Title: Florida Entomologist
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00165
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1966
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00165
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Vol. 49, No. 2 June, 1966

STEGMAIER, CARL E., JR.-Host Plants and Parasites of
Liriomyza trifolii in Florida (Diptera: Agromyzidae) 75
STEGMAIER, CARL E., JR.-Host Plants and Parasites of Liri-
omyza munda in Florida (Diptera: Agromyzidae) ..... 81
trol of Two Lepidopterous Cabbage Pests by Use of
Different Insecticides and Application Methods .--........-----. 87
Tests with Larvicides for the Control of House Flies,
Musca domestic (Diptera: Muscidae), in Poultry
H ouses ..................---..---- ................-.................... ........ 91
HEPNER, LEON W.-New Species of Erythroneura Related
to lenta (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) ..........------------....................... 95
HEPNER, LEON W.-New Species of Erythroneura Related
to campora (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)---......----......--..........-... -----101
'Genus and Species of Damselfly from Guatemala and
Cuba (Odonata: Coenagrionidae)..................------------------................ 107
covery of Chrysops (Liochrysops) hyalinus and New
Records of C. abatus (Diptera: Tabanidae) --------......-...... 115
STEGMAIER, CARL E., JR.-Host Plants and Parasites of
Liriomyza schmidti in Florida (Diptera: Agromyzi-
dae) -..-.........------ ---.. ..------------........--------- ..........---.... .......... 119
WOLFENBARGER, D. O.-Pachystethus marginata, a Locally
Serious Pest of Avocado, Lychee, and Mango-.......--------........ 125
DE LEON, DONALD-A New Fern Mite from Trinidad, West
Indies (Acarina: Tarsonemidae) .-..--- -------------.................. 127
Governing Documents of The Florida Entomological
Society, Inc .---..............--------------------- -----------.................. 131
Notices ------.... -------............... -- --------------....----. 80, 86, 114, 122
Book Notes ....... -------------.. --........ -- ----------...-----..--....------.............. 126

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


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Treasurer.......................................................................---------------------------D. H. Habeck
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11335 N. W. 59 Ave., Hialeah, Florida 33012

Prior to 1962, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) was believed to mine the
leaves of legumes in many areas of the United States and Europe. Frick
(1959) reported rearing L. trifolii from Trifolium spp., Melilotus spp.,
Medicago sativa L., and Vicia villosa Roth in Washington. Spencer (1965)
concluded that the species Frick had reared was not Trifolii but Liriomyza
fricki n. sp.; furthermore the species known in Europe on legumes as
L. trifolii was identified by Spencer as Liriomyza congesta (Becker).
Spencer reported that E. Burgess originally described L. trifolii from
specimens reared from Trifolium repens L. in the District of Columbia.
The type specimens described by Burgess could not be found at the U. S.
National Museum and must be presumed lost. A neotype, a male reared
from alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., Lafayette, Indiana, 3 Nov. 1913 (J. M.
Aldrich), was designated and is in the U. S. National Museum (Spencer
Spencer (1965) placed Liriomyza alliovora Frick (a leaf-mining species
infesting onions in Iowa) as a synonym of trifolii. Another species clari-
fied by Spencer is L. archboldi. Frost (1962) described the rearing of a
new species of leaf-miner, Liriomyza archboldi, at the Archbold Biological
Station, in Florida. Spencer (1965) remarked, "The holotype and 20 para-
types were taken in a light trap in Florida. Specimens bred from Pisum
sativum L. were included as paratypes but, following personal correspond-
ence with Prof. Frost, it is now agreed that these represent L. trifolii.
The host plants of archboldi thus remain to be clarified."
The confirmed distribution of Liriomyza trifolii is Iowa, Indiana, Flor-
ida, and Washington, D. C.
Through the efforts of Mr. K. Spencer, numerous Florida entomologists,
and the author, Liriomyza trifolii is now recognized as a polyphagous spe-
cies found widespread in Florida. Polyphagy was defined by Spencer
(1964) as the indiscriminate feeding on a number of different plant orders;
he stated that only a few truly polyphagous species are known. Spencer
further stated that L. trifolii, L. munda Frick, L. sorosis (Williston), and
a stem miner, Melanagromyza virens (Loew) are polyphagous species
found in the Neotropical Region.
I commenced the agromyzid study in 1962. I made collections of plant
infestations from truck crops, ornamentals, weeds, and numerous native
plants to determine the host range for trifolii in Florida. I was assisted
by other entomologists who began collecting host infestations and other
data on leaf-miner infestations from their respective areas. All rear-
ings of L. trifolii cited in this paper have been identified by Mr. Kenneth
A. Spencer (London, England).

1 Contribution No. 74, Entomology Section, Div. Plant Industry, Fla.
Dep. Agr., Gainesville.
2 Collaborator, Fla. State Collection of Arthropods, Div. Plant Industry,
Fla. Dep. Agr.

The Florida Entomologist

The following rearing records of trifolii indicate the wide host range
of plants infested by this species of leaf-miner and are a contribution to
a more detailed knowledge of its life history. The host plant list for
trifolii is not complete, and other plant species can be expected to serve
as hosts for this leaf-miner. I have not cited the numerous duplicated
hearings (reared many times from the same host plant) of L. trifolii.

An asterisk (*) indicates that the species of plant was listed by Spen-
cer (1965) as a host of L. trifolii. Dates refer to the dates that plant
infestations were collected for rearing.

Gypsophila sp.: Sanford, 26 Dec. 1963 (J. W. Wilson).

Beta vulgaris L.: Sanford, 18 Dec. 1964 (G. W. Desin).
Chenopodium album L., leaf mines only: Homestead, 15 Jan. 1964
(C. Stegmaier).
Spinacia oleracea L.: Homestead, 30 Dec. 1963 (D. 0. Wolfenbarger).

Aster sp., cultivated: Sanford, 26 Dec. 1963 (J. W. Wilson).
Baccharis halimifolia L.*: Hialeah, 8 Feb. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
Bidens pilosa L.*: Hialeah, 3, 4 July 1962 (C. Stegmaier).
Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees.: Sanford, 21 Apr. 1964 (G. W.
Dahlia sp., cultivated*: Hialeah, 30 July 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Rafin.*: Hialeah, 7 Feb. 1963 (C. Steg-
Eupatorium coelestinum L.*: Hialeah, 18 Sep. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
Eupatorium serotinum Michx.: Hialear, 22 Sep. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
Flaveria trinervia (Spreng.) Mohr*: Miami, 15 Aug. 1962 (C. Steg-
Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.) Blake: Belle Glade, 7 Apr. 1964 (E. D. Har-
ris, Jr.).
Gaillardia aristata Pursh.*: Key Bahia Honda, 19 Aug. 1963 (C. Steg-
Gerbera jamesoni Bolus*: Coral Gables, 15 Apr. 1963 (H. L. Rubin).
Gerbera sp.: Sanford, 24 Dec. 1963 (J. W. Wilson).
Gnaphalium spathalium Lam.: Belle Glade, 10 Apr. 1963 (E. D. Har-
ris, Jr.).
Helianthus annuus L.: Miami Springs, 24 Aug. 1962 (B. K. Dozier).
Hymenopappus scabosaeus L'Her.: Gainesville, 11 May 1965 (L. C.
Lactuca canadensis L.: Homestead, 2 Jan. 1963 (D. 0. Wolfenbarger).
Latuca sativa L.: Hialeah, 8 Feb. 1962 (C. Stegmaier).
Melanthera deltoidea Michx.: Miami, 18 Sep. 1963 (E. W. Golsen).
Senecio glabellus Poir.: Sanford, 21 Apr. 1964 (G. W. Desin).
Senecio sp.: Hialeah, 15 Apr. 1964 (C. Stegmaier).
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill.: Homestead, 22 Jan. 1964 (C. Stegmaier).

Vol. 49, No. 2

Stegmaier: Liriomyza trifolii in Florida 77

Sonchus oleraceus, L.: Homestead, 22 Jan. 1964 (C. Stegmaier).
Synedrella nodiflora L.: Miami, 17 Oct. 1962 (C. Stegmaier).
Tagetes erecta L.: North Miami, 2 Feb. 1963 (E. B. Lee).
Tagetes patula L.: Hialeah, 15 Oct. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
Tridax procumbens L.*: Miami, 23 Aug. 1962 (C. Stegmaier).
Xanthium sp.: Quincy, 13 May 1964 (D. H. Habeck).
Zinnia sp.*: Hialeah, 2 July 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
Cucumis melo L.: Hialeah, 17 Mar. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
Cucumis sativus L.: Hialeah, 7 Feb. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
Cucumis sp.*: Immokake, 3 Sep. 1961 (W. C. Allerz).
Cucurbita sp., squash,*: Hialeah, 7 Feb. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
Cucurbita pepo L.: Hialeah, 17 Mar. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
Crotalaria incana L.: Miami Beach, 16 Aug. 1962 (C. Stegmaier).
Medicago lupulina L.: Hialeah, 12 Feb. 1964 (C. Stegmaier).
Phaseolus aureus Roxb.: Hialeah, 28 Nov. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
Phaseolus sp., string beans: Homestead, 30 Dec. 1963 (D. 0. Wolfen-
Phaseolus sp.*: Hialeah, 3 Apr. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
Pisum sp.*: Hialeah, 8 Feb. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
Trifolium repens L.*, leaf mines only: Hialeah, 16 June 1963 (C.
Vigna sinensis (Torner) Savi.: Hialeah, 8 Feb. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).

Allium cepa L.: Hialeah, 4 Apr. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).

Hibiscus esculentus L.: Hialeah, 6. Feb. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).

Capscium sp.*: Hialeah, 4 Apr. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.: Homestead, 4 Jan. 1964 (D. 0. Wolfen-
barger); Sanford, 3 Jan. 1964 (G. W. Desin); Sanford, 26 Dec.
1963 (J. W. Wilson); Cortez, 21 Oct. 1964 (E. G. Kelsheimer).
Petunia sp.: Perine, 12 May 1965 (D. H. Habeck).
Physalis sp.: Cortez, 21 Oct. 1964 (E. G. Kelsheimer).
Solanum melogena L.: Belle Glade, No date (E. D. Harris, Jr.);
North Miami, 2 Apr. 1963 (E. B. Lee).
Solanum nigrum L.*: Hialeah, 7 Feb. 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
Solanum tuberosum L.: Belle Glade, 24 Mar., 25 May 1964 (E. D.
Harris, Jr.).

Apium graveolens L. var. dulce DC.: Sanford, 31 Dec. 1963 (J. W.
Wilson); Sanford, 26 Dec. 1963 (G. W. Desin); Belle Glade, 24
Mar. 1964 (E. D. Harris, Jr.).
Daucus carota L. var. sativa LC.: Sanford, 18 Dec. 1964 (G. W.

The Florida Entomologist

Kallstroemia maxima (L.) T. and G.*: Miami Beach, 14 May 1963
(C. Stegmaier).

Tribulus terrestris L.*: Miami Beach, 2 May 1963 (C. Stegmaier).
The rearing records clearly show L. trifolii to be a polyphagous species
and to occur throughout the year in Florida. This species has a decided
host preference for the Compositae. The records of rearing definitely
illustrate the economic significance; it infests truck crops, cut flowers, and
ornamentals, as well as weeds and other native plants. The weeds and
other native plants act as host plant reservoirs throughout the year,
especially in south Florida.
Fig. 1 shows various serpentine mines of L. trifolii in the leaves of


,1- 4'

Fig. 1. Variations in the leaf mine pattern of L. trifolii on leaves of
Crotalaria incana in Florida. Photographs courtesy of Division of Plant
Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, Mildred Eaddy, Photogra-

Vol. 49, No. 2

Stegmaier: Liriomyza trifolii in Florida 79

Crotalaria incana (Leguminoseae). The fecal trails made by the larvae
are very distinct in the top row of leaves.
Frost (1962) (as L. archboldi Frost), Spencer (1963), (as L. arch-
boldi), Spencer (1965), and Frick (1959) (as L. alliovora Frick), cite
additional information on the biology of Liriomyza trifolii.

PARASITES OF L. trifolii

The author and other entomologists reared many parasites from the
larvae and pupae of L. trifolii in Florida during this research. The fol-
lowing parasites were identified: Braconidae-Opius sp.; Eulophidae-
Chrysocharis sp., Closterocerus cinctipennis Ashm., Derostenus sp., D.
agromyzae Cwfd., D. variipes Cwfd., Diglyphus sp., Mirzagrammosoma
lineaticeps Girault.; Pteromalidae-Halticoptera patellana (Dalman) (for-
merly aenea Walker).

The results of the investigations are as follows: (1) L. trifolii is one
of the most economically important leaf-miners known in Florida. (2)
It is a dominant, widespread, polyphagous species occurring throughout
the year in Florida. (3) It is not only a major pest of truck crops and
ornamentals, but infests numerous weeds and native plants, thus main-
taining continuous populations while crops are not in cultivation. (4)
L. congesta and L. fricki are distinct species (Spencer 1965); congesta
is in Europe while fricki in Washington infests many legumes. (5)
L. alliovora is a synonym of L. trifolii. (6) Nine parasites were reared
from L. trifolii in Florida. (7) L. trifolii is especially frequent in the
family Compositae. (8) L. archboldi is a distinct species; its host plants
in Florida are unknown. (9) Cooperation between Florida entomologists
and Mr. K. Spencer of England was responsible for augmenting informa-
tion on L. trifolii and its host plants. (10) The research was (in part)
responsible for clarifications of the Liriomyza species, synonyms, and new
species previously thought to be L. trifolii.


I am indebted to the following persons who helped obtain the informa-
tion and make this paper possible: Mr. Kenneth Spencer, for his sugges-
tions and identifications; Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr., Fla. Dep. Agriculture,
for his help as Coordinator of the agromyzid research in Florida; the late
Professor Erdman West (Botany Department, University of Florida), for
his determinations of numerous host plants; the numerous entomologists
mentioned in the rearing records as collectors; Dr. B. D. Burks and Mr.
C. F. W. Muesebeck (U. S. National Museum), for their identifications of
parasites; Dr. K. E. Frick (U. S. Dep. Agr.), for urging the author to pur-
sue the study of the agromyzids in Florida; and to Mr. K. A. Spencer,
Mr. G. C. Steyskal, and Dr. D. H. Habeck for reviewing this manuscript.


Frick, K. E. 1959. A synopsis of the species of Agromyzid leaf miners
described from North America (Diptera). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.
188: 347-465.

80 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 49, No. 2

Frost, S. W. 1962. Liriomyza, archboldi a new species (Diptera-Agromy-
zidae). Ent. News 73: 51-53.
Spencer, K. A. 1963. A synopsis of the Neotropical Agromyzidae. Trans.
Roy. Ent. Soc. London. 115: 291-389.
Spencer, K. A. 1964. The species-host relationship in the Agromyzidae
(Diptera) as an aid to Taxonomy. Proc. XIIth Int. Congr. Ent.
London p. 101-102.
Spencer, K. A. 1965. A clarification of the status of Liriomyza trifolii
(Burgess) and some related species. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 67(1):

The Florida Entomologist 49(2) June 1966

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Orders should be addressed to the Business Manager, Florida Entomological
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11335 N. W. 59 Ave., Hialeah, Florida 33012

In 1962 the author commenced a study of the host plant range and
parasites of the serpentine leaf-miner, Liriomyza munda Frick, in south
Florida. Weeds and other native plants as well as truck crops and orna-
mentals were included in this research to confirm the extent of the host
plant range. In 1963 other entomologists contributed to the study by
collecting plant infestations in many areas of Florida.
Frick (1957) described L. munda from tomato, potato, and Datura
meteloides DC. in California. He pointed out that further studies were
needed to determine whether or not L. munda is restricted in its host
range to the family Solanaceae. Subsequent studies have shown L. munda
to be a polyphagous species.
Oatman (1959) reported rearing L. munda, misidentified as L. pictella
(Thomson), from a variety of plant species in the following families:
Compositae, Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae, Crucifereae, Malvaceae, Ranun-
culaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Rosaceae, Amaranthaceae, Um-
belliferae, Graminae, Euphorbiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Acanthaceae.
Spencer (1965) stated that the host plants for the true L. pictella are
Spencer (1963) cited Moringa oleifera Lam. as a host plant of L. munda
in Kingston, Jamaica. Steyskal (1964) recorded this species from Ohio,
Alabama, California, Florida, South Carolina, and Texas. He listed the
host plants of this leaf-miner in Texas as beans, black-eyed peas, canta-
loupe, castor beans, cucumbers, cauliflower, eggplant, okra, potatoes, sun-
flower, tomato, and watermelon.
Steyskal (personal communication) remarked that L. munda includes
everything called pictella in the United States. Furthermore L. eupatorii
(Kalt.) of Washington in the Frick collection and the chrysanthemum
miner of Smith, Boswell, and Wave (1962) are L. munda. Steyskal also
mentioned that L. munda covers most of the old records of Liriomyza
pusilla; however, those from Asclepias (milkweed) in the northeast (Weiss
and Dickerson 1921; Aldrich 1918) are an undescribed species. Spencer
(1965) placed L. guytona Freeman as a synonym of Liriomyza munda.
Spencer stated, "It has been further suggested by Steyskal (private com-
munication) that munda may be synonymous with propepusilla Frost,
1954, but I prefer to leave the establishment of this possible synonymy to
an American worker who is able to examine the holotype of propepusilla."
See Fig. 1 and 2 for variations of the leaf mine patterns on Verbesina
and Hydrocotyle (Umbelliferae) in Florida.

The following rearing records of L. munda in Florida are listed in the
hope that they will be of interest to entomologists and growers as an indi-

1 Contribution No. 75, Entomology Section, Div. Plant Industry, Fla.
Dep. Agr., Gainesville.
2 Collaborator, Fla. State Collection of Arthropods, Div. Plant Industry,
Fla. Dep. Agr.

Vk, 2. F.

Stegmaier: Liriomyza munda in Florida 83

cation of the wide host range infested by this species of leaf miner as a
contribution to a more detailed knowledge of its life history. Many of
the listed hearings were duplicated by the author and other entomologists
during this study; I have not cited the numerous duplicated hearings.
An asterisk (*) indicates that the genus was listed by Spencer (1965)
as a host of L. munda. Date refers to dates the host material was col-
lected for rearing.
Calendula officinalis L.: Miami, 14 Jan. 1964 (C. L. Stegmaier).
Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.) Blake: Belle Glade, May 1964 (W. G. Genung).
Verbesina helianthoides Michx.: City Point, 19 Mar. 1964 (G. W.
Verbesina sp.: Bradenton, 19 Sep. 1964 (E. G. Kelsheimer).
Verbesina virginica L.: Miami, 19 Oct. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Brassica* oleracea var. capitata L.: No. Miami, 25 Feb. 1963 (E. B.
Lee); Belle Glade, May 1964 (W. G. Genung).
Brassica* rapa L.: Cortez, 21 Oct. 1964 (E. G. Kelsheimer); Hialeah,
10 Mar. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Brassica* sp. (rape): Cortez, 19 Nov. 1964 (E. G. Kelsheimer).
Cucumis* melo L.: Hialeah, 17 Mar. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Cucumis* sativus L.: Hialeah, 7 Feb. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Cucurbita* pepo L.: Hialeah, date lost, (C. E. Stegmaier).
Cucurbita* sp. (squash) : Hialeah, 7 Feb. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Ricinus* communis L.: Hialeah, 29 Aug. 1962 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Eighty leaf mines were counted on each of two leaves. Some mines
were fresh and some were old.
Bauhinia* sp.: Record lost, (C. E. Stegmaier).
Cajanus* cajan (L.) Millsp.: Hialeah, 11 Mar. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Cassia* occidentalis L.: Miami, 10 Sep. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Cassia* tora L.: Miami, 10 Sep. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Lupinus sp.: Gainesville, 6 Jan. 1965 (D. H. Habeck).
Melilotus alba Desr.: Gainesville, 22 Apr. 1963 (D. H. Habeck).
Phaseolus* lunatus L.: Hialeah, 13 Mar. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Phaseolus* sp. (beans): Belle Glade, May 1964 (W. G. Genung).
Phaseolus* sp. (greenbeans): Hialeah, 3 Apr. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Trifolium incarnatum L.: Gainesville, 8 Apr. 1964 (D. H. Habeck).
Vigna sinensis (Torner) Savi: Hialeah, 21 Dec. 1963 (C. E: Steg-
Vigna repens Baker: Hialeah, 21 Sep. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).

Fig. 1 (top). Leaf mine of Liriomyza munda on leaf of Verbesina
virginica. Fig. 2 (center and below). Variations in the leaf-mine pat-
terns of L. munda on Hydrocotyle umbellata; two leaves have a blotch
mine appearance. Photographs courtesy of the Division of Plant Indus-
try, Florida Department of Agriculture, Mildred Eaddy, Photographer.

84 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 49, No. 2

Annoda cristata Schlecht.: Hialeah, 23 Mar. 1964 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Sida acuta Burm.: Hialeah, 21 July 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Passiflora* pallens Poepp.: Hialeah, 19 Apr. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Passiflora* pallida L.: Hialeah, 20 Mar. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Passiflora* sp.: Hialeah, 14 Feb. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Plantago* sp.: Hialeah, 4 Apr. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).
Cestrum* diurnum L.: Miami Springs, 20 Aug. 1962 (B. K. Dozier);
Miami, 24 Sep. 1962 (C. E. Stegmaier); Belle Glade, Apr. 1964
(W. G. Genung).
Cestrum* nocturnum L.: Hialeah, 8 Feb. 1963 (M. Maddalino).
Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.: Homestead, Dec. 1963 (D. 0. Wolfen-
barger); North Miami, 20 Jan. 1963 (E. B. Lee); Cortez, 21 Oct. 1964
(E. G. Kelsheimer); Gainesville, Apr. 1964 (L. C. Kuitert).
Solanum* melongena L.: North Miami, 11 Feb. 1963 (E. B. Lee).
Solanum* nigrum L.: Miami Springs, 24 Aug. 1962 (B. K. Dozier).
Hydrocotyle* umbellata L.: Hialeah, 10 Feb. 1963 (C. E. Stegmaier).

Griffiths (1962) reported that the chief natural enemies of the agromy-
zids are hymenopterous parasites which inject their eggs into the larvae.
The host larvae are usually able to pupate normally, and the adult para-
sites usually emerge from the puparia thus formed. Sometimes the para-
sites destroy their host larva before it pupates. Then the pupa of the
parasite later occur unprotected in the leaf mine channel. According to
Griffiths, the hymenopterous families which parasitize the agromyzids are
Braconidae, Eulophidae, Pteromalidae, and the Eucoilidae. Griffiths stated
that in England the Braconidae make up 60 to 70% of all the parasites
reared from the Agromyzidae. Nearly all the remainder are chalcids.
Harding (1965) conducted a special survey for parasites of L. munda
in the winter garden area of Texas. He reported rearing the following
parasites from pupae: Halticoptera patellana (Dalman), Ganaspidium
sp., Opius dimidiatus (Ashm.), Cothonaspis (Erisphagia) sp., Eucoilidea
sp., Chrysocharis ainsliei (Cwfd.), Chrysocharis parksi (Cwfd.), Chryso-
charis sp., Pseudeucoila sp., Opius bruneipes (Gahan), Ganaspidium pusil-
lae (Weld), Opius suturalis (Gahan), and Opius aridis (Gahan).
Harding reported Closterocerus cinctipennis Ashmead to be the most
abundant parasite of L. munda reared from mined leaves. Other para-
sites reared from mined leaves by Harding are Derostenus arizonesis
(Cwfd.), D. variipes (Cwfd.), D. fullawayi (Cwfd.), D. agromyzae,
(Cwfd.), Diglyphus websteri (Cwfd.), and Achrysocharis sp. He reported
the following parasites to be associated with both the pupae of L. munda
and mined leaves: Halticoptera patellana, Opius dimidiatus, Cothonaspis
(Erisphagia) sp., Chrysocharis ainsliei, and Chrysocharis sp.

Stegmaier: Liriomyza munda in Florida

The parasites (reared by the author and other entomologists) of L.
munda in Florida were identified as follows: Braconidae-Opius sp.; Eu-
lophidae-Chrysocharis sp., Closterocerus cinctipennis, Derostenus sp.;
and Pteromalidae-Halticoptera patellana.

The results of the investigations can be summarized as follows: (1)
L. munda is a widespread, dominant, polyphagous species occurring
throughout the year in peninsular Florida. (2) It is a major economic
pest of truck crops and ornamentals. (3) Its wide host range includes
many weeds and native plants that provide a host plant sequence for
maintaining populations when cultivated hosts are not in season. (4)
L. munda seems to have a preference for Leguminoseae and Solanaceae
in Florida. (5) Five parasites of munda were reared from Florida collec-
tions. (6) L. munda includes all host records of pictella in the United
States, most of the records of the pusilla complex, eupatorii (Kalt.) in the
Frick collection, and guytona Freeman.

I am indebted to the many persons who made this paper possible:
to Mr. Kenneth Spencer, for his numerous suggestions on this research
and for his many determinations of the Florida Agromyzidae; to the late
Professor Erdman West (Botany Department, University of Florida), for
his identifications of unknown plants; to the numerous Florida entomolo-
gists cited in the rearing records, for their support in the collections of
host infestations; to Mr. C. F. W. Muesebeck and Dr. B. D. Burks (U. S.
National Museum), for parasite identifications; to Dr. Howard V. Weems,
Jr. (Coordinator for the agromyzid research; Florida Department of Agri-
culture), for his help and advice on several phases of this Florida research;
to Mr. K. A. Spencer, Dr. D. H. Habeck, and Mr. G. C. Steyskal, for re-
viewing this manuscript.
Aldrich, J. M. 1918. Notes on Diptera. Psyche 25: 30-35.
Frick, K. E. 1957. Neartic species in the Liriomyza pusilla complex,
No. 2, L. munda and two other species attacking crops in California.
Pan-Pacific Ent. 33(2): 59-70.
Frost, S. W. 1954. A new name for Phytomyza subpusilla Frost (Dip-
tera). Ent. News. 65: 73.
Griffiths, G. C. D. 1962. Breeding leaf-mining flies and their parasites.
Ent. Rec. 74: 178-85.
Harding, J. A. 1965. Parasitism of the leaf miner Liriomyza munda in
the Winter Garden Area of Texas. J. Econ. Ent. 58(3): 442-43.
Oatman, E. R. 1959. Host range studies of the melon leaf miner, Lirio-
myza pictella (Thomson) (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Ann. Ent. Soc.
Amer. 52: 739-741.
Smith, F. F., A. L. Boswell, and H. E. Wave. 1962. New Chrysanthemum
leaf miner species. Florist's Rev. 130(377): 29-30.
Spencer, K. A. 1963. A synopsis of the Neotropical Agromyzidae (Dip-
tera). Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 115(12): 291-389.

The Florida Entomologist

Spencer, K. A. 1965. A clarification of the status of Liriomyza trifolii
(Burgess) and some related species (Diptera-Agromyzidae). Proc.
Ent. Soc. Wash. 67(1): 32-40.
Steyskal, G. C. 1964. Descriptive and synonymical notes on Liriomyza
munda (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 57(3):
Weiss, H. B., and E. L. Dickerson. 1921. Notes on milkweed insects in
New Jersey. J. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 29: 123-45.

The Florida Entomologist 49(2) June 1966


The Florida Entomological Society will hold its 49th Annual Meeting
at The George Washington Hotel, Jacksonville, Florida, 28-30 September
1966. The theme will be "Entomological Responsibilities to Human Wel-
fare in Florida."
Invited speakers, and their topics, include:
E. F. Knipling, Director, Entomology Research Division, ARS, USDA,
Beltsville, Md.
Entomological Responsibilities of USDA in Florida
W. W. Dykstra, Research Staff Specialist, Division of Wildlife Research,
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D. C.
Monitoring Pesticides in Fish and Wildlife
Paul F. Sand, Pesticides Safety and Monitoring, ARS, USDA, Hyattsville,
Status of the Agricultural Pesticide Monitoring Program
V. E. Stewart, State Chemist, Florida Department of Agriculture
Entomological Responsibilities of the Division of Chemistry
J. A. Mulrennan, Director, Bureau of Entomology
Entomological Responsibilities of the Florida State Board of Health
D. R. Sapp, Chairman, Pest Control Commission of Florida
Entomological Responsibilities of the Pest Control Commission of Flor-
W. G. Eden, Chairman, Department of Entomology, University of Florida
Responsibilities of the Department of Entomology
W. M. Fifield, Secretary-Manager, Florida Agricultural Research Institute
Responsibilities of the Pesticide Industry
H. L. Jones, Director, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of
Responsibilities of the Division of Plant Industry

Vol. 49, No. 2


Associate Entomologist, Lower Rio Grande Valley Research and Extension
Center, Weslaco, Texas, and Entomologist, Subtropical Experiment Station,
Homestead, Florida, respectively.

The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), and the diamondback
moth, Plutella maculipennis (Curtis), infest cabbage in southern Texas and
southern Florida. Insecticides presently used control these insects but
some resistance has been found in both species in the United States. Only
by continued testing of insecticides can alternative materials be recom-
mended should those in use fail to provide control. Experiments were,
therefore, conducted during 1964 and 1965 at Weslaco, Texas to evaluate
various insecticide, insecticide-oil combinations, and high and low volume
applications for control of the cabbage looper, and at Homestead, Florida
for control of the diamondback moth and cabbage looper.


The plots at Weslaco received a high volume water spray of 90 gal/
acre (Wolfenbarger 1964). Plots were two rows wide and there were two
replications. Low volume or waterless sprays were applied, as described
by Wolfenbarger (1965a), at the rate of % gal/acre in each of four repli-
cations. The Homestead plots were 13 ft of row and replicated four times.
The data for the high volume spray applied with a logarithmic sprayer in
Weslaco are presented as range of pounds of toxicant per acre. Infesta-
tions varied over the rates evaluated, therefore the data are presented as
the mean infestation over the range of rates.
Cabbage looper populations were evaluated in the Weslaco experiment
as described by Wolfenbarger (1965b). Ten plants/plot were removed
in the Homestead experiment and larvae and pupae of both the cabbage
looper and diamondback moth counted.
Treatments were made on 5 and 21 October and 9 November 1964 in
the Weslaco experiments, and on 15, 22, and 25 March 1965 at Homestead.
The plots were evaluated 12 and 16 November 1964 at Weslaco, and 29
March and 2 April 1965 at Homestead. The data for all experiments are
presented as mean number of larvae per plant and treatments were com-
pared by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test.
The chemical composition of the proprietary insecticides used in these
experiments are as follows:
Azodrin (SD9129)-dimethyl phosphate ester with 3-hydroxy-N-
Banol (Upjohn 12927)-3,4-xylenol,6-chloro-methylcarbamate

1 Thanks are extended for the able technical assistance of E. W. Strohm
during the course of these evaluations.
2 Present address: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Entomology Re-
search Division, Brownsville, Texas.

The Florida Entomologist

Bayer 37344-4-(methylthio)-3,5-xylyl methylcarbamate
Bayer 37289-0-ethyl 0-2,4,5-trichlorophenyl ethylphosphonothioate
General Chemicals 6506-O,0-dimethyl-O-(4 methyl mercaptophenyl)
Geigy GS13005-O,0-dimethyl phosphorodithioate S-ester with 4-(mer-
captomethyl) -2-methoxy-2-1,3,4-thiadiazolin-5-One
Niagara 10242-2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarba-
Union Carbide 20047 A-3-chloro-6-cyanO-2-norboranone 0-(methylcar-
bamoyl) oxime
The oils used in these experiments were described by Wolfenbarger


Mean looper larvae/plant on days
after last application*
(Lb. + 3 days 7 days
Toxicant gal./A.) S L S L

Methyl parathion
Methyl parathion + IP2

Methyl parathion + N-4

Methyl parathion + P-5


High Volume
4.0-1.0 0.9 b**
1.0-0.25 4.0 b
1.0-0.25 +
1.5-0.33 .5 ab
1.0-0.25 +-
1.5-0.33 .4 ab
1.0-0.25 +
1.5-0.33 1.4 b
1.5-0.33 2.4 be
1.5-0.33 2.4 be
1.5-0.33 2.3 be

0.4 a 3.7 ab 1.1 b
1.0 a 8.4 b 3.3 b

.3 a 3.5 ab .9 ab

.3 a 3.6 ab .7 ab

Low Volume

1.0 + 1.5
1.0 + 1.5
1.0 + 1.5

.5 ab
.1 a
.1 a
.3 ab
.1 a
1.6 b
.6 ab
.5 ab
1.3 b

* S = small larvae; L = large larvae.
** Means not followed by the same letter are significantly
Duncan's New Multiple Range Test.

different at the 5% level by

+ IP-2
+ N-4
+ P-5


Vol. 49, No. 2

Wolfenbarger: Use of Different Insecticides


The Weslaco data (Table 1) showed that high volume methyl parathion-
oil combinations were significantly better than methyl parathion alone.
The methyl parathion-naphthenic and methyl parathion-isoparaffinic oil
combinations were applied with a high volume sprayer. Low volume iso-
paraffinic oil-2, paraffinic oil-5, naled-oil combinations, and parathion were
evaluated for cabbage looper control. These two application methods were
equally effective for small looper larvae control. The paraffinic oil alone
and naled gave effective control of the looper larvae 1/ in. long or larger.
Parathion-P-5 oil combination gave the best control 7 days after applica-
tion for both looper larval sizes. Naled and the oils alone were more
effective applied in low volume.
The data (Table 2) show that General Chemicals 6506 gave the best
control of cabbage looper infestations and Geigy GS-13005 and Niagara
10242 gave the best control of diamondback moth larvae.


Mean no./plant
Actual lb/ Diamond-
Material 100 gal Looper back
water/acre larvae moth
and pupae larvae

GC-6506 1.0 0.1 a* 0.1 ab
DDT + toxaphene 1.0 + 2.0 .2 ab .2 ab
Phosphamidon +
toxaphene 1.0 + 2.0 .2 ab .1 ab
Bacillus thuringiensis +
emulsifiable oil 3 qt +. 2 qt .2 ab .1 ab
Azodrin 1.0 .3 abc .1 ab
Niagara 10242 1.0 .3 abc 0 a
Endosulfan + ethion 1.0 + 0.5 .5 abcd .1 ab
Bayer 37344 1.0 .7 abcde .1 ab
Bayer 37289 .5 .7 abcde .1 ab
GS-13005 .5 .9 abcdef 0 a
Azinphosmethyl .5 1.1 bcdef .1 ab
Endrin 1.0 1.1 cdefg 2.5 de
Banol 1.5 1.3 defg .1 ab
Carbaryl 1.2 1.4 efg .1 ab
Parathion .5 1.7 fgh .9 bc
UC-20047A 2.0 1.9 gh 1.7 cd
Check 2.5 h 2.2 de

* Means not followed by the same let
Duncan's New Multiple Range Test.

ter are significantly different at the 5% level by

DDT + toxaphene, phosphamidon + toxaphene, Bacillus thuringiensis
+ emulsifiable oil, Azodrin, and Niagara 10242 reduced cabbage looper
larval and pupal populations to 0.3 or fewer per plant. All compounds

The Florida Entomologist

except endrin, Union Carbide 20047A, and parathion reduced diamondback
moth larval populations to 0.2 or lower. A comparison of the effectiveness
of endrin at Homestead, Florida in 1965 to results using approximately
equal rates in 1957 (Wilson et al. 1957), suggests resistance of the looper
larvae to endrin since the data show ineffectiveness in 1965.
Wilson, J. W., D. 0. Wolfenbarger, R. M. Baranowski, W. G. Genung and
D. M. Norris. 1957. Experimental results of control of the cabbage
looper during the 1956-57 growing season. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 70: 156-161.
Wolfenbarger, D. A. 1964. Oils and surfactants alone and insecticide-oil
combinations for aphid control on turnip and cabbage. J. Econ. Ent.
47: 571-74.
Wolfenbarger, D. A. 1965a. Insecticides and insecticide-oil combinations
for corn earworm, boll weevil and cowpea curculio control. Fla. Ent.
48: 101-109.
Wolfenbarger, D. A. 1965b. Insecticides and combinations of insecticides
with oils and surfactants for insect control on various vegetable
crops. Fla. Ent. 48: 193-204.
The Florida Entomologist 49(2) June 1966




Carefully Executed

Delivered on Time




Vol. 49, No. 2



Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Gainesville, Fla.

Infestations of house flies, Musca domestic L., are a continual prob-
lem around poultry establishments where caged laying hens are maintained.
The customary undisturbed (for several months) accumulation of drop-
pings beneath the cages provides an excellent breeding medium for house
fly larvae. The result is a fly population that tends to intensify during the
warm months. The high level of resistance adult house flies have de-
veloped toward organochlorine and organophosphorous compounds (Wil-
son and LeBrecque 1960) has caused a need for more effective materials.
Wilson and LaBrecque (1960) met with some success in tests with sev-
eral compounds as larvicides against natural populations of house flies.
The results given in this paper are a continuation of that work.
Twenty-one compounds were tested as larvicides against natural popu-
lations of house flies breeding in manure under caged poultry in the Gaines-
ville, Florida area. The chemicals were applied as emulsions or as sus-
pensions of wettable powders at the rate of 200 mg active ingredient/ft2.
All applications were made with a 3-gallon compression sprayer; 2 gallons
of the liquid spray were used for each 800 ft2 of breeding area. Larval
density was determined by collecting a large spoonful of manure from each
of ten locations where the heaviest infestations were apparent, spreading
the samples on a plywood panel, and counting the number of larvae present.
The effectiveness of the treatment was determined by comparing the dif-
ference in counts made before and on days 1, 2-3, and 7 after application,
and, in one instance, on days 9-11, 14, and 21 after application. The formu-
lations used and the results obtained are shown in Table 1.


Percent control
Pretreat- after indicated
ment days
Insecticide count 1 3-5 7

Bayer 25141 (O,0-diethyl 0-[p-(methyl= 1,426 4 0 -
sulfinyl)phenyl] phosphorothioate) 1,278 0 -

Bayer 39007 (o-isopropoxyphenyl
methylcarbamate; Baygon) 1,385 74 76 0

The authors acknowledge the assistance of W. M. Borah and N. L.
Willis of the Entomology Research Division........_.._ .. .. ....

The Florida Entomologist

TABLE 1.-Continued.

Percent control
Pretreat- after indicated
ment days
Insecticide count 1 3-5 7

Bayer 39007* 1,031 50 66 0
1,875 29 23 0

Bayer 41831 (O,0-dimethyl O-4-nitro-m-
tolyl phosphorothioate)


Ciodrin (alpha-methylbenzyl 3-
hydroxycrotonate dimethyl phosphate)





Dupont 691 (O-ethyl O-p-nitrophenyl
chloromethylphosphonothioate) *


Hercules 5727 (m-isopropylphenyl

Hooker HRS-1422 (3,5-diisopropylphenyl

Methyl Trithion (S- (p-chlorophenyl=
thio) methyl 0,0-dimethyl phosphoro=



1,700 0
1,554 7

1,386 17
1,812 10

1,435 0
1,324 9

1,550 51
1,298 10

1,009 0

1,185 2
1,243 50

783 30
1,900 66

935 0
1,199 0

1,612 0
1,197 12

1,750 42
1,468 0

1,580 0
1,424 7

1,200 0
1,900 33

1,268 10
1,534 23

960 37
1,446 0

0 -
0 -

0 -

18 -

17 -

48 -

Vol. 49, No. 2

Morgan: Larvicides for the Control of Houseflies

TABLE 1.-Continued.

Percent control
Pretreat- after indicated
ment days
Insecticide count 1 3-5 7

Shell Compound 4072 (2-chloro-l-(2,4- 1,497 32 99 90**
dichlorophenyl)vinyl diethyl phosphate) 1,231 73 32 0

Shell SD-7438 (O,0-dimethyl phosphoro=
dithioate S,S-diester with toluene- 1,344 4 8 0
alpha,alpha-dithiol) 1,940 0 3 0

Carbanolate (6-chloro-3,4-xylyl 2,000 23 13 0
methylcarbamate; Upjohn TUC-12927)* 1,390 56 27 0

None (checks) 882 11 0 -
990 18 0 -
1,194 0 0 -
1,117 0 0 -
1,825 0 0 -
2,000 0 0 -
1,398 0 0 0
1,305 0 0 -
1,325 0 0 -

Applied as suspension of a wettable powder.
** Control after 14 days was 53%; after 21 days was 9%.

Results were highly variable, and none of the chemicals produced com-
plete control for even one day. In one test, Shell Compound 4072 [2-chloro-
1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)vinyl diethyl phosphate] gave good control for 7
days though it was rather ineffective the first day. In a second test, the
compound gave poor control within 3-5 days. Dimethoate and Bayer 39007
(o-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate; Baygon) gave at least 50% control
in at least one test for 7 and 3-5 days, respectively. All other compounds
were less effective.

Wilson, H. G., and G. C. LaBrecque. 1960. Tests with larvicides for the
control of house flies in poultry houses. Fla. Ent. 43: 19-21.

The Florida Entomologist 49(2) June 1966




The Kilgore Seed Company, manufacturers and formulators of
Insecticides and Fungicides, offers a complete advisory service to
Florida Farmers through the facilities of its 14 Stores, Laboratory
and technically trained Field Staff.



Stores located at




Department of Entomology, Miss. State Univ., State College, Miss.

Erythroneura lenta Beamer is one of a number of species having a very
short or no posterior point on the foot of the style and single pygofer hooks.
Most such species are found on oaks, although a few live on hickories, one
on walnut, and a few questionable members of the complex on other hosts.
The pygofer hooks vary from straight or falcate to strongly sinuate.
Rearing data give the following host relationships: delongi on Quercus
nigra, water oak; stephensoni and acantha on several of the red oaks;
long on Q. falcata var. falcata, southern red oak; patris on Q. falcata
var. leucophyla (or pagodafolia), cherry bark oak; robusta and internal on
Q. stellata, post oak; parvipes and era on Carya sp., hickories; and calami-
tosa on Juglans nigra, black walnut. Collection data give the following
host relationships: metopia, alicia, and econa on Q. imbricaria, shingle
oak; and lenta on Q. borealis, northern red oak. All the species named
here have no or short posterior points on the feet of the styles.
The drawings show the lateral view of the shaft of the aedeagus, the
dorso-anterior view of the aedeagus, the lateral view of the pygofer and
pygofer hook, and dorsal view of the pygofer hooks. The lateral view of
the aedeagus is twice the magnification of the dorso-anterior view of the
aedeagus (along its greatest length) and four times the magnification of
the pygofer and pygofer hooks.
All specimens were collected by the author unless otherwise stated.
All holotype specimens will be deposited in the collections of the Illinois
Natural History Survey.

Erythroneura colvardi, new species
(Fig. 1)
This species is 2.9 mm long with a color pattern of narrowly connected
spots and with the black spot in the first apical cell larger than average.
Aedeagus with very short dorsal process, curved shaft, narrow in dorsal
view, with small flanges. Pygofer hooks about length of pygofer, sinuate
in both views.
Holotype &, allotype 9 and one 8 paratype reared in cage No. 357
on Quercus falcata var. falcata, at State College, Miss., collected on 7 Sep.
1962; 7 S and 3 9 paratypes reared in cage 74 in 1961, cage 116 in 1962,
cage 894 in 1963 and cages 1539 and 1890 in 1964, all on Q. falcata var.
falcata. Additional S paratypes as follows: 7, Jefferson, Texas, 3 July
1962, 2 on Q. falcata, 2 on Q. stellata, 1, no host record, and 2, no host rec-
ord collected by Glenn Wiygul; 2, Lufkin, Texas, 30 June 1962, Q. falcata;
7, Ratcliff, Texas, 29 June 1962, Q. falcata; 1, Winslow, Ark., 31 July 1963,
at light; 1, Dixon Spgs., Ill., 2 Sep. 1963, Q. imbricaria; 1, Dalton, Ga.,
26 Aug. 1963, Q. falcata; 2, Juniper Spgs., Fla., 9 June 1963, Cercis cana-

1 This paper was supported by National Science Foundation Grant

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 49, No. 2

This species evidently has a wide distribution and may well be re-
stricted to Quercus falcata var. falcata. The curved aedeagus shaft with
a very short dorsal process is distinctive.

1. colvaYdi

2. gilesi


3. sebringensis

Fig. 1-3. Male genitalia of new species of the Erythroneura lenta
complex. See text for explanation.

Hepner: New Species of Erythroneura

Erythroneura gilesi, new species
(Fig. 2)
This species is 2.9 mm long, with a color pattern of large spots and
with a large black spot in first apical cell. Aedeagus with short but dis-
tinct dorsal process, large dorsal flange and very small lateral flanges.
Pygofer hooks somewhat longer than pygofer, sinuate in both views.
Holotype S, allotype 9, reared in cage No. 288 in Noxubee Co., Miss.,
collected on 1 July 1964, and 9 $ & and 28 9 Y with the same data, except
collected from 11 June to 19 Sep. 1964, on Quercus falcata var. leucophyla;
36 S& and 33 9 9 reared in cages 426, 662, 1051, and 1586, in 1964 at
State College and Noxubee Co., Miss., all on Q. falcata var. leucophyla
(synonym of Q. falcata pagodafolia?), cherry bark oak. Additional para-
types as follows: 2, Canton, Miss., 29 Jan. 1963; 1, Lexington, Tenn., 3
July 1963; 1, Timothy, Tenn., 1 Sept. 1963, redbud; 1, Elizabethtown, Ill.,
2 Sep. 1963, redbud.
This species resembles colvardi but the aedeagus has a larger shaft,
longer dorsal process, and larger dorsal flange.

Erythroneura sebringensis, new species
(Fig. 3)
This species is 2.9 mm long, with relatively narrow markings and a
narrow median stripe on crown; the black spot in the first apical cell is
slightly smaller than average. Aedeagus with very short dorsal process,
wide, membranous dorsal flange, narrow lateral flanges, quite broad in
dorsal view. Pygofer hooks slightly longer than pygofer, broad, strongly
sinuate; pygofer lobed on postero-ventral margin.
Holotype & and 9 3 paratypes, Juniper Spgs., Fla., 9 June 1963,
Quercus chapmanii; 45 S& same data except collected on Q. myrtifolia;
25 & paratypes, Sebring, Fla., 28 Dec. 1960, Quercus sp.
This species is quite distinct as to both aedeagus and pygofer hook.
It is nearest parvipes, a hickory species, but quite different in external
Erythroneura scobyensis, new species
(Fig. 4)
This species is 3 mm long, with the elytral markings and the black
spot in the first apical cell average in size. Shaft of aedeagus quite large
and rough with large dorsal flange but no lateral flanges. Pygofer hooks
slightly longer than pygofer, sinuate in both views.
Holotype S, Scoby, Miss., 15 Sep. 1961, Q. falcata var. falcata. Par-
atypes 8 S as follows: State College, Miss., 1, 17 Sep. 1961, Q. falcata;
1, 4 April 1962, Ulmus alata; 1, 15 Mar. 1963; 2, Houston, Miss., 3 Aug.
1961, Q. coccinea, scarlet oak; 1, Mathiston, Miss., 9 July 1961, Q. falcata;
1, Ratcliff, Texas, 29 June 1962, Fagus grandifolia.
The most noticeable feature of this species is the large, rough, some-
what bulbous aedeagus shaft.

Erythroneura wisei, new species
(Fig. 5)
This species is 3 mm long with narrow markings and the black spot
in the first apical cell of average size. Shaft of aedeagus relatively short

The Florida Entomologist

and broad in lateral view, with large dorsal flange and medium lateral
flanges on basal half of shaft. Pygofer hooks slightly longer than pygo-
fer, sinuate in both views.
Holotype 8, State College, Miss., 7 Apr. 1962, Carpinus. Additional
S paratypes as follows: State College, Miss., 2, 9 Feb. 1963, 1, 16 June
1961, Quercus lyrata, overcup oak; 1, Noxubee Refuge, Miss., 11 July 1962,
Glenn Wiygul.
The only specimen collected on a summer host was on Q. lyrata, which
may be the true host of this species. It is most like scobyensis but with

4. scobyensis

5. wise

6. levecki

Fig. 4-6. Male genitalia of new species of the Erythroneura lenta
complex. See text for explanation.

Vol. 49, No. 2

Hepner: New Species of Erythroneura

a much shorter, smoother aedeagus shaft and shorter, smaller pygofer
Erythroneura levecki, new species
(Fig. 6)

This species is 2.9 mm long with slender markings and the black spot
in the first apical cell relatively small. Aedeagus with short dorsal process
and short, broad shaft with large flanges. Pygofer hooks shorter than
pygofer, almost straight in both views. Foot relatively slender.

7. sethi

8. caddoensis

9. chehowensis

Fig. 7-9. Male genitalia of new species of the Erythroneura lenta
complex. See text for explanation.

The Florida Entomologist

Holotype 3, State College, Miss., 9 Feb. 1963, diapausing specimen.
Two paratypes, Oregon, Ill., 27 Sep. 1956, Ross and Stannard, Quercus
borealis and alba seedlings.
The aedeagus of this species is near phellos and comoides, but the pygo-
fer hooks and foot of style are much different.

Erythroneura sethi, new species
(Fig. 7)
This species is 3 mm long with elytral markings and the black spot
in the first apical cell of average size. Shaft of aedeagus quite broad with
large dorsal flange and small lateral flanges; dorsal process short but dis-
tinct. Pygofer hooks overlapping apex of pygofer; pygofer long and dis-
tinctly concave on postero-ventral margin.
Holotype 3, State College, Miss., 9 Feb. 1963, and 1 & paratype, State
College, Miss., 4 Mar. 1962, both diapausing specimens.
This species most closely resembles acantha but in sethi the pygofer
and pygofer hooks are longer and the aedeagus more narrow in dorsal
view. It is named in honor of Seth Young, who was of considerable help
to me in my work on Erythroneura.

Erythroneura caddoensis, new species
(Fig. 8)
This species is 3 mm long, with a spotted color pattern and a smaller
than average black spot in the first apical cell. Shaft of aedeagus rather
small with large flanges. Foot of style broad. Pygofer hooks strongly
sinuate in lateral view, less so in dorsal view.
Holotype S, Jefferson, Texas, 3 July 1962, at light.
The relatively small aedeagus with short dorsal process and distinct
lateral flanges, as well as strongly sinuate pygofer hooks distinguish this
from related species.

Erythroneura chehawensis, new species
(Fig. 9)
This species is 2.9 mm long, with a pointed crown, a color pattern of
small spots and with the black spot in the first apical cell smaller than
average. Shaft of aedeagus long and slender with medium dorsal flange
and small lateral flanges. Foot of style narrow and enlarged at toe.
Pygofer hooks almost straight in lateral view and slightly sinuate in
dorsal view.
Holotype &, Albany, Ga., 15 June 1963, Quercus stellata var. marga-
The color pattern and long, slender aedeagus are distinctive in this

The Florida Entomologist 49(2) June 1966


Vol. 49, No. 2


Department of Entomology, Miss. State Univ., State College, Miss.

The maculata group of Erythroneura contains a group of species re-
lated to campora Robinson in which the posterior point of the foot of the
style is less than half the length of the foot and the aedeagus is medium
sized. In the past, members of this complex having straight or falcate
pygofer hooks have been identified as campora, those with the pygofer
hooks sinuate as bigemina. Information obtained from rearing many series
in this complex suggests that the shape of the pygofer hook is sometimes
variable and bigemina may have the pygofer hook almost straight. The
species in this paper resemble campora in the shape of the pygofer hook.
Rearing and collection data suggest that campora and unca are elm
species, trivittata and emquu are oak species, and stoveri is a hickory
species. No host records are available for socia and tantula.
In most species the base of the aedeagus extends along the posterior
margin of the shaft and is here called the dorsal flange and those parts
extending laterally, the lateral flanges. The base of the aedeagus is di-
vided into the dorsal process, bearing the apodeme, and the much longer
ventral process. The length of the dorsal process and the position of the
apodeme on the process are important taxonomic characters.
Small setae on the lining of the pygofer are termed "discal setae" while
larger ones on the ventral lobe are called "ventral setae". The numbers of
these setae are often of diagnostic value.
All holotype specimens will be deposited in the collections of the Illinois
Natural History Survey, Urbana, Illinois. All specimens were collected
by the author unless otherwise stated.
Illustrations of the genitalia show lateral views of the shaft of the
aedeagus, pygofer and pygofer hook, dorsal view of the pygofer hooks,
dorso-anterior view of the shaft of the aedeagus (or along its greatest
length), and lateral view of the foot of the style. The lateral view of the
aedeagus and the foot of the style are twice the magnification of the dorso-
anterior view of the aedeagus and four times the magnification of the
pygofer and pygofer hooks. Since most characters of the genitalia are
illustrated, only significant characters are mentioned in the descriptions.
The aedeagus of campora is given to show parts mentioned in the paper.

Erythroneura codyi, new species
(Fig. 1B)
This species is 3 mm long with average markings and a black spot of
average size in the first apical cell. Shaft of aedeagus relatively short
with narrow dorsal flange and medium lateral flanges. Foot of style with
posterior point almost half length of foot. Pygofer hooks slightly sinu-
ate, falcate in dorsal view, almost straight in lateral view.
Holotype & and 25 & paratypes, Hays, Kans. 28 Aug. 1964, on elm.

1 This paper was supported by National Science Foundation Grant

The Florida Entomologist

Additional 3 paratypes as follows: Coffeyville, Kans., 1, 25 Aug. 1962,
Ulmus americana, 2, 23 Aug. 1961, blackjack oak and redbud, 1, 26 Aug.
1962; 2, Wichita, Kans., 30 Aug. 1962, elm; State College, Miss., 5 diapaus-
ing specimens in 1962 and 1963, 3, 30 Mar. 1962, Ilex decidua, 1, 10 Apr.
1962, Ulmus alata, 1, 7 Apr. 1962, Aesculus sp.; 1, Canton, Miss., 25 Jan.
1963; 1, Greenwood, Miss., 15 Sep. 1961, Quercus nigra; 1, Ratcliff, Texas,
29 June 1962, Carya sp.


I. codyi

2. wiyguli

Fig. 1A (top). Aedeagus of Erythroneura campora with parts named.
Fig. 1B (middle) and 2. Male genitalia of new species of the Erythroneura
campora complex. See text for explanation.

Vol. 49, No. 2


Hepner: New Species of Erythroneura

This species somewhat resembles campora but has shorter aedeagus
shaft, with larger lateral flanges and a longer posterior point on foot of
style. It is apparently an elm species. It is named in honor of "Buffalo
Bill" Cody, who lived at Hays, Kansas, at one time.

Erythroneura, wiyguli, new species
(Fig. 2)
This species is 3 mm long, with average markings and a small black
spot in the first apical cell. Shaft of aedeagus quite short, barely longer
than dorsal process, with large flanges. Foot of style with posterior point
sharply pointed, curved, and more than half length of foot. Pygofer hooks
falcate in both views.
Holotype 8, allotype 9, and 6 S and 14 9 paratypes, reared at State
College, Miss., on Ulmus rubrum, in cage No. 31 and collected on 15 July
1964; 4 S S and 14 9 9 with the same data except collected on 14 June
and 19 July. Other S paratypes as follows: State College, Miss., 1, 15
July 1961, 1, 28 Jan. 1962, 1, 9 Feb. 1962, 1, 3 Mar. 1962, 4, 9 Feb. 1963,
1, 30 Mar. 1962, Ilex decidua, 1, 29 Mar. 1963, Ulmus alata; 1, Starkville,
Miss., 10 Aug. 1962, Ulmus americana; 1, Noxubee Refuge, Miss., 18 June
1962, Glenn Wiygul, Ulmus sp.
This species resembles codyi but has an even shorter aedeagus and a
longer posterior point on foot of style. It is named in honor of Glenn
Wiygul, who worked with me for about two years in my study of this
Erythroneura anseri, new species
(Fig. 3)
This species is 3 mm long with medium markings and larger than aver-
age black spot in the first apical cell. Shaft of aedeagus long and curved,
with large dorsal flange and medium lateral flanges; dorsal process short.
Foot of style with posterior point sharply pointed, about a third length
of narrow foot. Pygofer hooks longer than pygofer, relatively straight.
Holotype 8 and 1 8 paratype, State College, Miss., 19 Aug. 1963,
Carya leidodermis, swamp hickory. Additional & paratypes as follows:
State College, Miss., 7 diapausing specimens in winters of 1962 and 1963
and 3, Aug. and Sep. 1963, on mockernut and southern shagbark hick-
ories; 1, Houston, Miss., 15 Oct. 1961, Quercus shumardii; 1, Athens, Ark.,
28 July 1963, Ulmus alata; 3, Etawah, Tenn., 28 Aug. 1963, 2 on mocker-
nut hickory and 1 at light; 9, Metropolis, Ill., 16 Aug. 1951, Ross and
Stannard, Carya ovata shagbarkk hickory); 1, Eddyville, Ill., Lusk Creek
Canyon, 16 Sep. 1954, Mills and Ross, Cornus florida; 1, northwest of
Tamms, Ill., 20 Sep. 1950, Ross and Evers.
This species seems to utilize several species of hickory as its host. The
foot of the style and shaft of the aedeagus suggest a close relationship
with bigemina, another hickory species.

Erythroneura starkvillensis, new species
(Fig. 4)
This species is 3 mm long, with narrow markings and black spot in first
apical cell medium size. Shaft of aedeagus relatively long with narrow


The Florida Entomologist

flanges. Foot of style short and broad with slender posterior point. Py-
gofer hooks about length of pygofer, slightly curved in both views.
Holotype S, State College, Miss., 24 July 1964, Quercus nigra, water
oak, and one & paratype, same data, except Q. velutina, black oak. Addi-
tional S paratypes as follows: State College, Miss., 1, 17 Sep. 1961, Q.
falcata, and 1, 16 June 1961, Q. alba; 1, Scoby, Miss., 15 Sep. 1961, Q. fal-

The collection data are not
the genus Quercus. The long,
the short foot are distinctive.

sufficient to determine its host, except to
straight aedeagus with small flanges and

3. onseri

4. storkvillensis


5. cera

Fig. 3-5. Male genitalia of new species of the Erythroneura campora
complex. See text for explanation.


Vol. 49, No. 2

Hepner: New Species of Erythroneura

Erythroneura cera, new species
(Fig. 5)
This species is 2.9 mm long with heavy markings, and with the black
spot in the first apical cell of medium size. Shaft of aedeagus very short
and broad with large flanges. Foot of style slender with short posterior
point. Pygofer hooks considerably shorter than pygofer, slightly falcate
in both views.

6. accicurto

N- f
NV-7^ ? A ^ \/i
N N -fA-

7. brazzeli


8. wilsoni

Fig. 6-8. Male genitalia of new species of the Erythroneura campora
complex. See text for explanation.


106 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 49, No. 2

Holotype 8, Giant City State Park, Ill., 27 July 1951, Richards and
Sanderson, Acer sp.
Although the host is not definite for this species, it might be maple.
It differs markedly from any of the elm, oak, or hickory species that make
up this complex.
Erythroneura accicurta, new species
(Fig. 6)
This species is 2.9 mm long, slender, with an elongate crown, spotted,
and with the black spot in the first apical cell average in size. Shaft of
aedeagus with a large dorsal flange and medium lateral flanges. Foot of
style slender with narrow, pointed posterior point slightly more than half
length of foot. Pygofer hooks relatively heavy, about length of pygofer,
almost straight in lateral view, slightly sinuate in dorsal view.
Holotype S, Tarpon Spgs., Fla., 19 Dec. 1949, Stannard et al., Quer-
cus sp.
This species is quite distinct, although the foot of the style somewhat
resembles macra, a maple species.

Erythroneura wilsoni, new species
(Fig. 8)
This species is 3 mm long, with faint spots; the black spot in the first
apical cell is larger than average. Aedeagus with shaft relatively large,
curved and with large flanges. Foot of style relatively broad with slender,
straight posterior point about half length of foot. Pygofer hooks curved,
very slender in lateral view.
Holotype &, Houston, Miss., 15 Oct. 1961, Q. shumardii.
This is probably an oak species, although the aedeagus is quite unlike
any other species, with its long, slender dorsal process and relatively small
Erythroneura brazzeli, new species
(Fig. 7)
This species is 3 mm long, with a spotted color pattern and the black
spot in the first apical cell larger than average. Shaft of aedeagus short,
with narrow dorsal flange and average lateral flanges. Foot of style
slender with straight narrow posterior point and long slender heel. Py-
gofer hooks about length of pygofer, almost straight in both views.
Holotype 8, Elizabethtown, Ill., 2 Sep. 1962, Quercus imbricaria, shin-
gle oak.
This species is near smith, a blackjack species, but with broader poste-
rior points and longer heel on foot of style and much smaller aedeagus
shaft with broader lateral flanges.

The Florida Entomologist 49(2) June 1966


Dept. of Geology, Rice University, Houston, Texas, and
Inst. de Biologia, Acad. de Cincias, La Habana, respectively

The almost simultaneous discovery in Guatemala and Cuba of the
remarkable damselfly described herein is a very interesting coincidence.
In July 1962 one of us (TD) found this species in fair abundance at Tikal,
in the Pet6n district of Guatemala; in August the other (PA) found it
near Guane in the Pinar del Rio province of Cuba, about 500 miles from
the Guatemalan locality. Unfortunately it is not known when this species
might first have occurred at Tikal; although the new insect was not found
during a biological survey from January to May of 1956 (Kormondy 1959),
the Odonata were collected by non-specialists, and Donnelly has been able
in less than thirteen days during the summers of 1962, 1963, 1964, and
1965 to more than triple their list of species. The new species could well
have been overlooked by these collectors.
Four male specimens taken in two states of Mexico during the summer
of 1965 by Dennis Paulson suggest that this species might be quite wide-
spread. It is difficult to understand why this insect has been so long over-
During our preliminary separate analyses of this new species, we were
each initially under the impression that it belonged to the genus Enallagma.
However, Donnelly had been engaged in studies in this genus and found
that the penis of the new species was radically different from any New
World member of the genus, and indeed was distinctive enough to warrant
the establishment of a new genus. Erection of this new genus, however,
has not helped to untangle the rather complicated skein of inter-generic
relationships among the Neotropical damselflies of the Acanthagrion-
Enallagma group. Examination of a number of species in this group dur-
ing this study has revealed relationships between species hitherto thought
not to be closely related and important differences between species thought
to be closely related. The development of this problem is beyond the scope
of the present paper, however, and only relationships between the new
genus and other genera can be discussed.

Enacantha, new genus
Head: Postocular spots prominent, narrowly connected across rear of
head; frons rounded. Prothorax: Hind lobe, small, slightly elevated, en-
tire. Pterothorax: Mesostigmal laminae small, narrow, elongate; mes-
episternal fossae absent. Wings: Stigma surmounting one cell, longer
than wide, in shape of rounded parallelogram; petiolation distinctly proxi-
mal to Ac; 9 to 10 postnodals in fore wing, 8 to 9 in hind wing; anterior
side of quadrangle one-third in fore wing, three-fifths in hind wing length
of posterior side. Abdomen: Female with prominent spine on eighth ter-
gite; male with dorsum of 10th segment indented and with slightly ele-

The Florida Entomologist

vated, forked process in that indentation. Superior appendages straight,
as long as the 10th segment, slightly forcipate in dorsal view, with pointed
inferior arm and with pad located on mesal surface at base of this arm.
Penis: Third segment with small internal and external folds, terminating
in a prominent hooked, T-shaped process. Medial, internal process on this
segment widely forked. First segment lacking setae.
The new genus Enacantha is quite clearly related to the Nearctic En-
allagma and the Neotropical Acanthagrion sensu lato, which includes
Cyanallagma Kennedy 1920 and Argentagrion Fraser 1948. One of us
(Donnelly 1963) has studied the New World species of the genus Enallagma
rather thoroughly and concludes that Enacantha cannot be included within
any of the various groups of that genus. Although Enallagma is quite
variable in color and morphology, the penis is homogeneous throughout,
and homologies among the species are immediately evident, even between
species with greatly differing external morphology. The genus Enallagma
is not, however, readily distinguished on external characters from a num-
ber of Neotropical genera, in spite of the fact that there exist many keys
which might give that impression.
Kennedy (1920) erected the genus Cyanallagma to include those species
formerly placed in Acanthagrion but distinguished by the male superior
appendages, which extend directly to the rear and are forked, rather than
being decurved. Kennedy designated the species interruptum (Selys) as
the type, and included additionally lateral (Selys), acutum (Ris), and
"perhaps cheliferum (Selys)". The original description of this genus is
so inadequate that it, along with the other genera and subgenera erected
in that unfortunate paper, should have been discarded long ago. However,
Racenis (1958) has redefined the genus recently, excluding cheliferum, and
including bonariense (Ris). The species acutum and bonariense have not
been examined during this study, but we conclude that interruptum and
lateral are worthy of generic recognition. The penes (Fig. 3) are similar,
except that interruptum has a pronounced internal hook on the terminal
segment, whereas lateral has only small prominence here. The expanded,
squared end of the terminal segment sets these species quite apart from
Acanthagrion sensu strict.
Fraser (1948) placed Acanthagrion ambiguum Ris in a new genus
Argentagrion on the basis of reduced venation and the male superior ap-
pendage, which is not at all typical of most of the species of Acanthagrion.
Racenis (1958) discussed this genus further and added the species cheli-
ferum and lindneri (Ris), emphasizing the criteria of reduced venation,
the small size of the insect, and the reduced male inferior appendages.
The penes of cheliferum and ambiguum (Fig. 3) are fairly close (lindneri
has not been examined), and we concur with Racenis' analysis of the genus,
though with slightly more misgivings than with his analysis of the pre-
vious genus, because these species are not as close as are the two Cyanal-
lagma. An additional species, Selys' (1876) Agrion? nepos, which was
placed by Calvert (1909) in Ischnura? and by Kennedy (1916) as the type
and only species of his very poorly characterized genus Homeoura, is
very close to cheliferum, both on external morphology and venation, and
especially on the basis of penile morphology. Both species have a most
distinctive hollow structure on the terminal segment which receives a
bladed prominence on the inside of the second segment. If these two


Vol. 49, No. 2

Donnelly: A New Genus and Species of Damselfly 109

closely related species are to be eventually split from Argentagrion on
other grounds, then a new name, rather than Kennedy's Homeoura should
be used; the only part of Kennedy's generic diagnosis that could be con-
sidered definitive appears to be incorrect (spines on basal segment of
penis)! The species cheliferum was placed by Santos (1956) in Enallagma
because of the petiolation of the wings and the spine at the base of the
male superior appendage. The North and Central American Enallagma
(Donnelly 1963) have a remarkably homogeneous penile morphology, and
it would be most unwise to include cheliferum, in spite of the characters
to which Santos has called attention (Many genera other than Enallagma
incidentally, have a spine or similar projection at the base of the male
superior appendage.).
On the basis of penile morphology, Enacantha would appear to be
closer to the Acanthagrion complex than to Enallagma. The form of the
superior appendage of Enacantha is somewhat closer to Enallagma (es-
pecially the praevarum group), but this appendage is quite variable
throughout all of these genera, and similarities with Argentagrion and
Cyanallagma could equally well be cited. The distinctive penis of Ena-
cantha is similar to that of only one other damselfly yet examined: Tigri-
agrion aurantinigrum Calvert (Fig. 3), which would itself appear to be
set off by its orange coloration, its reduced venation, and its peculiarly
rounded stigmae. It would be futile to speculate further on the relation-
ships among these genera, but examination of a greater number of species
might show that Enacantha occupies a transitional position between the
Enallagma group (possibly the Enallagma praevarum stem) and the
Acanthagrion group (possibly with Tigriagrion, Argentagrion, or Cyanal-
lagma as annectant genera).
The establishment of inter-generic relationships on the basis of one
morphological character is not easily defended. However, the compara-
tive morphology of the penis within the Acanthagrion-Enallagma genera
of New World damselflies shows a combination of reasonable morphologi-
cal diversity (so that differences between species can be noted in most
cases) and conservatism (so that homologies, which in many cases are
related by homologies in other morphological features or color pattern,
can be established) such that this character must be given heavy weight.
Williamson (1924) remarked on the hazards inherent in reliance on wing
venation for establishing phylogenetic relationships; some of these hazards
(such as extent of petiolation) will be evident to anyone who has worked
within North American Enallagma. The form of the male abdominal
appendages must also be regarded as hazardous, because in addition to the
presumably primitive forcipate form well developed, for example, in
Enallagma and Argentagrion, there is a bewildering variety of other forms,
many of which are quite distinct in two species, which otherwise on over-
whelming evidence are closely related. Color has been used to separate
Oxyagrion from Acanthagrion, but this character will probably not stand
more critical evaluation. Finally, the structures of nymphs might be help-
ful in establishing relationships, except that relatively few species are
known from immature stages, and those that are known do not appear to
possess reliable characters which might have a phylogenetic rather than
an adaptive significance.

The Florida Entomologist

Enacantha caribbea, new species
(Fig. 1-3)
MALE: Head: Black, with pale blue. Labium pale; mandibles pale
with black tips; labrum blue; anteclypeus pale with black, laterally in-
dented basal stripe; postclypeus, frons, and genae pale; vertex black,
with prominent pale postocular spots narrowly connected medially by an
occipital pale stripe. Prothorax: Pale blue, black as follows: dorsum of
central lobe, except for lateral spots narrowed anteriorly; hind lobe, except
for border. Hind lobe entire, rounded. Pterothorax: Pale blue, black as
follows: Mid-dorsal stripe covering one-third of mesepisternum; black
line on humeral suture, which is two-fifths the width of the antehumeral
pale stripe; very short black dash on second lateral suture. Legs: Pale,
with dorsa of femora black. Black lines on tibiae: complete on fore leg,
less prominent on middle leg, and short on hind leg. Spines short, black.
Tarsal claws black. Wings: Venation discussed below. Stigma acute, bi-
colored: Black, with anterior third pale. Abdomen: Pale blue, black as
follows: Basal spot on dorsum of segment 1; sub-apical triangular spot
on dorsum of 2; apical bands on 3-6; dorsal line on apical two-thirds of 4,
seven-eighths of 5, all of 6; basal third of 7, narrowed apically; dorsum of
10. Small forked dorsal process on apex of 10. Appendages: Superior
appendage straight, the length of segment 10, with blunt ends, and slightly
curved in dorsal view; inferior branch pale, triangular, terminating ven-

Fig. 1. Lateral views of male and female of Enacantha caribbea show-
ing venation and color patterns.


Vol. 49, No. 2

Donnelly: A New Genus and Species of Damselfly 111

rally in a sharp point; mesal pad near base of inferior branch. Inferior
appendage slightly less than half the length of superior, rounded.

Fig. 2. Dorsal view of nymph believed to be Enacantha caribbea, with
lateral view of gills and ventral view of labium.

FEMALE: Similar in color pattern to male, but with pale color brownish-
blue to greenish-blue. Without lateral indentations in pale color of basal
dark stripe on anteclypeus, and with dorsum of abdomen black interrupted
by narrow basal pale rings on segments 4-7. Mesostigmal laminae small,
narrow, elongate, not conspicuously erect. Mesepisternal fossae absent.
Spine on venter of segment 8 well developed.
VENATION: Postnodal cells of fore wing 9 or 10 (a very few 11), of
hind wing 8 or 9 (a very few 10). The distance between the origins of
M3 and R. ranges from nearly zero to an extreme of one and one-half
times the length of the cell between the bases of these veins, and in most
cases is between one-half and one times this length. Petiolation distinct.
DIMENSIONS: Abdomen: two-thirds of the male specimens range from
22.5 to 24 mm, with extremes 20 to 24.5 mm. For females the normal
range is 21.5 to 22.5 mm, with extremes between 21 and 24 mm. Hind wing:
nine-tenths of the males range from 15.5 to 16.5 mm, with extremes 15
to 17 mm, and for females 16 to 17 mm, with extremes 15.8 to 18 mm.
specimens, the only noteworthy variation aside from dimensions is the
extent of indentation in the black border of the anteclypeus. More than
half the specimens have the lateral indentations distinctly connected with
the pale anterior portion of this sclerite, but one-third of the specimens
have one or both indentations isolated as spots by a continuous, thin, black
border, and a very few have solid black borders, as in the female. No
consistent regional variations were found.
NYMPH: Pale colored, apparently lacking any dark pigmentation, ex-
cept for finely scattered spots on gills. Eyes prominent; posterolateral
margins of head rounded, with small spines; ratio of antennae segment
lengths; 5: 8: 9: 7: 5: 5. Distal width of mentum five-sixths of
length; width at base one-third of distal width; lateral margins straight,
with small setae in distal half; distal margin sharply rounded, entire;

The Florida Entomologist

lateral setae 6, with notch separating end hook from inner margin; mental
setae 5. Wing cases reaching fourth segment, apically rounded; lateral
keels on 1-8 well developed, rounded apically, without spines or setae. Gills
rounded with acuminate apices, lacking pigment except for small scattered
spots along veins, these spots more abundant proximal to nodus; margins
of gills proximal to nodus lined with short setae.


A ONTo -


Fig. 3. Dorsal view of female thorax and head, and four views of male
abdominal appendages .of Enacantha caribbea. Drawings of penes as fol-
lows: Enacantha caribbea (Tikal, Guatemala); Tigriagrion aurantinigrum
Calvert, Dept. Santa Cruz, Bolivia, coll. Cumming; Cyanallagma interrup-
tum (Selys) "Brazil", Univ. Florida Collection; C. lateral (Selys), Que-
tama, Colombia (type of Agria ternaria Navas), from Gloyd collection;
Acanthagrion vidua Selys, Edo. Cojedes, Venezuela, coll. Donnelly; ?Acan-
thagrion chirihuanum Calvert, Chaco, Brazil, coll. Benitez, U. Fla. Col-
lection; Argentagrion ambiguum (Ris), Ubuvevo, Paraguay, coll. Fdrster,
from U. of Fla. Collection; A. cheliferum (Selys), Corrientes, Argentina,
U. of Fla. Collection; A. nepos (Selys), Aracataca, Colombia, coll. William-
son, U. of Fla. Collection; Oxyagrion dissidents Selys, U. of Fla. Collection.

This description is based on two mature nymphs collected at the ponds
at Tikal. These are assigned by supposition to Enacantha both because
of their association and because they can be reasonably excluded from other


Vol. 49, No. 2






Donnelly: A New Genus and Species of Damselfly 113

species occurring there (see below). These nymphs are 18.5 mm. long, and
the gills are 5 mm. long.
MATERIAL STUDIED: Tikal, Dept. El Peten, Guatemala, 52 males and
30 females, collected 23-25 July 1962, and 27-29 July 1963. The precise
locality is the series of ponds at the main camp. At this locality this spe-
cies was the dominant coenagrionine during 1963, when the level of the
ponds was rather low due to a prolonged drought. It was also conspicuous
during 1962, but was much less so during 1964, when the ponds were vis-
ited well after the start of the rainy season. The species was not seen in
September 1965. Other damselflies occurring more or less commonly at
this pond include Argia gaumeri Calvert, Acanthagrion quadratumn Selys,
Telebasis filiola (Perty), T. salva (Hagen), T. digiticollis Calvert, Lepto-
basis vacillans Hagen, Neoerythromma cultellatum (Hagen), Ischnura
ramburii (Selys), Ischnura (Ceratura) capreola (Selys), Ischnura (Isch-
nuridia) acicularisl Donnelly, Protoneura corculum Calvert, and Lestes
forficula (Rambur).
Laguna de los Negros, El Beral, Guane, Prov. Pinar del Rio, Cuba,
19 males and 1 female collected during August 1962.
Pond 6.3 miles south of Ixtapa, Chiapas, Mexico, 2 males, 17 July 1965,
collected by D. R. Paulson and F. G. Thompson.
Ponds 0.7 miles east of Ich-Ek, Campeche, Mexico, 2 males, 8 July
1965, collected by D. R. Paulson.
The holotype male was collected 24 July 1962, and the allotype female
23 July 1962, both at Tikal. The holotype and allotype have been deposited
in the University of Florida collection. Paratypes have been deposited in
this collection, and in the collection of the U. S. National Museum, the
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelpha, and the University of Michigan
Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: We are grateful to Prof. Minter Westfall for
calling to our mutual attention that both of us were about to describe this
species independently. Prof. Westfall has also loaned specimens of Ar-
gentagrion, Acanthagrion, Tigriagrion, Cyanallagma, among other genera,
for comparative examinations. We appreciate the opportunity to examine
the Mexican specimens collected by Dennis Paulson. We also appreciate
the loan of Navas' type of Argia ternaria (a synonym of Cyanallagma
laterale) from Mrs. Leonora Gloyd.


Calvert, P. P. 1909. Contributions to a knowledge of the Odonata of the
Neotropical region, exclusive of Mexico and Central America. Ann.
Carnegie Museum 6: 73-280. 9 pls.
Donnelly, T. W. 1963. Possible phylogenetic relationships among North
and Central American Enallagma. Proc. North Central Branch,
Ent. Soc. Amer. 18: 116-119.
Fraser, F. C. 1948. The Odonata of the Argentina Republic II. Acta
Zool. Lilloana, Instituto "Miguel Lillo" 5: 47-67.
Kennedy, C. H. 1916. Notes on the penes of Zygoptera (Odonata).
No. 1. Species limits in the genus Acanthagrion. Ent. News 27:
325-330. 1 pl.
Kennedy, C. H. 1920. Forty-two hitherto unrecognized genera and sub-
genera of Zygoptera. Ohio Jour. Sci. 21: 83-88.

The Florida Entomologist

Kormondy, E. J. 1959. Lestes tikalus, n. sp., and other Odonata from
Guatemala. Ohio Jour. Sci. 59: 305-312.
Racenis, J. 1958. Los Odonatos Neotropicales en la collecci6n de la
Facultad de Agronomia de la Universidad Central de Venezuela.
Acta Biol. Venez. 2: 179-226.
Santos, N. D. 1956. Contribuigdo ao conhecimento da fauna do Distrito
Federal. XLVII. Enallagma cheliferum (Selys, 1876) Nova Combi-
nagdo. (Coenagriidae: Odonata). Anais da Academia Brasileira de
Ciencias 28(4): 571-576.
Selys-Longchamps, E. de 1876. Synopsis des Agrionines, 3me Legion:
Agrion (suite). Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Belgique, 2nd Ser., 41:1-282


E. B. 1924. A remarkable new genus of Coenagrionidae
Brazil, with descriptions of three new species (Odonata).
Mich. Mus. Zool. Occ. Paper 154: 1-22. 1 pl.

The Florida Entomologist 49(2) June 1966

The Executive Committee recently named the editors of THE FLORIDA
ENTOMOLOGIST for 1967-1969. Dr. S. H. Kerr will serve as Editor and Dr.
J. L. Nation as Associate Editor. Although their terms begin 1 January
1967, they have already begun their duties and are handling the manu-
scripts which will be published during their terms. With the possible
exception of paid papers, all manuscripts received later than April 1966
will be published after January 1967.


Vol. 49, No. 2


U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health
Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and
Infectious Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana 59840,
and Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department
of Agriculture, Gainesville 32601.

At the time the subgenus Liochrysops (Philip 1955), was erected for
the deer fly, Chrysops hyalinus Shannon, many years had elapsed since the
last specimen had been collected. There was concern that domestication
of the only two bog areas in Maryland and North Carolina where this deli-
cate, subshining black species with clear wings and peculiar habits had
been found had extinguished this precinctive species, of which a male had
never been taken.
Surprisingly, within the past two years more specimens have been
taken in early spring from each of two areas in northern Florida and
southern Alabama than were taken by all diligent collecting in the pre-
viously known restricted areas of occurrence. Earlier observations on
habits of the species can be augmented now. The male is described here
for the first time from four males taken in Florida during 1964.
Male: Length, 6.5 mm. Except for the usual sex differences, males
have the same subshining black appearance as the females and are readily
associated with the opposite sex. As might be expected from the darken-
ing of the wings of males in other species, there can be seen in certain
lights a faint infuscation of the base of the wing. The outer margin of
this infuscation crosses the radial and medial sectors just beyond the dis-
cal cell from the outer end of the pale yellow stigma and fades toward
the apex of the cubital cell before the hind margin; the costal cell is a
little more yellowish than in the females. This corresponds to what is more
plainly seen, though still faint, on the wings of Chrysops, nigribimbo Whit-
ney, its closest relative. C. hyalinus lacks the facial pollinosity of C.
nigribimbo. Head wider than the thorax, and enlarged facets occupying a
little more than the upper half to two-thirds of the eye area. Ocelligerous
tubercle brown, prominently raised above eye level, and with short incon-
spicuous black hairs. No vestiture along the wide black occipital margins
behind the eyes; the only gray pollinose areas on the head are two patches
below those margins and a narrow area around the antennal bases, as in
the females; apex of the frontal triangle black. Facial bullae shining
black and a little more prominent than in female, accentuating the apo-
demal pits. Antennae basally dull yellow, darkening toward the black
flagellums, and with longer, sparse black hairs than in the females. Palpi
black, blunt, cylindrical, and tapered apically. Notum with even fewer
appressed metallic hairs.

1 Contribution No. 58, Entomology Section, Div. Plant Industry, Fla.
Dept. Agr., Gainesville.

The Florida Entomologist

On 13 April 1960, E. W. Holder, Jr., Florida Department of Agricul-
ture, took five females of C. hyalinus from his car window at Glen St. Mary,
Florida. On 3 April 1964, in the same locality, H. V. Weems, Jr. and C. F.
Zeiger, the latter an official Collaborator of the Florida Department of
Agriculture, collected four males and six females from flowers and foliage
of wild cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrhart.
Both sexes of Chrysops brimleyi Hine, with contrasting wing pictures
and other distinguishing characters, were taken on these blossoms by
Weems and Zeiger at the same time in 1964.
The female eye pattern of C. hyalinus is rather heavy, nearest that
figured by Daecke (1906) for Chrysops hilaris Osten Sacken (= lateralis
Wiedemann), with short shafted "arrowhead" and the upper and lower
frontal spots narrowly separated from the eye margin. However, the
upper spot is not joined above to the occipital band as in lateralis. The
eye pattern of C. nigribimbo Whitney, also figured by Daecke, is not as
heavy and has a longer shaft. In six females of C. hyalinus the only varia-
tion in the pattern was that some lacked the connection between the arrow-
head and midfrontal spot.
All Florida and Alabama records, the latter courtesy of Robert Wat-
son of Auburn University, have been in April. The four Maryland syn-
types and other topotypes were taken between 9 June and 6 July in different
years. Two specimens were collected at Southern Pines, North Carolina,
14 May 1909, by A. H. Manee.
McAtee and Walton (1918) refer to the habits of C. hyalinus in Mary-
land as follows: "This species inhabits the peculiar Powdermill bogs and
seems to spend all its time on grass and other vegetation only a few inches
above the water surface. Its flight is slow and feeble, and its whole be-
havior differs widely from that of all other local species of the genus."
Mr. Watson (correspondence) is the only one who has observed the females
attacking livestock. He collected 67 females from cows on 18-19 April
1964, near Seminole, Baldwin County, Alabama. His records suggest the
female needs a blood meal to ovulate.' Other females were taken in traps
near Fish River in the same county, 3 to 25 April 1965.
Though many syrphids and other flies visited the wild cherry blooms
during the day near Glen St. Mary, no specimens of C. hyalinus were seen
until the afternoon of a partly overcast day. Flight of these specimens
was characteristically weak. A wet area a quarter of a mile distant con-
tained pitcher plants, Sarracenia sp., and may have provided a breeding
environment comparable to Maryland bogs.
These new records emphasize that the species is a very precinctive
one. A few specimens have entered parked cars in both areas.

Chrysops abatus Philip
Chrysops abatus Philip is another deer fly that may have been missed
because of precinctive habits or early spring appearance on the wing.
Though the type is labelled "Jacksonville, June 21," the few subsequent
records are for April. One female was recovered in quite fresh condition
by Philip (1952) from a pitcher plant, Sarracenia rubra Walter, near Gulf-
port, Mississippi, 20 April 1952. Another female in the Florida State Col-
lection of Arthropods was taken "biting man" ten miles northeast of Tor-
reya State Park, Liberty County, 16 April 1953, by R. E. Woodruff.


Vol. 49, No. 2

Philip: New Records of C. Abatus

Dr. L. L. Pechuman of Cornell University has sent us records of two
additional specimens, one from the type locality without date or collector
data, the other surprisingly from Elizabethtown, North Carolina, 30 April
1950, H. & M. Townes.
Daecke, E. 1906. On the eye coloration of the genus Chrysops. Ent.
News 17: 39-42.
McAtee, W. L., and W. R. Walton. 1918. District of Columbia Diptera:
Tabanidae. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 20: 188-206.
Philip, C. B. 1952. Notes on tabanid flies and other victims caught by
the carnivorous plant, Sarracenia flava. Fla. Ent. 35: 151-155.
Philip, C. B. 19.55. New North American Tabanidae. IX. Notes on
and keys to the genus Chrysops Meigen. Rev. Brasil. Ent. 3: 47-128.

The Florida Entomologist 49(2) June 1966


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11335 N. W. 59 Avenue, Hialeah, Florida 33012

Aldrich (1929) described Agromyza schmidti from Costa Rica, and stated
that the larvae make serpentine mines in the leaves of Gliricidia sepium
(Jacq.), Leguminoseae. Frick (1952) transferred the species to Liriomyza,
and Frick (1959) discussed L. schmidti further. Spencer (1963) reported
L. schmidti (Aldrich) infesting the leaves of two new host plants, Albizzia
lebbek Benth. and Bauhinia sp., and cited Florida as a new locality for the
L. schmidti was first found by the author mining the leaves of Albizzia
at Lummus Park, Miami, Florida, during October 1962. Most of the Al-
bizzia, or woman's tongue trees, were infested severely with silvery, epi-
dermal, serpentine and linear mines. Close examination revealed that each
leaf contained a yellowish-orange larva beneath the transparent epidermis
of the leaf mine channel. There was only one larva per leaf. Eight vari-
ations of leaf mines of L. schmidti in Albizzia lebbek are shown in Fig. 1.
The author reared adults of L. schmidti and parasites from A. lebbek
from the Oct. 1962 collection; identification by Mr. K. A. Spencer of Lon-
don, England, revealed this to be the first collection of L. schmidti since
its description in 1929 from Costa Rica.

Albizzia lebbek: Miami, 17 Oct. 1962 (C.E.S.); Key West, leaf mines
only, Aug. 1963 (C.E.S.); Coral Gables, leaf mines only, Oct. 1963
(H. L. Rubin).
Bauhinia purpurea L.: Hialeah, 26, 28 Apr. 1963 (C.E.S.).
Bauhinia sp.: Homestead, leaf mines only, Jan. 1964 (C.E.S.).
Stizolobium derringianum Bort.: Miami, 8 Nov. 1963 (C.E.S.).

Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.: Miami, 19 June 1963 (D. A. Miller and
C.E.S.); Miami, 19 Oct. 1963 (D. A. Miller). Spencer (personal cor-
respondence) said that he had seen similar mines on Bougainvillea
in Jamaica, B.W.I.

Passiflora caerulea L.: Hialeah, 7 July 1963 (C.E.S.).

1 Contribution No. 73, Entomology Section, Div. Plant Industry, Fla.
Dep. Agr., Gainesville.
2 Collaborator, Fla. State Collection of Arthropods, Div. Plant Industry,
Fla. Dep. Agr.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 49, No. 2



!t ~


Fig. 1. Leaf mines of Liriomyza schmidti on leaves of Albizzia lebbek
showing variations in the mine pattern. The two leaves on the right in
the upper row show a linear aspect, other leaves have a serpentine aspect.
Photograph courtesy of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department
of Agriculture, Mildred Eaddy, Photographer.


On the plants listed below I have seen leaf mine infestations similar to
those of Liriomyza schmidti on Bougainvillea and Passiflora. To my
knowledge leaf miners have never been reared from these leaf mines. It
is quite possible that the records given below will represent further host
plants for L. schmidti. If this is confirmed, L. schmidti will prove to be
another polyphagous species in the Neotropical Region.


Stegmaier: Liriomyza schmidti in Florida

Vinca minor L.: Miami Springs, 29 Nov. 1963 (B. K. Dozier); Hialeah,
2 Dec. 1963 (C.E.S.); Hialeah, 18 Dec. 1965, 1 pupal case found in
leaf mine channel (C.E.S.). Vinca infestations are rare.
Acalpha hispida Burm.: Miami, Sep. 1963 (W. R. Fyke).
Acalpha spp.: South Miami, Dec. 1963 to Jan. 1964 (C.E.S.).
Breynia nivosa (W. J. Smith) Small: Key West, 10 June 1964 (H. V.
Weems, Jr.).
Smilax spp.: Miami, South Miami, Sep. 1963 to Jan. 1964 (C.E.S.).
Chiococca alba (L.) Hitch.: Homestead, Oct. 1963 (C.E.S.).
Hamaelia patens Jasq.: Miami, Oct. 1963 (M. Kuck and C.E.S.).

The following parasites were reared from L. schmidti during 1962 and
1963: Eulophidae-Chrysocharis sp., Derostenus variipes Cwfd., Diaulinop-
sis callichroma Cwfd., and Closterocerus cinctipennis Ashm.
Getzin (1960) reported D. variipes as the most important parasite of
L. munda Frick which was reared during 1958 and 1959 in Texas. Hard-
ing (1965) reared D. variipes, Chrysocharis sp., and C. cinctipennis from
L. munda in Texas during 1962 and 1963. He reported the rearing of
Chrysocharis sp. .and C. cinctipennis from a undescribed Haplomyza sp.
infesting a pigweed, Amaranthus sp.
Chrysocharis sp., a eulophid parasite of L. schmidti, has been reared
by the author from other species of agromyzids in Florida. Whether this
represents a single species or more than one is not known. I have per-
sonally reared Chrysocharis sp., during 1962 through 1963, from the fol-
lowing agromyzids: L. munda, L. trifolii (Burgess), Ophiomyia n. sp.,
Phytobia (Amauromyza) maculosa (Malloch), L. sorosis (Williston), Phy-
tobia (Calycomyza) ipomaeae (Frost), L. brassicae (Riley), and Phytobia
(Calycomyza) malvae (Burgess).

I am indebted to the following persons: Mr. Kenneth Spencer for the
identifications of L. schmidti, and for reviewing the manuscript; the late
Professor Erdman West, Botany Department, University of Florida, for
the identifications of many plants; Dr. B. D. Burks, of the U. S. National
Museum, for the parasite determinations; Mr. B. K. Dozier, Mr. W. R.
Fyke, Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr., Mr. M. Kuck, Mr. H. L. Rubin, and Mr. D. A.
Miller, for collecting the agromyzid infestations.

Aldrich, J. M. 1929. Three new acalyptrate Diptera. Proc. Ent. Soc.
Wash. 31: 89.

The Florida Entomologist

Frick, K. E. 1952. A generic revision of the family Agromyzidae (Dip-
tera) with a catalog of New World species. Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent.
8: 339-452.
Frick, K. E. 1959. Synopsis of the Agromyzid leaf miners described from
North America (Diptera). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 108: 347-465.
Getzin, L. W. 1960. Selective insecticides for vegetable leaf miner con-
trol and parasite survival. J. Econ. Ent. 53 (5): 872-75.
Harding, J. A. 1965. Parasitism of the leaf miner Liriomyza munda in
the Winter Garden Area of Texas. J. Econ. Ent. 58 (3): 442-43.
Spencer, K. A. 1963. A synopsis of the Neotropical Agromyzidae (Dip-
tera) Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 115 (12): 291-389.

The Florida Entomologist 49(2) June 1966



Dr. Alvah Peterson

Dr. Peterson has donated the entire remaining stock of this book
to the Florida Entomological Society. This 176 page hard-bound book
is sub-titled "An Angler's Guide to Useful and Interesting Informa-
tion about Many Common Insects and a Few Imitation Lures that
Fishermen Use for Bait." These are now available while the supply
lasts at only $2.50 each to members and $3.00 to non-members. Order
one for yourself and another to donate to your school or city library.
Address all orders to: Business Manager, Florida Entomological
Society, Box 12425, University Station, Gainesville, Florida 32601.


Vol. 49, No. 2

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for agriculture. Products based on sound, basic research and development. It
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Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead, Florida

A scarab beetle was taken from avocado, lychee, and mango trees near
Pahokee, Florida, 8 April 1965, where it had reduced fruit crops and in-
jured trees. R. E. Woodruff, Division of Plant Industry, Florida State De-
partment of Agriculture, identified it as Pachystethus marginata (Fab.).
This insect is apparently common in Florida and in other southeastern
states where it is frequently collected. Although generally distributed it
is not known as a serious pest either as an adult or a larva.
Ritcher (1943) reported larvae to be . sometimes fairly common
in steep, wild-grass pastureland in eastern Kentucky." Nothing further
seems known of larval activities such as feeding habits.
Adults have been reported to be of some economic importance. Folsom
(1936) reported that adults in Louisiana were found eating irregular areas
in the leaf edges of cotton. Genung (1965) reported adults as "Causing
considerable defoliation to snap beans on commercial farm at Canal Point;
not damaging well developed pods. Defoliation not serious at late stage
of maturity (early April)." Through correspondence, Mr. Genung reported
a rather general infestation, but heavy only in marginal spots. Spots were
small, rarely exceeding 1000 square feet, and about six such spots were
observed. Foliage damage was not destructive to the old plants but if
the same amount of feeding had been done to young plants they might
have been destroyed. The bean plantings were surrounded by sugar cane
fields which might have been a source of young beetles. Other sources
may have been ditch banks, residential surroundings, or other uncultivated
The infestation reported here was in a 20-acre avocado-lychee-mango
grove on muckland soils near Pahokee. Although beetles and foliage and
twig injuries were seen throughout the grove, they were more prevalent
on the end opposite a residential strip beside a highway.
Beetle injuries on avocado, lychee, and mango leaves ranged from the
excision of a few square millimeters of leaf tissure per leaf to total con-
sumption or destruction. In many instances only the midribs or larger
veins remained. Two or more beetles were often found in curled or rolled
leaves. Epidermal surfaces of twigs were often consumed by the beetles.
Deep excavations were often made in twig tissues that remained upright;
some twigs were bent but remained green; other twigs were dead but
remained attached; and some twig terminals had fallen. Flowers and
young fruit had been excised thus reducing current yields.
Leaf injuries of lychee trees appeared a little more frequent or severe
than those on avocado or mango trees suggesting that lychee may be a
preferred host plant.
Applications of parathion made to the trees by the grower were suc-
cessful in reducing the beetle population and the injuries.
This is an example of an insect species that is frequently collected but
is seldom reported as having economic importance.

The Florida Entomologist

Folsom, J. W. 1936. Additional notes on little-known cotton insects.
Econ. Ent. 29: 1066-1068.
Genung, W. G. 1965. A scarab (Pachystethus marginata). Coop. Econ.
Insect Rep., (USDA) 15(17): 382.
Ritcher, P. 0. 1943. The Anomalini of Eastern North America with de-
scriptions of the larvae and a key to the species (Coleoptera: Scar-
abaeidae). Ky. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 442: 19.

The Florida Entomologist 49(2) June 1966

Bibliographic Series, No. 15, International Atomic Energy Agency,
Vienna, 1965. 564 p. $11.
NIQUE. G. C. LaBrecque and J. C. Keller, editors. Technical Reports
Series No. 44, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1965.
79 p. $2.00.
The first of these two books is a bibliography covering 1961 to 1963
inclusive. It is a continuation of an earlier volume that covered 1950 to
1960. The book begins with a 24-page summary of the main lines of en-
tomological research in which radioisotypes and ionizing radiations have
been used in the period under review. The main section of the book con-
tains 1592 bibliographic entries with an abstract of each. In addition to
author and subject indexes, there are tables that organize the results of
studies of dispersal, sterilization, and insecticides. Entomologists work-
ing with radioisotopes and ionizing radiation are truly fortunate in having
a comprehensive review of the literature through 1963.
The second book is the report of a panel of experts convened in Vienna
from 20 to 24 July 1964 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The
23-member panel, representing 14 countries, were charged with reviewing
the progress that had been made in control of insects by the sterile-male
technique and with making recommendations for future action. Their re-
port contains much information not published elsewhere, including some
information submitted by persons who were not panel members.
These two books may be purchased from National Agency for Interna-
tional Publications, Inc., 317 East 34th Street, New York, N. Y. 10016. -

Vol. 49, No. 2


Erwin, Tennessee

Unlike the Spermatophyta which are attacked by several hundred spe-
cies of mites, the Pteridophyta are known to be attacked only by these
seven species:
Tenuipalpus guamensis Baker, on Asplenium nidus (Guam-Baker,
1945, as Neottopteris nidus).
Tenuipalpus frondosus Cromroy, on tree fern (Puerto Rico-Cromroy,
1958), Cyathea nigrescens (Jamaica-De Leon, 1965a), and Alsophila
borinquensis, (Puerto Rico-De Leon, 1965b).
Tenuipalpus meekeri De Leon, on Polypodium? (Nayarit, Mexico-De
Leon, 1957), Blechnum serrulatum (Everglades, south of Florida
City, Florida-De Leon, 1961), and Blechnum serrulatum (Trini-
dad-De Leon, unpublished identification).
Tenuipalpus lygodii De Leon, on Lygodium volubile (Jamaica-De Leon,
Brevipalpus trinidadensis-californicus-lilium complex, on Nephrolepis
biserrata (Puerto Rico-De Leon, 1965b) and Polypodium pecti-
natum X plumulum (Jamaica-De Leon, 1965a).
Hemitarsonemus tepidariorum (Warburton), on Pteris spp., Asplenium
bulbiferum, and Polystichum sp. (In greenhouses England, Minne-
sota, California-Beer, 1954).
Eotarsonemus rugosus n. sp., on Polypodium sp. (Trinidad).

Eotarsonemus, new genus

Tarsonemids with gnathosoma wider than long, palpi scarcely project-
ing beyond end of gnathosoma, dorsal pair of gnathosomal setae greatly
enlarged, male with dorsal body setae very coarse, female with dorsal body
setae very short. Claws of legs I-III of both sexes minute; leg I with
tibia and tarsus distinct and in female tarsus wider than long. Larva with
dorsal body setae short, the outer caudal pair spine-like.
Type of genus: Eotarsonemus rugosus, new species.
The genus resembles Steneotarsonemus Beer, 1954, in having the gnath-
osoma wider than long, and the larva with the outer caudal setae spine-
like, but differs in having in the adult the dorsal pair of setae of the gnatho-
soma greatly enlarged, the palpi somewhat longer, the claws minute, tar-
sus I of the female wider than long, and in other characters.

Eotarsonemus rugosus, new species
(Fig. 1-5)

MALE: Body glassy, whitish; gnathosoma 20, long, 24/ wide; idiosoma
including genital papilla 126A long with setae, apodemes and markings as

The Florida Entomologist

in Fig. 1 (the smaller circles and dots represent what appear to be pits;
the anterior median apodeme of 2 males as in drawing, the anterior median
apodeme of the third male bifurcates posteriorially, each fork curving
gradually laterad and ending near the sides of the body). Dorsal pair of
setae of the gnathosoma 18, long, first pair of dorsal propodosomal setae
20A long. Legs with chaetotaxy as in Fig. 4; tarsus I, excluding pulvil-
lus 12g long; femora I and II each with only 1 seta; seta of tibia IV
about 20p long.

Fig. 1-5. Eotarsonemus rugosus, new species. Fig. 1. Male, dorsal
and ventral views. Fig. 2. Female, three-quarter view. Fig. 3. Larva,
lateral view and dorsal view of caudal end. Fig. 4. Male, legs I-III (from
left to right) dorsal view, leg IV ventral view. Fig. 5. Female, legs I-IV
(from left to right) dorsal view.


Vol. 49, No. 2

De Leon: A New Fern Mite from Trinidad 129

FEMALE: Length including gnathosoma 192, long with setae and mark-
ings as in Fig. 2 (the only female at hand is badly oriented on slide and coxae
and trochanters of all legs are concealed by body); pseudostigmatic organ
if present, not found. Dorsum pitted as in male, but pitting covers all of
dorsum; dorsal pair of setae of gnathosoma 17b long. Legs I and II pitted,
III and IV not clear as to pitting. Tarsus I about 7.7tt long, 0l wide.
LARVA: Length including gnathosoma 150, long, with setae and mark-
ings as in Fig. 3; dorsum apparently smooth.
Holotype: Male, Upper Aripo Valley, Trinidad, 6 October 1963 (D. De
Leon), on Polypodium sp. Paratypes: 2 males, 1 female, 1 larva collected
with holotype. Females were feeding on the lower surface of the fronds
and appeared to be causing no injury; several were observed, but I was
able to collect only 1. The types are in the author's collection.


Baker, E. TV. 1945. Mites of the genus Tenuipalpus (Acarina: Taicha-
demidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 47(2): 33-38.
Beer, R. E. 1954. A review of the Tarsonemidae of the Western Hemi-
sphere. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 36, pt. II, (10): 1091-1387.
Cromroy, H. L. 1958. A preliminary survey of the plant mites of Puerto
Rico. Jour. Agri. Univ. Puerto Rico 42 (2): 39-144.
De Leon, D. 1957. The genus Tenuipalpus in Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipal-
pidae). Fla. Ent. 40 (3): 81-93.
De Leon, D. 1961. New false spider mites with notes on some previously
described species (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Fla. Ent. 44 (4): 167-
De Leon, D. 1965a. False spider mites of Jamaica and the Dominican
Republic (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 58 (4):
De Leon, D. 1965b. Four new tenuipalpids from Puerto Rico with notes
on some previously described species (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae).
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 67 (3): 193-196.

The Florida Entomologist 49(2) June 1966




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At the 1965 annual meeting, the membership adopted as the Society's
governing document a statement prepared by the Constitutional Revisions
Committee. At the same time, the officers incorporated the Society. Cer-
tain portions of the statement adopted by the membership must appear in
the Articles of Incorporation. Thus, to show all of the statements by
which we are governed, it is necessary to present both the Articles of In-
corporation (which in effect comprise the constitution) and the Bylaws.
Our charter is entitled "Amended Articles of Incorporation," since some
changes in its original form have been made to have it conform precisely
with the wishes of the membership as indicated in the statement adopted
at the 1965 annual meeting.


The name of the Corporation which heretofore has been The Florida
Entomological Society, Inc. shall remain
and said Corporation shall be a nonprofit corporation incorporated under
Chapter 617, Florida Statutes, and it shall maintain its office at its Post
Office address as Post Office Box 12425, University Station, Gainesville,
The objectives of the Corporation shall be: (1) to promote entomology
as a science and as a profession; (2) to encourage research relative to in-
sects and related arthropods in Florida; (3) to distribute and publicize
knowledge pertaining to insects; and (4) to publish The Florida Entomolo-
Section 1. Classes of Membership.-The classes of membership shall
be Active, Emeritus, Honorary, and Student.
Section 2. Active Membership.-All persons having entomological train-
ing and/or a sincere interest in entomology may apply for Active Member-
ship. A regularly executed application form, accompanied by payment of
annual dues, shall be submitted to the Secretary, and be acted upon by
the Executive Committee. Active Members shall have the privilege of
voting, holding office, and otherwise participating in the affairs of the
Society. They shall receive The Florida Entomologist and other Society
Section 3. Emeritus Membership.-Active Members in good standing
and who have retired from employment may request and be continued by
the Executive Committee in Emeritus Membership. Emeritus Members
shall have the privileges of Active Members, but shall be relieved of pay-
ment of dues. Emeritus Members shall not receive The Florida Entomol-
ogist gratis, but shall have the privilege of subscribing at Active Member-
ship rates.
Section 4. Honorary Membership.-Honorary Membership may be con-
ferred by action of the Society on anyone who has performed distinguished
service in the field of entomology in Florida. Such individuals shall have
been active in entomological work for a minimum of 20 years. Any
Active Member may propose the name of a person for Honorary Member-
ship. Proposals shall be submitted in writing to the Secretary. Upon

The Florida Entomologist

approval by the Executive Committee, the name or names of proposed
individuals shall be submitted to the Society for secret vote by mail ballot
at least 30 days prior to any annual meeting. Election to Honorary Mem-
bership shall require a two-thirds majority of those balloting. The total
number of Honorary Members shall not exceed nine at any one time, and
not more than two may be elected in any one year. Honorary Members
shall have all the privileges of Active Membership. They shall be exempt
from annual dues, and will be supplied with The Florida Entomologist
without charge.
Section 5. Student Membership.-Any person interested in entomology
who is enrolled at a recognized educational institution at the high school,
college undergraduate, or graduate school level may become a Student
Member at reduced dues. A regularly executed application form, accom-
panied by payment of annual dues, shall be submitted to the Secretary,
and be acted upon by the Executive Committee. Student Members shall
not be allowed to vote or hold office in the Society, but they shall receive
The Florida Entomologist.
This corporation shall have perpetual existence.

Dr. D. H. Habeck, Dept. of Entomology, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, Florida.
Dr. S. H. Kerr, Dept. of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Mr. J. E. Brogdon, Dept. of Entomology, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, Florida.
Mr. J. B. Gahan, Insects Affecting Man and Animals Laboratory, 1600
S. W. 23 Drive, Gainesville, Florida.

The officers of this Society shall be a President, a Vice-President, a
Secretary, each of whom shall be elected annually; and a Treasurer who
shall be elected for a term of three years. All elected officers shall as-
sume office at the close of the annual meeting unless other provisions are
The names of the officers who are to manage the affairs of the Corpora-
tion until the first election under the Charter and Bylaws are as follows:
President-Dr. J. R. King
Vice-President-Mr. J. E. Brogdon
Secretary-Dr. S. H. Kerr
Treasurer-Dr. D. H. Habeck

The first Board of Directors shall be composed of nine (9) persons;
this Board shall be the same in all respects, powers, functions, and mem-
bership as the Executive Committee. The names and addresses of those
persons who are to serve as directors until the first election thereof are:
Dr. J. R. King, P. 0. Box 36, Fort Pierce, Florida.
Mr. N. C. Hayslip, P. 0. Box 1351, Fort Pierce, Florida.
Dr. S. H. Kerr, Dept. of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville,


Vol. 49, No. 2

Governing Documents

Dr. D. H. Habeck, Dept. of Entomology, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, Florida.
Mr. J. E. Brogdon, Dept. of Entomology, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, Florida.
Mr. J. B. Gahan, Insects Affecting Man and Animals Laboratory, 1600
S.W. 23 Drive, Gainesville, Florida.
Dr. J. E. Porter, P. 0. Box 1246, Miami Beach 39, Florida.
Dr. W. A. Simanton, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida.
Dr. E. D. Harris, Jr., Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade,
Amendments to the Bylaws (1) may be proposed at an annual meet-
ing, or (2) may be proposed to the Executive Committee at any time by peti-
tion of 10 voting members. The President shall appoint a special committee
to consider the proposed amendments, and this committee shall report its
recommendation at the next annual meeting. Each Society member shall
be supplied a copy of the proposed amendment by the Secretary at least
10 days prior to the annual meeting. A two-thirds vote of the active mem-
bership present shall be required to sanction a change in the Bylaws. A
quorum must be present. Minor changes in the wording of proposed
amendments may be made during the course of their consideration.
Amendments to Articles of Incorporation (1) may be proposed at an
an annual meeting, or (2) may be proposed to the Executive Committee
at any time by petition of 10 voting members. The President shall ap-
point a special committee to consider the proposed amendment, and this
committee shall report its recommendations at the next annual meeting.
Each Society member shall be supplied a copy of the proposed amendment
by the Secretary at least 10 days prior to the annual meeting. A two-
thirds vote of the active membership present shall be required to sanction
a change in the Articles of Incorporation. A quorum must be present.
Minor changes in the wording of proposed amendments may be made dur-
ing the course of their consideration.

Section 1. All members shall have equal privileges as to discussion and
presentation of papers at meetings.
Section 2. Members shall not use the name of the Society for commer-
cial advertising. Such a practice shall be sufficient grounds for expulsion
from the Society.
Section 3. A member may be dropped from membership in the Society
by action of the Executive Committee for conduct which in any way in-
jures the Society or affects adversely its reputation. Before expulsion, a
person shall have the right to a hearing before the Executive Committee.
Section 1. The President shall preside at the annual meeting of the
Society, serve as Chairman of the Executive Committee, and otherwise
shall have and exercise such powers as are reasonably necessary to carry
out these duties, including the filling of vacancies on standing committees
and naming of special committees. He shall deliver an address pertinent
to the objectives of the Society at the annual meeting over which he pre-


The Florida Entomologist

Section 2. The Vice-President shall assume the duties of the Presi-
dent in the latter's absence.
Section 3. The Secretary shall make and preserve a record of the
meetings of the Society and of the Executive Committee, submit a record
of the Society's proceedings to the Editor for publication, conduct general
correspondence of the Society except as otherwise provided, and keep a
current list of all members and their addresses.
Section 4. The Treasurer shall collect all monies due, pay all bills in-
curred by the Society, act as Business Manager of publications, and submit
a report at each annual meeting. His accounts shall at all times be open
to inspection by the Executive Committee and be audited annually, which
audit shall be submitted at each annual meeting.
Section 1. There shall be an Executive Committee consisting of the
President; the Vice-President; the Secretary; the Treasurer; two Active
Members, one of whom shall be elected each year to serve for two years;
a representative of each Branch; the Chairman of the Public Relations Com-
mittee; and the immediate Past President. The President shall act as
Chairman of the Committee. The Executive Committee shall be in charge
of affairs, funds, and property of the Society, and shall conduct the busi-
ness of the Society subject to decisions on policy by the membership by
mail ballot or at an annual meeting. The President may call Executive
Committee meetings at any time. The presence of four members of the
Executive Committee at any meeting shall establish a quorum, provided all
Executive Committee members have been notified in advance of the meet-
ing. The Executive Committee may vote on matters by mail ballot.
Section 2. Vacancies that occur in any office of the Executive Commit-
tee, except Branch representatives, shall be filled by appointment by the
Executive Committee and, to be seated, require approval of two-thirds of
the remaining Executive Committee membership. Vacancies occurring
among Branch representatives shall be filled immediately by the affected
Section 1. The standing committees shall include: a Public Relations
Committee, a Program Committee, a Local Arrangements Committee, a
Membership Committee, an Honors and Awards Committee, a Nominating
Committee, and a Rules of Order Committee. All committee chairmen
and members shall be named annually by the incoming President unless
provided otherwise. Other standing committees may be authorized by vote
of the Society after recommendation by the Executive Committee; and any
standing committee may be dismissed by similar procedure.
Section 2. The Public Relations Committee shall consist of five mem-
bers. This Committee shall handle such matters as publicity, education,
and general public relations in fulfillment of the first objective in the
Articles of Incorporation, "to promote entomology as a science and a pro-
fession." This committee shall also be concerned with matters which
affect the interest of the entomological profession, and accordingly shall
(1) provide representation at public hearings on matters which affect the
interests of the profession; (2) keep informed on all public affairs affect-
ing entomology, including legislation, and represent the Society in all such
matters by offering advice and counsel to the State Government and to the
public in these matters; and (3) promote activities designed to improve
the status of professional entomology. The incoming President (for 1963)
shall name the full initial committee, one member of which will serve for
one year, two for two years, and two for three years. Each succeeding
President shall appoint members for a three-year term to fill committee
vacancies. The Chairman shall be designated each year by the President.
Section 3. The Program Committee shall consist of three or more
members. They shall arrange the program of the annual meeting.

Vol. 49, No. 2


Governing Documents 135

Section 4. The Local Arrangements Committee shall consist of three
or more members. They shall handle local publicity for the annual meet-
ing, make arrangements for registration, assure that there will be adequate
meeting and exhibit space, provide for a banquet and entertainment if
such are to be held, and make other necessary detailed arrangements in
cooperation with the Program Committee.
Section 5. The Membership Committee shall consist of three or more
members. This committee shall actively search for and solicit new mem-
bers for the Society among professional workers, students, and amateurs
in entomology.
Section 6. The Honors and Awards Committee shall consist of three
members. This committee shall examine and evaluate candidates for hon-
ors, and present appropriate awards to entomologists who make outstand-
ing contributions to science and to the public. The committee need not
necessarily honor any individual or organization yearly.
Section 7. The Nominating Committee shall consist of three members.
This committee shall prepare a list of candidates comprising one nominee
for each elective office for presentation to the membership at the annual
meeting. The committee shall secure the consent of each candidate before
Section 8. The Rules of Order Committee shall consist of two members.
They shall formulate rules of parliamentary procedure not otherwise pro-
vided for in the Society Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws, shall serve
as Parliamentarians at the annual and special meetings of the Society, and
shall on request, or voluntarily, interpret the rules and usage of parlimen-
tary authority used in conduct of Society meetings. Initially, one appointee
shall serve for one year and the other appointee for two years. Thereafter,
each incoming President will fill the committee vacancy by appointment
of a member to a two year term.

Section 1. There shall be an annual meeting. The time and place of
such meeting shall be decided by the Executive Committee.
Section 2. Twenty Active Members shall constitute a quorum for the
transaction of business of the Society.
Section 3. Special meetings may be called by the Executive Commit-
tee, and shall be called by the President upon the written request of ten
Active Members. Notice of such meetings shall be provided to all mem-
bers by the Secretary at least ten days prior to such meetings.
Section 4. Matters of major importance, may, upon approval of the
Executive Committee, be placed before the membership between annual
meetings by mail ballot.
Section 1. The funds of the Society shall consist of two types: a gen-
eral fund and a permanent fund.
Section 2. The general fund shall be available for current expenses.
It shall be collected, disbursed, and accounted for by the Treasurer.
Section S. The permanent fund shall include bequests and donations
specified for this use by the giver, and such other property and funds as
may be specified by the Executive Committee. The principal of this fund
shall be invested. The interest from this fund may be used to meet neces-
sary expenditures, but if not used during the year it is to be placed in the
permanent fund. This fund shall be in the custody of the Executive Com-
mittee. It may be expended only upon the recommendation of the Execu-
tive Committee and the approval of the Society membership by mail ballot
or at any meeting.

The Florida Entomologist


Section 1. Dues shall be set by the Executive Committee subject to
approval of the Society at a business meeting or by mail ballot. Dues shall
include the cost of a subscription to the Florida Entomologist. Dues
cover a period of one calendar year, and are payable on January 1 of
that year.
Section 2. Persons who apply for membership before July 1 shall
have their membership begin the preceding January 1; those applying at
a later date shall have their membership begin the following January 1,
unless the earlier date is requested.
Section 3. Members one year in arrears shall be dropped from the
rolls after twenty days notice. A member shall be considered to be one
year in arrears if he has not paid his dues by March 1 of the year follow-
ing the year in which they were payable.
Section 4. Former members who have been dropped from the rolls
because of non-payment of dues shall be re-instated by payment of ar-
Section 5. Members in good financial standing have the right to re-
sign. Resigned members may be reinstated through regular application

Section 1. The Society 'shall issue a publication containing the trans-
actions of its meetings and such other matters as may be of interest to
entomologists. This publication shall be known as The Florida Entomol-
ogist and shall be issued at such intervals as may be determined by the
Society or by the Publications Committee. A copy of each issue shall be
sent to the Active, Honorary, and Student members of the Society. The
direction of The Florida Entomologist shall be entrusted to a Publications
Committee. This Committee shall consist of a Business Manager, who
shall be the Treasurer of the Society, and an Editor and an Associate
Editor. The Executive Committee shall appoint the Editor and Associate
Editor, each of whom shall serve for a period of three calendar years.
Previous to December 1 of the editors' third year in office, the Executive
Committee shall make appointments for the ensuing three-year terms.


Section 1. Branches may be established on a geographical basis for
the purpose of holding meetings, presenting papers, conducting confer-
ences, and stimulating interest in entomology.
Section 2. Membership in a Branch shall be restricted to members of
the Society residing or stationed in the area covered by that Branch. A
Branch may certify as affiliates non-society members to participate in local
activities of the Branch.
Section 3. The officers of each Branch shall be a Chairman, a Vice-
Chairman, a Secretary-Treasurer, and a representative on the Executive
Committee. These officers shall be Branch members who are voting mem-
bers of the parent Society. They shall be elected annually by procedures
to be adopted by the Branch.
Section 4. Branches may hold meetings or conferences at appropriate
times and places. Branches shall not charge dues, but they may charge
registration fees for those in attendance at meetings in an amount to be
determined by the Branch. A charge may also be made for the proceed-
ings, minutes, or records of Branch meetings.
Section 5. To become established, proposed Branches must formally
petition the Society, be endorsed by the Executive Committee, and be ap-
proved by the Society. The petition must set forth the territorial limits

Vol. 49, No. 2


Governing Documents

of the proposed Branch and indicate clearly the particular purpose for
which the Branch is to be formed; that an organized group of Society
members desiring to form a Branch already exists; and that the establish-
ment of the proposed Branch will be useful to the Society and to ento-
Section 6. A Branch shall submit reports to the parent Society in
order to maintain its status as a Branch. The frequency and details of
this report shall be determined by the Executive Committee of the Society.


Section 1. To further the aims of the Florida Entomological Society,
Inc. and to facilitate cooperation between the Society and other organiza-
tions and among the latter, the Executive Committee may, after suitable
petition and under conditions to be set by the Executive Committee, elect
an established organization with aims consistent with the Society to be an
official affiliate of the Florida Entomological Society, Inc.
Section 2. The Society may affiliate with other organizations in order
to further the aims of the Society, upon recommendation of the Execu-
tive Committee and approval by vote of the membership.


Section 1. In matters of procedure not stipulated by the Articles of
Incorporation, Bylaws, or by the Rules of Order Committee, the authority
followed shall be Roberts' Rules of Order.

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