Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00148
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1970
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00148
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Volume 53 No. 3 September 1970

LOOMIS, H. F.-Millipeds of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands,
and A New Species From Puerto Rico .....-----..-............... 129
WORKMAN, R. B., AND G. L. GREENE-Control of Aphids on
Rutabaga At Two Locations in Florida .......-..------......-- .. 135
Species of Turtle Bug From Southern Florida
(Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) ............................................ 139
MERKEL, E. P.-Trunk-Implanted Systemic Insecticides For
Slash Pine Cone Insect Control -....-.... ........-.......-............ 143
REINERT, J. F.-Description of the Pupa of Aedes
Ochlerotatus) infirmatus (Diptera:Culicidae) .-............ 147
KHALAF, K. T.-Wing Venation and Phylogenetic Relation-
ships in Mordellidae (Coleoptera:Heteromera) -........... 153
BARANOWSKI, R. M., AND R. W. SWANSON-Introduction of
Parachasma (= Opius) cereus (Hymenoptera :Bracon-
idae) into Florida as a Parasite of Anastrepha suspense
(Diptera: Tephritidae) ..... .. ......................................... 161
REINERT, J. F.-Description of the Pupa of Wyeomia (Wyeo-
mia) vanduzeei and W. (W.) mitchellii (Diptera:
Culicidae) .......-.........----------.... --.--.......... 163
O'NEILL, K.-Kurtomathrips brunneus (Watson), New Com-
bination and K. unicolor Bailey, New Synonym ..-........... 171
FROST, S. W.-Light Trap Collecting 'Compared With General
Collecting at the Archbold Biological Station ----.......... 173

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


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This issue mailed September 18, 1970

H. F. LooMIs2
5355 S.W. 92 St., Miami, Fla. 13356

Six species of millipeds are the first recorded from St. John, and include
a new genus and species of the family Stylodesmidae, a new species of Si-
phonophora, and a second West Indian species of Lophodesmus from
Puerto Rico. Keys to the West Indian genera of Stylodesmidae and spe-
cies of Siphonophora are given.

In the latter part of May 1968, my wife and I visited St. John to collect
millipeds, none previously having been reported from there. The results
were not unusual as only one pselaphognath species and five helmintho-
morph species were found. The former, also common in Jamaica, appears
to be undescribed; of the latter group, two are new, one representing a
new genus. One of the three remaining species was described from the
Orient but now is quite widely distributed in this hemisphere.
Although today St. John is almost wholly forested, its history of a cen-
tury ago, and the ruins of past agricultural activity hidden in the under-
growth, tell of the extreme, if not complete, denudation of the forests for
sugarcane planting during slave days. There is little doubt that the origi-
nal milliped fauna of the island was much affected by this land clearing
and has been materially reduced to those species surviving at present.
A second West Indian species of a widely distributed tropical genus is
described from a Puerto Rican cave although it is not a true troglobite.
The three holotypes are deposited in the milliped collection of the U.
S. National Museum, Washington, D. C., but all other specimens have been
placed in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods in Gainesville.


Alloproctinus sp.
Thirteen specimens from Centerline Road, Cinnamon Bay Trail and
Annaberg, 24-26 May 1968, were identified by my colleague, Dr. Bruno
Conde, University of Nancy, Nancy, France, as a probable new species he
first saw from Jamaica but has not yet described.

Key to West Indian genera of Stylodesmidae

1. Pores on segments 5 and 7-18-Prosopodesmus Silvestri. Introduced.
1.' Pores in a much less continuous series ............-------..----.................... 2.

1Contribution No. 169, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Indus-
try, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gaines-
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division
of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Serv-

130 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 3

2. Body with only 4 pores each side .... Styraxodesmus Chamberlin. Haiti.
2.' Body with 5 or more pores each side ............---....--.......---...-...-... 3.
3. Segment 1 with 12 anterior lobes .--..-..... Penteporus Loomis. Haiti.
3.' Segment 1 with less than 12 anterior lobes ..--....-......................... 4.
4. Margins of keels with long setae usually incrusted with organic mat-
ter ..----....---.......----------.....-----------....... Botrydesmus Loomis. Trinidad.
4.' M argins of keels not setose ..................................-......---------------.... 5.
5. Body with only 19 segments, segment 1 with 8 anterior lobes ..........
--....-...-...- ...... ... --- --------. Poratioides gen. nov. St. John.
5.' Body with 20 segments, segment 1 with 10 anterior lobes .............. 6.
6. Body with 5 pores each side, on segments 5, 7, 10, 13, and 16....-......
.- ..........-- ..-- ..----- -.--------- ------ H eteropente Loomis. Cuba.
6.' Body with 7 or more pores each side ..........................---........--------- 7.
7. Primary tubercles on surface of segment 1 very large ...... Dilophops
............................--... --------------- ---------------- Loomis. Haiti.
7.' Primary tubercles of segment 1 of moderate size ....................-----. 8.
8. All pores at midmargin of keels with a distinct lobe either side ..----.
......------.... ----- -- -------- ----- Darlingtoniella Loomis. Cuba.
8' Most pores at posterior corner of keels .............................---------- 9.
9. Only segment 5 with a lobe each side of pore ......----------.------
..........-.-.----- Gasatomus Chamberlin. Trinidad.
9.' All pores at posterior corner of keels .-.....------........-- .......----.------ 10.
10. Segments 3-19 with outer margin of keels bilobed ........ Lophodesmus
.. ....... .....---------..-- Pocock. Haiti, Puerto Rico.
10.' Segments 3-19 with 3 or 4 lobes ....---........--- ------------------.----- 11.
11. Body loosely jointed, about 7 times as long as broad, strongly convex..
Poratia Cook & Cook. Haiti.
11.' Body relatively broader, flatter, and more compact .-..-..........----. 12.
12. Pores on only 7 segments:- 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, and 15 ........ Fennellia
Loomis. Haiti.
12.' Pore formula similar but an additional pore on segment 16 ..................
SAugesmus Chamberlin. Haiti.

Lophodesmus bituberculatus spec. nov.

Male holotype collected in Cueva Pajita, Lares, Puerto Rico, 7 January
1967 by S. B. Peck.
Diagnosis: Obviously related to L. caraibianus (Chamberlin) of Haiti
but relatively broader, dorsum more convex, midbody metazonites shorter,
and the two middle rows of primary tubercles composed of only two tu-
bercles on some segments.
Description: Length 5.5 mm, width 1.4 mm. Segment 1 with front mar-
gin low, horizontal, a little longer than in caraibianus, the 10 anterior
scallops more distinct. Median surface very convex, with an anterior row
of 4, and a posterior row of 6, large high tubercles. Succeeding segments
with dorsum more greatly elevated than in above species and the meta-
zonites of midbody region particularly, noticeably shorter, exposing more
of the prozonites. On segments 11-15 there are only 2 primary tubercles
in each submedian row, instead of 3 as on other segments and throughout
those of caraibianus, and these are low, flat, or even apically indented.

Loomis: New Millipede and Millipede Records

Posterior view of left gonopod shown in Fig. 1. In vertical ventral view
galeate coxal joint shorter and broader than in caraibianus. Sternum be-
tween fourth male legs elevated into a very high, slender tubercle, its apex
sharply bent forward.

I /


Fig. 1: Lophodesmus bituberculatus, left gonopod (anterior view).
Fig. 2-3: Poratioides virginalis. 2: segment 1; 3: antenna (anterior
Fig. 4-5: Siphonophora albiceps. 4 head and antenna (vertical view);
the front margin of segment 1 showing in oblique anterior view; 5: left
gonopods (lateral view).

Poratioides gen. nov.
Type species :-Poratioides virginalis spec. nov.
Diagnosis: Related to Poratia Cook & Cook, which it resembles in many
particulars, but smaller, with only 19 segments; segment 1 shorter, the
outer pair of lobes each side of front margin more completely united; keels
of segments 16-18 with 3 instead of 4 lobes.
Description: Body small, with 19 segments; widest across anterior
angles of segment 2 but thereafter narrowing very gradually to segment
16 or 17. Head much as in Poratia but antennae shorter, stouter, and with
joints 2, 3, and 4 definitely more monilliform. Segment 1 about twice as
wide as long; front margin with 6 well separated median lobes and a pair
of almost completely united ones either side appearing as a single large
lobe. Following segments with the 4 rows of primary tubercles poorly de-
veloped except on 1 or 2 preanal ones where they are strongly raised. Pore
formula normal but ending on segment 15; pores preceded by a single mar-
ginal lobe; all nonporiferous keels, from second to penultimate, with 3
outer lobes. Last segment with 6 projecting, seta-bearing lobes, the apical
pair much the largest. Anal valves considerably flattened; inner margins
inconspicuously raised; scale short, broad, and quite definitely rounded be-

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 3

Poratioides virginalis spec. nov.

Holotype female and 8 others, Hawksnest Bay area, 24 & 26 May 1968;
fragment of immature male, Annaberg, 24 May 1968.
Description: Maximum length 4 mm, width 0.5 mm, narrowing very
gradually from segment 2 to 16 or 17. Dorsum very convex, keels narrow
and obliquely descending. Head with a high and thick tubercle in front of
each antennal socket extending laterad; surface above antennae to crest of
vertex densely set with rounded tubercles, those adjacent to basal joint of
each antenna largest. Antennae (Fig. 3) short, with joints 2-4 more mo-
nilliform than in Poratia digitata (Porat), and joints 5 and 6 obviously
shorter. Segment 1 (Fig. 2) twice as wide as long; anterior margin weakly
curved, with 6 well separated median lobes and 2 others each side united
and appearing as 1; median surface granular, with 10 poorly defined pri-
mary tubercles, median 2 near back margin largest. On succeeding seg-
ments primary tubercles of the 4 rows poorly developed to segment 17
where they become more distinct and considerably elevated; secondary tu-
bercles represented by indistinct granules; primary tubercles of segment 18
large, strongly elevated, and bent caudad, the last 1 in each row much ex-
ceeding margin; no secondary tubercles on this segment. Segments 2-18
with a large rounded lobe on posterior margin where dorsum and keel
meet. Pores opening from large tubercle near posterior corner of usual
keels to segment 15; a single marginal lobe well in front of each tubercle;
nonporiferous keels 3-lobed, the lobes quite deeply separated. Last seg-
ment without dorsal tubercles or granules but with 6 marginal lobes, the
subapical pair much the largest. Preanal scale about 3 times as broad as
long; posterior margin between the 2 conical seta-bearing tubercles
rounded but only slightly more than its lateral portions.

Prosopodesmuzs jacobsoni Silvestri

Numerous specimens from Annaberg, Cinnamon Bay Trail, and Hawks-
nest Bay area, 24-26 May 1968. Originally described from Java, it has been
found in other parts of the Orient, Brazil, Panama, Haiti, Puerto Rico, St.
Eustatius, and at the writer's home in Florida.


Prostemmiulus wheeleri (Silvestri)

Numerous specimens from Annaberg, Cinnamon Bay Trail, and Hawks-
nest Bay area, 24-26 May 1968. Originally described from the island of
Culebra, it has also been reported from Tortola.


Rhinocricus arboreus (Saussure)

Found in all wooded parts of St. John where collecting was done. Orig-
inally described from St. Thomas, it has been reported from Puerto Rico,
Culebra, Antigua, St. Croix, and Tortola.

Loomis: New Millipede and Millipede Records



Siphonophora Brandt

This predominantly tropical American genus is comprised of a large
number of species, relatively few of which are adequately described or il-
lustrated, making identification very difficult except with topotype speci-
mens or comparison with the holotype. Study of the West Indian species
leads me to believe that those thus far known are restricted to the island
from which originally described, none having been reported from two or
more islands. This condition, taken in conjunction with published charac-
ters and such illustrations as are available, has made it possible to prepare
the following key.

Key to the West Indian species of Siphonophora

1. Body to 58 mm long; number of segments to 190; head narrowly
triangular ...........................-..................... millepeda Loomis. Tobago.
1.' Body little over half as long; many fewer segments; head not narrowly
triangular --..........- ..-..........-...--- - .----. -----.. .....----------.............. 2.
2. Body with about 106 segments; beak twice as long as head .............
...--.--. ..- .. ------- ..---..-.--..-. tenuicornis Pocock. St. Vincent.
2.' Body with less than 100 segments; beak shorter ..........-.....-......----.. 3.
3. Antennae exceeding apex of beak by at least 3 1/2 joints .... robusta
---.....----.---------.-..... ..-..-----.. ---... ----...-... Chamberlin. Jamaica.
3.' Antennae exceeding apex of beak by fewer joints .......................... 4.
4. Anterior margin of segment 1 straight across; head and first 2 seg-
ments white, other segments dark .......... albiceps new species St. John.
4.' Anterior margin of segment 1 slightly to deeply concave; head and
segments almost concolorous ...---..........--......... ... ...--------....----...... .... 5.
5. Setae of last segment much longer than those on other segments .....
............................................... gracilior Cham berlin. H aiti.
5.' Setae of last segment little different from others in length .......... 6.
6. Antennae exceeding beak by 2 1/2 joints ...... tobagoana Chamberlin.
....-... --.........- ....- .. --......----....................- ...... T obago.
6.' Antennae exceeding beak by less than 2 1/2 joints .......................---. 7.
7. Segment 1 three times as long as segment 2 .......-----..... platops Loomis.
..-.. --...-...........- ........-..-.....- ...-..-. Dom inican Republic.
7.' Segment 1 less than three times as long as segment 2 .................... 8.
8. Segment 1 shorter than the next 2 segments combined ........ proxima
....--...-.-....-.---.--... .....------ ------... Cham berlin. H aiti.
8.' Segment 1 still shorter .....--.. --..-... ..-....--.-........---.........--..-- ---.... 9.
9. Number of segments to 81 .......................... manni Chamberlin. Haiti.
9.' Number of segments less than 81 --..........-.. ------........ .......... ... 10.
10. Number of segments 71 or 72; body 20 mm long ......- portoricensis
........................ ...... ................... Brant. Puerto Rico.
10.' Body much less than 20 mm long; number of segments reduced .... 11.
11. Body 7-8 mm long; beak longer than head .... cubana Karsch. Cuba.
11.' Body reaching only 6.2 mm long; beak only half as long as head ......
--.- ......-- ..----.... -------------..... .... -... senaria Loom is. Cuba.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 3

Siphonophora albiceps spec. nov.

Holotype and two other males, 5 females, Cinnamon Bay Trail, 23 May;
many other males and females, Annaberg, 24 May, and Hawksnest Bay
area, 24 & 26 May 1968.
Diagnosis: The small stout body, its white anterior end in striking con-
trast to the darker color behind segment 2, and the enlarged intermediate
joints of the first pair of legs of both sexes, are outstanding characters of
this species.
Description: Largest specimen, a female, with 41 segments, 7 mm long,
0.8 mm wide; largest male (Holotype) with 42 segments; other mature
specimens from 32 segments; males more slender than females. Body
moderately convex from side to side, the metazonites rising sharply above
prozonites and strongly convex longitudinally. Living animals with an-
tennae, head, and next 1 or 2 segments white, in strong contrast to re-
mainder of body which is mauve. Head (Fig. 4) short, subhemispherical,
slightly less than twice as long as the slender, abruptly produced beak. An-
tennae unusually long and thick. In vertical view of segment 1 the an-
terior margin is straight across, the illustration of head drawn obliquely
from in front, the anterior margin of this segment showing curvature of
dorsum; lateral margins flaring outward behind; relative distances across
anterior angles, posterior angles, front to back of dorsum, and across pos-
terior angles of segment 4 are 6:8:3:9.5, showing rapid widening of front
end of body. Surface of head, segment 1, and metazonites with quite a
dense mixture of erect setae of variable length in subequal numbers, the
longest approximating the length of the metazonites, shortest a fifth or
sixth as long; small, shining, densely arranged granules are easily seen
among or supporting the setae. Both sexes with intermediate joints of
first pair of legs larger than those that follow. Gonopods (Fig. 5) with
anterior pair more slender and leglike than in other species; posterior pair
typical of genus.

The Florida Entomologist 53(3) 1970


University of Florida, Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings, and
University of Florida, Central Florida Experiment Station,
Sanford, respectively

Control of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) on
rutabaga was studied at Hastings and Sanford, Florida using similar test
conditions during 1968-69. Populations of aphids were higher at Has-
tings, where cabbage aphids predominated, than at Sanford, where green
peach aphids were most prevalent. Differences between treatments and lo-
cations were highly significant. Best control at both locations was given
by monocrotophos, Monitor@, and mevinphos.

About 17,600 acres of cabbage with an estimated value of $13,685,000
were grown in Florida during 1968 (Anonymous 1968). Cabbage aphids,
Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), and green peach aphids, Myzus persicae (Sul-
zer), are important pests of the crop. When aphids are uncontrolled,
plants become distorted and do not produce marketable heads. Aphid num-
bers increase during the winter months to peak in March, then drop off
rapidly (Wilson 1957). Populations of the aphids on cabbage vary from
year to year and, often, not all plants of a field will be infested. Other
crops such as brussels sprouts, rutabaga, kohlrabi, broccoli, and collards
have been found to attract consistently high and uniform populations of
cabbage aphids through May at Hastings. Pimentel (1961) reported higher
numbers of cabbage aphids on brussels sprouts, kale, and broccoli than on
cabbage in New York State. This paper reports the results of insecticide
tests on cabbage and green peach aphids at 2 locations in Florida during
the winter of 1968-69.


For purposes of uniformity, test conditions were standardized as much
as practical between the 2 locations similar to tests for other cabbage in-
sects (Greene et al. 1969). American purple top rutabaga plants were
transplanted to field plots at the Central Florida Experiment Station at
Sanford and the Potato Investigations Laboratory at Hastings. Plots were
50 ft long by 4 rows wide, with data collected from the center rows. Border
rows were planted to cabbage at both locations. Pesticides, of the same
batch number where possible, were applied at 250-300 psi and 100 gal per
acre with tractor-powered sprayers. Six ,nozzles per row were used to
apply the spray to the tops, sides, and under surfaces of the leaves. Seven
applications were made at Hastings and 12 at Sanford at a 7-day anterval
except for mevinphos and naled which were applied twice weekly at Has-
tings. Treatments were replicated 4 times in a randomized-block design.

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 3562.

136 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 3

Data were collected at plant maturity by rating the aphid numbers on 10
plants from each of the 4 replicates. Each plant was rated from 1-7 as
follows: 1=0, 2=1-2, 3=3-10, 4-11-25, 5=26-50, 6=51-100, 7=over 100
aphids per plant.
Chemical definitions of the proprietary compounds used in the test are
as follows:

DuPont 1642-methyl N-(carbamoyloxy) thioacetimidate
Fundal-N- (4-chloro-o-tolyl) -N, N-dimethylformamidine hydrochloride
Monitor-0,s-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate
Niran-6 lbs. ethyl parathion plus 3 lbs. methyl parathion per gallon
Phosvel-0- (2,5-dichloro-4-bromophenyl) 0-methyl phenylthiosphosphonate

UC-34096-4 [[(dimethylamino) methylene] amino ]-m-tolyl methylcar-

bamate hydrochloride


Results are listed in Table 1. Populations of aphids were higher at
Hastings (where untreated plants were nearly all killed) than at Sanford.
Cabbage aphids predominated at Hastings while green peach aphids were

DURING 1969.

Treatment and Aphid rating*
AI/acre (lb.) Sanford Hastings Average

Monocrotophos 0.75 1.22 a 1.05 a 1.14 a
Monitor 0.75 1.18 a 1.23 ab 1.21 a
Mevinphos 0.5 2.48 bed 1.05 a 1.77 ab
Niran 0.56+0.28 2.92 def 1.55 ab 2.24 be
Naled 2.0 1.82 abc 2.75 ed 2.29 be
Methomyl 0.5 1.72 ab 3.48 d 2.60 c
Parathion 0.5+Toxaphene 2.0 3.52 f 1.98 be 2.75 c
Phosvel 1.0 2.60 cde 6.55 e 4.58 d
Fundal 0.5 2.85 def 6.33 e 4.59 d
DuPont 1642 0.5 2.88 def 6.78 e 4.83 d
UC-34096 0.5 3.30 ef 6.95 e 5.13 d
Untreated 5.10 g 7.00 e 6.05 e

Means followed by same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level
(Duncan's MRT).

most prevalent at Sanford. Statistical analyses showed that differences
between treatments and between locations were highly significant. The
best control at both locations was given by monocrotophos, Monitor, and
mevinphos. Other insecticide treatments, except those with parathion, gave

Workman: Aphid Control on Rutabaga

better control at Sanford than at Hastings. The poorer control of green
peach aphids with parathion may have been related to the resistance shown
by this aphid on potatoes (Workman 1963). Lack of control of high pop-
ulations of cabbage aphids was shown by Phosvel, Fundal, DuPont 1642,
and UC-34096 at Hastings.

Anonymous. 1968. Florida Agricultural Statistics Vegetable Summary
1968, p. 13-16.

Greene, G. L., W. G. Genung, R. B. Workman, and E. G. Kelsheimer. 1969.
Cabbage looper control in Florida-A cooperative program. J.
Econ. Entomol. 62:798-800.

Pimentel, D. 1961. An evaluation of insect resistance in broccoli, brussels
sprouts, cabbage, collards, and kale. J. Econ. Entomol. 54:156-8.

Wilson, J. W. 1957. Abundance of aphids and caterpillars in commercial
cabbage fields in the vicinity of Sanford, Florida. Fla. Entomol.

Workman, R. B. 1963. Green peach aphid control on potatoes at Has-
tings. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 76:125-6.

The Florida Entomologist 53(3) 1970





The Asgrow Kilgore Company, manufacturers and formulators of
Insecticides and Fungicides, offers a complete advisory service to
Florida farmers through the facilities of its 16 Stores, Laboratory
and technically trained Field Staff.





Stores located at

I!- -



Biological Sciences Group, University of Connecticut, Storrs, and
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida, Homestead, respectively

A new genus and species (Neapodops floridanus) of turtle bug are de-
scribed from Everglades National Park, Florida.

The turtle bugs form the tribe Podopini of the pentatomid subfamily
Graphosomatinae. The tribe was revised for North America by Barber and
Sailer in 1960. In the present paper we describe an additional genus and
species from southern Florida.
Although the biology of most species remains poorly known or com-
pletely unknown, Barber and Sailer ibidd.) point out that . all members
of the tribe live in or near marshes among the roots of clumps of grass or
sedge . and along the margins of ponds, sloughs and streams." The spe-
cies discussed below appears to live in a similar habitat (see species dis-
Neapodops new genus
Head wider across eyes than long; eyes non-stylate or at most very
slightly pedunculate; juga tapered anteriorly, barely reaching apex of
tylus at mesal margin; antenniferous tubercles blunt, scarcely visible from
above, down curved, apex not visible in dorsal view; vertex strongly con-
vex mesally but nearly evenly raised from eye to median line, not produced
as a distinct ridge; preocular area of head considerably wider than long; no
spine present laterally immediately in front of eye, ocelli set well behind
a line drawn across posterior margin of eyes, set nearly twice as far from
one another as each is removed from an eye; antennae five segmented,
short, only slightly longer than head; labium extending nearly to posterior
margin of mesocoxae; pronotum more than twice as wide as long, a shal-
low transverse impression behind anterior "collar," a deep prominent com-
plete impression across center or disc, area between impressions slightly
swollen on meson, area of cicatrices prominently swollen but not distinctly
tuberculate, lateral margins sinuate, carinate and narrowly explanate, mar-
gin entire, non-s2rrate, antero-lateral angles with a short subacute process
extending slightly laterad of compound eye, prehumeral tooth short and
stout, not prominent and not extending laterad of humeri; scutellum more
than two thirds as wide as long, surface, with coarse foveate punctures
basally, central elevated area smooth and almost completely impunctate,
laterally with smaller but conspicuous punctures; lateral corial margins
arcuate, extending noticeably laterad of humeral angles for most of length,
connexivum very narrowly exposed laterad; posterior coxae well sepa-

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 3586.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 3

rated, metasternum lacking a distinct carina, but somewhat produced; legs
short; pruinose evaporative area small and trianguloid with a transversely
raised subelliptical plate in center, evaporative area not extended onto
mesopleuron, a deep lunate furrow present near posterior margin of meso-
pleuron, dorsal surface with only a scattering of very short inconspicuous
setae, appearing nearly glabrous, lacking elongate upstanding hairs; ab-
dominal venter punctate only laterally, punctures never extending midway
onto meson from lateral margins.
Type species: Neapodops floridanus n. sp. Monobasic (Fig. 1)
Superficially this genus most closely resembles Allopodops Harris and
Johnston. Both genera have a similar habitus with the lateral prorotal

Fig. 1. Dorsal view of Neapodops floridanus, holotype.

Slater: New Turtle Bug

and head margins generally tapering along the same plane to give an acu-
minate appearance to the body anteriorly; a similar dark coloration with
black femora and tibiae; similarly swollen but non-tuberculate cicatrices;
broadly arcuate corial margins; reduced punctures on the mesal raised area
of the scutellum; well separated hind coxae and almost non-pedunculate
eyes. The two genera are easily separable by Neapodops lacking serrated
lateral pronotal margins, lacking a tubercle immediately before the eyes,
possessing 5 rather than 4 segmented antennae and lacking elongate hairs
on the dorsal surface.
In the generic key of Barber and Sailer (1960) Neapodops will key to
couplet 4 where it agrees with Weda Schouteden in not having contiguous
posterior coxae and with Amaurochrous Stal in lacking a metasternal ca-
rina and in not having the juga exceeding the tylus. The separation of
Weda and Amaurochrous in the Barber and Sailer key is only in part satis-
factory as the hind coxae in Amaurochrous magnus B. & S. are not contig-
uous and the juga (as noted by Barber and Sailer) do exceed the tylus in
several species of Amaurochrous. From Weda the present genus is sepa.-
rable by the former possessing juga which always much exceed the tylus
and are contiguous before it, and by Neapodops lacking a metasternal ca-
rina. Amaurochrous is readily separable from Neapodops by possessing
evenly and thickly placed punctures over the entire scutellar surface, defi-
nite tubercles on the raised pronotal cicatrices, a distinct angle formed by
the lateral pronotal and head margins, the cinereous rather than black
coloration, with legs usually banded or spotted with cinereous, punctures
on abdominal venter present nearly to meson or at least considerably more
than midway from lateral margins to meson, and by the generally nearly
contiguous hind coxae.

Neapodops floridanus new species

Length female: 4.62 mm; black, subshining, becoming cinereous broadly
on lateral and distal portions of scutellum, entire corium, an ovoid spot
near middle of mesopleuron and an irregular area near dorso-caudad angle
of metapleuron; abdominal sternum laterally with a broad testaceous to
cinereous stripe thickly sprinkled with darker brown punctures, extreme
lateral margins of sternum dark brown with posterior 1/3 of margin of
each segment contrastingly flavescent, remainder of sternum black; tarsi
testaceous, strongly contrasting with uniformly black femora and tibiae;
pronotum becoming dark red-brown on humeral angles and on swollen
areas immediately mesad on posterior lobe.
Head with strongly convexly raised mesal area becoming depressed an-
teriorly on tylus, juga flattened, coarsely punctate; length head .95, width
across eyes 1.25, interocular space .87, interocellar distance .61, distance
ocellus to inner compound eye margin .30; pronotum strongly transverse,
coarsely foveately punctate; length pronotum 1.10, width 2.38; scutellum
broadly "U" shaped, broadest posterior to middle, not attaining end of ab-
domen, noticeably convex but without a definite median ridge; length scu-
tellum 2.42, maximum width 1.97; length corium 2.08; legs short, femora
mutic, hind femora not extending posteriorly beyond 4th abdominal ster-
num; length labial segments I .57, II .46, III .38, IV .38; antennae short,
stout, terete or very slightly clavate distally with 5th segment strongly

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 3

ovately fusiform, length antennal segments: I-.23, II-.11, III-.15, IV-.19,
Holotype: 9 FLORIDA: Everglades National Park, Flamingo Prairie,
10-VI-1969 (R. M. Baranowski). In United States National Museum, no.
The unique type was taken on damp mud in an area known as Flamingo
Prairie at the southern tip of Everglades National Park. This area is im-
mediately adjacent to the present camp site which is the original location
of the old town of Flamingo. Dr. F. Craighead (in litt.) informs us that
in a number of coastal embankments a prairielike vegetation of grasses
and shrubs will be found. This association is on well drained deep marl
soil built up 1.5 to 2.0 feet above mean sea level. There is evidence to in-
dicate that these prairies were formerly covered with hammock growth and
that the present vegetation is the result of clearing and fire. Near Fla-
mingo the clearing was for charcoal and for some farming. The present
vegetation of thcse prairie areas is dominated by cordgrass (Spartina
spartinae (Trin.) Merr. ex Hitchc.) and seaside daisy (Borrichia fruites-
cens (L.) D. C.).
Several subsequent trips to the locality, as well as the establishment of
a blacklight trap, in an attempt to obtain additional specimens were un-
It is unfortunate to be obliged to describe a new genus and species on a
single female specimen. However, the cryptic habits of the podopines
often necessitate such a procedure. Indeed the last two genera of podo-
pines to be described, Allopodops and Notopodops Barber and Sailer were
described from 1 female and two females respectively.
The difficulty of collecting these insects in their native habitats is evi-
denced in the case of Amaurochrous ovalis Barber and Sailer which was
described from a male and 2 females from North and South Carolina. The
senior author obtained a series of 76 specimens coming to lights at a gaso-
line station on the New Jersey turnpike 30 August 1957, at Elizabeth, New
Jersey, the home town of H. G. Barber and where he had collected Hemip-
tera for many years without taking a single specimen.

We wish to extend our thanks to Dr. R. C. Froeschner of the United
States National Museum for aid in comparison with material under his
jurisdiction and for helpful suggestions; to Dr. Frank Craighead of Home-
stead, Florida for allowing us to utilize his manuscript notes on the com-
position and history of the coastal prairies; to the authorities of Ever-
glades National Park for permission to collect material within the park
boundaries; to Miss Karen Stoutsenberger for the preparation of the illus-
tration; to Dr. Reece Sailer (U. S. Dept. of Agriculture) and Mrs. Darleen
Wilcox (University of Connecticut) for reviewing the manuscript; and to
the University of Florida Research Foundation for financial assistance.

Barber, H. G. and R. I. Sailer. 1960. A revision of the turtle bugs of
North America (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). J. Washington Acad.
Sci. 43:150-162.

The Florida Entomologist 53(3) 1970


USDA, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station,
Olustee, Florida 32072

Four systemic insecticides, dimethoate, oxydemetonmethyl, dicrotophos,
and Monitor@ (O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidithioate), were implanted into
trunks of 40-foot slash pines, Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, to con-
trol coneworms (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae: Dioryctria spp.) and the slash
pine seedworm (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae: Laspeyresia anaranjada Mil-
ler) in maturing cones. All insecticides, when implanted in drilled holes on
8 May 1968 at a dosage of 5 g active toxicant per diameter inch, reduced
Dioryctria cone infestation by 80-89% during the last 4-1/2 months of
cone development. Dicrotophos and oxydemetonmethyl at the 5 g/inch
dosage also reduced cone infestation by the slash pine seedworm by 97%
and 95%, respectively. Monitor and oxydemetonmethyl at a 2 g/inch
dosage rate failed to control either the coneworms or the seedworm. No
phytotoxicity was observed in any of the treatments.

Dicrotophos, dimethoate, and oxydemetonmethyl, applied by hydraulic
sprayer or mist blower, controlled seed-destroying insects on Douglas-fir,
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, in the Pacific Northwest (Johnson
1963; Johnson and Rediske 1964; Hedlin 1964, 1966; Buffam and Johnson
1966; Johnson and Meso 1966; Johnson and Hedlin 1967). These authors
stressed the importance of full-cover, or wetting sprays, to obtain maxi-
mum insect control; but very little research has been done on the direct
implantation of systemics into conifers for cone and seed insect control.
Schenk et al. (1967) found that insect-caused seed losses on open-growing,
pole-sized Douglas-fir in Idaho were reduced significantly when oxyde-
metonmethyl was implanted into tree trunks at a dosage of about 2 g ac-
tual toxicant per diameter inch by means of Mauget1 injectors. In Flor-
ida, Merkel (1969) implanted dicrotophos into slash pine trunks at rates
of 3.4- or 5-g per diameter inch, either by means of Mauget injectors or by
the drill-hole method, and prevented cone infestation by the slash pine
seedworm, Laspeyresia anaranjada Miller, and Dioryctria spp. coneworms.

This study was conducted on the Olustee Experimental Forest, Baker
County, Florida, in 1968. The slash pine study trees had large spreading
crowns, were open-growing, and averaged 40 ft in height and 9 inches in
diameter at breast height.
The following commercial systemic insecticide formulations were ap-
plied in a completely randomized design with whole-tree treatments: (1)
Bidrin technical liquid containing 9 lb/gal actual dicrotophos; (2) Moni-
tor 6 concentrate containing 6 lb/gal actual Monitor (O,S-dimethyl phos-
phoramidithioate); (3) Cygon@ 4E containing 4 lb/gal actual dimethoate;

1J. J. Mauget Company, P. O. Box 509, Burbank, California 91503. Men-
tion of trade names does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture to the exclusion of other equally acceptable products.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 3

and (4) Meta-Systox-R spray concentrate containing 2 lb/gal actual
oxydemeton-methyl. All insecticides were tested at the dosage rate of 5 g
actual toxicant per inch of tree diameter at breast height for direct com-
parisons among chemicals. Monitor and oxydemetonmethyl were also
tested at a 2 g per diameter inch dosage rate. Dicrotophos and dimethoate
were not tested at the lower dosage because of an insufficient supply. Di-
crotophos was used as a standard of comparison because in previous stud-
ies it controlled Dioryctria spp. and L. anaranjada on slash pine (Merkel
All chemicals were implanted 8 May into holes drilled by wood auger at
5-inch intervals around the bole at waist height by means of a Hauptner2
veterinarian's syringe of 50 cc capacity. The number and location of im-
plant holes per tree were determined by using a diameter tape upon which
red lines were painted at 5-inch intervals. The last implant hole was not
used if its location was within 4 inches of the first-hole mark on the diam-
eter tape. Trunk diameters were recorded and used to calculate dosage per
tree and per hole for each insecticide. Diameters and depths of holes var-
ied with insecticide to accommodate different amounts of active ingredient
per unit volume. The largest holes were 3/4 inch by 4 inches deep, drilled
at a 60 downward slope; the smallest were 1/2 inch by 3 inches deep.
The effectiveness of control for Dioryctria spp. was calculated by ex-
amining the entire mature cone crop on each tree in mid-September. Eval-
uation of seedworm control was made from a sample of 50 mature cones
which showed no external symptoms of Dioryctria larval damage. These
cones were stored in well-ventilated, indoor drying bins until November
when completion of overwintering larval galleries in the cone axes was
assured. Infested cones were bisected longitudinally for examination. Data
for percentage cone infestation of L. anaranjada and Dioryctria were sub-
jected to arc-sin transformation and analysis of variance.


All insecticide applications at the 5 g/inch dosage rate significantly re-
duced average cone infestation by Dioryctria as compared to untreated
check trees (Table 1); however, cone infestation at this dosage did not
vary significantly for the different insecticides. Monitor and oxydemeton-
methyl, at the 2 g/inch dosage, did not reduce Dioryctria attacks signifi-
cantly on second-year cones compared with the check.
Dicrotophos and oxydemetonmethyl, at 5 g/inch, were the only insecti-
cides that provided better than 90% reduction in cone infestation by the
slash pine seedworm (Table 2). The 57% reduction in cone infestation,
produced by 5 g/inch of Monitor, was significantly lower than the check in-
festation (Table 2).
No phytotoxic symptoms, based on needle color, were observed in any
of the treatments.

This article reports results of research involving pesticides. It does not
contain recommendations for their use, nor does it imply that the uses dis-

2NASCO, Ft. Atkinson, Wisconsin, and Modesto, California.

Merkle: Pine Cone Insect Control with Systemics


cussed here have been registered. All uses of pesticides must be registered
by appropriate State and/or Federal agencies before they can be recom-




per inch


none (check)

Grams Number Percent Percent
0 15 10.0 a -

dimethoate 5 6
oxydemetonmethyl 5 6
dicrotophos 5 8

All chemicals were applied 8 May 1968 in holes drilled
circumference at waist height.

9.3 ab
6.6 abc
2.0 bcd
2.0 cd
1.8 cd
1.1 d

at 5-inch intervals around tree

**Any two means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 1%
probability level by Duncan's multiple-range test.


Average Reduction
Toxicant infested in
per inch Replicates cones infested
Treatments* dbh (trees) per tree** cones

none (check)

Grams Number
0 15
2 7
2 7
5 6

23.3 a
13.1 ab
13.0 ab
12.7 ab
10.0 b
1.1 c
0.8 c



All chemicals were applied 8 May 1968 in holes drilled at 5-inch intervals around tree
circumference at waist height.
** Any two means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 1%
probability level by Duncan's multiple-range test.


per tree**


The Florida Entomologist


Buffam, Paul E., and N. E. Johnson. 1966. Tests of Guthion and dimetho-
ate for Douglas-fir cone midge control. Forest Sci. 12(2) : 160-163.

Hedlin, Alan F. 1964. Five systemic insecticides used against Douglas-fir
cone insects. Can. Dep. Forest Bi-mon. Prog. Rep. 20(2) : 4.

Hedlin, Alan F. 1966. Prevention of insect-caused seed loss in Douglas-
fir with systemic insecticides. Forest Chron. 42(1) : 76-81.

Johnson, Norman E. 1963. Insecticides tested for control of the Douglas-
fir cone midge. J. Econ. Entomol. 56: 236-237.

Johnson, N. E., and J. H. Rediske. 1964. Tests of systemic insecticides for
the control of the Douglas-fir cone midge, Contarinia oregonensis
Foote. Weyerhaeuser Co. Forestry Res. Note 56, 13 p.

Johnson, Norman E., and S. W. Meso. 1966. Effectiveness of three sys-
temic insecticides for Douglas-fir cone and seed insect control.
Weyerhaeuser Co. Forestry Paper 10, 10 p.

Johnson, Norman E., and A. F. Hedlin. 1967. Douglas-fir cone insects
and their control. Can. Dep. Forest & Rural Development Pub. No.
1168, 11 p.

Merkel, Edward P. 1969. Control of insects in slash pine cones with trunk
implantations of Bidrin systemic insecticide--first-year results.
USDA Forest Serv. Res. Note SE-109, 4 p.

Schenk, John A., G. H. Giles, Jr., and F. D. Johnson. 1967. Effects of
trunk-injected oxydemetonmethyl on Douglas-fir cone and seed in-
sects, seedling production, and mice. Univ. Idaho Sta. Paper No. 2,
20 p.

The Florida Entomologist 53(3) 1970

Vol. 53, No. 3


Department of Entomology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601

The pupa of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) infirmatus Dyar and Knab is de-
scribed and illustrated for the first time. A table lists the range, mode,
and mean number of branches of each pupal hair.

Aedes (Ochlerotatus) infirmatus was originally described from the
fourth instar larva by Dyar and Knab (1906). Howard, Dyar, and Knab
(1912) illustrated the egg but did not publish the written description until
1917, when the descriptions of the female and male were also included. The
following stages were treated more thoroughly by the authors listed: egg
(Craig and Horsfall, 1960); first, second, third and fourth larval instars
(Breland, 1951) ; female genitalia (Coher, 1948); and the male, male termi-
nalia, female and fourth instar larva (Carpenter and La Casse, 1955).
Mitchell (1907) included Aedes infirmatus in a key to the pupa but gave no
description of this stage. A detailed taxonomic description and illustra-
tion (Fig. 1-3) of the pupa is presented here for the first time. The range,
mode and mean number of branches for each pupal hair are listed in Table
1. Chaetotaxy and morphological nomenclature follow Belkin (1962).

Aedes (Ochlerotatus) infirmatus DYAR AND KNAB

Cephalothorax (Fig. 1): Hairs C-1-3, 7, 9 long, C-4-5, 8 moderately long,
C-6 short, C-1 usually double, C-2-3 double, C-4 usually triple, C-5, 7 usu-
ally with 3-4 branches, C-6 usually single or double, C-8 usually with 4 or
7 branches, C-9 usually double or triple.
Respiratory trumpet (Fig. 2): Strongly pigmented; scattered, tiny,
spine-like setae on distal 0.75 of inner surface; index 3.24-4.26.
Metanotum (Fig. 3): Hair C-10 moderately long, C-11-12 long, C-10
usually with 5-6 branches, C-11 usually single, C-12 usually with 2-3
Abdomen (Fig. 3): Hair 0-II-VIII minute, single; 1-I well developed
with 28-49 branches, 1-II-VII long, 1-II usually with 7-8 branches, 1-III,
V-VI usually with 3-4 branches, 1-IV usually with 4-5 branches, 1-VII usu-
ally double or triple; 2-I-VII short, single; 3-I-III long, 3-IV-VII moder-
ately long, 3-I-III single, 3-IV usually with 4 or 6 branches, 3-V-VII usu-
ally double or triple; 4-I-III short, 4-IV-VIII moderately long, 4-I, VII

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 3596.
-Major, Medical Service Corps, U. S. Army. The opinions contained
herein are the private ones of the author and are not to be construed as
official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army.

The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 53, No. 3

-----o.s mm --

Fig. 1-3: Pupa of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) infirmatus Dyar and Knab. Fib.
1. Cephalothorax. Fig. 2. Respiratory trumpet. Fig. 3. Metanotum and
abdomen. (C=cephalothorax, I-VIII=abdominal segments 1 through 8,

usually double or triple, 4-II, V usually with 3-4 branches, 4-III usually
with 2-4 branches, 4-IV, VIII usually double, 4-VI usually with 4-5
branches; 5-I, VII short, 5-II-III moderately long, 5-IV-V extra long, 5-VI
long, 5-I usually with 3-4 branches, 5-II-III usually with 4-5 branches, 5-IV
usually single or double, 5-V double, 5-VI usually double, 5-VII usually
double or triple; 6-I extra long, 6-II-VI long, 6-VII moderately long, 6-I


Reinert: Pupa of Aedes infirmatus 149

Aedes infirmatus

Hair Range Mode Mean Hair Range Mode Mean

2-3 2 2.2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2-5 3 3.4
2-6 4 3.5
1-2 1 1.4
2-5 3 3.5
3-7 4 5.3
1-3 2 1.8


Abdomen I

Abdomen III (Cont.)

Abdomen IV


Abdomen V

1 1
4 4.'
1 1
4 4.i
2 2.i
2 1.
2 2.i
2 2.'
2 2.'
1 1
3 2.
1 1
1 1

1 1

Abdomen II

Abdomen III
1 1 1
2-6 4 3.8
1 1 1
1 1 1
2-5 2 3.1
2-5 4 3.9
1-3 2 2.3

Abdomen VI
1 1 1
3-5 3 2.8
1 1 1
2-4 2 2.5
3-5 4 3.9
2-3 2 2.2

150 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 3

Table 1 (Cont.)

Hair Range Mode Mean Hair Range Mode Mean

Abdomen VI (Cont.) Abdomen VII (Cont.)
6 1-4 2 2.1 6 2-7 5 5.2
7 1 1 1 7 1 1 1
8 1-3 2 2.1 8 1-3 2 1.8
9 1 1 1 9 2-3 2 2.2
10 1 1 1 10 1 1 1
11 1 1 1 11 1 1 1
14 1 1 1 14 1 1 1

Abdomen VIII
Abdomen VII
0 1 1 1
0 1 1 1 4 1-4 2 2.2
1 2-4 2 2.8 9 6-11 7 7.1
2 1 1 1 14 1 1 1
3 1-4 2 2.2
4 2-3 2 2.4 Paddle
5 2-3 3 2.6 1 1 1 1

usually single or double, 6-II usually single, 6-III-IV, VI usually double or
triple, 6-V usually double, 6-VII usually with 5-6 branches; 7-1, VI-VII
long, 7-II, V moderately long, 7-III-IV short, 7-I-II usually single or
double, 7-III, V usually with 3-4 branches, 7-IV usually double, 7-VI-VII
single; 8-III-VII short, 8-III, VI usually double or triple, 8-IV-V usually
double, 8-VII usually single or double; 9-I-VI short, 9-VII-VIII moderately
long, 9-I-VI single, 9-VII usually double, 9-VIII stellate, usually with 6-7
branches; 10-III moderately long, 10-IV-VII long, 10-III-IV usually double
or triple, 10-V usually single, 10-VI-VII single; 11-III-VII short, single; 14-
III-VII minute, 14-VIII short, 14-III-VIII single.
Paddle (Fig. 3): Ovoid, covered with very minute spicules, midrib not
reaching apex; 1-P short, single; index 1.12-1.51.
The preceding description is based on pupal skins collected by the au-
thor from Alachua County, Florida, as follows: 11 females and 7 males
from a shaded, shallow forest pool with many leaves covering its bottom,
near Gainesville, 17 and 28 January 1970; 4 females and 3 males from a
sunlit, grassy roadside borrow ditch located on the western side of New-
nan's Lake, 21 February 1970; and 11 females and 9 males from a shaded,
grassy, pasture ditch located near Micanopy, 1 March 1970.

Belkin, J. N. 1962. The mosquitoes of the South Pacific. Univ. Calif.
Press, Berkeley. 2 vols., 608 and 412 p.
Breland, O. P. 1951. The immature stages of Aedes infirmatus Dyar and
Knab with notes on related species (Diptera: Culicidae). Ann. En-
tomol. Soc. Amer. 44:362-371.
Carpenter, S. J., and W. J. La Casse. 1955. Mosquitoes of North America
(North of Mexico). Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley. 360 p.

Reinert: Pupa of Aedes infirmatus

Coher, E. I. 1948. A study of the female genitalia of Culicidae: with par-
ticular reference to characters of generic value. Entomol. Amer.
Craig, G. B., Jr., and W. R. Horsfall. 1960. Eggs of flood-water mos-
quitoes. VII. Species of Aedes common in the southeastern United
States (Diptera: Culicidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 53:11-18.
Dyar, H. G., and F. Knab. 1906. The larvae of Culicidae classified as in-
dependent organisms. J. New York Entomol. Soc. 14:169-230.
Howard, L. 0., H. G. Dyar, and F. Knab. 1912 (1913). The mosquitoes of
North and Central America and the West Indies. Carnegie Inst.
Washington. 2:150 pls.
Howard, L. 0., H. G. Dyar, and F. Knab. 1917. The mosquitoes of North
and Central America and the West Indies. Carnegie Inst. Washing-
ton. 4 (2):525-1064.
Mitchell, E. G. 1907. Mosquito life. Knickerbocker Press, New York.
281 p.
The Florida Entomologist 53(3) 1970


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Loyola University, New Orleans, La. 70118

The hind wings of 7 species of Mordellidae, belonging to 6 genera, are
described and their venation compared. Of these, the wing of Hoshihana-
nomia Kono seems to be the most archaic. The wing of Sphalera Leconte
exhibits no appreciable difference from that of the previous genus. Conalia
Mulsant and Rey is moderately advanced and probably had a common de-
scent with Glipodes Leconte, though they have apparently long since di-
verged from each other. The genus Tolidomordella Ermisch is moderately
specialized, and there seem to be no grounds for including it in the same
tribe with Hoshihananomia and Sphalera. Mordellistena Costa seems to
be more highly evolved than the other genera studied, exhibiting closer
ties to Tolidomordella.

In the higher taxa of many winged insects, taxonomy depends regularly
on wing venation. This is not the case in many Coleoptera groups in spite
of the work of Forbes (1922) and Crowson (1955).
In his plates of the wings of Coleoptera, Kempers (1923) included the
wings of 2 species of Mordellidae. Unfortunately, the veins in Kempers'
figures were unlabeled, and the plates were not accompanied by descrip-
The hind wings of this family remained undescribed in spite of the dif-
ficulties which existed in defining the taxa. There is a good deal of con-
troversy about the validity of some genera and uncertainty in reaching
correct species identification. The inclusion of hind wings in species de-
scription and the analysis of wing venation will have appreciable diagnos-
tic value and might prove useful in checking the status of some genera.
In this family, as in many other insect groups, wing venation is rela-
tively constant, disclosing affinities which may not be otherwise recognized.
A comprehensive comparative study of the wing venation will contribute
to a better understanding of their phylogenetic relationships. In order to
attain a sound classification for Mordellidae, a family revision utilizing
wing venation, in addition to other basic structures (e.g. genitalia and
legs), is urgently needed.


The wings of 7 species (Table 1) belonging to 6 genera were studied
and their venation compared. The study of North American Mordellidae
has lately been neglected: Liljeblad's monograph (1945) was put in its final
form in 1929, and Ray did his work on the U.S. fauna before 1947. Since
then some genera have been split by Old World investigators, with the
generic names of only a few North American species remaining unchanged
(Table 1).
The following procedure was used to unfold the wings and maintain
them in that position. The specimen was soaked in 75% alcohol, the elytra
were raised, and any air trapped within the folds was removed. It was

154 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 3


Current Status Name in Liljeblad's Monograph (1945)

Hoshihananomia octopunctata Glipa octopunctata (Fabricius)

Sphalera quadripunctata (Say) Mordella quadripunctata (Say)

S. melaena (Germar) M. melaena Germar

Glipodes sericans (Melsheimer) Glipodes sericans (Melsheimer)

Conalia helva (Leconte) Conalia helva (Leconte)

Tolidomordella discoidea Tomoxia discoidea flaviventris (Smith)
flaviventris (Smith)

Mordellistena ancilla Leconte Mordellistena ancilla Leconte

transferred to a drop or two of polyvinyl alcohol (medium viscosity) in
the cavity of a depression slide. The elytron was clipped, and the wing cut
for unfolding, using minute nadelins (with tip bent at an angle) mounted
on wooden applicators, or standard insect pins. Pinned specimens were
easier to process, since the pin itself served to stabilize the specimen dur-
ing clipping. The viscosity of polyvinyl alcohol was important since the
small, thin wing tends to fold back in thin medium, and may be torn on un-
folding in thick medium. Polyvinyl alcohol has the advantage of delayed
setting over some other mounting media (e.g., Canada balsam).

The wing venation in Mordellidae (Fig. 1) is somewhat allied to that
of other Heteromera. The nomenclature adopted is that of Forbes (1922)
as modified in the anal field by Crowson (1955).
The subcosta is distinct at the base of the wing. Distally it is closely
associated with the radius to a distance that varies with the taxon.
The radius closely parallels Sc. The surviving branches are mostly
heavy. R, is prominent, while Rs is missing near the base and cross-vein
r connects the 2 veins, closing a radial cell proximally. The principal folds
of the wing interrupt the distal branches of vein Rs and, to a lesser degree,
vein M, causing distortion in their path.
The media, like Rs, is obsolescent near the base. Distally, it is strong,
curving toward the heavy cubitus, and joining the latter to form the M-Cu
loop. Vein M,+Cu runs from the apex of the loop toward the posterior
wing margin. The veins near the bottom of this loop carry a few small
fine setae or their sockets. Crossvein r-m connects Rs and M.
There are 4 anal veins, besides the jugal (axillary) vein. They are
weak and often poorly indicated. The common stem of the first 2 anal
veins is united, somewhat indistinctly, with base of cubitus.
Several thickened areas (flecks), which seem to represent aberrant
veins, are present: anterior, intermediate, posterior, medial, one located on

Khalaf: Wing Venation in Mordellidae

4< NQ

Fig. 1: Wing venation of Sphalera quadripunctata. AF, IF, MF, PF,
anterior, intermediate, medial, and posterior flecks respectively; RC, radial
cell; SV, spurious vein.

crossvein r-m, and a spurious one occasionally present behind base of vein
Ri. A fleck strip behind fleck r-m sometimes joins M to the front of the
medial fleck. The anterior fleck, which is derived from the radius behind
vein R,, includes R, and seems to be compound. It is continuous through
a "bridge" with the intermediate fleck. A homologue of the latter is pres-
ent in allied families and probably represents vein R, (Forbes 1922). The
posterior fleck, which presumably represents the posterior branch of the
radius, is usually well sclerotized. The medial fleck is nearly in line with
the posterior one and seems to represent a detached branch of the media.
Two descriptive terms are introduced: 1) the "radial cell ratio", which
represents the ratio between the maximal inside length and width of that
cell; and 2) the "loop ratio", which is the ratio of the depth of M-Cu loop
(inside measurement from the level of the basal end of vein M) to the
length of cross-vein r-m. This ratio represents one way of expressing the
relative length of the curved vein M.

WING OF Hoshihananomia KONO (FIG. 2)

Vestiges of Rs and M present at base of wing. Four distinct anal veins
noted. Faint spurious vein present behind R,. Radial cell very long, radial
cell ratio 5:1.
Loop ratio slightly more than 3:1. Medial fleck long, reaching posterior
wing margin. Distal segment of anterior fleck widened towards costal
margin of wing. Bridge with a proximal peg.

WING OF Sphalera LECONTE (FIG. 1, 3)

Spurious vein parallel to and behind R Four anal veins present. Rem-
nants of base of Rs and M present. Radial cell long, radial cell ratio 3:1.
Vein M long, loop ratio 3:1. Medial fleck reaching posterior wing margin.

2i r.......
~~t 2
S -1.~rl~~- r

.3 __a4 i Lt



Fig. 2-7: Wings of Mordellidae. 2, Hoshihananomia octopunctata; 3,
Sphalera melaena; 4, Glipodes sericans; 5, Conalia helva; 6, Tolidomor-
della discoidea flaviventris; 7, Mordellistena ancilla.

Khalaf: Wing Venation in Mordellidae


Bridge with a proximal peg. Distal segment of anterior fleck wide,
broadly touching costal margin. In S. quadripunctata (Fig. 1), this fleck
is compound in structure and apparently represents the more primitive
condition in the genera examined. Proximally it still exhibits a vein origin
in two separate locations, the anterior one apposing a similar vestige is-
suing from the radial cell.


Four anal veins present. Remnant of crossvein still attached to stem
of first 2 anal veins. Crossveins r and r-m unaligned. Radial cell ratio
hardly more than 2:1. M long, loop ratio 3:1. Spurious fleck present at
base of cell R,. Distal segment of anterior fleck wide; distal border round,
not reaching costal margin. Bridge with only a vestige of proximal peg.
Medial fleck nearly reaching posterior wing margin. Fleck strip behind
fleck r-m joining M to front of medial fleck.


Rs extremely reduced, shorter than length of radial cell, and not ex-
tending as far basally as M. Fourth anal vein present, although faint.
Radial cell ratio 2:1. Loop ratio 17:10. Medial fleck well separated from
posterior wing margin. Posterior fleck more primitive i.e. less reduced,
and extending postero-apically. Bridge with a proximal peg. As in
Glipodes, the distal segment of anterior fleck wide, not reaching costal
margin of wing, and fleck strip behind fleck r-m joining vein M to front of
medial fleck.

WING OF Tolidomordella ERMISCH (FIG. 6)

Fourth anal vein degenerate, almost absent. Other 3 veins distinct, al-
though fading out proximally. Dark spot present on crossvein r-m. Radial
cell short, radial cell ratio slightly more than 2:1. Loop ratio 2:1. Ex-
tremely fine crease facing the basal end of Rs diagonally. A faint spurious
fleck present at base of cell R,. Anterior fleck faint, although appearing
to extend almost to costal margin. Medial fleck separated by less than its
length from posterior wing margin. Remnant of the fleck strip present
although connection to M lost.

WING OF Mordellistena COSTA (FIG. 7)

Anal veins, especially the fourth, exceedingly faint. Crossvein r ves-
tigial, appearing on way to disappearance.' Radial cell short, radial cell
ratio nearly 2:1. Loop ratio slightly more than 2:1. Distal segment of
anterior fleck completely absent leaving anterior to "bridge", basal seg-
ment only. Medial fleck abbreviated, separated by more than its length
from posterior wing margin. Fleck strip ill defined and connection to M
usually lost.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 3


In some genera, e.g. Hoshihananomia (Fig. 2), the medial fleck extends
to the wing margin, somewhat as in an unreduced vein. In others, e.g.
Mordellistena (Fig. 7), it is considerably shortened. Based on evidence
derived from morphological features other than the wings, the Mordellis-
tena is considered the most highly evolved of the family (Crowson 1955).
Results from the present comparative study of wing venation agree with
Crowson's conclusion. A reduced vein does not represent the more primi-
tive condition. The presence of the long fleck of Hoshihananomia would
imply restoration of full vein after reduction, a sequence highly improb-
able in the processes of evolution. The wing with the minimum relative
morphological specialization seems to be one possessing the following: a
long radial cell; Rs and M long, with vestiges of their bases still distin-
guishable; a spurious vein behind and parallel to vein R,; 4 well repre-
sented anal veins; an unreduced, veinlike medial fleck, reaching the poste-
rior wing margin; an anterior fleck of a distinct compound nature, widely
touching the costal margin; a bridge with a proximal peg. These genera-
lized characters are well exemplified in Hoshihananomia (Fig. 2), which
seems to be the most archaic of the genera studied.
The wing of Sphalera (Fig. 3) has a somewhat shorter radial cell; it
otherwise exhibits no essential difference from that of Hoshihananomia.
Both genera have the following characteristics: hind tibiae with short pre-
apical (subapical) comb; tiny, isolated spurs irregularly arranged dorso-
laterally on the tibia and the first (or first and second) tarsal segment of
hind legs; no dorsal ridge or lateral combs on hind tibiae and hind tarsal
segments; penultimate segment of front and middle tarsi emarginate; gla-
brous (glossy) eyes, finely granulated; antennae serrate. Some authors
attempted to separate the 2 genera on the basis of the relation of the eye
to the occiput (the extension of the temporal region behind the eyes). Pre-
sumably, the eyes reach the occiput in Sphalera and do not in Hoshihana-
nomia. There seems to be no such universal distinction among species of
the 2 genera. These 2 genera are so closely allied that their separate iden-
tity becomes questionable.

In the genus Glipodes (Fig. 4), the medial fleck is still rather well de-
veloped. The radial cell is somewhat shortened, with the anterior fleck not
reaching the costa, and the peg on the bridge reduced.
The genus Conalia is considered one of the more primitive genera in
imaginal structure (Crowson 1955). The wing (Fig. 5) still preserves
primitive features like the peg on the bridge, the somewhat expanded an-
terior fleck, and the more primitive posterior fleck. However, the wing
shows that the genus is moderately advanced. Rs is extremely reduced.
The genus resembles Glipodes in having a long, oblique, lateral, preapical
comb on outer surface of hind tibia, in addition to the fine dorsal ridge.
There are no other lateral combs on the tibia, although such combs may be
present on one or more of the hind tarsal segments. In both genera, a
fleck strip behind fleck r-m joins M to the front of the medial fleck. Conalia
probably had a common descent with Glipodes but they have apparently
long since split from their common stalk. As these 2 genera diverged


Khalaf: Wing Venation in Mordellidae

from each other, each acquired significant specialized characters: in Gli-
podes appeared the large, coarsely granulated eyes, transverse suture in
the metasternal plates (Franciscolo 1962), and the spurious fleck; while in
Conalia evolved the finely granulated eyes, the reduced Rs, and the absence
of the dorsal ridge on the hind tarsus.

The genus Tolidomordella had been placed with Hoshihananomia and
Sphalera in the tribe Mordellini because of the similarity in the antennae,
the penultimate segment of the front and middle tarsi, the short, preapical
comb on hind tibiae, and the absence of lateral combs on hind tibiae and
tarsi. Such hind legs seem to be quite archaic. However, examination of
wing venation (Fig. 6) shows that Tolidomordella is far remote from the
ancestral form, and is moderately specialized. The distal segment of the
anterior fleck is exceedingly faint, the peg on the bridge no longer visible,
the medial fleck and radial cell distinctly shortened, and the fourth anal
vein almost absent. A remnant of the fleck strip is present. A generically
unique diagonal crease faces the basal end of Rs. Other progressive
changes which accompanied the specialization of Tolidomordella are also
reflected in its differences from both Hoshihananomia and Sphalera. These
differences include the presence of a dorsal ridge on the tibia and the first
tarsal segment of hind legs (this ridge seems to be of an older origin than
the lateral combs); pubescent eyes; hammer-shaped, terminal segment of
male maxillary palp. There appear to be no grounds for including this
genus in the same tribe with Hoshihananomia and Sphalera.

Mordellistena.-This genus is cosmopolitan and one of the larger gen-
era of the family. It is rightfully recognized (Crowson 1955) as the most
highly evolved genus of the family. In spite of the differences between
the larva of this genus and that of Tomoxia-group, Crowson believes that
the stem-boring larva found in Mordellistena has been derived from such
types as the Tomoxia-group which bores in decaying wood. The genus
Mordellistena is more allied to Tolidomordella than to any other genus
studied. The wing (Fig. 7) is highly specialized, and the radial cell is re-
duced. The crossvein r tends to disappear, and the anterior and medial
flecks are highly reduced. The fleck strip is faint and incomplete. The
loop is shortened, and the anal veins are disappearing. The hind tibiae
and tarsi possess lateral combs which seem to be of a rather late develop-
ment in this family. Franciscolo (1967) considered Mordellistena as the
origin of some other unspecializedd genera". This view conflicts with
Crowson's (1955) and the results of the present investigation, both of
which consider the genus quite advanced.


I wish to sincerely thank Dr. Karl Ermisch for his kind cooperation in
the preparation of Table 1; Dr. Herbert H. Ross for confirming the basic
concept of the primitive wing; and T. J. Spilman and the Smithsonian In-
stitution for providing the specimens of Hoshihananomia and Sphalera.
This investigation was supported by a research grant from the Edward G.
Schlieder Educational Foundation of New Orleans.

160 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 3

Crowson, R. A. 1955. The natural classification of the families of Coleop-
tera. Nathaniel Lloyd and Co., London. 187p.
Forbes, W. T. M. 1922. The wing-venation of the Coleoptera. Ann.
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 15:328-346.
Franciscolo, M. E. 1962. The genus Glipodes Leconte, 1862 (Coleoptera:
Mordellidae) with description of a new species from Venezuela and
Costa Rica. Proc. Roy. Entomol. Soc. London. Ser. B. 31:131-136.
Franciscolo, M. E. 1967. Coleoptera: Mordellidae III. South African
Animal Life. 13:67-203.

Kempers, K. J. W. 1923. Abbildungen von flugelgeader der Coleopteren.
Entomol. Mitt. 12:71-115.
Liljeblad, E. 1945. Monograph of the family Mordellidae (Coleoptera) of
North America, north of Mexico. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ.
Michigan. 62:226p.
Ray, E. 1947. Studies on North American Mordellidae, V (Coleoptera).
Pan-Pac. Entomol. 23:121-131.

The Florida Entomologist 53(3) 1970


i ii ll IlI



University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead, and
Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,


Forty-five female and 26 male Parachasma cereus (Gahan) were re-
leased on the grounds of the Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead,
Florida on 16 July 1969. Through September 1969, recoveries of P. cereus
from parasitized Anastrepha suspense (Loew) pupae were made from
mixed infested fruits up to 0.4 miles from the point of release. Samples of
pupae from fruits were from 3.4% to 20% parasitized. Pupae from tropi-
cal almond, Terminalia catappa L., were 43% parasitized.

Forty-five female and 26 male Parachasma cereus (Gahan)2 were re-
leased on the grounds of the Sub-Tropical Experiment Station Homestead,
Florida on 16 July 1969. The release was made in a mixed stand of fruit
trees that included varieties of guavas infested with Anastrepha suspense
(Loew) larvae. Fruit samples have been taken from the release site at
least once a week since the parasite introduction. During the week of
21 July, 578 A. suspense pupae were recovered from fruit samples.
Twenty-two wasps emerged from this sample indicating that the labora-
tory reared wasps were successful in seeking out A. suspense larvae in
infested fruit in the field. Samples collected during the next 2 weeks
yielded 1,020 A. suspense pupae, none of which was parasitized. Since the
age of the released wasps ranged from 3-21 days and adults lived up to 30
days in the laboratory, recoveries were expected in these samples. It is
possible the sampling was inadequate or the wasps did not survive as long
in the field as in the laboratory. During the next 3 weeks the following
recoveries were made: 11 August, 12 wasps from 360 A. suspense pupae;
18 August, 2 wasps from 273 pupae; and 25 August, 3 wasps from 179
pupae. During the first weeks of September efforts were made to obtain
larger samples of fruit from the release area with the following results:
6,173 A. suspense pupae were recovered during the week of 1 September of
which 778 were parasitized by P. cereus, a parasitization rate of 12.6% in
about 7 weeks. During the week of 8 September, 237 wasps were re-
covered from 2,550 pupae (9.2%); 15 September, 36 wasps from 1,029

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 3530,
and Contribution No. 168, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant In-
dustry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
2We thank Dr. Paul M. Marsh for his identification of Parachasma
cereus and for informing us of the recent generic change.

The Florida Entomologist

pupae (3.4%); 22 September, 49 wasps from 504 pupae (9.7%); and 29
September, 33 wasps from 164 pupae (20%).
A. suspense pupae parasitized by P. cereus have been collected up to 0.4
of a mile from the release site. This was the farthest location of any host
fruits on the station grounds. Samples of tropical almond, Terminalia
catappa L., collected about 1,000 ft. from the release site yielded 37 pupae
of which 43% were parasitized. This fruit, having a relatively thin flesh
over a large seed, provides conditions in which the fruit fly larvae are
quite susceptible to attack by the wasps.
In view of the small number of wasps originally released, these results
are highly encouraging and additional releases are planned.
Our original stock of P. cereus consisting of 7 males and 17 females
was obtained from Dr. Fred Bennett, Commonwealth Institute of Biological
Control, Trinidad. From these, a colony has been maintained in the
laboratory for several generations prior to release.

The Florida Entomologist 53(3) 1970




Carefully Executed

Delivered on Time





Vol. 53, No. 3


Department of Entomology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601

The pupa of Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) vanduzeei Dyar and Knab is de-
scribed and illustrated for the first time and the pupa of Wyeomyia (Wye-
omyia) mitchellii (Theobald) is redescribed and partially illustrated. Two
tables list the range, mode and mean number of branches of each pupal
hair for the 2 species.

The original description of Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) mitchellii was pub-
lished by Theobald in 1905 and that of Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) vanduzeei
by Dyar and Knab in 1906. These descriptions were incomplete and based
only on the adults. Roth (1946) described the female genitalia of both
species. Complete descriptions, accompanied by illustrations, of the males,
females and larvae were given for the 2 species by Carpenter and La Casse
(1955). The pupa of W. mitchellii was incompletely described and figured
by Lane (1953).
In the present paper the pupa of W. vanduzeei is described and illus-
trated (Fig. 1-3) for the first time, and the pupa of W. mitchellii is rede-
scribed and partially illustrated (Fig. 4-5). Tables 1 and 2 list the range,
mode and mean number of branches of each pupal hair for these species.
Chaetotaxy and morphological nomenclature follow Belkin (1962).

Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) vanduzeei Dyar and Knab

Cephalothorax, metanotum and abdominal terga I-IV with modeled pat-
terns. Two circular pigmented areas posterior to abdominal terga II and
Cephalothorax (Fig. 1) : Hairs C-1, 5 extra long, C-2-3, 8-9 long, C-4,
7 moderately long, C-1 double, C-2-3, 5-6, 9 single, C-4, 7-8 usually double.
Respiratory trumpet (Fig. 2) : Moderately pigmented; basal 1.5 lightly
tracheoid; index 4.50-6.20.
Metanotum (Fig. 3): Hairs C-10 moderately long, C-11-12 long, C-10
usually single, C-11-12 single.
Abdomen (Fig. 3): Hairs 0-II-VII minute, 0-VIII short, 0-II-VIII sin-
gle; 1-I well developed with 9-17 primary branches on basal one half, 1-
II-VII moderately long, 1-II usually double or triple, 1-III, V-VI usually
single, 1-IV, VII single; 2-I-VII short, single; 3-I extra long, 3-II-III long,

1Florida Agriculture Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 3609.
2Major, Medical Service Corps, U. S. Army. The opinions contained
herein are the private ones of the author and are not to be construed as
official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 3

S--' ^0.3mm 0

Fig. 1-3. Pupa of Wyeomyia vanduzeei Dyar and Knab. Fig. 1: Cepha-
lothorax. Fig. 2: Respiratory trumpet. Fig. 3: Metanotum and abdomen.
Fig. 4-5. Pupa of Wyeomyia mitchellii (Theobald). Fig. 4: Respiratory
trumpet. Fig. 5: Apical abdominal segments and paddle. C=cephalo-
thorax; I-VIII=abdominal segments 1 through 8; P-paddle.

3-IV-VII moderately long, 3-I-III, V-VII single, 3-IV double or triple; 4-I,
IV-V short, 4-II-III, VI-VII moderately long, 4-VIII long, 4-I-II usually
double or triple, 4-III, VI-VIII single, 4-IV usually single, 4-V usually
double; 5-I short, 5-II-III, VII moderately long, 5.-IV-VI extra long, 5-I-II,
IV-VII single, 5-III usually single; 6-I long, 6-II extra long, 6-III-VII mod-

Reinert: Wyeomia vanduzeei and W. mitchelii Pupae 165

Wyeomyia vanduzeei

Hair Range Mode Mean Hair Range Mode Mean

2 2
1 1
1 1
1-2 2
1 1
1 1
2-3 2
1-2 2
1 1

1-2 1
1 1
1 1

Abdomen I
9-17 14
1 1
1 1
2-4 3
1 1
1 1
1-2 2
1 1



Abdomen V (Cont.)
1-2 1
1 1
1-2 1
1-2 1
1 1
1 1
1 1

Abdomen IV
1 1
1 1
1 1
2-3 2
1-2 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1

Abdomen V
1 1
1-2 1
1 1
1 1
1-3 2
1 1
1 1
1-2 2
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1

Abdomen VI

166 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 3

Table 1 (Cont.)

Hair Range Mode Mean Hair Range Mode Mean

Abdomen VI (Cont.) Abdomen VII (Cont.)
8 1-2 1 1.1 6 1 1 1
9 1 1 1 7 1 1 1
10 1 1 1 8 1-2 1 1.2
11 1-2 1 1.1 9 9-16 12 11.8
10 1 1 1
Abdomen VII 11 1 1 1
0 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 Abdomen VIII
2 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
3 1 1 1 4 1 1 1
4 1 1 1 9 12-18 15 15.6
5 1 1 1 14 1 1 1

erately long, 6-I-VII single; 7-I long, 7-II, IV-VII moderately long, 7-III
short, 7-I-II, V single or double, 7-III usually single, 7-IV, VI-VII single;
8-III-VII short, 8-III, VI-VII usually single, 8-IV-V single; 9-I-VI short,
9-VII-VIII long, 9-I-VI single, 9-VII stellate, usually with 10-12 branches,
9-VIII stellate, usually with 13-17 branches; 10-II-VII moderately long,
single; 11-II-VII short, 11-II-V, VII single, 11-VI usually single; 14-VIII
short, single.
Paddle (Fig. 3): Triangular; midrib weakly sclerotized toward apex;
long hair-like spicules at apex of paddle and with a few small spicules
along lateral margins; index 1.70-2.03.
The description of W. vanduzeei is based on 14 female and 3 male pupal
skins collected by the author at Vero Beach, Indian River County, Florida
on 17-18 April 1970.

Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) mitchellii (Theobald)

Cephalothorax, metanotum and abdominal terga I-IV with modeled pat-
Cephalothorax: Hairs C-l, 5 extra long, C-2-3 long, C-4 6-9 moderately
long, C-1-2 double, C-3, 8 usually double, C-4 usually single or double, C-5
usually single, C-6, 9 single, C-7 single or double.
Respiratory trumpet (Fig. 4): Moderately pigmented; basal 1.2 lightly
tracheoid; index 2.89-4.15.
Metanotum: Hairs C-10 moderately long, C-11-12 long, C-10 usually
double or triple, C-11-12 single.
Abdomen: Hairs 0-II-VII minute, 0-VIII short, 0-II-VIII single; 1-I
well developed with 12-16 primary branches on basal one-half, 1-II-VII
moderately long, 1-II usually with 4-6 branches, 1-III, VII usually with 3-5
branches, 1-IV usually with 2-4 branches, 1-V-VI usually with 2-5 branches;
2-I, III-VII short, 2-II moderately long, 2-I-VII single; 3-I extra long, 3-II-
III long, 3-IV-VII moderately long, 3-I usually single, 3-II-III, V-VII sin-
gle, 3-IV usually double or triple; 4-I, V-VII moderately long, 4-II-IV

Reinert: Wyeomia vanduzeei and W. mitchelii Pupae 167

short, 4-VIII long, 4-I usually with 3-4 branches, 4-II usually single or
double, 4-III-IV single or double, 4-V usually double or triple; 5-I short,
5-II-III, VII moderately long, 5-IV-VI extra long, 5-I, III, VI usually sin-
gle, 5-II, IV-V, VII single; 6-I long, 6-II extra long, 6-III-VII moderately
long, 6-I-II, VII single, 6-III-VI usually single; 7-I long, 7-II-VII moder-
ately long, 7-I single or double, 7-II, V usually single or double, 7-III-IV,
VI usually single, 7-VII single; 8-III-VII short, 8-III usually single, 8-IV-
VI single, 8-VII usually single or double; 9-I-VI short, 9-VII-VIII long, 9-
I-VI single, 9-VII stellate, usually with 10-12 branches, 9-VIII stellate,
usually with 14-19 branches; 10-II-VII moderately long, single; 11-II-VII
short, 11-II single, 11-III-IV, VII usually single, 11-V usually single or
double, 11-VI with 2-4 branches; 14-VIII short, single.

Paddle (Fig. 5): Triangular; midrib weakly sclerotized toward apex;
long hair-like spicules along outer margin, apex and apical one-third of
inner margin of paddle; index 1.64-2.16.

The description of W. mitchellii is based on 12 female and 6 male pupal
skins collected by the author at Vero Beach, Indian River County, Florida
on 17-18 April 1970.

Wyeomyia mitchellii

Hair Range Mode Mean Hair Range Mode Mean

Cephalothorax 7 1-2 1 1.5
1 2 2 2 9 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
3 1-3 2 1.7 Abdomen II
4 1-3 2 1.7 0 1 1 1
5 1-2 1 1.1 1 3-9 4 5.3
6 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
7 1-2 2 1.7 3 1 1 1
8 2-3 2 2.2 4 1-5 2 1.9
9 1 1 1 5 1 1 1
6 1 1 1
Metanotum 7 1-3 1 1.4
10 1-3 2 2.3 9 1 1 1
11 1 1 1 10 1 1 1
12 1 1 1 11 1 1 1

Abdomen I Abdomen III
1 12-16 12 13.3 0 1 1 1
2 1 1 1 1 2-6 4 4.1
3 1-2 1 1.1 2 1 1 1
4 2-4 3 3.2 3 1 1 1
5 1-2 1 1.1 4 1-2 1 1.3
6 1 1 1 5 1-3 1 1.5

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 3

Table 2 (Cont.)

Hair Range Mode

Abdomen III (Cont.)
6 1-3 1
7 1-2 1
8 1-2 1
9 1 1
10 1 1
11 1-2 1

Abdomen IV
0 1 1
1 2-6 4
2 1 1
3 1-3 3
4 1-2 1
5 1 1
6 1-2 1
7 1-2 1
8 1 1
9 1 1
10 1 1
11 1-2 1


Abdomen V
1 ]
1 ]

Hair Range Mode Mean

Abdomen VI
0 1 1 1
1 2-8 3 3.9
2 1 1 1
3 1 1 1
4 1 1 1
5 1-3 1 1.3
6 1-2 1 1.1
7 1-2 1 1.1
8 1 1 1
9 1 1 1
10 1 1 1
11 2-4 3 2.8

Abdomen VII
0 1 1 1
1 1-6 3 3.3
2 1 1 1
3 1 1 1
4 1 1 1
5 1 1 1
6 1 1 1
7 1 1 1
8 1-4 1 1.4
9 8-15 10 10.8
10 1 1 1
11 1-2 1 1.1

Abdomen VIII
1 1
1 1
14-20 16
1 1

Discussion: Larvae of W. vanduzeei and W. mitchellii were collected
from water at the base of leaves of epiphytic Bromeliaceae. The larvae
were isolated in individual vials in the laboratory and reared to adults.
Approximately 5 days were spent in the pupal stage in both species. Fe-
males readily fed on man when he entered shaded areas around the larval
breeding sites.
The following characters can be used to separate pupae of the 2 spe-
cies: Wyeomyia vanduzeei has hairs 2-C and 1-IV single, trumpet index
4.50-6.20, two circular pigmented areas on the posterior of abdominal terga

Reinert: Wyeomia vanduzeei and W. mitchelii Pupae 169

II and III, and small spicules on outer lateral surface of the paddle; W.
mitchellii has hair 2-C double, hair 1-IV with 2-6 branches, trumpet index
2.89-4.15, and long hair-like spicules on the outer lateral surface of paddle.


Belkin, J. N. 1962. The mosquitoes of the South Pacific. Univ. Calif.
Press, Berkeley. 2 Vol., 608 and 412 p.

Carpenter, S. J., and W. J. La Casse. 1955. Mosquitoes of North America
(north of Mexico). Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley. 360 p.

Dyar, H. G., and F. Knab. 1906. Diagnoses of new species of mosquitoes.
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19:133-142.

Lane, J. 1953. Neotropical Culicidae. Univ. Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo
(Brazil). 2:553-1112.

Roth, L. M. 1946. The female genitalia of the Wyeomyia of North
America (Diptera: Culicidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 39:292-

Theobald, F. V. 1905. The mosquitoes or Culicidae of Jamaica. Institute
of Jamaica, Kingston. 40 p.

The Florida Entomologist 53(3) 1970

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Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, ARS,
Washington, D.C. 20250

Kurtomathrips unicolor Bailey is synonymized under K. brunneus
(Watson) which is transferred from Prosopothrips.

Kurtomathrips brunneus (Watson) (1931, Fla. Entomol. 15(3) : 51-52),
new combination, was originally assigned to the genus Prosopothrips.
Bailey (1961, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington, 63(4): 256-260) overlooked
this species when he reviewed Kurtomathrips and described it again as K.
unicolor (new synonym). Watson described brunneus from a single fe-
male collected at Rocky Ford, Colorado, on barley, 2 June 1931, J. L. Hoer-
ner. Bailey's types came from Castolon, Texas, and he also saw females
from Sierra Blanca, Texas and Las Cruces, New Mexico. The National
Collection contains two Mexican females, one collected north of Monterrey,
Nuevo Leon, on small yellow composite flowers, 7 Aug. 1938, J. R. Watson;
and one intercepted in quarantine from Alamos, Sonora, in a shipment of
cacti, succulents, and cycads, 10 Apr. 1967, J. M. Kaiser, Nogales No.
63905, lot 67-9243. All known specimens are apterous females.
I thank H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology, Bureau of Entomology,
Florida Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, for the loan
of the type of brunneus from the Florida State Collection of Arthropods,
and S. F. Bailey, Department of Biology, University of California at Santa,
Cruz, for the paratype of unicolor that he deposited in the National Col-

The Florida Entomologist 53(3) 1970

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The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa.

The species of insects taken in light traps, over a period of 12 years at
the Archbold Biological Station, Florida, are summarized by orders and
families and compared with those collected from the same area and those
known to occur in Florida. Various specialists have contributed data con-
cerning species collected at the Archbold Biological Station and species
known from Florida.

Insect light traps have been operated at the Archbold Biological Sta-
tion, Highlands County, Florida, for 12 years covering, in all, the period
from 6 November to 15 May. Sufficient data have been accumulated to
make comparisons of light trapping with general collecting in the same
area. In making these comparisons, consideration has been given only to
groups known to come to light freely and those in which extensive collec-
tions have been made by various specialists. The traps were operated
chiefly in the southwest corner of the station grounds although catches
were occasionally made at the Archbold fire tower, a distance of about a
half mile and an elevation of about 100 feet above the station. Many of
the insects undoubtedly were attracted from areas beyond the station
grounds including swampy, grassy, and lake areas. Nine orders and over
30 families are represented. Species taken in light traps are listed by
Frost (1964, 1966, 1969). The number of species known from Florida has
been taken chiefly from published lists and from information supplied by
specialists. Since the publication of some of these lists, numerous changes
in synonomy have been made and new species have been added. The figures
therefore are somewhat relative.


EPHEMEROPTERA-These species are not common in southern Florida and
in fact, not numerous in Florida. Berner (1950) summarizes those known
from the state.

ODONATA-J. G. Needham and M. J. Westfall have collected dragonflies
extensively at the Archbold Biological Station. Westfall (1955) and Byers
(1930) have published on the Florida species.

PSOCOPTERA-This group has been collected extensively by S. K. Wong and
A. M. Nadler on the station grounds. E. L. Mockford identified all the
material taken in light traps and has supplied an estimate of the number
of species known from Florida. Light trapping has been an excellent
method of obtaining psocids.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 3


Orders -

Number of Insect
Known Known
from from
Florida A.B.S.*

Taken in
Light traps








*A.B.S. Archbold Biological Station

Frost: Collecting at Archbold Station 175

Table 1 (Cont.)


Number of Insect Species
Orders Known Known Taken in
Families from from Light traps
Florida A.B.S.* A.B.S.*

Scarabaeidae 240 57 57
Ataenius 22 11 10
Aphodius 17 4 4
Phyllophaga 42 8 8
Meloidae 29 9 4
Lampyridae 35+ 21 15

Culicidae 49 21 20
Tipulidae 117 22 22
Psychodidae 11 10 10
Chironomidae 101 36 36
Tabanidae 120 36 21
Drosophilidae 40 18 18
Formicidae 110 36 12

*A.B.S. Archbold Biological Station

HOMOPTERA-Of this group, only the aphids have been collected in numbers
sufficient to draw comparisons. J. O. Pepper and A. N. Tissot have col-
lected extensively at the Archbold Biological Station. The latter has of-
fered a reasonable estimate of the number of species known in Florida.

HEMIPTERA-Relatively few species of this group have been extensively
collected at the Archbold Biological Station. The Pentatomidae best qual-
ify, and the author has relied on Blatchley (1926) for a knowledge of the
Florida species.

COLEOPTERA-Several groups of beetles have been widely collected at the
Archbold Station. J. E. Lloyd has studied the Lampyridae in detail. The
Scarabaeidae, especially Aphodius and Ataenius, have been collected by O.
L. Cartwright, and by R. E. Woodruff (1967). The Phyllophaga were listed
by Young and Thames (1949). The Meloidae have been summarized by
Frost (1968). Information on other groups was obtained from Leng

LEPIDOPTERA-This large group has been collected at the Archbold Station
more thoroughly than any of the others. The butterflies generally are not

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 3

nocturnal and naturally would not be expected frequently at light traps.
However, several groups, especially the Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae, were
taken in noticeable numbers. R. W. Pease, T. E. Pliske, R. W. Hodges, J.
G. Franclemont and others have collected extensively at the Archbold Sta-
tion. C. P. Kimball identified practically all the material taken in light
traps and published up-to-date (1965) information on Florida species.

DIPTERA-With the exception of the extensive collections of Tabanidae by
L. L. Pechuman at the Archbold Station and throughout Florida, most
of the information has been gleaned from Stone et al. (1965) and from
light trap collections.
HYMENOPTERA-Relatively few Hymenoptera were taken in light traps.
Certain nocturnal Ichneumonidae came in small numbers. At times the
Formicidae appeared in large numbers. N. A. Weber and others have col-
lected some on the station grounds. The number of species known from
Florida was obtained from Muesebeck (1951).


Berner, L. 1950. The Mayflies of Florida. Univ. Fla. Press 4(4) :1-127.

Blackwelder, R. E. 1939. Fourth supplement, 1933 to 1938 (inclusive) to:
The Leng catalogue of Coleoptera of America, North of Mexico. Mt.
Vernon, N. Y., John D. Sherman, 146 p.

Blackwelder, R. E., and R. M. Blackwelder. 1948. Fifth supplement, 1939
to 1947 (inclusive) to: The Leng catalogue of Coleoptera of
America, North of Mexico. Mt. Vernon, N. Y., John D. Sherman, 87

Blatchley, W. S. 1926. The Heteroptera or true bugs of Eastern North
America. Nature Publishing Co.

Byers, C. F. 1930. A Contribution to the knowledge of Florida Odonata.
Univ. Fla. Press 1(1) :1-327.

Frost, S. W. 1964. Insects taken in Light Traps at the Archbold Biologi-
cal Station, Highlands County, Florida. Fla. Entomol. 47:129-161.

Frost, S. W. 1966. Notes on Common Scarabaeidae Taken in Light traps
at the Archbold Biological Station, Florida. 49 (3) :189-194.

Frost, S. W. 1966. Additions to the insects taken in light traps. Fla.
Entomol. 49:243-251.

Frost, S. W. 1967. Mayflies taken at the Archbold Biological Station,
Highlands County, Florida. Fla. Entomol. 50:281-284.

Frost, S. W. 1968. Notes on the Meloidae taken at the Archbold Biologi-
cal Station. Fla. Entomol. 51:51-53.

Frost, S. W. 1969. Supplement to insects taken in light traps. Fla.
Entomol. 52:92-101.

Kimball, C. P. 1965. The Lepidoptera of Florida. Fla. Dep. Agr.:1-363.

Krombein, K. V. (editor). 1958. Hymenoptera of America North of
Mexico, synoptic catalog. USDA Agr. Monogr. 2 (first supply ) :1-


Frost: Collecting at Archbold Station

Krombein, K. V., and B. D. Burks (editors). 1967. Hymenoptera of
America North of Mexico, synoptic catalog. USDA Agr. Monogr.
2 (second supply ) : 1-584.
Leng, C. W. 1920. Catalogue of the Coleoptera of America, North of
Mexico. Mt. Vernon, N. Y., John D. Sherman, 470 p.
Leng, C. W., and A. J. Mutchler. 1927. Supplement, 1919 to 1924 (inclu-
sive) to: Catalogue of the Coleoptera of America, North of Mexico.
Mt. Vernon, N. Y., John D. Sherman, 78 p.
Leng, C. W., and A. J. Mutchler. 1933. Second and third supplements,
1925 to 1932 (inclusive) to: Catalogue of the Coleoptera of America,
North of Mexico. Mt. Vernon, N. Y., John D. Sherman, 112 p.
Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein, and H. K. Townes (editors). 1951.
Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico, synoptic catalog. USDA
Agr. Monogr. 2:1-1420.
Stone, Alan, et. al. 1965. A catalog of the Diptera of America North of
Mexico. USDA handbook No. 276:1-1696.

Westfall, M. J. 1955. A Manual of the Dragonflies of North America
(Anisoptera) Univ. Calif. Press:l-615.
Woodruff, R. E. 1967 The Scarabaeidae of Florida. Part I. The Lapa-
rosticti. Unpublished Dissertation, Univ. Florida. 660 p.
Young, F. N., and W. H. Thames. 1949. A preliminary list of the Phyllo-
phaga of Florida (Scarabacidae: Melolonthinae). Florida Entomol.

The Florida Entomologist 53(3) 1970

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