Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00171
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1964
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00171
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text

EC 18 964


Volume 47, No. 4 December, 196.4

DEKLE, G. WALLACE-Have We Met Our Objectives ........... 223
SCHERER, LESTER E.-Studies of the Emergence of the Eye
Gnat Hippelates pusio Loew (Diptera: Chloropidae) 227
BUTCHER, F. GRAY-The Florida Fig Wasp, Secundeisenia
mexicana (Ashm.), and Some of its Hymenopterous
Symbionts ...---..-..-........... ............-----. 235
MUMA, MARTIN H.-Cheyletidae (Acarina: Trombidi-
formes) Associated with Citrus in Florida -...--....--........ 239
SCOTT, HAROLD GEORGE-Human Myiasis in North America
(1952-1962 Inclusive) -.....-.......-.. .....- ..........----.......... ...... 255
RUSSELL, C. C.-A Rearing Medium for Microphagous
N em atodes ................................ ..--............ .... ....................... 263
on Two Rare Darkling Beetles from Florida
(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) --............-.........-.......--..-..... .... 265
Notice"of Annual M meeting .........-........-..-.. ........................... 267
KERR, S. H.-Control of Hunting Billbugs --..--........................ 269
OBITUARY-William Gardner Cowperthwaite ....-............-...... 271
Book R eview .....---......................................... .......-....................... 272
Minutes of the 47th Annual Meeting of the Florida
Entomological Society ..........-....-- ............. ................... 273

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


President--........-..--..--............---- N. C. Hayslip
Vice-President.-.......... ...............- ..........---- --- --..... J. R. King
Secretary.-...--........... -----.. S. H. Kerr
Treasurer........................--------------------- ..D. H. Habeck
A. K. Burditt, Jr.
Other Members of Executive Committee....... G. W. Dekle
E. D. Harris

Board of Managers
Thomas J. Walker ..-- ....... -------- ........Editor
Stratton H. Kerr -......-..-....---.........Associate Editor
Dale H. Habeck---...--..-------. Business Manager

THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription price to non-members $5.00 per year in
advance; $1.25 per copy. Entered as second class matter at the post office
at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
Entomology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions
and orders for back numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box
12425, University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Secre-
tary can be reached at the same address.
When preparing manuscripts, authors should consult Style Manual for
Biological Journals (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washing-
ton, D. C., 1960). For form of literature citations, see recent issues of
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are referred to "Sug-
gestions for the preparation of papers submitted for publication in THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST." Fla. Ent. 41 (4): 193-194. 1958.
One page of figures and/or tables is allowed free. An additional one-
fourth page of figures and/or tables is allowed free for each printed page
beyond the fourth printed page. Authors will be charge $2.50 for each
one-fourth page or less of tables and/or figures in excess of the above
allowances. An author may have his manuscript published as soon as it
has been reviewed and edited by paying the full costs of publication ($9-18
per printed page). Such manuscripts are published in addition to (rather
than instead of) those normally published. Reprints of articles may be
ordered when the proofs are received for corrections; 25 copies are fur-
nished free to authors.

Each additional
No. Pages 50 copies 100 copies 100 copies
1-4 ................................................ $ 5.25 $ 6.25 $ .98
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17-20 ........................................ ... 19.25 23.50 4.00
More than 20 pages, per page.... .98 .88 .19
Additional for covers with title and author's name,
First 50..........................$5.25 Additional, each..........$ .02


Division of Plant Industry, Fla. Dept. Agric., Gainesville

Much progress has been enjoyed by the Florida Entomological Society
during the past 20 years. One way to measure the success of an organiza-
tion is to determine first whether it is solvent and, if it is, then to ascertain
how the funds are being used. The Florida Entomological Society is sol-
vent, I am happy to report. All of our financial obligations have been paid.
We have been able to meet these responsibilities through the sale of sub-
scriptions and advertising space in THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST, through
the sale of reprints of published papers, and through the increase in the
annual membership dues. Speaking of THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST, per-
mit me to point ,out here that the journal is a tremendous undertaking for
an organization such as ours. And yet, issue after issue of this impressive
publication continues to roll off the presses on time.
Sometimes, those of us who have attained the status of a professional
entomologist may be inclined to think mostly of ourselves, but let us not
forget for a moment the hard times through which the Society strug-
gled to get where it is today. Neither let us as entomologists or as mem-
bers of this Society shun our responsibility to encourage the talented youth
of this nation to enter the field of science and in particular the field of en-
tomology. This we can do with a very positive attitude of promoting full-
time scholarships in the colleges and universities located in Florida. An
entomologist-in-training session on the program indicates the interest of
the Society in its student membership.
A sound foundation for promoting entomology and the professional en-
tomologist has been established, but we are not doing our best in fulfilling
our objectives.
How many of you today recall the 1956 presidential address of Herman
Mayeux entitled, "Our Frst Objective"? That address stimulated the
members of the F.E.S. to give their full support to promoting the study of
entomology. To meet this objective squarely, Mayeux recommended that
the Society purchase copies of a brochure, "Opportunities in Professional
Entomology," published by the Entomological Society of America and send
this to high schools in Florida. The executive board recognized the value
of this proposal and authorized the purchase of 500 copies, which were
mailed to high school libraries and vocational agricultural teachers. 'Past
president Mayeux was also the driving force behind the Entomology-In-
Action talk and the Entomology-In-Action exhibit; both are in use today.
The Society this year revised the talk and mimeographed copies were sent
to all members. We urge each of you to present it to science classes in
high schools and junior colleges in your home communities. A set of koda-
chrome slides to illustrate the talk can be secured from the secretary.
The Entomology-In-Action exhibit has been used extensively at agri-
cultural meetings in the state and also has been exhibited at two national
entomological meetings. Last year the membership approved the construc-
tion of a second exhibit which is on display at this meeting.

1Presidential address read at the 47th Annual Meeting of the Florida
Entomological Society, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., 24 Sept. 1964.

The Florida Entomologist

In 1960, Andrew J. Rogers, in his "forward look" presidential address,
injected prestige, pride, and challenge into the veins of the professional
entomologist. Rogers had this to say: "The science of entomology has
progressed because it has dared to change to keep abreast of new and ex-
panding problems. As individuals we must rise above being just taxono-
mists, insect physiologists, insecticide testers, etc. We must first be pro-
fessional entomologists in the broadest meaning of the term. And as so-
cieties we must rise above being just once-a-year conventioners and pub-
lishers of scientific journals; we must assume our appropriate responsi-
bilities in public affairs relating to the science and profession of entomol-
ogy, and take a more tangible interest in problems affecting the individual
members of our societies." Rogers' address instilled in us the courage to
move ahead with increased efforts. Mayeux and Rogers established a
sound foundation for promoting entomology.
"To distribute widely knowledge pertaining to insects" and "to publish
The Florida Entomologist" are the Society's third and fourth objectives.
What is our score here? These two objectives have been met with truly
great performances by those members who have participated on the pro-
grams at annual meetings and have published their research in THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST, and by the high standards established by Lewis
Berner, editor of the journal for the past 14 years. Our journal today is
recognized as one of the outstanding entomological publications in the
United States. Because of a backlog of scientific papers, it has been nec-
essary to increase the number of pages in each issue this year. We can
anticipate the journal's continued growth in size and quality as additional
means for support are explored.
The finances of the Society have been in good hands. For the past seven
years, R. E. Waites has conducted the financial business of the Society
in a most conscientious manner. Surplus funds have been invested by
Waites, and the accumulated interest was used to increase the pages in
the 1964 issues of the journal. It has also been necessary to use some of
the principal of the monies also for this purpose. Yes, we are moving
ahead with our third and fourth objectives, but more can be done.
My entomological interest has been in the field of systematic entomol-
ogy, which performs a service for all branches of entomology. This is
closely allied to our second objective, "to encourage research relative to
insects and related arthropods in Florida." There is a definite need for
the continued support of each member in developing The Florida State
Collection of Arthropods which is curated by the Division of Plant Indus-
try, Florida Department of Agriculture. This collection, housed in the
Division's office in Gainesville, is a pot-of-gold to the systematic entomolo-
gist. The collection now contains over 300,000 pinned and labeled speci-
mens, and over 20,000 slide specimens, but the Division of Plant Industry's
present facilities for housing the collection are critical. Each specialist
has sacrificed office space for the collection until only a small, darkened
cubicle remains in which 'to work. The University of Florida engineer's
report listed the floor space as supporting nearly three times the amount
of weight regarded as safe. The overcrowding has created such a fire
hazard that the local fire department strongly recommended that all
smoking in the entomology section be prohibited. The Division of Plant
Industry will need the support of this Society when it requests building

Vol. 47, No. 4

Dekle: Have We Met Our Objectives

funds for the next biennium. The Society can give this support by going
on record to endorse a resolution to the Florida Agricultural Council and
other appropriate officials and agencies for a building to adequately house
this valuable collection.
For a few moments, let us consider some interesting comparisons.
There are about 8,600 species of birds in the world; about 3,200 species of
mammals; and about 850,000 species of insects. These numbers have had
a marked influence on the rate of taxonomic growth in these groups.
The last North American species of bird was described in 1889. In
the last 20 years, less than 200 new species of birds have been described
from other parts ,of the world. Large taxonomic publications covering the
fauna of a nation, continent, or the entire world have been available for
years in the better known groups of birds and mammals. Thus, taxon-
omists in these areas are concerned largely with intraspecific analysis, be-
cause the basic taxonomic work is essentially completed.
Because of the tremendous number of species of insects, this basic work
in insect taxonomy is still underway with several thousand new species of
insects being described each year. Only within recent years has the tax-
onomy of certain of the larger groups been sufficiently advanced to enable
the compilation of monographs, revisions, bulletins, manuals, etc., which
cover the United States, North America, or the entire world.
It has only been within the last five years that entomologists have
seen the publications of such works as Arnett's "The Beetles of the United
States," Linsley's "The Cerambycidae of North America," Rehn and Grant's
"Monograph of the Orthoptera, Vol. 1," and Hull's "Robber Flies of the
World," to name just a few.
In January 1965, "The Lepidoptera of Florida" by C. P. Kimball will be
off the presses. The last revision of the Lepidoptera of Florida was pub-
lished in 1917 by J. A. Grossbeck. Division of Plant Industry entomologists
have been collaborating with Kimball for the past 10 years on this greatly
needed publication.
Because the task is an enormous one, it will be a long, continuing proc-
ess to bring the taxonomy of all groups to equally advanced levels as the
above cited examples. The important fact is that there is sufficient tax-
onomic background now to permit this to be done. Future years will wit-
ness more and more of these advanced taxonomic publications. Florida's
arthropod collection can undoubtedly contribute to our knowledge of in-
sects and help bring further advancement to entomology in general.
Where do we go from here? There is yet much to be accomplished. I
predict the Florida Entomological Society will in the near future promote
legislation to establish biological study areas in each of the state forests;
promote the establishment of biological study areas on other state-owned
property that exhibits certain unique biological characteristics; and actively
participate in studies to learn more of the insect fauna in the Caribbean
areas. These steps can affect the economy of Florida and its further

Mayeux, Herman S. 1956. Our first objective. Fla. Ent. 40(1): 1-3.
Rogers, Andrew J. 1960. Mature science-retarded profession. Fla. Ent.
43(4): 155-162.



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Department of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville

Periodic phenomena are common in organisms, from plants of certain
species which show them by diurnal or nocturnal attitudes, up to insects
and other animals, where they appear as daily rhythms of activity. Bou-
vier (1922) reviewed some of the early literature of rhymicity, and Brown
(1944) has brought the review more up-to-date. Biological clocks, circa-
dian rhythms, exogenous and endogenous mechanisms controlling animal
activity are reviewed and discussed at length in the Cold Spring Harbor
Symposium on Quantitative Biology (1960). Harker (1961) gives an up-
to-date, thorough review on phase setting.
The purpose of my investigation was to determine if the emergence of
eye gnats (Hippelates pusio Loew) follows a circadian rhythm and if
there is any difference in the emergence pattern of the sexes.
The first of three experiments was conducted under field conditions.
The second test was conducted in constant temperature and humidity to
determine the effect of continuous light, continuous dark, and simulated
field photoperiod. The third test was conducted in constant temperature
and humidity to determine the effect of rearing eye gnats with the light-
dark cycle 12 hours out of phase with the normal day-night cycle in July
at Gainesville, Florida.
The insects used in these experiments were from a colony of Hippelates
pusio Loew in the Fee through Fa, generations. For general rearing meth-
ods and handling techniques see Jay (1961) and Scherer (1963).

Materials and Methods. Approximately 6,000 one-day old eye gnat eggs
were used to seed each of two bains-marie two-thirds filled with rearing
The tops of the egg-charged bains-marie were covered with sail cloth
and taken into a fenced area on 21 May 1963 and buried so that the sur-
face of the sand on the medium was approximately even with the surround-
ing soil surface. The site afforded intermittent sun and shade. The con-
tainers and the surrounding soil were covered by a 30-inch by 36-inch
piece of /4-in plate glass one foot above the ground to keep rain from fill-
ing the test containers while allowing light to enter freely. Ten days
after egg setting the sail cloth covers were removed. Two emergence
chambers were constructed by cutting 8-inch diameter holes into the bot-
toms of two cans 10 inches in diameter and 14 inches high. A circular
piece of 30-mesh screen was soldered to each of these openings to admit
air and light. The outer ring of a mason jar was soldered into a hole cut
on the side very near the bottom of each can. These collection chambers

1Present address: Palm Beach County Mosquito Control, West Palm
Beach, Fla.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 47, No. 4

6 6 6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
*4 hr. period

Fig. 1. Emergence in Hippelates pusio cultures exposed to various con-
ditions. A & A1, field conditions; B & B1, continuous light; C & Ci, 10
hours light-14 hours dark; D & Di, continuous dark; E & Ei, reared in 10
hours light-14 hours dark but 12 hours out of phase with the natural pho-
toperiod and returned to the normal phase two days before emergence be-
gan; F & F1, same as E & E, except colony in out-of-phase photoperiod
during emergence as well as during rearing. Dates of emergence are as
follows: A, A, June 5-10; B,C,D, June 13-18; B1, Ci, D1, E, Ei, F, F1 July
4-8. The collections which are starred are for 4-hour periods, and in each
such case the data are represented as two, equal, 2-hour collections.


Scherer: Emergence Rhythm of the Eye Gnat

were inverted over the two test containers and were given several twists to
plant the can rims firmly in the soil. One-quart mason jars were turned
into each of the threaded rings. On the fifteenth day after egg setting,
gnats began emerging, and the first collection was made at 8:00 PM of that
day. Collections were made every two hours for 48 hours. The remaining
collections were made at two hour intervals from 8:00 AM until 6:00 PM.
Gnats that emerged after 6:00 PM were released at 6:00 AM on the remain-
ing days. All collections were made by removing the glass cover and
draping the screened tops of the large cans with black cloth. Since eye
gnats are positively phototactic, they went into the collection jars. The
collected gnats were preserved in alcohol and later sexed and counted.
Results and Discussion. Emergence followed a fairly regular rhythm
(Fig. 1, A & A1). Maximum emergence occurred at 10:00 AM each day
except on the first day, when it occurred at noon. This lag is difficult to
explain but an hypothesis follows. Maximum emergence was delayed the
first day because the rate of maturation in the population was rapidly in-
creasing. Therefore, many flies became physiologically prepared to emerge
during the "normal period of emergence" (8:00 AM to 4:00 PM) and peak
emergence throughout this period was between 10:00 AM and noon. This
normal period of emergence is determined by the collective "biological
clocks" of the gnat population. Those gnats with their clocks out of phase
with the majority of the population emerge at times other than the normal
period of emergence (i.e., late in the afternoon and during the night).
Since the number of gnats maturing per unit time was rapidly increasing
the first day, the peak of emergence occurred when this rate was the high-
est. The peak was supplemented by the number of gnats that had matured
earlier but whose biological clocks would not allow them to emerge until
the normal period of emergence. Since on the remaining days the number
of gnats maturing per unit time did not increase during the normal period
of emergence, the peak of emergence occurred earlier.
Over 90 percent of the gnats emerged each day between 8:00 AM and
2:00 PM. Collections were discontinued five days after emergence began
because the maximum emergence for a two hour period dropped to less
than 10 per cent of the largest two-hour maximum previously reached.
The total daily emergence had also declined to less than 8 per cent of the
maximum daily emergence.
Confirming the findings of earlier workers, Pittendrigh (1954) showed
that Drosophila melanogaster had an emergence peak soon after dawn.
Brett (1955) confirmed Pittendrigh's work and gave 6:00 AM to 9:00 AM
as the time of peak emergence. The adaptive significance of a dawn
emergence is clear since emerging flies lose water at a rate of at least
double that of mature flies and fail to expand their wings properly when
the humidity is too low. My experiment suggests peak emergence in eye
gnats under field conditions occurs 2 to 3 hours later in the morning than
Drosophila, and the adaptive significance of such an emergence time is
not clear.
Working with Aedes taeniorhynchus, Nielsen and Haeger (1955) noted
the peak emergence of these mosquitoes was near sundown. Horsfall (1955)
noted that mosquitoes in general emerge near sundown and pointed out
that the water is ordinarily calm at that time.


The Florida Entomologist

Materials and Methods. At 1:00 PM on the day before expected initial
emergence the bains-marie were placed in a bioclimatic chamber with tem-
perature maintained at 80 1 F and relative humidity maintained at
70 5 %.
Three light regimes were attained by keeping one bain-marie in con-
tinuous artificial light, a second in continuous dark, and a third in 10 hours
dark and 14 hours light. The two emergence cages used in the field tests
were used for the continuous light regime and the simulated field condi-
tions. A new 4-gallon emergence cage with the outer ring of a mason
jar soldered in the center of the bottom was used for the continuous dark
test. The emergence cage was lined with black cloth and inverted over
the bain-marie. A mason jar lid placed in the outer ring excluded light
except during collections, when the lid was removed and a 1-quart mason
jar was turned into the threaded ring in the top of the emergence cage.
An 8-inch diameter black cardboard disc was supported one inch above
the bain-marie by four pieces of wire, and this disc in conjunction with the
black cloth lining of the emergence cage allowed little or no light to reach
the medium during collections.
The container in simulated field conditions was completely darkened
from 8:00 PM until 6:00 AM, while the one in continuous light was only
darkened for a 5-minute collection period every two hours.
The light intensity at the surface of the medium in the cans that were
allowed light was 25 foot candles (measured by a General Electric 80W40Y-
16 light meter).
Collections were taken in continuous light by covering the screened
top of the container with black cloth, thereby forcing the gnats into the
one-quart collection jar. The cage exposed to 10 hours dark -14 hours
light when in the light phase was treated the same way as the continuous
light cage; however, when the can was covered for the dark phase, a center
disc was placed in the mason jar ring. The disc was removed only during
the 5-minute collection periods when a collection jar was placed in the
ring. The continuous dark cage contained a disc in the ring at all times
except during collection when a jar was turned into the ring.
Results and discussion. In this experiment eye gnats followed a cir-
cadian rhythm of emergence even under constant temperature and humidity
with light conditions different from nature. There was approximately a
4-hour lag in peak emergences for gnats maintained in continuous dark
(Fig. 1, D & D1) as compared to those in 10 hours dark and 14 hours light
(Fig. 1, C & C1). The peak emergences in continuous light (Fig. 1, B & BI)
were 6 hours after the peak emergences in simulated field conditions. This
demonstrates that eye gnats might have the phase of their emergence
rhythm altered within one day of emergence (at least in the case of those
that emerged on the first day).
The largest emergence peak of gnats in continuous light represents
only 30, per cent of the total emergence for the day as compared with a
42 per cent emergence peak for the gnats in 10 hours dark 14 hours light.
The pupae exposed to continuous light and continuous dark emerged over
a more extended period each day than those in the simulated day-night
cycle. The extended period of emergence and the less pronounced rhythm
in the continuous conditions are obvious in Fig. 1, B, B1, D, Di.


Vol. 47, No. 4

Scherer: Emergence Rhythm of the Eye Gnat

When cultures that were reared in alternating light and dark were
placed in constant conditions, their emergence rhythm was evidently already
set. The rhythm persisted in the constant conditions slightly out of phase
with the rhythm in alternating light and dark.
Bremer (1926, in Brett 1955), working with the Mediterranean flour
moth Ephestia kuhniella, and Lewis and Bletchly (1943, in Brett 1955),
working with the dung fly, Scopeuma, reported the emergence rhythm
was spread out in cultures maintained in constant conditions. This spread-
ing effect was also demonstrated by Brett (1955) in Drosphila.
Brett (19,55) also noted that cultures maintained in constant light from
the time of oviposition exhibited no circadian rhythm of emergence. This
is contrary to the findings of Bunning (1935, in Cloudsley-Thompson 1961),
who reported that an emergence rhythm still persisted after fifteen gen-
erations in constant light. Work by Pittendrigh (1954) casts doubt on
Bunning's work by showing no discernable rhythm in continuous condi-
Many workers have shown that activity rhythm of animals are entrained
by light and to a much less marked degree by temperature and humidity.
Recently Brown (1962) has postulated that rhythms are also influenced by
cosmic rays and the earth's magnetic field.
If one assumes that light is the stimulus that entrains the circadian
rhythm of emergence, then my experiment clearly shows that the light
stimulus establishing the emergence rhythm was effective earlier than the
thirteenth day of development (at 750 F), otherwise, no rhythm would
have been obtained in continuous dark or continuous light.

Materials and Methods. Eye gnat eggs were placed in two bains-marie
two-thirds filled with rearing medium. The containers were placed in a
bioclimatic chamber maintained at 80 1F and 75 5% relative humidity.
The light was turned on at 6 PM and off at 8 AM for 12 days; then the light
remained on until the experiment was concluded. The different light
regimes were attained by covering and uncovering the emergence cages
with four layers of black heavy cordurory cloth at the proper times. On
the twelfth day (two days before the first emergence) at 9 PM the medium
in each of the two bains-marie was divided into two equal portions. One-
half of each of the two original containers was held in the same conditions
in which they were reared; while the other half of each was placed in the
light at 6 AM and dark at 8 PM (similar to natural light conditions). The
gnats were collected every two hours as in previous experiments.
Results and Discussion. The emergence followed a regular rhythm for
those gnats that were changed to the natural day-night cycle approximately
two days prior to the first emergence (Fig. 1, E & E,). The peaks of
emergence for these gnats occurred at 2 PM for three consecutive days.
The peaks of emergence for those gnats that remained in light conditions
12 hours out of phase with natural conditions (Fig. 1, F & Fi) occurred
between 10 PM and 4 AM for three consecutive days, but the peaks were
much less pronounced. The first 24 hours of emergence was erratic in both
light conditions. The low numbers of gnats emerging in this experiment is
unexplained; however, even with these low numbers a rhythm is evident.

The Florida Entomologist

When the gnats that had their light cycle 12 hours. out of phase with
the natural cycle began to emerge, the light cycle conflicted with that
experienced by the eggs at oviposition in the laboratory, and perhaps this
caused the less pronounced peaks and the somewhat erratic emergence.
Certainly, if the exogenous mechanism that regulates the emergence
rhythm is light or the change from light to dark or vice-versa, then the
only explanation I can give is that the rhythm was partially entrained in
the eggs either while they were in the laboratory before being placed in
the medium or through the short periods of light and dark during col-
The results of this experiment might help to explain why the emergence
peak in the field test was as late as 10 AM. The eggs placed in the field
may have already been partially entrained to a later-than-normal dark
period (laboratory lights often burned late). This might have resulted
in a later-than-normal hour of peak emergence.

The eclosion or emergence rhythm of a laboratory strain of eye gnats
was determined under field conditions. The maximum emergence occurred
at 10 AM on all days except the first day.
Eye gnat pupae were placed in constant temperature (800 F.) and
humidity (75 per cent) under the following three light regimes: continu-
ous light, continuous dark, and 10 hours dark and 14 hours light (similar
to field conditions in June at Gainesville, Fla.). A rhythm of emergence
occurred in both continuous dark and continuous light, but the peaks of
emergence were delayed four to six hours and were less pronounced than
in the simulated field conditions.
When one-half of the eye gnats that were reared at 800 F and 75%
relative humidity and with the light and dark 12 hours out of phase with
the natural day and night were changed two days prior to emergence to
a light and dark cycle in phase with the natural cycle, their emergence
followed a regular rhythm with peaks at 2 PM. The remaining half of the
gnats were allowed to emerge in light and dark conditions 12 hours out
of phase with the natural cycle, and their emergence showed a poorly de-
fined rhythm with peaks between 10 PM and 4 AM.
These experiments suggest that the rhythm of emergence of eye gnats
may be partially entrained in the egg stage by light conditions immediately
after oviposition.
Bouvier, E. L. 1922. The psychic life of insects. New York. The Cen-
tury Co. 277 p.
Brett, William J. 1955. Persistant diurnal rhythmicity in Drosophila
emergence. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 48(3):119-131.
Brown, Frank A., Jr. 1944. Hormones in the Crustacea. Quart. Rev.
Biol. 19: 32-46.
Brown, Frank A., Jr. 1962. Biological clocks. Biological Sciences Cur-
riculum Study Pamphlet No. 2. D. C. Heath and Co. 36 p.
Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L. 1961. Rhythmic activity in animal physiology
and behavior. New York. Academic Press. 236 p.


Vol. 47, No. 4

Scherer: Emergence Rhythm of the Eye Gnat

Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. 1960. Vol. 25.
Biological Clocks. 524 p.
Harker, J. E. 1961. Diurnal rhythms. Ann. Rev. Ent. 6: 131-144.
Horsfall, William R. 1955. Mosquitoes: their bionomics and relation to
disease. New York. The Ronald Press Co. 723 p.
Jay, Edward G. 1961. Laboratory and field studies on the ecology of
Hippelates pusio Loew (Diptera: Chloropidae) and related species.
Master's Thesis, University of Florida.
Nielsen, E. T., and J. S. Haeger. 1955. Pupation and emergence in Aedes
taeniorhynchus (Wied). Bull. Ent. Res. 45(4): 757-768.
Pittendrigh, Colin S. 1954. On temperature independence in the clock
system controlling emergence time in Drosophila. Proc. Nat. Acad.
Sci. 40: 1018-1029.
Scherer, Lester E. 1963. Ecological studies of the eclosion and develop-
ment of the eye gnat Hippelates pusio Loew (Diptera: Chloripidae).
Master's Thesis, University of Florida.


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Department of Zoology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla.

Two species of fig wasps of the chalcidoid family Agaonidae are known
from North America. One of these, Blastophaga psenes (Linn.), is rather
well known as the essential pollinator of the commercial Smyrna Fig in
California, occurring there as an introduction from Smyrna in 1890 for
this purpose (Condit 1922). The other species, Secundeisenia mexicana
(Ashm.), is a non-economic form first described in 1904 from fruits of the
native Florida Ficus cure. These two species are similar in appearance,
but are distinct in the pattern of their wing venation and in other minor
morphological characters.
The Florida Fig Wasp occurs abundantly in the fruits of our two native
fig trees, Ficus area and F. laevigata. It has not been observed in the
fruits of other common Ficus species, including F. altissima, benjamin,
glomerata, religiosa, and retusa (- nitida). Wolcott (1951) reports this
small wasp occurring in the fruits of F. laevigata in Puerto Rico, but notes
that it has not been observed in the fruits of the "climbing fig (Ficus, pu-
milla) or the smaller more numerous fruits of the 'laurel de la India' (Ficus
nitida). . I have observed these insects each year in Dade County fig
trees since 1955.
The fruit of a fig tree is a type of multiple fruit, consisting of a round
receptacle or synconium bearing numerous individual flowers on its in-
ternal concave surface (Condit 1932). The cluster of internal flowers
or the achenes developing from them largely fill the cavity of the recep-
tacle, which entirely encloses the inflorescence during the development
period. Near the apex of the receptacle is a circular structure known as
the ostiole or "eye," which is closed by a number of closely adhering small
scales or bracts. The ostiole of the receptacle serves as the point of en-
trance for the adult female fig wasp. The receptacle is subject to infesta-
tion quite early in its development. The ostiole becomes exposed when
growth has pushed the receptacle apex beyond the short pair of outer bracts
originally enclosing the receptacle bud. Any time thereafter, the female
wasp pushes her way through the scales of the ostiole into the receptacle,
usually losing her wings during the process. Examination of the develop-
ing receptacles frequently will reveal the wing remnants of this wasp
adhering to the ostiole scales. When such a receptacle is opened, one or
more wingless adult wasps will normally be observed either actively in the
process of oviposition or, if considerable time has elapsed since their en-
trance, there will be dead wasps within the receptacle. Several female
wasps will enter a single receptacle, and several sets of wings may be
found wedged beneath the outer scales of the receptacle ostiole.

1The author is indebted to David P. B. McLean for several of the ob-
servations here reported. They were part of a student project in the
spring of 1961.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 47, No. 4

When a recently infested receptacle is opened, the female wasps that
have entered it may be readily observed searching for oviposition sites.
The wasp's ovipositor is removed from its outer sheaths and directed at
right angles to the venter of the wasp as it is forced into the ovary of the
flowers. The developmental period of the larvae hatching from such eggs
has not been determined, but it is completed before the receptacle matures
and falls from the tree. As the receptacles approach maturity, large num-
bers of both male and female fig wasps emerge from the achenes. The
males emerge earlier than the females, and are quite different in appear-
ance and activity. They are entirely wingless and are light amber in
color. They have a slender elongate abdomen which is closely recurved
under the body with the abdominal tip projecting anteriorly between the
forelegs. They are slow and sluggish in their movements, and typically
never leave the receptacle into which they emerge. Shortly after his
emergence from an individual achene in the receptacle, the male gnaws
a hole into the side of an achene containing a female wasp, inserts the
tip of his abdomen through the opening thus formed, and fertilizes the
female before she emerges from her developmental site. Shortly there-
after, the female opens a hole near the apex of the achene and emerges
into the cavity of the receptacle. Females are fully winged, black-colored,
typical chalcidoid wasps. Soon after their emergence, the numerous fe-
males leave the receptacle through an exit hole cut in the side or through
the ostiole of the receptacle. Presumably they immediately seek develop-
ing receptacles to enter in order to initiate another generation. In the
laboratory, the female wasps sometimes entered new receptacles within
a few hours after their emergence.
An infested receptacle opened during the period of wasp emergence
from the achenes presents a sight of immense activity. Up to 150 indi-
vidual wasps have been observed in a single receptacle. The females are
quite active and will readily fly short distances from the opened receptacle,
while the more sluggish males move around the achenes in the receptacle.
Five other hymenopterous insects have been encountered in fig fruits
during the observations on this wasp. Dr. B. D. Burks of the U. S. Na-
tional Museum has identified four of these forms as representatives of the
chalcidoid family Torymidae and the fifth as apparently a representative
of the Eurytomidae. The most abundant of these five species is Idarnes
came Walker (subfamily Idarninae), readily distinguished by the very
long ovipositor of the female. The male of this species is a wingless form
with a short abdomen articulating at a dorsal location as in an evaniid
wasp. Neosycophila bicolor (Ashm.) and Colyostichus brevicauda Mayr
are other representatives of the subfamily Idarninae. The subfamily Tory-
minae is represented by Physothorax russelli Crawford (1909), a slightly
larger species.
These six species of small chalcidoids found in Ficus fruits may be differ-
entiated by the following key to the adult forms:
1. Wingless forms; males of highly dimorphic species................................2
1'. Wings well developed; females, or males of species without marked
sexual dim orphism ................................................................................................


Butcher: The Florida Fig Wasp


2. Form elongate; head longer than broad; abdomen elongate, vermiform,
flexed under thorax with the tip extending anteriorly between the fore-
legs..................-- ... .............................--- Secundeisenia mexicana (Ashm.)
2'. Form more robust, posterior legs conspicuously elongated; abdomen
short, ovate, typically extending dorso-posteriorly in living specimens,
flexed ventrally in death--......................--- .....--..-- Idarnes came Walker.

3. Ovipositor clearly longer than body, hair-like .......Idarnes carme Walker
3'. Ovipositor shorter, not longer than body-----...............----..........-------...

4. Ovipositor distinctly longer than abdomen, carried at an upward pro-
jecting angle; posterior femora dentate; face metallic green, eyes red;
robust forms, especially females............Physothorax russelli Crawford.
4'. Ovipositor not distinctly longer than abdomen; posterior femora not
dentate; smaller forms ...........----------------------................5

5. Head elongate, with deep median, longitudinal groove dorsally; oviposi-
tor thin, hair-like, equal to or slightly exceeding length of abdomen
.......--......- -. -------Secundeisenia mexicana (Ashm.)
5'. Head not longer than broad, ovipositor not elongate, hair-like............6

6. Ovipositor very short and inconspicuous; body, including head, brownish
yellow in color, with a distinctive black stripe dorsally on median line
of thorax and abdomen; ocelli conspicuous..........------..----------
unidentified species (a eurytomid of uncertain generic assignment)
6'. Ovipositor stout, slightly shorter than abdomen, sheath bearing numer-
ous short hairs; color not as above ---................................... ..-- ------.......7

7. Stigmal vein with an obvious lip or extension toward apex of wing,
containing 4 distinct postules; post-marginal vein 3 length of mar-
ginal; ovipositor extending straight posteriorly from tip of abdo-
men ....... -----.....-----.....---............Colyostichus brevicauda Mayr.
7'. Stigmal vein terminating in clavate swelling but without distinct lip,
only 3 postules present; post-marginal extremely short or absent;
ovipositor normally pointing downward from tip of abdomen ...............
....... ... --......-- ..----------.......Neosycophila bicolor (Ashm.).

These five species are apparently competitors of S. mexicana in the
fig fruits, but their methods of infesting the fruits have not been accu-
rately determined. However, we have observed females of C. brevicauda
and P. russelli attempting to insert their ovipositors into the sides of Ficus
receptacles, and remnants of the long hair-like ovipositor of I. came fe-
males frequently have been found inserted into the sides and in the ostiole
scales of receptacles. Hence it is presumed that external oviposition into
the receptable characterizes infestation by these species. P. russelli larvae
develop in enlarged "gall-flowers" within the receptacle; it seems probable
that their presence within the flower ovule stimulates the plant tissue to
this enlargement of the achene.
The fig trees involved normally produce three crops of fruits yearly,
with considerable overlapping by individual trees between the summer,
winter, and spring fruiting. All of the chalcidoid wasps, except the re-
cently encountered unidentified form, have been observed in each of these

238 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 47, No. 4

fruiting seasons. In the summer period, a cecidomyiid fly was observed
developing in enlarged gall-flowers in the receptacles, but they have not
been observed in the winter and spring fruits. This midge keys to the
genus Ficiomyia, and it is probable that it represents either F. perarticu-
lata or F. birdi, both described by Felt (1922, 1934) from Florida Ficus.
It is of interest that seven species of chalcidoids from Ficus are listed
from Florida in the Hymenoptera Catalog (Peck, 1951). They include
the five species identified above, and another species in each of the genera
Neosycophila and Physothorax. The unnamed eurytomid constitutes an
eighth species of chalcidoid from Ficus in Florida. Baker (1913), working
in the Philippines, recognized and described four species of Torymidae in
fruits of Ficus nota, along with three species of Agaonidae. The descrip-
tions of his species reveal that the forms herein reported are distinct from
those he encountered.

Baker, C. F. 1913. A study of caprification in Ficus nota. Philippine
Jour. Sci. 8: 63-83.
Condit, Ira J. 1922. Caprifigs and caprification. California Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bull. 319.
Condit, Ira J. 1932. The structure and development of flowers in Ficus
carica I. Hilgardia 6: 443-481.
Crawford, J. C. 1909. New parasitic Hymenoptera. Proc. Ent. Soc.
Washington 11: 203-207.
Felt, E. P. 1922. A new and remarkable fig midge. Fla. Ent. 6: 5-6.
Felt, E. P. 1934. A new gall midge on fig (Diptera: Itonididae). Ent.
News 45: 131-133.
Peck, 0. 1951. Chalcidoidea, p. 410-594. In C. F. W. Muesebeck et. al.
Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico. Synoptic Catalog.
USDA Monogr. 2.
Wolcott, George N. 1951. The insects of Puerto Rico. Jour. Agr. Univ.
Puerto Rico 32: 771.


University of Florida, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred

This is the third in a series of papers (Muma 1955, 1960) dealing with
predatory mites associated with citrus trees in Florida. Biological and
ecological studies designed to evaluate and improve biological control of
injurious insects and mites have created a need for named species. The
present paper identifies and names the 12 species of cheyletids that have
been collected on or under citrus trees in Florida.
Mites of the family Cheyletidae, with the exception of one species,
Paracheyletia wellsi (Baker), are uncommon to rare on citrus trees. P.
wellsi is relatively common, sometimes abundant, on fruit, leaves and bark,
and is occasionally taken in the litter under the trees. Paracheyletia bakeri
Ehara, a closely related species, is also found in the litter under the trees
and on several occasions has decimated laboratory cultures of Tetranychi-
dae and Tenuipalpidae.
All mites were mounted in HIoyer's modification of a chloral hydrate
preservative on microscope slides and examined with phase contrast illumi-
nation at magnifications varying from 125X to 500X. Measurements were
made at 125X and adjusted to the nearest 0.01 mm. Descriptive and key
characters refer only to females; males were not sufficiently common to
The following key was constructed for those species that are associated
with citrus trees in Florida. Diagnostic characters were not evaluated for
generic or specific significance and therefore do not apply to forms not
included in the key.


1. Leg 1 normal, with 2 claws; functions as an ambulatory appendage.... 2
Leg 1 without claws; functions as a sensory appendage
-..........................-.....--.--..---. ....----...Cheletogenes Oudemans........ 7
2. Body with 2 dorsal shields, one propodosomal and one hysterosomal... 3
Body with 3 dorsal shields, one propodosomal and 2
hysterosomals........................................Cheletomimus Oudemans........ 8
3. Palpal claw with one or no teeth; leg 4 longer than leg 1...................... 4
Palpal claw with multiple teeth; leg 1 as long or longer than leg 4........ 5
4. Palpal claw with no teeth; small species; dorso-median body setae
fan-like; palpal femur as wide as long
.......-..--....-.. ..-..... ..- .. --.. ---.......... Ker palmatus n. gen., n. sp.
Palpal claw with one tooth; large species; dorso-median body
setae rod-like; palpal femur longer than wide
..--..--...............-....--.---- ...Nodele calamondin n. gen., n. sp.

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 1867.

The Florida Entomologist

5. Tarsus of leg 1 less than 4 times as long as tibia; leg tarsi
without a comb-like ventral seta. ........-------.--...------...... ---.... ----- 6
Tarsus of leg 1 more than 4 times as long as tibia; leg tarsi
with a comb-like ventral seta................Grallacheles bakeri DeLeon
6. Tarsus of leg 1 between 2 and 3 times as long as tibia; no
forked setae on palpal genu ....................Paracheyletia Volgin.......-10
Tarsus of leg 1 scarcely, if any, longer than tibia; dorso-lateral
seta on palpal genu forked .-..-.....Mexecheles hawaiiensis (Baker)
7. Body broad; dorsal scuta rugose; tarsus of leg 1 shorter than
tibia, terminal tarsal setae nearly as long as leg
----------.. ........................................ Cheletogenes ornatus C. & F.
Body slender; dorsal scuta striate; tarsus of leg 1 longer than
tibia, terminal tarsal setae much shorter than leg
....-- ---....... ....-...... ----.... Cheletogenes citrifoliatus n. sp.
8. Dorso-median setae lance-like; each hysterosomal shield with
one setae.-..-..-.................. ......--- ....---------------..---........... 9
Dorso-median setae fan-like; each hysterosomal shield with 7 setae
................ .......................................Cheletomimus denmarki Yunker
9. Propodosomal shield with 5 pairs of setae; one pair of dorso-
medians...---..............------...........-Cheletomimus duosetosus n. sp.
Propodosomal shield with 7 pairs of setae; 3 pairs of dorso-
medians-......---..--- ......-....--............. Cheletomimus berlesi Oud.
10. Dorso-lateral setae fan-like; more than one pair of dorso-
m edian setae --..............................- ..... .... ........................................ 11
Dorso-lateral setae lance-like; one pair of dorso-median
setae --.......-..... ..------- .......--- ........Paracheyletia acutellata (DeLeon)
11. Dorso-median setae fan-like; hysterosomal shield without dorso-
median setae ............................................ .Paracheyletia bakeri Ehara
Dorso-median setae tree-like; hysterosomal shield with 2 pairs
of dorso-median setae.............................Paracheyletia wellsi (Baker)


Mites of this family have a well-defined gnathosoma enclosing the short,
stylet-like piercing chelicerae and the distinct peritremes. The palpi of
free-living forms are strongly raptorial with a large terminal claw and a
short palpal thumb-like tarsus provided with comb-like and sickle-like
setae. The propodosoma and hysterosoma are usually distinct and legs
usually possess normal ambulatory apparatus on the tarsi, 2 claws, and
an empodium. There are no genital suckers and males usually have the
genital aperture posterior and ventral.

Genus Cheletogenes Oudemans, 1905

Cheletogenes Oudemans, 1905, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., Vol. 1, fasc. 21 p. 208.
Cheyletids of this genus are distinguished by 2 dorsal body shields,
the presence of 2 comb-like and 2 sickle-like setae on the palpal tarsus, a
toothed palpal claw, and the lack of claws and pulvillus on the first tarsi.
There is no guard seta associated with solenidion of the first tarsi. The
first pair of legs apparently are used as tactile organs. Eyes are present.


Vol. 47, No. 4

Muma: Cheyletidae Associated with Citrus in Florida 241

Type Species: Cheyletus ornatus Canestrini and Fanzago.
Two species of this genus are associated with Florida citrus trees; one
has been found on the fruit, the other on the leaves.

Cheletogenes ornatus (Canestrini and Fanzago), 1876
(Fig. 1)
Cheyletus ornatus Canestrini and Fanzago, 1876, Att. Soc. Veneto-Trentia:
Cheletogenes ornatus, Baker, 1949, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus., 99 (3238): 305,
Pl. 14, Fig. 117-119.
One nymph of this species has been collected from the litter under citrus
trees. Baker (1949) gives a complete, adequate description of the species.
DIAGNOSIS: Characters that distinguish this species include the short,
broad, nearly round body; the strongly rugose dorsal body shields; the
circularly striate rostral shield; the 2 extremely long terminal setae on the
first tarsi and the short peg-like solenidion on the first tarsi.
RECORDS: One specimen collected on 29 January 1960 at Kissimmee on
fruit by H. L. Greene.
REMARKS: A variation in the ornamentation of the rostral shield is
shown in Fig. 1.

Cheletogenes citrifoliatus, new species
(Fig. 2)
There are eight slides of this species; three are of mature females,
three are of nymphs, and two are of larvae. All of the specimens are from
citrus foliage. Living mites are orange to amber in color.
DIAGNOSIS: This species is easily distinguished by its slender body,
slender striate dorsal body shields, distinctly tree-like dorso-median setae
and the elongate, curved solenidion on the first tarsi.
FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Body length including rostrum 0.41 mm; width
0.18 mm; rostrum length 0.10 mm; leg 1, 0.15 mm; leg 2, 0.13 mm; leg 3,
0.14 mm; leg 4, 0.16 mm.
Rostral shield weakly striate, terminal setae not on lateral shelves or
tubercles and not apical.
Body alutaceous with dorsal shields small and striate; propodosomal
shield with eyes and 2 pairs of fan-like dorso-laterals located on the anterio-
lateral margins and 2 pairs of tree-like dorso-medians located near the
posterior margin; hysterosomal shield narrower than propodosomal shield
and with 2 pairs of dorso-median setae (one of the posterior pair is missing
on the holotype). Ten additional pairs of dorsal setae, situated on small
platelets, also occur on the dorsal surface. The usual 6 pairs of ventral
setae are located between the coxae and just anterior to the genitalia;
the posterior pair of anal setae are fan-shaped and are located on the
dorsal surface.
Leg station normal for family except tarsus 1 has 4 short terminal
setae, one ventral seta and one solenidion without a guard seta. Tarsus
1 slightly longer than tibia 1.
Palpal femur longer than wide, with dorsal seta flat and blade-like

The Florida Entomologist

and 2 ventral setae, dorsal and ventro-lateral genual setae hair-like. Se-
tation of tibia and tarsus normal; tibial claw with 5 teeth.
TYPE LOCALITY: Female holotype collected on 24 May 1956 at Weirs-
dale from leaf by H. L. Greene.
RECORDS: Female paratype with same data as holotype collected 23
July 1957. Female paratype collected on 13 January 19,59 at Sarasota
under purple scale by D. W. Clancy. One nymph collected on 30 January
1959 at Orlando on leaf by H. L. Greene; one nymph collected on 18 July
1957 at Fort Pierce on leaf by H. L. Greene; one larva collected on 20 May
1959 at Fort Pierce on leaf by H. L. Greene; one nymph collected on 4
April 1960 at Sebring on leaf by J. A. Murrell. ,

Genus Cheletomimus Oudemans, 1904
Cheletomimus Oudemans, 1904, Entom. Ber. Nederl. Ver. 1, fasc. 18, p. 163.
Cheyletidae with 3 dorsal shields, one propodosomal and 2 hystero-
somal. The first pair of legs bear 2 tarsal claws and a pulvillus. There
are 2 comb-like and 2 sickle-like setae on the palpal tarsus and the palpal
claw is toothed. Eyes are present.
Type Species: Cheletes berlesei Oudemans, 1905.
Two species of this genus are associated with Florida citrus. One has
been collected from fruit and one from the litter beneath the trees. The
latter is undescribed. The type species, C. berlesei, has been recorded from
Florida and may occur on citrus.

Cheletomimus duosetosus, new species
(Fig. 5)
This species is apparently rarely associated with citrus. Only four
specimens, all on one slide, have been collected from litter beneath citrus
trees. The species has also been taken from sand pine litter.
DIAGNOSIS: The most distinctive diagnostic character of this, the third
species of the genus, is the presence of only one pair of dorso-median setae
on the propodosomal shield. Ornamentation of the dorsal and cheliceral
shields is somewhat finer than that on other species.
FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Body length including rostrum 0.35 mm; width
0.22 mm; rostrum length 0.11 mm; leg 1, 0.18 mm; leg 2, 0.15 mm; leg 3,
0.15 mm; leg 4, 0.17 mm.
Rostral shield granulate except on posterior fourth where it is weakly
striate. Terminal setae situated on short lateral tubercles near apex.

Fig. 1. Cheletogenes ornatus (Canestrini and Fanzago), variation of
rostral shield, dorsal view of female, dorso-median seta, female genito-anal
region. Fig. 2. Cheletogenes citrifoliatus new species, dorsal view of fe-
male, dorso-median seta, female genito-anal region. Fig. 3. Ker palmatus
new species, dorsal view of female, dorso-median seta, female genito-anal
region. Fig. 4. Paracheyletia scutellata (DeLeon), dorsal view of female,
dorso-median seta, female genito-anal region. Fig. 5. Cheletomimus du-
osetosus new species, dorsal view of female, dorso-median seta, female gen-
ito-anal region.


Vol. 47, No. 4

Muma: Cheyletidae Associated with Citrus in Florida 243



The Florida Entomologist

Body alutaceous with dorsal shields finely granulate; propodosomal
shield pentagonal, invaded by the eyes on the anterio-lateral margins, pro-
vided with 4 pairs of lance-like pilose dorso-lateral setae and with one pair
of lance-like dorso-median setae that are widely spaced and situated just
behind the posterior pair of dorso-laterals; hysterosomal shields irregularly
ovate and with one pair of lance-like pilose setae located near the lateral
margins. Seven additional pairs of dorsal setae are located on small plate-
lets. The ventral surface exhibits the usual 6 pairs of ventral setae. All
3 pairs of anal setae are hair-like but the posterior pair is somewhat
Leg station is normal for the family. The long curved solenidion of
tarsus 1 is located on a distinct cylindrical tubercle with closely associated
guard seta; the terminal sensory setae are as long as the segment. The
tarsus is 2.5 times the length of the tibia.
Palpal femur as wide as long, with dorsal seta fan-like and 2 hair-like
ventral setae; dorsal genual seta fan-like, the latero-ventral seta clavate;
station of tibia and tarsus normal; tibial claw with 6 or 7 teeth.
TYPE LOCALITY: Female holotype and female paratype collected on
19 March 1963 at Frostproof from sand pine litter by H. L. Greene.
RECORDS: Female paratype collected on 18 September 1963 at Lake
Placid from sand pine litter by H. L. Greene. Three females and one nymph
collected on 15 January 19,53 at Weirsdale from citrus litter by J. A. Cod-
Cheletomimus berlesei (Oudemans), 1904
Cheletes berlese Oudemans, 1904, Entom. Ber. Nederl. Ver. 1, fasc. 17, p. 154.
I have not seen this species from Florida citrus. Yunker (1961) records
it both from Florida and from citrus, so it could occur on this plant in
this state.
DIAGNOSIS: According to Yunker, the species is readily identified by
the presence of 7 pairs of setae on the propodosomal shield. Baker (1949)
illustrates 3 pairs of these setae as dorso-medians.

Cheletomimus denmarki Yunker, 1961
(Fig. 6)
Cheletomimus denmarki Yunker, 1961, Canadian Ent. 93 (11): 1032, Fig. 3,
I have seen several slides of this species; Yunker (1961) also recorded
it from Florida citrus. It is probably rare on citrus.
DIAGNOSIS: The broad fan-like dorso-median setae and the large num-
ber of setae on the dorsal shields are distinctive. The guard seta, usually
closely associated with the solenidion on the first tarsi, is large, leaf-like,
reticulate, and well removed from the solenidion.
RECORDS: One female collected on 11 July 1962 at Clearwater on fruit
by J. A. Murrell; one female collected on 9 April 1962 at Clearwater on
fruit by J. A. Murrell; one nymph collected on 11 July 1962 at Knights on
fruit by J. A. Murrell; one nymph collected on 4 October 1963 at Knights
in litter by D. F. Farmer and M. H. Muma.

Vol. 47, No. 4


Muma: Cheyletidae Associated with Citrus in Florida 245

Genus Paracheyletia Volgin, 1955
Paracheyletia Volgin, 1955, Acad. Nauk SSSR, Zool. Inst. Opredeliteli po
Faune SSSR, n. 59: 168.
This genus of cheyletids is distinguished by 2 dorsal body shields and
the first pair of legs with 2 tarsal claws and a pulvillus. There are 2
comb-like and 2 sickle-like setae on the palpal tarsus, and the palpal claw
is toothed. Eyes are present.
Type Species: Paracheyletia assimilis Volgin, 1955.
Three closely related species of this genus are found on Florida citrus;
one is primarily a litter or ground-inhabiting form, whereas the others are
primarily arboreal.

Paracheyletia bakeri Ehara, 1962
(Fig. 7 and 9)
Paracheyletia bakeri Ehara, 1962, Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses, 35
(2): 109, Fig. 2 and 3. (female).
There are six slides of this species, representing more than 40 speci-
mens, in the collection at the Citrus Experiment Station. Only one of
these slides contains specimens from citrus leaves; the others are from
citrus litter and laboratory cultures.
DIAGNOSIS: The most distinctive characters of this species are the fine
granular ornamentation of the body and rostral shields and 2 pairs of fan-
like dorso-median setae on the propodosomal shield.
RECORDS: Twelve specimens collected on 17 September 1963 in rearing
room of the laboratory on six-spotted mite colony by R. F. Kanavel; 20
specimens collected on 18 September 1963 in rearing room of laboratory
on Brevipalpus colony by J. A. Murrell; one specimen collected on 11 Jan-
uary 1961 at Kissimmee in litter by J. A. Murrell; one female collected
on 25 July 1960 at Oviedo in litter by H. L. Greene and M. H. Muma; 3
females and 2 nymphs collected on 1 April 1952 in rearing room on seed-
lings by R. F. Kanavel; several adults and young collected on 1 April 1952
at Lake Alfred on leaf by M. H. Muma.

Paracheyletia wellsi (Baker)
(Fig. 8 and 10)
Cheyletia wellsi Baker, 1949, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 99 (3238): 300, Fig.
Paracheyletia wellsi Volgin, 1955, Tabl. anal. Faune URSS, 59: 152.
This is the most abundant and important cheyletid associated with Flor-
ida citrus. More than 50 slides of the species have been examined. Speci-
mens have been collected from the fruit, leaves, twigs, and bark on trees,
litter beneath the trees, and laboratory cultures.
DIAGNOSIS: The fine granular ornamentation of the dorsal body shields
and tree-like dorso-median setae characterize this species. Supporting
characters are the tendency toward striation in the area enclosed by the
propodosomal dorso-median setae and a variable number, 5 to 7 pairs, of
dorso-median setae.

The Florida Entomologist

RECORDS: Eighty preserved specimens of this species have been studied.
To conserve space, only selected records indicating geographic, seasonal,
and stratal distribution are given below.
One female and one nymph collected on 7 December 1959 at Avon Park
in litter by H. L. Greene and M. H. Muma; 2 females collected on 22 Jan-
uary 1962 at Cleveland in litter by D. F. Farmer and M. H. Muma; one
female and one nymph collected on 31 January 1952 at Vero Beach under
red scale by M. H. Muma; one female collected on 26 January 1960 at Kis-
simmee on bark by H. L. Greene and J. A. Murrell; 2 females collected on
11 March 1962 at Cleveland in litter by D. F. Farmer and M. H. Muma;
one female collected on 25 March 1962 at Winter Haven in litter by J. A.
Murrell and M. H. Muma; one female collected on 25 July 1963 at Parrish
in litter by V. E. Flaws and M. H. Muma; one female collected on 11 July
1962 at Knights in litter by J. A. Murrell and M. H. Muma; 2 females and
one young collected on 11 April 1962 at Arcadia in litter by D. F. Farmer
and M. H. Muma; one male collected on 10 April 1961 at Clearwater in lit-
ter by J. A. Murrell and M. H. Muma; one female collected on 21 November
1962 at Lake Alfred on fruit by A. G. Selhime; one female collected on 4
April 1962 at Minneola on bark by J. A. Murrell; one female collected on 17
April 1961 at Avon Park in litter by D. W. Clancy and M. H. Muma; 2
females collected on 21 November 1963 at Lake Alfred on leaf by A. G.
Selhime; one female collected on 12 October 1959 at Clearwater on fruit
by J. A. Murrell; 2 females and one male collected on 13 April 1959 at
Orlando on twigs by A. G, Selhime; one female collected on 19 January
1959 at Fort Pierce on orange leaf by E. C. Parker and A. G. Selhime; one
female collected on 21 November 1958 at Archer on orange leaf by A. G.
Selhime; 3 females collected on 14 January 1952 at Vero Beach under red
scale by M. H. Muma.

Paracheyletia scutellata (DeLeon), new combination
(Fig. 4)
Cheyletia scutellata DeLeon, 1962, Fla. Ent. 45 (3): 130, Fig. 4-6.

I have seen one slide of this species from Florida citrus leaves. It is
apparently not common.
DIAGNOSIS: This species is distinguished by an areolate ornamentation
on the dorsal body shields, lance-like dorso-median and dorso-lateral setae,
and only one pair of dorso-median setae on the propodosomal shield.
RECORDS: One female collected on 25 May 1961 at Tice on calamondin
by H. W. Collins and H. A. Denmark.

Fig. 6. Cheletomimus denwmarki Yunker, dorsal view of female, dorso-
median seta, female genito-anal region. Fig. 7. Paracheyletia bakeri
Ehara, dorso-median seta, dorsal view of female. Fig. 8. Paracheyletia
iwellsi (Baker), female genito-anal region. Fig. 9. Paracheyletia baker
Ehara, ventral view of female. Fig. 10. Paracheyletia wellsi (Baker),
dorsal view of female, dorso-media seta.

Vol. 47, No. 4

Muma: Cheyletidae Associated with Citrus in Florida 247

/ *.
' i

b : :~'Y

The Florida Entomologist

Genus Mexecheles DeLeon, 1962
Mexecheles DeLeon, 1962, Fla. Ent. 45 (3): 132, Fig. 7-15.
This genus is distinguished by 2 dorsal body shields, by staghorn-like,
dorso-median body setae and strap-like or leaf-like dorso-laterals. The
first pair of legs is attenuate with the tibiae elongate; the tarsus is slender
but bears 2 tiny claws and a pulvillus. Two comb-like and 2 sickle-like
setae are present on the palpal tarsus, the palpal claw is toothed, and there
is a forked dorsal seta on the palpal genu. Eyes are present.
Type Species: Mexecheles cunliffei DeLeon, 1962.

Mexecheles hawaiiensis (Baker), new combination
(Fig. 13 and 16)
Cheletophyes hawaiiensis Baker, 1949, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 99 (3238):
289, Fig. 55-59. (female and nymph).
Mexecheles intermedius DeLeon, 1962, Florida Entomologist, 45 (3): 133,
Fig. 11-14. (female).
Only one specimen of this species has been seen. It was collected from
a leaf of an orange tree on the shore of Lake Okeechobee near Canal Point.
DIAGNOSIS: This species is characterized by a punctate ornamentation
on the dorsal body shields, a combination punctate-recticulate ornamenta-
tion of the rostral shield, 8 pairs of widely branched staghorn-like dorso-
median setae and short, thick serrate dorso-lateral setae.
RECORDS: One female collected on 28 January 1959 at Canal Point from
orange leaf by M. H. Muma.

Genus Grallacheles DeLeon, 1962
Grallacheles DeLeon, 1962, Fla. Ent. 45 (3): 135, Fig. 20-23.
Cheyletid mites of this genus are characterized by 2 dorsal shields,
strap-like dorso-median setae and both strap-like and fan-like dorso-lateral
setae. The palpal tarsus possesses 2 comb-like and 2 sickle-like setae and
the palpal claw has basal teeth. All leg tarsi are attenuated and possess
claws, pulvilli and a comb-like ventral seta. Eyes are present.
Type Species: Grallacheles bakeri DeLeon, 1962.
This genus is monotypic.

Grallacheles baker DeLeon, 1962
(Fig. 12 and 15)
Grallacheles baker DeLeon, 1962, Fla. Ent. 45 (3): 135, Fig. 20-23. (female).
Two specimens of this species have been examined. One specimen was
collected from bark, the other from fruit.

Fig. 11. Nodele calamondin new species, dorsal view of female. Fig.
12. Grallacheles baker DeLeon, dorsal view of female. Fig. 13. Mexecheles
hawaiiensis (Baker), female genito-anal region. Fig. 14. Nodele calamon-
din new species, female genito-anal region. Fig. 15. Grallacheles bakeri
DeLeon, female genito-anal region.


Vol. 47, No. 4

Muma: Cheyletidae Associated with Citrus in Florida 249




The Florida Entomologist

DIAGNOSIS: This species is unique and is distinguished by the generic
RECORDS: One female collected on 20 July 1960 at Parrish on bark by
M. L. Green and M. H. Muma; one female collected on 17 October 1960
at Avon Park on fruit by M. L. Green and M. H. Muma.

Genus Ker2, new genus
This genus is characterized by 2 dorsal shields and plumose fan-like
dorso-median and dorso-lateral setae. The palpal tarsus possesses 2 comb-
like and 2 sickle-like setae and the tibial claw is untoothed. All leg tarsi
are normal with claws and pulvilli, but the fourth legs are longer than
the first legs. Eyes are present.
Type Species: Ker palmatus new species.

Ker palmatus, new species
(Fig. 3)
There are four slides representing three females, one male and one
nymph of this distinctive species. All are from litter beneath the trees.
DIAGNOSIS: This tiny, elongate species is easily recognized by the retic-
ulate-punctate dorsal body and rostral shields, the plumose fan-like dorsal
setae and the generic' characters cited above.
FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Body length including rostrum 0.29 mm; width
0.13 mm; rostrum length 0.07 mm; leg 1, 0.13 mm; leg 2, 0.10 mm; leg 3,
0.12 mm; leg 4, 0.15 mm.
Rostral shield reticulate and finely punctate. Terminal setae situated
on distinct lateral tubercles near the apex.
Body finely alutaceous; dorsal shields reticulate and finely punctate,
and covering most of the dorsal surface of the body. Dorsal setae fan-
shaped and distinctly pilose. Propodosomal shield invaded by eyes on
the anterio-lateral margins and provided with 4 pairs of dorso-lateral setae
and 2 pairs of dorso-median setae. Hysterosomal shield provided with 4
pairs of dorso-lateral setae and 3 pairs of dorso-median setae. Three
pairs of additional dorsal setae occur off the shields, one pair at the humeral
angles of the body, one pair laterad of the separation of the shields and
one pair posterior to the hysterosomal shield. The usual ventral setae are
present and the posterior pair of anal setae are fan-shaped and pilose.
Leg station normal for the family with the following exceptions: the
anterior pair of ventral setae on coxae 3 are elongate and pilose; the
solenidion on tarsus 1 is about one-third the length of the segment, is
situated on a distinct conical tubercle and lies close to the base of the
elongate pilose guard seta; the solenidion on tibia 2 is either minute or
missing. Tarsus 1 is about twice the length of tibia 1.

2 The name Ker is an arbitrary combination of letters and is considered
to be masculine.

Fig. 16. Mexecheles hawaiiensis (Baker), dorsal view of female.


Vol. 47, No. 4

Muma: Cheyletidae Associated with Citrus in Florida 251

252 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 47, No. 4

Palpal femur about as long as wide, with dorsal seta elongate and pilose
and 2 pairs of slender pilose ventral setae; genual dorsal seta fan-shaped
and pilose, latero-ventral seta pilose; station of tibia and tarsus normal,
tibial claw with no teeth.
TYPE LOCALITY: Female holotype and 2 female paratypes collected on
9 October 1961 at Sebring in litter by D. F. Farmer and M. H. Muma.
RECORDS: One nymph collected on 15 July 1960 at Sebring in litter by
M. L. Green and M. H. Muma; one male collected on 23 October 1961 at
Turnbull Hammock in litter by D. F. Farmer and M. H. Muma.

Genus Nodele 3, new genus
This genus is characterized by 2 indistinct dorsal shields and rod-like
or strap-like dorso-median and dorso-lateral body setae. The dorso-medians
on the propodosomal shield are adjacent. The palpal tarsus possesses 2
comb-like and 2 sickle-like setae, the palpal claw bears a single sub-medial
tooth and the palpal femur is longer than wide. All leg tarsi are normal
with claws and pulvilli and leg 4 is longer than leg 1. Eyes are present.
Type Species: Nodele calamondin new species.
Cheletophyes philippinensis Baker is also a species of this genus. The
following undescribed species is the only species known from Florida citrus.

Nodele calamondin, new species
(Fig. 11 and 14)
Two slides of this large species have been examined from Florida citrus.
The species has also been taken on other host plants.
DIAGNOSIS: This species is easily distinguished from Nodele philippin-
ensis (Baker), the only other known species, by the shorter sub-equal dorso-
median and dorso-lateral setae. Also, the guard seta on the first tarsus is
longer than the solenidion and is widely separated from it.
FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Body length including rostrum 0.60 mm; width
0.34 mm; rostrum 0.15 mm; leg 1, 0.36 mm; leg 2, 0.31 mm; leg 3, 0.33 mm;
leg 4, 0.38 mm.
Rostral shield longitudinally striate except on posterior margin where
the striation is transverse. Terminal setae on weak lateral shelves near
Body alutaceous with poorly defined propodosomal and hysterosomal
shields that are weakly striate and aluteceous. Propodosomal shield with
eyes on anterio-lateral margins, 4 pairs of rod-like plumose dorso-lateral
setae, 2 pairs of similar dorso-median setae and an anterio-median ovate
area of distinct striation. Hysterosomal shield with 5 pairs of rod-like
plumose dorso-lateral setae and 3 pairs of similar dorso-median setae.
The humeral setae are similar to the other dorsal setae in form but are
situated on low tubercles near the humeral angle of the body. All dorsal
setae except the 2 posterior pairs are sub-equal in length; the second to
last pair is only half the length of the others and the last pair is three-
fourths as long as the others. The ventral surface exhibits the usual seta-
tion. The posterior pair of anal setae are elongate, rod-like, and plumose.

3 The name Nodele is an anagram of DeLeon and is masculine.

Muma: Cheyletidae Associated with Citrus in Florida 253

Leg station is normal for the family with the following exceptions:
the anterior ventral coxal setae of legs 3 and 4 are elongate and plumose;
the solenidion of tarsus 1 is about one-fourth the length of the segment
and distant from the guard seta which is about twice its length.
Palpal femur is longer than wide with dorsal seta clavate and pilose
and the ventral setae hair-like. Dorsal and ventro-lateral setae of genu
clavate and pilose. Tibial and tarsal setae typical, tibial claw with a
single tooth situated near the middle of its length.
TYPE LOCALITY: Female holotype collected at Fort Myers from cala-
mondin by H. A. Denmark, H. Collins and W. T. Walsh. Female paratype
collected on 25 May 1961 at Tice from calamondin by H. A. Denmark.


I would like to thank Dr. Donald DeLeon and Dr. Edward W. Baker for
the loan of types and identified specimens which facilitated this study. Mr.
Harold A. Denmark and Dr. Arthur K. Burditt were helpful in permitting
me to study Florida specimens from their collections.
Dr. DeLeon, Dr. Baker, and Mr. Denmark also read and criticized the
manuscript for me, but are not responsible for final evaluations.
The types of new species described herein will be deposited in the
United States National Museum at Washington, D. C.


Baker, E. W. 1949. A review of the mites of the family Cheyletidae in
United States National Museum. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 99 (3238):
267-320. 154 fig.
DeLeon, D. 1962. Three new genera and seven new species of cheyletids
(Acarina:Cheyletidae). Fla. Ent. 45 (3): 129-137. 22 fig.
Ehara, Sh6z6. 1962. Mites of greenhouse plants in Hokkaido with a new
species of Cheyletidae. Annot. Zool. Jap. 35 (2): 106-111. 3 fig.
Muma, Martin H. 1955. Phytoseiidae (Acarina) associated with citrus in
Florida. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 48 (4): 262-272. 33 fig.
Muma, Martin H. 1960. Predatory mites of the family Cunaxidae associ-
ated with citrus in Florida. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 53 (3): 321-326.
20 fig.
Volgin, V. I. 1955. in Paulovskii, E. N., Acarina of rodents of the USSR
fauna. Acad. Nauk SSSR, Zool. Inst. Opredeliteli po Faune SSSR,
n. 59, p. 1-459.
Yunker, Conrad E. 1961. The genus Bak, new genus, and Cheletomimus
Oudemans with descriptions of three new species. Canadian Ent.
93 (11): 1023-1035. 3 fig.



Carefully Executed

Delivered on Time








Complete Line of Insecticides, Fungicides and
Weed Killers
Ortho Division
Located at Fairvilla on Route 441 North
P. O. Box 7067 ORLANDO Phone CY 5-0451

(1952-1962 inclusive)

Training Branch, Communicable Disease Center, Public Health Service,
U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Atlanta, Georgia.

Myiasis is the invasion of body tissues or cavities by the larvae of flies.
The terms canthariasis and scoleciasis are used for similar conditions pro-
duced by beetle larvae and moth larvae respectively.
This report analyzes 111 human cases of myiasis, 5 of canthariasis,
and 4 of scoleciasis which occurred in North America between 31 Dec.
1951 and 1 Jan. 1963.
Thirty-four of the 120 analyzed cases have not previously been recorded
in the literature (Table 1). Previously recorded cases are itemized in the
annotated references at the end of the paper.
Incidence of human myiasis is difficult to assess. Undoubtedly, most
cases are never recorded. The physician who treats a case seldom submits
the larvae for identification, and most laboratories are unable to identify
submitted larvae. Larvae forwarded to the Public Health Service for
identification are the source of most of the records in Table 1.
All available evidence indicates that myiasis, canthariasis, and scoleci-
asis are endemic throughout most of the world, myiasis being much more
common than canthariasis or scoleciasis.

CLINICAL ASPECTS: The following 11
the analyzed cases:
1. Furuncular
2. Enteric
3. Ocular
4. Nasal
5. Aural
6. Traumatic
7. Genito-urinary
8. Creeping cutaneous
9. Lymphatic
10. Oral
11. Mammary-lacteal


clinical types are represented in

42 cases (33%)
36 cases (28%)
15 cases ( 14%)
10 cases (9.0%)
5 cases (4.5%)
5 cases (4.5%)
3 cases (2.7%)
1 case (0.9%)
1 case (0.9%)
1 case (0.9%)
1 case (0.9%)

120 cases (99%)

ENTOMOLOGICAL ASPECTS: The following 40 different insects are in-
volved in the analyzed cases:

Scientific Name




1. Attagenus piceus
2. Boletina birula
3. Calliphora vicina
4. Carposina sp.

black carpet beetle
fungus gnat
blue bottle fly
fruit-worm moth

2 2

The Florida Entomologist





primary screw-worm 1,4,6
secondary screw-worm 5

Scientific Name

Cochliomyia hominivorax
Cochliomyia macellaria
Cuterebra cuniculi
Cuterebra sp.
Eristalis tenax
Fannia canicularis
Haematobia irritans
Heliothis zea
Hermetia illucens
Hypoderma bovis
Hypoderma lineatum
Hypoderma sp.
Leptocera venalicia
Micralymna brevilingua
Musca domestic
Muscina sp.
Muscina stabulans
Oestrus ovis
Phaenicia cuprina
Phaenicia sericata
Phormia regina
Piophila case
Sarcophaga clitellivora
Sarcophaga sp.
Stasisia rodhaini
Tenebroides mauritanicus
Trogoderma versicolor
Wohlfahrtia sp.
Wohlfahrtia opaca
Wohlfahrtia vigil

rabbit bot
rabbit bot
dance fly
rat-tail maggot
lesser house fly
horn fly
corn earworm
soldier fly
northern cattle grub
common cattle grub
cattle grub
borborid fly

house fly
false stable fly
false stable fly
muscoid fly
sheep bot fly
bronze bottle fly
green bottle fly

black blow fly
cheese maggot
flesh fly

flesh fly
flesh fly
lund larva
cadelle beetle
larger carpet beetle
sarcophagid fly
sarcophagid fly
sarcophagid fly

Since more than one species is involved in some of the cases, the total
of this listing exceeds 120.
Note that 16 of the 40 insects listed are involved in more than one case,
seven in more than 5 cases, and two in more than 10 cases.
Of the listed insects, 10 are obligate parasites: Cochliomyia homini-
vorax, Cuterebra cuniculi, Cuterebra sp., Hypoderma bovis, Hypoderma
lineatum, Oestrus ovis, Stasisia sp., Wohlfahrtia opaca, Wohlfahrtia sp.,
Wohlfahrtia vigil.
Stasisia is an African Calliphoridae not established in North America.
The case apparently was contracted in Africa.






Vol. 47, No. 4


Scott: Human Myiasis in North America

Six are facultative parasites: Calliphora vicina, Cochliomyia macellaria,
Phaenicia cuprina, Phaenicia sp., Phaenicia sericata, Phormia regina.
Sarcophaga spp. may be either facultative or fortuitous parasites.
All others in the list are fortuitous.

Myiasis is probably more uniformly distributed than uniformly re-
ported. A single active scientist may report numerous cases from a single
location, while no reports appear from another similar area which undoubt-
edly has numerous cases.
The number of analyzed cases which occurred in each area is: Georgia,
14; Texas, 11; Ontario and Alabama, 9 each; California, 7; Alberta and
New Jersey, 6; Idaho, Oklahoma, and Virginia, 5; Colorado, Louisiana,
Minnesota, and Tennessee, 4; Hawaii, 3; Arizona, Arkansas, Kentucky,
New York, North Carolina, and Washington, 2; Alaska, Florida, Illinois,
Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, North Dakota, Ore-
gon, Puerto Rico, and Wyoming, 1 each.
Thus, 30 states of the United States, 2 Canadian provinces, and Puerto
Rico recorded cases of myiasis and related conditions.

The yearly totals of documented cases are 1952 (11), 1953 (17), 1954
(16), 1955 (17), 1956 (4), 1957 (15), 1958 (7), 1959 (8), 1960 (7), 1961 (12),
1962 (6). Considering the sporadic nature of case reporting, this is a
remarkably uniform rate. 1962 records are probably incomplete due to
publishing delays.
The high case average of the first 6 years (13.3 cases/year) as com-
pared to the next 4 years (8.5 cases/year) may be a result of the primary
screw-worm eradication program. Thirteen of the 80 cases reported during
the first 6 years were caused by the primary screw-worm. If these cases
are not tabulated, the "first-six-year" average is 11.1 cases/year.
If the primary screw-worm eradication program continues, no cases
of myiasis by this species would be expected except in southern New Mex-
ico, southern Texas, or Puerto Rico, and only rarely there. Hence, the
eradication program, conducted primarily for agricultural purposes, has
resulted in control of one of the species most commonly causing myiasis
in man.
Listing of the cases by months shows January, 6; February, 5; March,
1; April, 2; May, 5; June, 12; July, 18; August, 12; September, 15; October,
11; November, 4; December, 3; month not recorded, 26. Thus, 71% of
the cases were noticed clinically in the 5 month period June-October.
It must be remembered that the date is that of clinical detection and
not date of original parasitism. With some species, such as Cuterebra
cuniculi, it is conceivable that a case observed clinically in January was
contracted the previous September.

An analysis is made of 111 cases of human myiasis, 5 of canthariasis,
and 4 of scoleciasis, which occurred in North America between 31 Dec.


The Florida Entomologist

1951 and 1 Jan. 1963. Thirty-four of the cases have not previously been
recorded in the literature.
Eleven clinical types are represented of which furuncular, enteric, ocu-
lar, and nasal constitute 84% of the cases. Forty different insects are in-
volved in the analyzed cases. Sixteen of these are involved in more than
one case, seven in more than five cases, and two in more than 10 cases.
Of the 40 listed insects, 10 are obligate parasites.
Cases occurred in 30 states, 2 Canadian provinces, and in Puerto Rico.
Cases reported fell from 13.3/year (1952-1957 inclusive) to 8.5/year (1958-
1961 inclusive), partly because of the primary screw-worm eradication
program. Clinically, 71% of the cases were detected in the 5 month period

Annotations in parentheses at the end of each reference indicate num-
ber of cases reported, type of myiasis, kind of insect involved, and place
where clinical case occurred. Thus (1,2,1, Ont) signifies one case of enteric
myiasis caused by Attagenus piceus in Ontario.
Anonymous. 1957. A sarcophagid (Wohlfahrtia vigil)-Minnesota. Co-
op. Ins. Rept. 7: 651. (1, 1, 40, Minn)
Anonymous. 1959. A sarcophagid (Wohlfahrtia vigil)-Minnesota. Co-
op. Econ. Ins. Rept. 9: 587. (1, 1, 40, Minn)
Anonymous. 1960. False stable fly (Muscina stabulans)-North Dakota.
Coop. Econ. Ins. Rept. 10: 472. (1, 2, 24, ND)
Anonymous. 1960. Cattle grub (Hypoderma lineatum)-California. Co-
op. Econ. Ins. Rept. 10: 27. (1, 1, 17, Cal)
Anonymous. 1961. A soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)-Arkansas. Coop.
Econ. Ins. Rept. 11: 146. (1, 2, 15, Ark)
Baker, M. C. 1953. Green bottle fly worm infestation of the ear. Myiasis
of the ear caused by Phaenicia sericata. Laryngoscope 63(6): 545-
548. (1, 5, 28, Ky)
Barr, A. R., .and J. H. Thompson. 1955. A case of cutaneous myiasis in
a child caused by Muscina sp. J. Parasit. 41: 552. (1, 1, 23, Minn)
Bennington, E. E. 1958. Cattle grubs (Hypoderma spp.)-Georgia. Co-
op. Econ. Ins. Rept. 8: 90. (1, 9, 18, Ga)
Blasingame, W. E. 1955. Common cattle grub (Hypoderma lineatum)-
Georgia. Coop. Econ. Ins. Rept. 5: 226. (1, 1, 17, Ga)
Boyer, W. P. 1961. Common cattle grub (Hypoderma lineatum)-Arkan-
sas. Coop. Econ. Ins. Rept. 11: 78. (1, 1, 17, Ark)
Casterline, D. G. 1954. Nasal myiasis. Calif. Med. 81(1): 38. (1, 4,
5, Cal)
Curtis, L. C. 1956. A case of aural myiasis in man. Canad. J. Public
Health 47(7): 298-299. (1, 5, 32, Alb)
Davidson. 1959. Screw-worm. (Callitroga hominivorax)--Oklahoma. Co-
op. Econ. Ins. Rept. 9: 922. (1, 4, 5, Okla)
DeBord, B. A. 1959. Rapid extermination of nasal myiasis. Laryngo-
scope 69(5): 543-544. (1, 4, 5, Tex)
DeBord, B. A. 1959. Rapid extermination of nasal myiasis. Trans. Amer.
Laryngol., Rhinol, Otol. Soc. (1, 4, 5, Tex)

Vol. 47, No. 411


Scott: Human Myiasis in North America 259

DeFoliart, G. R., and E. C. Pelton. 1955. A case of human intestinal myi-
asis caused by Muscina stabulans (Fallen). Amer. J. Trop. Med.
4(5): 953-955. (1, 2, 24, Wyo)
DeGuisti, D. L., and H. Zuckheim. 1963. A first report of Wohlfahrtia
vigil (Walker) myiasis of man in Michigan. J. Amer. Med. Assoc.
184: 782-783. (1, 1, 40, Mich)
Eastwood, R. 1955. Myiasis in Santa Clara County. Calif. Vector Views
2: 9. (1, 6, 34, Cal)
Flemings, M. B. 1959. Blowfly myiasis in man; report of two cases. U.S.
Armed Forces Med. J. 10(3):297-303. (2, 6, 5, NY)
Fox, I., and L. Galindo. 1962. Human cutaneous myiasis due to the pri-
mary screw-worm Callitroga hominivorax (Coquerel) in Puerto Rico.
Amer. J. Trop. Med. 6(2): 336-338. (1, 1, 5, Fla)
Furman, D. P. 1953. Nasal myiasis caused by the primary screw-worm,
Callitroga hominivorax (Coquerel). Calif. Med. 79(3): 244. (1, 4,
5, Cal)
Goeden, K. 1962. Northern cattle grub (Hypoderma bovis)-Oregon.
Coop. Econ. Ins. Rept. 12: 105. (1, 1, 16, Ore)
Haufe, W. 0., and W. A. Nelson. 1957. Human furuncular myiasis caused
by the flesh fly Wohlfahrtia opaca (Coq.) (Sarcophagidae: Diptera).
Canad. Ent. 89: 32.5-327. (5, 1, 39, Alb)
Hodges, F. M., III. 1955. Cutaneous Cuterebra myiasis; an unusual case
in an infant. Amer. J. Dis. Children 90(2): 202-204. (1, 1, 8, Wash)
Hunter, G. W., III, and C. M. Berrocal. 1957. A case of human myiasis
in Texas caused by the primary screw-worm, Callitroga hominivorax
(Coquerel). Texas Rept. Biol. Med. 15(3): 378-380. (1, 6, 5, Tex)
Hurd, P. D., Jr. 1954. Myiasis resulting from the use of the aspirator
method in the collection of insects. Science 119(3101): 814-815.
(1, 4, 2-21, Alas)
James, M. T. 1955. A fly larva (Cuterebra sp.)-Washington. Coop.
Econ. Ins. Rept. 5: 25. (1, 1, 8, Wash)
James, M. T. 1956. Little house fly (Fannia canicularis) -Washington.
Coop. Econ. Ins. Rept. 6: 1128. (1, 2, 12, Wash)
Jordan, C. R. 1952. Screw-worm (Callitroga americana)-Georgia. Co-
op. Econ. Ins. Rept. 2: 389. (5, 4-5, 5, Ga)
Judd, W. W. 1953. A caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Phalaenidae) from the
digestive tract of a human. J. Parasit. 39: 250-251. (1, 2, 29, Ont)
Judd, W. W. 1956. Intestinal myiasis of a human caused by maggots of
the flesh fly, Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, (Fln.) (Diptera: Sarco-
phagidae), in southwestern Ontario. Canad. Ent. 88: 117-118. (1,
2, 33, Ont)
Kimbrig, M. 1955. Ophthalmomyiasis. N. Y. State J. Med. 55(23): 3475-
3476. (1, 3, 26, NY)
Knapp, S. E., G. M. Padilla, and F. M. Philips. 1955. An apparent human
case of myiasis by the horn fly, Siphona irritans. J. Parasit. 41:
324. (1, 1, 13, Tex)
Koide, S. S. 1956. Myiasis from Oestrus ovis; report of three cases. Ha-
waii Med. J. 15(5): 460-461. (3, 3, 26, Haw)

260 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 47, No. 4

Lawton, A. H., M. W. Dexter, and L. O. Warren. 1957. Double infesta-
tion of a varicose ulcer with screw-worm and house fly maggots.
Amer. J. Trop. Med. 6(2): 336-338. (1, 1, 5, Fla)
McCuistion, C. H., et al. 19,58. Human myiasis. Texas State J. Med. 54
(11): 796-799. (1, 6, 5, Tex)
Menk, K. F., B. E. Smith, and M. G. Rieves. 1954. Ophthalmomyiasis
U. S. Armed Forces Med. J. 5: 732-734. (1, 3, 2, Md)
Merkeley, D. R., and H. C. Manis. 1955. False stable fly (Muscina stabu-
lans)-Idaho. Coop. Econ. Ins. Rept. 5: 525. (1, 2, 24, Ida)
Micks, D. W., .and J. W. McKibben. 1956. Report of a case of human
intestinal myiasis caused by Leptocera venalicia. Amer. J. Trop.
Med. Hyg. 5(5): 929-932. (1, 2, 20, Tex)
Morris, A. P. 1954. Sheep bot fly (Oestrus ovis)-Virginia. Coop. Econ.
Ins. Rept. 4: 1064. (1, 3, 26, Va)
Morris, A. P. 1955. Sheep bot fly (Oestrus ovis)-Virginia. Coop. Econ.
Ins. Rept. 5: 142. (1, 3, 26, Va)
Mount. 1962. A bot fly (Cuterebra sp.)-North Carolina. Coop. Econ.
Ins. Rept. 12: 1117. (1, 1, 8, NC)
Nicholson, B. H., P. E. Smith, and W. H. Dersch, Jr. 1954. Human hypo-
dermal myiasis. J. Okla. Med. Assoc. 47(6): 161-162. (4, 1, 17,
O'Rourke, F. J. 1954. Furuncular myiasis due to Wohlfahrtia vigil
(Walker). Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 71(2): 146-149. (1, 1, 40, Ont)
Pittenger, B. N. 1958. Ocular myiasis caused by Oestrus ovis. Arch.
Ophth. 60(6):1107-1108. (1, 3, 26, Ky)
Portman, R. W. 1954. Secondary screw-worm (Callitroga macellaria)-
Idaho. Coop. Econ. Ins. Rept. 4: 924-925. (1, 5, 6, Ida)
Pratt, H. D. 1956. Human myiasis due to Phaenicia sericata. Proc. Ent.
Soc. Wash. :58: 14. (1, 6, 28, Va)
Rice, D. A., and W. A. Nelson. 1956. Human myiasis caused by the green
bottle fly, Phaenicia sericata (Meigen). Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 75
(10): 839. (1, 11, 28, Alb)
Rosenberg, F. 1955. Unusual foreign body of the ear; case report. Rocky
Mountain Med. J. 52(12):1118. (1, 5, ?, Colo)
Scott, H. G. 1962. Insect infestations of the human intestine: some un-
usual records. Fla. Ent. 45: 45-46. (6, 2, 1-3-4-27-31-37, Ala-NJ)
Simison, E. V. 1956. Conjunctival myiasis with Oestrus ovis larvae.
Arch. Ophth. 55(3): 417-418. (1, 3, 26, Ida)
Stabler, R. M., et al. 1962. Wohlfahrtia opaca myiasis in man in Colo-
rado. J. Parasit. 48:209-210. (3, 1, 39, Colo)
Supple, C. J. 1958. Genitourinary myiasis due to Eristalis tenax; report
of a case. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 167(15):1838-1839. (1, 7, 11, Ill)
Valcarce, A. C. 1960. A sarcophagid (Wohlfahrtia opaca)-Idaho. Co-
op. Econ. Ins. Rept. 10: 1080. (1, 1, 39, Ida)
Weizenblatt, S. 1953. Ophthalmomyiasis externa: larval conjunctivitis in
socket. Arch. Ophth. 50(1): 79-80. (1, 3, 26, NC)
Werner, F. G. 1956. A stratiomyiid (Hermetia illucens)-Arizona. Co-
op. Econ. Ins. Rept. 6: 1028. (1, 2, 15, Ariz)

Scott: Human Myiasis in North America

Werner, F. G. 1956. Two cases of intestinal myiasis in man produced
by Hermetic (Diptera: Stratiomyiidae). Psyche 63:112. (2, 2,
15, Ariz)
Wohlrabe, J. C. 1957. Primary cutaneous myiasis. Minnesota Med. 40
(5): 323. (1, 1, 40, Minn)


Myiasis Type Caused By Place Date By*

furuncular Cochliomyia hominivorax Ga. Jan. 1954 HP
furuncular Cochliomyia hominivorax Ga. Jan. 1954 HS
furuncular Cochliomyia hominivorax Ga. Oct. 1955 HP
furuncular Cuterebra sp. La. Apr. 1955 HP
furuncular Cuterebra cuniculi La. Aug. 1962 HS
furuncular Phormic regina? Ida. Jun. 1959 HP
furuncular Stasisia rodhani La. Jun. 1955 HP
furuncular Wohlfahrtia sp. Tenn. Feb. 1957 HP

enteric?** Empididae? Ga. Feb. 1954 HP
enteric Eristalis tenax Ala. Nov. 1953 HP
enteric PFnnia canicularis Ala. Aug. 1957 HP
enteric Fannia canicularis? Ga. Sep. 1957 HP
enteric Hermetia illucens Ala. Dec. 1957 HP
enteric Hermetia illucens,? Ala. Dec. 1958 HP
enteric Hermetia illucens Ala. Jul. 1959 HS
enteric Hermetia illucens Tenn. Aug. 1953 HP
enteric Hermetia illucens Tenn. Sep. 1954 HP
enteric Muscina stabulans Ga. May 1954 JL
enteric Muscoidea Ga. Aug. 1959 HS
enteric Piophila case Ala. Apr. 1961 HS
enteric Sarcophaga sp. Ala. Jul. 19.59 HS
enteric Sarcophaga sp. Ga. Jun. 1956 HP
enteric Lepidoptera La. Aug. 1957 HP
enteric Sarcophaga sp. N. J. Jul. 1960 HS
enteric Sarcophaga sp. Tex. Jun. 1960 RE

oral Sarcophaga sp. Ga. Sep. 1957 HP
genito-urinary Sarcophaga sp. Ga. Sep. 1957 HP
genito-urinary Heliothis zea Va. Aug. 1962 HP
ocular Oestrus ovis Cal. Sep. 1952 BK
ocular Oestrus ovis Cal. Jun. 1960 BK
ocular Oestrus ovis Cal. Jun. 1961 BK
ocular Oestrus ovis Ind. Jun. 1962 HP
ocular Wohlfahrtia vigil? Tenn. Jun. 1958 HP

nasal Tenebroides mauritanicus Ga. Sep. 1959 HP

HP = Harry D. Pratt, CDC; HS = Harold George Scott, CDC; JL = John E. Lane,
CDC; RE = Richard B. Eads, USPHS, Quarantine Service; BK = Benjamin Keh, California
Department of Public Health.
** ? = expressed doubt by reporter regarding correctness of item.





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Department of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville

Colonization of microphagous nematodes is necessary in order to ob-
tain single-species populations for studies involving morphology and bio-
nomics. Most of the media previously developed have yielded unsatisfactory
results or were difficult to prepare. Therefore, one of the balanced human
dietary compounds was tested as a balanced nutrient base for an agar
rearing medium.
The plain dietary powder was used to prepare nutrient media in two
ways. In the first, dietary agar was prepared by adding 320 grams of
powdered dietary and 2 grams of agar to 1 liter of water and was auto-
claved for 15 minutes at 121 C. The solidified medium was cut into blocks
which were placed on plates of water agar. Nematodes were "picked"
directly onto the dietary agar blocks.
In the second method .2 to .5 grams of dietary powder were sprinkled
onto cooled water agar plates which had been agitated to delay solidifica-
tion. This technique has the advantage of reducing the risk of deteriora-
tion of constituents due to autoclaving, and it is simpler than the agar
block technique.
Several species of the nematode genera Bunonema, Diplogaster, and
Rhabditis were successfully colonized utilizing both of the above techniques.
Bacteria introduced with the nematodes grew profusely on the medium.
Whether the nematodes fed upon the medium itself or solely on the bac-
teria was not determined. However, specimens of Rhabditis were observed
apparently feeding in and around dietary granules in the agar prior to the
establishment of bacterial colonies.
Attempts to colonize Butlerius spp. and one other diplogasterid of
known predatory habit were unsuccessful with either of the above tech-
This study was supported in part by National Institute of Health Proj-
ect WP00508-01.

SPlain Metrecal Powder Dietary for Weight Control (Mead Johnson
and Company, Evansville 21, Ind.). It is likely that other brands of dietary
will work as well.



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Branchus floridanus LeConte
(Fig. 1)
Several years ago Triplehorn discovered a specimen of this species
among a miscellaneous lot of Tenebrionidae submitted for determination
by the Florida Department of Agriculture. The specimen was taken in a
bird bath at Key West, Florida, 14 December 1960, by C. A. Bennett.
The species was first named by LeConte in his diagnosis of the genus
Branchus (1862, p. 223) and was later redescribed by the same author
(1866, p. 111). Despite the fact that the 1862 description was adequate
for validating the name, LeConte himself and all subsequent authors have
cited the 1866 date in referring to this species. Branchus floridanus is the
type of the genus by monotypy.
LeConte (1866) states that the specimen (Type No. 4552, MCZ), a
unique, from which his description was prepared, is from Florida, without
more precise data. Dr. Howard E. Evans (in litt.) reported that there
is one additional specimen of this species in the LeConte collection (Mu-
seum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University) labelled the same as
the type.
The Blatchley collection (Purdue University) contains one specimen
labelled Key West, Fla., 3 March 1919, W. S. Blatchley. The United States
National Museum has 33 specimens collected at Miami Beach, Fla., in
1922 and 1923 (T. J. Spilman, in letter). This is the northernmost record
and the largest series known to us. We have been unable to locate addi-
tional specimens although we have by no means conducted an exhaustive
search. Branchus floridanus has remained an exceedingly rare beetle in
collections since its discovery.
Recently Weems and Robert E. Woodruff succeeded in collecting 28
more specimens. All were in sand and debris near the beach on Big Pine
Key, 6 May 1961. Triplehorn picked up two additional specimens (both
dead) near Tavernier on Key Largo, 17 July 1963. They were several
hundred yards from the ocean beach in the grass around buildings.
Little variation is evident in the specimens available, perhaps the great-
est being the normal sexual dimorphism. Males are slightly smaller and
less robust than the females. Males ranged from 11.9-13.7 mm in length
and 6.2-7.3 mm in width. Females varied from 12.6-14.7 mm in length
and 7.3-8.1 mm in width. The sculpture, punctation and dorsal vestiture
of small yellowish scale-like setae are remarkably similar throughout the
series. The narrow, longitudinal impunctate median line on the pronotum
mentioned by LeConte is more or less conspicuous on all of them. Several
other small, rounded imptinctate areas in the lateral discal regions are evi-
dent and rather constant in location. These are visible without magnifi-

1 Dept. Zoology and Entomology, The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio.
2 Div. of Plant Industry, Fla. Dept. Agric., Gainesville, Fla.

The Florida Entomologist

I 4J


Fig. 1. Branchus floridanus LeConte, 9. Big Pine Key, Florida.
(Line = 5 mm)

Palembus ocularis Casey
In the course of a revisionary study of the Nearctic Diaperini, Triple-
horn (in press), found that this species is very rare in collections. Only
18 specimens were encountered during a thorough search of 30 of the
larger insect collections in North America. Most of these came from
islands of the West Indies.
Both the genus and species were described by Casey in 1891. The type
locality was given simply as Florida. Since then it has been taken at Key
West as well as several islands of the West Indies. It has also been inter-
cepted at Tampa on a ship from Mariel, Cuba.


Vol. 47, No. 4

Triplehorn: Two Rare Beetles from Florida

Data accompanying specimens indicate a rather intimate association
between this beetle and tamarind (Tamarindus indicus L.), a leguminous
tree native to the Old World tropics but frequently planted as an ornamen-
tal in Florida and the New World tropics.
On a recent collecting trip, we were shown several specimens of P.
ocularis collected in seed pods of a tamarind growing on a lawn at Home-
stead, Fla., by Mr. James Richardson. On 19 July 1963 we systematically
collected seed pods from the same tree and succeeded in obtaining 13 more
specimens. This is the northernmost record for this beetle which is per-
haps limited by the distribution of the tamarind plant.
Still more recently, October 15, 1963, Weems collected 35 more speci-
mens from pods on a tamarind tree at Stock Island near Key West, Fla.,
emphasizing once again that many species are not actually rare if one
knows where to look.
Specimens of both species discussed above are deposited in the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods and The Ohio State University insect col-
Grateful acknowledgement is expressed to Mr. Robert E. Woodruff
of the Florida Department of Agriculture for providing many of the speci-
mens for this study and to Dr. Howard E. Evans of the Museum of Com-
parative Zoology at Harvard University for consulting the LeConte col-
LeConte, John L. 1862. Classification of the Coleoptera of North Amer-
ica. Prepared for the Smithsonian Institution. Smiths. Misc. Coll.
136: 209-286 (Part I, continued).
LeConte, John L. 1866. New species of North American Coleoptera. Pre-
pared for the Smithsonian Institution. Smiths. Misc. Coll. 167: 87-
168 (Part I, concluded).
Triplehorn, Charles A. (in press). A revision of the Diaperini of America
North of Mexico with notes on extralimital species (Coleoptera:
Tenebrionidae). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.


The next annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society will be
held 22-24 Sept. 1965 at the Robert Meyer Motor Inn in Orlando.




How can they serve you?

SHELL Chemical Company, in coopera-
tion with federal, state and local agri-
cultural specialists, is continually striving
to help farmers reach higher agricultural
goals. Products such as aldrin, dieldrin,
endrin, methyl parathion, Phosdrin and
Vapona Insecticides have been of major
assistance to the farmer, homeowner and
industry. So have D-D and Nemagon
Soil Fumigants and Aqualin herbicide,
slimicide, biocide.
These products have proved their effec-
tiveness and versatility by solving many
of the economic pest problems confront-
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ing equally useful in a growing number
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write: Shell Chemical Co., Agricultural
Chemicals Division, 110 West 51st Street,
New York 20, N. Y.

Product No. Agricultural No. Non-Agricultural No. Pests
Crop Uses Uses Controlled

Dieldrin 153
Aldrin 159
Endrin 37
Insecticide 51
Methyl Parathion 23
Nemagon Soil 49
D-D Soil 50

Agricultural Chemicals Division

L *There are more than 130 species of nenma-
todes known to attack plants. Nemagon and
D-D Soil Fumigants control most of these.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville

The hunting billbug, Sphenophorus venatus vestita (Chttn.) is wide-
spread in the eastern United States. It will feed on many kinds of grasses,
although in Florida it has been of importance almost exclusively on zoysia-
grass. Occasionally, damaging numbers have occurred in Bermudagrass.
This billbug is not a major turf pest in Florida, but it is a continuing seri-
ous problem in zoysiagrass nurseries. Kelsheimer (1956) first reported
the hunting billbug as a pest in Florida nurseries, and described the injury
it causes. Kerr (1959), reporting on test work in a turf nursery, stated
that the organic phosphorous insecticides were superior to chlorinated
hydrocarbons, and that phorate appeared to give the best control. Nema-
cide and carbophenothion have also been used for control, but growers have
commented that none of these three materials has given the high degree
of control they would like to achieve. Accordingly, further test work was
set up in the winter of 1963-64.


The test was conducted on Emerald zoysiagrass growing on muckland
in a south Florida turf nursery. Plot size was 100 square feet. There
were three replicates in a completely randomized design. Spray formula-
tions were applied with a sprinkling can, with approximately 5 gallons of
drench put on each plot. Granulated insecticides were shaken on to the
grass with large "salt shaker" jars, followed by 21/-3 gallons of water
(applied by sprinkling can) to wash the granules off the grass foliage.
The date of application was 25 November 1963. Table 1 shows the ma-
terials and dosages used. Chemical names of the proprietary compounds
mentioned are: SD 7438-toluene-a,a-dithiol bis(O,O-dimethyl phosphoro-
dithioate); Nemacide-O-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)0,0-dimethyl phosphorothio-
ate; Methyl-Ethyl Guthion-1:1 mixture of O,0-dimethyl S-4-oxo-1,2,3-ben-
zotriazin-3(4H)-ylmethyl phosphorodithioate and O,0-diethyl S-4-oxo-1,2,3-
benzotriazin-3(4H)-ylmethyl phosphorodithioate; N 2790-O-ethyl-S-phen-
yl-ethylph'osphonodithioate; Baygon-O-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarba-
mate; Di-Syston@-O,O-diethyl S-2-(ethylthio) ethyl phosphorodithioate;
Bayer 25141-0,0-diethyl O-p-(methylsulfinyl) phenyl phosphorothioate.
On 6 February and again on 2 March 1964, counts were taken of hunting
billbugs by cutting 1-foot-wide strips through each plot with a sod cutter.
These strips, 1%1-2 inches thick, were turned over, and both the underside
of the cut piece of turf and the furrow left by the turf's removal were ex-
amined. Larvae, pupae, and adults were counted. On 6 February, 10
square feet of strip were examined in each plot; on 2 March, 18 square
feet were examined in each plot. An analysis of variance was made of the
data, and significant differences between means were ascertained by Dun-
can's New Multiple Range Test.

1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 2027.

The Florida Entomologist


Table 1 shows the average number of billbugs per plot for each treat-
ment on each date. B 25141 (at a suggested nematicidal dosage), Di-Sys-
ton, and Baygon were consistently the most effective, although not signifi-
cantly better than N-2790 and phorate. Phorate was used at only one-half
the dosage of Di-Syston, Baygon, and N 2790, and one-fourth the dosage
of B 25141. Indications are that, pound for pound, phorate is as effective
as these other materials.



Average Average
number number
Lbs. active billbugs per billbugs per
ingredient 10 square feet 18 square feet
Treatment per acre 6 Feb. 1964* 2 Mar. 1964*

Check 17.7 ab 25.0 a
Dieldrin 1.5E 5 22.0 a 22.0 a
Carbophenothion 2E 10 16.7 abc 15.7 ab
Carbaryl 80% sprayable 10 14.7 abc 21.0 a
SD 7438 2E 10 14.3 abc 22.0 a
Nemacide 8E 20 12.3 bcd 17.7 ab
Methyl-Ethyl Guthion 2E 5 11.7 bcd 14.0 abc
Phorate 10% granules 5 8.0 cde 7.7 bcd
N 2790 5% granules 10 6.7 de 6.3 cd
Baygon 1.5E 10 4.7 de 5.0 cd
Di-Syston 6E 10 2.0 e 4.0 cd
B 25141 4E 20 1.3 e 0.7 d

Averages not followed by the same
by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test.

letter are significantly different at the 5% level


Kelsheimer, E. G. 1956. The hunting billbug, a serious pest of Zoysia.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69: 415-418.
Kerr, S. H. 1959. Progress in insect research on lawns-1959. Proc.
Univ. Fla. Turf-Grass Management Confer. 7: 92-97.

Vol. 47, No. 4


William Gardner Cowperthwaite, State Department of Agriculture, Di-
vision of Plant Industry, was born in Brooklyn, Kings County, New York,
10 May 1919. He died 3 February 1964 in Gainesville, Florida, when nine
passengers and a pilot were
killed in a plane accident. After
attending public schools in New
Jersey, he received from Rut-
gers his Bachelor of Science in
1942, Master of Science in 1948,
JIl and Ph.D. (Plant Physiology) in
^ 1950. He served in the U. S.
Coast Guard from June 1942
through February 1946 as a
da Lieutenant J.G. He held a
graduate fellowship from 1946
.- to 1950. He worked with the
University of Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station at the
Gulf Coast Station at Braden-
ton as Horticulturist from 1950
to 1952. From 1952 to 1954 he
was a nematologist for the E.
I. duPont de Nemours and Com-
pany, Kennett Square, Penn.
From 1954 to 1957 he was man-
ager of the Florida Growers,
Incorporated, Delray Beach, Florida. On 14 October 1957 he was appointed
Assistant Plant Commissioner to the State Plant Board of Florida. He
was appointed Plant Commissioner 22 November 1957 and Director of the
Division of Plant Industry, Florida State Department of Agriculture, 16
January 1961, when the State Plant Board became the Division of Plant
Industry. As Director, he guided the programs for the eradication of
the Mediterranean fruit fly for the third and fourth times in 1962 and
1963 from three south Florida counties at a cost of one million dollars.
He was also instrumental in further developing the citrus budwood cer-
tification program which provides Florida with disease-free citrus stock.
He established the barrier system for containing spreading decline of
citrus whereby treatments using fumigants in strips between healthy and
diseased trees are applied to prevent the spread of Radopholus similis,
the burrowing nematode. He was a member of Alpha Zeta, Gamma Sigma
Delta, Society of Sigma Chi, Florida Horticultural Society, Florida Ento-
mological Society, Entomological Society of America, Southern Plant Board,
and National Plant Board. He held Honorary Life Membership in the
Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association and was institutional rep-
resentative to Boy Scout Troop 83. He was the author of numerous ar-
ticles and papers dealing with horticulture and plant pest control. He
was a member of the Holy Trinity Episcopal Church and was a vestryman
at the time of his death. He is survived by his wife, the former June Skin-
ner, and three children, Robert William, 15; Stephen Skinner, 14; and Ann
Peocock, 12.
H. A. DENMARK, Division of Plant Industry, Fla. Dept. Agric.


":.,' : *
ii.i.i*m "*
**!" *


The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 47, No. 4


Concepts of Forest Entomology. Kenneth Graham. Reinhold Publishing
Corp., New York, 1963. 388 p. illus. $9.50.
Professor Graham has skillfully combined practical and theoretical con-
cepts in one compact volume. Drawing heavily from basic ecological and
population studies, the author outlines or analyzes principles in the first
six chapters. Chapter 7 concerns applied control while the final chapter
consists of 935 well-chosen references, many from foreign sources.
In chapter 1, applied forest entomology is related to forestry and zo-
ology. An analytical insect case history illustrates the interpretation of
biological findings. Chapter 2 concerns life processes in insects and their
relation to environmental factors. Special attention is given to the the-
oretical spacial distributions of insect populations. Criteria for detecting
conditions favoring outbreaks are discussed briefly in chapter 3 followed
by host damage symptoms useful in detecting and identifying forest pests.
The principal orders and families of economic forest insects are exempli-
fied in drawings.
Chapter 4 describes population sampling procedures. Good examples
are given of relations between stand or tree condition and susceptibility to
insect attack. The expectation of different degrees of damage at different
levels of infestation also is shown. Methods for assessing physical and
economic damage are included in chapter 5. Especially valuable is a dis-
cussion of mill studies relating insect attack to lumber yield and grade.
Factors in population fluctuations appear in chapter 6, with recognition
that the relative importance of these factors is poorly understood. The
bases for making control decisions and for determining suitable control
objectives are covered in chapter 7. A wide variety of preventive and
corrective treatments is considered.
Some of the details (e.g., Ips overwintering habits) given for British
Columbia obviously do not hold for other locations. Despite such minor
limitations, this work is a major contribution to the forest entomological
literature. Because it incorporates basic principles drawn from world
sources, it should serve entomologists, foresters, and ecologists for many
years.-R. C. WILKINSON.



The 47th annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society was held
at the Beach Club Hotel in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, on 23-25 Sept. 1964.
A pre-meeting "bull session" on submitted topics was held the evening of
23 September, with A. J. Rogers as moderator.
President G. W. Dekle opened the convention at 9 AM on 12 Sept. One
hundred thirty-eight persons registered. Thirty-two papers were presented,
including these five invitational papers:
Life on Formosa (emphasis on agriculture), illustrated with slides.
Dr. Clay Lyle, Michigan State University Advisory Group.
Southern Regional Pesticide Residue Research Laboratory. C. H. Van
Middelem, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville.
Opportunities for entomologists in industry. Willard M. Fifield, Secre-
tary-Manager, Florida Agricultural Research Institute, Gainesville.
The entomologist in structural pest control. Lee C. Truman, President,
National Pest Control Association.
The Aedes aegypti eradication program in the United States. Harry
D. Pratt. Aedes aegypti Eradication Branch, CDC Public Health Serv-
ice, Atlanta, Georgia.
The first business meeting was called to order at 11:50 AM, 24 Sept.,
by President Dekle. Seventy-five members were present.
The minutes of the 46th meeting were presented, and S. H. Kerr indi-
cated the need for an addition in the wording of the change in the By-Laws.
The sentence "Previous to December 1 the editors' . . should have been
"Previous to December 1 of the editors' . . ". A motion to make the
change was made, seconded, and passed by voice vote. The President
ordered the minutes approved as corrected.

After our first meeting we agreed that the income from this fund should
be made available to the editor of the Florida Entomologist to increase the
number of pages, thus reducing the interval between submitting and pub-
lishing a manuscript.
However on checking the constitution of the Society, we find there is
some question as to whether this committee and its recommendations are
needed. According to Article V, Section 1, the Society can have two types
of funds: general funds and a permanent fund. If this reserve fund is
part of the general fund, and according to the Business Manager it is,
then it can be disbursed without special approval of the individual Society
member. On the other hand, if these monies are in a permanent fund, and
according to Article V, Section 3, at least a part of the interest the reserve
fund money has earned should be in this category, then recommendations
for the expenditure of these funds must come from the Executive Commit-
tee and then be approved by the members at a meeting.
J. L. Nation
F. W. Mead
F. A. Robinson, Chairman

A motion to accept the report was made, seconded, and passed by voice
vote. No action was taken on the matters considered in the report, since
the status of the two types of funds is to receive further consideration.

The idea of the new exhibit was to make something light that could
be carried easily. The old exhibit weighs over 100 lbs. and is large. The
new exhibit weighs less than 25 lbs.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 47, No. 4

New pictures would cost about 3 dollars apiece, or 48 dollars for the
16 pictures in a display. The aluminum folding table cost almost 20 dollars.
The art work and lettering cost 25 dollars. Adding a few dollars for mis-
cellaneous, the total in rounded figures is 100 dollars for a 2-panel exhibit.
The committee moves that up to 40 dollars be authorized to purchase
eight new color prints of existing pictures or of new pictures, and that up to
two new exhibits be constructed at a cost of 100 dollars apiece.
J. E. Brogdon
R. E. Waites
M. Murphey, Chairman

The motion was seconded. H. A. Denmark moved an amendment to
the motion which would continue our having an Entomology in Action
Exhibit Committee, and would also instruct the incoming President to
designate a sub-committee to consider the various phases of entomology
which might be depicted in the display. The motion to amend was seconded
and carried by voice vote. The motion as amended was passed by voice
President Dekle appointed the following committees:
Auditing: R. P. Tomasello, Chairman; P. E. Frierson; A. S. Mills.
Resolutions: W. B. Gresham, Chairman; B. L. Collier; J. B. O'Neil.

We started the year with 268 members; we added a total of 72 mem-
bers during this year; we lost 28; we ended the year with a good total of
W. B. Gresham
P. J. Hunt
J. R. Connell, Chairman

A motion was made to accept the report of the Membership Committee.
The motion was seconded and passed by voice vote.
President Dekle announced that following a mail balloting, Dr. A. N.
Tissot, Entomologist Emeritus of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, had been elected to Honorary Membership in the Florida Entomologi-
cal Society.
Two certificates are being awarded. They read as follows:
The Florida Entomological Society presents to Dr. Robert E. Waites
this certificate of distinguished service for outstanding contribution to the
Society as Treasurer-Business Manager 1958-1964.
The Florida Entomological Society presents to Dr. Lewis Berner this
certificate of distinguished service for outstanding service to the Society
as Editor of THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST 1950-1963.
E. G. Kelsheimer
L. A. Hetrick
R. F. Hussey, Chairman

A motion was made to accept the report of the Honors and Awards
Committee. The motion was seconded and passed by voice vote. The Sec-
retary was instructed to convey the certificates to Drs. Waites and Berner.
The first business session was adjourned by President Dekle at 12:10
The second business meeting was convened by President Dekle at 12:05
PM on 25 September. Fifty members were present.
President Dekle asked that the membership stand and offer one minute
of silent prayer for the late Dr. W. G. Cowperthwaite.


Minutes of the 47th Annual Meeting


The Public Relations Committee is one of the youngest functioning
permanent committees of the Society, being established only two years
ago by the 45th Annual Meeting. The committee made excellent progress
during the first year of its existence under the leadership of A. J. Rogers
as evidenced by the 1962-63 report of the committee's activities.
This is a report of the committee's endeavors during its second year of
activity, 1963-64.
Lewis Berner, who was appointed for a one-year term by former Presi-
dent Henry H. True, was replaced by C. E. Brian on appointment by Pres-
ident G. W. Dekle. At the conclusion of this report, the terms of office
of three present members, C. E. Brian, J. R. King, and W. B. Tappan, will
be terminated.
In the field of public education and publicity for entomology, Jim Brog-
don did an excellent job for the committee. He made about 15 talks to
various groups in which approximately the first 10 minutes were devoted
to an explanation of the science and profession of entomology, what en-
tomologists do, and how they contribute to the health, wealth and happi-
ness of man. These talks were made to 4-H club boys and girls, home
demonstration agents and leaders, nurserymen, garden supply dealers, and
to the general public through schools devoted to ornamentals and lawns.
Jim was also active in securing advanced publicity for the current an-
nual meeting, and is working with Henry H. True, Chairman, Local Ar-
rangements Committee, as radio and TV coordinator for local coverage of
the meeting. Jim announced through "Chemically Speaking" details con-
cerning the 47th Annual Meeting to county extension workers, agricultural
organizations, and industry. He collaborated with Dr. Hervey Sharpe,
Head, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Editorial Department, on
a news release through the Agricultural News Service, which was sent
to many leading newspapers throughout the state. Jim also collaborated
with Mr. Bob Smith, of the Experiment Station Editorial Department, for
a 4.5 minute taped radio interview about the meeting, which was sent to
40 radio stations over the state. He cooperated again with Mr. Smith in
obtaining three Agri-Spots and one Agri-News release on the meeting,
which went to a mailing list of about 125, including radio stations, county
agents who have radio programs, TV stations, newspapers, and various
periodicals. Mr. Smith gave added support to this publicity campaign by
doing two audio spots on tape concerning the meeting and sent these to
21 radio stations.
Henry H. True let no grass grow under his feet either, as he secured
two local preconvention news releases in the Fort Lauderdale News and
Sun-Sentinel and one in the Miami Herald. He appeared on a live TV in-
terview (carousel show) on Channel 10 between 7:45 and 8:00 AM. The
station reports that this show reaches approximately 50,000 to 60,000 people.
This TV interview was made possible through the cooperation of Dade
County Assistant Agricultural Agent, Mr. Louis J. Daigle. Henry, in
collaboration with Mr. Daigle, arranged for a taped radio panel interview
with G. W. Dekle, S. H. Kerr and J. E. Brogdon to be released through
Station WIOD sometime during the meeting. Henry has also insured good
advance coverage of the meeting from the Fort Lauderdale News and Sun-
Sentinel, the Broward County edition of the Miami News, and six Broward
County radio stations.
N. C. Hayslip, Chairman, Program Committee, secured photographs
and biographical material on several speakers, which have added much to
the publicity program.
In the field of legislation affecting entomology, the committee secured
an interpretation from the Attorney General of Florida of Section 482.132,
Florida Statutes, as amended by the 1963 Florida Legislature. This Sec-
tion of the Florida Statutes pertains to the qualification for a structural
pest control operator's certificate. The committee was concerned with the
relevancy of the law to graduate entomologists applying for said certifi-
cate. The Attorney General's ruling handed down on 21 Apr. 1964 states,
"An examination of the act clearly indicates legislative intent to discon-

The Florida Entomologist

tinue the period of practical experience previously required, where an ap-
plicant is the holder of a degree from a. recognized college or university
with a major in entomology." The Structural Pest Control Commission of
Florida's Rule No. 333-2.01, regarding the qualification of applicants, was
amended by the Commission to reflect the law's intent. However, Rule No.
333-2.03, Proof of Practical Experience, shows in the published rules of
the Commission, that this rule was not changed by the Commission, even
though it was implemented by Section 482.132, FS, as amended by the 1963
Florida Legislature. Several communications relevant to this rule were
exchanged with the Commission in an attempt to have it amended but the
Commission seemed adamant, even though the Commission states in their
letter of 22 June 1964 that "our interpretation that 'proof of practical ex-
perience' does not apply to a degree holder in entomology, but only to those
that do not have a recognized degree in entomology.
As reflected in the latest Notice of Examination scheduled for Decem-
ber 1964, the Commission still has made no change in the experience re-
quirements to relieve graduate entomologists of the requirement to have
performed under the supervision of a certified operator, a minimum of
fifteen jobs in each of the categories in which the applicant seeks certifi-
cation. Upon consultation with Senator Dewey M. Johnson, of Quincy,
Florida, he advised that in recourse, if any graduate entomologist should
encounter difficulty in obtaining certification under Rule No. 333-2.03, that
either a letter from the Attorney General or a declaratory decree from the
courts on this point will satisfy the Commission's rule. Further it will be
necessary to have the 1965 Legislature amend the law and spell out that
portion necessary to clarify Section 482.132, FS, regarding graduate en-
tomologists. Senator Johnson has acceded to introducing a bill in the
Florida Senate during the next session of the Legislature to clarify the
law if the incoming Public Relations Committee so desires.
In the field of general public relations the committee supported a re-
quest from Mr. Otto J. Hammer, Manager, American Trade Press Clipping
Bureau, to provide press clipping services from The Florida Entomologist
in exchange for three gratuitous copies of each issue of the journal. With
the approval of the Executive Committee, President Dekle advised the Sec-
retary to place the Clipping Bureau on the mailing list to receive the
said number of journal copies. Through the services of the Press Clipping
Bureau, the Society will receive at a very nominal cost valuable publicity
at the top level of management in the thousands of industrial, commer-
cial, research, health, welfare, advertising, and educational organizations
throughout America, which the Bureau serves.
The committee wishes to take this opportunity to pass on to the Society
and/or incoming Public Relations Committee several recommendations
which concern four important points: (1) To evaluate the worth of the
American Trade Press Clipping Bureau to the Society, the Treasurer
through the Secretary send a form questionnaire to each new advertiser,
subscriber, or member requesting whether or not their decision to adver-
tise in or subscribe to the Journal, or become a member was influenced in
any way by the Clipping Bureau's services. A report of the findings from
the questionnaire to be given at each annual meeting by the Secretary,
with accompanying figures of the net monetary value to the Society from
the report of the Treasurer. (2) The incoming Public Relations Commit-
tee study the possibility of an amendment to the By-Laws, Article II,
Section 6, which would delegate the responsibility of local publicity for
the annual meeting to the Local Arrangements Committee. (The reason
for this recommendation is clear. The Local Arrangements Committee
could arrange for more coordinated coverage by the news media in the
locale of the meeting than the Public Relations Committee, whose members
are and will be scattered over the state.) (3) The Society request of the
Program Committee an abstract of each speaker's presentation or paper,
copies of which are to be turned over to the Local Arrangements Committee
and Public Relations Committee for publicity purposes at least one month
prior to each annual meeting. (4) The Resolutions Committee draft a
resolution of appreciation to Senator Dewey M. Johnson for his kind and
courteous service to the Public Relations Committee in securing an in-


Vol. 47, No. 4

Minutes of the 47th Annual Meeting

terpretation from the Attorney General of Section 482.132, Florida Statutes,
and obtaining the cooperation of the Structural Pest Control Commission
of Florida in certifying graduate entomologists, who make application for
a Pest Control Operator's Certificate, without requiring them to show
proof of practical experience. Also, for his extension of courtesy to clarify
the law by introducing a bill in the 1965 Florida Legislature to that end.
As a matter of record, the Public Relations Committee has already notified
Senator Johnson of its appreciation for his efforts on behalf of the pro-
fessional entomologists of the Society and state by his actions in answer
to the requests of the Committee during the preceding year.
The Committee Chairman wishes also to thank the members of the
Committee, who unselfishly devoted their time and talents to the tasks
which they were called upon to perform. Without the devoted application
of these members, the job would have been doomed to failure. Thanks of
appreciation are particularly extended to others outside the Committee
ranks; Henry H. True, Hervey Sharpe, Bob Smith, Norman C. Hayslip,
Louis J. Daigle, and the many newspapers, radio, and TV stations which
aided our cause materially during the year, and made our publicity cam-
paign the success it was.
C. E. Brian
J. E. Brogdon
J. R. King
A. J. Rogers
W. B. Tappan, Chairman
A motion to approve the report of the Public Relations Committee was
made, seconded, and passed by voice vote.

28 AUGUST, 1964
Cash used for change at 46th Annual Mtg., St. Petersburg
(Ck. No. 160, $100.00, petty cash .33c) .................................... $ 100.33
Registration Fees ..........-- ...-........------ .. --- ---- -..----- 230.00
Banquet Fees .......-..........-.-----.-...- .....--...-.--.-- 455.00
Hospitality Hour Contributions ...................................... 180.00
Dues ..-........ ----------------..-----.-----..---- 1441.00
Subscriptions ....................---------........... ......- 589.50
Advertisements .....................------.....------ .... .....--..1023.06
Reprints and Plates .....................------- -- .- ..-- .. ..... 1363.73
Back Issues .......-------------............ ------........ ........---- ----.- 27.00
Cash from savings account deposited to checking account ...... 1000.00
Cash on hand 28 August, 1963 .............-.....-.---- .............---570.17
Cash to be used for change at 46th Annual Mtg. in
St. Petersburg .........................-- .... ..- ----- .-- --- $ 100.00
Chesnut Office Equipment Co.-money receipt book .................... 3.04
Andrew J. Rogers-reimbursement for Public Relations
Comm. expenses ......-...------- --------....... -----.----------..- 53.55
Outrigger Inn-Banquet, Hospitality Hour, and Coffee Breaks 670.82
Robertson Jewelers-2 Award Plaques and Engraving .............. 37.42
Storter Printing Co.-500 Programs for 46th Annual Meeting 102.23
Edward L. Wells-hand lettering honorary membership
certificate .-................................-- ...... ... ....------------.--------.. 10.00
Frisco Printing Co.-200 banquet tickets for 46th Annual
M meeting .....................................----.........--....---------..- 3.61
Western Union-telegram regarding Hercules Ad ..........--.....---.... 1.65
T. J. Walker-Rubber stamp and envelopes for Editor ............ 3.58
Storter Printing Co.-1000 Membership Application Forms ... 26.42


278 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 47, No. 4

Chesnut Office Equipment Co.-Print-O-Matic Duplicator ....... 22.55
Campus Shop & Bookstore-2000-3 x 5 index cards .............. 3.50
Imperial Wholesale Distributors-2 aluminum picnic tables
for making Fla. Ent. Soc. exhibit ..........-.............-------........ 36.84
Postmaster, Gainesville, Fla.-postage and box rent ................ 124.80
Pepper Printing Co.-Printing "The Florida Entomologist"
and reprints .---------.-.. ----..... ----.---- 3229.16
Bank Service Charges .....--------..... --..---------------. 10.90
Cash gratuity fee for Ladies Tour at 46th Annual Meeting ...... 5.00
Check returned for insufficient funds .._ .............-- ....... --------- 10.00
Cash on hand 28 August, 1964 ....................---------------. 2524.72
Savings Account-Guaranty Federal Savings & Loan Assn.... $2000.00
Total interest earned from 9 February, 1961 to 30 June, 1964.. 331.71
Cash on hand 28 August, 1964 ................... .....--------------- 2524.72

TOTAL..................... -------------------------- $4856.43
R. E. Waites, Business Manager

A motion to accept the report of the Treasurer-Business Manager was
made, seconded, and passed by voice vote.

The Committee audited the books as of 28 Aug. 1964 and found them
to be correct.
P. E. Frierson
A. S. Mills
R. P. Tomasello, Chairman
Dr. R. E. Waites, the Treasurer-Business Manager, was given a stand-
ing ovation for his many years of excellent work in office.

Recently President G. W. Dekle talked to me concerning an idea which
Mr. Friedman and he had discussed-the possibility of setting up some sort
of graduate research fellowship in memory of the late William W. Warner
of Key West, who had contributed substantially to the progress of entomol-
ogy in Florida. This fellowship would be sponsored by the Southern Mill
Creek Products Corporation. President Dekle asked that I draw up one
or more proposals for the establishment of such a fellowship. Accord-
ingly, I have had a conference with Dr. John T. Creighton to get his sug-
gestions on this subject, and I have drawn up the following proposal:
(1) A full graduate research fellowship will be established through the
Department of Entomology, University of Florida, to be known
as the William W. Warner Research Fellowship in Entomology.
This fellowship would be supported by a monthly stipend of $250.00,
for a total of $3,000 per annum. This amount would place this
position on a par with a graduate assistantship in the Department
of Entomology. (Actually, a graduate assistantship currently pays
$225.00 per month, but this amount is expected to be increased in
the near future to $250.00 per month.)
(2) An additional fund of $1,500 per year will be established for re-
search expenses-travel, equipment, supplies. Research expenses
can be furnished through departmental funds if the sponsoring
agency does not wish to provide these additional funds, but it is

Minutes of the 47th Annual Meeting

hoped that the sponsors can provide the total amount required for
a full fledged research fellowship program.
(3) The fellowship will be awarded for research in the field of athro-
pods affecting man and animals, with preference for research re-
lating to control of mosquitoes.
(4) Money for this fellowship will be deposited with the Business Man-
ager of the University of Florida, so that the position could be
awarded to the most promising graduate student available, whether
or not he is a resident of Florida. This might enable the University
of Florida to attract an exceptionally promising student from out
of state. By handling the funds through the Business Manager,
out-of-state tuition fees would be waived, whereas funds supplied
through any of several other procedures would not permit the waiv-
ing of out-of-state tuition.
(5) Selection of the student for this fellowship, for work leading to the
M.S. or Ph.D. degree, would be made by a faculty committee.
(6) Recipients of this award would be recognized at the annual meeting
of the Florida Entomological Society.
An honorarium providing funds for something less than a full research
fellowship could be established to be presented annually to the individual
selected for the honor by a faculty committee. However, as already indi-
cated, it is our hope that Southern Mill Creek Products Corporation will
elect to establish a full fledged graduate fellowship in entomology which
will be a credit to its sponsors.
H. V. Weems, Chairman

Speaking for the Society, Dr. Weems expressed appreciation to Mr.
H. J. Friedman of Southern Mill Creek Products Corporation for his gen-
erosity and willingness to help in financing such a fellowship. Dr. Weems
pointed out that because of a recent severely damaging fire in Southern
Mill Creek's plant, the Corporation could probably only make 1500 dollars
available this year, but that they anticipated donating the full 3000 dollars
in the future. The hope was expressed that some other organization could
provide a matching 1500 dollars this year.
A motion to accept the report was made, seconded, and passed by voice
Further discussion on the report to clarify its intent established that this
was only a recommended pattern in which it was hoped additional fellow-
ships, covering other areas of research, would eventually be set up. The
Society is not committed to raising funds, but is only trying to make such
fellowships possible by preparing a plan for them, and helping to set them
up. It was left to the Executive Committee to take further action on the
matter as they might see fit.
President Dekle announced that the Executive Committee had decided
to hold the 1965 Annual Meeting in Orlando, the dates and location in
Orlando to be decided later.


The following slate of officers was unanimously selected by the Nom-
inating Committee, and is presented to the members of the Florida En-
tomological Society for your consideration.
President ..................---... ......- Mr. N. C. Hayslip
Vice President.............----.................... Dr. J. R. King
Secretary...------.......................------.. Dr. S. H. Kerr
Treasurer-Business Manager-......... Dr. D. H. Habeck
Executive Committee Member......... Dr. E. D. Harris
(2 year term)
R. B. Johnson
A. K. Burditt, Jr.
G. H. Beams, Chairman


The Florida Entomologist

A motion was made to elect the slate of officers presented by the Nom-
inating Committee. The motion was seconded and passed by voice vote.
The new President, N. C. Hayslip, was escorted to the podium, and the
gavel was handed over to him by retiring President G. W. Dekle.
S. H. Kerr moved that the incoming President appoint a committee to
revise the constitution; this to consist of two sub-committees, one to pre-
pare rules of order under which our Society shall operate, and one to revise
sections of our constitution which may require additions, clarification, or
other needed changes.
President Hayslip ruled that two motions were involved, and stated to
the membership that the first was that the incoming President appoint a
committee to prepare rules of order for the Society. The motion was sec-
onded. E. D. Harris and H. V. Weems offered discussion on the desirability
of making such a committee permanent, and of naming a Parliamentarian
to advise the President. It was decided that these would be matters for
the Rules of Order Committee to consider and make recommendations on.
The motion passed by voice vote.
President Hayslip stated the second motion to be that the incoming
President appoint a committee to revise sections of the Society's constitu-
tion which may require additions, clarification, or other needed changes.
The motion was seconded and passed by voice vote.

Resolution No. 1
WHEREAS insect pests constitute a major hazard to agriculture, the public
health, and the economy of Florida, and
WHEREAS satisfactory control of destructive insect pests and potential pests
that may be introduced through travel and commerce, such as the Med Fly,
depends upon a reference collection of those pests for positive and rapid
identification, and
WHEREAS the Division of Plant Industry of the State Department of Agri-
culture has developed and maintained over the years a reference collection
consisting of approximately 320,000 specimens of native insects and poten-
tially dangerous foreign pests, and
WHEREAS this reference collection of Florida insect pests in which many
thousands of dollars of public funds are invested is presently being stored
in grossly inadequate facilities that were judged dangerous from a struc-
tural standpoint by the Engineering Department of the University, and a
fire hazard by the fire marshal at Gainesville, and
WHEREAS this overcrowded condition is endangering the proper mainte-
nance and future development of this valuable asset to the State's agri-
culture, health, and economy, now
1. The Florida Entomological Society, meeting in annual convention
at Fort Lauderdale this 25th day of September 1964, does hereby recognize
the vital importance of this basic reference collection of insect pests to
the State's agriculture, health and economy.
2. The Society does hereby go on public record in full support of all
efforts by the Department of Agriculture to secure from the 1965 legisla-
ture funds to erect and maintain adequate storage facilities for the State's
insect collection and adequate office and laboratory space for the scientists
employed by the Division of Plant Industry who are charged with the re-
sponsibility of developing and maintaining this collection and supplying
rapid and correct identification of dangerous insect specimens to assist
control personnel in protecting the State's agriculture, health, and economy
from the ravages of these pests, both domestic and foreign.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED THAT: copies of this resolution be mailed by the
Secretary of the Society to:


Vol. 47, No. 4

Minutes of the 47th Annual Meeting 281

1. The Commissioner of Agriculture.
2. The Director of the Division of Plant Industry.
3. The respective chairmen of the Committees on Agriculture in the
Florida Senate and the House of Representatives.
4. The respective chairmen of the Appropriations Committees of the
Senate and the House.
5. The Florida Agricultural Council.
6. The Florida Agricultural Research Institute.
7. Other appropriate officials and organizations to whom proposed leg-
islation on this matter might be referred.

Committee Chairman W. B. Gresham moved the adoption of the resolu-
tion. The motion was seconded. L. C. Kuitert asked that University of
Florida officials also be sent copies. President Hayslip stated this could be
done under provisions in the final statement of the resolution. The motion
was passed by voice vote.

Resolution No. 2
WHEREAS Senator Dewey M. Johnson has assisted the Public Relations
Committee of the Florida Entomological Society in securing an interpreta-
tion of Section 482.132, Florida Statutes, from the Attorney General and
in obtaining the cooperation of the Structural Pest Control Commission of
Florida in certifying graduate entomologists who make application for a
Pest Control Operator's Certificate, without requiring them to show proof
of practical experience, now

THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED THAT: the Secretary be instructed to express the
appreciation and gratitude of the Society to the Senator for his efforts.
W. B. Gresham moved adoption of the resolution. The motion was sec-
onded and passed by voice vote.

Resolution No. 3
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED THAT: the Society give recognition to the city of
Fort Lauderdale and to the Beach Club Hotel management who were forced,
because of the damage from hurricane Cleo, to exert extra effort to pro-
vide accommodations and service for our meetings.
W. B. Gresham moved the adoption of the resolution. The motion was
seconded and passed by voice vote.

Resolution No. 4
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED THAT: the Society give a standing ovation to the
Program Chairman and his Committee for the excellent balance of papers
on both basic and applied entomology.
W. B. Gresham moved adoption of the resolution. The motion was
seconded and passed by voice vote. A standing ovation was given the
Program Committee and its Chairman, N. C. Hayslip.

Resolution No. 5
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED THAT: the Society give a vote of thanks to Mr.
H. H. True and his Local Arrangements Committee.
W. B. Gresham moved the adoption of the final resolution. The motion
was seconded and passed by voice vote. The members of the Resolution
Committee were B. L. Collier, J. B. O'Neil, and W. B. Gresham, Jr., Chair-
The meeting was adjourned at 1:05 PM.
The Executive Committee met 23 Sept. 1964 at the Beach Club Hotel,
Fort Lauderdale.
S. H. Kerr, Secretary

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