Title: Florida Entomologist
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00154
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1969
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00154
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Volume 52 No. 1 March 1969

BECK, E. C., AND W. M. BECK, JR.-The Chironomidae of
Florida II. The Nuisance Species ............................ 1

Feeding Behavior and Biology of Parapronematus aca-
ciae (Acarina:Tydeidae) ........ ........... ...... ........ ......... 13

SIMANTON, W. A., AND L. C. KNORR-Aphid Populations in
Relation to Tristeza in Florida Citrus..-......................... 21

LLOYD, J. E.-Flashes of Photuris Fireflies:Their Value and
Use in Recognizing Species ...----.--------..--..---.. 29

PACHECO, F.-A New Species of Heterocerini (Coleoptera:
Heteroceridae) ...----- ----------...... 37

SELHIME, A. G., AND R. A. SUTTON-Aerial Applications of
PIB-7 and Malathion to Suppress Populations of An-
astrepha suspense ---...... --....... ......------ -------... .......... 41

CHELLMAN, C. W.-Record of Acantholyda circumcincta
(Hymenoptera: Pamphilidae) in Florida ..............-..... 51

KHALAF, K. T.-Strepsiptera From the Mississippi Coast .. 53

Minutes of the 51st Annual Meeting of The Florida Ento-
m logical Society ....---.........-- ~.--_.-- ..-............... . ..... 45

Book Review .................. ------------.................. ---------...... -52

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


President ................ ........................................ J. B. O'N eil
Vice-President............................--....................- H. A. Denmark
Secretary .... -............ ......... -.. .. -....... .........F. W M ead
Treasurer... ---.... ............................ ................ R. S. Patterson
W. G. Genung
J. E. Porter
Other Members of Executive Committee...- W. A. Simanton
J. R. Connell
L. A. Hetrick

Publications Committee
Stratton H. Kerr_ .-------------- ---..- ..... Editor
James L. Nation-.......-----..............Associate Editor
Richard S. Patterson ....- -- Business Manager
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ferred to "Suggestions for preparation of manuscripts for THE FLORIDA
ENTOMOLOGIST." Fla. Ent. 48 (2): 145-146. 1965.
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This issue mailed March 18, 1969


Florida State Board of Health, Jacksonville, Florida 32201

Nuisance species of chironomid midges of Florida are figured and de-
scribed. Keys are presented to the larvae and adult males of the nuisance
species. A selected bibliography on chironomids is given.

Chironomid midges are a serious nuisance in many parts of Florida, es-
pecially in the lake region in Central Florida. Investigations into possible
methods of control have been carried on by the State Board of Health since
1951, and in 1957 a Midge Research Station was established in Winter
Haven, Florida. Much has been learned about the species which cause an-
noyance and the probable causes of increasing midge populations, and pro-
grams of adulticiding and larviciding have been carried out utilizing a
number of different insecticides.
Chironomid midges do not bite or carry disease, but they emerge in tre-
mendous numbers and settle in vegetation near the water. Midges are
attracted to light and congregate at lighted windows, where they die, pile
up on window ledges, and give off a very offensive odor. Their numbers
make it impossible to enjoy outdoor living on the waterfront. Motels suffer
economic losses because tourists find these insects objectionable. There have
been instances when so many dead midges have littered a road or bridge
that the road became too slippery for safe driving and had to be temporar-
ily closed.
The larvae of chironomids are known as bloodworms. Bloodworms oc-
casionally turn up in water supplies and, although harmless, are a cause
of considerable concern to persons who see little red worms in their drinking
water or in their bath water. From records throughout the state, but con-
centrated most heavily in Duval County, we have found that there are only
three species of bloodworms commonly found in water treatment plants.
These are: C'i ; ....... ',.. attenuatus Walker (=decorus Johannsen), Goeldi-
chironomus holoprasinus Goeldi (=Chironomus fulvipilus Rempel), and a
Tanytarsus sp. A search of waterworks literature will reveal the wide-
spread identification of C. attenuatus (as C. decorus) from water treatment
plants throughout much of the United States. In most water treatment
plants in Florida. G. holoprasinus is the pioneer species, being replaced by
C. attenuatus after a time. Occasionally Tanytarsus sp. may be the first
species to occur, but it is interesting to note that at no plant have two
species been found simultaneously.
The increasing urbanization of areas surrounding lakes and streams has
resulted in the eutrophication of these waters, making possible the in-
creased production of chironomid midges: The ever greater load of nutrient
materials which we are putting into our lakes and streams from domestic
sewage, industry, and grove crop fertilizers results in a situation ideally
suited to the production of nuisance midges. The nutrient load increases

1This investigation was supported in part by Public Health Service Grant
Al 04098-07 from the Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 1

midge food supply by increasing the growth of algae and other plants and
decreasing the number of natural predators, fish and carnivorous insects,
by decreasing the dissolved oxygen in the water. Unless something is done
to break this pattern, the situation can only get progressively worse.
The Florida State Board of Health Midge Research Station has ap-
proached the problem of midge control from three possible directions: insec-
ticides, nutrient removal from natural waters, and attempts to increase
predators and/or parasites. Numerous projects have been conducted in-
volving the use of different insecticides as larvicides or adulticides. Larvi-
ciding presents a number of serious problems. It must be determined in
advance where on the lake bottom the midge larvae occur; insecticide appli-
cation requires special equipment and is costly; larviciding must be con-
tinued throughout much of the year in Florida, and there have been some
apparent instances of increasing larval resistance. Another complication
is that the bloodworms live inside tubes which they construct of sand and
detritus, making it difficult to get the insecicide to them. There is a ques-
tion whether apparent resistance to insecticides is really resistance, or
whether the algae in the water may be chemically tying up the insecticide
so that it is not available to the larvae; this question is being investigated.
Adulticiding has been reasonably effective when properly done, but it too
is costly and must be repeated very frequently because midges emerge
throughout most of the year and because midges from outlying areas infil-
trate the treated areas.
In an experimental attempt to increase predation, an effort was made
to aerate a lake; it was thought that increasing the dissolved oxygen in
the deeper parts of the lake might make it possible for fish to live at the
greater depth and to feed on the bottom-dwelling midge larvae. For vari-
ous reasons this experiment was not successful. Another experimental
effort was made, utilizing the reputed ability of the water hyacinth, Piaropus
crassipes, to convert large quantities of nutrients in solution into growing
plant matter. Apparently the hyacinth can do this successfully, but the
problem arises as to how to control the mosquitoes breeding around the
hyacinths and how to dispose of all the hyacinths.
The protozoan and fungal parasites of midge larvae and parasitic nema-
todes have been and are being investigated, but so far no feasible method
has been devised for control through parasitization.
Investigations into reported nuisance problems during the past ten years
have revealed that the pest species of Florida, in descending order of fre-
quency, are Glyptotendipes paripes Edwards, Chironomus crassicaudatus
Malloch, Chironomus attenuatus Walker (=decorus Johannsen), Goeldi-
chironomus holoprasinus Goeldi (=Chironomus fulvipilus Rempel), Chi-
ronomus cars Townes, Chironomus stigmaterus Say, and Glyptotendipes
lobiferus Say.
The purpose of this paper is to present keys to, and descriptions of
these nuisance species as an aid to water and sewage plant operators and
those persons engaged in midge research and control efforts in Florida. The
keys are limited and artificial, and it is well to remember that almost any
species will key out even though the species in hand is not included in the
key. It is therefore necessary that identification made with these keys be
verified by comparing the specimen with the drawings and descriptions.
Frommer (1967) has published an excellent description of the morphol-

Beck: Chironomidae of Florida

ogy of adult chironomids with illustrative figures. A diagrammatic figure
of a larva, showing the parts used in this key, is illustrated in Plate IV,
fig. 4. Major publications dealing with North American chironomids are
listed at the end of this paper.

1. No blood gills on eleventh segment .............................-----. ................. 2
Blood gills present on eleventh segment ................................... ........... 3
2. Median labial tooth notched or trilobed; a pair of conspicuous dark-
ened internal lobe-like plates postero-laterally of labial plate.. G. paripes
Median labial tooth rounded, postero-lateral plate lacking or very
pale brownish ....-----........................................... G. lobiferus
3. Head capsule with dark median longitudinal stripe dorsally ................
................................... .......................... ...... .. C stigm aterus
No dark median stripe on head capsule .................................................. 4
4. Median labial tooth distinctly triboled with 6 lateral teeth; 2nd
antennal segment shorter than 3rd .... ............ ......... ........................ 5
Median labial tooth notched, suggesting trilobing with 7 lateral teeth;
2nd antennal segment longer than 3rd .......................................-.............. 6
5. Gular area dark brown; 1st and 2nd lateral labial teeth distinctly
separated; 1st laterals distinctly longer than median ..-C. crassicaudatus
Gular area pale brown; 1st and 2nd laterals notched but not complete-
ly separated; 1st laterals not distinctly longer than median C. attenuatus
6. Anterior gills on Segment XI y-shaped, posterior slightly curved......
.....................-.... -------.. -. ----.. -. ----.. --.................. -. ... G. holoprasinus
Anterior gills on Segment XI straight, posterior spiraled............C. cars
(Male genitalia are figured in Plate VIII)
1. Median longitudinal scars dorsally at base of abdominal segments
II-VI; pronotal notch broader than deep .-................-----.......... ....... 2
No median abdominal scars; pronotal notch narrower ........................... 3
2. Large black species, scar at base of abdominal segment VI is about
0.4 times as long as that segment and 2.0 times as long as scar on II
...-- -....-- ..--- ........... .....--------- ---- ------------............... G. paripes
Large brown species; scar at base of segment VI is about 0.6 times as
long as that segment and 3.5 times long as scar on segment II.........
...................................--------------------- --.....- G. lobiferus
3. Three velvety black spots anteriorly on each side on mesonotum.
I...- - - - - --.................................... cars
No such markings ................... --...... ..----------...--..--. ...--............... 4
4. Abdomen narrowed apically, then abruptly enlarged to massive geni-
talia ........................--....--------- -- -- ...--------..------. C. crassicaudatus
Not as above ........................---. ..--- .-----...........................-- 5
5. R-m crossvein darkened; median sized green or yellowish-green
species; dististyle or genitalia with distinctive mucronate tip........
--.---------------------------... G. holoprasinus
R-m crossvein not darkened .......... ----...........---------.................... 6
6. Wing length 2.8-3.8 mm; a dark streak along veins Cu2 and 2A, pro-
notum only slightly widened at apex ......................-........~-... C. attenuatus
Wing length 4.0 mm or more, no dark streaks on Cu2 or 2A; pronotum
strongly and abruptly widened near apex ..-------.......................... C. stigmaterus
Glyptotendipes paripes (Edwards) (Plate I)
This species occurs throughout much of the holarctic region of the
world. We have collected it in Florida from the western panhandle as far
south as Palm Beach County, but it is in the central lake region of Lake,
Polk and Orange Counties that it reaches its greatest concentration. The
greatest numbers emerge from the lakes within one to two hours after sun-
set and fly with the wind to settle in vegetation and on structures near the
shore. It has been estimated (Nielsen, 1962) that one lake in the Polk

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 1

Plate I


(Scale is shown on Plate
otherwise noted.)
Plate I
Glyptotendipes paripes
Larva: 1) Labial plati
6) Internal ch
Pupa: 4) Mace on ter

I 0.05mm at 100X
10-05mm at 150X
5 2
0.05mm at 430X

I. All figures are drawn at 430x unless

e and paralabial, 2) mandible, 3) antenna,
itinized plate
gitee II (150x), 5) Mace on tergite VI (150x).

County area with an area of approximately 335 acres may produce 5 to 50
million midges per night during the emergence season and if emergence
occurs for six months a year, the yearly production from this one lake will
be about six tons of G. paripes!
The adult has a very dark, almost black, body and legs, with a white
powdery overlay on parts of the mesonotum and abdomen. The wing is
about 4.5 mm long. There is a longitudinal median scar dorsally at the
base of segments II-VI; the scar on VI is less than one half as long (0.4)
as the segment itself and two times as long as the scar on segment II.
The larva is dark red, the labial and mandibular teeth blackish brown.
The median labial tooth is trilobed or at least notched laterally, with six
lateral teeth on each side, the first and second often separated by only a
shallow notch. The anterior teeth of the labial plate may be so worn in old
specimens that there appears to be only a very wide flat tooth with four
laterals. There lies inside the head capsule on each side, postero-laterally
from the labial plate, a flat darkened structure with the anterior end round-
ed and almost black (Plate 1, Fig. 6). This structure may be present in
other species, but is never so conspicuous and dark.
Glyptotendipes lobiferus (Say) (Plate II)
G. lobiferus is common throughout North America, occurring from
Ontario to Texas. It has been taken in all sections of Florida and appears
to be more widely distributed than G. paripes except in the central lake
region. Adults have been taken year round.

Beck: Chironomidae of Florida

Plate II

Plate II
Glyptotendipes lobiferus
Larva: 1) Labial plate and paralabial, 2) mandible, 3) antenna.
Pupa: 4) Mace on tergite II (150x), 5) Mace on tergite VI (150x).
The adult of this species is similar to G. paripes except that G. lobiferus
is distinctly brown while G. paripes is more black. The scar on segment VI
is more than one-half as long (0.6) as the segment and three and one-half
times as long as the scar on segment II. The wing length is about 4.6 mm.
The larva is blood red with a brown head, gula darker brown. The
labial plate is similar to that of G. paripes except that the median tooth is
rounded, dome-like, rather than trilobed; the chitinized structure postero-
laterally to the labial plate is very pale in G. lobiferus, not blackened as in
G. paripes.

Chironomus stigmaterus (Say) (Plate III)
This species has been recorded from Mexico and from much of the
United States. It occurs throughout Florida and emerges all during the
year. The adult has a light brown body with a whitish overlay; the abdo-
men is dark brown. The legs are pale brownish with the apex of each seg-
ment and the last tarsal segments darker brown. The wing and veins are
pale brownish except the r-m crossvein is very dark brown; wing length is
4.3 mm. One character which helps confirm identification is that the pro-
notum is abruptly and strongly widened near the apex, having the appear-
ance from above of a projecting rectangle with slightly rounded corners.
The larva has a distinct longitudinal brown stripe dorsally on the head
capsule (See Plate III, Fig. 4). The labial teeth and mandibular teeth are
black. Gills on segment XI are long, the anterior pair with a sharp bend,
the posterior pair irregularly curved. Mature larvae may be 28 mm long.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 1

Plate III
Chironomus stigmaterus
Larva: 1) Labial plate and paralabial, 2) mandible, 3) antenna.
4) Head (100x).

Chironomus attenuatus (Walker) (=C. decorus Johannsen) (Plate IV)
C. attenuatus has been reported as a pest both as larvae in water supply
tanks and as adults. It occurs throughout at least the eastern half of
Plate IV

. ...... -.......antenia
... labial plate

Plate IV
Chironomus attentuatus
Larva: 1) Labial plate and paralabial, 2) mandible, 3) antenna,
4) Schematic drawing of a chironomid larva (15x), 5)
Schematic drawing of larval head capsule (60x).

Plate III



Beck: Chironomidae of Florida

North America and has been taken in light traps in almost every county
in Florida, occurring throughout the year. The adults show tremendous
variation in both coloration and size and have been described as a new
species under many different names. It is not unlikely that what we are
calling C. attenuatus in Florida will, in time, prove to be a complex of
closely related species; but careful studies of a very large number of speci-
mens reared from different geographic areas will be necessary before this
can be determined. For the present we are lumping under C. attenuatus all
specimens which fit the following description: wing length 2.8-3.8 mm with
dark r-m crossvein and surrounding wing membrane brown, a dark streak
along vein Cu2 and 2A. The body is light brown to light greenish with dark
thoracic vittae and brown median bands across segments II-VII; genitalia
brown. The legs are usually pale greenish yellow with brown at the apex
of fore-femur and tibia and at the apex of the tarsal segments, the last
segment being entirely dark.
The larva is blood red with a brown head. The median labial tooth is
trilobed; first and second laterals are not completely separated. The basal
mandibular tooth is pale.
Chironomus crassicaudatus (Malloch) (Plate V)
A common nuisance species from both lakes and larger rivers, C. cras-
sicaudatus has been recorded from much of the eastern and central United
Plate V

a (f q

3 2
Plate V
Chironomus crassicaudatus
Larva: 1) Labial plate and paralabial, 2) mandible, 3) antenna.
Postero-lateral spines of Segment VIII of pupae:
a) C. cars e) Goeld. holoprasinus
b) C. crassicaudatus f) G1. paripes
c) C. stigmaterus g) Gl. lobiferus
d) C. attenuatus
States and Canada. We have collected it in light traps from West Florida
south through Dade County. It has been taken in every month of the year,
but there appear to be spring and fall population peaks.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 1

Males are readily recognized by the unusually large, heavy genitalia.
The body and legs are basically opaque greenish yellow to light brown; the
legs are darkened at each joint and all fifth tarsal segments are dark.
Mesonotal vittae are dark. Each abdominal segment has a brown band
across it, and the last two or three segments are entirely dark brown. The
wing is about 5.0 mm long with the r-m crossvein conspicuously darkened.
The larva is bright red and the head capsule is light brown with the gula
and occipital rim black. The median labial tooth is trilobed and distinctly
shorter than the first laterals. Segment XI bears two pairs of irregularly
curved blood gills.

Goeldichironomus holoprasinus (Goeldi) (Plate VI)
This common species was formerly widely identified under the name
Chironomus fulvipilus Rempel. Fittkau (1965) drew attention to the fact
that the species had been described earlier as Chironomus holoprasinus and
he placed it in a new genus Goeldichironomus. The midges emerge in large
numbers from lakes, ponds and streams. The larvae also occur in water
storage tanks and are commonly found in birth baths, wading pools and
other small temporary water receptacles. It was once collected in a tree
hole, a habitat from which we have taken only three species of chironomids.
The adults are pale green to greenish yellow. The wing length is about
2.0-2.5 mm and the r-m crossvein is not darkened. Mesonotal vittae may be
pale yellowish to darker brown. The legs are pale greenish with the fore-
legs and all fifth tarsal segments brown.
In North America G. holoprasinus has been recorded from Florida,
Texas, Alabama, Maryland and California.
Plate VI


Plate VI
Goeldichironomus holoprasinus
Larva: 1) Labial plate and paralabial, 2) mandible, 3) antenna,
4) gills of 11th segment, (after Fittkau, 1965).
The larval labial plate has 15 teeth, the median tooth suggesting trilob-
ing and being slightly shorter than the first laterals. The paralabial plates
are distinctive in that they almost meet at the mid-line (See Plate VI, Fig.

Beck: Chironomidae of Florida

1). The mandible has an unusually large pectinate accessory tooth. Seg-
ment XI has two pairs of blood gills; the anterior pair is forked (y-

Chironomus cars (Townes) (Plate VII)
This distinctly marked species was described from Venezuela and has
been recorded from Columbia, the Canal Zone, Costa Rica, Texas and Flor-
ida. Our light trap records of this species in Florida suggest some interest-
ing points. In 1945 Townes reported C. cars from Dade and Martin
Counties. Beginning with 1955 we have C. cars in all counties on the
East Coast from Martin southward, in Glades, Polk and Manatee Counties.
Plate V I


Plate VII
Chironomus cars
Larva: 1) Labial plate and paralabial, 2) mandible, 3) antenna,
4) gills of 11th segment.
This would suggest a migration route northwestward. In 1956 the range
extended northwest into Pasco County and northward into Lake and Marion
counties. In 1957 the species was taken in Pinellas, Hillsborough, Citrus,
Volusia and Seminole Counties. There were no light trap records during
1958 and 1959, but in 1960 the species was taken in Flagler and Duval
Counties; and in August of that year larvae were found in Escambia County
at the extreme northwestern tip of the state. This pattern of records
suggests that the occupation of Florida by C. cars has taken place in
rather an orderly fashion, involving definite migration routes. This may
possibly have involved the population of a new area, a subsequent resting
or local population expansion period, followed by an "explosion" involving
new areas. C. cars has now been taker in Florida during every month of
the year. It has been reported as the chief nuisance species on several
occasions in Volusia County on the east coast where midges emerged in
huge numbers, reportedly from roadside borrow pits.
This is the most easily recognized adult midge in the genus Chironomus
because there are three velvety black spots anteriorly on each side of the

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 1

mesonotum. The basic body color is greenish yellow, with darker yellow to
orange vittae on the mesonotum. The legs are yellow with dark joints and
apical tarsal segments. The abdomen, beyond the first segment, has a vari-
able brown median patch on each segment; sometimes the entire abdomen
appears brown. Wing length is 2.8-3.1 mm, wing veins light, r-m crossvein
not darkened.
The larva has a light brownish head capsule. The labial plate and
mandibular teeth are black; the gula is brown. The median labial tooth is
somewhat trilobed, with seven lateral teeth on each side. The mandible has
a long fringed accessory tooth. Segment XI bears two pairs of blood gills,
the anterior ones almost straight and projecting posteriorly, the posterior
gills spiraled.
Fittkau, E. J. 1965. Revision der von E. Goeldi aus dem Amazonasgebiet
beschriebenen Chironomiden (Diptera). Beitrage zur Neotropischen
Fauna, Bd. IV, Heft 3: 209-226.
Frommer, S. 1967. Review of the anatomy of adult chironomids. Calif.
Mosquito Control Assoc. Tech. Series Bull. 1: 1-39.
Nielsen, E. T. 1962. Contributions to the Ethology of Glyptotendipes
(Phytotendipes) paripes Edwards. Oikos Acta Oecologica Scandi-
navica, Vol. 13, Fasc. 1: 48-75.

Beck, E. C. and W. M. Beck, Jr. 1959. A checklist of the Chironomidae
(Insecta) of Florida (Diptera: Chironomidae). Bull. Fla. State
Mus. 4(3) : 86-96.
Beck, W. M.,. Jr. and E. C. Beck. 1966. Chironomidae (Diptera) of Flor-
ida. 1. Pentaneurini (Tanypodinae). Bull. Fla. State ivius. 10(8):
Darby, R. E. 1962. Midges associated with California rice fields, with
special reference to their ecology (Diptera: Chironomidae). Hil-
gardia 32(1) : 1-206.
Dendy, J. S. and J. E. Sublette. 1959. The Chironomidae (=Tendipedidae:
Diptera) of Alabama with descriptions of six new species. Ann.
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 52(5) : 506-519.

Johannsen, O. A. 1937. Aquatic Diptera. Cornell Agr. Exp. Sta. Mem.
205: 3-84, Mem. 210: 3-80.

Malloch, J. R. 1915. The Chironomidae or midges of Illinois with particu-
lar reference to the species occurring in the Illinois River. Ill. State
Lab. Nat. Hist. Bull. 10 (1913-1915) : 275-543.

Roback, S. S. 1957. Immature tendipedids of the Philadelphia area.
Monog. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. No. 9: 1-152.

Sublette, J. E. 1960. Chironomid midges, of California. I. Chironominae,
exclusive of Tanytarsini (=Calopsectrini). U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc.
112: 197-226.

Sublette, J. E. 1964. Chironomid midges of California. II. Tanypodinae,
Podonominae, and Diamesinae. U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc. 115: 85-136.

Suzlette, J. E. 1964. Chironomidae (Diptera) of Louisiana. I. Syste-
matics and immature stages of some lentic chironomids of West-
Central Louisiana. Tulane Stud. in Zool. 11(4) 109-150.

Beck: Chironomidae of Florida 11

Townes, H. K., Jr. 1945. The Nearctic species of Tendipedini. Amer.
Mid. Nat. 34: 1-206.
Wirth, W. W. 1949. A revision of the Clunionine midges with descriptions
of a new genus and four new species (Diptera: Tendipedidae). Calif.
Univ. Pub., Entomol. 8: 151-182.

Plate VIII

Plate VIII
Male genitalia 200X.
1) Gl. paripes
2) Gl. lobiferus
3) C. stigmaterus

The Florida Entomologist 52(1) 1969

4) C. attenuatus
5) C. crassicaudatus
6) C. Carus
7) G. holoprasinus





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Although the tydeid mite, Parapronematus acaciae Baker, was previous-
ly reported as being a predator of the citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta
oleivora (Ashmead), laboratory studies proved it was not a predator of
P. oleivora, the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), or the Texas
citrus mite, Eutetranychus banks (McGregor). However, four complete
generations of P. acaciae were reared on Penicillium digitatum Sacc. and
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penzig, two common leaf-inhabiting fungi.
One generation from egg to adult took approximately 15-18 days at a tem-
perature of 252C. Larvae fed readily on the fungi, as did what ap-
peared to be the two nymphal stages. Prospects for the biological control
of the citrus rust mite are also discussed.

The citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead), is considered
the major phytophagous mite injurious to citrus in Florida. By comparison,
the natural enemies attacking the rust mite are considerably fewer in num-
ber and appear less effective than those attacking other phytophagous mites.
Except for Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher, an entomogenous fungus reported
as being the major factor in the natural control of populations of the rust
mite (Muma 1955, 1958), only the neuropteran, Coniopteryx vicina Hagen,
the Cecidonyiini, Delphastus pallidus (LeConte), and a few predatory mites
are listed as natural enemies of the rust mite (Muma et al. 1961).
Of the predaceous mites reportedly attacking the citrus rust mite, a
tydeid recently described by Baker (1965) as Parapronematus acaciae
(previously referred to as Pronematus sp.) has been mentioned as a preda-
tor exhibiting an affinity for the rust mite (Muma et al. 1961, Muma 1965).
However, this host-predator relationship was not based on observed feeding,
but rather on a comparison of population densities in the field. The follow-
ing studies were therefore conducted to evaluate more critically this pre-
sumed host-predator relationship as a prerequisite to subsequent introduc-
tions of predators for the biological control of the citrus rust mite.

cause of their prevalence when P. acaciae is present in the field, the citrus
rust mite, P. oleivora, the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor),
and the Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banks (McGregor), were exposed
to P. acaciae in the laboratory to determine the predatory nature of acaciae.
Groups of 5 healthy female P. acaciae collected in the field and starved

1Mention of a proprietary product does not necessarily imply its endorse-
ment by the USDA.
2The authors acknowledge the technical assistance of J. J. Smoot, Plant
Pathologist, Market Quality Research Division, and G. R. Grimm, Plant
Pathologist, Crops Research Division, USDA, Orlando, for the identification
of leaf fungi.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 1

for approximately 48 hours were placed in each of 5 rearing units similar
to those described by McMurtry and Scriven (1965). Each unit contained
a 3.8 cm2 substrate of blackened cardboard that, in turn, was bordered by
a water-saturated Cellucotton strip-type barrier. A water interface between
the cardboard and Cellucotton was essential to prevent the mites from es-
caping. In tests with P. citri and E. banksi, 10 adult mites were added to
each of 3 units and 2 units devoid of host mites served as a check. In the
tests with P. oleivora, 20 adult mites were exposed to attack. If the host
mites inadvertently escaped or died of natural causes, new host material
was added accordingly. Each test was discontinued upon death of all can-
didate predators. Temperature was maintained at 25-2C and a relative
humidity at 6010 throughout the test.


Mean longevity Total egg Percent prey
Host Material (days) production consumption

P. oleivora Present 8.4 5 0
Absent 7.8 16 0
P. citri Present 5.9 3 0
Absent 6.5 3 0
E. banksi Present 5.3 0 0
Absent 6.0 0 0

*Results based on 3 replications or a total of 15 adult female P. acaiae.

Mean adult longevity, total egg production, and the percentage con-
sumption of prey by P. acaciae in the presence and absence of host mater-
ials were recorded daily and are presented in Table 1.
For all candidate prey species, P. acaciae failed to attack and consume
any of the available adults; in fact, it actively avoided the larger spider
mites. Generally speaking, the qualitative features such as rate of search,
hunger, and attack cycle that give a distinctive character to predation
(Holling 1966) appeared to be absent.
No noticeable differences in mean adult longevity and total egg produc-
tion were obtained either in the presence or absence of host material. How-
ever, egg production by P. acaciae was sometimes high when food was en-
tirely absent; apparently, frequent feeding is not essential to optimum
Since the possibility existed that P. acaciae might react atypically on an
artificial substrate, we used detached, detritus-free citrus leaves as a sub-
strate in a second series of unreplicated tests, and both rust mite eggs and
adults were offered as prey. Other conditions remained the same.
Predation was not observed on eggs or adult rust mites. Furthermore,
no apparent difference occurred in mean longevity or egg production due to
the presence or absence of the possible hosts. However, after 6-8 days, a
fungus, subsequently identified as Penicillium digitatum Sacc., was observed
growing on the surface of a detached leaf and further observation revealed

McCoy: Biology of Parapronematus acaciae

that P. acaciae was apparently feeding on the conidia ascending from this
branched mycelial growth.
bility of fortuitous feeding and to determine the reproductive potential and
the survival and developmental rates of P. acaciae on the leaf fungus, we
placed detached citrus leaves harboring sparse patches of fungus and void
of mites in the rearing units; also, instant mashed potato (R. T. French
Company, Rochester, N.Y.) was sometimes added to the leaf surface to
facilitate fungal growth. Then 16 female and 6 male adult P. acaciae
collected in the field were placed on a selected leaf that supported an ex-
cellent growth of P. digitatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penzig,
a lesion fungus of citrus. Observations were made daily for 43 days, at
which time leaf decay became too extensive to allow further study.
Almost immediately after exposure, adult P. acaciae began feeding on
the fungi (Fig. 1). However, as fungal development increased, the adult

443', t.- *:

Fig. 1. An adult of Parapronematus acaciae feeding on the lesion
fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The darkened area (arrow) repre-

mites become more selective and fed more frequently on C. gloeosporioides

dispersed virtually throughout the body cavity. Subsequent feeding studies
wig. 1p An adult of Parapronematus acacia feeding on the lesion
fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The darkened area (arrow) repre-
sents a fungus-free area resulting from previous mite feeding.

mites become more selective and fed more frequently on C. gloeosporiotides
and less on P. digitatum.
While they were feeding on the yellowish lesion fungus, the mites ac-
quired an amber coloration that was not confined to the intestinal tract but
dispersed virtually throughout the body cavity. Subsequent feeding studies
in which an unidentified fungus was used that produced green conidia like-
wise produced a green coloration in the mites.
Two complete generations were reared on a single leaf infested with
fungus; 3rd and 4th generations were continued by transferring F2 adults
to a new leaf. One generation from egg to adult took approximately 15-18
days at a temperature of 252C.










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McCoy: Biology of Parapronematus acaciae

Two weeks after introduction of the mites, 86 eggs were counted on 1
leaf. The number of eggs laid per female per day was not recorded but it
appeared to average about 1.4 per day. Eggs were usually laid at random,
though they were occasionally found in groups of 3 or 4 along the midrib
of the leaf or surrounding a tuft of fungus. Periodically, females were ob-
served moving about the leaf carrying partially laid eggs.
After 3-5 days, the eggs of P. acaciae hatched into active larvae that
were frequently observed feeding on the different leaf fungi, as did what
appeared to be two nymphal stages.

Since P. acaciae appeared to have a nonpredatory nature, a more critical
evaluation of its feeding habits with respect to food specificity was per-
formed by exposing a given number of the adult mites to citrus pollen and
other leaf inhabitants such as aleyrodid exuviae, Aschersonia (fungus)
colonies, and dead armored scale. A number of detritus-free citrus leaves,
each confied to a standard rearing unit, were used for these studies. Of
the potential food sources, only pollen was supplied separately. Frequent
observations were made daily for 3-4 days to determine actual feeding.
P. acaciae failed to feed on the various food sources though they ex-
amined all the materials occasionally. Presumably, the growth produced
by more common leaf fungi, such as C. gloeosporioides, is a preferred food
THE FIELD: Under field conditions where the systemic action of UC-21149
(2-methyl-2- (methylthio) propionaldehyde O- (methylcarbamoyl) oxime) was
being evaluated as a potential control agent for the citrus rust mite and
spider mites, supplemental information was obtained about various preda-
tors including P. acaciae. Fifty leaves were randomly selected from each
of 4 replications (2 trees/replicate) each month, and an estimate of the
population density of each prevalent species was obtained by counting the
number of mites obtained per leaf using a mite brushing machine (Hender-
son and McBurnie 1943).
As shown in Table 2, populations of P. oleivora were significantly re-
duced in the plots treated with UC-21149 from April through August, ap-
proximately 20 weeks after treatment; in the checks populations reached
high number by late June. On the other hand, populations of P. acaciae
failed to decline with the decrease in the populations of rust mites, and no
significant difference was found in these populations in the treated and
check plots. Thus, the theoretical model of host-parasite interaction gen-
erally referred to as the law of the periodic cycle proposed by Lotka-Vol-
terra and Nicholson-Bailey for coexisting animal species did not function
(Huffaker and Messenger 1964).

Generally speaking, the genera of the family Tydeidae, of which P.
acaciae is a member, are worldwide in distribution and appear quite diver-
sified in their feeding habits; however, little is known about their biology.
According to Baker and Wharton (1952) they appear to be predaceous on

18 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 52, No. 1

small insects and mites, and most species are found in moss and lichens or
on plant leaves in association with other mite colonies. Likewise, until the
present, P. acaciae has been suspected as being a predator of the citrus rust
mite. However, the results of the present studies show conclusively that
P. acaciae is an herbivore and possibly a scavenger rather than a predator.
Although P. acaciae fed only on viable leaf fungi in the laboratory, it is
possible that a scavenger-like, rather than a strictly herbivorous feeding
habit, may exist under field conditions where succulent fungal growth might
be absent periodically. Scavengers within the family Tydeidae have been
reported on citrus. Muma (1961, 1965) found 6-8 species designated as
Tydeus sp. active on various species of citrus.
Tydeus Californicus (Banks), commonly found on the underside of
citrus and avocado leaves, was reported as being a predator of the citrus
bud mite, Aceria sheldoni (Ewing), by Baker and Wharton (1952). Flesch-
ner and Arakawa (1953) in California and Baker (1965) in the Delta
region in Egypt reported that it was a plant feeder, but Fleschner and
Arakawa observed no characteristic leaf injury. In addition, Baker (1965)
reported that Smirnoff had observed Lorryia formosa Cooreman damaging
citrus in Morocco. However, it is unlikely that P. acaciae feeds on citrus
since no such feeding was observed in the laboratory. Also, feeding on the
plants treated with UC-21149 would have presumably resulted in significant
mortality in the treated plots.
The exclusion of P. acaciae from the recorded list of predators of P.
oleivora decreases the few natural enemies of this major pest of citrus in
Florida. Furthermore, recent biological studies on the neuropterous pred-
ator, Coniopteryx vicina Hagen, by Muma (1967) showed conclusively that
C. vicina feeds and reproduces more readily on diets that include either
whitefly eggs and nymphal crawlers of the 6-spotted mite, Eotetranychus
sexmaculatus (Riley) ; for all practical purposes it is strictly a secondary
feeder on the citrus rust mite. Thus the known complex of natural control
agents is of minor importance in the control of the citrus rust mite in
Florida and apparently native specific enemies of P. oleivora are totally
absent with the possible exceptions of Hirsutella thompsonii and the preda-
ceous mite, Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez.
The hypothesis, however, that P. oleivora is an introduced species in the
Western Hemisphere is of great significance to biological control. Effec-
tive exotic natural enemies may occur in the Eastern Hemisphere, and,
more specifically, in southeastern Asia, the original habitat of the citrus
rust mite (Yothers and Mason 1930). The introduction into Florida of one
or more specific natural enemies of P. oleivora native to the Eastern Hemi-
sphere could prove to be of importance in the successful biological control
of the citrus rust mite.


Baker, E. W. 1965. A review of the genera of the family Tydeidae
(Acarina). In Advances in Acarology. 2: 95-120. Cornell Univ.
Press, Ithaca, New York.
Baker, E. W., and G. W. Wharton. 1952. An Introduction to Acarology.
The MacMillan Co., New York.

McCoy: Biology of Parapronematus acaciae

Fleschner, C. A., and K. Y. Arakawa. 1953. The mite Tydeus californicus
on citrus and avocado leaves. J. Econ. Entomol. 45: 1092.
Henderson, C. F., and H. V. McBurnie. 1943. Sampling technique for de-
termining populations of the citrus red mite and its predators. USDA
Circ. 671: 1-11.
Holling, C. S. 1966. The functional response of invertebrate predators to
prey density. Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 48: 1-86.
Huffaker, C. B., and P. S. Messenger. 1964. Population ecology-historical
development, p. 45-73. In Paul DeBach (ed.), Biological Control of
Insect Pests and Weeds. Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York.
McMurtry, J. A., and G. T. Scriven. 1965. Insectary production of phyto-
seiid mites. J. Econ. Entomol. 58: 282-86.
Muma, M. H. 1955. Factors contributing to the natural control of citrus
insects and mites in Florida. J. Econ. Entomol. 48: 432-38.
Muma, M. H. 1958. Predators and parasites of citrus mites in Florida.
Proc. 10th Intern. Congr. Entomol. Vol. 4: 633-48 (1956).
Muma, M. H. 1961. Mites associated with citrus in Florida. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 640. 39 p.
Muma, M. H. 1965. Populations of common mites in Florida citrus groves.
Fla. Entomol. 48: 35-46.
Muma, M. H. 1967. Biological notes on Coniopteryx vicina (Neuroptera:
Coniopterygidae). Fla. Entomol. 50: 285-93.
Muma, M. H., A. G. Selhime, and H. A. Denmark. 1961. An annotated list
of predators and parasites associated with insects and mites on Flor-
ida citrus. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 634: 1-39.
Others, W. W., and A. C. Mason. 1930. The citrus rust mite and its
control. U.S. Dep. Agr. Tech. Bull. 176: 1-56.
The Florida Entomologist 52(1) 1969

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University of Florida, Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Analysis of 16 years of monthly records of aphid populations in 130
Florida citrus groves disclosed Aphis spiraecola, A. gossypii and Toxoptera
aurantii as the only species commonly attacking citrus. All three species
are known to transmit tristeza virus. Populations of each species in the 6
years of highest statewide population were compared for 3 geographical
areas within the citrus belt. In West area where spread of tristeza is great,
Aphis gossypii was most abundant and dominant. In Central area where
tristeza spread is also great A. gossypii was seldom abundant but total
aphid population was higher and A. spiraecola was dominant. In East area
where tristeza is found occasionally but appears not to be spreading, all 3
species were present but aphid infestations were usually less severe. No
direct linear relationship between tristeza spread and numbers of aphids
was evident. It is recognized that factors such as abundance of trees act-
ing as virus reservoirs, different strains of virus, and the possibility of
aphid strains of greater transmission efficiency may also be involved.


Tristeza, a virus disease of citrus, has been known in Florida since 1953
but did not exhibit alarming spread until 1960. Recent high tree losses
have occurred principally in 2 areas; one in the western part of the state,
the other in central Florida (Knorr 1966). The virus may occur in many
citrus varieties but in commercial plantings only trees budded on sour
orange rootstock Citrus aurantium L. are damaged. Tests in several study
areas have disclosed that tristeza virus is present in many citrus plantings
and that more trees are becoming infected each year (Bridges 1966). Most
of these trees are varieties that do not show decline but nonetheless serve
as virus reservoirs.
Three species of aphids commonly form colonies on Florida citrus and
feed on the foliage: Aphis spiraecola Patch, the spirea aphid, also called
the green citrus aphid; A. gossypii Glover, known as the cotton aphid or
melon aphid; and Toxoptera aurantii (Fonsc.) named the black citrus aphid
in the U.S.A. All are known to transmit tristeza with varying degrees of
efficiency (Norman and Grant 1956) and their suspected presence in large
numbers is believed by some to be related to the recent rapid spread of
tristeza. However, these 3 species also occur in the eastern part of the
state where tristeza virus is known to be present but is not causing losses
from tree to tree spread.
This paper presents data on aphid populations in the 3 areas concerned
and explores possible relations to recent increases in tristeza.


The data on aphid populations were derived from 16 years of monthly
records obtained as part of a continuous statewide ecological survey of

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 3042.

22 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 52, No. 1

Florida citrus groves (Simanton 1962). Trained survey men examined the
same 5 trees in the same 130 representative citrus groves (with few excep-
tions) each month. If aphids were seen on up to 5% of new flush terminals,
the rating was Class 1 (light); if 5 to 20%, Class 2 (moderate); and if
20% or more, Class 3 (heavy). Because species often are intermingled on
the same tree, the order of dominance was recorded and this permitted the
class rating to be proportioned by species. In this paper, aphids were con-
sidered "present" if the infestation ranked in any of the 3 classes but were
considered "abundant" only if rated in the Class 2 or Class 3 categories.
The West, Central and East areas studied were each represented by 5
orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) groves, 2 grapefruit (C. paradisi
MacF.) groves and 1 other variety selected from the 130 groves. The other
variety was Temple (C. temple Hort. ex Y. Tanaka) in West and East but
in Central (where no data on Temple were available) it was Dancy tanger-
ine (C. reticulata Blanco) prior to 1960 and Jaffa orange later. The 8
survey groves in West and Central areas were all within 15 miles of the
tristeza-affected groves, and a minimum of 40 miles separated each area.

West area, bordered by the towns of Elfers, Lutz, and Largo, includes
the 4 groves described by Knorr (1966) in which 50% to 90% of the trees,
totalling 2600 trees, have been destroyed by tree-to-tree spread of tristeza
since 1960. A 1966 survey disclosed that about 7500 trees in the general
area had perished.
Central area, which encompasses central Polk County in the vicinity of
Lake Alfred, contains several groves with recent tristeza losses, including
the 2 groves described by Knorr (1966) in which 30 to 35% of trees, a
total of 2600 trees, were destroyed by tristeza since 1960.
East area encompasses groves from Fort Pierce to Scottsmoor, where
sour orange is widely used as a rootstock. Tristeza is present owing to the
use of infected budwood, but tree-to-tree spread is not taking place at
Survey data disclosed that statewide aphid populations often varied
considerably from year to year. In the 16-year period from 1951-1966
inclusive, the 1560 monthly examinations each year in the 130 groves re-
vealed that populations were much higher in 1952, 1954, 1957, 1959, 1960,
1962, and 1963 than in the other 9 years (Fig. 1). These were the years
in which total infestations were most numerous and also (except for 1959
and 1962) the years in which a greater number of moderate and heavy
infestations occurred.
Seasonal abundance is portrayed in Fig. 2 which shows the mean per-
centage of groves infested each month in the 16 years from 1951 through
1966 inclusive, and the mean percentage of groves in which aphids were
abundant. The majority of heavy infestations occurred in the months of
March and April; however, in years of high population and in years when
the growing season was earlier or later than normal, moderate and heavy
infestations were numerous in February and May. In 1953, 1956, 1957,
1959 and 1966 higher than average populations occurred in late summer





Aphids and Tristeza in Citrus

i A Aphids abundant
CV 2

1951 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66
Fig. 1. Statewide prevalence of aphids each year as determined by
monthly examinations in 130 survey groves.

but these were generally composed of light infestations except in August of
1966 when aphids were abundant in 4.6% of the 130 groves.
Since statewide data of Fig. 1 pointed to the years of high population
and the data of Figure 2 indicated the months in which greatest aphid ac-
tivity occurred, the examinations made during February through May in
6 high years were assembled to show aphid populations in the 3 areas of
interest from the tristeza aspect. The mean population rating at the Feb-
ruary, March, April and May examinations in each of the 8 representative
groves was therefore a measure of population size for each area based on
32 examinations each year.
Table 1 shows the percentage of the 32 examinations that revealed
aphids as "present" and "abundant." The per cent in the "abundant"
category is a measure of intensity of infestation. Because of the demon-
strated low transmission efficiency of the aphids involved (Dickson et al.
1956, Norman and Grant 1956) it is unlikely that much infection would
occur unless aphids were numerous.
West area had more infestations in the abundant category (mean of
10.4%) and also showed the most variability (0 to 21.9%); however, the
heavier infestations were prior to 1960. Central area had aphids abundant
at 8.3% of examinations and had more in that category in 1960 and later
than did West. It is noteworthy that East did not have as many records
of abundant aphids (mean 5.2%) as the other areas and in none of the
years were the heavier infestations numerous.

Aphids present

The Florida Entomologist

30 u




per cent groves with
3 aphids abundant



J F M A M J J A S 0 N D
Fig. 2. Seasonal abundance of aphids by months in 130 survey groves;
16 year average 1951-66.
Table 2 gives the average population class for the 8 groves in each area
at each examination in the 4 spring months. It is a measure of population
size irrespective of intensity. The percentage of each species comprising
the total aphid population is also given.
Aphids were present in all 3 areas in substantial numbers in most years.
The 3-area average shows that Aphis spiraecola comprised about half of the
population, with Toxoptera aurantii and A. gossypii each comprising about
one quarter of the total. However, this proportion was quite different in West
area where A. gossypii was the dominant species each year except 1952,
and always at a higher level than in the other 2 areas. A. gossypii was
reported by Dickson et al. (1956) as being the only vector in California and
Norman and Grant (1956) and Norman and Sutton (1967) considered it
to be the most efficient vector in Florida. The greater number of A. gossypii
infestations in the abundant category might well be the reason for the high
tristeza losses in the West area.

per cent groves with
k I -i d

. L I

Vol. 52, No. 1

Simanton: Aphids and Tristeza in Citrus


Percent of 32 examinations showing:
Aphids present Aphids abundant
West 1952 43.8 21.9
1954 31.0 9.4
1957 50.0 12.5
1960 28.2 9.4
1962 28.2 0
1963 31.0 9.4
Avg. 35.4 10.4

Central 1952 31.0 3.1
1954 46.9 3.1
1957 46.9 12.5
1960 28.2 12.5
1962 53.1 9.4
1963 45.0 8.3
Avg. 45.0 8.3

East 1952 43.8 3.1
1954 56.3 9.4
1957 37.5 9.4
1960 50.0 9.4
1962 34.4 0
1963 21.9 5.2
Avg. 40.6 5.2

A. gossypii was also common in Central area; in 1957 it reached a pop-
ulation rating of .16, but later it became scarce.
A. spiraecola was found by Norman and Grant (1956) to be capable of
transmitting tristeza in field and laboratory experiments. It is considered
to be a less efficient vector than A. gossypii but more efficient than Toxop-
tera aurantii. Central area had a higher average population of all species
(.56) with especially high levels in 1962. (.66) and 1963 (.82). The high
total aphid population may be the reason for tristeza spread in Central
The much lower tristeza loss from tree-to-tree spread in the East area
is not adequately explained by the aphid population data presented al-
though trends are indicative: East area had fewer infestations in the
"abundant" category, and generally lower total aphid populations.
There are several reasons why a straightline relationship may not exist
between aphid counts or species on the one hand and spread of tristeza on
the other:
1) The incidence of trees acting as reservoirs of tristeza virus is very
likely higher in West and Central districts, owing to the predominant use
of tristeza-tolerant rootstocks like rough lemon, than it is in East districts
where trees are predominantly on tristeza-intolerant sour orange. In 1965
the Florida Budwood Registration Program indexed random trees on rough

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 1


Population class at each examination and percent of each species:
A. spiraecola T. aurantii A. gossypii All species
Class Class Class Class
rating Percent rating Percent rating Percent rating

West 1952 .47 62.6 .16 21.4 .12 16.0 .75
1954 .11 26.8 .03 7.3 .27 65.8 .41
1957 .25 39.7 .08 12.7 .30 47.6 .63
1960 .09 24.3 .03 8.1 .25 67.6 .37
1962 .12 42.8 0 0 .16 57.1 .28
1963 .14 34.1 0 0 .27 65.8 .41
Avg. .20 41.6 .05 10.4 .23 47.9 .48

Central 1952 .22 64.7 .09 26.5 .03 8.8 .34
1954 .30 60.0 .12 24.0 .08 16.0 .50
1957 .38 57.6 .12 18.2 .16 24.2 .66
1960 .33 75.0 .11 25.0 0 0 .44
1962 .34 52.3 .31 47.7 0 0 .66
1963 .38 46.3 .44 53.6 0 0 .82
Avg. .32 57.1 .20 35.7 .04 7.1 .56

East 1952 .23 50.0 .13 28.3 .10 21.7 .46
1954 .41 59.4 .12 17.4 .16 Z3.2 .69
1957 .30 61.2 .14 28.6 .05 10.2 .49
1960 .27 47.4 .24 42.1 .06 10.5 .57
1962 .16 48.5 .08 24.2 .09 27.3 .33
1963 .11 52.4 .08 38.1 .02 9.5 .21
Avg. .25 54.3 .13 28.3 .08 17.4 .46

3-area 1952 .31 58.5 .13 24.5 .09 17.0 .53
average 1954 .27 50.9 .09 17.0 .17 32.1 .53
1957 .30 51.7 .11 19.0 .17 29.3 .58
1960 .23 50.0 .13 28.3 .10 21.7 .46
1962 .21 50.0 .13 31.0 .08 19.0 .42
1963 .21 44.7 .17 36.2 .09 19.1 .47
Avg. .26 51.0 .13 25.5 .12 23.5 .51

lemon that were growing adjacent to blocks of sour-orange rooted, tristeza-
declining trees at Elfers; 100% were found to be infected (Bridges 1966).
Tolerant trees infected with tristeza virus show no symptoms and therefore
are not pulled out, whereas infected intolerant combinations are removed as
trees become unprofitable. Thus, aphids in the West and Central areas are
more likely to be viruliferous than aphids in the East area.
2) As Dickson et al. (1956) have mentioned, once tristeza affects a few
trees in a grove, most trees succumb within 5 years. Their figures showed
1 infection for each 17,800 melon aphids moving from tree to tree and that
the number of newly infected trees doubled from year to year on the aver-

Simanton: Aphids and Tristeza in Citrus

age. Thus a single year of high aphid population could start a catastrophic
spread of tristeza.
3) The reason for the low efficiency of A. gossypii, A. spiraecola, and
T. aurantii in transmitting tristeza is still not known. Whereas a popula-
tion of one individual per plant of T. citricida (Kirkaldy), the major vector
in South America, has been shown capable of transmitting infection, a
population of from 10 to over 200 individuals of A. gossypii per plant is
required to establish infection (Norman et al. 1968). Although Norman
and Sutton (1967) did not find differences in transmission efficiency among
colonies of A. gossypii from 3 different localities in Florida, it is possible
that strain differences exist. Watson (1967) reviewed known instances of
this phenomenon in other aphid-disseminated plant virus diseases. If
strain differences occur among Florida vectors, then correlations between
the spread of tristeza and mere numbers of aphids would have little sig-
4) Tristeza virus is said to exist in strains ranging from virulent to
very mild (Grant and Higgins 1957). Circumstantial evidence for occur-
rence of a mild strain was found in Orange County where 50 sour-orange
rooted trees infected with tristeza for 6 to 11.5 years failed to develop symp-
toms of decline (Norman et al. 1961). If strains are a factor and if a mild
strain predominates in a particular area, the role of aphid dissemination
might be masked despite infection of trees on sour orange. This might be
the situation in East area. Because of the rapid and general decline of
trees in West and Central areas, a virulent strain presumably is involved.
While the population data presented do not prove the contention that the
accelerated spread of tristeza in certain areas is due to high aphid popula-
tions, the findings are in accord with other information on the relation of
vectors to spread of tristeza.

Bridges, G. D. 1966. Tristeza-a growing problem in commercial groves.
Citrus Industry 47(11) :33-34.
Dickson, R. C., Metta McD. Johnson, R. A. Flock, and E. F. Laird, Jr.
1956. Flying aphid populations in southern California citrus groves
and their relation to the transmission of the tristeza virus. Phyto-
pathology 46:205-209.
Grant, T. J. and R. P. Higgins. 1957. Occurrence of mixtures of tristeza
virus strains in citrus. Phytopathology 47:272-276.
Knorr, L. C. 1966. Sour orange popular despite increasing losses from
tristeza. Citrus Industry 47(5) :18, 32.
Norman, G., W. C. Price, T. J. Grant, and H. Burnett. 1961. Ten years of
tristeza in Florida. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. Proc. 74:107-111.
Norman, P. A. and T. J. Grant. 1956. Transmission of tristeza virus by
aphids in Florida. Florida State Hort. Soc. Proc. 69:38-42.
Norman, P. A., R. A. Sutton, and A. K. Burditt, Jr. 1968. Factors affect-
ing transmission of tristeza virus by melon aphids. J. Econ. Entomol.
Norman, P. A. and R. A. Sutton. 1967. Private communication to authors.
Simanton, W. A. 1962. Operation of an ecological survey for Florida
citrus pests. J. Econ. Entomol. 55:105-112.
Watson, M. A. 1967. Epidemiology of aphid-transmitted plant virus
diseases. Outlook for Agr. 5:155-166.

The Florida Entomologist 52(1)1969


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Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville
Mating flashes provide excellent clues for recognizing biological species
of fireflies. Since Photuris species also flash in contexts in which species-
specificity would appear to be irrelevant, mating flashes must be distin-
guished; since the parameters of mating flashes that do not encode species in-
formation may vary considerably, these signals must be critically analyzed.
The use of mating flashes for species recognition has spatial and temporal

The mating flashes of fireflies have been found to be valuable aids in
taxonomy. In his classic study of Photuris Barber (1951) relied upon these
flashes for species recognition and discovered the presence of several mor-
phologically cryptic species. More recently, through studies of flashing be-
havior, I have found several cryptic species in Photuris, Photinus, and
Pyractomena (Lloyd 1966a, 1966b, 1966c, unpublished). Mating flashes are
of special significance in taxonomy since they have been found to be of im-
portance in reproductive isolation (Lloyd 1966c). However, since many
species flash in contexts other than mating, contexts in which species-speci-
ficity would appear to be irrelevant, the taxonomist must recognize mating
behavior and mating signals. Furthermore, the flash parameters that en-
code species information differ among fireflies and the taxonomic signifi-
cance of variation observed among signals cannot be appraised until the
elements that are communicatively significant have been determined.
This paper presents some recent observations on the behavior of nearctic
Photuris that have a bearing on the use and value of flashes in species rec-
ognition. I will discuss why it is difficult to recognize mating signals, why
it is difficult to determine the elements that encode species information, and
some limitations in the use of mating signals for recognizing species. Since
several of the Photuris species discussed in this paper have not been named,
code letters are used. A description of the relatively simple behavior and
signals of Photinus will introduce the general elements of firefly mating
conduct, and a survey of their behavioral characteristics pertinent to signal
analyses will provide a standard of comparison for Photuris.
Photinus Fireflies
In most Photinus species males fly about their habitat emitting a signal
(flash pattern) that is constant and simple in form, and repeated at fairly
regular and short intervals (Lloyd 1966c). Photinus females almost never
fly and flash; they remain on the ground or vegetation and flash in answer
to the flash pattern of their own males. Males fly and walk to answering

1This study was supported by NSF Grant 3366 (University of Michigan,
Training and Research in Systematic and Evolutionary Biology); The NAS
Bache Fund Grant No. 500; NSF Grant No. GB-7407. Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 3072.
2The helpful suggestions and criticisms of Dr. Thomas J. Walker, Dr.
Robert E. Woodruff, and Mr. Edward G. Farnworth are gratefully acknowl-

30 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 52, No. 1

females, and after a few flash exchanges reach them and copulate with
them. Males and females seldom flash except during sexual communication
or when captured by predators or held captive in spider webs or puddles
of water.
Analyses of Photinus signals are easily conducted. Experimental de-
termination of critical signal parameters can be made in the field with
free insects and in the laboratory with captive ones. Several factors con-
tribute to this: waveforms of the flashes are simple and can be approxi-
mated with incandescent bulbs; captive females will answer simulated and
actual male flash patterns; free males will approach simulated female
flashes and the response flashes of captive females; and most species are
terrestrial rather than arboreal. Signal discrimination tests can be per-
formed on free males (Mast 1912, Buck 1937, Lloyd 1966c) as well as on
captive males in mazes (M. Maurer unpublished), and arenas (Lloyd un-
published). Information-carrying elements have been experimentally de-
termined in the signals of several species (Buck 1937, Buck and Buck 1965,
Lloyd 1966c). Flash length, flash rate and number in multipulse flash pat-
terns, and time delay of female response flashes have been found signifi-
cant in various species.
Photuris Fireflies
The mating flashes and behavior of Photuris are difficult to recognize
and analyse for several reasons: 1) It is difficult to recognize their mating
signals because (a) flashes are emitted in other contexts and (b) the signals
emitted by flying males may be altered or changed completely during the
course of evening mating activity or under different ecological conditions.
2) It is difficult to identify and experimentally determine the elements of
Photuris mating signals that convey species information because (a) the
signals are structurally complex, (b) captive females of many species will
not respond to male or artificial flash pattern stimulation, and (c) mating
activity takes place in ecological situations where direct observation and
experimentation are difficult.
OTHER CONTEXTS: Photuris females of several species mimic the flash
responses of females of other species (Fig. 1A, B, C), attract their males
and devour them; females of a species in the Photuris versicolor complex
mimic the signals of at least two other species, each of which has a differ-
ent signal (Lloyd, 1965, and in prep). Prey species belong to the genera
Photuris, Photinus and Pyractomena. The flashes predaceous females emit
in response to the flashes of the males they attract are not necessarily the
same as their mating flashes. With inadequate observation Photuris fe-
males can be incorrectly associated with males of other species or with the
mating signals of females of other species.
Recent observations indicate that Photuris females and males use their
luminescence for illumination (Lloyd 1968). Both sexes emit characteristic
flash sequences when landing (Fig. D, E), flash intermittently while walking
about on the ground, and females commonly flash immediately before taking
flight. These flashes apparently function in illuminating the substrate and
surrounding vegetation. Such flashes would have adaptive value since
there are a variety of hazards when flying near the ground or landing
(e.g. spider webs, wet vegetation, water puddles). It is doubtful that these
flashes have any sexual significance since other individuals are not attracted

Lloyd: Firefly Flashes in Species Recognition 31

to fireflies flashing in this manner, and observations thus far have not re-
vealed characteristic species differences.
Photuris fireflies flash when grasped, handled, knocked to the ground, or
confined. Very little stimulation is required to induce this flashing. It has
been suggested that flashing intimidates predators. Harvey (1952) cites
several anecdotal references but considers "the idea of the lantern of the
fire-fly as a means of defense or warning signal . very dubious" with
"the possibility of attraction just as probable." The flashes of confined
Photuris may be homologous with those emitted when walking, perhaps
functioning in illumination, or with those emitted when grasped.
SIGNAL CHANGES IN FLYING MALES: By direct observation and by mark-
ing, releasing, and recapturing I have found that males of Photuris "A"
have three different flash patterns. During the first 20 minutes of activity
each evening they emit a long flash (ca 0.4 sec) at 4 second intervals (Fig.
1 F). Later they emit short flashes of about 0.15 seconds in duration (Fig.
1 C). The transition between the long and short flashes may be gradual
with several flashes of intermediate length emitted. The flight of males
producing these flashes is slow and hovering. The third signal, 2-5 flashes
of the same form as the short flash (Fig. 1 G), is emitted at any time dur-
ing the activity period whenever males are flying rapidly over coarse vege-
tation or marsh grass. Males are attracted to an artificial light that is
flashed immediately after their single, short flash. When a light is flashed
after the 2-5 pulse signal, males change to the single, short flash as they
approach. This illustrates that pulse-number variation is intraspecific and
of no taxonomic significance except as it aids or complicates field identifica-
tion. The adaptive significance of such signal variation may be related to
ecology-e.g. a long flash at high ambient light intensities and a multipulsed
signal and fast flight over bushes, coarse vegetation, or expansive sites
might enhance a male's chances of being seen by a female. However, a
species could employ different signals in a specific sequence for mate recog-
nition, or each different signal could have a specific function in attraction
and mating such as the calling and courtship songs of crickets (Alexander
1961). In any event, without adequate observation, this species might
have been described as 3 or more species although in fact it is one of the
4-6 north Florida species collectively known as Photuris lloydi McDermott.
Barber (1951) suspected that males of P. lucicrescens Barber emit both
a short flash and a long, crescendo flash, and that P. tremulans Barber emits
both a short flash and a long pulsating flash. K. Smalley (personal communi-
cation) has observed a species in Kansas that emits a single short flash early
in the evening and a long crescendo flash later. She observed mating fol-
lowing exchanges of short flashes.
STRUCTURALLY COMPLEX SIGNALS: Males of some species incorporate
subtle or rapid intensity modulations in their mating signals and it is often
impossible for the human eye to detect these elements. For example, the
flicker of one species (Fig. 1 H) and the two flashes of another (Fig. 1 I)
can be resolved only at low temperatures or when the insects are flying
rapidly. Electronic recording systems are essential for analysis, and some-
times for positive field identification. Several species have "crescendo"
flashes in which intensity builds up slowly to a maximum and then de-
creases rapidly. Crescendo flashes are extremely difficult to analyze elec-

The Florida Entomologist

.4 .8 1.2 0

0 1 2 3

.4 .8

0 I

o .4 0) .4 .8 1.2

0 .4

' X

0- .2 .4 .6

0 .4 .8 1.2

TIME (seconds)

Fig. 1. Ocillograms of firefly flashes. All flashes were recorded in the
field. Flashes are detected by a photo-multiplier tube, transduced to a fre-
quency modulated audio signal that varies proportionally (9-12 kc) with
light intensity, and recorded on magnetic tape (7.5 ips). For analysis,
recorded tones are transduced to a variable dc voltage that is then fed into
a storage oscilloscope with a calibrated time base. Changes in baseline
result from different background light intensities during panning (e.g. B,
G), from a feedback control in the recording system (e.g. A, C, H), and
from sustained emission of light by the firefly (e.g. D at point f). The
recording system was designed and built by Alton Electronics, Gainesville,
Florida. A. Flash response of an aggressive mimic female (Photuris
versicolor complex), *=artificial flash (75). B. Flash pattern of aggres-
sive mimic's own males (79). C. Late-evening flash of Photuris "A"
male (78). Aggressive mimics answer this flash, attract and devour
Photuris "A" males. D. Landing flashes of Photuris "A" female, (78').
f, fusion of flashes at an altitude of 5-10 inches, s, flash emitted immedi-

Vol. 52, No. 1

Lloyd: Firefly Flashes in Species Recognition

tronically; commonly, such a flash will range from an intensity too dim to
be recorded to one that overdrives the electronic recording system.
The relative intensities of discrete pulses may also encode species in-
formation. In the flash patterns of Photuris "Q", the first pulse is obvious-
ly less intense than the second, and in all recordings this relationship exists
(Fig. 1 J). There is also a consistent intensity relationship among the
pulses in the flash pattern of a Florida species in the P. versicolor complex
(Fig. 1 B).
The functional units of male signals of most species are obvious be-
cause of their structural organization. If the functional unit is a single
flash, or flicker, it is repeated at intervals of at least 2 seconds in duration.
If this unit consists of several flashes, then the interval between units is
longer, but the intervals between flashes of the unit are usually less than 1
second in duration. The phrasing of the male signals of some Photuris
species give no clear indication of functional units. For example; the male
mating signal of P. congener LeConte is a continuous series of single, short
flashes at less than 1 second intervals. Although the female response is not
known, aggressive mimics (females of species in the P. versicolor complex)
attract P. congener males by flashing an erratic, rapid flicker. The signal
that stimulates P. congener females may be a single flash and its length
the species-specific element, but the critical parameter could be the flash
rate established by a short series of single flashes; the communicative unit
advancing in time along a continuous series of pulses.
The flashes of P. brunnipennis floridana Barber males are like those of
P. congener males but this species appears to have yet another signal sys-
tem. When several males of floridana are placed in a small container they
flash in synchrony. Single males, when placed in a circular arena (dia-
meter 20 inches), flash synchronously with and walk rapidly toward an
artificial blinker that is flashing at intervals similar to their own. The
presence of a mechanism for synchrony and the behavior of captive males
with respect to artificial stimulation suggests that courtship in this species
involves male and female synchronization. Such a signal system is not
known for any firefly, and although in some Asian species huge aggrega-
tions synchronize (Buck and Buck 1968) this has not been seen in Florida.
CAPTIVE FEMALES NOT RESPONSIVE: Female response flashes are an inte-
gral part of the species-specific codes and it is essential to determine the
delay and pulse characteristics of these flashes. When confined in glass

ately upon landing when female's light is no longer directed at the ground.
E. Landing flashes of Photuris "A" male (730). s, first flash emitted upon
landing. F. Early-evening flash of Photuris "A" male (710). The noise
("grass") at the peak of the flash resulted from an overload alarm and
indicates that his portion of the recording is not an accurate representation
of the actual flash. G. Roving flash pattern of Photuris "A" male (74).
Intensity differences among pulses are not characteristic of this species'
flash pattern; presumably they result from the flight angle of the firefly
with respect to the recorder. Flashes 2-5 distorted at peak. H. Cryptic
flash pattern of Photuris "D" male (about 760). I. Cryptic flash pattern
of Photuris "HS" male (61.50). J. Flash pattern of Photuris "Q" male
(61.50). Intensity difference between pulses is characteristic and noted
in all recordings.

34 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 52, No. 1

cages Photuris females flash erratically and will not answer male or arti-
ficial flash patterns. When not confined, they leave. This behavior pre-
cludes experimental techniques, such as discrimination tests, that have been
useful in determining the critical parameters of Photinus signals. Buschman
(1966) was able to elicit flash responses from caged females of Photuris
divisa LeConte.
MATING IN INACCESSIBLE PLACES: Many Photuris species are arboreal
and fly and flash at the tips of branches high in trees. Presumably mating
takes place there. It is nearly impossible to mark and recapture males of
an arboreal species to determine if they emit more than one kind of mating
signal; to locate and observe free, virgin females; or to conduct discrim-
ination tests. Males of some treetop species can be attracted to the ground
with simulated female flashes, but negative results may arise from male
discrimination on the basis of female (i.e. decoy) location.

As guides for the recognition of species, mating signals have limitations.
They cannot be presumed to vary between species that never come into con-
tact geographically, seasonally, or diurnally. For example: Photuris "HS",
a species observed in central New York State, has a distinctive flash pat-
tern (Fig. 1 I). The Photuris I observed in Kentucky emitting the same
signal may or may not belong to the same species. In another case, Photuris
with slow flickers (7-11 per sec) have been observed in Florida, Michigan,
and Maryland. There are slight differences in flicker frequency, morphology
and ecology among the populations observed. The significance of the ob-
served differences, and similarities, cannot be known without extensive field
observations in the areas separating these localities.
Since some fireflies have 2-year life cycles (Hess 1920) those seen on
consecutive years are potentially or actually different species in spite of
behavioral identity. It is likely that some species have more than one brood
each year for adults of a Florida species in the P. versicolor complex reared
from eggs deposited in late April emerged in late September (Minnick and
Lloyd unpublished). Since adults of these broods will compete in different
photic environments it is conceivable that their signals might differ.

In early June a marsh in southern Michigan sparkles with a confusing
array of seemingly random firefly flashes. At least 12 species in 3 genera
are present, but an accurate count is now impossible. There are undoubt-
edly species that are morphologically cryptic, and perhaps species that are
photically so; some that change their flashes during the course of an eve-
ning, some that flash while landing or ovipositing, some that are active
early but are still flashing when a late-flying sibling begins activity, some
that are attracting males of another species which they will devour, and
some that flash at such long intervals that their flight paths cannot be
followed without an ultra-miniature telemetry system. In another habitat
a lone, flashing firefly may be seen, but the simplicity of beginning a be-
havior analysis here is illusory. At most one can obtain only an uncertain
one-half of the mating code and another dead specimen. The study of
Photuris species must begin with large populations in spite of the apparent

Lloyd: Firefly Flashes in Species Recognition

confusion and known complexities. Mating flashes must be recognized,
mating codes analysed, and distributions and life cycles understood.


Alexander, R. D. 1961. Aggressiveness, territoriality, and sexual behavior
in field crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Behavior. 17:130-223.
Barber, H. S. 1951. North American fireflies of the genus Photuris.
Smithsonian Inst. Misc. Collections. 117(1) :58 p.
Buck, J. B. 1937. Studies on the firefly II. The signal system and color
vision in Photinus pyralis. Physiol. Zool. 10(4) :412-419.
Buck, J. B. and E. M. Buck. 1965. Photic signalling in the firefly Photinus
consanguineus. Amer. Zool. 5(4) :682.
Buck, J. B. and E. M. Buck. 1968. Mechanism of rhythmic synchronous
flashing of fireflies. Science. 159(3821) :1319-1327.
Buschman, L. L. 1966. A study of flash communication in the firefly
Photuris divisa. M.S. Research Problem in Biology; Biol. Dept.,
Kansas State Teachers Coll. of Emporia.
Harvey, E. N. 1952. Bioluminescence. Academic Press, New York. 649 p.
Hess, W. N. 1920. Notes on the biology of some common Lampryridae.
Biol. Bull. 38(2) :39-76.
Lloyd, J. E. 1965. Aggressive mimicry in Photuris: Firefly femmes fatales.
Science. 149(3684) .653-654.
Lloyd, J. E. 1966a. Two cryptic new firefly species in the genus Photinus
(Coleoptera: Lampridae). Coleopterists' Bull. 20(2) :43-46.
Lloyd, J. E. 1966b. Signals and mating behavior in several fireflies
(Coleoptera: Lampyridae). Coleopterists' Bull. 20(3):84-90.
Lloyd, J. E. 1966c. Studies on the flash communication system in Photinus
fireflies. Univ. Michigan Mus. Zool., Misc. Pub. 130:99p.
Lloyd, J. E. 1968. Illumination, another function of firefly flashes?
Entomol. News.
Mast, S. 0. 1912. Behavior of fireflies (Photinus pyralis) ? with special
reference to the problem of orientation. J. Anim. Behav. 2:256-272.
The Florida Entomologist 52(1)1969

o .4 .8 14



0 I 3


0 .2

0 .4 .8 t.2

.4 .6 0
TIME (seconds)


.4 .8192

0 I 2 3


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Centro de Investigaciones Agricolas del Noroeste,
C. Obregon, Sonora, Mexico

A new species of Heterocerini, Efflagitatus selanderi, is described from
Florida. The genus is previously known only from South America. Pach-
eco's (1964) key to the species of Efflagitatus is modified to include the
new species.
A study of several specimens of Heteroceridae collected in Florida has
shown that they represent a new species in the Tribe Heterocerini. This
species has the following combination of characters: middle coxal cavities
widely separated, post-metacoxal line absent, and antenae 11-segmented.
The generic limits of Efflagitatus Pacheco, 1964:74, have not been pre-
cisely established due to the following: The geographical distribution of
its seven species up to now described includes only a few and scattered
localities between the 150 and 400 parallels in South America, and the
species were studied from a relatively small number of collections, each one
including only one or several specimens. Although the distribution area
of the new species falls far outside of the previously known range of the
genus, this species is placed in the genus Efflagitatus, because of the follow-
ing basic affinities to it: male genitalia with small lobular and approximated
parameres; aedeagus very long and posteriorly distorted.

Efflagitatus selanderi, new species
General appearance: Size small, length 2.6 to 2.8 mm, width 1.0 to 1.2
mm, elytral color varying from reddish-brown to creamy-yellow with dif-
fusely limited brown marks as illustrated; color of pronotum same as that
of the elytral marks, head a little darker than pronotum; hair abundant,
setiform, recumbent and much longer in the lateral margins of pronotum
than elsewhere; texture of pronotum and elytra very fine and opaque; ely-
tra without striations.
Basic characters for diagnosis: Epipleural lines poorly marked; coxo-
pleural lines present; stridulator ridge well defined, with the anterior
grooves easily detectable under microscope, rear grooves very minute and
difficult to detect; mandible as illustrated, comb with only a few spines,
prostheca armed with 19-12 sizable teeth, and without a defined prosthecal
Sexual dimorphism: Male and female easily separable under micro-
scope, males much shorter and more compact than females, and with pro-
notum posteriorly quadrate, and of the same width as the elytra; male
genitalia as illustrated; 0.55 mm long, and 0.22 mm wide; well-sclerotized,
particularly the lateral arms of the phdllobase; ninth abdominal segment
of the male as illustrated.
Type material: Holotype, male, will be deposited in Chicago Natural
History Museum; Label: "Archbold Biol. Sta. Highlands Co. Fla. VI:12-
19:55; at light HSDybas leg." Paratypes: 3 males and 4 females, same
data in the author's collection; 1 male, labeled: "Horn Coll H 3965" in

The Florida Entomologist

5b 5c


Fig. 1-5 ElI.,,i',ii... selanderi, new species. 1: Color of pronotum and
elytra of male. 2: Male head, excluding setae. 3: Right mandible of male.
4: Ninth abdominal sternum of male. 5: Male genitalia; 5a: Dorsal view;
5b: Lateral view; 5c: Ventral view.

Phila. Ac. Nat. Sciences; male and female labeled: "L. Lucy Fl. 11-11.07;
Chicago N. H. Mus. (F. W. Nunenmacher Collection)", and 1 male and 2
females, labeled: "Punta Gorda, Charlotte Co., Fla. IV; 1953 R. Ramstadt
leg." in Chicago N. H. Museum, 1 male and 4 females, labeled "Olustee,
Florida, 22-V-63, E. P. Merkel, blacklight trap" in Florida State collection
of Arthropods.
Additional examined material: 2 females from Enterprise, Fla.; 1 fe-
male from Jacksonville, Fla., 3 females from 3 miles S.W. lake Marion,
Fla., 1 female from Sanford, Fla., and 1 female from Gainesville, Fla.

Vol. 52, No. 1

Pacheco: New Species of Heterocerini

This species can be identified by Pacheco's 1964 key, page 76, couplet 4
modified as follows:

4. Width of tegmen similar throughout its length: Florida, United States
of A m erica ................................................................................ ... selanderi
Tegmen much constricted posteriorly: South America .................... 4-a

4a. Tegmen much constricted laterally, just above parameres; dorsal plate
of aedeagus acute posteriorly. Brazil and Argentina ...... splendidus
Tegmen more or less triangular in outline; dorsal plate of aedeagus
rounded posteriorly. Brazil ......................................----................. assimilis
This species is named in honor of Dr. Richard B. Selander, Department
of Entomology, University of Illinois.


Pacheco, F. 1964. Sistematica, Filogenia y Distribucion de los Heteroceri-
dos de America (Coleoptera: Heteroceridae). Monografias del
Colegio de Post-Graduados, Chapingo, Mexico, 115 pp. 501 figs.

The Florida Entomologist 52(1)1969

In Vol. 51, no. 3, p. 135 the affiliation of Miss Kellie O'Neill was incor-
rectly given as the United States National Museum. Miss O'Neill is em-
ployed by the Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research Service,

Mite-free groves yield top-dollar citrus.
At the first sign of mites on citrus foliage, take warning. That's the
time for KELTHANE, the miticide that is doing such a great job
throughout California and Florida in killing citrus-attacking mites.
Cover foliage thoroughly with the recommended dosage of this
powerful miticide and repeat when necessary up to a week before
harvest. When used as suggested, KELTHANE will not harm
beneficial insect mite predators, but will go a long way toward
producing top-quantity, top-quality fruit. Ask your farm
supply dealer for KELTHANE.

Your partner in crop production ROHMI C

Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA,
Orlando, Florida 32803
When aerial applications of ultra low volume malathion (1/ to 1 oz/
acre) with or without added PIB-7 (protein hydrolysate) were made weekly
for 3 weeks to square mile test plots at Miami, Florida, field populations of
Anastrepha suspense (Loew) were reduced sharply by the initial treatment,
and some reduction was still evident 9-10 weeks after the 1st application.
Doses used were: malathion at 1 oz/acre; malathion at 1 oz/acre plus PIB-
7 at 8 oz/acre; and malathion at 1/ oz/acre plus PIB-7 at 8 oz/acre.

Since Anastrepha suspense (Loew) reappeared in southern Florida in
1965, it has become a pest of subtropical fruit. Favored hosts of the larvae
are guava, Surinam cherry, loquat, kumquat, calamondin, and peach, but
many other fruits may also be attacked. However, the fly has not been an
economic problem until recently, so little information is available concern-
ing methods of controlling this pest. The only known attempts at control
were made in 1965 (Poucher 1966). A. suspense populations were reduced
by single applications of the standard bait spray (11/ lb of 25% malathion
WP plus 1 pt PIB-73 acre) for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis
capitata (Wiedemann) (Steiner et al. 1961) and of ultra low volume mala-
thion at 2, 4, or 6 oz/acre.
The Division of Plant Industry of the Florida Department of Agriculture
and the Plant Pest Control and Entomology Research Divisions of the
Agricultural Research Service, USDA, therefore cooperated in 1967 to de-
termine whether three aerial applications of ultra low volume malathion
(1/ to 1 oz/acre) with or without added PIB-7 would effectively reduce the
populations of A. suspense.
Six test plots, each 1 mile square and separated from the others by 1/-
mile buffer strips, were selected in a residential area of North Miami.
Treatments included (1) malathion at 1 oz/acre; (2) malathion 1 oz/acre
plus PIB-7 at 8 oz/acre; (3) malathion 1/ oz/acre plus PIB-7 at 8 oz/acre,
and (4) no treatment. Each material was applied 31 Aug.-1 Sept., 7-8
Sept. and 14-15 Sept. from a Cessna Super Skymaster. The plane and pilot
were furnished by the Methods Improvement Section of the Plant Pest
Control Division. Conditions of delivery are shown in Table 1. Treatments
1 and 2 were applied to 2 plots each; treatments 3 and 4 were applied to 1
plot each.
Delivery was generally satisfactory. However, during the 1st applica-
tion of Treatment 2 to the 2nd plot, the ends of the spray booms were in-
advertently left open, and the error was, not noticed until about 1/ of the

iDiptera: Tephritidae.
"Mention of a proprietary product does not necessarily imply its endorse-
ment by the USDA. This is a report of research results and not a recom-
mendation of any of the materials tested.
3Protein hydrolysate bait, manufactured by Staley Manufacturing Co.,
Decatur, Ill.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 1

125 FT) AGAINST A. suspense AT MIAMI, FLORIDA, 1967.

pressure No. of
Treatment (oz/acre) (psi) nozzles*

Malathion (1) 25 2
Malathion (1)+PIB-7 (8) 32 4
Malathion (2) +PIB-7 (8) 28 4

*Spray nozzles (#8008 flat fan tips) and check valves manufactured by Spraying Systems Co,.
3201 Randolph St., Bellwood, Illinois 60104.


Avg. flies
trapped/ Avg flies trapped/tray day in indicated
trap day weeks after 1st application
1 week pre-
Treatment (oz/acre) treatment 1* 2* 3* 8** 9-10** 11**

Malathion (1) 8.22 0.85 0.04 0.02 2.41 0.77 2.51
Mal (1)+PIB-7 (8) 9.41 0.28 0.00 0.10 0.34 0.24 0.92
Mal (/2)+PIB-7 (8) 9.66 0.61 0.02 0.12 3.20 1.25 2.54
Untreated 8.38 3.18 2.34 1.27 10.78 3.72 2.65

*In center 17 traps of each plot.
**From 10 selected locations per plot.

area had been covered. After the boom ends had been closed, only enough
material was left to cover an additional 7 swaths. Thus, the balance of the
plot (slightly more than 1/ square mile) was left untreated. Rain inter-
rupted and delayed operations during the last application, but coverage was
considered adequate in all plots.
Thirty-seven McPhail traps placed along lines running NS and EW
through the center /4 mile strip and baited daily with 3-day-old pre-mixed
bait made from cottonseed hydrolysate borax pellets (Lopez D et al. 1968)
in water, were hung in each plot. Traps were operated from 1 week before
the 1st application until 1 week after the 3rd application, and trap catches
were recorded daily. Although no differences were apparent in catches of
traps at the middle and outer limits of the plots after treatments, we de-
cided to use trapping records from the center 17 traps to compare im-
mediate effects of the treatments. Thus, there was a /4-mile margin of
treated area around the traps used for the comparison as protection against
possible drift effect. Also, 10 selected locations/plot were used to determine
the delayed effects of the treatments. All trap catches were converted to
flies trapped/trap day.

.Selhime: ULV Sprays to Suppress Anastrepha suspense 43

The data are summarized in Table 2. Catches of flies in treated areas
decreased sharply following the initial application and remained low
throughout the study period. Fly populations decreased in the untreated
area during the study period, making treatment evaluations difficult. Some
reduction was noted in all treatments through 9-10 weeks. At 11 weeks
after the initial application populations were lower in the 1 oz. malathion
+ 8 oz. PIB-7 treatment than in the untreated area.
Public reaction to the test was favorable and there were no known com-
plaints of damage caused by any treatment.


Lopez D., F., L. M. Spishakoff, and 0. H. Becerril. 1968. Pelletized lures
for trapping the Mexican fruit fly. J. Econ. Entomol. 61:316-7.
Poucher, C. 1966. Special Programs Section. p. 157-166 In Florida Dept.
Agr., Div. Plant Industry 26th Biennial Report.
Steiner, L. F., G. G. Rohwer, E. L. Ayers, and L. D. Christenson. 1961.
The role of attractants in the recent Mediterranean fruit fly eradi-
cation program in Florida. J. Econ. Entomol. 54:30-5.
The Florida Entomologist 52(1)1969

Every product
bearing the Blue Bullseye
has been proved
and proved again
before it is offered to you.

You can count on it.
At Chemagro, test tube to test plot to market
is a never ending process. As makers of chemicals
for agriculture, we are acutely aware of the
responsibilities and opportunities we face. So we
keep scientists very busy in the laboratories, testing,
testing. And our field testing and demonstration
forces prove the dependability and effectiveness of
every product time and again before we release
it for general use. This takes years . not just a
little time. Years that pay off in a better product for
you, a proud reputation for us. We work at
making the Blue Bullseye a meaningful trademark.
Look for it when you need an insecticide, miticide,
fungicide or herbicide. .n7o



The 51st Annual Meeting of The Florida Entomological Society was
held at the Jack Tar Hotel, Clearwater, Florida on 11-13 September 1968.
A pre-meeting "Bull Session" of selected topics was held the evening of the
11th with Dr. W. G. Eden as Moderator.
President Larry A. Hetrick opened the convention at 9:00 AM on 12
September. One-hundred and fifty-five persons registered. Twenty-nine
papers were presented.
The first business meting was called to order at 11:00 AM on 12 Sep-
tember. Eighty-seven members were present.
The minutes of the 50th Annual Meeting were presented by the Secretary
as published in Vol. 51, No. 1 of The Florida Entomologist. The minutes
were approved as presented.
President Hetrick appointed the following committees:
Resolutions: Lewis Wright
James Connell
Paul Hunt, Chairman
Auditing: Jack F. Reinhardt
R. E. Waites, Chairman
The meeting was adjourned at 12:00 noon.
The final business meeting was convened by President Hetrick at 10:45
AM on 13 September. Seventy-six members were present.
President Hetrick sent a telegram to Dr. Alvah Peterson in Columbus,
Ohio in behalf of The Florida Entomological Society congratulating him on
his 80th birthday.


There are presently 377 members of our Society, not including 14 appli-
cants. There are 164 institutional subscriptions with a total of 549 sub-
scriptions to The Florida Entomologist.
In 1958 our membership was 237 and 45 institutional subscriptions for
a total of 282. In the past 10 years we have had an increase of 140 mem-
bers or approximately 60%, and 119 institutional subscriptions or almost
Roy A. Crossman, Jr.
Alfred S. Mills
D. B. Lieux
John Nowell
D. W. Anthony, Chairman


No action has been taken during the year as the sponsor, Southern Mill
Creek Products Company, was unable to provide finances for this fellow-
H. V. Weems, Jr., Co-Chairman
G. W. Dekle, Co-Chairman

46 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 52, No. 1


The man we honor today was born in North Abington, Massachusetts,
on 15 October 1886. He attended Massachusetts Agricultural College and
then the University of Florida, where he received his B.S.A. in 1933.
Our honoree has been outstanding in service to our society. He was
Associate Editor of the Florida Entomologist for 5 years. He is the only
person who has ever served three terms as President of The Florida Ento-
mological Society.
His contributions to entomology are likewise outstanding. His early
work was with gypsy and brown-tailed moths in Massachusetts and with
sugar cane insects in Puerto Rico. In 1916 he joined the staff of the Florida
State Plant Board where he served with distinction in various capacities
for 40 years. During most of his years with the Florida State Plant Board
he was responsible for the identification of insects intercepted at Florida
Ports of Entry in addition to all insects collected by grove and nursery
inspectors throughout Florida. His principal interest was in the Coccidae
or scale insects. He was a recognized authority in the group and is well
known as the author of A Revision of the Scale Insects of Florida, published
in 1953.
The man we honor is George B. Merrill.
D. O. Wolfenbarger
T. J. Walker
J. W. Wilson, Chairman


1905-1910 Scouting, gypsy moth work in Massachusetts.
1910-1913 He was employed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture,
gypsy moth project. During that time he served as a field
inspector (1910-1912) ; field foreman (1912-1913) ; and lab
assistant (1913).

1913-1915 Assistant Entomologist, Board of Commissioners of Agriculture
of Puerto Rico. Work consisted of horn fly, sugar cane fumi-
gation from Santo Domingo, tobacco insect investigations, and
quarantine inspection.
1916 Employed by State Plant Board of Florida as port and railway
1918 Appointed assistant to Dr. Berger, entomologist.

1919 Appointed assistant entomologist of State Plant Board.

1922 Appointed associate entomologist.

1928(Mar) He did some fumigation work under Dr. A. F. Camp (in co-
operation with P.Q.C.A.) Mediterranean Fruit Fly Campaign.
1929(Sept) Transferred to Florida State Plant Board as associate ento-
1943 Promoted to Entomologist.

Retired 15 January 1956.

Minutes of 51st Annual Meeting

Became a member of the Society in 1918.
Elected Vice-President in January 1919.
Elected President January 1920.
Elected President January 1923.
Reelected President January 1924.
Mr. Merrill has the distinction of being the only person to serve three
terms as President of the Society.
Served as Associate Editor of the Florida Entomologist 1945-1949.
Elected to Honorary Membership of the Florida Entomological Society
September 1957.

(1) Progress Report on Investigations Relative to the Horn-Fly.
3rd Rep. Board Comm. Agr. Puerto Rico July 1, 1913 to July 1, 1914.
(2) Report of the Tobacco Insect Investigations.
4th Rep. Board Comm. Agr. Puerto Rico July 1, 1914-June 30, 1915.
(3) Entomological Training at the University of Florida.
Fla. Entomol. 4(4), March 1921.
(4) Lady Beetles of Florida.
Qtly. Bull., State Plant Board Fla., Vol. VII, No. 2, Jan. 1922.
(5) Three Scales New to Florida.
Florida Entomol 6(1), June 1922.
(6) A New Scale Insect from Florida.
Qtly. Bull. State Plant Board Fla., Vol. VII, No. 3, April 1923.
(7) Scale-Insects of Florida. (with Jeff Chaffin)
Qtly. Bull. State Plant Board Fla., Vol. VII No. 4, July, 1923.
(8) A Revision of the Scale Insects of Florida.
Bull. No. 1, State Plant Board of Florida, Jan. 1953, 143 p.

Activities of the Public Relations Committee involved a wide range of
entomological affairs during the year. Highlights of the year's public
relations are as follows:
Dr. L. A. Hetrick, Society President, appeared at a Federal Pollution
Hearing at Orlando on 13 March 1968 and submitted a statement for the
Society concerning environmental pollution:
"The Florida Entomological Society is concerned about the mounting
and continuing problems of pollution. Concern is expressed for increasing
contamination of estuary waters as well as all other waters, soil, air, and
all components of man's environment.
"With expanding human population, some contamination of the environ-
ment is to be expected. The increased numbers of people demand more
industry, additional generation of electric power, more pulp and paper pro-
ducts, greater production of minerals, and expanding food and fiber pro-
duction from shrinking land areas. The proper use of various agricultural
chemicals has permitted food and fiber production to keep pace with ever
increasing demands. The proper use of these chemicals will keep contami-
nation at a minimum and without them sufficient food production could
not be accomplished.
"Of course, there are accidents associated with all of man's activities
and accident frequence tends to increase with the population and its de-
mands. Accidents have caused, and will continue to cause, polluted estuary
waters. Industrial wastes that could be controlled also pollute waters.
Industries that produce such wastes should explore other means of disposal
or perhaps convert the current wastes to useful and marketable by-products.
"It is unreasonable to expect that all contamination of waters can be
eliminated or prevented. Some contamination is inevitable with the increas-
ing population. Just where to draw the line between tolerable contamination
and pollution is a problem that will require study and evaluation of indi-
vidual estuaries and their headwaters. Sound biological judgments are

The Florida Entomologist

needed in each instance. Problems of Florida estuaries are not the same as
those of the Chesapeake Bay and different approaches to solution of indi-
vidual problems will have to be accomplished locally. Services of many
competent biologists will be required to evaluate, monitor, and correct exist-
ing and future problems of estuaries."
W. B. Gresham, Jr. in connection with the Visiting Scientist Program
presented an "Entomology in Action" program to 310 eighth grade students
at Walker Jr. High School in Bradenton. Similarly, J. R. Strayer dis-
cussed insects with 210 junior high students in Gainesville and conducted
five 4-H camp lecture periods about insects and insect collecting. Several
Society Members worked with boy scouts, 4-H, and similar youth organiza-
tions on meetings concerning insects.
R. E. Dixon presented four talks on Entomology as a Profession to
Optimists, Kiwanians, Rotary, and Sertomas. In addition, he judged ex-
hibits at the Greater Jacksonville Fair and appeared on television with the
Duval County Agent. Another talk to Kiwanians "Why Pesticides on Agri-
culture" was given by Gerald Greene.
Though job related, two public relation activities were contributed by
the Extension Entomologists. The vest pocket Speakers Kit on Pesticides
was developed as a public relations tool for speakers, to have facts readily
available about pesticides. The kit has gone to every state and 23 foreign
countries. Also developed was a general manual, "You and Entomology,"
designed to give youth and other interested persons information for study,
collecting, identification, and classification of insects. The manual includes
Career Opportunities in Entomology.
Through the cooperation of IFAS Editorial Department, five television
programs concerning entomology were made during the year. A news re-
lease concerning the Clearwater meeting was prepared and distributed to
all daily papers in the state.
To our knowledge, there was no legislation concerning entomology this
year. However, considerable attention is being given to future legislation
to closely regulate or ban the use of non-degradable or "hard" pesticides.
DDT is one primary target. One example of the feeling toward these
materials is the following resolution by the Florida Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission.
"WHEREAS, non-degradable or "hard" pesticides and detergents are now
known to be polluting our environment, and these chemicals are dangerous
because they are persistent or "hard" and injurious to many forms of life;
"WHEREAS, these chemicals keep their strength and travel by air and
water across great distances to cause serious problems for birds, fish, and
animals and because they cover such an enormous territory, these chemicals
present a threat to the wildlife of the State of Florida; and
"WHEREAS, the weight of damaging evidence against these chemicals is
overwhelming and hundreds of documented cases tell of the danger hard
and persistent pesticides pose for wildlife, for soil organisms, for the purity
of our water, for all basic elements of the animal food chain; and
"WHEREAS, hard and persistent chemicals may alter and change not only
the environment of today, but continue to alter and change the environment
that we will hand over to our children's children, or even to their grand-
children; and
"WHEREAS, there are other pesticides and detergents that may substitute
and are known to break down into harmless compounds much more rapidly
in the environment.
"Now, THEREFORE, the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission,
in a duly constituted and assembled meeting at Ocala, Florida, on this 12th
day of July, A.D. 1968, do resolve as follows:
1. That the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission will from this date
forward abstain from the use of any hard or persistent chemical, pesticide
or detergent and encourage others to likewise abstain.
2. That we will in the interest of the wildlife and the people of Florida,
seek appropriate legislation against these chemicals.
3. That we will to the best of our ability encourage the use of effective

Vol. 52, No. I

Minutes of 51st Annual Meeting 49

non-persistent substitutes and biological controls in place of the hard pesti-
cides and detergents.
4. That we will initiate a program to inform and educate the people of
Florida as to the dangers of these persistent harmful chemicals and to the
best of our ability encourage such informed and educated public to speak
out against their use for any purpose.
"DONE AND RESOLVED at Ocala, Florida, this 12th day of July, A.D. 1968."
It is anticipated that several bills concerning "hard" pesticide use and
the Pest Control Law will be introduced at the 1969 legislative session.
These matters will be of interest to the next Public Relations Committee.
At the present time society member R. E. Dixon is a candidate for the
House of Representatives from Duval County. If he is a successful candi-
date, he will be in a position to represent entomology and keep the Society
abreast of legislative events.
Respectfully submitted,
R. E. Dixon
W. G. Gresham
R. B. Johnson
W. G. Eden
J. R. Strayer, Chairman

Mr. President, Members of the Florida Entomological Society:
The report of the Business Manager-Treasurer and the books of the
Society have been examined for the year ending 31 July 1968 by the Audit-
ing Committee and found to be in order. We recommend to the Society
that the attached report be accepted.
J. F. Reinhardt
R. E. Waites, Chairman

Cash used for change at 50th Ann. Mtg. in Gainesville............ $ 100.00
Registration Fees .................----........... -....................... 423.00
B anquet F ees .................................................... ........................... 486.50
Hospitality Hour Contributions ------...................... .............. 260.00
D ues .................... .. ....................... ................... .................... 1,548.75
Subscriptions ............. -............------ .......-...... 1,147.75
A dvertisem ents .................................................................................. 705.69
Reprints and Plates ................................... .......................... 1,855.65
Back issues .............................................. ............ .... 583.34
B ook Sale ................................... ... ........... ........... .... 7.50
U naccounted For ........................................ ........ ......... 1.25

Cash on hand September 30, 1967 .................................................. 2,532.13


Cash used for change at 50th Ann. Mtg. in Gainesville ........... 100.00
Programs for 50th Ann. Mtg. ............................ ...... .......... ...... 75.97
Ramada Inn .....--................ -----------------............. 774.01
Art W ork Exhibits 50th Ann. Mtg. ........................... .............. 183.57
Music, games, favors, etc. for 50th Ann. Mtg. ............................ 114.92
Entomology in Action (W Dekle) ................................................ 13.51
M em bership Refund .................... ...... ................................... 2.50
Supplies for Business Manager ................................ ................. 11.20
Key for cabinet ..........--------- ------------------------- -----. ............. 2.58
Storter Printing Co.-Fla. Entomol, reprints & mailing lists 5,321.18
Postage and box rent ......................... ... .... ....................... 136.80

50 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 52, No. 1

Bank charge ....................-- ... ....................................... ............. 7.74
Help for business manager (Mrs. J. Shuler) .............................. 81.75

Cash on hand 31 July 1968 ......................... ............................ 2,825.93

Savings Account-Guaranty Federal Savings & Loan Assn.
Balance 30 September 1967 ................................................... 2,687.18
Interest earned ---- ..--.----------------............................. 91.70

Cash on hand 31 July 1968 ......-- ............. ................. ............... 2,825.93

Total ....................--......................... $5,604.81
R. S. Patterson, Business Manager

During the past year the Entomology In Action Exhibit on Careers In
Entomology was revised and is now available to any member for use in
promoting entomology. In the past the exhibit has been displayed at our
Annual Meeting, in bank lobbies, malls, schools and junior colleges, civic
clubs, county fairs, 4-H, FFA, and for various other agricultural and non-
agricultural groups.
We hope each member will use the new exhibit or the Entomology In
Action talk with 2 x 2 kodachrome slides during the coming year.
F. A. Robinson
J. R. Strayer
G. W. Dekle, Chairman

In lieu of a resolutions report President Hetrick wrote letters of appreci-
ation to the Jack Tar Hotel management, invitational speakers, the local
arrangements committee, and the program committee.

There were no deceased members of the Society during the past year.
H. A. Denmark, Secretary
The Nominating Committee offers the following slate of officers for 1968:
President: John O'Neil
Vice President: Harold A. Denmark
Secretary: Frank W. Mead
Executive Committee: James R. Connell
F. Gray Butcher
Lewis Berner
John'R. King, Chairman
A motion was made by Stratton Kerr for the Secretary to cast a unani-
mous ballot for the nominees presented by the Nominating Committee. The
motion was seconded and approved.
The gavel was turned over to incoming President John O'Neil.
The meeting was adjourned at 11:50 AM.
The Executive Committee met 13 September 1968, at the Jack Tar Hotel.
H. A. Denmark, Secretary


C. W. CHELLMAN, Entomologist
Florida Forest Service, Tallahassee

Acantholyda circumcincta (Klug) feeding larvae and adult females were
collected during May 1968 in northwest Florida from sand pine, Pinus
clause (Chapm.) Vasey, a new host and location in the southeastern United

Adult females of Acantholyda circumcincta (Klug), a web-spinning saw-
fly, were collected in May 1968 from sand pine, Pinus clausa (Chapm.)
Vasey, near Niceville, Okaloosa County and adjacent Walton County in
northwest Florida1. Heavy larval feeding damage occurred on natural sand
pine, varying in height from 5 to 40 feet, in May and June of 1967 and 1968.
Eggs and 1st through 4th-instar larvae were collected in May 1968. This
sawfly was reported previously only from Georgia (type locality) and in
New York State from jack pine, Pinus banksiana Lamb.
This sawfly has one generation annually in Florida. The infestations
varied from light to heavy, and were scattered over an area of approxi-
mately 90 thousand acres. This insect may become a serious pest in the
future since sand pine occurs naturally and nursery-grown seedlings are
being planted extensively over much of west Florida. Persistent infesta-
tions of Acantholyda nemoralis Thomas on pine (probably P. sylvestris L.)
in Poland have required chemical control, according to Burzynski (1961).
The known details of the life history of A. circumcincta in Florida are quite
similar to those described by Griswold (1939) for the pine false webworm,
A. erythrocephala (L.), in New Jersey.

Burzynski, Jerzy. 1961. Progress of an outbreak of the western form of
the pine sawfly (Acantholyda nemoralis Thoms. f. serotina W.K.)
Report of Observations. Prace Instytutu Badawczego Lesnictwa No.
214 : 89-112.
Griswold, C. L. 1939. Introduced pine sawfly J. Econ. Entomol. 32 : 467-

1 Identification by Dr. D. R. Smith of the U. S. National Museum.

The Florida Entomologist 52(1) 1969

52 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 52, No. 1

AMERICA. Arthur C. Cole, Jr. 1968. The University of Tennessee Press,
Knoxville, 222 p.; 89 Fig., 12 pl., 11 illus. $7.50
The author has been interested in this genus since 1930, which is nothing
less than a work of dedication. He presents in this monograph a long, de-
tailed study involving thousands of specimens. This pains-taking work is
based upon the morphological studies of all castes supplemented by many
field observations of nesting sites and habits. From his studies, the author
points out probable errors in designating population variants with formal
names when these may only be intraspecific variations. This book contains
excellent photographs of habitats, line drawings of diagnostic characters,
and distribution maps that are clear and well done.

The genus Pogonomyrmex is divided into two subgenera, Pogonomyrmex
and Ephebomyrmex. Four complexes are proposed with keys to the com-
plexes, and for workers, females and males within each complex. There are
22 valid taxa, of which 4 are new to science.
For the occasional worker it may have helped if page numbers had been
included in the keys to complexes and species of the different castes and if
the figures had been listed under each species. However, these are minor
details and the figures are included in the excellent descriptions of the new
species, redescriptions of known species, and in the key to the complexes.

This book should be on the want list of all myrmecologists. It is not
only the latest revision of this genus, but a model for other workers.
Division of Plant Industry
Fla. Dep. of Agr.

The Florida Entomologist 52(1) 1969

Strepsiptera from the Mississippi Coast1
Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana
Triozocera mexicana Pierce, Caenocholax fenyesi Pierce, and Elenchus
koebeli (Pierce), all new records for Mississippi, were the Strepsiptera
collected in a light trap study.

Around forty light traps were operated in 1966, for a period of 2-6
months during the season of activity, in various locations in southern Mis-
sissippi. Strepsiptera were extremely rare, with very small numbers of
males being found in only 20 of the traps. Three species, all of which rep-
resent new state records, were encountered. Their distribution is given in
Table 1.
Triozocera mexicana Pierce: 196 specimens were collected between
mid-April and mid-September. Most of the material, however, was collected
in the last week of April, the first week of May, the second half of July, and
the third week of August.
Caenocholax fenyesi Pierce: Nine specimens were collected, two of them
from Louisiana at the Junction of Hwy. 90 and 190.
Elenchus koebeli (Pierce) : Seven specimens were collected, one of them
from Avery Marsh, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana.

Locations T. mexicana C. fenyesi E. koebeli

Hancock County: Ansley
Edwards Bayou
Gainesville (Stone House)
Gainesville (T-360)
NASA Info.
W. Cowan Bayou
Harrison County: Biloxi
Long Beach
Pass Christian
Jackson County: Ocean Springs
Pearl River Cy.: McNeil


1 This investigation was supported by an
The Florida Entomologist 52(1) 1969

Academic Grant from Loyola

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