented
slightly on anterior margin; not projecting over rostral base; design con-
sisting of median, admedian and four submedian lines as figured; dorsal
tubercles minute, seta absent. Legs with femoral seta missing. Fore-
legs 38,/ long; tibia 8u long; tarsus 10, long; claw 8/ long; knobbed and
straight or slightly curved; featherclaw divided, 5-rayed on a side. Hind-
legs 33/ long, patellar seta absent. First coxae separated, seta I present,
short and on inner margin. Abdomen entirely microtuberculate, a shallow
furrow on the anterior third of each side of tergum; tergites about 62,
sternites about 72. Lateral seta missing; first ventral seta 90/ long, on
about sternite 26; second ventral seta 60, long, on about sternite 44;
third ventral seta 35g long, on about 10th sternite from rear; accessory
seta missing. Genitalia 48, wide, 33A long, coverflap margin with about
22 short longitudinal scores; seta 111 long.
Male not studied.
The species was collected 14 August 1962, from evergreen magnolia,
Magnolia grandiflora L., Clarke County, Georgia. The mites are under-
surface leaf vagrants among the pubescence and apparently cause little
damage. The type material includes the holotype and nine paratypes.
The holotype and three paratypes are in the author's collection, and three
paratypes each will be deposited in the University of Georgia and the Cali-
fornia Department of Agriculture collections.

Rhyncaphytoptus atlanticus K.
Rhyncaphytoptus atlanticus Keifer, 1960. Calif. Dept. Agr. Occas.
Paper 2: 17.
This undersurface leaf vagrant is recorded from American elm, Ulmus
americana L. It was collected 16 September 1961, Clarke County, Georgia.

Rhyncaphytoptus ulmivagrans K.
Rhyncaphytoptus ulmivagrans Keifer, 1939. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr.
28: 420.
Abacoptes platynus Keifer, 1939. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 28: 491. (the
Rhyncaphytoptus rugatus Liro, 1941. Ann. Zool. Soc. Fen. Vanamo.
8: 45. (the deutogyne)
The mite is recorded as a vagrant on the undersurface of the leaves
of the elms, Ulmus campestris L. and U. pumila L., and apparently causes
little damage. It was collected from winged elm, U. alata Michx., a new
host record, 7 June 1961, Laurens County, Georgia.

Trimerotes aleyrodiformis (K.)
Diptilomiopus aleyrodiformis Keifer, 1940. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr.
29: 168.
Trimeroptes aleyrodiformis: Keifer, 19651. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr.
40: 98.
This undersurface leaf vagrant is recorded from sweet gum, Liquidam-
bar straciflua L., and as causing no apparent damage. The species was
collected at Brunswick, Georgia, by Mr. H. H. Keifer, 14 May 1940, and by
the author, 17 August 1961, Clarke County, Georgia.

Vol. 47, No. I

Davis: Some Eriophyid Mites Occurring in Georgia 27


Twenty-nine species of eriophyids, including 3 new species, not pre-
viously known for the state of Georgia are listed. This brings the total
number of eriophyid species known to occur in the state to 34. Descrip-
tions and host data are presented for the adult females of Oxypleurites
erigerivagrans, n. sp., Diptacus georgiana, n. sp., and Rhynacus breitlowi,
n. sp.

Anderson, L. D. 1954. The tomato russet mite in the United States.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 47(6) : 1001-5.
Keifer, H. H. 1941. Eriophyid studies XI. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr. 30(2):
Keifer, H. H. 1954. Eriophyid studies XXII. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agr.
43 (3) : 121-31.
Rice, R. E., and F. E. Strong. 1962. Bionomics of the tomato russet mite,
Vasates lycopersici (Massee). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 55(4): 431-5.
Tuttle, D. M., and G. D. Butler, Jr. 1961. A new eriophyid mite infest-
ing bermuda grass. Jour. Econ. Ent. 54(5) : 836-8.



Dr. Dale Habeck has joined the Entomology Department of the Agri-
cultural Experiment Station in Gainesville. Dr. Habeck has degrees from
the University of Wisconsin and North Carolina State University at Ra-
leigh. He has been with the University of Hawaii the past four years.

Recent promotions in the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations in-
clude Drs. R. M. Baranowski and E. D. Harris, Jr., from Assistant En-
tomologist to Associate Entomologist.



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Durham, New Hampshire

During the period from February to August, 1957, various Tabanidae
and Phoridae were reared to maturity using horsemeat as food for the fly
larvae. The species reared by this method were Tabanus atratus Fabricus,
T. lineola Fabricus, T. nigrovittatus Macquart, T. trijunctus Walker, Aegi-
alomyia psammophila (0. S.) and a phorid Megaselia sp. This work was
done at the Entomological Research Center, Vero Beach, Florida.
Tabanidae: The tabanid larvae were reared in shell vials, using a mod-
ified method of Philip (1928). At first, various insect larvae were prof-
fered as food to the larvae. Since, in some cases, this food was not ac-
cepted by the larvae and the handling of live larvae as a food source was
time consuming, a more suitable material for use as food was sought.
The name of the flies under study suggested the possibility of frozen horse-
meat. Horsemeat was readily available, easily stored in the freezer com-
partment of a refrigerator, and most important, was acceptable to the
Very thin slices of meat were "shaved" from the frozen mass by using
a single edged razor blade. Meat was added to each vial, being placed near
the head of the larva. The amount added to each vial was determined by
trial and depended on the amount each larva consumed in a few hours. The
larvae were fed every two or three days. Another consideration that de-
termined the amount added to the vial was the possible decomposition of
the horsemeat. The vials were kept at room temperature, this being ap-
proximately 27.5 C. at the start of the project and 30.0 C. at the end.
The frozen meat thawed and reached room temperature very quickly.
Most of the larvae would feed on the meat as soon as it was placed in
the vial.
The time from larval collection to pupation varied from 10 days to 150
days. The average larval period was approximately 80 days for the 123
larvae handled. Of these larvae, 79 did not .moult, 30 moulted once, and
12 moulted twice. One hundred and twelve adults were reared.
Phoridae: The discovery that Megaselia sp. could be reared on horse-
meat was accidental. Small larvae were discovered in a vial containing
horsemeat. These were allowed to pupate and emerge. The adult flies and
the larvae were determined as Megaselia sp., a determination confirmed by
the Insect Identification Branch, USDA. Nothing was done with this
species until a gravid female was captured in another tabanid rearing vial,
the fly apparently gaining entrance through the double layer of nylon
netting used as a closure for the vial.
The gravid Megaselia was then placed in a 250 cc Erlenmeyer flask
with fresh horsemeat. The larvae were allowed to develop. Paper towel
strips were placed in the flask; the phorid larvae pupated on the toweling
and were then easily removed to another flask. As the adults emerged,

1Published with the approval of the Director of the New Hampshire
Agricultural Experiment Station as Scientific Contribution No. 310.

The Florida Entomologist

fresh horsemeat was added to the flask and continuous breeding was main-
tained for seven generations of the flies. The following table gives the
duration of the various stages for the entire period.


Stage-Days Duration

Generation egg larval pupal total Temp. C.

I. 1 6 9 16 27.5
II. 1 5 13 19 27.5
III. 1 5 9 15 28.0
IV. 1 5 8 14 29.0
V. 1 5 8 14 29.0
VI. 1 4 8 13 30.0
VII. 1 4 9 14 30.0

Tremendous numbers of these flies were reared in a small space. All
stages were easily handled, especially the pupae, as they adhered to the
paper toweling. The phorid would seem to be an insect that would be
useful in various areas of research due to the short life cycle, the ease of
rearing, and the fact that a simple type of food is all that appears to be
The rearing of both the Tabanidae and Phoridae on thawed horsemeat
proved to be very successful. This material would probably be useful in
the rearing of other Diptera. The advantages of frozen horsemeat are
that it is readily available, easily stored, and acceptable as food by the
The entire rearing procedures described above covered a period of five
months; approximately one-quarter pound of horsemeat was used.

Philip, C. B. 1928. Methods of collecting and rearing the immature
stages of Tabanidae. Jour. Parasit. 14: 243-253.

Vol. 47, No. 1


Entomology Research Division, Agric. Res. Serv., USDA, Gainesville, Fla.

The principle of annihilating insect populations by releasing males sex-
ually sterilized by irradiation was advocated by Knipling (1960) as early
as 1937. He later expanded this approach to include chemosterilization of
natural populations, which in many instances would be more feasible and
economical where these insect infestations are found in astronomical num-
bers (Knipling 1959). These chemicals might be prepared as residues on
resting surfaces, included in the diet, or disseminated in the breeding
medium. LaBrecque (1961) showed that certain radiomimetic compounds
included in the food were effective sterilants of house flies (Musca do-
mestica L.). He later supported these results when he materially reduced
fly infestations in the field with a chemosterilant bait (LaBrecque et al.
Studies by Ehrenberg and von Ehrenstein (1960) indicated that food-
stuffs exposed to high levels of radiation can produce radiomimetic changes
in animals to which they are fed, and Westermark (1960) found that the
stored energy resulting from the irradiation of solids behaves like radi-
ation during dissolution. The experiments reported here were conducted
to determine whether canned raw beef that had been preserved by exposure
to high dosages of gamma radiation contained any radiomimetic products
which could be detected by feeding the meat to a species of blow fly, Phae-
nicia cuprina (Wiedemann). Two known radiomimetic chemosterilants
were used as standards for comparison, and to obtain information on their
efficacy in inducing sterility in the blow fly.

ADULTS: Thirty newly emerged male and female blow flies were al-
lowed to feed on meat that was untreated, that had been exposed 50 days
previously to 5, 25, or 50 megarads of gamma radiation from cobalt-60, or
treated immediately before use with 1% or 0.5% of apholate or 0.5% or
0.25% of metepa. Solutions or suspensions of the chemosterilants in
water were thoroughly mixed with the meat. Fresh supplies of treated or
untreated meat were supplied daily for 5 days. On the sixth day untreated
meat obtained locally was substituted for the test meat and examined at
regular intervals for egg deposition. When the adult females oviposited
in a cage containing either treated or untreated meat, there were usually
a large number of eggs. One hundred of these eggs were counted out on
a square of black cloth and placed in a waxed cup containing 100 grams

The authors are indebted to N. L. Willis of this Division for help in
performing the experiments and to the Quartermaster Food and Container
Institute for the Armed Forces, Quartermaster Research and Engineering
Command, United States Army, for supplying the irradiated meat.

The Florida Entomologist

of ground beef. In order to be certain that the 100 eggs were a representa-
tive sample, the remainder of the eggs from the mass were placed on a
square of black cloth in a petri dish. Both groups of eggs were then ex-
amined for per cent hatch after incubating at 800 F. for 24 hours. When
it was determined that the 100 eggs had indeed been a representative sam-
ple of the entire egg mass, the per cent hatch in the sample was recorded
and the remainder of the mass discarded. The larvae that had hatched from
the 100-egg sample were allowed to continue development. The larvae,
pupae, and F1 adults were examined for any visible abnormalities. The
F1 adults were fed on untreated meat. After they had oviposited and the
presence of F2 larvae had been confirmed, the test was concluded. Each
test was replicated at least 3 times.
LARVAE: Fifty eggs from the colony stock cages were counted out on
a 2-inch square of black cloth. The cloth was placed in a waxed cup con-
taining 100 grams of meat that was untreated, irradiated with 5, 25, or 50
megarads of gamma radiation from cobalt-60, or treated with 0.1% of
apholate or 0.05% of metepa by the same method used to treat the meat
for the adult tests. The cup was then placed in an incubator at 800 F.
Twenty-four hours later the eggs were examined and the per cent hatch
was determined. The larvae were allowed to continue development. The
larvae, pupae, and adults were examined for any visible abnormalities.
The adults were supplied daily with fresh untreated meat obtained locally.
The meat was examined at regular intervals for egg deposition. When
oviposition occurred, fertility and normality of development were deter-
mined by the method used in the adult tests. The F1 adults were fed on
untreated meat. After they had oviposited and the presence of F2 larvae
confirmed, the test was discontinued. Each test was replicated at least
three times.
ADULTS: All females fed on untreated or irradiated meat oviposited
in 4 to 8 days, whereas those fed on apholate- or metepa-treated meat did
not oviposit before the ninth day. Eggs laid by the flies fed normal, irradi-
ated, and apholate-treated meat were normal in appearance, but some of
those from females fed metepa-treated meat were smaller than normal
and misshapen. Viability of eggs laid by the females fed irradiated and
untreated meat ranged from 85% to 100%, but very few eggs from fe-
males exposed to the food treated with apholate and metepa hatched, and
the larvae that did hatch failed to develop to the pupal stage.
LARVAE: Hatch of eggs from the stock cage ranged from 68% to
100%, with an average of 92%. Insects of the first generation reared in
untreated or irradiated meat completed development from hatch to the
adult stage in 15 to 19 days. Those that fed on metepa completed develop-
ment in 19 to 23 days, whereas those that fed on apholate did not develop
beyond the pupal stage. The larvae, pupae, and adults from the untreated,
irradiated, and metepa-treated meat were normal in appearance. The
larvae from the apholate-treated meat were normal in appearance, but the
pupae were longer and more slender than normal. The females from lar-
vae fed on untreated, irradiated, or metepa-treated meat oviposited in 4
to 6 days, but only one batch of flies reared on meat treated with metepa
oviposited. The per cent hatch of eggs from the parent generation of flies
reared in treated and untreated meat was:

Vol. 47, N~o. 1

Morgan: Effect of Meat Exposed to Gamma Radiation 33


Untreated 5% -100% 63%
Irradiated with 5 megarads 11% 100% 47%
Irradiated with 25 megarads 98% 100% 99%
Irradiated with 50 megarads 73% 99% 88%
Treated with metepa 68% 76% 73%
Treated with apholate No adults

The F1 adults oviposited normally and the eggs and larvae had a nor-
mal appearance.

The irradiated meat diet had no apparent radiomimetic effect on the
reproductive capacity, egg deposition, per cent hatch, or appearance of the
flies, whereas the chemosterilant-treated meat affected egg production, fer-
tility and, with apholate, development in the larval and pupal stages.


Ehrenberg, L., and G. von Ehrenstein. 1960. How should a possible car-
cinogenic action of irradiated food be estimated? Risd. Report
No. 16: 41-3.
Knipling, E. F. 1959. Sterile-male method of population control. Science
130: 902-904.
Knipling. E. F. 1960. The eradication of the screw-worm fly. Sci. Am.
203: 54-61.
LaBrecque, G. C. 1961. Studies with three alkylating agents as house fly
sterilants. Jour. Econ. Ent. 54: 684-689.
LaBrecque, G. C., D. W. Meifert, and R. L. Fye. 1962. A field study on
the control of house flies with chemosterilant techniques. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 56(2): 150-152.
Westermark, Torbjbrn. 1960. Some points of view on stored energy in
irradiated food. RisS. Report No. 16: 28-36.

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University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, and Emory University
Medical School, Atlanta, Georgia, respectively

Since the discovery of sulfathiazole about 20 years ago as a control
of American foulbrood disease of honey bees, a number of chemicals and
antibiotics have been studied as to their effectiveness against bee diseases
(Haseman 1961). In 19.59, field studies were begun to evaluate the effec-
tiveness of oleandomycin as a control of American foulbrood in Florida.
Oleandomycin is a relatively new antibiotic produced by Sterptomyces
antibiotics, a fungus belonging to the Actinomycetes. These fungi are
widely found in soils and composts, in air and on dust particles and in close
association with plants. Oleandomycin was first described in 1954 under
the designation P.A. 105. Chemically it is a basic compound composed of
the sugars L-oleandrose and desosamine, glycosidically attached to a com-
plex lactone nucleus, termed oleandolide. The approximate empirical for-
mula is CsHe7NOn. This chemical is used medicinally in the treatment of
a number of bacterial infections of man. It has also been shown to be
effective against viruses, rickettsia and certain protozoa. Combinations
of oleandomycin with other antibiotics, primarily with terramycin, are
popular, and there are indications that certain combinations achieve both
synergistic action and a suppression of the development of resistant bac-
teria (Colville et al. 1959).
The colonies of bees used in this experiment were obtained by the local
bee inspector from several beekeepers. They were in both 8 and 10 frame
hives with one to three honey supers. All were infected with American
foulbrood. Four levels of oleandomycin were tested. They were 0.125,
0.25, 0.5 and 1 gram of oleandomycin per treatment. Each treatment was
replicated three or more times. The oleandomycin used was a 25 per cent
concentrate obtained from Chas. Pfizer & Company. Each test level of
oleandomycin was thoroughly mixed in one-fourth cup of powdered sugar
by sifting 4 times through a kitchen flour sifter.
A simple method of application of the antibiotic was used (Fig. 1). The
hives were opened, exposing the brood nest, and the mixture of oleandomy-
cin and powdered sugar was dusted with a flour sifter evenly over the top
bars of the brood frames. Applications were repeated in this manner at
one to two week intervals until the disease disappeared. No manipulation
of the hive to induce brood rearing in all brood frames or super frames
was attempted. No honey, which could harbor disease spores, was removed
from the hive. This simplified method of treatment was selected because
if successful it would be practical in commercial beekeeping. The method
required the minimum of time for the treatment, was inexpensive, and
disrupted the colony as little as possible, thereby preventing robbing and
a chance of spreading disease through the apiary.
Observations were made of each hive at time of treatment. Records
were kept as to the amount of disease present, the population of the hive,
conditions of the brood and queen, and the amount of honey in the hive.

The Florida Entomologist

The system of rating the amount of disease and hive strength was as
follows: 1 to 50 diseased cells was rated A, 51 to 500 cells B, over 500 dis-
eased cells C. Hive strength was rated as follows: three frames or less
covered with bees was rated A, three to seven frames of bees B, and eight
frames or more was rated C. The amount of stores was estimated in


i3 0



. .



,( .'

.. o

w p

.~.v -~

4~~. ~

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Fig. 1. Method of applying oleandomycin to the brood frames
of a diseased hive.


In these tests, oleandomycin at all levels of treatment reduced the
amount of infection of American foulbrood in a diseased colony. Generally
four or five treatments brought about the removal of all disease in the
colony that was visible to the naked eye. In some colonies the disease
reappeared when the treatment stopped. Diseased hives, while being
treated with oleandomycin, produced large numbers of worker bees and
average yields of honey when compared with disease-free colonies in the
same apiary.
Fig. 2 shows the average response of the colonies treated with the two
highest levels of oleandomycin. In both levels of treatment there was a
decrease in the amount of disease present and an increase in the number
of bees in the colony. Even at 0.125 gram per treatment there was a re-
duction of disease and an increase in bee population. Some of the hives in
each of the four levels of treatment were clear of disease for one or more

Vol. 47, No. 1

Murphey: American Foulbrood Disease of Honey Bees



7 1 " B = 50-500


C = OVER 500

Fig. 2. Responses of colonies treated with 0.5 and 1.0 gram
oleandomycin per treatment.

The Florida Entomologist

months, after 4 or 5 dustings. However, since no effort was made to shift
diseased frames throughout the brood nest to require brood rearing in all
diseased combs, some of the hives later developed diseased brood. Although
no laboratory tests were conducted to determine the length of time oleando-
mycin remained active in the hive, the results obtained indicate this drug
has little or no residual action against American foulbrood disease.
One of the problems in the use of drugs for treating bee diseases is the
possibility of small quantities of the drug being stored in honey and harm-
ing people who use the honey as a food. Sulfathiazole has been found in
honey produced by colonies while being treated. If laboratory tests prove
that oleandomycin is not residual for any length of time in stored honey,
it might prove preferable to sulfathiazole as a bee disease treatment.
As far as could be determined, oleandomycin at the levels used had no
harmful effects on the egg laying of the queen, the developing larvae, or
on the adult bees. In all cases colonies receiving treatment produced
honey during the honey flow in amounts equivalent to the disease-free
untreated control colony.
A different series of tests were being conducted in this apiary at the
same time using aureomycin, terramycin, sulfathiazole and a combination
treatment of terramycin and sulfathiazole. These tests are still in progress
and the results will be reported later.
When compared with other treatments, oleandomycin was apparently
equal to aureomycin in effectiveness. It was not as effective as terramycin
at 0.175 gram per treatment, sulfathiazole at 1 gram, or a combination of
terramycin and sulfathiazole.


These data indicate the following about oleandomycin:

(1) At all levels tested it reduced American foulbrood disease in bee col-
(2) Hives increased in population while receiving the drug.

(3) No harmful effect was noted on egg laying, brood rearing, or adult

(4) Diseased hives produced an amount of honey equal to that from dis-
ease-free untreated colonies in the apiary.
(5) The drug apparently has no residual action in the hive.

(6) Although effective, it was less effective than either sulfathiazole or
Colville, J. M., Frank Cox, Jr., and E. L. Quinn. 1959. Comparative
studies of oleandomycin, triacetyloleandomicin and erythromycin with
a brief review of the literature concerning oleandomycin. In Anti-
biotics Annual 1958-59. Medical Encyclopedia Inc., New York.
p. 401-410.
Haseman, Leonard. 1961. How long can spores of American foulbrood
live. Amer. Bee. Jour. 101.(8): 298-299.

Vol. 47, No. 1

A. A

V*V I -


~ -. .A


Erwin, Tennessee

Mites of the genus Podocinum inhabit litter and rodent's nests and
are probably predacious. Most of them occur in the tropics, only one spe-
cies (P. pacificum Berlese, represented by a single female from Berkeley,
Calif.) having been recorded from the United States. Evans and Hyatt
(1957) in their paper on this group point out that with the exception of
P. pacificum and P. sagax (Berl.) they know of no species which occurs
outside the latitudes 300 N. and 30' S. and that the records for P. sagax
outside this area suggest that the species was introduced with ornamental
plants into botanical gardens. One of the new species described in this
paper occurs near Erwin, Tennessee at a latitude slightly north of 36' N.
at an elevation of about 2700 feet; the other occurs in Florida at a latitude
of about 26J/ N.
Podocinum pacificum is fairly common in the mountains near Erwin,
and I have watched them many times in the hope of seeing them feed, but
without success. The mites move in a deliberate manner holding the first
pair of legs back over the body in a position roughly resembling a question
mark and only occasionally putting one or the other leg forward using
it in the manner of an antenna. P. catenulum, n. sp., carries its front legs
in the same way as does pacificum, and they at times occur together for I
have taken both species from the same handful of litter.
All measurements given in the descriptions are in microns.

Podocinum catenulum, new species
(Fig. 1-7)
Podocinum catenulum traces to couplet 6 in the key to species by Evans
and Hyatt (op. cit.); it differs most noticeably from orientale Evans and
Hyatt in having six pairs of stout setae on the posterior half of the dorsal
shield and from sumatrense Evans and Hyatt in having a total of 19 pairs
of setae on the dorsal shield. The male is unknown.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 390-452 long, 299-362 wide, dark brown, heavily
sclerotized and curving under all round so as to partly cover the ventral
surface; posteriorly in some specimens the dorsal shield covers the ven-
tral surface almost to the ventrianal shield as shown in Fig. 1; dorsal
shield covered with a polygonal network of rows of minute, rounded pro-
jections, most of the surfaces within the network with one to seven much
smaller projections. In addition, the dorsum bears a design composed of
small, cicatrix-like areas with scalloped margins-areas probably homolo-
gous with the bald areas of P. sagbax, P. jamaicense E. and H., and P. pug-
norum, n. sp. The distribution of setae, cicatrix-like areas, and pores is

1 Cost of engravings borne by a grant from the Pinellas Foundation,
Inc., St. Petersburg, Florida.


Fig. 1-6. Podocinum catenulum, n. sp., female. 1, dorsum and ven-
ter; 2, chelicerae; 3, tectum; 4, rostrum; 5A, leg I to subterminal setae;
5B, leg I distal of subterminal setae; 6, legs II-IV (from top to bottom).
Fig. 7. Podocinum catenulum?, deutonymph, dorsum and venter.

De Leon: New Podocinum from the United States 41

shown in Fig. 1. Vertical setae 9 long, 16 apart; paraverticals 88 long;
the three posterior marginal setae from front to rear are 53, 55, and 52-65
long. Ventrianal shield 145-163 long, 168-185 wide with four pairs of
preanal setae and a pair of pores; posterolateral interscutal membrane
without interscutal seta, this seta (indicated by an asterisk in Fig. 1) ap-
parently having migrated to the dorsal shield. Peritremes anteriorly fol-
low margin of dorsal shield and so remain on ventral surface; they appear
to join at mid-line. The chelicerae are shown in Fig. 2 and the tectum in
Fig. 3; rostrum (Fig. 4) with seta Cl 23, C2 5, and C3 27 long. Leg
I (Fig. 5A and 5B) 950-1019; tarsus I 231-253, subterminal setae 32 and
14; tibia I 186, genu I 200 long. Leg. II 515-543, leg III 447-485, leg IV
567-588 long (excluding pretarsi); pretarsi 22 long; tarsus IV (excluding
pretarsus) 213-220 long; proximal macroseta of metatarsus IV 45, distal
macroseta 27 long; macroseta of tarsus IV proper 36 long; the chaetotaxy
of legs II-IV is shown in Fig. 6.
NYMPH: A deutonymph (Fig. 7) collected with four females, one of
them general, almost certainly belongs here as leg I is similar to leg I of
the female catenulum. Dorsum without network of small rounded projec-
tions, but with a cluster of small, rounded projections in mid-dorsal area;
the dorsum appears to be divided, but no margins can be distinguished at
the sides. All setae of the dorsal shield that are not serrate are blunt and
resemble the finger of a rubber glove in shape and are 7-14 long. Para-
verticals 74 long; the two long posterior setae 72 and 80 long. All ventral
setae slender and sharply pointed.
Holotype: Female, Erwin, Tennessee, 27 August 1962 (D. De Leon),
on decaying apple-s on ground; paratypes: 3 females collected with holo-
type; 1 female from moss by creek, Aug. 1961, and 1 female, 10 January
1963, Erwin, Tenn., from dead oak leaves. Type and paratypes are in the
author's collection.

Podocinum pugnorum, new species
(Fig. 8-12)
Podocinum pugnorum resembles P. sagax (Berlese) differing chiefly in
having only 16 pairs of setae on the dorsal shield and of these there are
only four pairs of large, stout setae posteriorly. The male is unknown.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 468 long, 308 wide, and densely covered with
minute, sharp projections except for bald areas as indicated in Fig. 8;
paravertical setae 72 long; posteriorly, anterior lateral seta 86, posterior
lateral 96, anterior mediolateral 78, and posterior mediolateral 76 long.
Ventrianal shield 137 long 240 wide with four pairs of preanals and a pair
of pores; tectum normal (Fig. 9). Spermatheca (Fig. 10) 14 long, situated
close to coxae III and IV. Leg I (Fig. 11) 1350, tarsus I 386, tibia I 219,
genu I 291 long; leg II 745, leg III 600, leg IV 798 long (excluding pre-
tarsi); pretarsi 25-35 long; tarsus IV (excluding pretarsus) 304, pretarsus
32 long; anterior macroseta of metatarsus 79 long. The chaetotaxy of tar-
sus IV is shown in Fig. 12.
Holotype: Female, Parrish, Florida, October 19, 1960 (M. H. Muma),
from litter under citrus tree. Specimen in the collection of the Citrus Ex-
periment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida.

The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 8-12. Podocinum pugnorum, n. sp., female. 8, dorsum and venter;
9, tectum; 10, spermatheca between coxae III and IV; 11, leg I; 12 tar-
sus IV.
Fig. 13-15. Podocinum pacificum Berlese? 13, dorsum and venter of
larva; 14, legs I-III (from left to right) of larva; 15, dorsum and venter
of deutonymph.

Vol. 47, No. 1

De Leon: New Podocinum from the United States 43

Podocinum pacificum Berlese
(Fig. 13-15)
Evans and Hyatt (op. cit.) figured the two nymphal stages and Berlese
(1882) the larval stage of P. sagax (Berlese). The immature stages of no
other previously described species appear to be known. Although not
reared, I am fairly sure that a larva and deutonymph collected in 1962
near Erwin, Tennessee, are immature stages of P. pacificum Berlese.
LARVA: Body (Fig. 13) 210 long, nearly round, with only 3 pairs of
setae on the dorsum; seta S2 56 long. Rostrum with setae C1 and C2
14 long. Leg I with subterminal setae long and whip like; leg I not much
longer than legs II and III (Fig. 14); tarsus I 143, tibia I 54 long; macro-
seta of tibia I 43 long.
DEUTONYMPH: Body without a distinct dorsal shield (Fig. 15); dor-
sum with 15 pairs of setae, paraverticals 81, S2 150 long. Rostrum with
seta C2 5 long, setae C1 and C3 about 20 long. Leg I similar to leg I of
female pacificum, especially in proportional sizes of subterminal setae.

Unless otherwise noted all records are for specimens in the U. S.
National Museum Collection and are based on single females.
Podocinum pacificum Berlese: Tryon, North Carolina, July 1937 (D. C.
Peattie), on wild ginger flower; Urbana, Illinois, 10 January 1939 (P. C.
Stone), 2 females in nest of Microtus ochrogaster; Mt. Vernon, Virginia,
10 December 1944 (Andre), in moss; Charlottesville, Virginia, 15 February
1948 (R. L. Hoffman), in leaf mold; Lawrence, Kansas, 3 July 1946 (P. W.
Jameson, Jr.), from nest of Microtus ochrogaster; Moss Bluff, Florida, 22
May 1958 (H. L. Greene and M. H. Muma), four females from pine leaf and
hardwood litter, in Citrus Experiment Station Collection, Lake Alfred;
Erwin, Tenn., 1961-1963, 11 females in author's collection from litter and
decaying apples on ground (many more specimens were seen than col-
lected); Cuesta de Acultzingo, Veracruz, Mexico, 16 January 1942 (F.
Bonet), 2 females from dead leaves.
Podocinum jamaicense Evans and Hyatt: Tamazunchale, S.L.P., Mexico,
on orchid plant at Brownsville, Texas, 28 August 1947; El Hule, Oaxaca,
Mex., 13 January 1940 (F. Bonet), 3 females; Vero Beach, Florida, 17 June
1958 (H. L. Greene and M. H. Muma) on oak, in Citrus Experiment Station
Collection; Peru, in soil on bromeliad at Miami, Florida, 9 February 1961
(C. E. Stegmaier).
Podocinum sagax (Berl.) : Guatemala, on debris with Odontoglossum
grande at San Francisco, Calif., 31 July 1936 (R. Clemens); Guatemala, on
orchid plants at Brownsville, Texas, 9 and 17 Sept. 1946; Orizaba, Mex.,
14 Jan. 1942 (F. Bonet), from dead leaves; Quebradillas, Puerto Rico, 4
July 1951 (J. M. Capilles), one male on guajatzca; China, at San Fran-
cisco, Calif., 22 Dec., 1937, 1 male on Zingiber officinale.


My thanks are due Dr. Martin H. Muma, Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida, for the loan of specimens in the station collection
and to Dr. E. W. Baker, Entomology Research Division, U. S. Department

44 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 47, No. 1

of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. for the opportunity of examining speci-
mens in the U. S. National Museum Collection.

Berlese, A. 1882. Acari, Myriopoda, et Scorpiones hucusque in Italia
reperta. Padoue. Fasc. 1, Tav. 1.
Evans, G. 0., and H. K. Hyatt. 1957. The genera Podocinum Berl. and
Podocinella gen. nov. (Acarina: Mesostigmata). Ann. and Mag.
Nat. Hist. Ser. 12, 10: 913-932.

INSECT SOUNDS. P. T. Haskell. Quadrangle Books, Chicago, 1961. 189 p.
97 fig. $5.75.
For the past 15 years our knowledge of insect sounds and their signifi-
cance has been advancing rapidly. Haskell's book is an attempt to describe
briefly what is known about insect sounds and what problems are awaiting
investigation. The book begins with chapters on recording and analyzing
insect sounds, sound-producing mechanisms, and insect hearing. The re-
mainder of the book deals with various aspects of behavior associated with
sounds produced and received by insects. Possible uses of sound in insect
control are discussed.
No comprehensive bibliography on insect sound production is included,
but one has been published elsewhere (Mable Frings and Hubert Frings.
1960. Sound Production and Sound Reception by Insects-A Bibliography.
Penn. State Univ. Press).
A better index would have made the book more useful for reference.
For example, tree crickets (Oecanthus) are discussed on p. 15, 111, 126,
155, 168, 175, and 177 but the only entry in the index is "Oecanthus, 126".
Haskell's book is the best general account of insect sounds available.-


University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Pecan Investigations Laboratory, Monticello, Florida

A review of current literature shows that great progress has been made
in the control of pecan insects by the use of insecticides during the past
two decades. For example, prior to 1945, the recommended control meas-
ure for the pecan nut casebearer Acrobasis caryae Grote, was 13 fluid
ounces of 40% nicotine sulfate plus 2 quarts summer oil emulsion per 100
gallons water. In 1962 pecan growers had a choice of five different insecti-
cides that were recommended for the control of the nut casebearer. These
insecticides were: DDT, EPN, Guthion, malathion and parathion. Each of
these materials is much more effective in controlling the nut casebearer
than the formerly recommended nicotine sulfate plus oil.
Although the above recommended insecticides give effective control
of the nut casebearer on pecans as recommended, some materials are ex-
pensive and would not be economical to use on a large scale. Work is be-
ing continued with these insecticides in an effort to determine whether the
amount of material recommended can be reduced, without reducing the
effectiveness. Studies are also being made to determine whether the more
costly materials can be combined with a less expensive material in such a
manner that when applied the spray will be more economical for the grow-
er, yet still give effective control of the casebearer.
In the spring of 1962, malathion, parathion and combinations of mala-
thion plus DDT and parathion plus DDT were used in two separate ex-
periments to evaluate and compare their effectiveness as a control for the
nut casebearer. In one of these experiments, south of Lloyd, Florida, pre-
liminary tests were also made with four new materials to determine their
effectiveness as a control for the first generation nut casebearer larvae.
Parathion, malathion, Thiodan, Bayer 37344, Bayer 44646, Ethyl-Methyl
Guthion and combinations of parathion plus DDT and malathion plus DDT
were applied one time to single tree plots. All treatments were used as
sprays and applied with a hydraulic sprayer (Bean Royal 35 MT). Plots
were randomized within each block, and blocks were replicated seven times.
An unsprayed plot was used as a control. (See Table 1 for formulations
and concentrations used.)
The second experiment was set up at the Simpson Nursery Company
orchard at Monticello to check the effectiveness of malathion and parathion
alone and in combination with DDT as used in the first test. The plot de-
sign and method of application used in this test were the same as that used
in the Lloyd experiment, except plots were replicated only six times. (See
Table 2.) The reasons for using the malathion plus DDT and parathion
plus DDT combinations in these separate tests were to evaluate their ef-
fectiveness in controlling the nut casebearer, as compared to the malathion
and parathion sprays used in the present recommendations for control and
to determine whether the malathion plus DDT and parathion plus DDT
combinations would cause a build up in aphid and mite populations.

1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 1670.

The Florida Entomologist

SPRING 1962.

Nut Clusters Examined Reduction in in-
Insecticides per fested clusters
100 gallons water Total Infested due to spray
Number Per cent Per cent

Malathion 25% WP* 3 lbs. 1420 0.56 98.3
Malathion 25% WP 11/2 lbs.
DDT 50% WP 1 lb. 1443 1.20 96.4
Parathion 15% WP 2 lbs. 1404 0.50 98.5
Parathion 15% WP 1 lb.
DDT 50% WP 1 lb. 1342 0.60 98.2
Thiodan 50% WP 2 lbs. 1365 0.51 98.5
Bayer 44646-50,% WP 2 lbs. 1446 2.1 93.7
Guthion (Ethyl-Methyl)
EC** 1 qt. 1422 0.07 99.8
Bayer 37344-50% WP 2 lbs. 1416 0.21 99.4
Untreated (Check) 1000 33.2

WP-Wettable powder.
** EC-Emulsifiable concentrate.

SPRING, 1962.

Insecticides per
100 gallons water

Nut Clusters E

examined Reduction in in-
fested clusters
Infested due to spray

Per cent

Per cent

Parathion 15% WP 2 lbs.
Parathion 15% WP 1 lb.
DDT 50% WP 1 lb.
Malathion 25% WP 3 lbs.
Malathion 25% WP 1%1/ lbs.
DDT 50% WP 1 lb.
Untreated (Check)







Vol. 47, No. 1

Phillips: Control of Pecan Nut Casebearer 47

The data on control of the nut casebearer was obtained by examining
approximately 200 clusters of nuts per tree in each block. Less than 200
clusters of nuts were available in some plots. The data given in Tables
1 and 2 show that each material or combination of materials tested gave
excellent control of first generation nut casebearer. There were no aphids
or mites observed in any of the treated or check plots in these tests.
The data also show that the control of nut casebearer obtained with the
malathion plus DDT and parathion plus DDT combinations was comparable
to the control obtained with malathion and parathion when used alone.
Based on 1962 prices, the cost of the malathion plus DDT spray per 100
gallons was 50 cents cheaper than malathion alone, and the parathion plus
DDT spray was 24 cents cheaper than parathion alone. On the basis of
the results obtained in these tests, if the average grower used 500 gallons
of spray per acre, he could save $2.50 by using the malathion plus DDT
spray and $1.20 per acre with the parathion plus DDT spray combination
for control of the nut casebearer. This would be a great saving for grow-
ers with commercial acreage.


Observe all personal safety measures recommended for the above in-
secticides. Remove grazing animals from groves before spraying and
keep them out until residues decline to a safe level. With phosphorus in-
secticides this will be about 2 weeks; with chlorinated hydrocarbon insecti-
cides it will be somewhat longer. EPN, Guthion, and parathion should be
used only by trained operators.


Anonymous. 1962. Insecticide recommendations of Entomology Research
Division, Agriculture Handbook No. 120, ARS, USDA.
Osburn, Max R. 1962. Pecan insects and their control. Proc. Southeast-
ern Pecan Growers Assoc. 55: 109-127.
Phillips, Arthur M. et al. 1960. Insects and diseases of the pecan in
Florida. Fla. Agric. Exper. Sta. Bull. 619.

Fuit .,....,
comes from mite-free trees that are protected by IKeithbte-ti
Use KELTHANE for superior mite control. KELTHANE gives outstanding
control of mites when applied properly. Correct application of KELTHANE
for effective mite control requires full recommended dosage and thorough
coverage. A KELTHANE spray program helps growers ROMIVI
harvest choice fruits from mite-free trees. Write us or U
contact one of our local fieldmen for more information. ..




Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, USDA,
Washington, D. C.

The purpose of this paper is twofold: To provide a name for an un-
described species, the larvae of which feed in magnolias; and to correct a
mix-up in the illustrations for Euzophora nigricantella Ragonot and Proso-
euzophora impletella (Zeller) in Heinrich's American Phycitinae (1956).
According to the slides from which the illustrations noted above were
drawn, the association of the figures assigned to numbers 1066 and 1067
is incorrect. The figure of 1066 is impletella and that of 1067 is nigrican-
Although the larval stages of the species described herein have at-
tracted attention as a pest of magnolias in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana,
and North Carolina since 1957, only one adult is available, a female reared
by Mr. Edward Brown. Since other species of the genus that occur in
the same areas are commonly collected at light, it appears that the mag-
nolia-feeding species may be non-phototropic; and with no assurance that
males will become available in the near future, it seems desirable that a
name be provided for the species without further delay. There will be
no difficulty in association of the sexes when reared males are obtained.

Euzophora, magnolialis, new species
Fig. 1-5
ADULT (Fig. 2). Female, alar expanse 25 mm. Head, thorax, and ab-
domen brownish fuscous, with a tinge of purple. Labial palpus slender,
upturned, third segment acuminate distally; first segment gray with a
sprinkling of fuscous; second and third segments dark purplish brown.
Forewing purplish brown, with grayish dusting predominate in over half
of basal area, and also in area from outer margin inward almost to post-
medial line. Terminal dots black. Transverse lines narrow, sinuate,
sordid white; a small patch of similar color faintly indicated on discocellu-
lar vein. Antemedial line vertical from costa to below lower margin of
cell, angled slightly inward from fold to vein ib, and outward to hind
margin. Postmedial line vertical from costa to vein 5, slightly inward to
vein 2, outward to fold, and slightly inward to hind margin. Hindwing
pale smoky fuscous with a rather fine dark line along terminal margin.
Female genitalia (Fig. 3). Ventral margin of ostium a narrow, weakly
sclerotized band. Ductus bursae long, slender, membranous, non-pig-
mented, slightly crinkled but longitudinal ridges very weak. Signum well
developed. Origin of ductus seminalis from near middle of bursa copu-
Type. Female in U.S. National Museum. USNM Type No. 66789.
Pembroke, Florida.

The Florida Entomologist



7, -- VlII




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Fig. 1. Euzophora ostricolorella Hulst, female adult. Fig. 2-5. Eu-
zophora magnolialis, new species. 2. Female adult, type. 3. Female geni-
talia, ventral view. 4. Setal chart of pro- and mesothorax, abdominal seg-
ments 1 and 2, 3 to 6, and 9, lateral view. 5. Setal chart of setae VIII on
abdominal segments 9 and 10, ventral view. The figure of the genitalia and
setal charts were prepared by Mr. A. D. Cushman, Scientific Illustrator, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, and are not drawn to scale. Photographs of
the adults are two times the natural size.

Vol. 47, No. 1

, flz-

Capps: A New Species of Euzophora

Food plant. Magnolia grandiflora.
Distribution. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and North Carolina.
In maculation and venation, the type of E. magnolialis resembles small
specimens of E. ostricolorella Hulst (Fig. 1); but the forewing of mag-
nolialis is narrower and has the transverse lines more sharply defined, the
grayish patch on the discocellular weaker, and the grayish coloration in the
basal area and the area adjacent to the outer margin more extensive.
The genitalia of magnolialis are somewhat like those of both ostricolor-
ella and impletella, but the genitalia of ostricolorella are distinctly larger
than those of magnolialis; the ductus bursae is much shorter (only about
twice as long as wide); the bursa copulatrix is densely spinulate and
elongate and elongate rather than ovoid in shape, with the anterior half
strongly crinkled, forming conspicuous longitudinal ridges. The genitalia
of magnolialis and impletella are about the same in size and shape; but
in impletella, the ductus bursae is definitely constricted near the middle
and the signum is only weakly developed.
There is no date of emergence associated with the reared type; but
according to Kerr and Brogdon (1958), emergence probably begins late
in February or some time in March.
LARVA. Mature, length 28 mm. Head dark brown with a broad, dark,
fuscous lateral band, extending from ocellar area to hind margin. Body
slightly flattened, tapering gradually posteriorly. Body color white. Pin-
acula at bases of body setae pale amber, of moderate size, dorsal ones
usually smaller or about the size of spiracles. Prothoracic and anal shield
sordid white, pattern markings brown. Legs normal, eight pairs (three
thoracic, four abdominal, and one anal).
Setal arrangement (Figs. 4, 5). Prothoracic shield (Fig. 4) with a
conspicuous brownish-pigmented, reniformlike, depressed area directly cau-
dad of seta Ib; prespiracular shield bearing two setae. Group VI bisetose
on prothorax, unisetose on meso and metathorax. A non-pigmented mem-
branous area at base of seta IIb, surrounded by a sclerotized, pigmented,
ringlike structure on mesothorax (Fig. 4); such area at base of seta III
on eighth abdominal segment minute, if discernible. Pinaculum at base
of seta III on abdominal segments 1-7 an incomplete disc, somewhat cres-
centlike in shape; non-pigmented membranous area, if discernible, very
minute. Muscle attachment approximate to base of seta III, black. Seta
IV and seta V on abdominal segments 1-7 on same pinaculum, under spir-
acle; seta V directly or almost directly above seta IV. Ninth abdominal
segment (Fig. 4) with paired setae II farther apart than paired setae II
on eighth abdominal segment, usually on same pinaculum, sclerotization
and pigmentation of pinaculum weak; seta I approximate to seta III, their
pinacula frequently contiguous; seta IV, V, and VI all present, IV and V
on same pinaculum, VI on separate pinaculum and remote from IV. Seta
IIIa distinctly above level of base of seta III on first and second abdominal
segments. Distance between paired setae VIII on ninth abdominal seg-
ment one-third or less than that separating paired setae VIII on anal
segment (Fig. 5).
Crochets. Arranged in a complete ring on abdominal segments 3-6
and of irregular or triordinal length; ventral muscle attachment a con-
spicuous darkly pigmented pit. On anal segment, crochets in a transverse

The Florida Entomologist

mesoseries, of triordinal length; ventral muscle attachment weakly pig-
The larvae of magnolialis and ostricolorella have many characters in
common; but in magnolialis, coloration of the reniformlike depressed area
caudad of seta Ib on the prothorax is distinctly brownish; seta IIIa is
above the level of the base of seta III on abdominal segments 1 and 2;
and the distance between paired setae VIII on abdominal segment 9 is one-
third that between paired setae VIII on the anal segment. In ostricolorella,
the reniformlike depressed area is concolorous with or paler than the
adjacent area of the prothoracic shield; seta IIIa is on a level with or
lower than the base of seta III on abdominal segments 1 and 2; and the
distance between paired setae VIII on the ninth abdominal segment is
one-half that separating paired setae VIII on the anal segment.


Heinrich, Carl. 1956. American moths of the subfamily Phycitinae. U.S.
Nat. Mus. Bull. 207, 1-581.
Kerr, S. H., and J. E. Brogdon. 1958. A new pest of magnolias. Fla.
Ent. 41 (4): 195.


A BIOLOGY OF DRAGONFLIES. Philip S. Corbet. Quadrangle Books, Chicago,
1963. 247 p. 115 fig. 7 pl. $5.75.
This well-illustrated book summarizes what is known of the ecology,
behavior, and physiology of the Odonata (including the damselflies as well
as the Anisoptera). It has sections dealing with habitat selection, oviposi-
tion, dispersal, feeding behavior, and reproductive behavior; with the eggs,
the larval stage, and the adult; with growth, metamorphosis, and emerg-
ence; and with evolutionary perspectives. Geographically the coverage is
worldwide, and the literature review covers publications through August
1960. There is a 27-page bibliography and separate indexes to subjects,
authors, and species.-TJW.

Vol. 47, No. I

.. ., ,'
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NC,4 A,4





Training Branch, Communicable Disease Center, Public Health Service,
U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Atlanta, Georgia

Filter flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) are common pests around homes
(Mallis 1960) and sewage disposal plants (Scott 1961). They are reported
infesting the human bladder (Chin 1959) and stomach (Okada 1927).
Bronchial asthma caused by filter fly adults is reported (Ordman 1946).
In July 1963, a mature larva of Psychoda alternate Say (Fig. 1) was
recovered from the sputum of a man in Macon, Georgia. The source of
this infestation is undetermined. A mature larva would be 11-17 days old
based upon 70'F developmental studies. The recovered larva was not no-
ticeably damaged or digested.
Psychoda alternate occurs from Florida to Massachusetts west to Wash-
ington and California. It breeds in polluted shallow water or highly moist
organic solids, especially sewage filters, exposed sewage, plumbing traps,
water pipes, wash-water overflow, compost, and bird's nests.
The female lays a gelatinous mass of 20-100 eggs which hatch in 32-48
hours. Larval stages occupy 9-15 days. The pupal stage requires 20-40
Adults are weak fliers. They rest in shaded areas or on foliage during
the day. They feed on nectar or polluted water, are attracted to lights,
and have been reported entering houses in large numbers.

\ A

mandible air tube

Fig. 1. Psychoda alternate, mature larva.

Chin, Y. T. 1959. (Larvae of Psychoda urinated out from a male child
patient in Shenyang). Acta Ent. Sinica, 9(1): 96-98.
Mallis, A. 1960. Handbook of pest control. MacNair-Dorland Co., New
York, 1132 p.
Okada, J. K. 1927. (A new case of digestive tube myiasis caused by the
larva of Psychoda 6-punctata Curt). Ann. Par. Hum. Comp. 5:
Ordman, D. 1946. Bronchial asthma caused by the trickling filter fly
(Psychoda). Nature (London), 157: 441.
Scott, H. G. 1961. Filter fly control at sewage plants. Sanitarian 24:

with one

7 ? Chinch bug greatly enlarged

Keep Grass Green with V-C 13

A Product of
401 East Main Street, Richmond, Va.

_ I_


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Florida

Many of the effects of the freeze in December, 1962, on the Florida
citrus industry have been reported in detail, but nothing has been said
about how the cold affected the beekeeping industry in the state. Florida's
average annual honey production is about 20,000,000 pounds, and approxi-
mately 2,000,000 pounds comes from the various varieties of citrus. The
total honey crop for 1963 probably will be about the same as the 1962 crop;
however, the amount of citrus honey produced was only about one-fourth
as much as normal.
It has been estimated that 75 percent of the citrus groves in the state
suffered partial defoliation and that 50 percent of them were injured enough
to have some wood loss. In these damaged groves the amount of bloom
and nectar secretion was affected to varying degrees. In some areas there
was practically no bloom, while in others the bloom was fairly heavy.
However, in many instances little or no nectar was produced even though
the trees bloomed freely. Only in Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie, Brow-
ard, and Highland Counties were the bloom and nectar secretion anywhere
near normal. Even in these areas the production per colony was quite
low since thousands of colonies had been moved there from other parts of
the state. In the other sections of the citrus belt the beekeepers were for-
tunate if their colonies brought in enough nectar to maintain themselves.
Fig. 1 shows the production of citrus honey by colonies located near
Clermont, Florida, where defoliation of the trees and extensive wood loss
due to the freeze was quite prevalent. During the first three weeks of
the 1963 citrus bloom the colonies made an average gain of 6 pounds, but
at the end of the bloom they showed an average loss of 8 pounds. In the
previous three years the average net gains were as follows: 1962-52
pounds, 1961-85 pounds, 1962-61 pounds. Since the amount of citrus
honey produced by other beekeepers in the ridge section was about the
same it is easy to understand why the 1963 citrus honey crop was so small.
Fortunately for Florida beekeepers, the other major nectar sources
produced well. The Ilex or gallberry nectar flow in most parts of the
state was the heaviest and of the best quality in many years. The saw
palmetto also secreted large quantities of nectar in most areas.
Although recovery of most of the damaged groves has been quite good,
it is still too early to make any prediction concerning the outlook for the
1964 citrus honey crop. In the past, the honey crops have been rather
poor for two years after the trees had been damaged by cold.

1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 1837.

56 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 47, No. 1


s ...- .- .- 1961


60 - - 1962
; I

Z 50


30 I


/ /

/ ..'!


1 5 10 15 20 25 30 5 10 15 20 25 30


Fig. 1. Citrus honey production by colonies located near
Clermont, Florida, 1960-1963.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Florida

The rapid buildup of Ips bark beetle populations in suitable host ma-
terial has been investigated by several workers. Among these, Anderson
(1948) first noted that Ips pini (Say) adults were not strongly attracted
to uninfested host logs. After a few beetles had entered these logs, the
logs then became attractive to other I. pini of both sexes. Anderson fur-
ther observed that only males newly established in the inner bark attracted
other males and females. Wood and Vit6 (1961) found a similar pattern
of behavior in Ips confusus. (Le Conte). The studies presented here con-
cern some of the characteristics of attraction and population development
in Florida Ips species.
Three preliminary attraction tests were conducted during September
1961 and May 1962 using uninfested 40 inch long bolts of longleaf pine,
Pinus palustris Mill., and 12 inch long bolts of typical slash pine, Pinus
elliottii var. elliottii Engelm. One log bolt was placed on each of the 14
stair landings (platforms) in Florida Forest Service firetowers located
in north central peninsular Florida. No Ips attacks occurred after one
week of exposure at the towers indicating that uninfested bolts were not
strongly attractive to the Ips species which were active near the towers
during the test periods.
Beetle attacks were induced in subsequent tests by artificially infest-
ing slash pine bolts 12 inches long with male Ips species one to two days
prior to exposure in the field. A basic procedure was developed in which
a single slash pine from four to six inches in diameter inside the bark
was felled, limbed, and sawed into 16 bolts. The bolts were numbered con-
secutively according to their position in the trunk and removed to an
insect-tight room to cure for five to seven days in an open rack through
which air was circulated. Bolt ends then were dipped in melted paraffin
for 10 seconds and other cut surfaces were brushed with melted paraffin
to stabilize moisture conditions and to exclude air-borne organisms.
"Starter holes" just large enough to admit a given Ips species were
drilled in smoothed areas on the bark surface of the bolts. The holes were
spaced along two longitudinal lines which were 900 apart on the circum-
ference of the bolts. Drill bits were washed in 95 per cent ethyl alcohol
before boring each hole. The holes were sunk obliquely into the phloem

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 1852.
2 The author is indebted to Mr. W. J. Coleman for his able assistance
throughout the tests and to Mr. W. C. Yearian, Research Assistant, for the
use of data on Ips calligraphus incidental to his research. The firetowers
were used through courtesy of the Florida Forest Service.

The Florida Entomologist

only, since the beetles continued to bore into the xylem when the starter
holes entered this woody tissue.
Ips adults were collected or reared from host material naturally in-
fested in the field and were sexed twice according to the presence (in
females) or absence (in males) of stridulating organs on the top of the
head (Wilkinson 1962). A single Ips adult was placed in one half of an
000 gelatin capsule that had been pierced on the end for ventilation and
that contained a, ring of paper for footing. The infested capsules were
placed over the starter holes in the bolts and were held in place with a
ring of the non-toxic -sealing compound, "Duxseal". The artificially in-
fested bolts were held 24 hours and examined for extrusion of fresh phloem
and frass into the capsules. Inactive beetles were replaced as necessary,
and the bolts were held until each contained the required number of actively
feeding insects.
To guard against accidental infestation during transportation to the
field, a paper sack was placed over each end of the infested bolts. Male-
infested bolts were placed on the ground and on odd numbered platforms
while non-infested or female-infested bolts were placed on the ground
and on even numbered platforms. The relative elevation of bolts in the
tower corresponded to their relative position in the living tree; thus any
two bolts on adjacent platforms were quite similar in size and presumably
in other characteristics. The sacks, capsules and sealing compound were
removed just prior to lashing the bolts in place. To minimize lethal inso-
lation effects the infested quadrant of each bolt was turned downward
against the platforms. After two weeks of exposure at the towers the
bolts were removed and the Ips forms in the bark were counted. The larvae
were identified according to the descriptions of Wilkinson (1963). Where
necessary, infestations on adjacent platforms 1 and 2, 3 and 4, etc. were
compared by chi-square test.

Ips avulsus Eichh.

The two tests conducted during 1962 with I. avulsus were invalidated
when the tiny adults of this species became entrapped in pitch after the
bolts had been placed at the firetowers. In general pitch had less effect
on the two larger Ips species studied except when the bolts were placed
on the ground during hot, wet weather.

Ips grandicollis Eichh.

Bolts artificially infested with two I. grandicollis males contained both
parent and F generation forms after two week's exposure at a firetower
while non-infested bolts were not attacked during the same period (Table 1).
The data clearly indicate that the male-infested bolts were more attrac-
tive than non-infested bolts. The test also reveals that I. grandicollis
adults readily sought out and colonized male-infested host material suit-
able for brood production to a height of at least 91 feet above ground
level. There was no evidence that the male-associated attraction extended
to other Ips species since only I. grandicollis forms were taken from the

Vol. 47, No. 1

Wilkinson: Bark Beetle Populations in Pine Bolts 59


Infestation on 20 June 1962

6 June 1962

2 males
2 males
2 males
2 males
2 males
2 males
2 males
2 males




9 &

F1 Generation

Eggs* Larv.** Pup. 9 &


Total (non-infested)
Total (male-infested)

* Eggs present +.
** Presence of larval instars 1,2, or 3.

Bolts artificially infested with three I.

grandicollis males contained

a highly significantly greater number of parent adults or F, pupae ac-
cording to chi-square test (P<0.0001) than did bolts artificially infested
with three I. grandicollis females (Table 2). The male-infested bolts ap-
parently were more attractive at all elevations in the tower than were
female-infested bolts. There was no evidence, however, that the female-
infested bolts were not attractive to some extent from the time of first
exposure. The female-infested bolts in fact yielded F1 adults at two ele-
vations so that brood development was slightly advanced over that in
male-infested bolts.
To study this behavior in greater detail, 50 bolts six inches long were
artificially infested with two I. grandicollis males and suspended on 3 Octo-
ber 1962 from five turntables erected in a one acre forest clearing near
Gainesville, Fla. (Fig. 1). Each turntable supported ten bolts and was
rotated one bolt position clockwise per day during the ten day test period
in order to expose the bolts more uniformly to the environment. One
randomly selected bolt per table (a total of five bolts) was removed each

0 0
1,2,3 1

The Florida Entomologist

day for dissection and population analysis. Infestations were recorded
separately for forms associated in the same gallery systems with arti-
ficially introduced males versus those forms associated with adults at-
tacking independently from the artificially introduced males (Table 3).






Infestation on 22 August 1962

8 August 1962





F1 Generation

9 0 Eggs Larv. Pup. 9 &


Total (female-infested)
Total (male-infested)

54 16 +
278 186 +

1,2,3 94 2
1,2,3 210 0

The number of artificially introduced males remained constant for
four days and decreased thereafter. A few males also started independent
gallery systems beginning on the fourth day, however. Females appeared
in association with the introduced males within 24 hours after exposure,
and their numbers remained fairly constant thereafter. Independent at-
tacks also were made by solitary females and consisted of simple linear
tunnels without a rounded nuptial chamber at the entrance such as made
by attacking males. Independent female attacks were noted by the second
day, and the resulting F1 brood often was equal or greater in number than
that produced by females associated with artificially introduced males.
A slash pine freshly felled near the turntables on 3 October remained
uninfested during the test period, again demonstrating the relatively weak
attraction of uninfested phloem for Ips beetles.

Vol. 47, No. 1


Associated Infestations**


F1 Generation

9 S Eggs Larvae

31 65 569

Independent Infestations t


F1 Generation
Eggs Larvae

39 7 875 254

Based on dissection of the bark on 5 bolts per day. All bolts were continuously ex-
posed beginning 3 October 1962.
** Infestation associated with artificially introduced males.
t Infestation not associated with artificially introduced males.

+i ~

, W i , 1
. .. ^,
y ^^ ^^ii -.,^

Fig. 1. View of opened plywood turntable erected to study daily pop-
ulation development in Ips grandicollis near Gainesville, Fla. Hooks in
the ends of artificially male-infested pine bolts were engaged in the ten
eyes around the edge of the top disc (raised) which normally rides on the
waxed surface of the fixed lower disc.



The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 47, No. 1

Ips calligraphus Germ.

An initial test in July 1962 was invalidated when some of the intro-
duced males were driven from their galleries by pitch. Even so, a few
of the artificially male-infested bolts contained I. calligraphus parent
beetles and F1 brood after two weeks of exposure at a firetower while
non-infested bolts were not attacked. When the test was repeated during
August, bolts each artificially infested with three I. calligraphus males
contained parent beetles or FI brood at all elevations after exposure (Table
4) while non-infested bolts contained only one freshly started gallery in
which a solitary I. calligraphus had just begun to oviposit. Bolts each
artificially infested with four I. calligraphus males during September 1962
contained parent beetles and F1 brood after two weeks of exposure while
the introduced females were found to have abandoned their bolts (Table 5).
The introduced females apparently did not create an immediate attraction
when the bolts were first exposed, and no evidence of oviposition was
present at the end of the test period. The attraction in tests with I. cal-
ligraphus again did not extend to other Ips species and was effective to
heights of at least 91 feet above ground.


Infestation on 15 August 1962
Artificial Feet Parent F1 Generation
Infestation of
31 July 1962 Elev. 9 & Eggs Larv. Pup. 9 $

3 males ground 2 2 + 1,2,3 0 0 0
None ground 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 males 7 1 1 + 3 4 6 4
None 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 males 21 2 1 0 0 4 1 2
None 28 1 0 + 0 0 0 0
3 males 35 2 1 + 1 0 0 0
None 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 males 49 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
None 56 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 males 63 0 0 0 1,2,3 25 3 4
None 70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 males 77 0 0 0 2,3 45 4 5
None 84 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 males 91 0 2 0 2,3 17 0 0
None 98 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Total (non-infested) 1 0 + 0 0 0 0
Total (male-infested) 7 7 + 1,2,3 95 14 15

Wilkinson: Bark Beetle Populations in Pine Bolts 63

The effectiveness of the male attraction technique was demonstrated
in the field by Mr. W. C. Yearian in research on the transmission of blue
stain fungi, Ceratocystis spp., during July 1963. The beetles were collected
at hourly intervals from the outer surface of a 6 x 6 x 6 foot screen cage
enclosing longleaf pine logs artificially infested with I. calligraphus males.
The beetles did not appear at night and decided peaks of flight activity
occurred between 6 and 9 AM and again between 4 and 8 PM. A similar
behavior was exhibited in the laboratory where emergence could be con-
trolled by varying the photoperiod. The flights in the field apparently
were not hampered by light rain or winds below 15 mph. The attraction
of the male-infested logs lasted for a minimum of three weeks in the
field and I. calligraphus was the only Ips species attracted to the cage.


Infestation on 5 Sept. 1962

22 August 1962

4 males
4 females
4 males
4 females
4 males
4 females
4 males
4 females
4 males
4 females
4 males
4 females
4 males
4 females
4 males
4 females




F, Generation

9 S Eggs Larv. Pup. 9


Total (female-infested) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total (male-infested) 32 19 + 1,2,3 71 0 0


An apparent weakness of the tests is that the age and reproductive
status of the artificially introduced adults was not controlled. It is
possible that I. grandicollis females had mated before they were artifi-
cially introduced into log bolts and that this in turn was a factor in early

64 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 47, No. 1

brood production in the firetower test (Table 2). While it is evident that
phloem newly infested with Ips males is much more attractive than non-
infested phloem, the tests did not offer conclusive evidence that male-
infested phloem is necessarily more attractive than female-infested phloem.
The facultative behavior of females in attacking bolts independently from
males or of abandoning galleries in the absence of males suggests that the
beetles adjust readily to a number of infestation conditions. This is a
factor to be considered in any attempt to develop control measures based
on the use of male-associated attractants. Whatever these limitations, the
male infestation technique presently offers an effective means for study-
ing Ips bark beetle populations in the field with some degree of precision.


1. Non-infested phloem in longleaf and slash pine bolts is not strongly
attractive to Ips species.
2. A method is presented for the artificial establishment of either
sex of Ips bark beetles in the inner bark of pine bolts.
3. The small southeastern species, Ips avulsus, is readily overcome
with pitch in slash pine bolts during hot, wet weather.
4. Ips grandicollis and Ips calligraphus adults of both sexes will readily
seek out and colonize male-infested host material suitable for brood pro-
duction to elevations of at least 91 feet above ground level.
5. There is no evidence that a specific male-associated attractance ex-
tends to other Ips species.
6. Solitary Ips grandicollis females will produce brood in certain in-
stances that is equal or greater in number than brood produced by females
closely associated with males.
7. Caged longleaf pine logs artificially infested with Ips calligraphus
males will attract adults of that species for at least three weeks in the

Anderson, R. F. 1948. Host selection by the pine engraver. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 41: 596-602.
Wilkinson, R. C. 1962. Stridulating organs in three southeastern Ips
bark beetles. Fla. Ent. 45: 43-44.
Wilkinson, R. C. 1963. Larval instars and head capsule morphology in
three southeastern Ips bark beetles. Fla. Ent. 46: 19-22.
Wood, D. L., and J. P. Vitr. 1961. Studies on the host selection be-
havior of Ips confusus (Le Conte) (Coleoptera:Scolytidae) attack-
ing Pinus ponderosa. Contribs. Boyce Thompson Inst. 21: 67-78.

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