Title: Florida Entomologist
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00138
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1973
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Volume ID: VID00138
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Volume 56, No. 1 March 1973

Effects of Fertilizers on Resistance of Antigua Corn to
Fall Armyworm and Corn Earworm .------...-.. ---....... ... 1
STEGMAIER, C. E., JR.-Dasiops passifloris (Diptera: Lon-
chaeidae), a Pest of Wild Passion Fruit in South
Florida ----..........- -...--..- ... --- ... -.............. 8
ELLIS, H. C., AND K. L. HAYS-Population Densities of
Tabanid Larvae in Two Farm Pond Habitats in East
Central Alabama --...-------.....-.... .......................... 11
AND B. B. MARTIN-A Device for Sampling the Distri-
bution Patterns of Granules Dispersed from Aircraft 15
HUBBARD, M. D.-A New Name for Cloeon exiguum (Crass)
Nec Navas (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) .................... ---18
SHORT, D. E., AND D. P. DRIGGERS-Field Evaluation of In-
secticides for Controlling Mole Crickets in Turf -...-... 19
JOHNSON, C.-Distributional Patterns and Their Interpreta-
tion in Hetaerina (Odonata: Calopterygidae) ---............. 24
BENNETT, D. R., AND S. H. KERR-Millipedes In and Around
Structures in Florida ................................. .................. 43
BROWER, J. H.-Reproduction and Development of Twelve
Species of Stored-Product Insects on Kenaf seed ........ 49
EBEL, B. H., AND G. L. DEBARR-Injury to Female Strobili
of Shortleaf and Loblolly Pines by Nepytia semiclusaria
(Lepidoptera: Geometridae) .-....-....--...........-........ ........... 53
LECATO, G., AND R. DAVIS-Preferences of the Predator
Xylocoris flavipes (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) for spe-
cies and Instars of Stored-Product Insects .................... 57
STEGMAIER, C. E., JR.-Some Insects Associated with the
Joe-Pye Weed, Eupatorium coelestinum. (Compositae),
from South Florida ...........-...-- .....-... ........-....... ...........--.. 61
Notices to Members .....----................----------............ 7, 10, 56

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


President ...-..........................-............................--........ A. B. Selhim e
Vice-President ........................................................ W. G. Genung
Secretary.....-..------------.................. ..............................-....F. W M ead
Treasurer ..................-......... ............................... ..------..--D. E. Short
C. S. Lofgren
R. M. Baranowski
Other Members of Executive Committee ... W. B. Gresham, Jr.
H. D. Bowman
J. R. Strayer

Publications Committee
Editor .-----------........... .....................................S. H. Kerr
Associate Editor-...............................R. E. Woodruff
Business Manager --..................................D. E. Short
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Southern Grain Insects Research Laboratory
Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Tifton, Georgia 31794


Larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and the
corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie), were exposed to excised foliage of an
intermediately resistant Antigua corn that had been fertilized at the
recommended level with a complete fertilizer (NPK) or with all possible
combinations of the component nutrients. Both the fall armyworm and the
corn earworm larvae preferred foliage from plants having N treatment over
foliage from plants treated with P, K, or PK or the unfertilized check. Also, the
weight gains of the corn earworm and fall armyworm and the days to
pupation, pupal weight, and percentage larval mortality of fall armyworms
indicated that treatment with N or with combinations of N increased
susceptibility. The preference ratings of the fall armyworm and corn earworm
on corn were significantly associated. Also, the fall armyworm preference
ratings were significantly correlated with larval weights, pupal weights, days
to pupation, and foliage production. Thus, the preferential responses were the
predominant factors even though several characters measured were expres-
sions of antibiosis. The corn earworm preference ratings were significantly
correlated with larval weight and longevity. The percentage mortality before
pupation, an expression of antibiosis, showed that the fertilizer treatments
had a detrimental effect on fall armyworm larvae compared with no
treatment (unfertilized check). It also appears that Antigua corn has an
extremely high level of antibiosis since all corn earworm larvae died, even on
the unfertilized check.

Painter (1951) listed 3 mechanisms of resistance: nonpreference, antibiosis,
and tolerance, and noted that tolerance was perhaps subject to more variation
as a result of environmental conditions than nonpreference or antibiosis.
Numerous researchers have since reported the effects of host-plant nutrition
of agricultural pests (Singh 1970). For example, van Emden (1966) stated that
modification of the environment could induce an acceptable level of resistance
in plants. Also, Leuck (1972) reported extreme expressions of nonpreference,
antibiosis, and tolerance when the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.
E. Smith), was given a choice or force-fed foliage of 'Gahi' millet treated with
all possible combinations of NPK fertilizers in greenhouse tests.
The studies described herein were designed to determine the effects on
'Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.
21n cooperation with the University of Georgia College of Agriculture
Experiment Stations, Coastal Plain Station, Tifton 31794. Received for
publication 21 Aug. 1972.
3Mention of a proprietary product in this paper does not constitute an
endorsement of this product by the USDA.

The Florida Entomologist

larvae of the fall armyworm and the corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie),
when they were fed 'Antigua' corn, a composite that is resistant to the fall
armyworm, after the corn had been treated with all possible combinations of
the median recommended rates of a complete (NPK) fertilizer.


Antigua Group 2 corn, Antigua FAW Resistant Composite, was selected
for the present study based on the intermediate level of leaf-feeding resistance
to the fall armyworm demonstrated in our earlier (unpublished) tests. Ten
seeds of the corn were planted in each 6-in.-diam plastic pot containing sterile
vermiculite. The test was replicated 6 times. The treatments consisted of a
complete NPK fertilizer at the median recommended rate which is equivalent
to 130-60-90 lb/acre (Anonymous 1968) and all possible combinations of the
constituents (N, P, K, NP, PK, and NK) plus an unfertilized check.
The nitrogen was from ammonium nitrate, 34.5% available; the
phosphorus from super phosphate, 23.7% available; and the potassium from
potassium oxide (K20), 62.0% available. A complete factorial arrangement of
the treatments (N, P, K, NP, NK, PK, NPK, and unfertilized check) was used.
Treatments were applied at the time of planting. Then each pot received 500
ml of water (maximum amount without leaching). After emergence of the
seedlings and each 4th day thereafter until completion of the tests, each pot
received 300 ml of water.
Excised foliage was obtained from each treatment and force-fed (choice of
feeding or starving) to individually caged fall armyworm larvae beginning
when the corn in the NPK treatment was 6-8 in. high, a stage similar to that
evaluated by Wiseman et al. (1966). The larvae used in the test were obtained
from the colony of fall armyworms maintained at this laboratory. Tests were
conducted in a constant temperature room maintained at 26.7 1C. Each
treatment consisted of 6 replications of 10 larvae each. The measurements
obtained were: larval weight after 8 days of force-feeding, larval mortality
before pupation, days to pupation, pupal weight, days to adult emergence, and
production of foliage.
Also, fall armyworm larval preferences were determined by placing 4-5
excised leaves from each treatment in a circular arrangement in a randomized
complete block design on the outer edge of a 10-in.-diam circle of moistened
filter paper in a round plastic dish. After ca. 1,000 lst-instar larvae were placed
in the center portion of each dish, the dish was covered with a tight-fitting
plastic cap. After 24 hr, the consumed foliage of each treatment was rated
visually by using a rating scale of 1-10, with 1 = 0-10% and 2-10 = 20-100%.
Evaluations of the corn earworm larval responses (preference, weight
gains, and duration of life span) were similar to the tests for the fall
armyworm, except that the foliage were ca. 2 weeks older and the larval
weight was determined at the end of 10 days. Also, the force-feeding trials for
the corn earworm had 4 replicates of each treatment, and the preference
ratings were made after 48 instead of 24 hr. A second preference test of fall
armyworm was conducted with the same age foliage used for the corn
Analyses of variance and Duncan's multiple range test were used for all
characters measured to separate differences among treatments. Percentages
were transformed to larc sin X+ 1 for analysis. Correlations were prepared to

Vol. 56, No. 1

Wiseman et al.: Insect Resistance of Corn

detect any association of preference ratings and 8-day weight gains, of
preference ratings and pupal weight, of preference ratings and days to
pupation, of preference ratings and foliage growth, of foliage growth and 8-day
weight for fall armyworm, of early preference ratings and late preference
ratings for the fall armyworm, and of preference ratings for the fall armyworm
and preference ratings for the corn earworm. Similar correlations were tested
for fall armyworm preference ratings among crops (Leuck 1972) such as corn
and millet, corn and peanuts, and peanuts and millet.


PREFERENCE TESTS.-In the early preference test of corn (6-8 in. high),
Ist-instar fall armyworm larvae preferred foliage (after 24 hr) treated with N
and combinations of N (Table 1). The more nonpreferred foliage included the
unfertilized check, P, PK, and K. In the later preference test of corn, generally
all of the foliage treated with fertilizers were more preferred than the
unfertilized check. Also, a significant association (P= 0.05) was found between
the results of the preference tests with the early and the late (foliage was 2 wk
older) fall armyworm preference tests, though several treatments had ratings
that were slightly higher for the late corn [2.7 (P) to 7.7 (NPK) compared with
2.2 (P) -8.2 (NK)]. It seems reasonable that the difficulty experienced in
detecting leaf-feeding resistance in field screenings of the fall armyworm thus
may occur, in part, because of fertilization practices.
Preferences of the corn earworm larvae after 48 hr were not as striking as
those of the fall armyworm (Table 2). Foliages receiving no fertilizer, P, PK,
NK, and K were the least preferred; foliage treated with N, NP, and NPK
were the most preferred. The significant correlations found for earworm
preference ratings vs. 10-day weight and number of days lived (P=0.05)
indicated that the most preferred treatments were those on which the larvae
made the most gains and lived the longest.
In addition, a significant correlation was found between the preference
ratings for fall armyworm and corn earworm on late corn (P= 0.05). However,
the visual ratings for corn earworm feeding averaged 56% lower than those of
the fall armyworm. Fall armyworm larvae feed much more on the foliage than
the corn earworm, which is more of a fruit feeder.
Correlations of the early fall armyworm and corn earworm preference
ratings were nonsignificant (P=0.05). Late preference tests using fall
armyworm larvae and the preference tests using corn earworm larvae were
conducted during the same period. Thus, when the nutrient content of the
foliage was most likely nearly equal, the preferences of the 2 species were
essentially the same though of different magnitudes.
The significant correlation between foliage production and the preference
rating for the fall armyworm (P=0.05) indicated that larvae preferred the
vigorous growing (highly fertilized) plants and, inversely, preferred least the
plants with the least or no fertilization. This difference may explain why
Wiseman et al. (1966) found differences among varietal corn seedlings tested in
corns planted in unfertilized river-washed sand. Thus, fertilizers could be
adjusted when high levels of resistance do not occur.
We found no significant associations between the preference ratings of fall
armyworms on corn and millet, corn and peanuts, or millet and peanuts.
However, as noted, the preference ratings for the corn earworm and the fall

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 56, No. 1

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Wiseman et al.: Insect Resistance of Corn


Fertilizer Preference Wt/larva Avg. no.
treatment** ratings (mg) days lived
P 1.3 a 2.0 a 7.2 b
CK 1.4 a 2.3 ab 7.0 b
PK 2.0 a 3.5 ab 5.3 a
NK 2.5 a 4.1 b 9.8 cd
K 2.8 a 6.6 c 7.4 b
N 4.6 b 8.0 c 10.6 d
NP 5.2 b 8.0 c 9.0 c
NPK 5.8 b 10.6 d 10.0 cd

* Fertilizer treatments or combinations followed by the same letter are not significantly
different (P=0.05).
**Treatments consisted of equivalents of 130 lb N, 60 lb P205, and 90 lb K20/acre.
t Preference ratings were based on a visual rating scale of 1-10, with 1= as much as 10%
damage and 2-10=20-100% of foliage damaged.
armyworm in our tests were significantly correlated. If fertilizers similar to
those used on corn had been applied to millet and peanuts in the earlier tests
by Leuck (1972), we might have found significant associations for the same
insect on the 3 crops (corn, millet, and peanuts).
Expression of Antibiosis.-The weight gains of fall armyworm larvae at 8
days were greatest on foliage treated with N or combinations of N (Table 1)
and corresponded with the preference ratings. The significant association
(P= 0.05) thus obtained indicated that measurements of nonpreference could
be used as an indicator for this expression of antibiosis. Also, a significant
association (P= 0.05) existed between foliage production and weight of the
larvae at 8 days. Larvae that fed on the more vigorously growing plant foliage
were the largest, and, conversely, those that fed on the unfertilized foliage or
the P or K foliage weighed less.
The weight gains at 10 days by corn earworm larvae for all treatments were
not nearly as striking as those for the fall armyworm. However, corn earworm
larvae weighed less when they were fed on foliage that had less fertilization,
that is, K, P, PK, and the check (Table 2). Again, the foliage that received N
or combinations of N were more susceptible. Also, the significant correlation
(P= 0.05) between the preference ratings for corn earworms and larval weight
at 10 days indicated that susceptible foliage (high preference ratings)
produced the largest gains with one exception: larvae fed NK foliage made
gains that caused this corn to be classified as susceptible even though it was
nonpreferred in the choice test. Thus, we may have an indication of the 2nd
type of nonpreference reported by Wiseman pt al. (1961) and Anonymous
(1969) in which the insect, when force-fed, will consume preferred and
nonpreferred plant material to the same extent.
The mortality of fall armyworm larvae was significantly greater when the
larvae fed on foliage treated with PK compared with all other treatments
(Table 1); also, foliage treated with K and P had greater larval mortality than
those treated with NPK, NP, and the unfertilized check.

The Florida Entomologist

Thus, in general, mortality was similar in all treatments to both the
preference ratings and the weight at 8 days except for the unfertilized check
which had the lowest mortality and was thus classified as susceptible.
Therefore, this expression of antibiosis in terms of larval weight may actually
occur because of a nonpreferential feeding response on the unfertilized foliage:
even though only a small amount of the unfertilized check was consumed, it
produced the least mortality.
All corn earworm larvae were dead within 20 days on all treatments except
N, which had 98% mortality by that time. However, when the average number
of days larvae lived on the treated foliage is considered, the N and combina-
tions of N were susceptible; resistant treatments were PK, unfertilized, P, and
The number of days to pupation and the weight per pupa for fall
armyworm from the various treatments showed essentially the same ranking
(Table 1). Again, the N and combinations of N produced more susceptible
corn, fewer days to pupation, and greater pupal weight. In addition, the PK
and P treatments generally affected both the corn and the response of the fall
armyworms: unfertilized foliage generally ranked in the intermediate-resis-
tant category. Preference ratings vs. pupal weight and days to pupation were
significantly correlated (P=0.05), indication that the preferred treatments
produced the largest pupae and the nonpreferred the smallest. Also, larvae
feeding on the preferred treatments seemed to require fewer days to pupate,
and those feeding on nonpreferred treatments required more days to complete
the life cycle.
POPULATION EFFECTS.-Table 1 ranks the several treatments by the
potential egg production of the fall armyworm based on the information
presented by Leuck and Perkins (1972). Estimating the egg reduction based on
the weight of the fall armyworm pupae, the PK treatment would produce
almost 66% fewer eggs compared with the unfertilized check (100%); and the P
treatment would produce as much as 37% fewer eggs. However, the N, NPK,
and NK treatments would cause increases in the production of progeny of as
much as 20, 21, and 29%, respectively. When larval mortality is used as a
compounding factor with pupal weight, the PK treatments would reduce the
production of progeny by the fall armyworm as much as 85% compared with
the unfertilized check.


Appreciation is extended to W. N. Roberson, Lila G. Adcock, Johnny
Skinner, and J. M. Cook of this laboratory for their assistance in this study.


Anonymous. 1968. Georgia fertilizer recommendations for field crops. Ga. Agr.
Ext. Ser. Circ. 371.

Anonymous. 1969. Plant and animal resistance to insects, 64-99. In Insect-Pest
Management and Control. Principles of Plant and Animal Pest
Control. Nat. Acad. Sci. Pub. 1695, Vol. 3.

Leuck, D. B. 1972. Induced fall armyworm resistance in pearl millet. J. Econ.
Entomol. 65:1608-11.

Vol. 56, N~o. 1

Wiseman et al.: Insect Resistance of Corn

Leuck, D. B., and W. D. Perkins. 1972. A method of estimating fall armyworm
progeny reduction when evaluating control achieved by host plant
resistance. J. Econ. Entomol. 65: 482-3.

Painter, R. H. 1951. Insect Resistance in Crop Plants. Macmillian Co., New
York, 520 p.

Singh, P. 1970. Host-plant nutrition and composition: Effects on agricultural
pests. Can. Dep. Agr. Inf. Bull. 6, 102 p.

van Emden, H. F. 1966. Plant resistance to insects induced by environment.
Sci. Hort. 18: 91-102.

Wiseman, B. R., C. V. Hall, and R. H. Painter. 1961. Interactions among
cucurbit varieties and feeding responses of the striped and spotted
cucumber beetles. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 78: 379-84.

Wiseman, B. R., R. H. Painter, and C. E. Wassom. 1966. Detecting corn
seedling differences in the greenhouse by visual classification of damage
by the fall armyworm. J. Econ. Entomol. 59: 1211-14.

The Florida Entomologist 56(1) 1973


Members needing audio-visual material to aid in giving talks on en-
tomology to students and organizations may borrow free a display of 72 color,
2 x 2 slides with a script. Write for reservations giving date and alternate date
to Secretary, Florida Entomological Society (i.e., Frank Mead), P. O. Box
12425, Gainesville, Florida 32601.


11335 N.W. 59th Ave., Hialeah, Florida 33012

Dasiops passifloris McAlpine (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) infests fruit of the
corky-stemmed passion flower, Passiflora pallida L. in south Florida. The
female oviposits from 1 to 4 eggs in a single fruit and the larvae feed on the seed
pulp as well as its internal contents. Later, the mature larvae feed on the fruit
pulp under the skin, and pupation takes place within the soil. D. passifloris
occurs from Dade County southward to Key West, Florida.

Dasiops passifloris was described by McAlpine (1964). McAlpine (personal
communication, 30 May 1972) stated that D. passifloris is an adaption of flos
passionis, a translation of fior della passion, the popular Italian name
applied to this plant. Another species, Dasiops alveofrons McAlpine (1961),
infests apricot fruit in California. The adults of Dasiops passifloris are
metallic blue-black, and the females have a long ovipositor resembling those of
the families Otitidae and Tephritidae. Although McAlpine (1964) reported the
species from the fruit of the wild passion flower vine, Passiflora pallida L., no
mention was made of the insect's life history. The purpose of this paper is to
contribute some information and observations on the biology from a study
conducted on 1,040 fruit during 27 March 1968 through 19 May 1968. Except as
indicated below, all collections and study were made on Mr. Klaus Sjogren's
farm in Hialeah, Fla., by the author with some help from his wife and son.
McAlpine (1964) recorded the distribution of Dasiops passifloris from
Dade County southward to Stock Island, a locality near Key West, Florida.
He cited 2 hearings: 2 females, 2 males from Passiflora pallida (as Passiflora
suberosa L.):, 6 miles N. Homestead, Fla., 9 Nov. 1948, C. D. Link; Passiflora
pallida, 1 male, 7 females, Dade Co., F. G. Butcher. Steyskal (personal
communication, 24 April 1968) stated that the only records of D. passifloris of
which he and C. W. Sabrosky were aware consisted of the type series indicated
by McAlpine (1964) and 9 specimens which were reared by W. T. Rowan and
the author from P. pallida, Hialeah, Fla., 6 Feb. 1965.
Small (1933) reported that Passiflora pallida is known as the corky-
stemmed passion flower. The mature fruits are blue-black and range in size
from 6 to 10 mm. He reported the plant from hammocks and pinelands of
peninsular Florida and it occurs in the West Indies, Central and South
America. Small listed the following as synonyms: P. suberosa, P. minima L.,
and P. angustifolia Sw. Lakela and Craighead (1965) reported Passiflora
pallida from Dade and Monroe Counties of south Florida. My studies indicate
that the mature fruit may contain from 4 to 17 seeds per fruit.
'Contribution No. 237, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry,
Fla. Dept. Agric. and Cons. Serv., Gainesville, Fla.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

Stegmaier: Dasiops passifloris on Passion Fruit


A total of 1,040 wild passion fruits was collected from P. pallida vines
growing on various shrubs, trees, and sometimes on the ground. Of this
number, 707 fruits were individually dissected to determine the frequency of
larvae per fruit. After dissection, the fruit was placed in water and examined
under a microscope to locate first instar larvae. Some larvae were killed in hot
water and preserved in 70% ethanol. A record was kept of all larval infestations
Hearings were conducted on 2 occasions from a total of 333 immature and
ripe passion fruits. From 5 to 10 immature or ripe fruits were placed in each of
26 small rearing containers. Each container was covered with fine mesh cloth
secured with rubber bands; they were checked each day for pupal or adult
emergence and for any parasites.


The female oviposits from 1 to 4 eggs in each fruit. Most eggs are deposited
in the pulp of immature fruit. No information was obtained concerning the egg
incubation period. After hatching, the larvae bore into the immature fruit and
begin feeding on the internal portion of the developing seed and, in turn, feed
upon the seed pulp of other maturing seeds. The maturing larvae then begin
feeding on the fruit pulp immediately beneath the skin. The rasping away of
the pulp makes it easy to detect larval infestations because each infested fruit
becomes discolored or disfigured or perhaps both. Infested immature fruit
takes on a dirty, whitish-green coloration, while infested ripe fruit becomes
bluish-white. In about 12 days the larvae mature and drop to the ground,
where they pupate within the soil or possibly beneath some refuse. The pupal
period lasts 14 days. No parasites were reared from the immature stages during


Seventeen larvae were found infesting 34 fruit 27 March 1968. From 118
fruit collected 3 April 1968 and held in rearing containers, 115 pupae were
recovered and 91 adults were reared. In 264 fruit collected 28 April 1968 and
dissected, only 27 larvae were found. On 14 May 1968, 215 fruit were collected
and held in rearing containers. This sample contained 75 ripe and 140
immature fruit. One larva was found in the ripe fruit, while 48 larvae were
found in the immature fruit; 48 adults were reared from these. Forty-nine
immature and 375 ripe fruit were collected 19 May 1968; no larvae were found
in this sample.
In all 139 adult flies were reared and 113 larvae were preserved. Adults,
larvae, and puparia were deposited in the Canadian National Collection,
Ottawa, Canada; United States National Museum, Washington, D. C.;
Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, Florida; and the Cornell
University Collection, Ithaca, New York.


The author sincerely thanks Dr. J. F. McAlpine, Canada Dep. Agr.,
Ottawa; George C. Steyskal, U.S. National Museum, Washington, D. C.;

The Florida Entomologist

Harold A. Denmark, Chief, Bureau of Entomology, Div. of Plant Industry,
Fla. Dep. Agr., Gainesville; Karl R. Valley, Pennsylvania Dep. Agr.,
Harrisburg for their advice, suggestions, and especially for the critical
comments of this manuscript. I would also like to thank my wife, Clara and
my son, Gene for their help in the collections of the wild passion fruit.


Lakela, 0., and F. C. Craighead. 1965. Annotated checklist of the vascular
plants of Collier, Dade, and Monroe Counties, Florida. Fairchild
Tropical Garden, Miami and Univ. of Miami Press. 95 p.

McAlpine, J. F. 1961. A new species of Dasiops (Diptera: Lonchaeidae)
injurious to apricots. Can. Entomol. 93: 539-544.

McAlpine, J. F. 1964. Descriptions of new Lonchaeidae (Diptera) 1. Can.
Entomol. 96: 661-700.

Small, J. K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Univ. of North Carolina
Press, Chapel Hill. 1554 p.

The Florida Entomologist 56(1) 1973


A limited number of copies of Fishing with Natural Insects by Alvah
Peterson are still available. Price $6.00 each. Send order to The Florida En-
tomological Society, P.O. Box 12425, University Station, Gainesville, Florida

Vol. 56, No. 1


Department of Zoology-Entomology,
Agricultural Experiment Station,
Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36830


Two farm ponds near Auburn, Alabama, provided habitats which sup-
ported relatively high densities of tabanid larvae. An average of 4.02 0.152
tabanid larvae/ft2 was found in 486 1-ft2 samples from the 2 sites. The most
productive site yielded an average of 4.66T 0.228 tabanid larvae/ft2 in 260 1-ft2
samples. The average number of TabanuS larvae/ft2 found at this site was over
2.4 times that found at Site 2. A porous substratum, which may have provided
better habitats for both tabanids and their prey species, is believed to be the
best explanation for the increased survival of Tabanus spp. larvae at that site.
The presence throughout the year of various sizes of larvae of the large
species of tabanids indicated that some species may require 2 or more years to
complete their life cycle in East Central Alabama.

Tabanid larvae are most commonly collected from the top 2-4 inches of soil
in aquatic or semi-aquatic environments. Tabanid larvae resident in natural
situations are often low in numbers and scattered in distribution. Cannibalism
among the larvae is often cited as an explanation for this (Schwardt 1931,
Philip 1931). The work of Tashiro and Schwardt (1949, 1953), Miller (1951),
Lewis and Jones (1955), and Gingrich and Hoffman (1967) indicates that, in
spite of cannibalism, relatively high populations are possible in a variety of
habitats where ecological conditions favor larval development.
Past experience in collecting tabanid larvae from farm ponds around
Auburn, Alabama, indicated that many of these artificial impoundments were
favorable for development of high larval populations. Two such farm ponds
were sampled extensively to determine the approximate density of tabanid
larvae at various seasons of the year.


This research was conducted at ponds located on the North Auburn Dairy
Research Unit at Auburn University. The ponds were about 1/8 mile apart,
separated by a hill, and each was approximately 312 acres in size. The margins
of each pond supported extensive aquatic plant growth. The south side of one
pond and the west side of the other were bordered by a mixed pine-hardwood
stand. Both ponds were about 20 years old. Both ponds were constructed in
shallow valleys of alluvial soils derived from Wehadkee soil materials. The soil
at their margins contained decayed organic material, but the substratum
1This research was supported, in part, by research grant Al 08279 from the
Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.
2Current address: Cooperative Extension Service, North Carolina State
University, Raleigh, N. C. 27607.

12 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 56, No. 1

along the border of the pond at Site 1 had more gravel and was less compacted.
Adult tabanids in the general area had readily available host animals from the
dairy cattle and an abundance of good oviposition sites on emergent plants
along the pond margins. Species of tabanid larvae resident at these ponds were
reported by Hays and Tidwell (1967).
A 1-ft2 X 4-in. deep sample was taken by cutting and removing 4 adjacent
6-in. squares of substratum with an entrenching tool. Each sample was placed
in a plastic bag, labeled, taken to the greenhouse, and placed on drying racks
constructed as 101/2 X 15/2 in. or 22 X 22 in. rectangular wooden frames with a
bottom of 1/4-in. mesh hardware cloth. The racks were placed over containers
of water which served to collect the larvae as they dropped from the drying
substratum. The samples were spread in relatively thin layers on the racks so
that even small, less mobile larvae could escape as the soil dried.
A total of 486 samples was collected at the 2 sites. Thirty-eight (11 at Site
1, 27 at Site 2) were collected in 1969, and 448 (249 at Site 1, 199 at Site 2) were
collected in 1970. In 1969, samples were taken at irregular intervals between 14
January and 29 December. Each site was sampled regularly from 5 February
through 21 September 1970. Samples were randomly collected along the
water's edge at each site. All tabanid larvae encountered were collected,
counted, and measured.


Nine species of Tabanus larvae were identified: T. aranti, T. atratus, T.
trimaculatus, T. petiolatus, T. nigrescens, T. lineola, T. pumilus, T. proximus,
and T. nigripes. The first 5 species were predominant (96% of the identified
larvae). Tabanus nigrescens, T. pumilus, and T. proximus were not reported
from the area by Hays and Tidwell (1967).
A total of 1,953 tabanid larvae (1,092 Tabanus spp. and 861 Chrysops spp.)
was collected from the 486 samples (Table 1). An average of 4.02 + 0.153 larvae
of both genera was found per ft2 (since only 38 samples were collected in 1969,
results of 1969 and 1970 were combined). Tabanus larvae were present at a
density of 2.25T0.098 larvae/ft2 and Chrysops at a density of 1.77:0.110
larvae/ft2. Samples from Site 1 yielded 4.66 0.228 tabanid larvae/ft2. Site 2
yielded 3.28 + 0.189 tabanid larvae/ft2.
The major difference between the 2 sites was in the numbers of Tabanus
larvae found (3.09=0.149/ft2 at Site 1 vs. 1.28 0.087/ft2 at Site 2). Weekly
searches during the oviposition months of 1969 and 1970 yielded approxima-
tely equal numbers of Tabanus egg masses at both sites. Thus, the factors


Site 1 Site 2
(260 samples) (226 samples)
Species No. Av/ft2 No. Av/ft2
Tabanus 803 3.90+ 0.149 289 1.28- 0.087
Chrysops 408 1.57q 0.144 453 2.00q 0.169
Total 1,211 4.66; 0.228 742 3.28+ 0.189

Ellis and Hays: Tabanid Larvae Populations

associated with the gravelly substratum at Site 1 seems to offer the best
explanation for the apparent survival of increased numbers of Tabanus
larvae. Such a loose substratum provided additional habitat for an increased
number of prey species and offered less resistance to the movements of
Tabanus larvae seeking food or in escaping their cannibalistic relatives. Also
of importance is that Tabanus larvae would not leave distinct trails from their
movements through a gravelly substratum. Laboratory experiments suggest-
ed that the tendency of Tabanus larvae to re-use previously made trails in soil
could enhance chances for larval contact between Tabanus larvae.
Most samples yielded larval populations near the averages given in Table
2. Over 50% of the samples were inhabited by 1-3 tabanid larvae/ft2. The
greatest total number of tabanids found per 1-ft2 sample was 23 (9 Tabanus, 14
Chrysops). The 9 Tabanus larvae included 1 large, 6 medium, and 2
small-sized larvae. The greatest number of Tabanus larvae found in any 1-ft2
sample was 14. This sample also contained 2 Chrysops larvae. Generally,
samples with densities of 7 or more Tabanus larvae/ft2 contained several small
larvae. However, it was not unusual, in spite of their cannibalistic tendencies,
to find 4 or 5 medium or large-sized Tabanus larvae in a 1-ft2 sample. No
Chrysops larvae were found in 43.85% of the samples taken at Site 1. The
porous substratum at this site may have allowed the Tabanus larvae to
effectively prey on the Chrysops larvae which attempted to live at this site.
ALABAMA, 1969-1970.

No. and % of samples (ft2) containing
Density Tabanus Chrysops
(no. larvae/ft2) No. % No. %
0 82 16.87 187 38.48
1-3 313 64.40 227 46.71
4-6 69 14.20 45 9.26
7-9 13 2.67 11 2.26
10-12 8 1.65 7 1.44
13-15 1 0.21 4 0.82
16-18 4 0.21
19+ 1 0.21

Higher larval densities were found in early spring as larvae migrated to the
edge of the pond prior to pupation (Fig. 1). An average of 6.81 tabanid
larvae/ft2 was found in samples taken in March. This included averages of 3.17
Tabanus larvae/ft2 and 3.64 Chrysops larvae/ft2. From March, densities
decreased until June. This decrease corresponded to adult emergence which
was at its greatest in May and early June, especially among Chrysops spp.
Larval densities fluctuated throughout the other months.
Larvae of all the various sizes were found throughout the year. There
appeared to be no uniform pattern of growth of larvae as the year progressed
following the peak oviposition months. Small and medium-sized larvae of
large adults were found through the months of greatest adult emergence,
indicating that some species may require 2 or more years to complete their

The Florida Entomologist

0 4.0-

o --- -* "
3.0 .

1.0- /

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
The high larval densities indicated that, despite cannibalism, large
populations of tabanid larvae can exist in suitable habitats around farm
ponds. Based on the total density found, 1 acre of suitable farm pond edge
could produce from 134,600 to 202,989 adult tabanids. Adult flies in these
numbers could cause significant distress among animals in the surrounding

Gingrich, R. E., and R. A. Hoffman. 1967. Abundance and survival of tabanid
larvae in effluent from a dairy barn. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 60:

Hays, Kirby L., and Mac A. Tidwell. 1967. The larval habitats of some
Tabanidae (Diptera) from Alabama and northwest Florida. J. Ala.
Acad. Sci. 38: 197-202.

Lewis, L. F., and C. M. Jones. 1955. The biology of tabanids in the
Yazoo-Mississippi Delta. J. Econ. Entomol. 48: 609-10.

Miller, L. A. 1951. Observations on the bionomics of some northern species of
Tabanidae (Diptera). Can. J. Zool. 29: 240-69.

Philip, C. B. 1931. The Tabanidae (horse flies) of Minnesota with special
reference to their biologies and taxonomy. Minn. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech.
Bull. 80. 1-132.

Schwardt, H. H. 1931. Notes on the immature stages of Arkansas Tabanidae.
Kans. Entomol. Soc. J. 4: 1-15.

Tashiro, H., and H. H. Schwardt. 1949. Biology of the major species of horse
flies of central New York. J. Econ. Entomol. 42: 269-72.

Tashiro, H. 1953. Biological studies of horse flies in New York. J. Econ.
Entomol. 46: 813-22.
The Florida Entomologist 56(1) 1973

Vol. 56, No. 1


Insects Affecting Man and Animals Research Laboratory,
Agricultural Research Service,
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Gulfport, Mississippi 39501


A marble board cone was developed that proved to be a most efficient
sampling device for determining the distribution patterns of granular bait
dispersed from aircraft.

In any program in which chemical control agents are applied aerially, the
swath width applied by the plane and the patterns of deposit of the chemical
must be known. The normal way to obtain such information for granules is to
place collecting devices in a straight line perpendicular to the line of flight of
the aircraft (Agr. Res. Serv. 1965), and a variety of such devices have been used
at this laboratory from 1958 to 1965 including metal dishpans, 9x 9 x2-in.
metal pans, corrugated cardboard cones, boards covered with grease, wooden
frames (1 yd2) with canvas bottoms, and cake boxes with the tops propped
open. Some had the advantage of being easy to handle, but all had one or more
disadvantages; they were easily stolen, the bait bounced out, ants removed the
bait, and the heat of the sun made the grease soft and fluid.
Therefore, in 1968, when we began to investigate more effective methods of
applying mirex bait for control of the imported fire ant, we tested numerous
devices before we chose a paper cone supported on a metal stand. This cone
(Fig. 1) is constructed of 0.034-in. marble board as follows:
A flat piece of marble board (32 3/8 in. x 21 3/16 in.) is marked as in Fig. 2,
then paper is cut along lines A and B, and the 2 straight edges are overlapped
until the upper edges of the cone form a 19-in.-diam circle. Thus we are insured
that at the top of the cone (the sampling area) we will always have an area of
1.999 ft2. Now the edges are secured with staples and covered with duct tape,
and the cone is waterproofed with a coating of shellac. A 2 1/2-in.-diam
polypropylene funnel with a 1-dr vial is affixed to the bottom of the cone.
The mounting frame (Fig. 1) consists of the following:
(1) A black iron pipe (1/8 in. x5 ft) threaded on one end and flat on the
other so the pipe is easy to push into the ground (called the standpipe).
(2) Two 14-in. rings of No. 4 galvanized wire welded to black iron pipe
nipples (3/8 in. x 2 in.) and attached to the standpipe by a tee (3/8
in. X 3/8 in. x 1/4 in.).

'This paper reflects the results of research only. Mention of a pesticide or a
commercial or proprietary product in this paper does not constitute a
recommendation or an endorsement of this product by the U.S. Department
of Agriculture.

The Florida Entomologist



Fig. 1.-Closeup of collecting cone. A, waterproof marble board cone
sampling ca. 2 ft2; B, galvanized ring welded into a nipple; C, 5-ft long
standpipe; D, 1-dr vial.

Fig. 2.-Schematic for making a cone. Cut along A and B and overlap the
straight edges at the bottom to give a circle 19 in. diam. This adjustment
produces an area at the top of the cone of approximately 2 ft2.

Vol. 56, No. I

Stringer et al.: Sampling Distribution of Granules

To assemble the unit, we attach the rings to the standpipe and drive the pipe
into the ground with a rubber-covered mallet. The standpipes may be placed
in position in the field several days before application of the granular bait.
When collections need to be made, all that is necessary is to place the cones in
the rings. The cones are held in place in the rings with paper clips and a rubber
The effectiveness of the cones in collecting bait was determined by
comparing the amount of bait collected in the cones with that collected in
metal pans (9 in. X 9 in. X 2 in.). Thus, 11 stands each containing 2 cones were
set 5 ft apart in a straight line in a field, 15 ft back from the edge of a road; the
11 pans were placed alternately between the standpipes. Then a jeep-mounted
Buffalo turbine with the blower at an angle of almost 900 to the horizontal
blew granular mirex bait (0.3%) toward the line of cones/pans as it was being
driven parallel to the line at 4 mph. The experiment was replicated 3 times.
The bait collected in the containers was returned to the laboratory for
weighing. The values obtained were transformed into g/ft2; the results are
presented in Table 1.


Cones Pans
Total Total
Replicate (g) g/ft2 (g) g/ft2
A 20.0 0.45 5.91 0.25
B 16.22 .36 6.0 .26
C 22.65 .51 8.3 .37
Mean= .44 Mean= .29

On the average, the cones caught almost 50% more bait than the pans (0.44
g/ft2 compared with 0.29 g/ft2), partly because the large particles were
observed to bounce out of the pans and the fine chaff to pass over the pans.
More recently the cones were compared with aluminum dish pans and
plastic dish tubs in a collection made under aircraft last year. In this test, little
difference was observed in the catches by the cones and pans, but the tubs
caught much less bait than the cones or pans. Also, the cones caught more
chaff than either the pans or tubs.
The collecting cone is thus another tool that can be used to study aerially
applied materials. They do require more work initially to set up, but they have
the advantages of losing less bait to bounce or to insects, permitting less
contamination of the bait with such materials as grass and seeds, and they are
less apt to be stolen.


Agricultural Research Service. 1965. Aerial application of agricultural
chemicals. USDA Agr. Handbook No. 287, 48 p.

The Florida Entomologist 56(1) 1973



B ij


D -



Department of Biological Science, Florida State University,
Tallahassee, Florida, 32306 and Laboratory of Aquatic Entomology,
Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32307.


A new name, Cloeon agnewi, is proposed for Cloeon exiguum (Crass) nec
Navas known from the Republic of South Africa.

Navas (1918) described Cloeon exiguum from Manila, Philippines. In 1932
Barnard described the African genus Austrocloeon. Crass (1947) described
Austrocloeon exiguum from Zululand, Republic of South Africa. Present
authorities consider Austrocloeon a synonym of Cloeon (Ulmer 1932,
Edmunds and Traver 1954, Agnew 1961, Demoulin 1970). Demoulin (1970)
placed Austrocloeon exiguum Crass in Cloeon. Since the synonymization of
Austrocloeon with Cloeon is undoubtedly correct (Edmunds, personal
communication), Cloeon exiguum (Crass) is a junior secondary homonym of
Cloeon exiguum Navas. I propose the new name Cloeon agnewi for Cloeon
exiguum (Crass) nec Navas. This species is named in honor of Dr. J. D. Agnew
of the Republic of South Africa. I thank Dr. William L. Peters for advice, help,
and use of facilities in the Laboratory of Aquatic Entomology, Florida A&M
University. I would also like to thank Dr. George F. Edmunds, Jr., University
of Utah, for help and advice.


Agnew, J. D. 1961. New Baetidae (Ephem.) from South Africa. Novos Taxa
Entomol. 25:1-18.
Barnard, K. H. 1932. South African May-flies (Ephemeroptera). Trans. Roy.
Soc. S. Afr. 20:201-259.
Crass, R. S. 1947. The mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of Natal and the Eastern
Cape. Ann. Natal Mus. 11:37-110.
Demoulin, G. 1970. Ephemeroptera des faunes 6thiopienne et malgache. S. Afr.
Anim. Life. 14:24-170.
Edmunds, G. F., Jr., and J. R. Traver. 1954. An outline of a reclassification of
the Ephemeroptera. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 56:236-240.
Navas, L. 1918. Insecta Nova. Mem. Pontif. Accad. Rom., Nuovo Lincei, Ser.
II, 4:1-23.
Ulmer, G. 1932. Bemerkungen fiber die seit 1920 neu aufgestellten Gattungen
der Ephemeropteren. Stett. Ent. Zeit. 93:204-219.

The Florida Entomologist 56(1) 1973

'This study was supported by grant No. 216-15-04 from the Cooperative
States Research Service (USDA) to W. L. Peters, Florida A&M University.



Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601


Seventeen insecticides were evaluated for control of mole crickets in turf.
Data indicate that chlordane and propoxur were the most effective sprays
applied, carbofuran and chlordane the most effective granules, and chlor-
pyrifos the most effective bait. Low percentage baits provided more satisfac-
tory control in summer and fall while sprays and granules performed better in
the spring.

In many areas of the United States mole crickets are considered minor
pests. However, in Florida as well as some other southeastern states these
insects are one of the major pests of turf.
Mole cricket damage is especially severe in newly planted or sprigged areas.
In established turf, bahiagrasses are often severely infested.
Mole crickets damage grass by feeding on the roots. In addition, their
characteristic burrowing in the upper soil uproots the plant, mechanically
damages the root system, and causes the soil to dry out excessively.
Four species of mole crickets have been described in Florida: the northern
mole cricket, Gryllotalpa hexadactyla Perty; the short-winged mole cricket,
Scapteriscus abbreviatus Scudder; the southern mole cricket, S. acletus Rehn
and Hebard; and the Puerto Rican mole cricket S. vicinus Scudder. Only the
latter 2 species are considered economically important in Florida.
Mating flights occur in the spring. The majority of the crickets have mated
by mid-June. After mating, the female crickets enter the soil and deposit their
eggs in cells a few inches below the soil surface. Eggs are laid from March to
September, with peak oviposition of both economic species in May. The
nymphs develop throughout the summer and the first adults begin to appear
in September. There is only 1 generation per year.


Experiments were conducted on 2 golf courses in the Gainesville area
during 1970 and 1971 to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide sprays, granules,
and baits for the control of mole crickets.
The sites selected for these experiments were irrigated prior to treatment
to encourage mole cricket activity. All plots were 10 x 10 ft with 5-ft borders.
Each treatment was randomized and replicated 3 times.
Baits and granules were applied by hand while sprays were applied with a
2-gal. watering can. Two gallons of mixed spray were applied to each plot.

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4544.

20 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 56, No. 1

Plots treated with sprays or granules were irrigated immediately following
application with approximately 14 in. water.
For the first 3 days following application dead or moribund mole crickets
found on the soil surface were counted in each plot in the early morning and
later afternoon hours. Counts were also made on the mornings of the fourth
and fifth days. The mole crickets were identified to species and stage of
development was noted.


A total of 9 experiments was conducted from April 1970 to May 1972. Due
to either insufficient populations, or heavy rains after application of baits,
only 4 experiments gave significant results.
In the October 1970 experiments, 11 treatments of 6 materials were
evaluated. The most effective materials in this experiment were 0.5%
chlorpyrifos baits and chlordane spray (Table 1).
In the experiments applied April 1971, 21 treatments consisting of 10
materials were evaluated. The most effective materials were carbofuran
granules, chlordane spray and granules, chlorpyrifos bait, and propoxur spray
and bait (Table 2).
In experiments conducted in October 1971, 3 baits that were effective in
previous tests were evaluated. Chlordane-toxaphene and chlorpyrifos were
applied at 2 rates. Propoxur was applied at 4 rates. Chlorpyrifos bait proved
very effective at both the 2 and 4 lb/acre rates. Propoxur was effective at only
the highest rate used. Both rates of chlorpyrifos and the high rate of propoxur
were significantly more effective than the chlordane-toxaphene bait (Table 3).


Lb Actual Total dead
Insecticide or moribund
Material Formulation Per Acer Mole Crickets**
Carbofuran 3.2% Granules 10.0 10 ab
Chlordane 74% E.C. 8.0 23 a
Chlordane+ 2/ % +
Toxaphene 2% Bait 1.5 8 ab
Chlorpyrifos 22.5% E.C. 2.0 3 b
Chlorpyrifos 0.5% Granules 1.5 8 ab
Chlorpyrifos 5% Bait 0.6 2 b
Chlorpyrifos 5% Bait 2.0 4 b
Chlorpyrifos 0.5% Bait 0.6 18 a
Chlorpyrifos 0.5% Bait 2.0 28 a
O,S-Dimethyl Acetyl-
(Orthene) 75% Wettable Powder 3.0 6 ab
Trichlorfon 2.0% Bait 1.5 1 b
Check Ob

* Materials applied 21 October 1970.
**Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level of prob-

Short and Driggers: Mole Cricket Control


Lb Actual Total dead
Insecticide or moribund
Material Formulation Per Acer Mole Crickets**

Carbaryl 5% Bait
Carbaryl 5% Bait
Carbofuran 10% Granules
Carbofuran 10% Granules
Chlordane 74.0% E.C.
Chlordane 10% Granules
Chlordane 25 % Granules
2-Chloro-1- (2,4,5-Trichloro-
phenyl) Vinyl Dimethyl
Phosphate (Gardona) 5.0% Bait
2-Chloro-1- (2,4,5-Trichloro-
phenyl) Vinyl Dimethyl
Phosphate (Gardona) 5.0% Bait
Chlorpyrifos 0.5 % Bait
Chlorpyrifos 0.5% Bait
O-Ethyl S-Phenyl Ethylphos-
Phonodithioate (Dyfonate) 4.0% Bait
O-Ethyl S-Phenyl Ethylphos-
Phonodithioate (Dyfonate) 4.0% Bait
O'S-Dimethyl Acetylphosphor- 75.0% Wettable
Amidothioate (Orthene) Powder
O'S-Dimethyl Acetylphosphor- 75.0% Wettable
Amidothioate (Orthene) Powder
Propoxur 2.0% Bait
Propoxur 2.0% Bait
Propoxur 70.0% Wettable
Propoxur 70.0% Wettable
Trichlorfon 5.0%. Bait
Trichlorfon 5.0% Bait


10 gh

19 fgh

11 gh

8 gh

15 gh
52 cde
45 def

49 cde

* Materials were applied 5 August 1971.
**Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level of prob-
The experiment applied in May 1972 (Table 4) was conducted to gain
information for practical application to large turf areas. Eleven treatments of
6 insecticides were evaluated using higher percentage baits applied at lower
volumes. Mirex was included to evaluate reports of possible mole cricket
control when used against imported fire ants. Chlordane spray was applied as
a standard.
At the high rate, chlordane was more effective than other materials;
however, chlordane was applied primarily to obtain an estimate of the
population present. Chlorpyrifos applied at 1.5 lb/acre was significantly more
effective than the other materials applied at this rate. At 1.0 lb/acre,

The Florida Entomologist



Lb Actual
Per Acre

Total dead
or moribund
Mole Crickets**

Chlordane +
flu k

2.0% Bait
2.5 %+
2.0% Bait
0.5% Bait
0.5% Bait
0.5% Bait
0.5% Bait
0.5% Bait
0.5% Bait

10 be

20 b
37 a
47 a
9 be
15 b
17 b
41 a

ec e

Materials were applied 18 October 1971.
**Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.


Material Lb Actual Total dead
Insecticide or Moribund
Formulation Per Acre Mole Crickets**

Carbaryl 5.0% Bait 1.0 28 e
Carbaryl 5.0% Bait 1.5 36 de
Chlordane 72.0% E.C. 9.0 79 a
Chlorpyrifos 5.0% Bait 1.0 47 ed
Chlorpyrifos 5.0% Bait 1.5 61 b
Mirex 0.3% Bait t 4 f
Mirex 0.3% Bait tt 8 f
Propoxur 5.0% Bait 1.0 46 ed
Propoxur 5.0% Bait 1.5 48 c
Trichlorfon 5.0% Bait 1.0 34 e
Trichlorfon 5.0% Bait 1.5 38 cde
Check Of

* Materials were applied 9 May 1972.
**Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
f 11/ lb of 0.3% Bait.
tt3 lb of 0.3% Bait.

chlorpyrifos and propoxur performed equally well and were significantly
better than the other materials. There was no significant difference between
either rate of mirex and the check.


Temperature and moisture are important in the control of mole crickets.
Night temperatures should be at least 600F or above and the soil should be


Vol. 56, No. 1

Short and Driggers: Mole Cricket Control

moist. If these conditions are not present, the crickets are less likely to be
active near the soil surface and control will be reduced.
On the basis of these experiments, Florida recommendations for mole
cricket control on lawns and commercial turf have been revised somewhat.
More recently developed materials such as chlorpyrifos and propoxur, when
used as baits, were found to be highly effective against mole crickets. Propoxur
was also effective when applied as a spray.
When compared in these experiments, low percentage baits (0.5%) gave
significantly better control than more concentrated materials. This was very
likely due to the larger volume of bait required for a given area to obtain the
recommended amount of insecticide. This results in a more thorough
distribution of bait with the crickets having a greater chance of consuming the
As previously noted, several experiments have not been described because
of poor control due largely to adverse weather conditions. However, a definite
trend of better control with sprays and granules was noted in the spring, and
baits performed better in the late summer and fall. This would be expected
because the nymphs are developing and require large amounts of food in the
fall, and thus baits are readily accepted. In the spring the crickets have
reached maturity and baits are less attractive.
Also, it is felt that a residual material such as aldrin, chlordane, or
heptachlor applied as spray or granules in April or May would prevent much
of the damage occurring later in the year. An application at this time would
control many females prior to oviposition, or where eggs have been deposited,
sufficient residue would be present in the soil to control nymphs shortly after

The Florida Entomologist 56(1) 1973



Department of Zoology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, 32601


The geographical distribution, north of Mexico, for damselflies in the genus
Hetaerina appears by county for each state and nearest community for 2
Canadian provinces. Hetaerina americana (Fabricius), H. titia (Drury), and
H. vulnerata Hagen occur in 41, 24, and 4 U.S. states respectively, and H.
americana exists also in Quebec and Ontario, Canada. Likely explanations of
these geographic patterns follow the distributional data. Temperature
probably controls the northern limits in H. americana and H. titia; adult
behavioral preferences affect western limits of H. titia; drought severely limits
distribution of H. vulnerata in the southwestern U.S. A well-isolated,
pleistocene relict describes the single Florida colony of H. americana. Isolated
colonies of H. americana also characterize part of its southwestern distribu-
tion. Flight season data show a 12 month adult activity period in tropical
climes dropping to an approximately 3 month interval in northern colonies of
H. americana, and an even shorter time in populations of northern H. titia.

This paper summarizes distributional data north of Mexico for damselflies
of the genus Hetaerina, and tentatively interprets boundary limits noted in
the geographical patterns. The subfamily Hetaerininae occurs only in the
Western Hemisphere with center of diversity in the neotropical region. Only 3
species range northward beyond Mexico, H. americana (Fabricius), H. titia
(Drury), and H. vulnerata Hagen. The species are stream to riverine
inhabitants, occurring about lakes only when attributes of flowing water exist.
Diagnostic characters for their determination are in Calvert (1901-1908) and
Johnson (1972a).
Most damselflies are known specifically only to specialists; however, the
widely distributed, large and colorful H. americana possesses a well-known
popular name, Common Ruby Spot, reflecting a familiarity uncommon with
Zygoptera. The traits of large size, brightly colored wings, and non-secretive
reproductive behavior also make hetaerinas attractive topics for ecological
and behavioral studies (Johnson 1961, 1962, 1963, 1966; Bick and Sulzbach,
1966). While behavioral and ecological attributes are becoming better known,
a crude picture of their distribution still exists. Most general works on U. S.
Zygoptera give readers the impression that H. americana, particularly, occurs
almost everywhere. For example, Muttkowski (1910) . Canada to
Guatemala.", Needham and Heywood (1929) "N. Am. Generally", Byers
(1930) "Canada to Guatemala", with Montgomery (1947) being somewhat
more specific, "Quebec and California to Guatemala". Only Walker (1953)
briefly noted the need for a more precise description. Many papers giving
'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
Gainesville 32601.

Johnson: Distribution of Hetaerina

distributional data have accumulated in the past 112 years since Hagen's
pioneering Synopsis in 1861. Specimens representing a wealth of unpublished
data also exist in various collections. A combination of these sources produced
data discussed here. Published sources are in the Literature Cited and
recognition appears in Acknowledgements for correspondents giving freely of
time and information. A documented statement of the U. S. distribution in
Hetaerina is now both possible and timely as better-defined questions emerge
on ecology and evolution. All 3 species occur south of the U. S., H. vulnerata at
least to southern Mexico, possibly Brazil (Calvert 1901-1908), and H.
americana and H. titia to Guatemala and possibly southward (Williamson
1923). Specifics on these southern distributions remain incomplete but do not
adversely affect the value of a well-defined northern distribution.


Data exist for Hetaerina americana in 41 states of the U.S. and 2
Canadian provinces; likewise, H. titia and H. vulnerata occur in 24 and 4
states respectively. The distributions appear below by county for each state,
and the Canadian distribution is that of Walker (1953). These localities appear
graphically, 1 symbol per county, in the maps of Fig. 1 and 2; Calvert
(1901-1908) gave the few H. americana localities shown for northern Mexico.
Where only county data exist, the species symbol appears in the center of the
respective county; otherwise, the symbol is on the collection site. This practice
is mainly helpful for western states having large county size. Smaller counties
in the eastern states are only partially responsible for the larger number of
localities; collecting in the eastern U.S. occurred over a substantially longer
period, and suitable habitats are more abundant. Data reported here trace
back in a few cases to 1861, 1873, 1893, etc., and industrial regions have
probably polluted or eliminated some earlier habitats. The literature, listed
chronologically, personal communication sources, and collections) yielding
documentation for each state follow county lists. Only literature sources
giving specific localities within a state appear; therefore, the earliest reference
cited usually does not represent the first published recognition of the species in
the state. For instance, Hagen (1861) initially listed several states but without
other localities. The collections cited carry the following abbreviations: CJ
Coll.-author's coll., Mauff. Coll.-W. Mauffrey Coll., Tenn. Coll.-K.J.
Tennessen Coll., U.A. Coll.-University of Arkansas Coll., Clem. U.
Coll.-Clemson University Coll., Corn. U. Coll.-Cornell University Coll., U.N.
Coll.-University of Nebraska Coll., USNM Coll.-U.S. National Museum of
Natural History Coll., and FSCA-Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
Hetaerina americana distributional records.

United States.
Alabama: Colbert, Dallas, Lee, Perry, and Tallapoosa counties. William-
son (1903); Wilson (1909); H. B. Cunningham (personal communication 1972);
CJ Coll.
Arizona: Cochise, Coconino, Gila, Maricopa, Pima, Pinal, Santa Cruz,
Yavapi and Yuma counties. Calvert (1901-1908); Williamson (1914a); Ahrens
(1938); H. R. Rush, T. Donnelly, C. Cook, W. R. Enns (personal communica-
tion 1972); CJ Coll., FSCA.
Arkansas: Conway, Garland, Greene, Logan, Madison, Marion, Mont-

The Florida Entomologist

Fig. 1.-Distributional pattern of Hetaerina americana north of Mexico.
See text for locality details.

Vol. 56, No. I

Johnson: Distribution of Hetaerina

Fig. 2.-Distributional patterns of Hetaerina titia and H. vulnerata north
of Mexico. See text for locality details.

The Florida Entomologist

gomery, Newton, Polk, Randolph, Scott, Stone, and Washington counties.
Adams (1900); Bick (1959); C. Cook (personal communication 1972), Mauff.
California: Alameda, Butte, Colusa, Fresno, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Los
Angeles, Monterey, Placer, Riverside, Sacramento, San Bernardino, San
Diego, Santa Cruz, Tulare, and Ventura counties. Calvert (1901-1908);
Kennedy (1917a); Seeman (1927); Ahrens (1938); T. Donnelly, H.R. Rush,
P.D. Harwood (personal communication 1972), FSCA.
Colorado: Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, and Yuma counties. Calvert
(1901-1908); Williamson (1913); W. F. Barr, P.J. Clausen (personal com-
munication 1972).
Connecticut: Hartford and Litchfield counties. Garman (1927).
Florida: Calhoun and Jackson counties. Byers (1930); Johnson and
Westfall (1970); CJ Coll., FSCA.
Georgia: Bartow, Madison, Monroe, Pike, Rockdale, and Walton counties.
J.B. Wallace (personal communication 1972); CJ Coll.; FSCA.
Illinois: Carroll, Champaign, Jo Daviess, Mason, McHenry, Ogle, Peoria,
Vermilion, and Will counties. Garman (1917); P.D. Harwood, J.B. Wallace
(personal communication 1972).
Indiana: Brown, Carroll, Clinton, Clark, Dubois, Fulton, Gibson, Greene,
Hamilton, Harrison, Henry, Jasper, Johnson, Lake, Marshall, Montgomery,
Morgan, Newton, Noble, Orange, Owen, Posey, Pulaski, Putnam, Randolph,
Rush, Scott, Starke, Tippecanoe, Union, Virgo, Wabash, Warren, Wayne,
Wells, and White counties. Williamson (1900); Montgomery (1934, 1937, 1941,
1953, 1955, 1971); P.D. Harwood, C. Cook (personal communication 1972).
Iowa: Adair, Black Hawk, Boone, Des Moines, Dubuque, Floyd, Hamilton,
Muscatine, and Story counties. Elrod (1898); Whedon (1914); Wilson (1909,
1920); Wells (1917); P.D. Harwood, W.R. Enns (personal communication
Kansas: Barton, Chautauqua, Cheyenne, Clark, Douglas, Ellis, Gove,
Logan, Ness, Osborne, Phillips, Pratt, Rooks, Russell, Summer, and Wallace
counties. Kennedy (1917b).
Kentucky: Adair, Allen, Anderson, Ballard, Barren, Boyd, Breckinridge,
Bullitt, Butler, Carter, Casey, Christian, Cumberland, Edmonson, Fayette,
Fulton, Grayson, Green, Jefferson, Laurel, Lyon, Madison, Marion,
McCreary, Metcalfe, Monroe, Nelson, Oldham, Pike, Pulaski, Rockcastle,
Rowan, Russell, Taylor, Warren, Wayne, and Whitley counties. Wilson
(1912); H. Garman (1924); Williamson (1934); Resner (1970); C. Cook
(personal communication 1972); FSCA.
Louisiana: East Baton Rouge, East Feliciana, St. Helena, Tangipahoa,
Washington, and West Feliciana parishes. Bick (1957); Mauff. Coll.
Maine: Androscoggin, Kennebec, Oxford, and Penobscot counties. Howe
(1917-1921); Borror (1944).
Maryland: Baltimore, Frederick, Montgomery, and Prince Georges
counties. Fisher (1940); Donnelly (1961).
Massachusetts: Barnstable, Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk, and Worcester
counties. Hagen (1873b); Calvert (1905); Howe (1917-1921); CJ Coll.
Michigan: Arenac, Calhoun, Cheboygan, Ingham, Kalamazoo, Lapeer,
Lenawee, Livington, Macomb, Midland, Monroe, Oakland, Shiawassee, St.
Clair, Washtenaw, and Wayne counties. Byers (1927); Kormondy (1958).
Minnesota: Goodhue, Hennepin, and Redwood counties. P.J. Clausen
(personal communication 1972).

Vol. 56, No. 1

Johnson: Distribution of Hetaerina

Mississippi: Lafayette, Lauderdale, and Stone counties. G.H. Bick and C.
Cook (personal communication 1972).
Missouri: Boone, Calloway, Carter, Crawford, Lawrence, Osage, Pike,
Pulaski, Shannon, St. Louis, and Taney counties. Williamson (1932); P.D.
Harwood, W.R. Enns (personal communication 1972); FSCA.
Montana: Hagen (1873a, 1874a) reported on 3 broken male specimens
taken during the U.S. Geological Survey of 1872. He determined the specimens
as Hetaerina californica Hagen in Selys, 1859, a name recognized as a junior
synonym of H. americana by later writers. The only locality data was "... the
Yellowstone.". This term referred, presumably, in the 1870's, to the Yellow-
stone River occurring largely in Montana. Hagen (1875) again referred the
specimens only to the "Yellowstone"; however, Calvert (1901-1908) listed H.
americana from Montana on the basis of Hagen's specimens. J.H. Lowe and
N.L. Anderson searched collections at the University of Montana and
Montana State University respectively to no avail. G. H. Bick (personal
communication 1972) collected Odonata in Montana extensively during the
summer of 1972 without encountering the species. Apparently no evidence
currently exists for colonies of H. americana in Montana.
Nebraska: Antelope, Blaine, Cass, Cherry, Hamilton, Lancaster, Lincoln,
Scotts Bluff, Sioux, and Thomas counties. UN Coll. Montgomery (1967) is the
only published report known for Nebraska; however, he gives no specific
Nevada: Clark and Lincoln counties. La Rivers (1940).
New Hampshire: Hillsboro and Strafford counties. W.J. Morse (personal
communication 1972); FSCA.
New Jersey: Atlantic, Camden, Morris, Ocean, and Passaic counties.
Calvert (1903, 1909); B. E. Montgomery (personal communication 1972).
New Mexico: Bernalillo, Catron, Chaves, Dona Ana, Eddy, Grant, Quay,
Rio Arriba, and Socorro counties. Needham and Cockerell (1903); Ahrens
(1938); Johnson (1963, 1966); P.D. Harwood, T. Donnelly (personal com-
munication 1972); CJ Coll.; FSCA.
New York: Albany, Broome, Essex, Niagara, Tompkins, and Ulster
counties. Calvert (1895); Needham (1928); P.D. Harwood (personal com-
munication 1972).
North Carolina: Alleghany, Buncombe, Chatham, Cherokee, Cumberland,
Durham, Henderson, Moore, Richmond, Swain, Transylvania, and Wake
counties. Brimley (1903, 1938); Byers (1931); C. Cook; B. E. Montgomery
(personal communication 1972).
North Dakota: Ransom Co. R.L. Post (personal communication 1972).
Ohio: Allen, Ashland, Auglaize, Belmont, Brown, Butler, Champaign,
Clark, Clermont, Cuyahoga, Darke, Delaware, Erie, Fayette, Franklin, Gallia,
Greene, Harrison, Highland, Hocking, Huron, Knox, Lake, Licking, Logan,
Madison, Mahoning, Medina, Miami, Montgomery, Morrow, Muskingum,
Paulding, Pike, Portage, Preble, Putnam, Richland, Ross, Sandusky, Scioto,
Seneca, Shelby, Summit, Vinton, Warren, and Wayne counties. Kellicott
(1895); Borror (1937, 1938, 1942); Montgomery (1943); Alrutz (1961); P.D.
Harwood, C. Cook (personal communication 1972); FSCA.
Oklahoma: Alfalfa, Beaver, Beckham, Caddo, Canadian, Cleveland,
Comanche, Cotton, Custer, Garvin, Harmon, Harper, Jackson, Johnston, Le
Fore, Major, Marshall, McClain, McCurtin, Murray, Muskogee, Roger Mills,
Sequoyah, Washita, and Woods counties. Williamson (1914b); Bird (1932);
Bick (1951); Bick and Bick (1957); Bick and Sulzback (1966).

The Florida Entomologist

Pennsylvania: Allegheny, Bedford, Bucks, Butler, Centre, Chester,
Clarion, Crawford, Delaware, Erie, Fayette, Forest, Juniata, Lancaster,
Lawrence, Lycoming, Perry, Somerset, Warren, Washington, and York
counties. Calvert (1893); Beatty and Beatty (1968); Ahrens, Beatty and
Beatty (1968); Beatty, Beatty and Shiffer (1969); N.L. Anderson, C. Cook
(personal communication 1972).
South Carolina: Aiken, Darlington, Lexington, and Oconee counties.
Montgomery (1940); Clem. U. Coll.
South Dakota: Bennett, Todd, and Turner counties. E.U. Balsbaugh, Jr.
(personal communication 1972).
Tennessee: Anderson, Benton, Bledsoe, Blount, Bradley, Carter,
Cheatham, Cocke, Coffee, Davidson, Dickson, Dyer, Fentress, Greene,
Hancock, Hawkins, Henry, Jackson, Johnson, Knox, Lincoln, Loudon,
Maury, Monroe, Morgan, Obion, Overton, Putnam, Scott, Sequatchie, Sevier,
Smith, Sullivan, Summer, Tipton, Unicoi, Washington, and Wilson counties.
Byers (1931); Williamson (1934); Wright (1938); Kormondy (1957); Trogdon
(1961); C. Cook (personal communication 1972).
Texas: Baylor, Bexar, Blanco, Bosque, Brazos, Brewster, Caldwell,
Cherokee, Childress, Colorado, Comal, Cooke, Crosby, Dallas, Denton,
Fayette, Gillespie, Goliad, Gonzales, Gregg, Grimes, Hays, Hill, Jeff Davis, Jim
Wells, Kendall, Kerr, Kimble, Limestone, Llano, Lubbock, Medina, Menard,
Palo Pinto, Pecos, Presidio, Randall, Real, Reeves, Robertson, San Jacinto,
San Patricio, Sutton, Travis, Uvalde, Val Verde, Victoria, Williamson,
Wilson, and Zavala counties. Calvert (1901-1908); Williamson (1914b);
Tinkham (1934); Ferguson (1940, 1942); Harwell (1951); Gloyd (1958);
Johnson (1961, 1962, 1963, 1972).
Utah: Garfield, Millard, Unitah, Utah, and Washington counties. Brown
(1934); Ahrens (1938); T. Donnelly, E. Devenport (personal communication
Virginia: Fairfax, Giles, Loudoun, Madison, Montgomery, Orange, Prince
George, Prince William, Russell, Shennandoah, Tazewell, and Warren
counties. Williamson (1903); Donnelly (1961); Johnson (1963); P.D. Harwood,
C. Cook (personal communication 1972); CJ Coll.
West Virginia: Boone, Calhoun, Clay, Doddridge, Gilmer, Hampshire,
Jefferson, Lincoln, Marshall, Mercer, Mineral, Mingo, Monroe, Morgan,
Pendleton, Roane, Summers, Tyler, Wetzel, and Wyoming counties. Cruden
(1962); P.D. Harwood (personal communication 1972); Corn. U. Coll.
Wisconsin: Bayfield, Burnett, Clark, Crawford, Dane, Grant, Green, Iowa,
Jefferson, La Crosse, La Fayette, Marquette, Milwaukee, Ozaukee, Pierce,
Richland, Rock, Sheboygan, Vernon, Walworth, Waukesha, and Waupaca
counties. Muttkowski (1908); Wilson (1909); W. Hilsenhoff (personal com-
munication 1972); Tenn. Coll.
Wyoming: Crook, Goshen, and Platte counties. Bick and Hornuff (1972);
R. Lavigne (personal communication 1972).


Ontario: Essex, Kent, Lambton, Elgin, Middlesex, Oxford, Brant, Hal-
dimand, Perth, Huron, Peel, and York.
Quebec: Montreal.

Vol. 56, No. 1

Johnson: Distribution of Hetaerina

Hetaerina titia distributional records.

Alabama: Colbert and Dallas counties. Williamson (1903); CJ Coll.
Arkansas: Montgomery and Stone counties. U.A. Coll.; Mauff. Coll.
Florida: Alachua, Bradford, Clay, Columbia, Gadsden, Gilchrist,
Highlands, Jackson, Lee, Levy, Liberty, Manatee, Marion, Orange, Polk,
Santa Rosa, Suwannee, Union, and Wakulla counties. Calvert (1901-1908);
Byers (1930); Davis and Fluno (1938); Needham (1946); Johnson and Westfall
(1970); CJ Coll.; FSCA; Tenn. Coll.
Georgia: Bibb, Brantley, Burke, Decatur, Floyd, McDuffie, Pierce, and
Union counties. Byers (1931); Williamson (1934); CJ Coll.; FSCA.
Illinois: Mason and Piatt counties. Garman (1917); P.D. Harwood
(personal communication 1972).
Indiana: Carroll, Clay, Elkhart, Gibson, Lagrange, and Tippecanoe
counties. Williamson (1900); Montgomery (1935, 1937, 1941, 1951, 1953).
Iowa: Cherokee County. Whedon (1914).
Kansas: Douglas County. Kennedy (1917b).
Kentucky: Adair, Barren, Breckinridge, Carter, Edmonson, Green,
Hardin, Marion, Metcalfe, Rockcastle, and Wayne counties. Resner (1970).
Louisiana: Allen, East Baton Rouge, East Feliciana, Evangeline, Madison,
Rapides, St. Helena, St. Tammany, Tangipahoa, Vernon, and Washington
parishes. Montgomery (1927); Wright (1943); Bick (1957).
Maryland: Montgomery and Prince Georges counties. Donnelly (1961).
Michigan: Oakland and Wayne counties. Byers (1927); Kormondy (1958).
Mississippi: George, Hancock, Jackson, Lafayette, Marion, Monroe, Pearl
River, Pike, and Stone counties. Mauff. Coll.
Missouri: Carter, Miller, and Pulaski counties. Williamson (1932).
Nebraska: Cass County. U.N. Coll. Montgomery (1967) lists H. titia in
Nebraska with no specific locality.
North Carolina: Buncombe, Cherokee, Henderson, Madison, Robeson,
Stokes, Transylvania, and Wake counties. Brimley (1903); Williamson
(1934); B.E. Montgomery (personal communication); FSCA.
New Jersey: Montgomery (1947) cites New Jersey for I. titia without a
specific locality. I have been unable to confirm this report or locate other
specimens from the state.
Ohio: Brown, Fairfield, and Williams counties. Kellicott (1895); Borror
(1937); P.D. Harwood (personal communication 1972).
Oklahoma: Bryan, Johnston, Le Fore, Murray, and Muskogee counties.
Williamson (1912); Bick and Bick (1957).
Pennsylvania: Bedford, Butler, Cumberland, Fayette, and Philadelphia
counties. Hagen (1861); Calvert (1893); Williamson (1912); Ahrens and Beatty
(1968); Beatty, Beatty and Shiffer (1969); C. Cook (personal communication
South Carolina: Aiken, Chesterfield, Greenville, and Pickens counties.
Williamson (1934); FSCA.
Tennessee: Anderson, Blount, Bradley, Claiborne, Clay, Coffee, Davidson,
Henry, Maury, Fayette, Fentress, Scott, Union, and Wilson counties.
Williamson (1912, 1923a, 1934); Kormondy (1957); Trogdon (1961); C. Cook
(personal communication 1972).
Texas: Angelina, Bexar, Bosque, Brazos, Caldwell, Colorado, Comal,
Dallas, Denton, Fayette, Goliad, Gonzales, Grimes, Guadalupe, Hays,

The Florida Entomologist

Jackson, Jim Wells, Kendall, Kimball, McLennan, Polk, Presidio, San
Jacinto, San Patricio, Robertson, Travis, Uvalde, Victoria, and Webb
counties. Calvert (1901-1908); Williamson (1912, 1914b); Ferguson (1940);
Johnson (1961, 1963, 1972).
Virginia: Henrico and Tazewell counties. Williamson (1903); Gloyd (1951).
West Virginia: Jefferson and Greenbrier counties. Cruden (1962): USNM

Hetaerina vulnerata distributional records.

Arizona: Cochise, Coconino, and Gila counties. R.W. Garrison (personal
communication 1972); CJ Coll.; FSCA.
New Mexico: Catron, Grant, and Sandoval counties. CJ Coll; FSCA.
Texas: Bexar County. C. Cook (personal communication 1972).
Utah: Washington County. Brown (1934): P.D. Harwood (personal
communication 1972).


The range of hetaerinas doubtlessly expands and contracts along
peripheries as conditions dictate. A number of observations reflect the
instability of northern colonies. Kormondy (1958) commented on Evans'
(1914) northernmost Michigan record of H. americana as . undoubtedly
were strays." W.L. Hilsenhoff (personal communication 1972) described H.
americana as uncommon in northern Wisconsin. R.L. Post (personal
communication 1972) reported for the single North Dakota H. americana
collection "... I collected 2 specimens.., on August 14, 1951,.... spring fed pot
hole ... a subsequent visit found the small area muddied . trampled ...
thoroughly disturbed." P.J. Clausen (personal communication 1972) said of H.
americana . not apparently a very common species in Minnesota."
Garman (1927) had only 2 H. americana localities in Connecticut, and Howe
(1917-1921) described the species as rare in Maine and Massachusetts. Hagen's
questionable Montana specimens, mentioned above, may also reflect
problems encountered by northern colonies. Hetaerina titia is less successful
in colonizing northern environments. The locality records for H. titia
terminate far south of the northernmost H. americana sites and are generally
uncommon to the north. Kormondy (1958) described it as "... an occasional
adventive in Michigan." Low temperature probably plays the major role
limiting northward distribution of both H. americana and H. titia; however,
its relative importance to adults and larvae is unknown.
In the xeric southwest to California, H. americana occurs along larger
rivers serving as refuges for recolonizing smaller creeks and springs between
intervals of drought. These populations experience more isolation than in the
midwest and eastern states, and some completely isolated populations occur.
A large spring, Ojo Caliente, produces a stream in western Socorro Co., New
Mexico, flowing for approximately 1 mile before the water disappears into the
desert floor. The dry stream bed follows a winding path southeast to the Rio
Grande through 40 to 50 miles of dry desert terrain. The next closest H.
americana habitats are the Tularosa and Gila Rivers, 30 to 40 miles west
across the Continental Divide. Complete isolation from other populations
exists for H. americana at Ojo Caliente probably dating from a much earlier,

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Johnson: Distribution of Hetaerina

humid era. Similar isolation occurs for H. americana about the San
Bernadino Springs in the southeastern corner of Cochise Co., Arizona. The
absence of H. americana in the northwestern sector of the U.S. perhaps
involves an interaction of temperature, dispersal ability, and in some areas,
extensive mountains.
Adult behavior may determine the western limits of H. titia across the
central U.S. Williamson (1923, 1932) indicated a greater preference by H. titia
for shaded streams while H. americana readily colonizes open sunny
situations. The preferences refer to perch-site conditions selected by adults.
Both species may also occur together exercising interspecific competition
(Johnson 1963). My field experiences agree with Williamson; however, I have
also noted the higher perch sites (trees vs. emergent grass) more frequently
chosen by H. titia. The distribution of H. titia occurs largely within the
forested, thus shady, areas of the eastern and southern U.S. Streams in the
prairie environments of western Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas obviously are
not shadeless, but the forest-type overstory of these waters is distinctly less.
A short period of observation on H. titia reveals its marked reluctance to
leave, for long intervals, tree-shade conditions. This subtle behavioral
attribute may play a major role in H. titia's geographical occurrence.
Drought is a major factor limiting the spotty distribution of H. vulnerata
in the southwest. I collected H. vulnerata on the Rio Mimbres, Grant Co.,
New Mexico, on 24 August 1962. In 2 weeks, the river bed was completely dry
with no Odonata. The subsequent winter snow-melt revived the river
channel; however, I was unable to find H. vulnerata on the stream during
annual visits over the next 5 years. A similar event developed on Cottonwood
Creek, Catron Co., New Mexico. Both H. vulnerata and H. americana
occurred on Cottonwood Creek in June 1963, with H. vulnerata confined to
the shady, shallow, higher elevations. Drought reduced water to small
puddles in this section of the stream in August of that year, and, in the
following 4 years, I collected only 1 adult H. vulnerata where an active
population previously existed. Localities in Arizona, where I have seen H.
vulnerata, appear equally susceptible to drought. The mean adult male life
expectancy of H. americana is approximately 15 days (Johnson 1962), and,
with a maximum maturation period of 10 days, an individual has 25 days of
life. Most probably live a shorter period. This time is largely for reproductive
activity at the stream. Life expectancies probably are not greatly different in
other Hetaerina species, and H. vulnerata also exhibits close attachment to
the stream side. Little time exists for adult movement. The long distances
between streams in southwestern mountainous or xeric habitats surely
reduce migration to a low trickle. The utilization by H. vulnerata of streams,
or sections of streams, subject to drought-effects combined with a low
dispersal rate surely limits its U.S. distribution in large part. The Texas
record for H. vulnerata is the first documented case of verified specimens for
that state (Johnson 1972a). I have studied 2 males from the Carl Cook
Collection and concur with his determinations.
The only known colony of H. americana in Florida occurs on the Chipola
River about Florida Caverns State Park and Blue Springs immediately north
and east respectively of Marianna, Jackson County, Florida. Southward on
this river, the species disappears. Two males taken about 12 miles south of
Marianna in Calhoun County constitute the southernmost record for the
state. This distribution is not an artifact of limited collecting. Numerous

The Florida Entomologist

entomologists concerned with aquatics, including Odonata specialists, have
collected frequently in Florida and the southeast. Byers (1930) initially
reported the H. americana colony on the basis of 1 female collected on 13
April 1928, and further evidence was lacking for 41 years until M.J. Westfall,
Jr. and I collected both sexes on 15 August 1969. I have verified its presence at
Marianna during the following 3 years. The colony does not occur in dense
numbers noted for more optimal areas as central Texas; however, the species
probably has occurred for a long period about Marianna.
The Chipola River north of Marianna becomes a small, turbid, sluggish
stream known as Cowarts Creek, and I have been unable to find Hetaerina
even 10 miles north of Florida Caverns State Park. Only the Apalachicola
River to the east otherwise joins the Chipola River about 45 miles south of
Marianna in rather swampy situations. Collections or observations of H.
americana are lacking on the Apalachicola River or its tributaries in Georgia
for at least 190 miles north of the Florida State line. River systems west of the
Chipola River have been specifically collected for Zygoptera without en-
countering this species (Johnson 1972b). Isolation from other populations or
drainage systems characterizes the single Florida colony. Field work in the
summer of 1972 sought to clarify extent of the isolation directly to the north.
Results of this work appear, in part, in Fig. 3. Habitats with colonies were:
Jackson-Calhoun Counties, Florida, population discussed above; Martin
Lake and Horseshoe Bend National Military Park sites on the Tallapoosa
River, Tallapoosa County, Alabama; Auburn, Lee County, Alabama;
Concord, Pike County, Georgia, small tributary of the Flint River; and High
Falls State Park, Monroe County, Georgia, Towaliga River. These collections
occurred during the summer and well within the adult flight season. The
species' colorful attributes and active breeding behavior bring it to a
collector's attention if present, and its absence in southern Alabama, Georgia,
and essentially all of Florida is genuine. I believe the above Alabama and
Georgia colonies are quite near the southern edge of its distribution in those
states. The closest sites in Alabama occur in Perry and Dallas Counties to the
west on the Alabama River Drainage, and all other Georgia localities are well
north of sites shown in Fig. 3.
The southeastern U.S. experienced several major environmental changes
during the Pliocene-Pleistocene periods. Neill (1957) discussed the geological
events and summarized effects on faunal distributions. Blair (1958) correlated
Pleistocene activities with southern vertebrate life, and among Odonata,
Johnson (1972b) related southeastern variation in the damselfly, Argia
apicalis, to Pleistocene environments. The faunal responses frequently
produce small relict, isolated populations of species with northern affinities
occurring in northwest Florida. Similarity of the Florida colony of H.
americana to these patterns gives support for identifying it as a Pleistocene,
or possibly Pliocene, relict. The explanation for H. americana's failure to
remain in or later penetrate the south is unknown. The correct question here
is uncertain. The species certainly shows wide ecological tolerances elsewhere.
By contrast, H. titia colonizes far southward to Lee County, Florida, and also
occurs in the West Indies. I consider the crossing of oceanic barriers by
Hetaerina species to colonize islands inconceivable. The relatively wide
distribution of H. titia including such islands suggests it is a relatively older
species than H. americana and H. vulnerata. Speciation in this genus appears
conservative as its evidence is missing in areas enjoying a rather long

Vol. 56, No. I

2 04

Fig. 3.-Distribution of Hetaerina americana colonies north of the single,
disjunct Florida population.1-Jackson-Calhoun Counties, 2,3-Martin Lake
and Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, respectively, Tallapoosa River,
Tallapoosa County, Alabama, 4-Auburn, Lee County, Alabama, 5-Concord,
Pike County, Georgia, small tributary of the Flint River, 6-High Falls State
Park, Monroe County, Georgia, Towaliga River.

The Florida Entomologist


Williamson (1923) listed a year-round occurrence for adults of both H.
americana and H. titia in Guatemala. Davis and Fluno (1938) also reported a
year-round flight season for H. titia in Orange County, central Florida.
Earliest available dates for H. americana adults in Texas and Louisiana are 27
March and 3 April respectively (Bick 1957, Johnson 1961). The earliest H.
americana dates in the central tier of states, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and
Ohio are 9 June, 19 June, late April, and 7 May, respectively (Williamson 1932,
Garman 1917, Montgomery 1947, Borror 1937). Farther north, later com-
parable dates exist, 9 July and 1 July, for Michigan and Canada, respectively
(Kormondy 1958, Walker 1953). The latest observations of H. americana in
Texas and Louisiana are 10 November and 2 October, respectively (Bick 1957,
Johnson unpublished). Comparable dates in Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and
Ohio are 29 August, 22 October, early October, and 7 October, respectively
(Williamson 1932, Garman 1917, Montgomery 1947, Borror 1937). Generally,
seasons terminate earlier in Michigan and Canada, 24 and 30 September,
respectively (Kormondy 1958, Walker 1953). Initial dates for H. titia in Texas
and Louisiana are 30 March and 24 June, respectively (Bick 1957, Johnson
1961). Other initial dates for H. titia in the north are few. Williamson (1932)
listed 23 July in Missouri, and Montgomery (1947) gave a graph showing
mid-August for Indiana. Borror (1937) had a single date of 28 September. Bick
(1958) and I (unpublished) have latest H. titia dates of 1 and 15 November for
Louisiana and Texas, respectively. My observations on H. vulnerata in
southern New Mexico and Arizona extend from 13 June to 25 August. These
dates reflect, in part, activities of collectors as well as the insects; however,
they generally substantiate shorter adult seasons with increasing latitude and
suggest H. titia particularly has a short adult season in the north. Adult
seasons range from 12 months in the south to approximately 3 months in
northern areas for H. americana, and even shorter northern seasons exist for
H. titia.


The following individuals provided unpublished localities for Hetaerina
species not in specific collections cited above; these contributions significantly
increase data discussed in this paper: P.J. Clausen, Univ. of Minnesota; W.L.
Hilsenhoff, Univ. of Wisconsin; R.L. Post, North Dakota State Univ.; I. La
Rivers, Univ. of Nevada; H.R. Rush, Arizona State Univ.; T. Donnelly, State
Univ. of N.Y. at Binghamton; R.W. Garrison, Univ. of California; W.R. Enns,
Univ. of Missouri; J.H. Lowe, Jr., Univ. of Montana; N.L. Anderson, Montana
State Univ.; R. Lavigne, Univ. of Wyoming; J.B. Wallace, Univ. of Georgia; E.
Devenport, Brigham Young Univ.; E.U. Balsbaugh, Jr., South Dakota State
Univ.; W.F. Barr, Univ. of Idaho; H.B. Cunningham, Auburn Univ.; W.H.
Cross, Boll Weevil Research Laboratory, Mississippi; C. Cook, Center,
Kentucky, and P.D. Harwood, Ashland, Ohio, and B.E. Montgomery, West
Lafayette, Indiana. Paul Laessle drafted the figures.

Vol. 56, No. 1

Johnson: Distribution of Hetaerina 37


Adams, C. C. 1900. Odonata from Arkansas. Entomol. News 11:621-622.

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Borror, D. J. 1942. New records of Ohio dragonflies (Odonata). Ohio J. Sci.

Borror, D. J. 1944. An annotated list of the Odonata of Maine. Can. Entomol.

38 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 56, No. 1

Brimley, C. S. 1903. List of the dragonflies (Odonata) from North Carolina,
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Calvert, P. P. 1895. The Odonata of New York State. J. New York Entomol.
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Calvert, P. P. 1903. Additions to the Odonata of New Jersey, with descriptions
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Cruden, R. W. 1962. A preliminary survey of West Virginia dragonflies
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Davis, E. M., and J. A. Fluno. 1938. Odonata at Winter Park, Florida.
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Donnelly, T. W. 1961. The Odonata of Washington, D.C., and vicinity. Proc.
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 63:1-13.

Elrod, M. J. 1898. Iowan Odonata. Entomol. News 9:7-10.

Evans, A. T. 1914. Dragonflies of the Douglas Lake Region, Michigan. Mich.
Geol. Biol. Surv. Pub., 20. Biol. Ser. 4;39-58.

Ferguson, A. 1940. A preliminary list of the Odonata of Dallas County, Texas.
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Ferguson, A. 1942. Scattered records of Texas and Louisiana Odonata with
additional notes on the Odonata of Dallas County. Field and Labora-
tory. 10:145-149.

Johnson: Distribution of Hetaerina

Fisher, E. G. 1940. A list of Maryland Odonata. Entomol. News 51:67-72.

Garman, H. 1924. Odonata from Kentucky. Entomol. News 35:285-288.

Garman, P. 1917. The Zygoptera, or damselflies, of Illinois. Bull. Ill. State
Lab. Nat. Hist. 12:411-587.

Garman, P. 1927. The Odonata or dragonflies of Connecticut. Part V, in Guide
to the Insects of Connecticut. Connecticut Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv.
Bull. 39:1-327.

Gloyd, L. K. 1951. Records of some Virginia Odonata. Entomol. News

Gloyd, L. K. 1958. The dragonfly fauna of the Big Bend Region of Trans-Pecos
Texas. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 593:1-29.

Hagen, H. A. 1861. Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, with a list of
the South American species. Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 4:1-347.

Hagen, H. A. 1873a. Odonata from the Yellowstone. U.S. Geological Survey of
the Territories for 1872. 1873:727-729.

Hagen, H. A. 1873b. Report on the Pseudoneuroptera and Neuroptera of
North America in the Collection of the late Th. W. Harris. Proc. Boston
Soc. Nat. Hist. 15:263-301.

Hagen, H. A. 1874a. Report on the Pseudo-Neuroptera and Neuroptera
collected by Lieut. W. L. Carpenter in 1873 in Colorado. Ann. Rep. U.S.
Geol. and Geographical Survey of the Terr., embracing Colorado.
Washington, Government Printing Off. 1874:571-606.

Hagen, H. A. 1874b. The odonate fauna of Georgia, from original drawings
now in possession of Dr. J. Le Conte, and in the British Museum. Proc.
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 16:349-365.

Hagen, H. A. 1875. Odonata of America. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 15:20-96.

Harwell, J. E. 1951. Notes on the Odonata of Northeastern Texas. Tex. J. Sci.

Howard, L. 0. 1908. The Insect Book. Doubleday, Page & Co. xxx + 429 p.

Howe, R. H. 1917-1921. Manual of the Odonata of New England, II. Mem.
Thoreau Mus. Nat. Hist. 1-138.

Howe, R. H. 1921. The distribution of New England Odonata. Proc. Boston
Soc. Nat. Hist. 36:105-133.

Johnson, Clifford. 1961. Breeding behavior and oviposition in Hetaerina
americana (Fabricius) and H. titia (Drury) (Odonata:Agriidae). Can.
Entomol. 93:260-266.

Johnson, Clifford. 1962. A description of territorial behavior and a quantita-
tive study of its function in males of Hetaerina americana (Fabricius)
(Odonata:Agriidae). Can. Entomol. 94:178-190.

40 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 56, No. 1

Johnson, Clifford. 1963. Interspecific territoriality in Hetaerina americana
(Fabricius) and H. titia (Drury) (Odonata:Calopterygidae) with a
preliminary analysis of the wing color pattern variation. Can. Entomol.

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State Mus., Biol. Sci. 16:55-128.

Johnson, Clifford. 1972b. An analysis of geographical variation in the
damselfly, Argia apicalis (Say). Can. Entomol. 104:1515-27.

Johnson, Clifford, and M. J. Westfall, Jr. 1970. Diagnostic Keys and notes on
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Kennedy, C. H. 1917b. The Odonata of Kansas with reference to their
distribution. Bull. Kansas Univ. 18:129-145.

Kormondy, E. J. 1957. New knowledge of the Odonata of Tennessee. J. Tenn.
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Kormondy, E. J. 1958. Catalogue of the Odonata of Michigan. Misc. Pub. Mus.
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La Rivers, L 1940. A preliminary synopsis of the dragonflies of Nevada. Pan
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Entomol. News 38:100-105.

Montgomery, B. E. 1935. Records of Indiana dragonflies, VIII, 1934. Proc. Ind.
Acad. Sci. 44:231-235.

Montgomery, B. E. 1937. Records of Indiana dragonflies. IX, 1935-1936. Proc.
Ind. Acad. Sci. 46:203-210.

Montgomery, B. E. 1940. The Odonata of South Carolina. Elisha Mitchell Sci.
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Montgomery, B. E. 1941. Records of Indiana dragonflies, X, 1937-1940. Proc.
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Montgomery, B. E. 1943. Records of Ohio dragonflies. Ohio J. Sci. 43:267-270.

Montgomery, B. E. 1947. The distribution and relative seasonal abundance of
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Johnson: Distribution of Hetaerina 41

Petaluridae, Cordulegasteridae, Gomphidae and Aeschnidae). Proc.
Ind. Acad. Sci. 56:163-169.

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The Florida Entomologist

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The Florida Entomologist 56(1) 1973

Vol. 56, No. I


Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville

The 2 millipedes which most commonly become nuisances around
structures in Florida are the greenhouse millipede, Oxidus gracilis Koch, and
the tropical millipede, Orthomorpha coarctata (Saussure). Several others are
bothersome more sporadically. The greenhouse millipede is more widespread,
but is generally less of a problem because it appears to breed only in wild and
overgrown areas where there is much decaying leaf litter from which it
occasionally disperses to nearby structures. The tropical millipede apparently
breeds in the thick lawngrass thatches common in south Florida.
The biology of the tropical millipede was found to be much like that of the
better known greenhouse millipede. Egg to adult time for Orthomorpha
coarctata was 119 to 187 days, with apparently 2 generations a year.
Development continued slowly through the winter, but mating and egg laying
appeared to begin in March. These millipedes were active through the night,
but peak activity was reached in mid-morning and with the least activity
during afternoon and early evening hours.
Oxidus gracilis fed on decaying organic matter, and could not be forced to
eat grass or bean plants. In cross-mating tests, gracilis males attempted to
mate with coarctata females, but no eggs were produced from these pairings.
In laboratory-scale control tests, the carbamates methomyl, carbaryl, and
propoxur provided complete and quick kill of greenhouse millipedes.

Millipedes have for many years been reported as occasional nuisance pests
in turfgrass and around business and home structures in Florida. This study,
which was supported by the National Pest Control Association, was con-
ducted to establish a better understanding of the millipede species present,
their biology, and their control.


The millipedes were hand-collected on a series of trips. It was not possible
to get reliably quantitative or qualitative samples with the mechanical
techniques tried.
Most of the species do not appear to breed in lawngrasses, but occur in
lawns and structures only when the millipedes sporadically build up large
numbers in nearby breeding areas and disperse short distances (a few hundred
For example, Dicellarius okefenokensis (Chamberlin) developed a huge
population in a pile of decaying leaves under a porch of a home. When a heavy
rain washed the millipedes out from under the porch, the homeowner was
alarmed, but most of the millipedes soon desiccated and died. Similar
instances of large numbers of other millipedes emerging from storm sewers
have been described to us.

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4604.

The Florida Entomologist

We observed a population of the large, cylindrical Narceus americanus
(Beauvois) invading a Pinellas County business establishment which was an
island surrounded by a wide moat of asphalt parking lot. On 3 sides of the lot
were overgrown, wet fields from which the millipedes were dispersing. They
were mashed on the lot and some got into the building where they caused great
Pleuroloma cala (Chamberlin) was also encountered in the vicinity of
structures, but was never abundant enough to be of concern.
The greenhouse millipede, Oxidus gracilis Koch, and the tropical
millipede, Orthomorpha coarctata (Saussure), are almost indistinguishable.
They are widespread in Florida, and more frequently become nuisances to a
degree that control procedures are employed.
The greenhouse millipede is widely distributed and the best known of the 5
species mentioned. It is now found throughout the tropics and field popula-
tions occur throughout southern and western regions of the U.S. In this study,
populations appeared to develop only in wild areas where there was much leaf
litter and particularly in unused mucklands. Where such areas immediately
adjoined residences, dispersing greenhouse millipedes were a severe nuisance
around the nearest structures.
The tropical millipede was found only in the southern half of Florida. It
occurs in the Tampa Bay region, but is more commonly a problem in
southeast Florida. It evidently can breed in thickly thatched St. Augustine
grass, feeding mostly on the great amount of decaying organic matter in these
mats of turf.


Orthomorpha coarctata

No significant writings on the biology and behavior of the tropical
millipede were found, and accordingly, studies were made both of field
populations and of cultures established in a rearing room in Gainesville.
Development-The eggs are laid in the soil in holes 2 to 4 cm deep and 5 to 7
mm diam. Eleven batches from both field and laboratory contained 25 to 300
Nine observed matings in the laboratory indicated that each female
deposits only 1 batch, and it is left untended to develop. The eggs were
translucent white to creamy yellow, smooth spheres, about 0.35 to 0.41 mm
diam, and coated with a glutinous fluid which tended to make them clump
together loosely. At temperatures averaging 780F during the day and 720F at
night, the incubation period was 5 to 10 days.
Stadium I lasted 20 to 24 hr, with the larva-which is about 0.5 mm
long-remaining almost motionless throughout as its 3 paired leg buds slowly
expanded to almost full length.
Growth is reformative, with each molt giving more segments and legs. With
the first molt the increase in segment number is from 7 to 9, with 1 pair.of true
legs on segments 2, 3, 4, and 6; 5 has 2 pairs of legs. Instar II is whitish,
approximately 1.58 mm long, and active, moving into surrounding soil or on
the soil surface. Stadium II lasted 18 to 20 days.
Instar III has 12 post-cephalic segments and bears 11 pairs of legs, with 2
pairs on each of segments 5, 6, 7, and 8. Segments 2, 3, and 4 always bear only

Vol. 56, No. 1

Bennett and Kerr: Millipedes Around Structures

I pair. Stadium III lasted 10 to 20 days. Toward the end of the stadium the
larva may begin preparing a molting chamber 5 to 30 mm down in the soil. As
development continues the chamber is enlarged.
Instar IV has 15 segments and for the first time the sexes are distin-
guishable. Females are slightly longer than males. Female IV instars have 17
pairs of legs; the male has 16 pairs, with the last pair replaced by small
gonopod buds. The stadium lasted 14 to 25 days.
At the end of stadium VII the millipede metamorphoses into an adult. Egg
to adult time ranged from 119 to 187 days. These data are not exact since the
times are a composite from 15 individuals not all of which survived t9
Mating-Mating appeared to occur at any time of day. The male approached
the female, usually from the rear, and crawled upon her back even when she
was in motion. She sometimes carried the male about for hours. He moved up
so his head was even with hers, and began rapidly stroking her head and first
few segments with his first several pairs of legs. If she halted and twisted the
front part of her body, the male then twisted so that his ventral surface was
against hers and transferred a drop of spermatic fluid, held by the gonopods, to
the vulvae of the female. After the transferral of the sperm, which took from 1
to 5 sec, the 2 millipedes separated. Males were observed to mate with more
than 1 female, but females were never noted mating more than once.
Movement-Movement of these millipedes had to be studied by direct
observation in open areas adjoining infested lawns. Pitfall traps were not
reliable, nor were counts from ft2 sections of turf dug up and inspected, nor the
use of flotation or pyrethrum drench techniques used for lawn insects like
chinch bugs and sod webworms. Counts and observations were made
frequently, day and night, for a 7 day period in October 1971 around 2 homes in
Hollywood, Florida. Measured sections of sidewalks were examined to try to
get some quantitative data, and all areas of the premises were checked.
Two-thousand marked millipedes were released during the week of study as a
further aid to determining movement. Color codes were used to distinguish
different days of release. A small spot of oil-based paint was applied to the
dorsal surface of one of the middle body segments. It was established earlier that
this was nontoxic and did not affect behavior. Nearly 4,000 sightings of milli-
pedes are the basis of the following comments.
Using sightings on the measured sections of sidewalk as a criterion, the
greatest millipede activity was from about 8 AM to 11 AM. The afternoon
hours until about sunset saw very little activity. Through the night, from 10
PM to 7 AM, there was a steady, moderate level of activity-approximately
one-third that of the morning peak level. Ambient temperatures ranged from
a low of 76F at 7 AM to 940F at 1 PM. Temperatures in the turf were more
stable, ranging from 76 to 860 at equivalent times. The relative humidity in the
turf thatch remained stable; ambient humidity began dropping just as the
increased morning activity started.
Areas where millipede movement was commonly observed were patios,
outside walls, and foundations of buildings, and particularly where small
ditches were edged out along sidewalks and foundations. On walls, the
millipedes congregated at inside corners.
Few of the 2,000 marked individuals released on the sidewalks were seen
again. Forty-four were resighted on the same sidewalks; only 2 of these were

The Florida Entomologist

seen the same day they were released. Two-thirds of the re-sightings were on
the third day after release, with others being noted up to 6 days.
Two marked individuals provided some idea of distance traveled. One was
found on the back patio 11 hr after release, a straight line distance of 20 ft
through turf. The other was found in a trap 50 hr after release, the shortest
distance to the trap being 150 ft.
Seasonal cycle-Limited development apparently occurs during winter
months in south Florida since active adults and V, VI, and VII instar larvae
were found in small numbers in Ft. Lauderdale-Hollywood lawns in December
and February. No egg laying was found in the field or laboratory cultures at
that time, however. Mating was observed in March. If the information given
earlier on development time is correct, eggs played in March would result in
mature individuals in June through August. Eggs laid during these latter
months would result in a second generation of adults September through
This suggested seasonal cycle agrees with field observations. Increasing
numbers of millipedes are found during the summer months, with pest level
numbers occurring from late September to early December.

Oxidus gracilis

Feeding hosts-The life history and ecology of the greenhouse millipede have
been studied by others (Causey 1943, Murakami 1962, Gromysz-Kalkowska
and Stojalowska 1968, Giljarov 1957, Lang 1962) and were not emphasized in
the present study. We were interested, however, in whether this millipede
caused direct damage to lawngrass. McDaniel (1931) reported 0. gracilis as a
serious problem in forcing houses owing to feeding on tender roots and shoots
of plants. Other authors have stated 0. gracilis never feeds on living plant
tissue or is of little economic importance (Causey 1943, Henneberry and
Taylor 1961). Cook (1911) noted that the mouth parts are not adapted for
biting and chewing, but consist of combs and scrapers for collecting soft,
decaying materials. He mentioned that the only living plants eaten regularly
are fleshy fungi such as Amanita, Russula, and Lactarius. He also said
secondary damage might be caused by the millipedes' continued scraping of
exposed surfaces of wounds and cuttings.
In the present study, 0. gracilis was confined on individual, small lima
bean plants and on St. Augustinegrass cuttings grown in inorganic medium.
Five adult millipedes were placed in each cage which was an 1,800 ml beaker.
Ninety-two percent of the millipedes died during the 35 days of the test. The
plants were examined microscopically and no evidence of damage to living
plant tissue-above or below the soil surface-was found. Feeding had occurred
on the decaying leaf of a bean plant that died.
All of our work indicated that 0. gracilis millipedes fed only on decaying
organic matter. Our laboratory cultures were maintained on forest floor litter
and decaying leaves.
Crossing tests-The general appearance of Oxidus gracilis is much like that of
Orthomorpha coarctata, and as Murakami (1962) stated, the generic name of
0. gracilis is questionable on many points. Both belong to the family
Paradoxosomatidae (Strongylosomidae or Strongylosomatidae in some
earlier works). 0. gracilis was at one time placed in the genus Orthomorpha,
and later taken from it and the new generic name Oxidus proposed, with O.

Vol. 56, No. 1

Bennett and Kerr: Millipedes Around Structures

gracilis as the type (Cook 1911). Considering that the position of coarctata
was never mentioned in the reassignment, the confusion attending past and
present classifications of the class Diplopoda, the lack of usable keys, and lack
of comprehensive works, gracilis and coarctata may well belong to the same
In the present study, cross-mating between gracilis and coarctata was
attempted to determine if the 2 are distinct species. The following procedure
was repeated 10 times. Each of five VII instar female coarctata were isolated
in individual petri dishes, as were 3 female and 8 male VII instar gracilis. They
were supplied with food and water. They molted into adults within a few days
of each other, at which time a male gracilis was paired with 1 female of each
species-giving 5 pairs of gracilis-coarctata, and 3 pairs of gracilis-gracilis as
The males attempted to mate with both species. After 4 weeks all
gracilis-gracilis pairs had produced viable eggs. After 3 1/2 months, when the
test was terminated, none of the gracilis-coarctata pairs had produced eggs.
Control-Millipede control has been difficult, as many toxicants widely used in
turf insect control are of little use against millipedes. Enough Oxidus gracilis
could be collected to conduct laboratory-scale tests to give a fairly precise
measure of which toxicants millipedes are susceptible to.
Three replicates of each treatment were made. Acetone solutions of the
toxicants were placed in the bottom of 9 cm glass petri dishes, in the amount of
1.9 ml per dish. Concentrations used were 0.333, 0.167, 0.084, 0.042, and 0.021%.
The checks were treated with plain acetone. After the acetone evaporated,
leaving a film of toxicant on the glass, 7 males and 8 females were placed in
each treated dish. After 15 min of exposure to the toxicants, the millipedes
were transferred to clean holding dishes.
Mortality readings were taken during the 15 min of exposure, 30 min after
exposure began, 24 hr after, and 48 hr after. The criterion of death was a
completely moribund condition in which there was no response to prodding. It
was necessary to hold the millipedes in a high humidity cabinet to prevent
desiccation. They were held in petri dishes floored with moistened filter paper,
but they were not fed during the test.
The 10 pesticides tested in this way were methomyl, carbaryl, propoxur,
lindane, chlordane, malathion, carbophenothion diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and
Gardona (2-chlor-1-(2, 4, 5-trichlorophenyl) vinyl dimethyl phosphate).
Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) was tested at rates equivalent to 1.5 and 4 lb/acre.
The BT was suspended in water and deposited on moist humus and detritus
placed in the petri dishes. The millipedes were held continuously in the dishes
with BT, and mortality counts taken for 10 days.
Gardona, chlordane, BT and the checks had no mortality. Lindane caused
no mortality at 0.167% and less than 40% mortality at 0.333%. Malathion,
carbophenothion, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos gave partial control, in the range
of 50 to 70%.
The 3 carbamates, methomyl, carbaryl, and propoxur, were most effective.
The 2 highest concentrations gave 100% kill after 4 to 5 hr in all cases. Analysis
of variance indicated no significant differences among these 3, and with all 3
providing highly significant kill compared to the check.

The Florida Entomologist


Causey, N. B. 1943. Studies on the life-history and ecology of the hot-house
millipede, Orthomorpha gracilis (C. L. Koch). Amer. Midland. Natur.

Cook, O. F. 1911. The hothouse millipede as a new genus. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.

Giljarov, M. C. 1957. Kivsjaki (Juloidea) i ich rol v pocvoobrazovanii.
Pocvovedenie 1957. 6:74-80.

Gromysz-Kalkowska, K., and W. Stojalowska. 1968. Oxygen consumption in
the ontogenetic development of Orthomorpha gracilis (Koch)
(Diplopoda). Folia Biol. (Krakow) 16(2):179-89.

Henneberry, T. J., and E. A. Taylor. 1961. Control of millipedes in greenhouse
soil. J. Econ. Entomol. 54:197-8.

Lang, J. 1962. The choice of litter and the progress of skeletonization of leaves
by the millipede, Orthomorpha gracilis C. L. Koch, 1847. Vestnik
ceskoslov spolecnost: Zool. 26(3):234-9.

McDaniel, E. L 1931. Insects and allied pests of plants grown under glass.
Mich. State Coll. Agr. Exp. Sta. Spec. Bull. 214:1-117.

Murakami, Y. 1962. (Postembryonic development of the common myriapoda
of Japan. X. Life history of Oxidus gracilis (Koch) (Diplopoda,
Strongylosomidae). Zool. Mag. (Dobugaku Zass.) 71(8):245-9.

The Florida Entomologist 56(1) 1973

Vol. 56, No. I



Stored-Product Insects Research and Development Laboratory,
Agricultural Research Service, USDA,
Savannah, Georgia 31403


Four primary species, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), Callosobruchus
maculatus (F.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and 8
secondary species, Lasioderma serricorne (F.), Cryptolestes pusillus (Schdn-
herr), Gibbium psylloides (Czenpinski), Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner),
Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Cathartus
quadricollis (GuBrin-Meneville), and Trogoderma inclusum LeConte of
stored-product insects were placed on samples of dry, intact, and ground
kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L., seed and held for 4 months. No species
developed on the intact seeds, and primary species did not develop on the
ground seed. The order of reproductive success in secondary species on 2
Cuban varieties of ground seed was: L. serricorne T. inclusum T. cas-
taneum. Other secondary species did not develop on ground Cuban varieties
and no secondary species developed on ground SH/15R seed.

Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L., is used as a commercial fiber crop to
replace jute and more recently has been proposed as a source of pulp for paper
(White et al. 1970). The likelihood of large fields of kenaf being grown has
greatly increased because tests with kenaf by the U. S. Department of
Agriculture have shown that it will produce a high quality paper (Anonymous
In 1970 the squarenecked grain beetle, Cathartus quadricollis
(Gu6rin-M6neville), was found infesting kenaf seed pods in a planting of the
variety Everglades 71 near Savannah, Georgia. Only 12 seed pods were
examined, but of these 3 were infested. No other stored-product insects were
observed. However, this infestation raised the possibility that other species of
stored-product insects might also develop successfully in kenaf seeds. These
insects could destroy potentially valuable seeds, and a reciprocal infestation
between kenaf fields and nearby grain fields or storage might occur. Several
species of field-crop insects attack kenaf, but I found no reports of insects
attacking the mature seed pods or seeds. Therefore, a laboratory evaluation of
12 species of stored-product insects as potential pests of kenaf seeds was made.


Three varieties of kenaf seed were used: Cuba 2032, an early flowering

1Primary insects as used in this paper denotes those that attack sound
whole seeds and develop internally within such seeds.
2Secondary insects as used in this paper denotes those that usually attack
broken or damaged seeds and that feed externally as larvae.

The Florida Entomologist

photoinsensitive variety, and Cuba 108 and SH/15R, 2 late flowering
photosensitive varieties. Seeds were weighed into 10-g samples and placed in
8-dram shell vials. Three replications were used for each species in each
variety. In addition a single replication containing 5 g of whole seed and 5 g of
finely ground kenaf seed was used in each instance.
Ten 1 to 3-day-old unsexed adults of each species were placed in each vial
with the exception of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner),
where 25 eggs/vial were used. All infesting adults were removed after 2 wk.
Test conditions were 27 2 C, 605% RH, and alternating 12-hr light:
12-hr-dark cycles. Samples were examined monthly for insect development,
and any adults were removed, recorded, and discarded. The test was
terminated at 4 months.
The primary insects' tested included:
angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier)
cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)
lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)
rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.)
The secondary insects2 tested included:
Lasioderma serricorne (F.)
flat grain beetle, Cryptolestespusillus (Schonherr)
Gibbium psylloides (Czenpinski)
Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner)
red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.)
sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.)
squarenecked grain beetle, Cathartus quadricollis (Guerin-Meneville)
Tribolium inclusum LeConte


No reproduction by any species occurred in the intact kenaf seeds. Mature
kenaf seeds are hard and dry; the average moisture content as determined by
the oven-drying method was 10.9% for the Cuba 108, 10.6% for the Cuba 2032,
and 11.1% for the SH/15R. Although these are less than optimum moisture
contents for stored-product insects, they are sufficient for their development.
Three species of insects reproduced in the vials containing both ground and
intact seeds. The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.), was the most
successful species, producing 127 and 191 adults in Cuba 108 and Cuba 2032,
respectively. The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), produced
small numbers of adults in the same 2 varieties. Trogoderma inclusum
LeConte produced healthy larvae in the Cuba 108 and Cuba 2032 samples at
the end of 4 months. This species develops slowly, and presumably adults
would have developed in time. Development of all 3 species was much slower
than on laboratory diets. These 3 species develop successfully on a wide range
of food materials. The most polyphagous of these is the cigarette beetle, and
this species was the most prolific on kenaf. 'The fact that no insects developed
on the variety SH/15R, although it had the highest moisture content, could be
an advantage of this variety over some others. Although found as a field
infestation, the squarenecked grain beetle did not develop successfully on the
mature, dry seeds in the laboratory test. The higher moisture content of the
developing seeds or the varietal difference may have caused this difference.

Vol. 56, No. I

Brower: Development of Insects on Kenaf

Apparently kenaf seed cannot serve as a reservoir of infestation for the
primary grain insects studied. However, kenaf is a potential host for secondary
grain insects, and these insects may interfere with efforts to produce kenaf
seed. Mature kenaf seed that is cleaned and dried as recommended (White et
al. 1970) can probably be stored indefinitely at low humidity conditions
without any possibility of stored-product insect attack.


Special thanks are due Dr. W. C. Adamson, Research Geneticist, New
Crops Research Branch, ARS, USDA, Savannah, Ga., who supplied the kenaf
seed and checked the information on kenaf in this manuscript.


Anonymous. 1970. Kenaf makes it in trial run. Agr. Res. 18(12): 16.

White, G. A., D. G. Cummins, E. L. Whitely, W. T. Fike, J. K. Greig, J. A.
Martin, G. B. Killinger, J. J. Higgins, and T. F. Clark. 1970. Cultural
and harvesting methods for kenaf... an annual crop source of pulp in
the Southeast. Production Research Report 113. Agr. Res. Serv.,
USDA. Washington, D. C. 38 p.

The Florida Entomologist 56(1) 1973


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USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station,
Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Athens, Georgia 30601


Larvae of the geometrid Nepytia semiclusaria (Walker) fed to maturity on
developing first-year female strobili of loblolly, Pinus taeda L., and shortleaf,
P. echinata Mill., pines. This feeding usually caused the death of injured

Nepytia semiclusaria (Walker) was first recorded as feeding on foliage of
sand pine, Pinus clausa (Chapm.) Vasey, in north Florida (Hetrick 1960).
More recently, Ebel (1963) reported larvae of this looper as transient feeders
on female strobili of slash pine, P. elliottii Engelm., in north Florida. Feeding
was limited to the period from bud eruption through pollination when the
young strobili were essentially the only succulent host-material available to
the small larvae. Larger larvae fed only upon new needles.
In Clarke County, Georgia, light-trap collections of cone and seed insects
in stands of loblolly, P. taeda L., and shortleaf, P. echinata Mill., pines
revealed that N. semiclusaria was prevalent in these stands (Yates and Ebel
1972). Adult catches were made during June (30 May-30 June).
In conjunction with other field studies in Georgia during May 1971, we had
frequent opportunities to observe some previously unreported feeding habits
of N. semiclusaria on loblolly and shortleaf pines. Our first observation was of
several late-stage larvae on previous year's foliage of loblolly pine on 7 May.
No needle injury was evident, but we did find that current external feeding on
first-year female strobili and damage on smaller, dead female strobili were
associated with these larvae. Similarly, on 14 and 20 May, we observed larvae
and associated external feeding on female strobili of shortleaf pine. In this
case, we observed 1 larva actually feeding on a strobilus. Again, no damaged
needles were evident. When larvae were collected and reared in the laboratory,
they fed only on strobili and pupated in late May.
Typical feeding injury and a nearly mature larva are shown in Fig. 1.
Injury typically was a progressive gouging of part or even all of a strobilus.
Gouged strobili usually died.
The observed feeding of N. semiclusaria later-stage larvae on female
strobili of loblolly and shortleaf pines was in marked contrast to its behavior
on slash pine, where later-stage larvae were observed to feed only on new
needles. This difference suggested that the looper has greater potential for
destroying cone crops of loblolly and shortleaf pines.

The Florida Entomologist


( owB

Vol. 56, No. 1

Fig. 1.-Injury caused by Nepytia semiclusaria to first-year strobili. (A)
Recently injured strobilus (left) of loblolly pine with sunken, gouged area in
center and previously gouged, dead female strobilus (arrow). (B) Recently
injured strobilus of shortleaf pine, about 1/3 devoured from tip. (C)
Remaining bases of 2 destroyed strobili of shortleaf pine. (D) Mature larva (ca.
30 mm long) feeding on strobilus of shortleaf pine in mid-May.

Ebel and DeBarr: Nepytia semiclusaria Injury to Pines 55


Ebel, B. H. 1963. Insects affecting seed production of slash and longleaf
pine-their identification and biological annotation. Southeast. For.
Exp. Sta., U.S. For. Serv. Res. Pap. SE-6. 24 p.

Hetrick, L. A. 1960. Nepytia semiclusaria (Wlk.) as a defoliator of pine
(Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Fla. Entomol. 43:205-206.

Yates, H. 0., III, and B. H. Ebel. 1972. Light-trap collections with review of
biologies of two species of pine-feeding Geometridae. J. Ga. Entomol.
Soc. 7: (in press).

The Florida Entomologist 56(1) 1973.



The Florida Entomologist




Carefully Executed

Delivered on Time




Readers are invited to comment on the different type used for the first time
in this issue. The type size is 1 printer's point larger than previously.
The new, computerized composing equipment could print the smaller (8
point) type we have used in recent years, but the computer sets the characters
closer together. This adds at least 50 words per page, and the text-in the
editors' opinions-appears cramped and is more difficult to read.
The new, larger type still gives us as many words per page as before. There
is a slight loss of amount of white between lines. Considerable flexibility is
possible, however: more-or less-white between lines; larger or smaller type.
We welcome feedback on this matter.


Vol. 56, No. 1



Stored-Product Insects Research and Development Laboratory,
Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Savannah, Ga. 31403


Early and late-instar nymphs and adult Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) were
exposed simultaneously to early or late-instar larvae of the Indian meal moth,
Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner); the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum
(Herbst); the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); and
the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.). Xylocoris flavipes preyed on
early and late instars of all species, but the numbers killed depended partly on
the size of the prey and possibly other factors.

Jay et al. (1968) reported that Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) showed promise
in suppressing populations of stored-product insects; Arbogast et al. (1971)
described the developmental stages of the predator; and Press et al. (1973)
demonstrated that X. flavipes can be reared on frozen or irradiated eggs of the
Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner). However, no specific
information has been available concerning selective predation by X. flavipes
on early or late-instar larvae of stored-product insects. A study was therefore
conducted to supplement our knowledge of predation by this potentially
valuable predator.


The stored-product insects used in the experiment were taken from stock
cultures maintained at the Savannah Laboratory as early or late-instar larvae
of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner); the red flour beetle,
Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus
surinamensis (L.); and the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.)2. First,
10 of each of the 4 species (all either early or late-instar larvae) were placed
together on 5 g of Quaker rolled oats in each of five 0.24-1 jars. Then either
2 early-instar or 2 late-instar nymphs or 2 adult X. flavipes were added to each
jar, and the jars were capped with a No. 1 filter paper disc secured with a
screw-type ring. The number of dead or moribund prey was determined after 6
and 24 hr. The experiment was conducted at 27+0.50C and 65 +5% RH with
12-hr light and dark cycles. The experiment was replicated 5 times. Duncan's
multiple range test was used in analyzing the data.

1Mention of a commercial name or proprietary product in this paper does
not constitute an endorsement of this product by the USDA.
2Lepidoptera: Phycitidae; Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae; Coleoptera:
Cucujidae; and Coleoptera: Anobiidae, respectively.

The Florida Entomologist


Because the pattern of mortality produced among prey by X. flavipes was
the same after 6 and 24 hr, Table 1 reports only the mortality at 24 hr. The
species most frequently killed by all tested stages of X. flavipes were, in
descending order, the sawtoothed grain beetle, the red flour beetle, the
cigarette beetle, and the Indian meal moth. The predator preferred early-in-
star larvae of the larger species, the Indian meal moth and the red flour beetle,
and the late instar larvae of the smaller species, the sawtoothed grain beetle
and the cigarette beetle. No significant difference was apparent in the number
of prey killed by the 3 stages of X. flavipes tested.


Larval % prey killed in 24 hr*
instar Indian Red flour Sawtoothed Cigarette
Predator of prey meal moth beetle grain beetle beetle
Early-instar Early 6.2 bcde 14.8 i 7.4 de 3.2 abc
nymphs Late 1.4 a 8.2 ef 13.8 hi 7.2 cde
Late-instar Early 8.0 ef 13.0 ghi 7.0 bcde 7.6 de
nymphs Late 3.2 abc 3.0 ab 26.4 j 12.0 fghi
Adult Early 9.6 efgh 12.2 fghi 9.0 efg 5.6 bcde
Late 3.4 abcd 5.6 bcde 14.8 i 8.4 ef

* Any means not followed by the same letter are significantly different (P< 0.01) by Dun-
can's multiple range test.

Apparently, the most important factor affecting the number of prey killed
by X. flavipes was the size of the prey (Table 2). Late-instar larvae of the
Indian meal moth and the red flour beetle were much larger than X. flavipes.
Thus their size and thrashing movements when they were attacked by X




No. Length (mm)*

Xylocoris flavipes Early-instar nymphs 1-3 1.09-0.01
Late-instar nymphs 4-5 1.88-0.02
Adult 2.22- .05
Indian meal moth Early-instar larvae 1-3 5.17 .16
Late-instar larvae 4-7 10.3- .33
Red flour beetle Early-instar larvae 1-3 2.24- .01
Late-instar larvae 4-7 5.46 .02
Sawtoothed grain beetle Early-instar larvae 1-2 1.35- .05
Late-instar larvae 3-4 2.99- .03
Cigarette beetle Early-instar larvae 1-3 1.42+0.03
Late-instar larvae 4-5 3.24- .05

* Mean SE.

Vol. 56, No. I

LeCato and Davis: Food Preferences of Xylocoris flavipes 59

flavipes probably reduced the number the predator could kill. The early-instar
larvae of these species, though they were larger than X. flavipes, were more
suitable because these prey were relatively smaller.
In contrast early-instar larvae of the sawtoothed grain beetle and the
cigarette beetle were small, which may have reduced predation by X. flavipes.
Also, larvae of the cigarette beetle are hirsute and usually had medium
adhering to their bodies. This combination could have been an additional
reason for the smaller number of cigarette beetle larvae that were killed.
Since all stages of X. flavipes fed on both early and late-instar larvae of the
4 species of prey, X. flavipes is probably capable of predation on most species of
stored-product insects (the 4 species represent 4 families of insects).
Xylocoris flavipes, frequently found in storage facilities at the Savannah
Laboratory, seems naturally adapted to stored-grain ecosystems, partly
because its small size enables it to move freely in stored grain. However, it is
apparently unable to attack insects such as the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae
(L.), that feed inside a kernel of grain.
Another problem is the noticeable odor of X. flavipes that could be
objectionable if it were acquired by a stored commodity. Finally, the presence
of X. flavipes itself in stored products may be objectionable. However, the
predator could be used to considerable advantage in grain stored for use as
animal feed and in products that will undergo further processing.

We thank Thelma L. McCray, Biological Laboratory Technician of this
laboratory, and Mark C. Bjorlie, USDA Summer Aid, for assistance in
determining the number of prey killed by Xylocoris flavipes.

Arbogast, R. T., M. Carthon, and J. R. Roberts, Jr. 1971. Developmental
stages of Xylocoris flavipes (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), a predator of
stored-product insects. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 64: 1131-1134.

Jay, E., R. Davis, and S. Brown. 1968. Studies on the predacious habits of
Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). J. Georgia
Entomol. Soc. 3: 126-130.

Press, J. W., B. R. Flaherty, R. Davis, and R. T. Arbogast. Development of
Xylocoris flavipes on Plodia interpunctella eggs killed by gamma
radiation or freezing. Environ. Entomol. In press.

The Florida Entomologist 56(1) 1973

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Four insect orders involving a single family of Coleoptera, 3 families of
Diptera, 4 families of Hymenoptera, and 3 families of Lepidoptera are
discussed as insect associates of Eupatorium coelestinum L. in south Florida.

The present paper is concerned with the insect associates of the Joe-Pye
Weed, Eupatorium coelestinum L. These insects, for the most part, were
collected during the months of September and October. Information on
insects which use this plant as a source of food is very limited and difficult to
I have found that the insect community of the flowerheads of E.
coelestinum is similar to that reported by Needham (1948) and by Steyskal
(1972) on the insect populations of the flower heads of Bidens pilosa L.
Benjamin (1934) reported rearing a seed-feeding tephritid, Xanthaciura
connexionis Benj., from E. coelestinum from south Florida.
The purpose of this paper is to present my findings of the interrelationships
of insects which were reared from the plant from south Florida.


Baris sp., 2 reared adults, det. R. E. Warner.
Dates collected: 2, 13 X 70.
Locality: Hialeah, Florida.
Remarks: Stem borer.


Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), Stegmaier (1966).
Dates collected: 18 IX 69.
Locality: Hialeah, Florida.
Remarks: Leafminer.


Lestodiplosis grassator (Fyles), 14 reared adults,, det. R. J. Gagn6.

'Contribution No. 243, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville,
Florida 32601.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville.

The Florida Ent ,, ,~i..I

Dates collected: 1 IX 70, 2 X 70.
Locality: Hialeah, Florida.
Remarks: A predator found associated with the flower heads of E.
coelestinum. Foote in Stone et al. (1965) recorded the species from Quebec
and Ontario while Dr. R. J. Gagne (personal correspondence, 14 July
1972) reported that L. grassator is a common species throughout eastern
North America. I have reared 22 additional specimens from the following
plants: Mikania sp. possibly batatfolia DC., Solidago stricta Ait.,
Crotalaria pumila Ortega, Baccharis sp., and Verbesina laciniata (Poir.)

Lestodiplosis sp. near grassator (Fyles), 1 reared adult, det. R. J. Gagn6.
Dates collected: 13 X 70.
Locality: Hialeah, Florida.
Remarks: A predator associated with the seed heads of E. coelestinum. I
have also reared 34 adults of this species and collected 6 larvae from
goldenrod seed heads. Rearings were made from the following plants:
Vernonia blodgetti Small, Verbesina laciniata, and Solidago stricta Ait.


Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin, 1 reared adult, det. G. C. Steyskal.
Dates collected: 8 IX 70.
Locality: Hialeah, Florida.
Remarks: Benjamin (1934) described and reported hearings of this species
from the flower heads of E. coelestinum and from the flower heads of
Ageratum littorale Gray in south Florida. I have reared this species
several times from E. coelestinum without keeping rearing records during
the search for agromyzids associated with this plant.



Apanteles sp., 11 reared adults, det. P. M. Marsh.
Dates collected: 1 IX 70.
Locality: Hialeah, Florida.
Remarks: The host insect for this species is unknown at the present time.
All 11 adults issued from the seed heads of E. coelestinum.


Eurytoma vernonia Bugbee, 10 females, 8 males, reared, det. R. E. Bugbee.
Dates collected 1 X 70, 2 X 70.
Locality: Hialeah, Florida.
Remarks: Dr. Bugbee (personal communication, 20 June 1972) stated that
the species is possibly parasitic on Xanthaciura connexionis which feed
on the seeds of E. coelestinum. He stated that the eurytomid has been
reared previously from tephritids infesting the seeds of Vernonia interior
and in sunflower. He reported the distribution of this species from Kansas
and from the Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho. Dr. B. D.

Vol. 56, No. 1

Stegmaier: Insects on Eupatorium coelestinum

Burks previously determined the genus as Eurytoma. Two adults are
deposited in the U. S. National Collection, 4 specimens are deposited in
the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, Fla., and the
remainder are in Dr. R. E. Bugbee's personal collection.


Heteroschema punctata (Ashm.), 17 females, 8 males and 6 adults, det. B. D.
Dates collected: 18, 24 VII 63, 24 VIII 63, 14 XI 65, 3 III 66, 1 IX 70.
Locality: Hialeah and Miami, Florida.
Remarks: A single female was reared from a seed-head of E. coelestinum,
Hialeah, Fla., I IX 70. Burks in Krombein and Burks (1967) recorded H.
punctata from Miss., Mo., and from the West Indies. He cited the host
insect as Ophiomyia sp. in Lippia seed. Peck in Muesebeck et al. (1951)
recorded the species from Fla. and Ariz., from a tephritid host, Paroxyna
picciola (Bigot) (as Dioxyna picciola) and from an agromyzid,
Melanagromyza virens (Loew) (as Agromyza virens). Spencer and
Stegmaier (in press) have shown that the only confirmed host-plants, to
date, are Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam.) Small and Heterotheca
subaxillaris (Lam.) Britt. and Rusby. It is likely that this record of Peck's
is some species other than M. virens. Steyskal (1972) reported rearing 5
adults, H. punctata, from the flowerheads of Bidens pilosa L., var.
radiata Sch. Bip., containing various dipterous inhabitants.
I have reared H. punctata from the following insects: Melanagromyza
minimoides Spencer in seeds of Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC.; M.
minimoides infesting the seeds of Wedelia trilobata Hitch.; and from
Ophiomyia lippiae Spencer infesting the seed-heads of Lippia nodiflora


Telenomus sp., 1 reared adult, det. P. M. Marsh.
Dates collected: 2 X 70.
Locality: Hialeah, Florida.
Remarks: This single specimen was reared from an unknown host
frequenting the seed-heads of E. coelestinum.



Platysenta sutor (Guen.), 1 reared adult, det. E. IL. Todd.
Dates collected: 13 X 70.
Locality: Hialeah, Florida.
Remarks: Kimball (1965) reported the species from Wedelia sp., and from
Tagetes sp., from Quincy, Florida southward to Homestead, Florida.
Stoner and Wisecup (1930) reported larval damage to celery by this
cutworm in Sanford, Florida.

The Florida Entomologist


Phalonia sp., numerous larvae, det. D. M. Weisman.
Dates collected: Sept. and Oct. 1970.
Locality: Hialeah, Fla.
Remarks: The infestation was found confined to the seed-heads of E.
coelestinum. The larvae issued from the seed-heads into my rearing
containers and would not pupate. No adults were reared.


Adaina bipunctata (Moesch.), 3 reared adults, det. D. C. Ferguson.
Dates collected: 13 X 70, 1 IX 70.
Locality: Hialeah, Florida.
Remarks: The larvae of A. bipunctata infest the seed-heads of E. coeles-
tinum. Pupation occurs within the seed-heads of the plant. The larvae are
believed to feed on the newly developing seeds. Kimball (1965) reported
the species from Bradenton, Oneco, Siesta Key, Fort Meyers, and
Homestead, Florida. He cited no host plant for this species.


I am grateful to Dr. B. D. Burks and to Dr. R. J. Gagnd for reviewing this
manuscript and for the determinations of the cited insects. I also wish to
thank the following entomologists: Dr. R. E. Warner for the determination of
the Baris sp.; G. C. Steyskal for the Tephritidae; Dr. R. E. Bugbee for the
Eurytomidae; Dr. P. M. Marsh for the Braconidae and Scelionidae; Dr. D. M.
Weisman for the Phaloniidae; Dr. E. L. Todd for the Noctuidae; and Dr. D. C.
Ferguson for the Pterophoridae.


Benjamin, F. H. 1934. Descriptions of some native trypetid flies with notes on
their habits. USDA Tech. Bull. No. 401 96p.

Kimball, C. P. 1965. Lepidoptera of Florida; an annotated checklist. In
Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas. 1: 1-5, 1-363; 26 pl.
Fla. Dep. Agr. and Consumer Services, Div. Plant Industry.

Krombein, K. V., and B. D. Burks. 1967. Hymenoptera of America North of
Mexico. Synoptic Catalog. USDA Monogr. No. 2. 2nd Suppl. 584p.

Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein, and H. K. Townes. 1951. Hymenoptera
of America North of Mexico. Synoptic Catalog. USDA Monogr. No. 2.

Needham, J. G. 1948. Ecological notes on the insect population of the flower
heads of Bidens pilosa. Ecological Monogr. 18 (3) : 433-46.

Spencer, K. A., and C. E. Stegmaier, Jr. The Agromyzidae of Florida with a
supplement on the species from the Caribbean. In Arthropods of

Vol. 56, No. I

Stegmaier: Insects on Eupatorium coelestinum 65

Florida and Neighboring Land Areas. 6 : 1-6. Fla. Dep. Agr. and
Consumer Services. Div. Plant Industry. (In Press).

Stegmaier, C. E., Jr. 1966. Host plants and parasites of Liriomyza trifolii in
Florida (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Fla. Entomol. 49: 75-80.

3teyskal, G. C. 1972. The dipterous fauna of the heads of Bidens pilosa
re-examined. Fla. Entomol. 55: 87-8.

Stone, A., C. W. Sabrosky, W. W. Wirth, R. H. Foote, and J. R. Coulson. A
catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. USDA Handbk.
276. 1696p.

toner, D. and C. B. Wisecup. 1930. Injury to celery in the Sanford, Florida
district by the larvae of the noctuid moth, Perigea sutor Guen. J. Econ.
Entomol. 23 : 644-5.

[he Florida Entomologist 56(1) 1973

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