Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00170
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1965
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00170
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

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Volume 48, No. 1 March, 1965

PETERSON, ALVAH-Some Eggs of Moths Among the Ole-
threutidae and Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) ....----. .....----- 1
its of Hemileius New Species (Acari: Cryptostigmata:
Oribatulidae) on Florida Orchids -.......-....- ..........----- 9
HARDING-Insecticide Sprays for Control of Insects on
Various Vegetable Crops ......--..........---------. ------------ 17
YEARIAN, W. C., AND R. C. WILKINSON-Two Larval Rear-
ing Media for Ips Bark Beetles ----_..........---------.. 25
Stem Boring Insects Associated with Soybeans in Florida 29
MUMA, MARTIN H.-Populations of Common Mites in Florida
Citrus Groves --.....-....---...----------------.. 35
RUSSELL, LOUISE M.-A New Species of Aleurodicus Douglas
and Two Close Relatives (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) --. 47
DONNELLY, THOMAS W.-A New Species of Ischnura from
Guatemala, with Revisionary Notes on Related North
and Central American Damselflies (Odonata: Coenagri-
onidae) --.....---...------ ---.-----------... 57
DE LEON, DONALD-New Tenuipalpidae (False Spider Mites)
from British Guiana with Notes on Four Described Spe-
cies ---........ .-------......... ------------------ 65
. ELLIS, LESLIE L.-An Unusual Habitat for Plea striola
(Hemiptera: Pleidae) .-. -------- ------ 77
NEWS NOTES _--...-.....-------.....-----. .. ...- -.p------ F-1... 27, 63- -/
BOOK NOTES :..i.r ....... 28, 55 ..........
Index to Volume 47, 1964 .................. ........---------. Back Cover

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


President.....-------------.. ................................................ N.. C. Hayslip
Vice-President-------..-... ...-..........................................-..........J. R. King
Secretary.....------------............... ............................................... S. H Kerr
Treasurer -.... .-.... --............... ..-........-.............................. D. H Habeck
A. K. Burditt, Jr.
G. W. Dekle
Other Members of Executive Committee....... E.D. Harris, Jr.
A. S. Mills
W. A. Simanton

Board of Managers
Thomas J. Walker..--..-----..........-..--....-- .......Editor
Stratton H. Kerr...-......---...-....-.......Associate Editor
Dale H. Habeck.-..---... -----...._--.- Business Manager

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Ohio Historical Society Museum, Columbus, Ohio

Since 1961 the author has published a series of papers on eggs of moths
in The Florida Entomologist. To date papers have appeared on types of
eggs among moths (1961) and eggs among Geometridae (1962b), Amati-
dae, Arctiidae and Notodontidae (1963a), Pyralidae and Phycitidae (1963b),
and Noctuidae (1964).
This report describes egg types seen among species of two families,
Olethreutidae and Tortricidae. The number of species in these families in
North America is moderate to large. McDunnough (1939) records 714
species for the Olethreutidae and 211 for the Tortricidae. I have seen the
eggs of more than 25 species of the Olethreutidae; 10 are figured. Many
of the remainder have not been determined to species. Eggs from 22 spe-
cies of the Tortricidae have been seen; 16 are figured.
Th- majority of the eggs seen came from gravid females captured at
black light lures located in several states. Captured females were placed
individually in polyethylene bags or in wide screw-cap vials lined with poly-
ethylene. Egg depositories, namely small smooth leaves, rough paper or
pieces of rough bark, were included in some of the containers. In nature
females of these families may deposit their eggs on foliage, fruit, stems,
or bark of trees or shrubs and occasionally elsewhere.
Eggs of the Olethreutidae are deposited singly (1, 2, 4, 7-10) and scat-
tered or in small irregular clusters (5, 6). Each egg is usually somewhat
oval and scale-like in shape with the surface adjacent to the substrate dis-
tinctly flattened. Their lengths vary from 0.4 to 1.0 millimeters. The
vertical height of an egg is usually no greater than one-half the width
of the egg. When they occur in clusters some irregular overlapping (5-6)
may be present.
The color of olethreutid eggs varies from a milky white to light green
or yellow. Some are highly translucent. Among translucent eggs (2) all
stages of the developing embryo within can be seen, especially if the egg
is located on a transparent substrate. Also the color of the substrate may
be seen through the egg. This is well illustrated among eggs of the codling
moth (10) when located on green foliage. The visible surface of the chorion
above the substrate varies somewhat in texture. It may be smooth (1),
granular or covered with distinct pimples or dimples (8), or irregular de-
pressions (7) surrounded by minute ridges. The following (1-10) are
microphotographs of ten species. All have the same magnification.
Fig. 1. Bactra verutana Zell. eggs are oval, scale-like, near white to
yellowish, and somewhat translucent. They are deposited singly and scat-

1 This investigation and cost of publication of results were supported by
a research grant from the National Science Foundation assigned to the
Ohio Historical Society Museum at Columbus, Ohio. The author is indebted
to C. P. Kimball for the determination of all but a few species of moths used
in this publication. Also the author is indebted to D. C. Schmiege for eggs
of Aderis variana Fern.

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Peterson: Eggs of Moths Among the Olethreutidae 3

tered or in small clusters with the eggs overlapping and firmly attached
to the substrate. The chorion is bright and somewhat rough possessing
tiny depressions, elevations, and a few depressed lines.
Fig. 2. Lobesia liriodendrana Kft., magnolia leaf skeletonizer eggs are
oval, scale-like, somewhat yellow, and highly translucent showing the color
of the substrate and also all stages of the developing embryo, especially
when the egg is located on a clear substrate. They are deposited singly
and scattered. The chorion is bright and possesses tiny, irregular, reticu-
lated areas, seen best in magnified kodachrome transparencies.
Fig. 3. Endothenia hebesana Wlk. eggs are round to oval, scale-lake,
and somewhat translucent showing the developing embryos within. They
are deposited in small clusters and overlap somewhat. The chorion is
bright and has a rough irregular and slightly reticulated surface.
Fig. 4. Rhyacionia rigidana (Fern.), pine shoot moth, eggs are oval,
near white, somewhat translucent showing in part the color of the plant
tissue below. They are deposited singly and scattered on pine shoots. The
chorion is bright, and possesses an irregular surface somewhat reticulated.
Fig. 5. Thiodia sp., eggs are elongated with rounded ends and are
watery white. They are deposited in small compact clusters, with some of
the eggs overlapping slightly. The chorion is distinctly rough with rounded
or transverse elevations on its visible surface.
Fig. 6. Thiodia imbridana Fern. eggs are oval, scale-like, highly ad-
hesive, watery white, and somewhat translucent. They are deposited in a
small flat mass with some of the eggs overlapping. The chorion is bright
and possesses an irregular surface.
Fig. 7. Eucosoma diffusana Kft. eggs are oval, somewhat scale-like,
light yellow, and mostly opaque. They are deposited singly with some
eggs close together. The visible portion of the chorion of each egg possesses
conspicuous, irregular reticulations with prominent ridge-like margins.
Fig. 8. Epiblema strenuana (Wlk.) eggs are oval, scale-like, watery
white, and translucent enough to show the development of the embryos
within. They are deposited in small clusters of two to five or more eggs.
The exposed chorion is bright and has a rough surface possessing irregular,
prominent, rounded elevations and depressions.
Fig. 9. Melissopus latiferreanus Riley, filbertworm moth, eggs are oval,
scale-like, watery white, and translucent. They are deposited singly and
scattered. The exposed portion of the chorion on each egg is rough and
covered with triangular depressions arranged in circles.
Fig. 10. Carpocapsa pomonella (Linn), codling moth, eggs are nearly
circular, distinctly flattened and scale-like, and highly translucent showing
the color of the substrate. This makes it difficult to see newly deposited
eggs on foliage. They are deposited singly and scattered. Prehatch eggs
show the dark heads of the larvae within. The exposed chorion possesses
many fine indentations and elevations.
All eggs of the Tortricidae seen to date occur in clusters except those
of Acleris (29, 30). Most clusters are circular (11, 15, 27, 28) or oval
(17, 26) in shape with the eggs in each cluster overlapping like shingles.
Some are deposited in a single line (19) especially when placed on needles
of evergreens. They resemble wafers placed on their edges and firmly
attached to each other. Individual eggs in most clusters are circular or
somewhat oval. They vary in length from 0.5 mm to nearly 1 mm.

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Peterson: Eggs of Moths Among the Olethreutidae 5

The color of tortricid eggs is near white, milky white, distinctly yellow
or red, or a light green. The visible surface of the chorion is usually some-
what rough. The uneven surface of the chorion under high magnification
appears to be granular (22), dimpled (25), or possesses tiny elevations
(12). Some eggs have a reticulated surface showing numerous irregular
or hexagonal areas surrounded by minute ridges (18, 30). One species
(14) coats the completed egg cluster with a white granular secretion which
obscures the reddish eggs below.
When eggs of Tortricidae hatch the larvae make exit openings (13)
in the non-covered portions. Eggs of 16 species are figured (11-30). The
figures vary in their magnification. Most of them fall into three sizes,
small (14, 19, 22, 26), medium (12, 13, 5, 20, 23, 27, 28) and large (16, 18, 21,
24, 25, 29), but some are very large (30) or very small (11).
Fig. 11 to 13. Adoxophyes negunda McD. eggs are oval, scale-like, near
white and somewhat translucent. They occur in somewhat irregular round-
ed clusters on the rough bark of sycamore (plane) trees. The 50 to 75
or more eggs in each cluster overlap somewhat uniformly (12-13). The
dark heads of the first instar larvae are visible through the chorion a day
or two before they hatch. The exposed portion of the chorion of each
egg possesses numerous pimple-like elevations in a scattered or linear dis-
Fig. 11. Adult female and eggs deposited on bark.
Fig. 12. Portion of an egg cluster greatly enlarged.
Fig. 13. Portion of a cluster of hatched eggs showing exit openings.
Fig. 14. Amorbia humerosana Clem. eggs are distinctly oval, scale-
like, and pink to red. They are deposited in dense rounded clusters of 60
or more overlapping eggs. After the eggs in a cluster are laid the female
coats the mass and its margin with a layer of near white wax-like granules
which makes the mass resemble a bird dropping. The color of the eggs is
seen best when a cluster on a clear substrate is examined from the lower
Fig. 15. Sparganothis sulfereana (Clem.) eggs are near white to yel-
low, scale-like, and oval with one end of each egg more pointed than the
other. They occur in rounded or irregular clusters of 25 to 40 or more and
overlap like shingles. The exposed surface of each egg is covered with
ridges that produce tiny irregular, somewhat hexagonal reticulations.
Fig. 16. Platynota flavedana Clem. eggs are scale-like, oval, and light
green. They are deposited in small irregular clusters with some overlap-
ping in each cluster. The exposed chorion is translucent and covered with
irregular to hexagonal areas surrounded with ridges or thickenings.
Fig. 17 and 18. Platynota rostrana (Wlk.) eggs are scale-like, oval,
and light green. They are deposited in elongated, oval, compact masses
each containing 100 to 125 uniformly overlapping ova (17). The chorion
of each egg is translucent with the exposed portion covered with rather
prominent, elongated, frequently hexagonal reticulations (18).
Fig. 17. A complete mass of ova.
Fig. 18. Portion of a mass greatly magnified.
Fig. 19. Choristoneura fumiferana Clem., spruce budworm, eggs are
wafer-like, oval, and yellowish green. They are deposited on their edges
on a spruce needle in a compact linear cluster of 25 or more ova.


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Peterson: Eggs of Moths Among the Olethreutidae 7

Fig. 20. Choristoneura obsoletana Wlk. eggs are flattened, irregular,
and a dull muddy green. They are deposited in an elongated and some-
what elevated compact mass possessing on its surface depressions, lines,
and ridges. The exposed chorion possesses many faint, tiny, nearly hex-
agonal areas.
Fig. 21. Archips georgiana (Wlk.) eggs are oval, scale-like, and near
white and may occur in an overlapping linear cluster. The visible surface
of the chorion of each egg is covered with reticulated lines that produce
tiny irregular to hexagonal areas.
Fig. 22. Archips rosaceana (Harris) eggs are oval, scale-like, yellow-
ish, and somewhat translucent. They are deposited in flat, compact, some-
what rounded clusters of 60 or more overlapping ova. The visible chorion
has a fine granular appearance with no reticulations.
Fig. 23. Archips persicana Fitch eggs are oval, scale-like, yellowish,
and slightly translucent. They are deposited in flat, compact, irregular
clusters of 30 or more overlapping ova. The visible chorion of each egg
possesses many tiny pimple-like elevations and faint indications of reticu-
Fig. 24. Tortrix clemensiana Fern. eggs are oval, scale-like, and yel-
lowish green. They are deposited in flat, compact, irregular clusters of
15 or more overlapping ova. The visible chorion of each egg is distinctly
reticulated with lines that produce tiny, irregular, frequently elongated,
hexagonal areas.
Fig. 25. Ptycholoma peritana (Clem.) eggs are oval, scale-like, and
near white to yellowish. They are deposited in small, flat masses contain-
ing eight or more slightly overlapping ova. The visible chorion on each
egg is reticulated with tiny irregular areas bounded by ridges.
Fig. 26. Argyrotaenia velutinana (Wlk.) eggs are oval, scale-like,
milky white, and highly translucent. They are deposited in flat, compact,
elongated clusters of 60 or more uniformly overlapping ova. The visible
chorion of each egg is faintly reticulated with tiny, inconspicuous, irregular
to hexagonal areas.
Fig. 27. Argyrotaenia quadrifasciana Fern. eggs are oval, scale-like,
and near white to yellowish. They are deposited in small, flat, compact,
rounded masses of 18 or more overlapping ova. The visible chorion of each
egg is covered with tiny, moderately conspicuous, irregular to hexagonal
Fig. 28. Argyrotaenia juglandana (Fern.) eggs are oval, scale-like,
and near yellow. They are deposited in small, flat, compact, rounded masses
of 20 or more overlapping ova. The visible chorion of each egg appears
to have a rough surface with prominent irregular reticulations.
Fig. 29 and 30. Acleris variana Fern. black-headed budworm eggs are
oval, Lecanium scale-like, and near yellow. They are deposited singly on
needles of northern spruces, firs, and hemlocks (29). The visible chorion
is bright and conspicuously reticulated with irregular to hexagonal areas
Fig. 29. Single eggs on separate needles of hemlock.
Fig. 30. A single egg greatly enlarged.

8 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 48, No. 1

The eggs seen among the Olethreutidae and the Tortricidae resemble
each other in many respects. All are oval or nearly circular and more or
less scale-like in shape, and the surface of each egg adjacent to the sub-
strate is flat, smooth, and firmly attached. Their color varies from near
white to light green, yellow, or red, and many are translucent. When de-
cidedly translucent the development of the embryo is visible. Very little
change in color takes place during incubation, so typical of many eggs of
other families of moths (Peterson 1962a). If the first instar larva has a
dark head it is usually visible a day or more before hatching occurs. The
chorion of some species is smooth. Among most species the chorion pos-
sesses tiny elevations or depressions. These may be in the form of reticu-
lations usually irregular in shape and size.
Most species of the Olethreutidae deposit single and scattered ova,
usually on a smooth surface. Almost all species of the Tortricidae deposit
their eggs in compact, small or fairly large, flat, round or elongated clusters
with the eggs in each cluster overlapping like shingles.
In previous publications on eggs among the Geometridae, Amatidae,
Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Pyralidae, Phycitidae, and Noctuidae it was noted
that eggs from species under a given genus usually resemble each other
closely. For the most part this is also true for the few genera seen among
the Olethreutidae and the Tortricidae, where two or more species of a given
genus have been available for observation.

McDunnough, J. 1939. Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Canada and the
United States. Part II, Microlepidoptera. Mem. S. Calif. Acad. Sci.
2(1): 1-171.
Peterson, Alvah. 1961. Some types of eggs deposited by moths. Hetero-
cera-Lepidoptera. Fla. Ent.. 44(3): 107-112.
Peterson, Alvah. 1962a. Some eggs of insects that change color during
incubation. Fla. Ent. 45(2): 81-87.
Peterson, Alvah. 1962b. Some eggs of moths among the Geometridae-
Lepidoptera. Fla. Ent. 45(3): 109-119.
Peterson, Alvah. 1963a. Some eggs of moths among the Amatidae, Arc-
tiidae and Notodontidae-Lepidoptera. Fla. Ent. 46(2): 169-182.
Peterson, Alvah. 1963b. Egg types among moths of the Pyralidae and
Phycitidae-Lepidoptera. Fla. Ent. Supplement No. 1. 1-14.
Peterson, Alvah. 1964. Egg types among moths of the Noctuidae (Lepi-
doptera). Fla. Ent. 47(2): 71-79.

The Florida Entomologist 48(1) 1965, p. 1-8.



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Oribatid mites are often found associated with orchids and seem to be
especially numerous in Florida greenhouses where growers are using vari-
ous kinds of bark for a potting medium. Occasional damage to aerial
roots has been observed by commercial growers who often attribute the
damage to the oribatid mites. Growers have made requests to the Divi-
sion of Plant Industry for control measures for these mites.
Concerning the feeding habits of oribatid mites, Woolley (1960)
Essentially, the oribatid mites are herbivorous. They feed on all
types of decaying plant material, fungi, algae, and lichens. The
food requirements differ for different species and the state of de-
composition of the food material consumed also varies.
Woolley's statement sums up the thoughts of most earlier and present day
workers on the food habits of oribatids. Woodring (1963) has summarized
the cultured or reared oribatids and listed the food sources. Most of the
mites received from orchids for identification and control belonged to the
family Oribatulidae. The mites were found on pieces of bark, clustered
on dead leaves, on aerial roots, and crawling about singly over the plant.
Mites were usually found in largest numbers on dead or dying leaves; sec-
ondly, on and under pieces of bark used for potting medium; and, thirdly,
on roots covered with green algae.

The mites for the following observations came from Miami and Gaines-
ville. The laboratory cultures died out for some unexplained reason in the
late winter of 1963-64, and the last two experiments could not be repeated.
Seven observations were made to determine the feeding habits of
Hemileius new species.
In the first observation, six adult mites and the tips of an aerial root
were placed in each of six test tubes 100 mm long and 10 mm inside di-
ameter. Three test tubes and their mites and aerial roots free of algae
were soaked for two minutes in 1:1000 parts of bichloride of mercury and
rinsed for five minutes in distilled water. Three test tubes and their
mites and aerial roots with algae were not treated with bichloride of mer-
cury. Three test tubes, each with six unsterilized mites and without an
aerial root, served as the check. All aerial roots were attached to potted
plants, and sterilized cotton was used to plug the mouth of the test tube
around the root. Mites for the observations were taken from dead Cattleya

SContribution No. 36, Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry.
2 Div. Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville,
3 Dept. Zoology, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, La.

The Florida Entomologist

Fig. 1. A. Two chambers used to confine mites on aerial roots.
B. Closeup of chamber.

Vol. 48, No. 1



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Denmark: Feeding Habits of Hemileius

No feeding signs were evident in the first observation. The mites were
often trapped against the inside of the test tube due to condensation.
In the second observation, six adults were placed in each of nine test
tubes 100 mm long and 10 mm inside diameter. Three test tubes had aerial
roots with algae growing on the surface, three test tubes had aerial roots
sterilized in the above manner, and the checks had only unsterilized mites.
All test tubes had paper towel linings to absorb condensation on the in-
side of the tube, and sterilized cotton was used to plug the mouth of the
test tube around the root. Observations could not be made without remov-
ing the roots from the paper lined test tubes. To prevent disturbing the
mites, only one observation was made after 28 days.
There were no feeding signs evident on the roots. The mites were found
on the roots with algae, on the paper lining, or caught in the cotton plugs.
To overcome the problem of space for root growth in the test tubes and
the difficulty in observing mites in paper-lined test tubes, glass tubing
25 mm in diameter was cut into 25 mm lengths. A 9:1 mixture of plaster
of paris and charcoal was used to form a bottom 10 mm deep. Holes 3-4
mm in diameter were drilled through the glass tube on opposite sides just
above the plaster of paris to accommodate the aerial root (Fig. 1). A thin
piece of Saran was used to cover the top, and modeling clay was used to
keep the small chamber in place on the aerial root and to fill any excess
space around the root to prevent the mites from escaping. Condensation
was at a minimum, and mites could be observed without disturbing them in
these small chambers.
A third observation was made with 12 mites each in the above cham-
bers with four replications of each of the following three treatments: roots
without algae and mites soaked for two minutes in 1:1000 parts of bichlo-
ride of mercury, rinsed for five minutes in distilled water and placed in
sterilized chambers; unsterilized mites with unsterilized roots covered with
algae; unsterilized mites in chambers without roots.
A fourth observation was made using the same procedure as in the
third observation, except the number of mites was increased to 25 in each
In the third and fourth observations, mites were found clustered on
roots covered with algae. These gregarious mites were feeding on algae,
but in neither observation did the mites remove enough algae in their
feeding to be evident. Mites under sterilized conditions wandered aimlessly
or clustered beneath the roots. There was no reproduction in any of the
first four observations.
A fifth observation was made using as the food source fir bark pieces
from 14 to /2 inch in diameter, placed in plastic containers 31 inches in
diameter and 2 inches deep. The bottoms of the containers were covered
with 1/ inch of 9:1 mixture of plaster of paris and charcoal. Transparent
plastic (Saran) with pin-point openings was used to cover the tops.
Twenty-five adult mites, bark, and chamber were sterilized in the above
manner; 25 adult mites, bark, and chamber were unsterilized; and 25 un-
sterilized mites were placed in an unsterilized chamber as the check. Each
treatment was replicated four times, and the chambers were placed in a
desiccator charged with ZnSO, to maintain a humidity of 82 per cent.
The adult mites in the fifth observation clustered and fed on the under-
side of the bark. Larvae and nymphs were produced, but the life cycle

The Florida Entomologist

was not completed. The colonies in both sterilized and unsterilized cham-
bers died.
A sixth observation was made with 25 adult mites and 6 one-inch squares
of dead Cattleya leaves in plastic containers. Saran with pin-point open-
ings was used to cover the top of the plastic containers 31/2 inches in di-
ameter and 2 inches deep with inch of 9:1 mixture of plaster of paris
and charcoal in the bottom. Twenty-five mites, dead leaf squares, and
chambers were sterilized in the above manner; 25 mites, leaf squares with
Actinomyces sp. growing on the surface, and chambers were unsterilized;
and the check contained only unsterilized mites. Each treatment was rep-
licated four times, and the chambers were placed in a desiccator charged
with ZnSO4 to maintain the humidity at 82 per cent.
Mites completed a life cycle (egg to adult) in 31 to 33 days in the sixth
observation. The mites fed on dead plant tissue and Actinomyces. sp.
The immature mites fed more on Actinomyces sp., and the adults fed more
on dead plant tissue. Mite colonies did not do as well on the sterilized
plant tissue, but some reproduction occurred even though no life cycles
were completed.
A seventh observation was made on pure cultures of Actinomyces sp.
grown on agar slants in test tubes. All mites were sterilized for two
minutes in 1:1000 parts of bichloride of mercury and rinsed for five min-
utes in distilled water before they were introduced into the test tubes.
Four replications were made of each of these treatments: one adult to
each test tube, five adults to each test tube, one protonymph to each test
tube, and five protonymphs to each test tube. The checks were five adults
on agar and five protonymphs on agar.
The mites feeding on pure cultures of Actinomyces sp. did not repro-
duce in the seventh observation. The protonymphs completed their life
cycles but did not lay eggs.
Conclusions and discussion: Hemileius new species is found on orchids
in the Miami and Gainesville areas. These two widely separated collections
and the numerous complaints of mites from orchid growers indicate a wide
distribution of this mite in the state. The above observations did not prove
this mite to be a pest of orchids, but it did further substantiate that oriba-
tids feed on decaying plant material, algae, and Actinonyces sp.
The damage reported to the aerial roots of orchids is probably caused
by Collembola or some other chewing insect. Growers can easily control
oribatids with almost any acaricide that is safe to use on orchids. A second
application may be necessary as a clean up spray in about 30 days since
the life cycle of Hemileius new species is approximately a month. This
mite is described below.

Hemileius nicki, new species
(Figs. 2-4)

DIAGNOSIS: H. nicki may be distinguished from H. initialis (Berlese
1908) by smaller sizes and much longer interlamellar setae; from H. tropi-
cus (Balogh 1958, 1960) by the almost round hysterosoma (H. tropicus is
elongate) and the lance-like pseudostigmatic organ; and from H. oblongus
(Ewing 1909, Woolley 1961) by shorter adanal setae, lack of downward
bending pteromorphs, and the arched dorsal sejugal suture.

Vol. 48, No. I

Denmark: Feeding Habits of Hemileius

0.l M --

Fig. 2. Adult Hemileius nicki n. sp.; ventral and dorsal views.

The Florida Entomologist

ADULT: No sexual dimorphism, average 660 u long and 460 A wide,
rather globular hysterosoma, and colored yellow to orange. Lamellae lie
close to edge of prosoma, tectopedia 1 not protruding laterally when viewed
from above, and rostrum more pointed than rounded. Lamellae short, half
the length of prosoma, and posterior lateral edge of lamellae sharply el-
bowed. Rostral setae as long or longer than lamellar setae and usually
with two curves. Interlamellar setae slightly longer than prosoma, exostig-
matal setae minute, and all dorsal prosomal setae lightly pectinate. Pseudo-
stigma partially covered by hysterosoma, oval in shape, and with rounded

Figs. 3-4. Hemileius nicki n. sp.; 3. Tritonymph; 4. Larva.

Vol. 48, No. 1

Denmark: Feeding Habits of Hemileius

lateral ectrusion. Pseudostigmatic organ with evenly oval, clavate head
and lightly pectinate on all surfaces. Notogaster with 10 small setae, 5
sacculi, and 2 slits as in Fig. 2. True area porosae lacking. Notogaster
extends slightly over the venter throughout, but more so in shoulder re-
gion. A true pteromorph formed by the fusion of 2 surfaces lacking. Anal
setae 2, adanal 3, and ventral podosomal arrangement 3-2-2-3. Ventral
podosomal apodemes complete and continuous in midline. Tectopedia 2
small and evenly rounded as in Fig. 2. Anal plate 3 times area of genital
plate, and almost twice the distance of length of genital plate from genital
plates. Four pair small genital setae arranged as in Fig. 2. All legs tri-
dactylus, with median claw twice thickness of lateral claws.
TRITONYMPH (Fig. 3): Prosoma averages 150 A long and 166 11 wide
at posterior margin. Rostral setae placed closer to midline than lateral
edges when viewed from above, and slightly more than 1/ length of lamellar
setae. Lamellar setae almost as long as prosoma. Interlamellar setae
longer than prosoma, and arising very close to pseudostigma. Exostig-
matal setae almost as long as pseudostigmatic organ. All prosomal setae
distinctly pectinate. Pseudostigma small, far removed from dorsal-sejugal
suture and almost round in shape. Pseudostigmatic organ a smaller copy
of adult's. A fine lamella runs from the pseudostigma anteriormedially
through the interlamella setal socket, then discontinuously through lamellar
setal socket. The 15 notogastral setae all dark, stout, blunt-tipped, and
distinctly pectinate. Anterior setae progressively larger than posterior
setae, so that most anterior are twice length of posterior most. Setae
c2, la, Ip, h3, and h2 with small lightly sclerotized plates surrounding
sockets. Genital setae 3, adgenital 1, anal 2, adanal 3, and ventral podoso-
mal arrangement 3-1-2-2. Ventral podosomal setae twice length of geni-
tal, adgenital, and anal; and adanal twice length of ventral podosomal
setae. All legs monodactylus.
LARVA (Fig. 4): Prosomal shield averages 40 /A long and 40 u wide
at widest point. The 3 prosomal setae in a row, exostigmatal setae minute,
and pseudostigma and organ a smaller copy of the tritonymph's. Of 10
notogastral setae only c, and la have associated minute, sclerotized plates.
Hysterosomal gland opening ventral-lateral. No anal setae, adanal 1 as
long as notogastral setae, and 2 minute adanal setae. Ventral podosomal
arrangement 2-1-2. Claparede's organ simple.
Holotype: Homestead, Florida, 22 February 1962 (J. H. Knowles), on
Cattleya sp.; type no. 3106 in the U. S. National Museum.
Paratypes: One adult on same slide as holotype; 1 adult (slide mount),
Gainesville, Florida, 11 February 1963 (H. A. Denmark), on Cattleya sp.
in the U. S. National Museum; 2 adults (alcohol specimens), Gainesville,
Florida, 23 September 1963 (H. A. Denmark), on Cattleya sp. in the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville; 2 slides of immatures, 3 slides
of adults, and 6 adults in alcohol in junior author's collection.

Balogh, J. 1958. Oribatides nouvelles de l'Afrique tropical. Rev. Zool.
Bot. Afr. 58: 1-34.
Balogh, J. 1960. Descriptions complementaires d'Oribates (Acari) d'An-
gola et du Congo Belge. (1 ere series Publ. Culturais da Com-
panhia de Diamantes de Angola. No. 51: 87-106.

16 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 48, No. 1
Berlese, A. 1908. Elenco di Generi E specie Nuove di Acari. Redia 5:
Ewing, H. E. 1909. New North American Acarina. Trans. Acad. Sci.
St. Louis 18: 53-77.
Woodring, J. Porter. 1963. The nutrition and biology of saprophytic sar-
coptiformes. In John A. Naeglle (ed.), Advances in Acarology I.
Comstock Publ. Assoc., N. Y. p. 89-111.
Woolley, Tyler A. 1960. Some interesting aspects of oribatid ecology
(Acarina). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 53(2): 251-253.
Woolley, Tyler A. 1961. Redescriptions of Ewing's oribatid mites, XI.
Family Oribatulidae (Acarina; Oribatei). Trans. Amer. Micro. Soc.
80: 1-15.

The Florida Entomologist 48(1) 1965




Carefully Executed

Delivered on Time




~ ___






Texas A&M University

The need to increase rates of currently recommended chemical insecti-
cides for control of lepidopterous and aphid pests of various vegetable
crops demands continued evaluations of the more recently developed in-
secticides. These materials can then be recommended for the control of the
pest species in the event that the recommended materials fail to control
the insect pests species or other restrictions prevent their use. Experi-
ments were therefore conducted during the spring of 1959, fall, winter, and
spring of 1962, and fall and winter of 1963, at Weslaco, Progreso, and
Crystal City to evaluate insecticides for control of the cabbage looper,
Trichoplusia ni (Hiibn.), and the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.),
on cabbage, and the corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie), on lettuce and
sweet corn.
Shorey (1963) stated that Bayer 44646, Monsanto 40273, and Zectran
effectively controlled the cabbage looper on cabbage. Shorey & Hall (1963)
showed that high dosages of Bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis were
promising for cabbage looper control. These authors also showed that
corn earworm control was obtained with DDT + toxaphene, malathion, and
toxaphene on poled tomatoes. Wolfenbarger & Getzin (1962) showed that
carbaryl effectively controlled the corn earworm on lettuce and that the
parathion + toxaphene combination, endrin, and B. thuringiensis controlled
cabbage looper populations on cabbage.


The numbers of healthy cabbage looper larvae were recorded. Larvae
were separated into those up to one-half inch in length and those longer
than one-half inch because the large loopers are more difficult to control.
Thus, if a candidate insecticide is more effective against the larger worms
than the small worms, such information would aid in recommending timing
of the toxicant for effective looper control. Aphid control was evaluated
by recording the aphids per cabbage plant. The looper larvae and aphid
data are presented as means per plant.
Two types of evaluations on corn were used: percentage loss as can-
ning corn and percentage worm-free ears. Percentage loss as canning
corn is calculated by measuring the ear length and larval feeding damage
on each ear. The loss is then expressed as percentage of total ear length.
Percentage worm-free ears was evaluated by examining each ear in each
plot for evidence of damage by the corn earworm and recorded as percent
worm-free of the total.
Tables 1 and 2 show results comparing various insecticides and insecti-
cide-oil2 combinations on plots containing 2 rows 30 feet long for cabbage

1 Technical contribution number 4699, Texas Agricultural Experiment
Station, Research and Extension Center, Weslaco, and Substation No. 19,
Crystal City, Texas.

The Florida Entomologist


Looper larvae** per plant
Toxicant* Actual 24 Oct. 1 Nov. 5 Dec. able
lbs/A S L S L S L heads %

Endrin 0.27 1.1 a 0.5 a 0.5 a 0.8 a 0 a 0.1 a 71.3 a
Zectran 2.0 0.8 a 0.6 a 0.3 a 2.6 b 0a 0.4 a 78.2 a
Untreated check 0.8 a 1.8 b 0.3 a 1.3 a 0 a 2.4 b 53.4 b

Applied 18 Oct., 30 Nov.
** See text for definition of small (S) and large (L) larvae.
t Means within the same column not followed by a common letter are significantly
different at the 5% probability level.


Mean looper
larva per plant** t
Actual S L
Materials lbs/A 15 Mar.

Ryania + IP-1 0.5 + 1.5 0.2 a 0.4 b
Ryania + P-1 0.5 + 1.5 0.1 a 0.1 a
Ryania + P-3 0.5 + 1.5 0 a 0.2 a
Ryania + N-1 0.5 + 1.5 0.3 a 0.1 a
Ryania 0.5 0.1 a 0.5 b
Naled + IP-1 0.75 + 1.5 0.3 a 0.8 c
Toxaphene + IP-1 2.0 + 1.5 0.1 a 0.1 a
Parathion + IP-1 1.0 + 1.5 0 a 0 a
Guthion + IP-1 1.0 + 1.5 0.1 a 0.1 a
Endrin + IP-1 0.25 + 1.5 0.1 a 0 a
Parathion 1.0 0 a 0 a
Endrin 0.5 0.1 a 0.1 a
Telodrin (SD 4402) 1.0 + 1.5 0 a 0.1 a
Mevinphos + P-1 1.0 + 1.5 0 a 0.1 a
Mevinphos + P-2 1.0 + 1.5 0 a 0 a
Mevinphos + IP-1 1.0 + 1.5 0 a 0 a
Mevinphos + NS 139 1.0 + 0.25 0 a 0 a
Check 2.0 b 1.4 d

Applied 5 Feb., 14 Feb., 8-9 March.
** See text for definition of small (S) and large (L) larvae.
t Refer to footnote t, Table 1.

Vol. 48, No. 1

Wolfenbarger: Sprays for Control of Insects

looper control on cabbage (Marion Market variety). The plots were
sprayed at the rate of 27 gallons per acre, using 3 nozzles per row and
35 psi.
Table 3 summarizes results from 2 tests on sweet corn (Golden Security
variety) for corn earworm control. The plots in both experiments were
sprayed at the rate of 40 gallons per acre and 35 psi with 2 nozzles per
row directed at the ears.


Percent loss
Actual as canning Per cent worm
Material lbs/A corn* t free ears** t

CP 40294 1.0 40 a -
CP 40294 2.0 38 a 80 a
CP 40294 4.0 87 a
DDT 2.0 34 a 81 a
Bidrin 1.0 33 a 84 a
Check 45 b 36 b

Applied 14 May, 18 May, 22 May, 26 May with first application made at 25% silk
on plots 1 row wide and 20 feet in length, spring 1962.
** Applied 22 Oct., 24-25 Oct., and 26 Oct. with first application made at 50% silk on
plots 1 row wide and 40 feet in length, fall 1962.
t Refer to footnote t, Table 1.

Table 4 summarizes results of applications of various phosphate and
carbamate insecticides which were evaluated for cabbage looper and cab-
bage aphid control on cabbage (Marion Market variety). Plots 25 feet
long and 1 row wide were sprayed at the rate of 40 gallons per acre using
3 nozzles per row and 40 psi.
Data in Table 5 summarize the results of treatments applied to sweet
corn (Calumet variety) on plots .5 rows wide by 40 feet long. The DDT
granules were applied by hand on 30 April when the first ear shoots ap-
peared, and the DDT and the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Thuri-
cide) sprays were applied on 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 May at the rate of 10
gallons of liquid per acre directed towards the silks when the first silks
appeared. All treatments were evaluated 20 May by determining the num-
ber of worm-free ears.
Lettuce (Valverde variety) plots, 1 double row wide and 25 feet long,
were sprayed with various chemical insecticides and the bacterium Bacillus
thuringiensis (Backthane) for corn earworm control (Table 6). The
plots were sprayed at 60 psi with a small plot tractor mounted sprayer
equipped with 3 nozzles per row which delivered 39 gallons per acre. The
sprays were initiated after 1.7 eggs and 1 worm per plant were found.
The treatments were evaluated by counting the number of worms per 10
plants, and the number of heads damaged by larval feeding was recorded.

2 The oils used in these evaluations were obtained from R. W. White,
Research & Development, Humble Oil and Refining Company, Baytown,

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 48, No. 1

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Wolfenbarger: Sprays for Control of Insects

Damage was found by examining each head leaf after the head and 3-4
wrapper leaves were cut from the root. When corn earworm larval feed-
ing tunnels were evident, examination ceased, and the head was recorded
as infested. The larval counts on the 14 April evaluation equalled the
number of infested heads because of this insect's cannabilistic habits.
Therefore, it was considered that either larval counts or number of in-
fested plants were suitable for evaluating insecticidal efficacy.
Some of the important chemical and physical properties of the oils
used in these experiments were defined by Wolfenbarger and Getzen (1963).
The surfactant NS139 is an ethylene oxylated mercaptan. The propietary
insecticides compared are listed with their chemical name:

Bayer 25141-0,0 diethyl O-p (methylsulfinyl) phenyl phosphorothio-
Bayer 37344-4-(methyl thio)-3,5-xylyl methylcarbamate.
Bayer 44646-4-dimethylamino-m-tolyl methylcarbamate.
Bidrin@-3-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl cis-croton-amide dimethyl phosphate.
General Chemical 1283-dodecachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-metheno-2 H-cyclo-
buta (c,d) pentalene.
Giegy 30494-0,0-dimethyl S-2,5-dichlorophenylmercaptomethyl phos-
Guthio n O,0-dimethyl S-4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazin-3(4H)-ylmethyl
Methyl-Ethyl Guthion@-O,0-dimethyl S-4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazin-3(4H)-
ylmethyl phosphorodithioate and O,0-diethyl S-4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazin-
3(4H)-ylmethyl phosphorodithioate-1:1 ratio.
Hercules 5727-N-methyl m-isopropylphenyl carbamate.
Monsanto 40273-O-(p-nitrophenyl)-O-propyl methylphosphonothioate.
Monsanto 40294-O-(p-nitrophenyl) O-phenyl methyl phosphonothioate.
Niagara 9205-N-methyl-5-(diethoxyphosphinothiothiol)-3-thiapentana-
Shell Development 8448 Phosphoric acid,2-chloro-l-(2,4,5-trichloro-
Telodrin-1,3,4,5,6,7,8-8-octachlro 1,3,3,4,7,7a hexahydro-4,7-methanoiso-
Zectran@-4-dimethylamino-3,5-xylyl methylcarbamate.

In all experiments, plots were arranged in a randomized complete block
design with four replications. All evaluations were statistically analyzed
and means were compared by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test at the
5% level.
The data in Table 1 show that Zectran was equal in effectiveness to
endrin for control of the cabbage looper 5-6 days after the last application
but not at 12 days. At the end of the season, both insecticides had signifi-
cantly more marketable heads than did the untreated check.
The data in Table 2 indicate that all the insecticides were superior to
the untreated check for small cabbage looper control.
The results of two corn earworm experiments (Table 3) show that
Monsanto 40294 and Bidrin were not significantly superior to DDT.

22 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 48, No. 1

The data in Table 4 show results with carbamate and phosphate insecti-
cides for cabbage looper and cabbage aphid control. Endrin, Monsanto
40294 (1.0 lb/A), Zectran, parathion, Bidrin, surfactant NS 139 combina-
tion were significantly superior for looper control on the 10 October sam,
pling date. On the second sampling date, sprays were superior to the un-
treated check for large loopers. Endrin was the best material on all
sampling dates. The methyl carbamate type insecticides were generally
effective and equal in effectiveness for cabbage looper control, but the data
appear to indicate that multiple applications are required for maximum
effectiveness. Endrin was the most effective material for cabbage aphid
control. Mevinphos, Guthion, Monsanto 40294 (1.0 lb/A) parathion, Bidrin-
oil surfactant combinations and Bayer 37344 were significantly superior to
the untreated check for cabbage aphid control. Endrin, Bayer 37344, para-
thion, Monsanto 40294, Guthion, and Bidrin-oil surfactant combinations
were significantly superior to the untreated check in relation to per cent
marketable heads. Bayer 37344 and Zectran were superior carbamate in-
secticides compared to Bayer 44646 for cabbage aphid control.
Data in Table 5 show that five applications of DDT at 1.5 pounds per
acre at 2-day intervals gave 47% more worm-free ears than one application
of granulated DDT at 1.5 lbs per acre directed towards the whorl and
developing ear shoots in the Winter Garden area of Texas. Thus, the data
show that DDT as a foliar spray was approximately equal in effectiveness
in the Lower Rio Grande Valley and the Winter Garden area of Texas.
DDT sprays were also superior to 5 applications at 2-day intervals of
1 and 2.5 pounds of the bacterium B. thuringiensis.


Actual No. of Per cent
Materials* lbs/A applications worm free ears**

DDT 1.5 5 71 a
DDT* 1.5 1 24 b
Bacillus thuringiensist 1.0 5 21 b
Bacillus thuringiensist 2.5 5 23 b
Check 25 b

** Refer to footnote t, Table 1.
f Thuricide 3.0 x 101 spores per gram.

The data in Table 6 show that endosulfan was the most effective ma-
terial for corn earworm control on lettuce on the 23 April sampling date.
Bayer 25141, Giegy 30494, Monsanto 40294, and the bacterium B. thur-
ingiensis were superior to the untreated plots on the 23 April sampling
date. Telodrin gave fewer infested heads than the remaining treatments
on the 14 March sampling date. Monsanto 40294 and carbaryl were also
effective insecticides for corn earworm control.

Wolfenbarger: Sprays for Control of Insects

WESLACO, 1963.

Mean per 10 plants

Mean Per cent
Actual larvae infested plants
Material* lbs/A 23 March 14 April

Guthion 0.5 1.8 ab 3.5 abc
Methyl-Ethyl Guthion 0.5 2.0 ab 4.0 abc
Bayer 37344 1.0 3.0 b 4.0 abc
Zectran 1.0 2.3 ab 3.3 abc
Zectran 2.0 1.3 ab 2.5 abc
General Chemical 1283 1.0 1.5 ab 3.5 abc
Hercules 5727 2.0 2.0 ab 4.5 be
Endothion (NIA 5767) 1.0 2.8 b 4.0 abc
Niagara 9205 1.0 2.5 ab 2.8 abc
Bayer 25141 0.5 0.8 ab 2.8 abc
Giegy 30494 0.5 0.8 ab 3.5 abc
Menazon 1.0 1.5 ab 3.8 abc
Telodrin (SD 4402) 0.3 1.0 ab 0.8 a
Monsanto 40294 1.0 0.8 ab 1.3 ab
Bidrin (SD 3562) 1.0 1.0 ab 2.5 abc
Carbaryl 1.0 1.5 ab 2.3 abc
Carbaryl 2.0 1.8 ab 1.5 ab
Endosulfan 0.5 2.0 ab 2.3 abc
Endosulfan 1.0 0.3 a 2.3 abc
Naled 1.0 1.8 ab 2.0 abc
Naled 2.0 1.5 ab 4.8 bc
Bacillus thuringiensis** 3.0 1.5 ab 5.3 c
Bacillus thuringiensis** 6.0 2.5 ab 2.8 abc
Bacillus thuringiensist 1.0 1.5 ab 4.5 be
Bacillus thuringiensist 2.0 0.8 ab 2.0 abc
Bacillus thuringiensist 2.0 2.8 b 3.8 abc
Bacillus thuringiensis$ 4.0 1.0 ab 3.3 abc
Check 1.8 ab 3.8 abc

* Applied 8 Mar., 10 Mar., and 26 Mar.
** Biotrol 2.5 X 1010 spores per gram.
t Backthane 7.5 X 1010 spores per gram.
: Thuricide 3.0 X 1010 spores per gram.
Refer to footnote t, Table 1.


Shorey, H. H. 1963. Field experiments on insecticidal control of lepidop-
terous larvae on cabbage and cauliflower. J. Econ. Ent. 56(6):877-
Shorey, H. H., and I. M. Hall. 1963. Toxicity of chemical and microbial
insecticides to pest and beneficial insects of poled beans. J. Econ.
Ent. 56(6): 813-817.

24 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 48, No. 1
Wolfenbarger, Dan A., and L. W. Getzin. 1962. Chemical and biological
insecticides for cabbage looper and corn earworm control. Texas
Agr. Exp. Sta. Prog. Rept. 2255.
Wolfenbarger, Dan A., and L. W. Getzin. 1963. Acaracides and insecti-
cide-oil combinations for control of the mite, Tetrnaychus marianae
McG., on tomatoes and eggplant. Texas Agr. Exp. Sta. Prog. Rept.
Workman, R. B. 1962. Insecticidal control of the cabbage looper, Trico-
plusia ni (Hbn.) in the Hastings, Florida area. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. Proc. 75: 143-146.

The Florida Entomologist 48(1) 1965


Complete Line of Insecticides, Fungicides and
Weed Killers
Ortho Division

Located at Fairvilla on Route 441 North

F,-- -- F------------

P. 0. Box 7067


Phone CY 5-0451


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla.

Studies on the interrelations of Ips bark beetles and blue stain fungi
of the genus Ceratocystis have resulted in the development of two new
larval rearing media: (1) a modification of the artificial medium described
by Yearian and Wilkinson (1963); (2) a phloem-based, semi-artificial me-
dium. The media are prepared according to the following formulae
(amounts sufficient to make 100 grams of diet):

(1) Modified artificial medium
Alphacel (powdered cellulose)3 45.00 g
Agar 2.00 g
Sucrose 1.00 g
Fructose 1.00 g
Vitamin Diet Fortification Mixture' (in dextrose)3 1.00 g
Brewers' yeast 1.00 g
Soybean protein 1.00 g
Choline chloride 0.05 g
Cystine 0.05 g
Glycine 0.05 g
Cholesterol 0.05 g
Wesson's salts 0.25 g
Sorbic acid 0.20 g
Methyl para-hydroxybenzoate 0.15 g
Streptomycin sulfate 0.01 g
Peanut oil 0.35 ml
Water 47.00 ml
(2) Phloem-based, semi-artificial medium
Pine phloem (fresh weight) 46.00 g
Agar 2.00 g
Sucrose 1.00 g
Fructose 1.00 g
Vitamin Diet Fortification Mixture (in dextrose)3 0.50 g
Brewers' yeast 1.00 g
Soybean protein 1.00 g
Wesson's salts 0.10 g
Sorbic acid 0.20 g
Methyl para-hydroxybenzoate 0.15 g
Streptomycin sulfate 0.01 g
Water 47.00 ml

1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 2085.
SThis research was supported in part by the Southern Forest Disease
and Insect Research Council, Atlanta, Ga. The assistance of W. J. Cole-
man is gratefully acknowledged.
3 Nutritional Biochemicals Corp., Cleveland 28, Ohio.

26 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 48, No. 1

Phloem of typical slash pine, Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, was
used in the semi-artificial medium. The phloem was prepared by thorough-
ly macerating the prescribed fresh weight in a blender containing the water
to be used in preparing the diet. The phloem then was separated from the
liquid by filtration through a double thickness of cheesecloth. Both the
macerated phloem and water-phloem filtrate were saved for use in prepar-
ing the medium.
Procedures for preparing both media were essentially the same: (1)
the agar was placed either in the water or water-phloem filtrate and heated
until dissolved; (2) the agar solution and peanut oil were mixed in a blend-
er; (3) the combined dry ingredients (including macerated phloem) were
slowly added with the blender operating at low speed and the whole ho-
mogenized; (4) the hot medium was poured from the blender into 20 x 100
mm petri dishes at approximately 40 ml per dish; (5) a disc of blotting
paper the same diameter as the petri dish was pressed to the surface of
the medium and the medium allowed to cool. The acidity of both media
was approximately pH 5.
Both media have been tested extensively with Ips calligraphus Germ.
and Ips grandicollis Eichh., and to a lesser degree with Ips avulsus Eichh.
Eggs of all three species were obtained from the phloem of infested trees.
The eggs were teased from the oviposition niches with a flattened dissect-
ing needle and transferred to a petri dish with a sable brush. The collected
eggs were washed for 2 minutes in a 50% ethanol solution containing
1 part per thousand mercuric chloride. They were then rinsed for 3 min-
utes in sterile water and transferred aseptically with a sable brush to a
petri dish lined with moist filter paper and incubated at 80"F. Ten newly
hatched larvae were transferred to each rearing dish. Each larva was
planted in the rearing medium through one of ten small slits cut in the
blotting paper cover, after which the slits were individually sealed with
agar. Rearing dishes were held at 80F and 30-40% relative humidity.
Each medium appeared to be satisfactory for all three Ips species,
but larval survival was greater on the phloem-based medium. Survival on
the artificial medium averaged 30% and ranged from 0 to 50%, while
survival on the phloem-based medium averaged 50% and ranged from 30
to 90%. The mean larval developmental time for Ips calligraphus and Ips
grandicollis was approximately 15 days and ranged from 10 to 20 days.
Pupal survival of both species was nearly 100%. Day to day development
was not observed in Ips avulsus since the larvae did not burrow in view
along the bottom of the rearing dish as did the other species. Develop-
mental rates in all three species are believed to be somewhat similar, based
on periodic dissections of infested media.
Fructose, soybean protein, cystine, and Wesson's salts were added to
the artificial medium of Yearian and Wilkinson (1963) and the proportions
of sucrose, yeast, choline chloride, glycine, cholesterol, vitamins, and agar
also were changed. Increased survival on the present medium is attributed
to reduced water content, greater cellulose content, and the presence of a
paper covering on the medium. The paper covering appears to confine
larvae to the medium.
Although survival on both diets is less than desired, the new media
provide a reliable means for securing blue stain fungus-free beetles. Sorbic
acid, methyl para-hydroxybenzoate, and streptomycin sulfate gave satis-

Yearian: Two Larval Rearing Media for Ips

factory microbial control for a period of 45 days. No microbial activity
was detected in isolations from media exposed to air-borne organisms in
the laboratory for 10 minutes daily for a 21-day period. Isolations from
beetles reared on the media failed to yield microbial growth.

Yearian, W. C., and R. C. Wilkinson. 1963. An artificial rearing medium
for Ips calligraphus Germ. Fla. Ent. 46(4): 319-320.

The Florida Entomologist 48(1) 1965


LEPIDOPTERA OF FLORIDA, by C. P. Kimball, is now available. This pub-
cation is to be the first of an irregularly appearing series relating to the
insects and other arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas-the
southeastern United States, the Bahama Islands, the Greater and Less-
er Antilles, and the coastal land areas around the Gulf of Mexico-
with emphasis on taxonomy, ecology, biology, and zoogeography. Special
emphasis in this series, to be published by the Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture, will be placed on the Florida arthropod
fauna. The files and preserved specimens of the Florida State Collection
of Arthropods will provide a basis for many of the records in the publica-
tions of this series.
Lepidoptera of Florida, Volume 1 of Arthropods of Florida and Neigh-
boring Land Areas, contains 363 pages, 26 plates (the first 6 in color), an
annotated bibliography, a gazetteer, an index of food plants, an index of
common names, and an index of genera, species and subspecies. The in-
troduction contains discussions of the objectives of the publication, geogra-
phy, topography, climate, vegetation, food plants, distributional areas, col-
lectors and collections, literature, and other pertinent information. Copies
may be obtained for $5.00 per copy from the Librarian of the Division of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, Florida
32601. Checks should be made payable to Division of Plant Industry and
a notation should be made on the check, "for Lepidoptera of Florida."

Donald J. Borror and Dwight M. DeLong. Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
New York, 1964. 819 p. illus. $14.50.
and Jean W. Fox. Reinhold Publ. Corp., New York, 1964. 450 p.
illus. $9.50.
THE LIFE OF INSECTS. V. B. Wigglesworth. World Publ. Co., Cleve-
land, 1964. 360 p. 164 fig. 36 plates. $12.50.
Each of these three books might be used as a text in a course in gen-
eral entomology. However, the three are so different in content that they
scarcely overlap in coverage. Each does a competent job in covering a
portion of general entomology, yet none deals with all major aspects as
do H. H. Ross's A Textbook of Entomology and A. D. Imms's A General
Textbook of Entomology.
The revised edition of An Introduction to the Study of Insects is the
least suitable as a general entomology text because, like the first edition,
it is largely concerned with systematic entomology. It is, on the other
hand, by far the best book available for the identification of U. S. insects
to family. Consequently it will surely be adopted as a text in many
courses on insect identification. The format and content of the new edi-
tion are substantially improved. Many of the illustrated keys to insect
families have been revised. The key to the families of Coleoptera now
includes all families which the authors recognize. The bibliographies have
been brought up to date and include references as late as 1963. Special
features retained in the revised edition are an indication of the pronunci-
ation of all scientific names, synopses of the classification of each order,
a thorough (22-page) glossary, and an excellent index. The chapter on
insect control has been deleted leaving only about 100 pages dealing with
topics other than systematic entomology. An Introduction to the Study
of Insects maintains a high standard of accuracy in the treatment of groups
with which I am familiar. It has no equal as an easy-to-use, up-to-date,
comprehensive source book for insect identification.
Introduction to Comparative Entomology deals with the comparative
morphology, physiology, embryology, and evolution of insects, myriapods,
and arachnoids. The authors state, "We believe this is the information
needed by the zoologist who may study only one course in entomology."
They omit keys for identification and discussions of collecting techniques
and of insect control. They justify such omissions as concerning subjects
of low priority in an introductory course about terrestrial arthropods.
They also omit any discussion of ecology and behavior, and I cannot im-
agine these subjects being inappropriate to zoology students taking "only
one course in entomology." Indeed discussions of physiology and anatomy
seem pretty sterile when divorced from discussions of adaptation. For
instance, the embryology, histology, and anatomy of the malpighian tubules
are described, but no mention is made of the adaptive significance of the
excretion of uric acid and guanine by terrestrial arthropods. There is a

(Continued on Page 46)


University of Florida, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Fla.

The writers have recently discussed insects attacking soybeans in
southern Florida with emphasis on varietal susceptibility (1962). More
recent observations on some insects that bore within the stems are herein
reported. The lesser cornstalk borer has been reported as a pest of soy-
beans in other areas, but it has not previously been reported on this legume
in the Everglades. This is possibly because the insect is more sporadic in
the Everglades than in some other areas, and also because the crop has not
been grown in the area commercially for bean yield. Additional stem
borers that are probably new to the crop are discussed at greater length
since they obviously have an economic potential on soybeans. The insects
occur widely in parts of Florida, where soybeans have become a crop of
considerable importance in recent years, even though experiments in the
Everglades have been generally disappointing in regard to yield of beans
(Genung and Green 1962, and Green et al. 1962).
The four insect species associated with stems of soybeans in experimen-
tal plantings in the Everglades are (1) Hippopsis lemniscata (Fab.) (Fig.
2, 3) Coleoptera, Cerambycidae; (2) Selenis monotropa (Gaert.) (Fig. 4,
5) Lepidoptera, Phalaenidae; (3) Languria sp. (Fig. 1), Coleoptera, Lan-
guridae2; (4) Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) Lepidoptera, Pyralidae.

Hippopsis lemniscata (Fab.): Economic papers or reports by Fattig
(1947), Muma (1950), Genung (1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1960), Linsley
(1959), Genung and Green (1962) and Genung and Allen (1962) have dis-
cussed this species in relation to Coreopsis, sunflower, kenaf, kenaf and
other fiber crops, jute, ramie, ramie as a lethal host, Vernonia, soybeans,
and Desmodium, respectively. Genung (1953) reported on the biology and
ecology in southern Florida.
Selenis monotropa (Gaert.): Holland (1903) mentioned the species oc-
currence in Texas, and Grossbeck (1917) in Florida. Except for reports by
Genung and Allen (1962) of ravages on Sesbania and Aeschynomene experi-
mental plots, Sealy (1954) on Sesbania, coffeeweed and poinciana, Weems
(1954) on senna, and Wolfenbarger (1954) on Sesbania grown for pole
bean supports, there appears to be little economic literature.
Languria sp.: Genung (1953) reported this insect boring in kenaf in
the Everglades. There is no other economic literature known to the au-
thors on this insect, although a related species is a recognized pest of

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series Number 1880.
2 Specimens submitted to the Division of Insect Identification, USDA,
BEPQ several years ago, were not determined because of lack of a special-
ist. Material from the same area previously submitted by D. J. Taylor
was determined by Dr. W. S. Fisher as Languria inarginipennis (Sz.).






'' '


04 4?

~;. itt

Figure 1. Adult of Languria marginipennis. Fig. 2. Top center,
adult of Hippopsis lemniscata; lower left, egg in stem; lower center, larva;
lower right, pupa. Fig. 3. Stem segment of Bidens sp. with Hippopsis lem-
niscata larva and stem segment showing typical oviposition scar, a good
sign of infestation in most hosts. Fig. 4. Aeschynomene stems showing
type of stem hole (both entrance and exit) and a split stem after emergence
of Selenis monotropa larva. Fig. 5. Moth of Selenis monotropa. Wings are
typically only half spread in the resting position.


Genung: Some Stem Boring Insects in Florida

Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) : The lesser cornstalk borer is such
a well known pest in the southern half of the United States and the litera-
ture so extensive that it will not be reviewed here except for some of the
reports of serious infestations on soybeans or local infestation on other
crops. Johnson (1956, 1957), reported heavy infestation of soybeans in
Georgia, Shotts et al. (1957) moderate to severe damage in Alabama, Far-
rier (1956) 25 per cent loss in North Carolina, Werner (1955) in Arizona,
and Nettles and Cochran (1954) above average infestation in South Caro-
lina. Genung et al. (1954) and Genung and Questel (1955) have reported
the species attacking sugarcane in the Everglades, and the year 1954 seems
to have been a period of high infestation in all areas of Florida and on
many different crops (Denmark 1955).


In 1962 plantings, stems were examined for oviposition signs of Hip-
popsis lemniscata and stems having such scars were split for evidence of
the immature stages. The overall infestation in 200 stems examined ran-
domly from various parts of the planting, was 8% with either eggs or
larvae present. In 1963, stems were examined several times during the
season and less than 2% found infested. This was possibly due to scarcity
of preferred weed hosts in the vicinity of the planting. These hosts in-
clude Ambrosia, Bidens, Amaranthus, Erigeron and Eupatorium.
This long-horned beetle is found over most of the eastern half of the
United States and south to Argentina. Females deposit single (occasion-
ally more) elongate, yellow eggs in an oviposition hole gnawed into the
pith. Eggs hatch in 3 to 7 days and larvae pass through 4 to 7 instars.
The larval stage may be passed in as little as 31 days (up to 55) in sum-
mer while the pupal stage averages about 7 days. In the overwintering
generation the larval stage requires 217 to 230 days and pupal 14 days.
Adults reared in the insectary live from a few days to over 9 weeks. All
biological data are from hosts other than soybeans.
In 1962, the junior author collected larvae of the Phalaenid Selenis
monotropa on foliage of soybeans. Inspection showed that they were very
scarce on the foliage, and since no tunnels were observed in the stems the
species was not reported in 1962. In the 1963 planting, a light but gen-
eral infestation occurred and during the course of stem examination a num-
ber of tunnels, both abandoned and with pupae, were found. Probably only
about 2% of stalks were bored by this species, but the infestation was equal
to that in Sesbania, the normal host, during this season of very low occur-
Adult moths of S. monotropa lay white hemispherical eggs singly or a
few together on foliage. Larvae hatch in about 4 to 5 days. The larval
period requires about 30 days. Mature larvae bore a hole into the host
pith and tunnel up or down to a depth of about 1 to 5 inches. The en-
trance holes are sealed with a fine opaque webbing prior to pupation and
the pupal stage requires up to 3 weeks. Biological data are from Aeschyno-
mene indica.
Although larvae of Languria sp. have not been observed in the stems
of soybeans the adult beetles were noted so frequently in plantings, as well
as in those of southern peas, that this association is believed to be indica-

The Florida Entomologist

tive 'of breeding therein. Of the many other crops, experimental or com-
mercial, grown in the Everglades, Languria sp. has not been found with
such regularity as in soybeans, except for kenaf. Larvae have been noted
only in stems of kenaf and in the weeds Amaranthus spinosus, and A.
hybridus, where the adults also occur frequently. No life history obser-
vations were made.
While the lesser cornstalk borer Elasmopalpus lignosellus occurred only
lightly and only while the plants were young, there was 100% mortality
of the plants attacked.
Several stem boring insects have indicated an economic potential on
soybeans. While soybeans are not presently an economic crop in the Ever-
glades, the insects discussed occur widely in Florida. Soybeans are grown
in the state on an extensive acreage. The fact that 8% of stalks of soy-
beans were attacked by Hippopsis lemniscata in experimental plantings
appears noteworthy since this insect ranges widely in North America and
the Western Hemisphere. It has severely attacked bast fiber species in
the Everglades.
Selenis monotropa has occurred in sufficient numbers that it has fre-
quently destroyed stands of Sesbania grown for cover crop or other pur-
poses. The fact that when under low population conditions -on its usual
host, it also occurred in almost equal infestation on soybeans appears pro-
phetic. Since the species is a defoliator for most of its larval life and then
becomes a stem borer as a pre-pupa, its host is placed in double jeopardy.
Further observation is needed on Languria sp. to determine its true
status in relation to legume crops.
It is not surprising that the lesser cornstalk borer attacked soybeans
in the Everglades since it is a known pest of the crop in other parts of the
country, and except for the very sporadic nature of its appearance in eco-
nomic numbers in the Everglades it would probably have been noted pre-
viously. About the middle of the last decade it ravaged sweet corn, snap
bean and southern pea plantings throughout Palm Beach County.
It would appear that in order to cause severe damage in soybeans most
stem borers would have to attack plantings that were relatively young,
except possibly the phalaenid S. monotropa which in heavy infestations
causes severe defoliation before entering the stems. Among other plant
species, young individuals have been observed attacked by all the insects
discussed. The method used and timing involved in handling stands of
weeds and cover crops could undoubtedly be a factor in development of
possible economic infestations by these insects.

Denmark, H. A. 1955. CEIR (Coop. Econ. Ins. Rep.) 5(8): 304.
Farrier, M. H. 1956. CEIR. 6(6):101.
Genung, W. G. 1952. Hippopsis lemniscata (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Ceram-
bycidae). In relation to kenaf diseases. Plant Dis. Reptr. 36(4):
Genung, W. G. 1953. Biology of Hippopsis lemniscata (Fab.) as a pest
of kenaf in southern Florida. Unpublished Master of Science Thesis,
Univ. Fla.

Vol. 48, No. 1

Genung: Some Stem Boring Insects in Florida

Genung, W. G. 1954. CEIR 4(34): 788.
Genung, W. G. 1954. CEIR 4(35): 816.
Genung, W. G. 1955. CEIR 5(9): 167-168.
Genung, W. G. 1960. Major insect problems of soft bastt) fiber species
in south Florida. Proc. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 20: 105-109.
Genung, W. G., and R. J. Allen, Jr. 1962. Survey of insects associated
with agronomic introductions. Proc. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
22: 153-159.
Genung, W. G., and V. E. Green, Jr. 1962. Insects attacking soybeans
with emphasis on varietal susceptibility. Proc. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. 22: 138-142.
Genung, W. G., and D. D. Questel. 1954. CEIR 4(18): 4.
Genung, W. G., W. H. Thames and D. D. Questel. 1955. CEIR 4(20):
Green, V. E., Jr., W. G. Genung and J. R. Orsenigo. 1962. A history of
research on soybeans on Everglades organic soils. Everglades Sta-
tion Mimeo Report 63-8.
Grossbeck, J. A. 1917. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. His. Vol. 37 Article I, In-
sects of Florida, IV Lepidoptera.
Holland, W. J. 1903. The moth book. Doubleday, Page, and Co., N. Y.
p. 277.
Johnson, W. C. 1958. CEIR 8(16): 94.
Linsley, E. G. 1959. Ecology of the Cerambycidae. Ann. Rev. Ent. 4:
Muma, M. H., R. N. Lynes, and A. Hoffman. 1950. Control tests on sun-
flower insects in Nebraska. J. Econ. Ent. 43(4): 477.
Nettles, W. C., and W. H. Cochran. 1954. CEIR 4(5): 88.
Sealy, J. 1954. CEIR 4(38): 876.
Shotts. 1957. CEIR 7(31): 617.
Weems, H. V. 1954. CEIR 4(38): 876.
Werner, F. G. 1955. CEIR 5(7): 146.
Wolfenbarger, D. 0. 1954. CEIR 4(39): 892.

The Florida Entomologist 48(1) 1965

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University of Florida, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Fla.

Emphasis in entomological research on citrus in Florida has recently
been shifted to the control of mites. Since effective control of injurious
mites is predicated on an understanding of the bionomics of the several
associated species, the population study reported here was initiated as a
preliminary effort to obtain such an understanding.
This paper is concerned only with those species or species complexes
that in some stratum, season, or area averaged one or more individuals per
sample. These arbitrarily chosen, common or abundant forms are referred
to here as prevalents. In the discussions that follow, prevalents in more
than one strata, season, or area are referred to as common prevalents;
prevalents represented by 20 or more specimens in two or more strata,
seasons, or areas are referred to as abundant prevalents. For the purposes
of this paper, populations and infestations are considered synonymous and
include all of the individuals in a citrus grove as an ecological association.

Sample Methods:
Fifteen unsprayed or infrequently sprayed groves were selected from
the five major areas of the principal citrus-growing region of the state,
three in each of the north central, central, south central, east coast, and
west coast areas. The unsprayed or infrequently sprayed condition of each
grove was determined by conferences with the grove owner and an evalu-
ation of the extent of algal, lichen, moss, and bromeliad growth on trunks,
limbs, leaves, and fruit of the trees.
Each of the groves was sampled four times a year, in the winter (Jan-
uary), spring (April), summer (July), and fall (October). Four adjacent,
inside trees of normal or average size for each grove were selected as sam-
ple trees. Samples of the fruit, leaf, bark, and litter from each of the four
trees were combined to make a sample representing each stratum.
Fruit samples were taken from 10 randomly selected fruit, two fruit
from two trees, and three from the other two trees. Samples were obtained
by dipping or washing the fruit in alcohol to remove the mites and leave
the fruit on the tree. Leaf samples were composed of 20 terminal leaves
from outside twigs and 20 basal leaves from inside twigs, five of each type
from each tree. Bark samples consisted of sweepings of brushed bark
funneled into a large vial. A 3 x 12-inch area on the trunk or a major limb
two to four feet from the ground was brushed on each tree, making a total
sampled area of one square foot from each grove. Litter samples consisted
of one-half square foot of leaf, bark, and twig litter scooped from the
surface of the soil under each tree, making a total of two square feet of
litter from each grove. The volume of litter samples varied from grove
to grove and season to season from approximately 100 to 150 cubic inches.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 1874.

The Florida Entomologist

Count Methods,:
In the laboratory, mites on leaf samples, except for rust mites, Phyllo-
coptruta oleivora (Ashmead), were counted alive under a dissecting micro-
scope. Rust mites were washed from leaves with alcohol, the number in
an aliquot counted and the total computed. Fruit samples were sub-sam-
pled; rust mites were counted in an aliquot and computed for the total
sample; then the remainder of the sample was washed through filter paper
in a Berkfeldt filter, and the collected specimens of other species were
counted. Bark and litter samples were placed on an autosegregator (New-
ell 1955) over a modified Tullgren apparatus (Tullgren 1917 and Haarlov
1947) and heated with a 100-watt incandescent lamp for 48 hours. The
mites were collected in alcohol, and all were counted except for small, ex-
tremely abundant forms such as tydeids and tarsonemids which were count-
ed on 24 grid-squares in a petri dish and computed to a total.
Counts in general included only living eight-legged mites. Because of
their minute size, all identifiable rust mites were counted. Only adult fe-
males of spider mites and the broad mite, Hemitarsonemus latus (Banks),
were counted, the latter because of the impossibility of distinguishing im-
matures from other species of tarsonemids, the former because of distribu-
tional discrepancies between the young of vagrant and colonial species.

Evaluation Methods:
This study was originally designed to run from three to five years and
with the hope that statistical analyses would permit the numerical de-
scription of population phenomena. After three years, however, it became
evident that year-to-year variation within a grove and grove-to-grove vari-
ation within an area or season was so great that numerical description
would be impossible or meaningless.
The study was therefore terminated in the fall of 1962, and the three-
year accumulation of data was summarized in four series of tables. The
first series, 48 tables, listed the total population of each species or species
group in each of the 12 seasons and in each of the 15 groves for each of
the four strata. The second series, 16 tables, listed the mean populations
of 21 prevalents in each of the five areas and in each of the combined four
seasons for each of the four strata. The third series, five tables, listed
the mean populations of 14 prevalents for the combined four seasons in
each grove. The fourth series, Tables 1, 2 and 3 of this paper, listed the
mean population of 17 prevalents in each of the four seasons, five areas
and four strata. Two special tables were also prepared; one listed the
grove frequency of occurrence of each species or species group, in each
season for each strata; the other listed the computed mean number of
prevalents per square foot in each strata, Table 4. In the discussions of
results and conclusions the special data provided by each table or series
of tables were considered separately and in combination. When the figures
supplemented or complimented each other, the results are emphasized;
when the figures varied one from the other, the variation is discussed;
when the figures opposed each other, no statement is included.

Vol. 48, No. I

Muma: Common Mites in Florida Citrus Groves


The accumulated data revealed 25 prevalents among the many species
of mites recorded. Further examination of the populations of these 25
forms in the several seasons, areas, and strata indicated that only 17
were sufficiently common or abundant to be of possible importance to the
economy of mite populations in citrus groves. The results reported here
deal only with these 17 common to abundant prevalents. Other species
and prevalents will be dealt with in other publications.
Those prevalents considered here have been grouped under three cate-
gories for presentation: injurious species, predatory species, and scavenger
species. It is felt that populations of common or abundant prevalents with-
in these categories are those most likely to affect the economy of the total
mite population.
Injurious species have the obvious effect that their phytophagous habit
may cause leaf damage or drop, fruit damage or drop, twig dieback or
even death of young plants. One injurious species, Brevipalpus californicus
(Banks), has also been demonstrated to be associated with a pathological


Mean number mites per
grove sample*
Mites Winter Spring Summer Fall

Phyllocoptruta oleivora
(Ashmead) 6,742.7 2,883.6 15,684.0 2,596.7
Panonychus citri (McGregor) 2.77 1.74 2.55 0.37
Eutetranychus banksi
(McGregor) 6.51 24.23 4.45 1.06
Eotetranychus sexmaculatus
(Riley) 7.57 6.35 1.10 0.02
Brevipalpus spp. 54.96 27.00 6.92 33.77

Amblyseius peregrinus (Muma) 4.58 18.18 2.77 3.03
Agistemus spp. 10.63 9.15 5.54 3.86
Pronematus sp. 10.46 4.51 50.78 19.18
Cunaxa spp. 9.40 28.30 70.49 16.32
Asca spp. 4.34 23.17 4.50 18.66
Paracheyletia wellsi (Baker) 1.07 1.22 0.49 0.79

Fungitarsonemus peregrinus (Beer) 28.58 44.99 3.70 20.52
Tarsonemus spp. 92.33 1,071.03 35.17 47.62
Tydeus. spp. 222.35 827.70 132.67 19.09
Oribatei 123.99 66.93 267.70 77.49
Acaridei 67.99 346.92 49.38 28.89
Eupodidae 16.97 24.92 42.84 13.86

A grove sample is a combination of all stratal samples within a grove.

The Florida Entomologist

condition of some importance in Florida citrus groves (Knorr 1950). These
effects of feeding alter slightly to drastically the fruit and leaf strata as
substrates for mite infestations. In the case of death due either to direct
feeding or pathology, the tree as an ecological niche or the grove as an
ecological association is slightly to drastically changed in its ability to
maintain mite populations.
Predatory species also obviously effect the economy of mites by feed-
ing upon and reducing the numbers of other species. A reduction of popu-
lation may slightly to greatly change the size and/or the specific make-up
of the infestation. When the prey species is injurious, such a change could
noticeably alter the ecology of a tree or grove.
The part played by scavenger species in the economy of citrus mites
is not as obvious as that of the injurious and predatory species but
nevertheless may be important. In their primary role of reducing or elim-
inating dead organic materials from fruit and leaf surfaces, scavengers
may change the stratal texture to an extent that would result in the in-
crease or decrease of certain injurious species. Such an effect would be


Mean number mites per grove sample*
Mites North Central South East West

Phyllocoptruta oleivora
(Ashmead) 5,484.6 5,462.8 9,435.4 7,398.4 6,968.6
Panonychus citri (McGregor) 3.10 2.24 0.97 1.25 1.38
Eutetranychus banks
(McGregor) 6.44 12.49 21.44 2.41 2.55
Eotetranychus sexmaculatus
(Riley) 1.33 4.22 0.16 5.11 7.98
Brevipalpus spp. 22.83 1.81 11.88 74.94 41.79

Amblyseius peregrinus
(Muma) 8.41 5.57 4.63 7.32 9.99
Agistemus spp. 5.68 10.90 4.86 5.08 7.57
Pronematus sp. 18.57 14.03 51.50 11.90 12.67
Cunaxa spp. 34.22 30.85 26.25 44.03 20.27
Asca spp. 11.28 21.42 16.53 10.16 4.23
Paracheyletia wellsi (Baker) 0.31 0.78 1.20 1.17 1.03

Fungitarsonemus peregrinus
(Beer) 11.16 21.06 7.08 65.74 19.68
Tarsonemus spp. 253.5 249.8 268.7 171.8 679.1
Tydeus spp. 159.1 258.6 381.3 453.7 255.1
Oribatei 173.3 163.8 72.7 234.6 225.8
Acaridei 118.3 131.5 170.0 72.9 133.0
Eupodidae .51.0 24.0 7.7 29.5 11.3

* A grove sample is a combination of all stratal samples within a grove.

Vol. 48, No. 1

Muma: Common Mites in Florida Citrus Groves

the removal of hiding or resting places for injurious species or predators.
Certain "scavenger species" feed on fungi and could reduce either beneficial
or injurious forms of fungus. A secondary role of scavengers could be
that of providing supplementary food for predators when injurious species
are absent or scarce.

Injurious Species:
The prevalents discussed in the following paragraphs represent the
five most injurious forms on Florida citrus. Four are readily identifiable
to species both under grove conditions and in the laboratory with a dissect-
ing microscope. The fifth, Brevipalpus spp. is not readily identifiable to
species from living or alcoholic material. Examination of a series of pre-
pared slides revealed a species complex of B. phoenicis (Geijskes) and
B. californicus (Banks). B. obovatus Donnadieu, a third species known to
occur on citrus, did not turn up in the sample slides and must be considered
to be uncommon or rare in commercial Florida groves. Two other phy-
tophagus species, Tetranychus tumidus Banks and Hemitarsonemus latus
Banks, were taken during the study but did not achieve prevalent status
during the three test years owing to extremely discontinuous grove distri-
bution and low population.


Mean number mites per sample
Mites Fruit Leaves Bark Litter

Phyllocoptruta oleivora
(Ashmead) 5,210.8 1,726.0 39.37 0.56
Panonychus citri (McGregor) 0.51 1.23 0.005 0.05
Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) 3.73 5.15 0.067 0.12
Eotetranychus sexmaculatus
(Riley) 0.33 3.41 0.017 -
Brevipalpus spp. 21.40 9.03 0.032 0.16

Amblyseius peregrinus (Muma) 0.41 6.60 0.11 0.03
Agistemus spp. 1.02 6.22 0.01 0.04
Pronematus sp. 4.55 16.07 0.04 0.58
Cunaxa spp. 0.03 0.06 0.32 30.71
Asca spp. 0.09 0.24 0.18 24.16
Paracheyletia wellsi (Baker) 0.19 0.15 0.07 0.49

Fungitarsonemus peregrinus
(Beer) 14.92 8.62 0.52 0.38
Tarsonemus spp. 6.50 7.26 6.69 304.83
Tydeus spp. 34.81 57.31 1.57 206.72
Oribatei 0.15 0.17 4.39 178.76
Acaridei 2.84 8.75 0.99 113.21
Eupodidae 0.01 0.01 0.14 24.47

The Florida Entomologist

Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead). Infestations of this abundant prev-
alent, the citrus rust mite, are uniformly distributed through the groves,
but heaviest populations occur in the south and on the coasts. Peak popu-
lations occur in the summer in most groves but in the winter in some. A
few groves have peaks in both winter and summer. Within the study
period, infestations on the fruit averaged more than 2.2 times as dense
as those on leaves (Table 4).
The population data on the citrus rust mite presented here agree with
or supplement those published by Yothers and Mason (1930), Muma (1955
and 1958) and Simanton (1960). Muma (1955) reported that heaviest
populations occurred in the winter, spring and summer. The inclusion of
spring must be considered incorrect or to cover a unique condition.
Panonychus citri (McGregor). Infestations of this common prevalent,
the citrus red mite, are not uniformly distributed among groves except
possibly during the winter when most of the groves may exhibit varying
levels of infestation. With the exception of occasional heavy summer in-
festations most groves have peak populations in the winter or spring.
If outbreak infestations are discounted, the species is equally common in
all citrus areas. Leaf infestations are two to three times heavier than
those on fruit.


Mean number of mites per square foot
Mites Fruit Leaves Bark Litter

Phyllocoptruta oleivora
(Ashmead) 2,605.4 1,150.6 39.37 0.056
Panonychus citri (McGregor) 0.25 0.82 0.005 0.005
Eutetranychus banks
(McGregor) 1.86 3.43 0.067 0.012
Eotetranychus sexmaculatus
(Riley) 0.16 2.27 0.017 -
Brevipalpus spp. 10.70 6.02 0.032 0.016

Amblyseius peregrinus (Muma) 0.205 4.40 0.11 0.003
Agistemus spp. 0.51 4.14 0.01 0.004
Pronematus sp. 2.77 10.70 0.04 0.058
Cunaxa spp. 0.015 0.04 0.32 3.071
Asca spp. 0.045 0.16 0.18 2.416
Paracheyletia wellsi (Baker) 0.095 0.10 0.07 0.049

Fungitarsonemus peregrinus
(Beer) 7.46 5.74 0.52 0.038
Tarsonemus spp. 3.25 4.84 6.69 30.483
Tydeus spp. 17.40 38.20 1.57 20.672
Oribatei 0.07 0.11 4.39 17.876
Acaridei 1.42 7.83 0.99 11.321
Eupodidae 0.005 0.006 0.14 2.447

Vol. 48, No. 1

Muma: Common Mites in Florida Citrus Groves

Winter and spring population peaks of citrus red mite have been re-
ported by several workers, Muma (1955 and 1958), Pratt (1955) and
Simanton (1960). Occasional injurious peaks in fall and summer are
mentioned by Muma (1955). Such off-season peaks may be caused by un-
usual weather conditions or by a disturbance of normal population fluctua-
tion by insecticide or miticide applications.
Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor). Texas citrus mite infestations are
more uniformly distributed throughout the citrus-growing areas than those
of the citrus red mite. The species is a common prevalent. Peak popula-
tions are more common in the spring but may occur in the winter or sum-
mer. Discounting outbreak infestations, the mite is equally common in
all areas. Infestations are common on both fruit and leaves but those on
leaves are nearly twice as heavy.
These data vary somewhat from most of those previously published
(Muma 1958 and Simanton 1960). Muma reported peaks in late winter,
spring and early summer, essentially the same as those reported here.
Simanton recorded population peaks in the spring and fall. The cause for
these conflicting reports is not definitely known but may be due to altera-
tion of the normal population fluctuation by insecticides and miticides.
Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (Riley). The six-spotted mite, a common
prevalent, exhibits the most discontinuous grove distribution of all of the
injurious mites; at any given time only half of the groves maintain even
light infestations. Peak populations are more common and heavier in the
winter and spring. Infestations are more common in the north but heavier
populations occur on the west coast. Although overflow populations may
occur on fruit, this mite primarily infests leaves; leaf populations average
14 times as dense as those on fruit.
These data confirm or supplement those previously reported (Pratt and
Thompson 1953, Pratt 1955, Muma 1955 and 1958, and Simanton 1960).
Brevipalpus spp. This abundant prevalent was comprised of 83 per
cent B. phoenecis G. and 17 per cent B. californicus Banks. with the latter
common to abundant in northern and northern east coast groves and the
former abundant in the other citrus-growing areas. The prevalent is uni-
formly distributed in the groves and about twice as abundant on fruit as
it is on leaves. Peak infestations were attained in the winter and in
the coastal areas.
Muma (1958) reported population peaks of Brevipalpus in the summer
and early fall. In the light of the more extensive data presented here,
summer peaks must be considered to be unusual.

Predatory Species:
The six prevalents discussed in the following paragraphs represent
only those predators that occurred in prevalent numbers on leaves and/or
fruit. Many species or species complexes in the families Rhagidiidae,
Bdellidae, Laelaptidae, etc. were abundant in the litter but were rarely
found above the ground. As such predators could not possibly influence
the economy of mites on the trees, they are not considered here.
Two of the prevalents discussed are multiple species complexes, Cunaxa
spp. and Asca spp. Although certain species in each complex seem to be
predominately arboreal, further study may prove otherwise.

The Florida Entomologist

Pronematus sp. This, the clear mite, is the most abundant predatory
prevalent on citrus and is uniformly distributed through the groves al-
though less so in the spring. Peak populations occur in the summer and
fall, and in the south. Infestations are four times heavier on the leaves
than on the fruit but are heavier than any other predator prevalent on
the fruit. Bark and litter populations are fractional.
Amblyseius peregrinus (Muma). The yellow mite is a common pred-
atory prevalent that is uniformly distributed throughout the citrus groves.
It attains peak populations in the spring and is slightly more abundant on
the coasts and in the north. Infestations on the fruit and bark and in the
litter are only a fraction of those on the leaves.
Agistemus spp. This common prevalent is composed 96 per cent of
Agistemus fleschneri Summers and 4 per cent of Agistemus terminalis
(Quayle), and is known locally as the strawberry mite. It is about as
common as the yellow mite and is nearly as uniformly distributed. It
attains peak populations in the winter and spring and is more abundant
in the central citrus belt and on the west coast. Infestations are much
heavier on the leaves than on the fruit and fractional on the bark and in
the litter.
Cunaxa spp. This abundant predatory prevalent is predominately
C. taurus Kramer on the leaves but predominately C. simplex Ewing and
C. mexicana Baker and Hoffman in the litter. By far the heaviest popula-
tions occur in the summer and are relatively uniformly distributed in lit-
ter. Litter infestations are much heavier than those on bark, leaves or
Asca spp. This abundant prevalent has a different species composi-
tion in the different strata. In the litter Asca duosetosa Fox and Asca
garmani Hurlbutt comprise the population; on the bark Asca muma Hurl-
butt is predominant; on the leaves Asca citri Hurlbutt is predominant.
Litter infestations are relatively uniformly distributed except during the
summer months when populations are low. Populations on bark, fruit,
and leaves are low and occur in less than one-fifth of the groves.
Paracheyletia wellsi (Baker). Although this common prevalent occurs
in only one grove sample out of every seven, the infestations are consistent
enough to attract attention. Populations in the various strata seldom
average more than one-half a mite per sample but occur commonly in the
winter and spring in the south and on the coasts. More individuals are
found in the litter but the greater number of mites per square foot are
found on the leaves and fruit.

Scavenger Species:
Only one of the prevalents discussed below is represented by a single
species. Although multispecific in make-up, all are abundant prevalents
and as such may be important within this category.
Fungitarsonemus peregrinus (Beer). This mite, known locally as the
saddle-back mite, is the most consistently abundant prevalent of all species
of scavenger mites. It attains peak populations in the spring on fruit and
leaves with the fruit infestations slightly larger than those on leaves.
Numbers on the bark and in the litter are fractional. Populations are
heaviest on the east coast.

Vol. 48, No. 1

Muma: Common Mites in Florida Citrus Groves

Tarsonemus spp. This abundant prevalent is quite heterogeneous,
composed of as many as six to eight species that are indistinguishable
except in prepared mounts. Although two or three species are much more
abundant than the others on leaves and fruit, the absence of males from
litter samples prevents comparison of litter and arboreal populations.
Populations are largest in the litter in the spring on the east coast. Fur-
ther studies must be conducted to determine if leaf and fruit populations
are specifically distinct or represent overflow from the litter.
Tydeus spp. This abundant prevalent is represented by six to eight
species that form two distinct populations, one in the litter and one on
the leaves and fruit. Because of the different specific make-up of each
population they are discussed separately below. Populations on the leaves
and fruit are uniformly distributed throughout the groves. They peak in
the spring on leaves but in the summer on fruit. Infestations are slightly
heavier in the central area and on the west coast and slightly to distinctly
heavier on the leaves than on the fruit. Litter populations are also uni-
formly distributed and attain a striking peak in the spring. Infestations
are heaviest in the south and on the east coast. During the spring, litter
populations are much heavier than those on the leaves and fruit but in the
other seasons they are equal or lighter.
Oribatei. This abundant prevalent is composed of 17 genera and 20
species. Although three or four of these genera and species are found in
the litter and on the bark as well as on the leaves and fruit, the arboreal
population is only a fraction of that in the litter. Further, most of the
arboreal population is on the bark rather than on the leaves or fruit.
Oribatei become active during periods of high moisture. This is reflected
in peak summer populations on the highly humid east coast.
Acaridei. This abundant prevalent is composed of six genera and 10
species, but only three are common to more than one strata. Of these,
only Calvolia bakeri Hughes is common enough to possibly influence popu-
lation levels. On the leaves and fruit a species of an undescribed genus
and C. bakeri Hughes form the major portion of the population. In the
litter several species of Caloglyphus and Tyrophagus and C. baker are the
more common forms. Populations on the leaves and fruit peak in the
spring but not as consistently as those in the litter. Leaf and fruit infesta-
tions are slightly heavier on the coasts and in the south. Litter populations
are heaviest in the south. Leaf and fruit infestations are much lighter
than those in the litter. Further, leaf and fruit populations do not reflect
changes in the litter populations, indicating that either C. bakeri does not
move from the litter under population pressure or the species of the un-
described genus is a more abundant and significant prevalent on the leaves
and fruit.
Eupodidae. This family of fungus feeding mites is represented in
citrus groves by the genera Eupodes, Protereunetes, and Linopodes. Of
these only Eupodes spp. is common to more than one strata. Populations
are much heavier in the litter with numbers on the bark, leaves, and fruit
being fractional. In the litter, peak populations are attained in the sum-
mer, in the northern citrus area, and on the east coast. On the leaves and
fruit a summer peak on the east coast coincided with a peak of litter popu-
lations, but in the north heavy litter populations did not influence popula-
tions on the leaves and fruit.

The Florida Entomologist


The most important conclusion that can be drawn from the data pre-
sented here is that the citrus rust mite, numerically at least, is the most
important injurious species on Florida citrus. Its extreme abundance makes
it the predominant prevalent on all aerial strata in all seasons and areas.
Heaviest populations, which occur on fruit in the south during the summer,
are not associated with peak populations of any predatory or scavenger
prevalent. Peak leaf populations of the citrus rust mite are, however,
associated in the south in the summer with a peak of the predator preva-
lent Pronematus sp. The possible significance of such an association is
somewhat confused and lessened by the fact that no such association occurs
on fruit. Occurrence of citrus rust mites on the bark and in the litter must
be considered to be incidental. Peak populations in these strata do not
coincide with peaks on the fruit or leaves in any area or season. It is
probable that fruit drop, leaf drop, and wind are the cause of these popula-
tions. The most enlightening information furnished by these incidental
populations is that these tiny phytophagus animals can survive the fall
from the host plant, the disturbance of collection, and passage through the
autosegregator and Tullgren apparatus to be preserved and counted. Such
longevity of a minute mite without food is astonishing. So much so, in
fact, the methods of handling bark and litter samples were rechecked to
assure freedom from contamination.
Brevipalpus spp., the second most abundant phytophagus prevalent, is
far more important numerically than any of the spider mite prevalents.
On the fruit, where it is most abundant, it is not associated with a popula-
tion peak of any predatory prevalent but is associated with a peak of
Tarsonemus spp. on the east coast in the winter. Leaf populations of
Brevipalpus spp. are associated with peak populations of the predator prev-
alent Asca spp. and the scavenger, F. peregrinus. The coincident popula-
tiorn of F. peregrinus and the extremely low population of Asca spp. on
the leaves eliminates any significance that might be placed on the associ-
ation of flat mite-predator populations. As in the case of P. oleivora, bark
and litter populations of this phytophagus prevalent must be considered
to be incidental, the result of fruit and leaf drop or wind.
E. banksi, the most common spider mite prevalent, is the only spider
mite that infests fruit to any extent. It is not directly associated on fruit
at times of peak abundance with any predator or scavenger prevalent.
There is, however, a weak lag association with the predator prevalent,
Agistemus spp., on the leaves.
P. citri, the second most common spider mite prevalent, is, like the pre-
ceding species, not directly associated at times of peak abundance with
any predator or scavenger prevalent. There is on the leaves, however, a
weak lag association with the predator prevalent, A. peregrinus.
Although the population associations of the two common vagrant spider
mites with two common predators is weak, the tendency for the area and
seasonal distribution of the four prevalents to overlap is strong. It is pos-
sible that the two predators utilize both phytophagus species as hosts, a
condition that would obscure population associations.
E. sexmaculatus, the only colonial spider mite of any importance on
citrus, is at times of peak population associated with peak abundance of

Vol. 48, No. 1

Muma: Common Mites in Florida Citrus Groves

the predator prevalent Agistemus spp. The comments concerning the re-
lationship of this predator complex with vagrant spider mites apply equally
well here and may indicate a multiple spider mite host range. Owing to
its density dependency, the well known predator of this species, Galendro-
mus floridanus (Muma), (Muma 1958) did not occur frequently enough in
samples to attain prevalency.
Among the scavenger prevalents, only Tydeus spp. was sufficiently
abundant on leaves and fruit in the several areas and seasons to be suspect
as an alternate host for the common or abundant predator prevalents.
There is a weak direct association of this species complex with the preda-
tors A. peregrinus and Agistemus spp. As these two predators are also
associated with spider mite infestations, there is a good probability that
they feed primarily on the phytophagus species and survive on the saproph-
agus species or vice versa. In either instance the scavenger prevalent,
Tydeus spp., must be considered to be potentially important.


A three-year study was made of mite populations in 15 essentially
untreated, widely distributed, commercial citrus groves. Mite samples
were collected from the fruit, leaves, bark, and litter four times a year,
and mean populations were recorded for each strata, grove, season, and
geographic area. The results obtained were evaluated with special ref-
erence to the economy of injurious species.
The citrus rust mite proved to be the most abundant injurious species
with citrus flat mites, Texas citrus mite, six-spotted mite, and citrus red
mite being less abundant in the order named. Among the predators,
Pronematus sp. attained heaviest populations, with Agistemus spp., Am-
blyseius peregrinus (Muma), Cunaxa spp., Asca spp., and Paracheyletia
wellsi (Baker) less common in that order. The most common scavenger
was the complex Tydeus spp. followed in order by Fungitarsonemus pere-
grinus (Beer), Tarsonemus spp., and Acaridei. Host-predator associations
possibly important in the economy of injurious species included citrus rust
mite-Pronematus sp. on leaves, Texas citrus mite-Agistemus spp. on
leaves, citrus red mite- A. peregrinus on leaves, six-spotted mite-Agiste-
mus spp. on leaves, and Tydeus spp.--A. peregrinus-Agistemus spp. on
leaves and fruit.
Haarlov, Niels. 1947. A new modification of the Tullgren apparatus. J.
Animal Ecol. 16(2): 115-121.
Knorr, L. C. 1950. Etiological association of a Brevipalpus mite with
Florida scaly bark of citrus. Phytopath. 40: 15.
Muma, Martin H. 1955. Factors contributing to the natural control of
citrus insects and mites in Florida. J. Econ. Ent. 48(4):432-438.
Muma, Martin H. 1958. Predators and parasites of citrus mites in Flor-
ida. Proc. 10th Intern. Congr. Ent. 4: 633-647. (1956).
Newell, Irwin M. 1955. An autosegregator for use in collecting soil-
inhabiting arthropods. Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc. 74(4): 389-392.
Pratt, Robert M. 1955. The purple mite and six-spotted mite situation in
1955. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68: 31-36.

46 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 48, No. 1

Pratt, R. M., and W. L. Thompson. 1953. Spray programs, varieties and
weather conditions in relation to six-spotted mite and purple mite
infestations. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 66: 65-69.
Simanton, William A. 1960. Seasonal populations of citrus insects and
mites in commercial groves. Fla. Ent. 43(1): 49-57.
Tullgren, A. 1917. En enkel apparat f6r automatiskt vittjande av sail-
gods. Ent. Tidskrift 37: 97-100.
Others, W. A., and Arthur C. Mason. 1930. The citrus rust mite and its
control. USDA Tech. Bull. 176: 1-56.

The Florida Entomologist 48(1) 1965


(Continued from Page 28)
discussion of chemoreceptors but none of sex attractants. Hormones are
discussed but diapause is not. This book is a convenient summary of the
morphology, physiology, and embryology of terrestrial arthropods and
contains some information not readily available elsewhere, but it would
be a poor choice as the sole text for a general entomology course.
The Life of Insects does an exquisite job of explaining the aspects of
entomology omitted in Introduction to -Comparative Entomology. Wiggles-
worth explains insect natural history as it appears to the foremost insect
physiologist. He discusses sex attractants as well as chemoreceptors,
walking as well as the structure of the legs, and diapause as well as the
endocrine system.
The following examples from among the 17 chapter titles give the
flavor of the book: "The Dietary of Insects," "Mating and Reproduction,"
"The Colours of Insects", "Defence and Offence," "Insect Populations,
Speciation, and Migration." The illustrations are superior; many are in
color. The only thing I can find to criticize about the book is its price.
Its use as a general entomology text might be questioned since it's fun
to read and it lacks detailed treatments of anatomy and taxonomy (though
it does have a 32-page appendix entitled "A Catalogue of Insects"). If
used as a text in a coure designed for zoology students who were scheduled
to take "only one course in entomology," many might become entomolo-


Entomology Research Division, Agric. Res. Serv., USDA

This paper provides a name for a whitefly that occurs on diverse plants
of economic importance. The insect is of concern in Florida, where it has
been collected from numerous plants, including avocado, citrus, guava, and
palm, and where it is suspected of being associated with the destructive
lethal yellows disease of coconut palms. It is here recorded from 38 genera
belonging to 27 plant families. Its known distribution includes southern
Florida, portions of Central and South America, the West Indies, and the
Canary Islands. Two previously described species are discussed briefly
because of their close relationship to the new species.
Harold A. Denmark, Chief of the Entomology Section, Division of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, asked me to describe
the new species, and I am happy to do so. Through his efforts and those
of his associate, Howard V. Weems, Jr., and of their Department Inspectors,
much useful material has been collected in Florida since 1957. Specimens
from other areas have accumulated over a period of nearly 60 years and
have been furnished by many people. I extend my sincere appreciation
to the collectors and to all persons who have contributed to this study.
Aleurodicus coccolobae Quaintance and Baker (1913), Aleurodicus flavus
Hempel (1922), and Aleurodicus dispersus Russell, new species, are closely
allied and form a group that is set apart from other species of Aleurodicus
by the characteristics of its so-called "simple pores." Before discussing
the species further, it is desirable to describe the wax secreting organs on
the dorsal surface of the immature forms.
Glands found in the pupae of Aleurodicus were called compound pores
and simple pores by Quaintance and Baker (1913). Most subsequent work-
ers have followed their terminology and it is used here. Although the com-
pound pores were well described by Quaintance and Baker, the simple pores
have received little attention from them or other workers. Since both com-
pound and simple pores vary, and are of value in differentiating the spe-
cies under consideration, they are discussed in some detail.
Compound pores occur in seven or fewer subdorsal pairs. They are
comparatively large and conspicuously invaginated, and have several to
many distinct loculi at the bottom, arranged in a circle around the base
of a central process that rises above the top of the pore. Cylindrical, or
cylindrical and thimble shaped, compound pores occur in the species treated
here. In contrast, simple pores are fairly to very numerous and occupy
various positions. They are minute to small, are slightly or not at all
invaginated, and lack well-defined loculi and an elongate central process.
Though the structure of the pores is apparent only under optimum optical
conditions, their size and location are readily discernible. Disk pores and
their associated porettes, which are not included in the category of simple
pores, are scattered sparsely in the median and submedian areas. The disk
pores are very minute and have thin dark rims, and the porettes are nearly
or quite indistinguishable. They appear to be similar to the pores and

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 48, No. 1



0* _~-
* 0 0

0 b
5 000
3O : a 88
SB ***

Figure. 1-3. Aleurodicus dispersus, pupa. 1, dorsal and ventral halves
of body; a, 8-shaped pore; b, double-rimmed pore; c, wide-rimmed pore; d,
minute wide-rimmed pore; e, septate pore. 2, vasiform orifice. 3, portion
of dorsal surface of abdominal segment 4. (Drawings by Arthur D. Cush-

GO e

Russell: A New Species of Aleurodicus

porettes of the Aleyrodinae, and apparently have not been mentioned in
previous discussions of the pores of Aleurodicus.
In the species considered here, there are four types of simple pores,
one type occurs in two sizes, and each type is given a descriptive name.
The 8-shaped pores (Fig. la) appear to be oval and divided at midlength
by a slender bar. They are located near the body margin and usually are
seen in side view because they are directed outward. The double-rimmed
pores (Fig. Ib) are circular, slightly concave, and are located in the sub-
margin. Each consists of a light, porous appearing central portion encir-
cled by a dark rim which in turn is encircled by another light, porous ap-
pearing area ringed with a lighter rim. There is a minute opening in the
proximal portion of the circumference of the darker rim. Wide-rimmed
pores (Fig. Ic) are circular or subcircular, and are located in the submar-
gin around, and proximad of, the double-rimmed pores. In them the rim is
as wide or wider than the diameter of the center, which is porous in ap-
pearance and has a suggestion of a minute, central opening. Minute wide-
rimmed pores (Fig. Id) are similar to the wide-rimmed pores but are
smaller, and are located in the submargin and subdorsum proximad of the
wide-rimmed pores. Septate pores (Fig. le) are circular or subcircular,
slightly tuberculate, faintly porous, and the rims are much darker than
the centers. Each has an opening in the rim, from which a canal-like line
extends partially or entirely across the pore. They are located proximad
of the minute wide-rimmed pores.

KEY TO PUPAE OF Aleurodicus coccolobae, A. dispersus, and A. flavus

1. With a pair of thimbleshaped compound pores on abdominal segment 7
------- ---------- ------------ ---..........-........................................ flavus Hempel
Without compound pores on abdominal segment 7........................--..........2 2
2. Septate pores present in median area of abdominal segment 7 but ab-
sent posterior to the lingula on abdominal segment 8; wide-rimmed
pores distributed 3-6 deep between lingula and row of double-rimmed
pores; caudal setae located in wide-rimmed pores anterior to row of
double-rimmed pores............................coccolobae Quaintance and Baker
Septate pores absent from median area of abdominal segment 7 but
present posterior to the lingula on abdominal segment 8; wide-
rimmed pores distributed 1 or 2 deep between septate and double-
rimmed pores, posterior to lingula; caudal setae located in row of
double-rimmed pores................. ........................... dispersus, new species

Aleurodicus dispersus, new species
(Fig. 1)
Aleurodicus dispersus lives on the lower surface of leaves.
PUPA: Mature pupa with a copious amount of a white cottony secre-
tion extending upward and outward from the dorsum; some fluffy, some
waxy and in ribbons as long as, or longer than, width of body; a white,
glasslike waxy rod arising from each compound pore, 3-4 times longer
than width of body; a band of whitish, translucent, striated wax extending
from ventral submargin to leaf. Nearly flat dorsally; young pupae flat

50 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 48, No. 1

ventrally, but mature ones with ventral surface swollen and surrounded
by a band of wax. Colorless or yellowish. Membranous. Nearly oval,
1-1.25 mm long and 0.75-0.90 wide.
Dorsal surface. Pores: Compound pores in 1 subdorsal pair on pro-
thorax and on each of abdominal segments 3-6, cylindrical, each with 30-50
loculi at base (larger pores with more loculi than smaller ones), and with
central process reaching well above top of pore; abdominal pores decreasing
in size from abdominal segment 3 to segment 6, the last slightly larger
than the prothoracic one, the largest approximately 45, the smallest about
28, A in diameter. The 8-shaped pores in a single row, about the length of
a pore apart and from the body margin. Double-rimmed pores in a single
submarginal row, the majority approximately the diameter of a pore apart
and from the body margin. Wide-rimmed pores in a single row between
the 8-shaped and the double-rimmed pores, 1-3 pores between the double-
rimmed pores, and 1-6 rows of pores mesad of the double-rimmed pores;
most numerous on the cephalothorax and abdominal segments 3-6. Minute
wide-rimmed pores very numerous proximad of most wide-rimmed pores
but few on abdominal segment 7, and few or none on segment 8; usually
present around, but sometimes absent for a short space on proximal cir-
cumference of, compound pores. Septate pores present in median and
submedian area of most segments, but absent from abdominal segment 1,
usually absent from median area of segment 7 between pockets (1 rarely
present), and absent from segment 8 anterior to vasiform orifice. Disk
pores and porettes sparse, scattered among septate pores. Setae: Pos-
terior marginal setae 60 long. Submarginal setae in 11 pairs; 3 on
cephalic segment, and 1 on each of pro- and mesothorax, on combined ab-
dominal segments 1 and 2, and on each of abdominal segments 3-7; 40-
60 p long and all except cephalic 3 pairs reaching to or beyond the body
margin. Submedian meso- and metathoracic setae each 8-12, eighth ab-
dominal 32, u, long; caudal setae 65-80 I long, located in row of double-
rimmed pores. Segments: Median section of abdominal segment 7 about
1/ length of segment 6. Vasiform orifice: Subcordate, 88-96 pj long and
108 wide; its bottom extending forward the distance to the operculum.
Operculum transverse, subrectangular, 52-56 t& long and 100 wide. Lingula
broadly rounded apically, 108-120 J long and 52-56 wide at basal third, its
widest area; its anterior setae 52, its posterior pair 72, p long.
THIRD-STAGE LARVA: Cottony secretion much less abundant than in
pupa; a short, glasslike waxy rod emanating from each compound pore.
Dorsal surface. Pores: Compound pores in 1 subdorsal pair on each of
meso- and metathorax, of equal size, thimbleshaped, with 10-15 loculi at
base, and central process reaching just above top of pore. A double row of
barely distinguishable circular pores close to body margin. The 8-shaped
pores oblong, at least V2 as long as diameter of a compound pore, each
set in a slightly concave area as long as the diameter of a compound pore;
52-57 in a single row; 1-3 times the length of a pore apart and about 2
times the length of a pore from body margin. Septate pores subcircular,
scattered mesad of 8-shaped pores, usually not present along median line
but occasionally 1 or 2 on one or another of abdominal segments 3-6; about
% the size of submarginal 8-shaped pores. Disk pores and porettes sparse.
Setae: Cephalic 2 pairs of submarginal setae located proximad of, other
9 submarginal pairs in, row of 8-shaped pores; all except cephalic 1 or 2


Russell: A New Species of Aleurodicus

pairs reaching beyond body margin. Meso- and metathoracic submedian
setae minute. Vasiform orifice as in pupa but closer to body margin.
SECOND-STAGE LARVA: Cottony secretion sparse; a short, glassy rod
emanating from each compound pore.
Dorsal surface. Pores: Compound pores in 1 subdorsal pair on each
of cephalic and prothoracic segments and on abdominal segment 8, of equal
size, thimbleshaped, with 6-10 loculi at base, and central process reaching
slightly above top of pore. A single row of subcircular pores close to body
margin, their structure indeterminable. Septate pores in 1 inner subdorsal
pair on each cephalothoracic segment and on each of abdominal segments
3-6. Other pores absent. Setae: Cephalic 2 pairs of submarginal setae
reaching beyond body margin, other setae as in third-stage larva. Vasi-
form orifice much as in third-stage larva but nearer posterior end of body;
lingula widest at midlength, more strongly tapered and reaching body
FIRST-STAGE LARVA: Waxy secretion in a narrow band from submargin.
Dorsal surface. Pores: Compound pores absent. A single, submar-
ginal row of circular pores, their structure indeterminable but each with
a suggestion of a division; pairs arranged as follows: Cephalic segment,
5; prothorax, 3; mesothorax, 2; metathorax, 3; combined abdominal seg-
ments 1 and 2, and each of segments 3-8, 1; anterior mesothoracic, and
anterior and posterior metathoracic pairs proximad of line formed by
others. A pair of smaller, circular, subdorsal pores on abdominal segment
3. Setae: Anterior and posterior marginal setae present. Submarginal
setae in 14 pairs as follows: Cephalic segment, 3; prothorax, 2; meso- and
metathorax, each 1; combined abdominal segments 1 and 2 and each of
segments 3-8, 1; the majority located just proximad of pores, but those on
abdominal segments 3-7 located in row of pores. Submedian cephalic and
first abdominal setae absent. Meso- and metathoracic submedian (actually
subdorsal in position) setae minute; caudal setae just anterior to posterior
pair of circular pores. Vasiform orifice much as in second-stage larva
but lingula nearly oval, and its setae located farther caudad on the margin.
ADULT: Forewing in uncleared specimens with a pale dark spot ex-
tending from costal margin to angle formed by branching of Rs, and an-
other dark spot distally in angle between Rs and R1 (dark spots not ap-
parent in cleared specimens). Parts of compound eye joined by 3 or 4
facets. Antenna 7-segmented; segment II with 2 strong setae as long as
least diameter of segment, several smaller setae, and a sensorium at distal
end; segment III with several sensory setae along entire length and each
of segments IV-VII with a few sensory setae; segment III with 4-6 sen-
soria, V with 3, and VII with 1, each sensorium with fringed margin and
a short seta. Distal segment of beak with 25-30 readily distinguishable
setae. Ventral wax plates well separated in median area of abdomen.
Female without pores. Male with numerous circular pores on the abdomen,
scattered dorsally, laterally, and ventrally on first 2 segments posterior to
wax plates, except at median line of body; absent from genital segment.
Genitalia typical of Aleurodicus.
A. dispersus is described from hundreds of unmounted and about .500
mounted paratypes, and mounted holotype pupa. Most of the Florida ma-
terial was collected by H. V. Weems, Jr. and the following State Inspectors:
C. A. Bennett, G. C. Butler, C. F. Dowling, Jr., P. E. Frierson, J. H. Knowles,

The Florida Entomologist

R. W. Swanson, and J. N. Todd. In the collection data the names of these
persons are indicated by their initials. Many of the Florida host plants
were kindly identified by Erdman West. The Florida collections were taken
in Monroe County, in the southernmost part of the state, at Key Vaca,
Boca Chica Key, Key West, and Stock Island. Collection data are arranged
alphabetically by host genera, so far as possible, and are as follows:
Acalypha hispida (Euphorbiaceae), Key West, 16 Oct. 1963, HVW.
Acalypha sp., Dominica, British West Indies, Jan. 1959, F. D. Bennett.
Achras sapota (Sapotaceae), Key West, 20 June 1957, CFD and RWS,
and 2 Oct. 1958, J. E. Barbaree and GCB.
Achras sp., Key West, 20 July 1961, CFD.
Anona squamosa (Anonaceae), Key West, 10 July 1958, CFD and RWS.
Barringtonia speciosa (Lecythidaceae), Key West, 15 Oct. 1963; HVW;
Stock Island, 6 June 1964, HVW.
Bauhinia sp. (Leguminosae), Costa Rica, 27 Dec. 1956, B. B. Sugarman;
Key West, 1 Feb. 1961, CAB.
Beaumontia grandiflora (Apocynaceae), Key West, 10 July 1958, CFD
and RWS.
Begonia sp. (Begoniaceae), Key West, 20 June 1961, CFD and JHK.
Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae), Key West, 2 March 1961, CAB, 8
Aug. and 8 Nov. 1962, JHK.
Calophyllum inophyllum (Guttiferae), Stock Island, 3 Apr. and 15 Oct.
1963, HVW.
Capsicum sp. (Solanaceae), Dominica, British West Indies, Jan. 1959,
F. D. Bennett.
Cassia bahamensis (Leguminosae), Key West, 1 May 1963, HVW.
Cassia fistula, Key West, 1 May 1963, HVW.
Cassia siamea, Balboa, Panama Canal Zone, Panama, 23 Jan. 1924, J.
Zetek and I. Molino.
Cassia sp., Panama City, Panama, 17 March 1921, J. Zetek and I. Molino.
Cestrum diurnum (Solanaceae), Key West, Apr. 1963, HVW.
Chrysalidocarpus lutescens (Palmae), Key West, 20 June 1961, CFD
and JHK.
Citrus aurantifolia (Rutaceae), Key West, 5 Feb. 1961, CAB, and 16
May 1963, JNT.
Citrus sp., Costa Rica, 30 June 1936, C. H. Ballou, Key West, 20 June
and 20 July 1961, JHK.
Coccoloba floridana (Polygonaceae), Stock Island, 22 June 1961, CFD
and JHK.
Coccoloba uvifera, Barbados, British West Indies, 1958-1959, F. D. Ben-
nett; Boca Chica, Fla., 22 June 1961, CFD and JHK, and 1 May 1963, PEF;
Key West, 17 Oct. 1963, HVW.
Cocos nucifera (Palmae), Vedado, Havana, Cuba, 20 Feb. 1944, S. C.
Bruner; Dominica, British West Indies, Jan. 1959, F. D. Bennett; Key
West, 20 June 1961, JHK, 3 May, CFD, 8 Nov. 1962, JHK, and 12 June
1964, HVW(including holotype); Marathon, 16 and 28 May 1963, JNT.
Cocos sp., Key West, 13 June 1960, CAB, and 20 June 1961, CFD and
Coffee sp. (Rubiaceae), Jipijapa, Ecuador, 28 July 1954, H. R. Yust.
Coleus sp. (Labiatae), Cuba, intercepted at Key West, Fla., 4 Jan. 1960,
Conocarpus erectus (Proteaceae), Key West, 1 Feb. 1961, CAB; Stock
Island, 20 June 1961, CFD.
Dizygotheca elegantissima (Araliaceae), Key West, 20 July 1961, CFD.
Eugenia buxifolia (Myrtaceae), Stock Island, 20 July 1961, CFD.
Ficus religiosa (Moraceae), Cuba, letter 27 May 1944, S. C. Bruner;
Vibora, Havana, Cuba, 10 June 1944, S. C. Bruner; Cuba, intercepted at
Tampa, Fla., 15 July 1949, A. S. Mason.
Ficus sp., Balboa, Panama Canal Zone, Panama, 8 Apr. 1921, J. Zetek
and I. Molino; Key West, 16 May 1963, JNT.
Hura crepitans (Euphorbiaceae), Key West, 20 June 1961, JHK.

Vol. 48, No. 1

Russell: A New Species of Aleurodicus 53

Inga laurina (Leguminosae), Turners Hill, Barbados, British West In-
dies, 21 Apr. 1953, L. F. Martorell.
Inga sp., Balboa, Panama Canal Zone, Panama, 8 Apr. 1921, J. Zetek
and I. Molino.
Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), Key West, 8 Nov. 1962, JHK.
Melaleuca leucadendra (Myrtaceae), Key West, 27 March 1957, CFD
and RWS.
Monstera deliciosaa (Araceae), Key West, 12 May 1959, JHK and RWS.
Musa nana (Musaceae), Key West, 20 June 1961, CFD and JHK.
Musa paradisiaca, El Retiro, Rio Abajo, northeast of Panama City, Pan-
ama, 11 Feb. 1921, J. Zetek and I. Molino.
Musa sapientum, Panama Canal Zone, Panama, May 1924, J. Zetek;
Leogane, Haiti, 14 Sept. 1957, L. F. Martorell; Dominica, British West In-
dies, Jan. 19,59, F. D. Bennett.
Musa sumatrans, Key West, 16 Sept. 1959, CFD and JHK.
Musa sp., Key West, 8 Nov. 1962, JHK, 17 May, JNT, and 16 Oct. 1963,
Orchidaceae, Panama, intercepted at Miami, Fla., 29 Oct. 1963, F. J.
Persea americana (Lauraceae), Frijoles, Panama Canal Zone, Panama,
19 Feb. 1921, J. Zetek and I. Molino; Dominica, British West Indies, Jan.
1959, F. D. Bennett.
Peristeria sp. (Orchidaceae), Peru, intercepted at Miami, Fla., 16 Apr.
1963, E. B. Lee.
Plumeria sp. (Apocynaceae), Key West, 20 July 1961, CFD.
Prunus sp. (Rosaceae), Stock Island, 20 June 1961, CFD.
Psidium guajave (Myrtaceae), Martinique, French West Indies, 24 July
1905, A. Busck; Orosi, Costa Rica, Oct. 1953, N. L. H. Krauss; Key West,
20 June 1957, CFD and RWS.
Psidium sp., Museum Garden, San Jos6, Costa Rica, 3 Apr. 1914, Ad.
Tonduz; Stock Island, 22 June 1961, CFD and JHK.
Sanchezia nobilis (Acanthaceae), Key West, 20 June 1957, CFD and
Schinus terebinthefolius (Anacardiaceae), Las Palmas, Grand Canary,
Canary Islands, 28 Apr., 1962, N. L. H. Krauss.
On Solandra sp. (Solanaceae), Cuba, letter 27 May 1944, S. C. Bruner;
Key West, 20 July 1961, CFD.
On Spathyphyllum sp. (Araceae), Key West, 27 March 1957, CFD; Cuba,
intercepted at New York, N. Y., 27 Apr. 1959, J. Hidalgo.
On Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae), Monte Lirio, Panama Canal
Zone, Panama, 8 March 1922, J. Zetek and I. Molino.
On undetermined plants; Costa Rica, 3 Apr. 1914, Ad. Tonduz; Bahia,
Brazil, received 15 Aug. 1923, G. Bondar; Summit, Panama Canal Zone,
Panama, 27 Nov. 1946, N. L. H. Krauss; Cuba, intercepted at Miami, Fla.,
29 Sept. 1948, A. S. Mills; Turners Hill, Barbados, British West Indies,
21 Apr. 1953, L. F. Martorell.
The holotype and numerous paratypes are in the collection of the
U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. Other paratypes are deposited
in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Seagle Building, Gainesville,
Fla., and the British Museum (Natural History), London, England.
A. dispersus is closely related to coccolobae, but the two are readily dis-
tinguishable on the basis of the characters listed in the key. Additional
differences are the length of the submarginal setae which extend to or be-
yond the body margin in dispersus, but which do not reach the margin in
coccolobae, and the shape of the lingula which in dispersus is widest on
the basal half, is gradually tapered and broadly rounded apically, but in
coccolobae is widest on the basal fourth, and is more strongly tapered and
narrowly rounded apically.
Since approximately 400 mounted pupae of dispersus from diverse
plants and localities have been examined, it is likely that a fairly complete

54 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 48, No. 1

range of variation within the species has been observed. In the available
material, only two pupae, from Peristeria sp. (Orchidaceae), show notice-
able variation from the typical form. Other pupae from an unnamed orchid
are entirely typical of the species.
This species is sometimes abundant and in these instances the insects
are conspicuous on the leaves owing to the white flocculence that covers
their bodies. Specimens are frequently parasitized. H. V. Weems, Jr.,
stated in correspondence that the lethal yellows disease of coconut palm
was discovered in Florida a short time after dispersus was first found
there. The earliest known collection in Florida is 27 March 1957.

Aleurodicus coccolobae Quaintance and Baker

Aleurodicus coccolobae Quaintance and Baker, 1913, U. S. Dept. Agric., Bur.
Ent., Tech. Ser. 27: 46-47, illus.; Costa Lima, 1927, Arch. da Esc. Sup.
de Agric. e Med. Vet. 8(n. 1,2): 144; Costa Lima, 1936, Terceiro Catalogo
dos Insectos que Vivem nas Plantas do Brasil, p. 144; J. Baker, 1937,
[Mex.] Inst. Biol. An. 8(4): 603; Sampson and Drews, 1941, [Mex.]
Escuela Nac. Cien. Biol. An. 2: 145-147.
A. coccolobae was described from specimens from Coccoloba uvifera,
from Yucatan, Mexico. J. Baker, and Sampson and Drews, reported only
the original collection, but Costa Lima, in 1927 and 1936, recorded the spe-
cies from Begonia, from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
I have studied type pupae, pupae from coconut palm from Ceiba, Hon-
duras, and from Schinus terebinthefolius, Summit, Panama Canal Zone,
Panama. Nine mounted pupae were examined and three of them were para-
sitized. No other instars are available.

Aleurodicus flavus Hempel

Aleurodicus flavus Hempel, 1922, Notas Preliminares da Revista do Museu
Paulista 2 (fasc. 1):4-5; Bondar, 1922, Insectos Nocivos e Molestias do
Coqueiro (Cocos nucifera) no Brasil, p. 81-83, illus; Bondar, 1923, Aley-
rodideos do Brasil, p. 68-71, illus.; Hempel, 1923, Hemipteros Novos ou
pouco Conhecidos da Familia Aleyrodidae (1922) 13:1122-1123 (in
Portuguese), 1159-1160 (in English); Costa Lima, 1927, Arch. da Esc.
Sup. de Agric. e Med. Veter. 8 (n. 1, 2): 92; Costa Lima, 1928, Con-
tribuig~o ao estudo dos aleyrodeos da subfamilia Aleurodicinae, Inst.
Oswaldo Cruz Suppl. das Mem. 4: 132; Costa Lima, 1936, Terceiro Cata-
logo dos Insectos que Vivem nas Plantas do Brasil, p. 144.

A. flavus was described from specimens from coconut palm from Brazil,
and was recorded therefrom by Bondar, and by Costa Lima in 1927. In
1928 Costa Lima reported the species from a forest plant and from Begonia,
and in 1936 again recorded it from coconut and also from Begonia.
I have examined pupae from Bahia, Brazil, received from Bondar and
presumed to be types of flavus, and pupae from Sida sp. and an undeter-
mined plant, from Vicosa, Brazil. Five of the 18 mounted pupae examined
were parasitized. One mounted male is available, but it is fragmentary
and little can be told about it. In 1922 Bondar mentioned the adult and
illustrated the forewing, the antenna, and the distal portion of a leg. In

Russell: A New Species of Aleurodicus 55

1923 he described the adult male and female and again illustrated the
This species can be readily separated from dispersus and coccolobae
by the presence of the pair of thimbleshaped compound pores on abdominal
segment 7. A. flavus resembles coccolobae in having septate pores in the
median area of abdominal segment 7, but differs from that species and
resembles dispersus in having septate pores posterior to the lingula on
abdominal segment 8. Also, in flavus the wide-rimmed pores are 3 or 4
deep between the septate and double-rimmed pores posterior to the lingula,
the caudal setae are in or slightly anterior to the row of double-rimmed
pores, and the submarginal setae do not attain the body margin.

Hempel, Adolph. 1922. Algumas species novas de Hemipteros da familiar
Aleyrodidae. Rev. do Museu Paulista 2(fasc. 1): 3-10.
Quaintance, A. L., and A. C. Baker. 1913. Classification of the Aleyrodi-
dae, Part I. U. S. Dept. Agric., Bur. Ent., Tech. Ser. 27. 93 p. Illus.

The Florida Entomologist 48(1) 1965


THE PHYSIOLOGY OF INSECT SENSES. V. G. Dethier. John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., New York, 1963. 266 p. 99 fig. $7.25.
Dethier has performed a real service to entomology in compiling, or-
ganizing, and explaining clearly much of what is known about the sensory
capabilities of insects. In a concise, well-illustrated volume, he first con-
siders the general properties of insect sensory systems and then delves
into the details of mechanoreception, sound perception, chemoreception,
response to humidity, and photoreception. One important sense that De-
thier neglects completely is the temperature sense, but he points out that
research investigators have also largely neglected it.
Dethier sticks to his subject (sensory physiology) and spends little
time describing events in the central nervous system or interpreting insect
I believe this is a book that every entomologist should be acquainted
with and that any teacher or researcher who is at all concerned with insect
behavior or physiology will want a copy within walking distance.-TJW.



How can they serve you?

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Department of Geology, Rice University, Houston, Texas

The discovery of a new species of Ischnura in the Petdn region of Guate-
mala is of interest for several reasons. In the first place, the new species
is apparently as small as any species of Odonata known. Secondly, this
species is closely related to the North American Ischnura posita (Hagen),
and certain of its characteristics illuminate the problem of the status of
the latter species within the genus. Thirdly, this species has some of the
characters Kennedy associated with his genus Celaenura (1917), and it has
other characters which are transitional between Ischnura and Ceratura
(Selys 1876). Therefore, its discovery suggests that the present systematic
ranking of ischnurine damselflies be revised, and a new subgenus is pro-
posed to include I. posita and the new species.

Ischnura acicularis1, new species
(Fig. 1-6)
HOLOTYPE MALE: Pale color yellow (head, abdomen), greenish yellow
with a slight tendency toward pruinosity (thorax); dark color irridescent
(greenish) black. Head: Labium and mandibles pale; labrum pale with
a black basal band and a median and two lateral black, depressed spots;
anteclypeus pale; postclypeus dark, shining; frons and gena pale; vertex
and dorsum of head dark, this color bounded anteriorly by a transverse
margin at the level of the antennae, which are themselves dark. Post-
ocular spots pale, small. Prothorax: Dark on dorsum, except for a broad,
transverse pale mark on each side of the fore lobe, and a very small spot
at the extremities of the hind lobe; sides pale; hind lobe erect, entire.
Pterothorax: Dark on dorsum except for antehumeral stripe which is in-
terrupted to form an isolated posterior spot and an anterior line which
tapers posteriorly to a point, and which includes the tips of the mesostig-
mal laminae. Ventral two-thirds of the mesepimeron and remainder of
the pleura pale, except for a black line around the posterior border of the
mesepimeron, a short, black posterior dash on the first lateral suture, and
a heavier black line on the second lateral suture. Sterna pale. Legs:
Pale, with dorsa of femora dark, this color expanding apically; tibia with
obscure dorsal, subbasal dark dashes; tarsal segments with obscure apical
rings; tarsal claws with tips dark; spines dark. Wings: Veins black;
stigma brown, quite similar in fore and hind wings. M1 arises at 3rd post-
nodal in fore wing, and at 2nd or between 2nd and 3rd in hind wings; Cu-
two or three cells long in fore wing, three in hind wing; arculus distal from
2nd antenodal by two-thirds the length of the upper limb in all four wings;
two cells between quadrangle and subnodus. Abdomen: Sides pale, dor-

acicularis (Latin): like a small needle.

The Florida Entomologist

I cm. I.

Figure 1-6. Ischnura acicularis, n. sp. Fig. 1, color pattern and vena-
tion of holotype male. Fig. 2-5, end of abdomen of paratype male: Fig. 2,
ventral view; Fig. 3, dorsal view; Fig. 4, apical view; Fig. 5, lateral view.
Fig. 6, penis of paratype male. Note the arrows showing the ventral and
caudal directions for this figure; also the arrow pointing to the location
of the spines on other Ischnura penes.

Vol. 48, No. 1

Donnelly: A New Species of Ischnura 59

sum dark, with apical pale ring on segment 1; sub-apical lateral pale in-
dentations on 2; basal pale rings on 3 to 7, these interrupted dorsally on
6 and 7. The black on 3 to 5 expanded sub-apically and narrowed apically;
on 6 expanded apically; on 7 expanded in apical half. Segments 8 to 10
blue, with lateral black dashes on 8 and 9, and dorsum of 10 black. Apical
forked process on 10 erect, prominent, with pale posterior border. Append-
ages and Genitalia: Dorsal appendage dark, subrounded, depressed, with
the flattened posterior-dorsal surface terminating in a sharp apical point.
Inferior appendage of about the same length as the superior, turned up-
ward and terminating in a rounded, toothed knob. Viewed apically, the
inferior appendage appears to partially encircle the superior. Penis of
usual form for genus, the last (3rd) segment terminating in two narrow,
recurved processes; the 2nd segment lacking the erect spines found in
most other species within the genus, including the closely related I. posita.
(Arrow in Fig. 6 points to the location of the spines in other species.)
VARIATIONS AMONG THE PARATYPE MALES: Except for slight size dif-
ferences, the only difference noted was in extent of the antehumeral stripe,
which was reduced to two spots (the anterior elongate) in two specimens.
The distance of the arculus from the 2nd antenodal varies from one-fourth
to equal the length of the upper limb, and Cu2 ranges from two to three
and one-half cells long. All paratypes have two cells between quadrangle
and subnodus.
FEMALE: The allotype female is similar in color pattern to the male,
except that the dorsal surfaces of head, thorax, and abdomen are pruinose.
The antehumeral pale stripe has a smaller interruption than in male speci-
mens. Postocular spots are barely visible through pruinosity after brush-
ing with alcohol. The female appears to lack pale color on the dorsum of
the terminal abdominal segments.
The mesostigmal laminae are low, with the posterior ridge not elevated.
The apices are rounded and extended laterally, with the anterior and pos-
terior borders nearly parallel. The shape of the laminae is essentially
identical with those of I. posita.
There is no spine on the sternum of the eighth abdominal segment.
The single paratype female differs from the allotype only in size (see
DIMENSIONS (in mm.): Holotype male: hindwing 9; abdomen 15.
Paratype males: hind wing 8.5 (4 specimens), 9 (3); abdomen 14 (1), 15
(3), 16 (3). Allotype female: hind wing 11, abdomen 16.5. Paratype
female: hind wing 10, abdomen broken, but apparently about 1 mm.
shorter than allotype.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Holotype male: Flores, Dept. El Pet6n, Guate-
mala (elev. about 300 m.), 26 July 1963. Allotype female: Tikal, Dept. El
Pet6n, Guatemala (elev. about 300 m.), 17 Sept. 1964. Paratypes (8 $,
1 9): Tikal, 24 July 1962 (2 $), 29 July 1963 (1 & in alcohol), 16 Sept.
1964 (1 ); Flores, 16 Sept. 1964 (4 S, 1 9). The holotype and the allo-
type are deposited in the collection of the University of Florida. Para-
types will be deposited in University of Michigan Museum of Zoology and
U. S. National Museum.

Ischnura acicularis is quite similar to I. posita, differing principally in
size. There is one good morphological distinction between the males:

The Florida Entomologist

the absence of the penile spines found in posita. The color patterns differ
in that acicularis has the dorsal surfaces of the terminal abdominal seg-
ments blue, which in posita are entirely black. However, M. Westfall has
informed me in a recent letter that a very few Florida specimens of posita
have very small blue marks on the tip of the abdomen.
The very small size of acicularis suggests that this species might be
the smallest odonate in the world. Selys (1877) gave this distinction to
Agriocnemis minima Selys from Java (hind wing 8.5 mm., abdomen 13.5
mm.). Lieftinck (1930) gave a considerably larger size for other speci-
mens of this species. Tillyard (1917) considered that Agriocnemis rubri-
cauda Tillyard (hind wing 9-9.5 mm., abdomen 16-17 mm.) was the smallest.
The distinction of being the smallest species is probably completely mean-
ingless, however; variations in size are prominent in most Zygoptera spe-
cies, and quite commonly local populations of certain species will be notably
smaller than the species as a whole (the reverse is more rarely true).
There are several lines of evidence that suggest that the type series of
acicularis is indeed small because of local environmental reasons, and if
the species should be found elsewhere, it will almost certainly be larger
than the present specimens. In the first place, both Ischnura (Ceratura)
capreola and I. ramburii which were collected along with the new species
are consistently about 15% smaller than is typical of their respective spe-
cies. Other damselflies collected at the same pond were slightly smaller
than normal (Telebasis filiola (Perty), Leptobasis vacillans Hagen) or ap-
parently of normal size (Argia gaumeri Calvert, Neoerythromma cultella-
tum (Hagen), Acanthagrion "gracile", Telebasis digiticollis Calvert, T.
salva (Hagen), Lestes forficula (Rambur), Protoneura corculum Calvert).
Secondly, the co-occurrence of diminutive, closely related species at the
same locality is well established for a number of other cases. In one pond
in Oklahoma, I collected Ischnura verticalis and posita that were both well
below the minimum sizes for the remainder of the specimens in my collec-
tion. At a small pond near Houston, Texas, I have taken Enallagma sig-
natum (Hagen), dubium Root, and geminatum Kellicott flying together,
with each one being quite small for its particular species. Evidently certain
environmental factors stunt the nymphs, and this diminution in size is
passed on to the imagoes. Therefore, while I believe that there is no spe-
cies of Odonate smaller than acicularis, I cannot claim that this species
is itself the smallest.
The habits of the new species are about what one would expect for such
a small Odonate. It flies in long grass during portions of the day when the
breezes are minimal. The holotype was collected early in the morning in
long grass adjacent to the airport runway at Flores. Four paratypes were
taken the following year under identical circumstances. The remaining
paratypes were collected late in the afternoon in long grass adjacent to the
main aguada at Tikal.
Selys (1876) excluded the species posita from the genus Ischnura,
noting that the similarity of the stigma in fore and hind wings, the dark
color of the terminal abdominal segments, and the absence of the vulvar
spine in the female were not typical for that genus. Needham (1903),

Vol. 48, No. 1

Donnelly: A New Species of Ischnura

largely on the basis of the similarities in abdominal appendages and the
presence of a fork-like process on the dorsum of the 10th segment of the
male, placed the species in Ischnura. No later workers have suggested
other placement, though Walker (1953), summarizing the characters of the
genus, noted that posita was exceptional in several respects, including hav-
ing only a homeochromatic female and in having the mesostigmal lamina
of the female comparatively reduced. The discovery of the new species
acicularis and the recognition of its overwhelming similarity to posita
removes one of Sely's objections (dark color of the abdomen) but raises
several others. Firstly, the position of the arculus in acicularis is midway
between typical Ischnura and Ceratura, a genus distinguished by its author
(Selys 1876) by the position of the arculus and the similarity of the stigma
in fore and hind wings of the male. There now seems to be no basis for
giving Ceratura generic rank, unless the species posita and acicularis be
similarly set off.
The absence of the penile spines in acicularis is found also in the group
set off by Kennedy (1917) in his genus Celaenura, which is defined also by
a totally black thoracic dorsum. The tendency in several typical Ischnura
species towards severe restriction of the thoracic pale colors and the evi-
dently variable appearance of the penile spines cast considerable doubt on
the wisdom of continuing to consider Celaenura a valid genus.
Acicularis and posita are set off from all other Ischnura by several
characters. Both species have two post-quadrangular cells, whereas other
Ischnura typically have three (a very small fraction have two in one or
more wings), as do Ceratura and Anomalagrion. The semilarity in stigma
in fore and hind wings is shared only with Ceratura. The vein Cu2 is
always less than four cells long, while typical Ischnura have this vein
seven cells (rarely six), Anomalagrion five cells, and Ceratura four and
one-half cells long. In venational characters Celaenura is similar to typical
The species Ischnura prognatha was placed in the genus Anomalura by
Kennedy (1920) on the basis of the apical fork of segment 10, which is
elongated in a spine, and on the placement of the spines of the penis. An-
other notable difference not mentioned by Kennedy is the extremely open
venation of this species. The one specimen available to me has only 106
cells (fore wing) and 98 cells (hind wing), with a hind wing length of
16 mm. Other Ischnura have the following mean numbers of cells and
hind wing lengths (number of specimens examined in parenthesis): Isch-
nura (Ischnura) ramburii (Selys), West Indies (7), 137, 14.5; Texas (6),
127, 13.75; Florida (2), 134, 15.25; Md., N. J. (6), 136, 15.75; Guatemala,
highlands (4), 169, 18; Guatemala, El Pet6n (8), 118, 13. I. (Is.chnura)
cervula Selys (8), 131, 14.5. L (Ischnura) damula Calvert (4), 132, 15.
I. (Ischnura) perparva Selys (6), 122, 13.5. I. (Ischnura) barberi Currie
(2), 133, 16.75. I. (Ischnura) demorsa (Hagen) (8), 106, 12.25. 1. (Isch-
nura) kellicotti Williamson (3), 114, 14. I. (Ischnura) verticalis (Say)
(8), 109, 13. I. (Celaenura) denticollis (Burmeister) (8), 134, 12.5 I.
(Anomalura) prognatha (Hagen) (1), 98, 16. I. (Ceratura) capreola
(Hagen), El Pet6n (4), 88, 9; elsewhere (14), 100, 10.5. I. (Ischnuridia)
posita (Hagen) (11), 94, 11.5. I. (Ischnuridia) acicularis n. sp. (4), 82, 9.
Anomalagrion hastatum (Say) (5), 94, 11.
The above list shows that there is a rather constant relationship among

The Florida Entomologist

all ischnurine damselflies regarding venation density (number of cells vs.
length of wing). However, I. (Celaenura) denticollis has notably dense
venation, and I. (Anomalura) prognatha has very open venation.
Collation of the relationships discussed above has led to the following
proposed subgeneric revision of North and Central American Ischnura,
with characters by which the more homogeneous subgenera may be dis-
tinguished from the heterogeneous subgenus Ischnura set in italics:

SUBGENUS Ischnura Charpentier 1840
Three postquadrangular cells, stigma dissimilar in fore and hind wings,
spine present on sternum of segment 8 of female, arculus removed from
2nd antenodal by less than one-third of length of upper limb, penis having
spines on 2nd segment, vein Cu2 greater than seven (less commonly six)
cells long, venation of medium density. The type species of the genus,
I. elegans (v. d. Linden), possesses the above characters. North and
Central American species belonging here include I. ramburii (Selys), cer-
vula (Selys), damula Calvert, perparva Selys, barberi Currie, demorsz
(Hagen), kellicotti Williamson, verticalis (Say), and erratic Calvert.

SUBGENUS Ischnuridia,2 new subgenus
Two postquadrangular cells in all wings, stigma similar in fore and
hind wing, no spine on sternum of segment 8 of female, arculus typically
removed one-half to two-thirds the length of upper limb, penis with or with-
out spines on 2nd segment, vein Cus always less than four cells long, vena-
tion of medium density. Type species I. posita (Hagen). Also includes
I. acicularis n. sp.
The subgenus Ischnuridia is also apparently unique in the absence of
heterochromatic females.

SUBGENUS Celaenura Kennedy 1917
Three postquadrangular cells, stigma dissimilar in fore and hind wings,
spine on sternum of segment 8 of female, arculus removed less than one-
fourth of length of upper limb, penis without spine on 2nd segment, vein
Cu2 more than seven cells long, venation dense, thoracic dorsum totally dark.
Type species I. denticollis (Burmeister). Also includes I. gemina (Ken-

SUBGENUS Ceratura Selys 1876
Three postquadrangular cells, stigma similar in fore and hind wings,
spine on sternum of segment 8 of female, arculus removed one length or
more of upper limb, penis with spines on 2nd segment, vein Cu2 four and
one-half to five and one-half cells long. Type species I. capreola (Hagen).
No other species in this area.

SUBGENUS Anomalura Kennedy 1920
Three postquadrangular cells, stigma dissimilar in fore and hind wings,
spine on sternum of segment 8 of female, arculus removed less than one-
fourth of length of upper limb, penis with spines on 2nd segment, vein

SIschnuridia (Greek): diminutive of Ischnura.

Vol. 48, No. I

Donnelly: A New Species of Ischnura

Cu2 six cells long, venation of very low density, elevated process on segment
10 of male a spine. Type and only species I. prognatha (Hagen).

Charpentier, T. de. 1840. Libellulinae europaeae descriptae ac depictae.
Lipsiae, Leopold Voss. 180 p.
Kennedy, C. H. 1917. Notes on the life history and ecology of the drag-
onflies (Odonata) of central California and Nevada. Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus. 52: 483-635.
Kennedy, C. H. 1920. Forty-two hitherto unrecognized genera and sub-
genera of Zygoptera. Ohio Jour. Sci. 21: 83-88.
Lieftinck, M. A. 1930. Contributions to the dragonfly-fauna of the Dutch
East Indies. Treubia 12: 135-166.
Needham, J. G. 1903. Life histories of Odonata. Sub-order Zygoptera.
Part 3 of Aquatic Insects of New York State. N. Y. Mus. Bull.
68: 218-279.
Selys-Longchamps, E. de. 1876. Synopsis des Agrionines, 3me l6gion:
Agrion (suite). Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Belgique, 2nd ser. 41:1-282
Selys-Longchamps, E. de. 1877. Synopsis des Agrionines, 3me l6gion:
Agrion (suite et fin.). Bull. Acad. Roy Sci. Belgique, 2nd ser. 43:
1-65 (reprint).
Tillyard, R. J. 1917. The biology of dragonflies. Cambridge Univ. Press.
396 p.
Walker, E. M. 1953. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska, Vol. 1. Univ.
of Toronto Press. 292 p.

The Florida Entomologist 48(1) 1965

The entomology departments of the University of Florida Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences have recently been combined, and teach-
ing, research, and extension functions are now included in a single depart-
ment. Dr. W. G. Eden, formerly of Auburn University, became Head of
the new Department of Entomology on 1 February 1965.
Dr. Eden received his B.S. and M.Sc. degrees from Auburn and his Ph.D.
from the University of Illinois. Dr. Eden has worked at Auburn in exten-
sion, teaching, and research.

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Erwin, Tennessee

Mites of the family Tenuipalpidae are obligate plant parasites and sev-
eral species damage plants seriously. They are flattened, slow-moving
mites usually red or green in color and about 0.22 to 0.32 mm long. No
members of this family have previously been reported from British Guiana.
This paper describes eight new Tenuipalpus, one new Priscapalpus, and one
new Brevipalpus and gives host and distribution records for T. orilloi
Rimando, B. californicus (Banks), B. phoenicis (Geij.) and B. lilium
Recently while I was in Trinidad, I met Dr. J. M. Cherrett, a member
of the University College Bangor Expedition to Guiana 1963, who graci-
ously invited me to visit the Expedition to make a mite survey. This was
an invitation I was most pleased to accept. The expedition was to con-
duct an intensive study of the Bartica Nature Reserve, a virgin rain forest
area 24 miles south of Bartica, B. G.
My survey was made between 22 October and 3 November. The percent
of plant samples harboring mites and the mite population on these samples
was low. In most cases I found only 2 or 3 live specimens although egg
shells and exuviae were often common; in a few cases exuviae were all
that I found. Of the 167 plant samples examined only one-third of them
harbored mites; this is a considerably smaller percentage than was found
for the Caribbean islands visited.
The rainfall for the general Bartica area averages about 100 inches a
year (Davis 1953), but we had only 2 small showers while I was there
and many of the saplings wilted for want of water.
In the following descriptions all measurements are in microns and body
lengths include the rostral shield. The diagnosis part of the descriptions
refers to the female and the drawings are of females except as noted. All
species have well developed claws and pulvilli, but these have been omitted
from the drawings to show the setae at the tarsal tips. The terminology
is that used by Pritchard and Baker (1953).

1. Body abruptly narrowed behind legs IV and usually bearing a pair of
long whip-like setae near posterior end................................Tenuipalpus
Body gradually narrowed behind legs IV and without a pair of long
whip-like setae near posterior end---.. ..------------......... --...........---. ....... 2
2. Genital plate distinct from ventral plate; palpus 4-segmented................
--- ..........------------------ ---------------------------.................--.................... ....Brevipalpus

1The cost of engravings has been paid for by a grant from the Pinellas
Foundation, Inc., St. Petersburg, Florida.

The Florida Entomologist

Genital plate fused with ventral plate; palpus less than 3-segmented
...-...-......................................... ...............-- .......-....-.--- Priscapalpus


1. Podosoma with 1 pair of anterior medioventral setae..................................---
Podosoma with 2 pairs of anterior medioventral setae....(1) unonopsonis
2. Podosoma with 1 pair of posterior medioventrals..................................3
Podosoma with 2 pairs of posterior medioventrals---.....---..... (2) barticanus
3. Body greatly flattened; propodosoma greatly widened; a large projec-
tion just anterior of coxae III.............-- -..- --..-.----...---.. --.. --
Body not greatly flattened; propodosoma not greatly widened; without
or with only a very small projection just anterior of coxae III........6
4. Dorsocentral hysterosomal setae 1 and 2 enlarged, longer than distance
to opposite member.. ..------....... .........................--------------------------------5
Dorsocentral hysterosomal setae 1 and 2 setiform or nearly so, much
shorter than distance to opposite member............-------.... (3) anacardii
5. Dorsum almost smooth, with only a few ridges; second segment of
palpus slender, cylindrical----..................... ---------........ (4) boyani
Dorsum with many ridges; second segment of palpus widened at about
middle and then abruptly narrowed distad...... -.................---.. (5) sandyi
6. Genu IV bare---..... .-------.................... -----------------------7
Genu IV with a seta on anterior margin.............------........ ---- ...---
7. Genu III bare; propodosomal seta 3 about 32 microns long....(6) tapirirae
Genu III with a seta; propodosomal seta 3 about 11 microns long-.....
...........-....... -........... .. ---- --------- ....-- ...-- ..(7) mourerae
8. Palpus 1-segmented; dorsum practically smooth... ----.............(8) terminaliae
Palpus 3-segmented; dorsum with a pair of more or less zig zag longi-
tudinal ridges -------- -- ---...................... .. ........ ............ (9) orilloi

(1) Tenuipalpus unonopsonis, new species
(Fig. 1)

Tenuipalpus unonopsonis resembles T. pigrus Pritchard and Baker, 1952;
it differs most noticeably from that species in having the second palpal
segment without a projection, dorsocentral hysterosomal setae 1, 2, and 3
much smaller, and genu IV with a seta.
FEMALE: Greenish, somewhat transparent, greatly flattened; 331 long,
238 wide, with setae and markings as shown in Fig. 1. Palpus 3-segmented;
tarsi I and II each with a posterodistal rod-shaped seta and an overlying
setiform seta; propodosomal seta 3 about 34 long.
MALE: Similar to female in color and chaetotaxy; 244 long, 174 wide;
tarsi I and II each with also an anterodistal rod-shaped seta.
NYMPH: Similar to female, but with corresponding setae proportion-
ally narrower.
Holotype: Female, Bartica Nature Reserve, B. G., 26 Oct. 1963 (D. De
Leon), on Unonopsis guatteroides. Paratypes: 2 males, 1 nymph collected
with holotype. A female and nymph taken from Ocotea schaumburgkiana,

Vol. 48, No. 1

De Leon: New Tenuipalpidae from British Guiana 67

30 Oct. 1963 (H. Kewall) and which differ from the holotype female and
paratype nymph only in having propodosomals 1 and 2 and dorsocentral
hysterosomals 1 and 2 setiform probably belong here.

(2) Tenuipalpus barticanus, new species
(Fig. 2)

Tenuipalpus barticanus resembles T. granati Sayed as redescribed by
Baker and Pritchard (1953); it differs from that species chiefly in having
the dorsum more strongly ridged, four pairs of dorsolateral opisthosomal
setae, in lacking a seta on the posterior margin of genu I and on the an-
terior margin of trochanter III. The male is not known.
FEMALE: Greenish to apricot in color; 243-271 long, 154-172 wide, with
setae and markings as shown in Fig. 2. Propodosomal seta 3 about 11
long; palpus 3-segmented, tarsi I and II each with a rod-shaped seta and
an overlying setiform seta.
NYMPH: Similar to female, but corresponding setae proportionally
longer (propodosomal seta 3 about 36 long), except for dorsolateral opistho-
somal seta 2 which is minute. As in the female, dorsolateral opisthosomal
1 is absent. The two nymphs at hand, deutonymphs, have only 1 pair of
posterior medioventrals.
Holotype: Female, about 5 miles south of Bartica, B. G., on Potaro
road near pine plantation, 3 Nov. 1963 (D. De Leon), on unknown shrub.
Paratypes: 5 females, 2 nymphs collected with holotypes.

(3) Tenuipalpus anacardii, new species
(Fig. 3)

Tenuipalpus anacardii resembles T. lucumae De Leon, 1957; it differs
most noticeably from that species in having smaller leg setae, propodoso-
mal seta 3 slightly less than half as long as distance to base of humeral
seta, anterior margin of genu I and II each with only 1 seta, and femur
IV without the usual ventral seta. The male and nymphs are unknown.
FEMALE: Greenish, somewhat transparent; 325 long, 253 wide, with
setae and markings as shown in Fig. 3. Propodosomal seta 3 about 40
long; palpus 3-segmented; tarsi I and II each with a rod-shaped seta and
an ovate overlying seta.
Holotype: Female, about 3 miles south of Bartica, B. G. on Potaro
road, 22 Oct. 1963 (D. De Leon), on Anacardium sp. (probably officinale).

(4) Tenuipalpus boyani, new species
(Fig. 4)

Tenuipalpus boyani resembles T. caudatus (Duges) as redescribed and
illustrated by Baker and Pritchard (1953) (See Pritchard and Baker 1958
for synonymy on caudatus) ; it differs most noticeably from that species in
having the dorsum practically smooth, propodosomal seta 2 oval, propodo-
somal seta 3 appreciably more than half as long as distance to base of
humeral seta, and seta of coxa IV away from the usual position for this
seta and over near the posterior medioventrals; thus at first sight it ap-

Plate I
Fig. 1 to 5. Females, dorsal and ventral views. 1. Tenuipalpus unonop-
sonis, n. sp. 2. T. barticanus, n. sp. 3. T. anacardii, n. sp. 4. T. boyani,
n. sp. 5. T. sandyi, n. sp.

De Leon: New Tenuipalpidae from British Guiana 69

pears as if there are 2 pairs of posterior medioventral podosomals. The
male is unknown.
FEMALE: Brownish yellow; 265 long, 225 wide, with setae and mark-
ings as shown in Fig. 4. Propodosomal seta 3 about 70 long; palpus 2-
segmented; tarsi I and II each with a rod-shaped seta and an overlying
ovate seta.
NYMPH: Deutonymph? similar to female, but propodosomal seta 2
setiform and dorsocentral hysterosomals 1 and 2 minute.
Holotype: Female, Bartica Nature Reserve, B. G., 2 Nov. 1963 (Rufus
Boyan), on Pouteria sp. Paratypes: 1 female, 2 nymphs collected with
holotype. The mite is named for the collector.

(5) Tenuipalpus sandyi, new species
(Fig. 5)
Tenuipalpus sandyi resembles T. caudatus (Duges); it differs from the
redescription of that species by Baker and Pritchard (1953) in having the
palpus 2-segmented and somewhat lobed and propodosomal seta 2 much
larger. The male is unknown.
FEMALE: Velvety red, margin of podosoma black, dorsal setae white;
263-280 long, 206-226 wide, with setae and markings as shown in Fig. 5.
Propodosomal seta 3 varies in length from 40-58; palpus 2-segmented; tarsi
I and II each with a posterodistal rod-shaped seta and an overlying ovate
NYMPH: Proto- and deutonymph both with propodosomal seta 2 minute
and setiform; protonymph with dorsocentral hysterosomals 1 and 2 ovate,
but minute; deutonymph with these setae enlarged as in female. Both
stages are red and greatly flattened.
Holotype: Female, near Bartica Nature Reserve, B. G., 2 Nov. 1963
(Charles Sandy), on Humiria balsamifera var. floribunda. Paratypes: 5
females, 4 nymphs collected with holotype. The mite is named for the col-
(6) Tenuipalpus tapirirae, new species
(Fig. 6)

Tenuipalpus taprirae resembles T. heveae Baker, 1945; it differs most
noticeably from that species in having the dorsum almost smooth, propodo-
somal seta 2 situated more than 2 times its length from the eyes, genua
I and II each with 2 setae, trochanter III with a seta on anterior margin,
and tibiae III and IV each with a seta on anterior margin. The male is
not known.
FEMALE: Red; 277 long, 186 wide, with setae and markings as shown
in Fig. 6. Propodosomal seta 3 about 32 long; most of the setae of the
ventral surface with very fine barbs; palpus 3-segmented; tarsi I and II
each with a posterodistal rod-shaped seta and an overlying ovate seta.
PROTONYMPH: Corresponding setae similar to those of female, but
dorsolateral opisthosomals (except for whip-like seta) proportionally longer
and narrower.
Holotype: Female, near Bartica Nature Reserve, B. G., 23 Oct. 1963
(D. De Leon), on Tapirira guianensis. Paratype: 1 nymph, collected with

Plate II
Fig. 6 to 10. Females, dorsal and ventral views. 6. Tenuipalpus tapiri-
rae, n. sp. (legs I and II at lower left). 7. T. mourerae, n. sp. (legs I and
II at upper left). 8. T. terminaliae, n. sp. 9. T. orilloi Rimando. 10. Brevi-
palpus acutangliae, n. sp. 10a. B. acutangliae, n. sp., nymph.

De Leon: New Tenuipalpidae from British Guiana 71

(7) Tenuipalpus mourerae, new species
(Fig. 7)
Tenuipalpus mourerae closely resembles T. crescentiae De Leon, 1957;
it differs most noticeably from that species in having the dorsum less
strongly rugose, the dorsal body and leg setae shorter and more slender,
genua I and II each with 2 setae on their anterior margin and the nymph
with dorsocentral hysterosomals 1 minute. The male is unknown.
FEMALE: Center part pale pink, margin irregularly black, legs straw
colored; 242 long, 155 wide, with setae and markings as shown in Fig. 7.
Propodosomal seta 3 about 10 long; tarsi I and II each with a posterodistal
rod-shaped seta and an overlying setiform seta.
DEUTONYMPH: Similar to female in chaetotaxy.
Holotype: Female. Bartica Nature Reserve, B. G., 24 Oct. 1963 (D.
De Leon), on Mourera sideroxylon. Paratypes: 4 females, 1 nymph col-
lected with holotype.

(8) Tenuipalpus terminaliae, new species
(Fig. 8)

Tenuipalpus terminaliae resembles T. knorri Baker and Pritchard, 1953;
it differs most noticeably from that species in having the dorsum almost
smooth and 2 setae on the anterior margin of genu I. The male and
nymphs are unknown.
FEMALE: Red; 289-315 long, 208-222 wide, with setae and markings
as shown in Fig. 8. Propodosomal seta 3 about 33 long; palpus 1-seg-
mented; tarsi I and II each with a posterodistal rod-shaped seta and an
overlying ovate seta; femur IV without the usual ventral seta.
Holotype: Female, near Bartica Nature Reserve, B. G., 23 Oct. 1963
(D. De Leon), on Terminalia amazonica. Paratypes: 5 females collected
with holotype.
(9) Tenuipalpus orilloi Rimando
(Fig. 9)

Tenuipalpus orilloi Rimando (1962) described from specimens in the
Philippines is less restricted in host preference than are most Tenuipalpus.
In the Philippines it occurs on citrus and on coconut; Manson (1963), de-
scribing it under the name T. spathiphyllus (new synonymy), lists it on
Spathiphyllum sp. coming from Indonesia. In Georgetown, it occurred on
Chrysalidocarpus luteseens and on an unknown broadleaf tree.
Dr. E. W. Baker kindly compared the British Guiana specimens with
the types in the U. S. National Museum of the Philippine and the Indonesian
specimens and verified the identification. The palpus is 3-segmented con-
trary to the statement in the original description; additional information
on the species follows:
FEMALE: Straw-colored, with setae and markings as shown in Fig. 9.
Propodosomal dorsolateral seta 3 about 35 long; tarsi I and II each with
a posterodistal rod-shaped seta distinctly longer than the overlying ovate
MALE: Similar to female but tarsi I and II also each with an antero-
basal rod-shaped seta.


Plate III
Fig. 11. Priscapalpus cherretti, n. sp., dorsal and ventral views, female.

De Leon: New Tenuipalpidae from British Guiana 73

NYMPH: Similar to female, but dorsolateral propodosomal seta 3 about
40 long and more slender, and leg setae more slender.
EGG: Straw-colored, rather depressed and covered, as are the eggs of
other species of Tenuipalpus, with a thin membrane bearing minute longi-
tudinal ridges. The eggs of other species of Tenuipalpus that I have seen
are chunky, nearly cylindrical in mid-section and with the ends abruptly
rounded; they are typical for the genus and can be readily distinguished
from the smooth, oval eggs of Brevipalpus.

1. Hysterosoma with 5 pairs of dorsolateral setae.........................------..........---2
Hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae.............................-........ .3
2. Propodosomal seta 1 and dorsocentral hysterosomal setae 1 and 3
greatly enlarged ..........................................--..................... (1) acutangliae
None of dorsal body setae greatly enlarged............................(2) phoenicis
3. Tarsus II with an anterodistal rod-shaped seta in addition to a pos-
terodistal rod-shaped seta..................................................(3) californicus
Tarsus II with only a posterodistal rod-shaped seta....................(4) lilium

(1) Brevipalpus acutangliae, new species
(Fig. 10)
Brevipalpus acutangliae although having only 5 pairs of dorsolateral
hysterosomal setae belongs in the fleschneri-floridianus group of species.
The group is apparently confined to lauraceous plants. In addition to hav-
ing only 5 pairs of dorsolateral hysterosomal setae, this species is distinct
from other members of the group in lacking the anterior part of the
"frame" of the ventral plate, and in other characters.
FEMALE: Propodosoma and anterior part of hysterosoma whitish, rest
of body pale red; 261 long, 163-185 wide, with setae and markings as shown
in Fig. 10. Second pair of dorsocentral hysterosomals minute; posterior
pair of medioventral podosomals absent; palpus 4-segmented, terminal seg-
ment of palpus with 1 seta and a sensory rod; tarsi I and II each with a
posterodistal rod-shaped seta and an overlying setiform seta.
MALE: Dorsum greyish white except for 2 large, squarish, black spots
at the eyes; 226 long, 136 wide. Specimen damaged in collecting and legs
and many setae broken off.
DEUTONYMPH: Arrangement of seta shown in Fig. 10a.
Holotype: Female, Bartica Nature Reserve, B. G., 26 Oct. 1963 (D. De
Leon), on Ocotea acutanglia. Paratypes: 2 females, 1 male, 3 nymphs
collected with holotype.

(2) Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes)
Brevipalpus phoenicis was collected in Georgetown, B. G., 20 and 21
Oct. 1963, on the following plants: Averrhoa bilimbi, Bauhinia sp., Capsi-
cum frutescens, Saman samanea, Sida acuta, Spondias dulcis, Tabebuia
sp., and Wedelia triloba; a nymph that is most probably this species was
taken from rice at the Central Experiment Station, Mon Repos, 5 No-

The Florida Entomologist

(3) Brevipalpus californicus (Banks)
Brevipalpus californicus was collected near the Bartica Nature Reserve,
B. G., 27 October on a vine (Dioscorea?); in Georgetown, 4 November, on
Cassia bicapsularis, a fern, and Ixora coccinea; at the Central Experiment
Station, Mon Repos, 5 November, on Centrosema pubescens. This mite is
variable in the pattern of the dorsal shields; no studies have been made,
however, to determine the limits of the variation.

(4) Brevipalpus lilium Baker
Brevipalpus lilium was collected in Georgetown, 4 November, on Mont-
richardia arborescens and on Synedrella nodiflora; at the Central Experi-
ment Station, 5 November, on Corchorus olitorius. This species is also
variable and a study is needed to determine its status. Neither the male
nor the nymph can be distinguished from californicus, and the female only
by the 1 rod on tarsus II; specimens occur with 2 rods on one tarsus II
and 1 rod on the opposite tarsus so this species may be a variant of cali-
Priscapalpus cherretti, new species
(Fig. 11)
Priscapalpus cherretti is readily distinguished from the only other spe-
cies in the genus, P. macropilis De Leon, 1961, by its much shorter dorsal
body setae and by having a pair of blunt knobs anterior of coxae III. The
male and nymph are unknown.
FEMALE: Pinkish; 233 long, 156 wide, with setae and markings as
shown in Fig. 11. Propodosomal seta 3 about 46 long; dorsocentral hystero-
somal seta 3 absent; palpus 2-segmented? (base not clear and palpus pos-
sibly only 1-segmented), tarsi I and II each with a posterodistal rod-shaped
seta and an overlying setiform seta.
Holotype: Female, near Bartica Nature Reserve, 1 Nov. 1963 (D. De
Leon), on Miconia sp.? The mite is named for Dr. J. M. Cherrett, Univer-
sity College, Bangor, Britain.
Types and paratypes of the above described new species are in the au-
thor's collection.

I wish to thank Mr. Rufus Boyan, Mr. Charles Sandy, and Dr. Gareth
Evans, all members of the Expedition, for the identification of plants in the
Nature Reserve, and Mr. R. Persaud of the Central Experiment Station
Herbarium for the identification of plants in the Georgetown area. Mr.
Ernest Dow, Conservator of Forests, and Dr. Harry Paul, Director of Agri-
culture, materially assisted in other ways.

Baker, E. W. 1945. Mites of the genus Tenuipalpus (Acarina: Trichaden-
idae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 47: 33-38.
Baker, E. W., and A. E. Pritchard. 1953. A review of the false spider
mite genus Tenuipalpus Donnadieu (Acarina: Phytoptipalpidae).
Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 40(3): 317-336.

Vol. 48, No. 1

De Leon: New Tenuipalpidae from British Guiana 75

Davis, T. W. A. 1953. An outline of the ecology and breeding seasons of
birds of the lowland forest regions of British Guiana. Ibis 95:
De Leon, D. 1957. The genus Tenuipalpus in Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipal-
pidae). Fla. Ent. 40(3): 81-93.
De Leon, D. 1961. A new false spider mite genus from Mexico (Acarina:
Tenuipalpidae). Fla. Ent. 44(2): 93-94.
Manson, D. C. M. 1963. Seven new species of false spider mites (Tenui-
palpidae: Acarina). Acarologia 5(2): 213-224.
Pritchard, A. E., and E. W. Baker. 1952. The false spider mites of Cali-
fornia (Acarina: Phytoptipalpidae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent. 9(1):
Pritchard, A. E., and E. W. Baker. 1958. The false spider mites (Acarina:
Tenuipalpidae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent. 14(3): 175-274.
Rimando, L. C. 1962. The tetranychoid mites of the Philippines. Univ.
Phil. College Agr. Tech. Bull. 11.

The Florida Entomologist 48(1) 1965


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Department of Zoology, Mississippi State University, State College, Miss.

In 1950 Ellis, on the basis of a series of specimens, placed Plea harnedi
Drake in synonomy with Plea striola Fieber. In 1953 Drake and Chapman
restored P. harnedi on the basis of relative specimen size and size of reti-
culations, claiming that the series of Ellis was all harnedi and included no
specimens of striola. Since the series of Ellis was compared with all avail-
able type material and did express the range of variation including both
harnedi and striola in a single population, Drake and Chapman's position is
untenable and to defend it is to deny the validity of the type series concept.
Therefore, in this paper, the position of Ellis, as supported by others
(Wilson 1958), holding harnedi to be synonomous with striola will be fol-
In the process of some limnological investigations made in northern
Mississippi on the Tombigbee River, specimens of Plea striola were col-
lected at five different sites between Columbus, Miss., and the Alabama
line, a distance of about 30 miles. The Tombigbee, except during its lowest
level, is a relatively rapid flowing river which attains a considerable ve-
locity during certain times of the year. Plea striola is not characteristic
of this type of water, and to my knowledge, has never been recorded from
fast flowing water. It is usually found in association with various types
of submerged, emergent, or floating aquatic vegetation, which was not the
case here.
In every Tombigbee collection, fifty net dips were made along steep
bank areas of the river which were free of floating and emergent aquatic
vegetation but in some instances with sparse to dense mats of willow roots.
These collections were made from July through October and no more than
one specimen was ever collected at any one time at any collecting site. The
collecting sites were fairly well scoured by the water flow even at low water
when the velocity of the current was at its lowest. These collections of
P. striola were quite unexpected since there are no literature records of
similar collecting areas and the author has never before found Plea in such
a habitat.
Drake, Carl J., and H. C. Chapman. 1953. Preliminary report on the Plei-
dae (Hemiptera) of the Americas. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 66: 53-60.
Ellis, Leslie L. 1950. The status of Plea striola and harnedi. Proc. Ent.
Soc. Wash. 52: 104-105.
Wilson, C. A. 1958. Aquatic and semiaquatic Hemiptera of Mississippi.
Tulane Stud. Zool. 6: 116-170.

The Florida Entomologist 48(1) 1965

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