Title: Florida Entomologist
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00137
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1973
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Volume ID: VID00137
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Volume 56, No. 2 June 1973

Formica integra (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 1. Habitat, Nest
Construction, Polygyny, and Biometry .............................................. 67
HUNTER, P. E., AND R. W. HUSBAND-Pneumolaelaps (Acarina: Laela-
pidae) Mites From North America and Greenland .......................... 77
MENKE, W. W.-A Computer Simulation Model: The Velvetbean Cater-
pillar in the Soybean Agroecosystem ............................................ 92
BUTLER, J. F., AND N. I. GREER-Toxicity of SD8447 and Dichlorvos to
Larvae of the Horn Fly, Haematobia irritans, (Diptera: Muscidae)
in Manure of Insecticide-Fed Cattle .................................................... 103
YOUNG, D. G.-Two New Phlebotomine Sand Flies From Columbia
(Diptera: Psychodidae) ............................................................................ 106
CALLAHAN, P. S., AND H. A. DENMARK-Attraction of the "Lovebug",
Plecia nearctica (Diptera: Bibionidae), to UV Radiated Automo-
bile Exhaust Fumes ................................................ 113
FROST, S. W.-Hosts and Eggs of Blepharida dorothea (Coleoptera:
Chrysomelidae) ..................... ................ ................. 120
FLUKER, S. S.-Chemical Control of the Twospotted Spider Mite,
Tetranychus urticae, on Peaches in North Florida ...................... 123
of Anastrepha suspense in Fruit on Key West, Florida and Ad-
jacent Islands ............................................ .... ............ 127
STEYSKAL, G. C.- The Genus Axiologina Hendel (Diptera: Otitidae) .... 132
STEGMAIER, C. E., JR.-The Corkscrew 3-Awn, Aristida gyrans (Gram-
inae), and Its Insect Associates in South Florida ................................ 135
LEVY, R., Y. J. CHIU, AND W. A. BANKS-Laboratory Evaluation of
Candidate Bait Toxicants Against the Imported Fire Ant, Sole-
nopsis Invicta...... ...................................... ................-.... 147
BHARADWAJ, R. K., AND S. K. BANERJEE-PhostoxinTM For Control of
Eriophyes mangiferae (Acarina: Eriophyidae) Associated with
M alformation Disease in M ango .............................................................. 149
Obituary: Alvah Peterson ...............----------------- ---.---------------..... 149
Dr. Stratton H. Kerr Receives Award From The Florida Entomological
Society ..................................................................................- 151
Minutes of the 55th Annual Meeting of The Florida Entomological
Society .......................................... ........... 154
Notices to Members ........................................... 76, 112, 119, 126, 131, 163

Published by The Florida Entomological Society

President........---.............------------------ --------. A. B. Selhime
Vice-President.......-..................................----------------..... W. G. Genung
Secretary-..-...--.........-................-..-....------ ---------- F. W. Mead
Treasurer..-----....-...---.... -----.........-------------.--- D. E. Short
C. S. Lofgren
R. M. Baranowski
Other Members of Executive Committee..... B. .Gresham, Jr.
H. D. Bowman
J. R. Strayer

Publications Committee
Editor....................................-..........----- S. H. Kerr
Associate Editors..-....-.............-..........R. E. Woodruff
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This issue mailed June 27, 1973



Formica integra Nylander was studied during late May 1972 in its native
habitat: an oak-hickory forest on a ridge in the Lower Piedmont, west-central
Georgia. Sexual and worker broods were present in subterranean portions of
the numerous, closely-spaced nests which were typically associated with rot-
ting oak logs. Functional polygyny was demonstrated by the presence of
numerous wingless, subterranean females (with sperm and mature eggs) per
nest. The number of ovarioles per ovary, worker body measurements, and
(size-dependent) worker pigmentation patterns were similar to those
published for polygynous European species of the F. rufa group, especially
Formica polyctena Foerst. from Germany.

Formica integra Nylander 18564 belongs to the Formica rufa L. group
(Creighton 1950, Wheeler 1913). Certain European species in this group of "red
wood ants" are effective predators of forest tree pests and are actively
managed for biological control purposes. Two polygynous species, Formica
polyctena Foerst. 1850 and Formica lugubris Zett. 1840, have been used ex-
tensively in Central Europe, parts of East and Southeast-Europe including
the Soviet Union, and in Italy (Gosswald 1941-65; Gosswald et al. 1953-65;
Horstmann 1970; Kloft 1960, 1966; Kneitz 1964, 1969; Otto 1959-65; Pavan
1959, 1960; Wellenstein 1952-65).
Only recently has serious thought been given to the role and use of ants for
control of forest tree pests in North America (Bradley and Hinks 1968,
Bradley 1972, Finnegan 1971). Attempts have been made to introduce F.
lugubris from Italy into Quebec, Canada on an experimental basis, where Dr.
R. J. Finnegan (personal communication) found this ant readily attacked
diprionid sawflies such as Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch) and Neodiprion swainei
Middleton. Before similar introductions of European ant species into Florida
might be attempted, it seemed desirable to learn as much as possible about one
or more New World species from the southeastern United States. Transfer
from more northerly latitudes and higher altitudes in Europe and successful
establishment in Florida are considered problematical. Only the 2 mentioned
species (F. polyctena and lugubris) among 8 European species within the F.
rufa group are believed to possess the characteristics5 necessary for successful
management and control of forest pests (Finnegan 1971).

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 4698.
2Institute for Applied Zoology, University of Bonn, West Germany.
3Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida,
4F. integra was identified by Dr. W. F. Buren, Center for Disease Control,
Atlanta, Georgia.
5Large ant size, high populations per nest, large populations per unit area,
polygyny, intraspecific tolerance, ease of laboratory rearing and establish-
ment in the field, predatory aggressiveness-efficiency, and climatic adaption
are some desirable qualities discussed by this author.

68 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 56, No. 2

This paper reports on certain biological and ecological aspects of F. in-
tegra. Comparisons of this ant with European species are based on the per-
sonal knowledge and considerable first-hand experiences of the senior author.


Creighton (1950) indicated the range of F. integra as eastern North
America from Nova Scotia to northern Georgia and Alabama and west to the
Black Hills of South Dakota. The species was listed by Wesson and Wesson
(1940) for south-central Ohio, and by Carter (1962) as common near Highlands
in North Carolina. Dr. W. F. Buren (personal communication) found F. in-
tegra at our study site in west-central Georgia, the southernmost known
location for a member of the F. rufa group in the eastern United States.
Ants were collected and studied in the field on 27 May 1972 at F. D.
Roosevelt State Park on highway 190, connecting U.S. highways 27(alt.) and
27, between Warm Springs and Columbus in west-central Georgia. This loca-
tion is near the southern edge of the Lower Piedmont, about 22 km south of
lat. 33N and at an altitude between 250 and 300 m.
The study colony was located on a well-drained site with a.slight northwest
slope near the top of a NE-SW ridge dominated by a mixed hardwood-conifer
Overstory: Chestnut oak, Quercus prinus L.6; black oak, Q. velutina Lam.;
blackjack oak, Q. marilandica Muenchh.; pignut hickory, prob. Carya glabra
(Mill.) Sweet; shortleaf pine, Pinus echinata Mill.; and longleaf pine, P.
palustris Mill.
Understory: Tree sparkleberry, Vaccinium arboreum Marsh.; grape, Vitis sp.;
plum, Prunus sp.; hawthorn, Crataegus sp.; and persimmon, Diosypros vir-
giniana L.
Ground cover: Blueberry, Vaccinium sp.; Virginia Creeper, Psedera
quinquefolia (L.) Greene; poison ivy, Rhus toxicodendron L.; butterflyweed,
Asclepias tuberosa L.; milkweed, Asclepias sp.; and unidentified grasses.
We found the ants living in a very large colony consisting of many nests, in
agreement with the observations of Carter (1962) and Wheeler (1913). The
nests were irregularly distributed, commonly spaced about 4-6 m apart, and
usually located under and in partially decomposed fallen logs with loose bark
(Fig. 1) or stumps. A mass of organic litter (principally oak and hickory leaves,
twigs, catkins, and mast worked over by the ants) was characteristically piled
along the infested logs and around the stumps, and sometimes around the
bases of living trees. Nest surfaces were typically exposed to the South or
Southeast. Most nest mounds were relatively low (5-8 cm) compared with
mounds of many European species (e.g., F. polyctena, F. lugubris, F. aquilonia
(Yarrow), and F. (Coptoformica) exsecta.Nyl.), rarely exceeding 15-20 cm in
height. The small size of the F. integra mounds may reflect the relatively
warm climate of Georgia; nest-mound shape and size in Europe are known to
vary with respect to such factors as regional climate and microclimate of the
particular site.

6Chestnut oak dominated many of the dry, rocky ridge tops and its foliage
was fed upon at the ant colony site by an aphid, Neosymydobius sp. (det. Dr.
A. N. Tissot, Univ. Fla.). F. integra consistently attended this aphid in the
study colony area.

Kloft et al.: Formica integra: Habitat, Nests, Biometry

Fig. 1. Typical nest habitat of F. integra in rotting oak log near Warm
Springs, Georgia.
Single nests sometimes extended for a long distance along a log (2-4 m), and
it was often difficult to decide on the limits of adjacent nests. Dense popula-
tions of workers, larvae, and pupae were found in rotting logs, under bark,
within nest piles, and sometimes beside the nests under dry oak and hickory
We dug out most of one typical nest for transfer to the Forest Insect
Laboratory in Gainesville, Florida. This nest was in a decaying oak log ca. 40
cm long which was bounded on the southeast side by surface organic material.
The nest extended about 40 cm deep into the soil under the log and spread out
underground principally in a southeast direction. The soil of the subterranean
nest area was dark, enriched with organic litter, and contained workers, larval
brood, and queens. Many European red wood ant species also have large nest
areas underground, especially F. polyctena in which larval brood and queens
are found in subterranean nest areas during the summer.
Clusters of F. integra sexual pupae in newly-spun cocoons and worker
larvae were present in nests in the interior of the forest on 27 May. In one
atypical shallow nest established under oak leaves spread out along a roadside
ditch with full southeast exposure, we found clusters of well developed sexual
pupae ( o and S ), a few newly-emerged sexual adults ( and S ), and large
numbers of worker ( g ) pupae, all at the same time. Wheeler (1926) reported
swarming during August (latitude and altitude unspecified). Our observations
indicated that swarming had not yet commenced during May 1972 at the
study site. Most workers emerged from their pupal cases a few days after
transfer to Gainesville, Florida.

The Florida Entomologist


A key factor concerning potential use of a particular red wood ant species
for biological control is the number of functional (mated-ovipositing) queens
in the nests. Only when there are many such queens per nest polygynyy) is it
possible to artificially colonize the species by dividing nests and transplanting
the ants to other places (Gosswald 1941, 1951). Workers and queens of a given
polygynous species exhibit considerable tolerance toward each other so that it
is often possible to mix ants from different nests and origins. Functional
polygyny ("obligatory polygyny" of Buschinger 1972) has been proven
conclusively in Europe only for F. polyctena, but is presumed for other species
such as F. lugubris, F. aquilonia, F. pratensis, and probably F. (Coptoformica)
Obligatory polygyny in F. polyctena is correlated with polydomy, a situa-
tion in which colonies consist of many nests. Such colonies are formed by
sociotomy, which involves emigration of part of the workers carrying brood
and queens with them to new nesting sites. The large number and close
proximity of nests suggested that F. integra is also a polygynous species which
practices sociotomy.
F. integra in fact proved to be a polygynous species. As partial evidence we
dug up 74 queens (9 ) from the woodland nest and 6 were recovered from a
small sample of the roadside nest. These were presumed to be functional
because they were found in the soil, were wingless, and swarming had not yet
occurred. Most important, dissection of 8 (10%) of the collected 9 showed the
presence of sperm in their spermathecae and the presence of mature eggs in
their ovarioles. The 9 contained 48-55 ovarioles per ovary, corresponding
closely with the polygynous F.polyctena from Europe. According to Gosswald
(1941b), of the monogynous F. rufa have 110-135 ovarioles per ovary, while
9 of the polygynous F. rufa rufopratensis minor (=F. polyctena) have 55-60
ovarioles per ovary.

Data were collected to supplement published descriptions of F. integra
(principally Creighton 1950, Wheeler 1913), to describe some size and color
variations within the worker caste, and for comparison with European species.
Specimens in a random sample of over 300 freshly-killed workers from the
woodland nest were placed dorsal-side-up in rows on double-sticky tape at-
tached to glass slides, after which the head and gaster were gently stretched to
minimize distortion of body form. All measurements were made by the same
observer (W. J. K.) by means of an ocular micrometer and stereomicroscope.
Entire body length: distance from tip of closed mandibles to posterior tip of
gaster. Only 110 workers with undistorted gasters were selected for this
measurement in order to exclude specimens with greatly distended or
shrunken gasters. Fig. 2 illustrates a range in body length of 4.2-8.7 mm, mean
of 6.59 mm, and "incipiently bimodal" (Wilson 1971, p. 141) distribution of
Head width: distance across widest part of head along an assumed line bis-
secting compound eyes. Fig. 3 shows a range in head width of 0.9-1.9 mm, mean
of 1.35 mm, and incipiently bimodal distribution. The mean value is important
for comparison with the data of Otto (1959-60b) who published on the head

Vol. 56, No. 2

Kloft et al.: Formica integra: Habitat, Nests, Biometry 71

[i= .59mm

4.2-4.6 4.7-5.1 5.2-5.6 5.7-6.1 6.2-6.6 6.7-7.1 7.2-7.6 7.7-8.1 8.2-8.7 mm

Fig. 2. Distribution of entire body lengths in F. integra workers.

0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.1

Fig. 3. Distribution of head widths in F. integra workers.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 56, No. 2

1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

Fig. 4. Distribution of thorax lengths in F. integra workers.


o 40-



0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 mm

Fig. 5. Distribution of thorax widths in F. integra workers.

n 304
i = 2.08mm

Kloft et al.: Formica integra: Habitat, Nests, Biometry 73

widths of F. rufa group workers from 104 nests in Germany. The range in
average values (x) for polygynous spp. Y from 69 nests was 1.27-1.77 mm, with
corresponding mean values for monogynous spp. y from 35 nests of 1.59-1.99
mm. The average head width for F. integra (1.35 mm) corresponds closely with
x values given for F. polyctena.
Thorax length: Distance from anterior margin of prothorax to anterior mar-
gin of scutellum. Fig. 4 depicts a range in thorax length of 1.5-2.8 mm, mean of
2.08 mm, and incipiently bimodal distribution.
Thorax width: Distance across widest part of prothorax. Fig. 5 indicates a
range in thorax width of 0.7-1.3 mm, mean of 0.94 mm, and incipiently bimodal
The tendency toward bimodal distribution of size measurements in F.
integra is similar to that in workers of certain ant species showing elementary
polymorphism (evolutionary step 2 of Wilson 1971, loc. cit.). The distribution
in F. integra is also similar to that described for polygynous species in the
European F. rufa group (Otto 1959-60b), and may reflect periodic changes in
trophic competition between worker broods and the relatively large sexual
broods (especially Y) produced in such species (Gosswald 1953, Lange 1956).
Other measurements included (1) entire body length of 9 (n= 5): i = 12.0
(11.5-12.6 mm); (2) dimensions of sexual pupae (N = 12): length i = 10.1 mm
(9.7-10.5 mm), diameter i=4.66 mm (4.5-4.9 mm); and (3) dimensions of
worker pupae (n= 20): length x= 6.3 mm (4.7-7.1 mm), diameter i= 2.98 mm
(2.0-3.3 mm).
Pigmentation on the dorsum of the worker's thorax is a character used in
the taxonomy of the European F. rufa group, but variations may occur due to
environmental factors (Lange 1956). According to Betrem (1960), the degree of
black pigmentation on the red-brown thorax may be assigned to 6 classes,
ranging from pigment-free (class 1) to extensive pigmentation of the pro- and

1.4 1 2 6

m 0 1 2 3 PER SIZE CLASS

1.5 1.9 3 30 68 11 112

2.0-2.4 19 80 52 8 159

2.5-2.8 12 19 1 1 33
TOTAL O34 129 IDUALS 20 304
L0 S 1 34 129 121

integra workers

Fig. 6. Distribution of thorax pigmentation patterns in F.
of different sizes.

The Florida Entomologist

meta-thorax (class 6) (F. aquilonia, F. rufa, and F. lugubris). Lange (1956) has
demonstrated the same distribution in F. rufa rufopratensis minor (=F.
polyctena). We set up 4 pigmentation classes for F. integra (0, 1, 2, 3 in Fig. 6)
which corresponded well with the 6 European classes, as shown. Although the
data totals for all 304 specimens show a fairly normal distribution within our
4 pigmentation classes, the break-down by worker size classes indicates that
pigmentation in our sample was size-dependent. Thus, smaller workers were
most frequently represented in the darker classes, the largest workers most
frequently in the lighter classes, and medium-size workers were intermediate
in this respect.


The authors thank Dr. W. F. Buren, Center for Disease Control, Atlanta,
for personal assistance in locating the study colony, Rita Ann Nickle of the
Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, for
graphic illustrations, and Mr. Harold Denmark, Chief Entomologist, Florida
Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, for assistance in permitting study of
F. integra in Florida under controlled conditions.


Betrem, J. G. 1960. Uber Die Systematik der Formica rufa Gruppe.-
Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 103:51-81.

Bradley, G. A., andJ. D. Hinks. 1968. Ants, aphids, and jack pine in Manitoba.
Can. Entomol. 100:40-50.

Bradley, G. A. 1972. Transplanting Formica obscuripes and Dolichoderus
taschenbergi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) colonies in jack pine stands
of southeastern Manitoba. Can. Entomol. 104:245-9.

Buschinger, A. 1972. Monogynie und Polygynie. in G. H. Schmidt "Soziale
Insekten Kastenbildung, Polymorphismus" Stuttgart, i. pr.

Carter, W. G. 1962. Ant distribution in North Carolina. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci.
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Creighton, W. S. 1950. The ants of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.
Harvard Coll. 104:1-585.

Finnegan, R. J. 1971. An appraisal of indigenous ants as limiting agents of
forest pests in Quebec. Can. Entomol. 103:1489-1493.

Gosswald, K. 1941a. Unterschiede in Jagdinstinkt bei den Waldameisenras-
sen. Forstwiss. Central Bl. 63:139-143.

Gosswald, K. 1941b. Rassenstudien an der Roten Waldameise Formica rufa L.
auf systematischer, oekologischer, physiologischer und biologischer
Grudlage. Z. Angew. Entomol. 28:62-124.

Gosswald, K. 1951. Die Rote Waldameise im Dienste der Waldhygiene.
Luneburg, 160 p.

Vol. 56, No. 2

Kloft et al.: Formica integra: Habitat, Nests, Biometry 75

Gosswald, K. 1965. Stellung der Waldameisen (Gattung Formica) in der
Lebensgemeinschaft des Waldes. Min. Agric. For. Roma. Collana Verde

Gosswald, K., and K. Bier. 1953. Untersuchungen zur Kastendetermination in
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Gosswald, K., and W. Kloft. 1956. Der Eichenwickler (Tortrix viridana L.) als
Beute der Mittleren und Kleinen Waldameise. Waldhygiene 1:205-215.
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ants and termites. Radiation and radioisotopes applied to insects of
agricultural importance. Int, Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 25-42.

Gosswald, K., G. Kneitz, and G. Schirmer. 1965. Die geographische Verbrei-
tung der hugelbauenden Formica Arten (Hym., Formicidae) in
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Horstmann, K. 1970. Untersuchungen uber den Nahrungserwerb der Wal-
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von der Tageszeit. Oecologia (Berl.) 5:138-157.

Kloft, W. 1960. Die Trophobiose zwischen Waldameisen und Pflanzenlausen
mit Untersuchungen uber die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Pflan-
zenlausen und Pflanzengeweben. Entomophaga 5:43-54.

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Deutsche Bienenwirthschaft 17:177-180.

Kneitz, G. 1964. Saisonales Trageverhalten bei Formica polyctena Foerst.
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Kneitz, G. 1969. Temperaturprofile in Waldameisennestern. Proc. VI. Congr.
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Pavan, M. 1959. Attivita per la lotta biological con formiche del gruppo For-

The Florida Entomologist

mica rufa control gli insetti dannosi alle Foreste. Min. Agr. For., Collana
Verde 4:1-80.

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Wilson, E. 0. 1971. The insect societies. Harvard University Press. 548 p.

The Florida Entomologist 56(2) 1973


The 56th annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society will be held
at the Deauville Hotel, Miami Beach, September 12-14. The theme of the
meeting will be: Entomology, An environmental Science. Invitational
speakers from agricultural, medical, commercial, and biological control as-
pects of our science will develop talks around this theme, showing the concern
that entomologists have always had for the environment.

Vol. 56, No. 2



it"4 j


Department of Entomology
University of Georgia, Athens 30601


Six new species of Pneumolaelaps are described from North America and
Greenland, and bumble bee hosts and a key to females from this area are given.
The subspecies Pneumolaelaps bombicolens (Can.) groenlandica Tragardh is
given species status. Observations on the biology, dispersal, and distribution of
these mites are given.

Pneumolaelaps Berlese, 1921 has been considered as a subgenus of
Hypoaspis (e.g. Berlese 1921, Vitzthum 1943, Costa 1966, Evans and Till 1966,
Van Aswegen and Loots 1970) and as a genus (Willmann 1953, Hunter 1966).
Genus versus subgenus of "Hypoaspis" mites associated with insects has been
discussed by Costa and Hunter (1970), Costa (1971), and Hunter and Costa
(1971). These authors believe that host association is as discriminatory as
morphological characters in separation of taxa of host-mite related groups. On
the basis of biological association and morphological characters we are con-
sidering Pneumolaelaps as a genus consisting of "Hypoaspis"-like species
which also have the following biological and morphological characteristics in
the female: associated only with bumble bees; sternal setae (st 1 st 4) long
and of approximately equal length, st 3 extends beyond base of st 4; stigmata
opening and/or peritreme normally wide (generally equal to or almost as wide
as base of tritosternum), peritreme extends to area of coxa I; hypostomal setae
3 (internal posterior rostral) longest of hypostomal setae; deutosternum with
some teeth normally longer than other teeth, usually with 6 rows of teeth;
often with extra dorsal and ventral opisthosomal setae; genu IV with 2 ventral
Three species presently listed in Pneumolaelaps should eventually be
placed in other taxonomic categories. Pneumolaelapsgreeni (Oudemans 1902)
taken from a carpenter bee from India, differs morphologically from the true
Pneumolaelaps in leg chaetotaxy, sternal setae characteristics, deutosternal
teeth, gnathosomal setae, and other characteristics and may represent a
separate generic taxon. However, we are temporarily leaving green in
Pneumolaelaps until a more detailed study of the species can be completed.
Van Aswegen and Loots (1970) illustrated 2 of Berlese's species-Hypoaspis
atomarius Berlese, 1917 from a beetle, and H. hospes Berlese, 1924 from a
termite-as Pneumolaelaps. Both species show morphological differences
-e.g., reduced dorsal plate, short sternal setae, dorsal chaetotaxy-as well as
host associations not in agreement with our restriction of Pneumolaelaps and
may represent species of Androlaelaps. True Pneumolaelaps mites probably
'Study completed while the junior author was on sabbatical leave at the
University of Georgia.
2Present address: Department of Biology, Adrian College, Adrian,
Michigan 49221.

78 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 56, No. 2

do not occur in most of Africa since bumble bees have been recorded only from
those areas adjacent to Spain and Portugal (unpublished data of bumble bee
distribution compiled from published records, museum material, and collec-
tions from various parts of the world by the junior author).
Pneumolaelaps probably is distributed wherever bumble bees occur, i.e.,
all major land masses except Australia, Africa, and the Middle East on a line
south of the Mediterranean Sea. Three species of Pneumolaelaps have been
described from North America, 7 species from Europe (see Evans and Till
1966, Fig. 29-35),-one (P. hyatti) of which has been recorded in Israel-and 1
variety from Greenland. We are describing 6 new species from North America
and Greenland, giving a key to females from these areas, and raising the
Greenland variety to species status. In the key and descriptions, dorsal and
ventral chaetotaxy follows Lindquist and Evans (1965), and leg chaetotaxy
follows Evans (1963). Type disposition notations are as follows: UG-Acarine
Collection, Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens 30602;
RWH-collection of Dr. Robert W. Husband, Department of Biology, Adrian
College, Adrian, Michigan 49221; NMNH-National Museum Natural His-
tory, Washington, D. C. 20250; ZMCD-Universitetets Zoologiske Museum,
Copenhagen, Denmark; and FSCA-Florida State collection of arthropods.


1. Posterior margin of sternal plate concave (Fig. 1B) ............................ 2
1'. Posterior margin of sternal plate straight or convex (Fig.
3 B ) ................................... ................ ........... . . ............... ... ..... .............. . . 6
2. Dorsal plate seta j2 extending approximately to base of seta
j4 (Fig. 1A; see Fig. 41, K, and M for setal notations)
........... ............................................................ groenlandica (Tr gh.)
2'. Seta j2 extending no more than 1/2 the distance between
th e bases of seta j3 and j4 ......... .. ....... ........................................................... 3
3. Seta j2 extending approximately 1/2 the distance to the base
of seta j3 (Fig. 1F ) .................................. ......................longanalis, n. sp.
3'. Seta j2 extending to or slightly beyond the base of seta
j3 ........................................................................................ ........ ................ 4
4. Dorsal seta j4 approximately 3 times longer than j5 (Fig.
2A); distance between genital setae bases less than distance
between sternal setae st 2 (Fig. 2B) ................................... sinhai, n. sp.
4'. Dorsal seta j4 equal to or only slightly longer than j5;
distance between bases of genital setae equal to or slightly
exceeding the distance between sternal setae st 2................................. 5
5. Dorsal seta j3 extending 1/2 to 2/3 of the distance to seta
j4 (Fig. 41); genital plate without striation pattern (Fig. 4J)
............... ................................................................ aequalip ilus H un ter
5'. Dorsal seta j3 extending almost to base of j4 (Fig. 2F);
genital plate with distinct striation pattern (Fig. 2G) ........ patae, n. sp.
6. Dorsal setae j2, j3, and j4 approximately equal in length; seta
j4 3-4 times length of seta j5 (Fig. 4K); dorsal seta Z4 and Z5
at least 4 times as long as J5; genital- setae extending to
posterior margin of genital plate (Fig. 4L) ............... longipilus Hunter
6'. Dorsal seta j4 less than 3 times length of seta j5; length
of seta j2, j3, and j4 variable; setae Z4 and Z5 equal to or only

Hunter and Husband: New Pneumolaelaps Mites

slightly longer than J5; genital setae not extending to pos-
terior m argin of genital plate ............................... ............................ 7
7. Dorsal seta j3 extending no more than 1/2 the distance to
base of seta j4 (F igs. 3A 3F ) ................................... ............................... 8
7'. Dorsal seta j3 and j4 extending over 1/2 the distance to
base of seta j4 (Figs. 4A 4M ) .................................................... .................. 9
8. Genital plate bearing distinct striation pattern (Fig. 3B); dorsal
plate with distinct striation pattern in area of setae J1 to
J 3 .......................................................... . .. ................ ..... con n iea e, n sp .
8'. Genital plate without striation pattern (Fig. 3G); dorsal plate
without distinct striation pattern in area of setae J1 to J3
.. ..................................... ......................................... rich a rd si, n sp .
9. Anterior marginal dorsal setae (s and r rows) 2 or more times
length of seta j6 (Fig. 4M); genital seta extending 2/3 the
distance between setal base and posterior margin of genital
plate (Fig. 4N ) .................................... ........................ m istipilus H unter
9'. Anterior marginal dorsal setae (s and r rows) equal to or
only slightly longer than seta j6 (Fig. 4A); genital seta ex-
tending no more than 1/2 the distance to posterior margin of
plate (Fig. 4B ).................................................. .............. costa, n. sp.

Pneumolaelaps groenlandica (Tragardh)

Hypoaspis bombicolens (Can.) variety groenlandica Tragardh, 1906. Fauna
Arctica IV p. 34. (Zoological Records gives 1905 as the date of publication
and stated the paper was issued separately with same pagination in 1904.
The publication date in Fauna Arctica was 1906).

Hunter (1966) noted that Tragardh's variety differed in a number of
characters from Canestrini's bombicolens but because of the poor description
and illustration, left the taxonomic status as established by Trigardh.
Through the courtesy of Dr. S. L. Tuxen, (Copenhagen), the junior author was
able to barrow Tragardh's material; we feel the variety should be given species
status and it is described and reillustrated below.
FEMALE. Dorsum. Fig. 1A. Covered by a single plate bearing heavy, distinct
reticulations over entire surface. Setal type and arrangement as shown; setae
j2 and j3 approximately equal in length, j2 reaching beyond midway between
bases of j3 and j4; setae j5, j6, z5, and z6 about 1/3 the length of setae at margin
and anterior of podonotal region; opisthonotal region bearing only short
setae; 43 pairs of setae plus unpaired setae arising from.plate. Venter. Fig. lB.
Sternal plate strongly concave posteriorly; reticulations over surface of plate;
sternal setae long and heavy; metasternal plates absent. Genital plate bearing
strong reticulations; plate width and reticulation pattern as shown; genital
setae heavy, extending about 1/3 their length beyond base of seta Zv,. Anal
plate striations and setae as illustrated. Two pairs of platelets between met-
apodal and genital plates. Opisthogastric setae of type and arrangement as
shown. Peritremal plate narrow, extending posterior to stigmata a distance
equal to or less than diameter of stigmata; peritreme wide, equal to width of
base of tritosternum. Gnathosoma. Fig. 1C. Deutosternum with 8 transverse
rows of teeth, each row with 1-2 larger teeth plus smaller teeth; hypostomal
setae 3 extending almost to posterior margin of gnathosoma. Chelicera (Fig.

E D r 1H

r r
t r r

N' I 1,4
;. t rV1N

Fig. 1. Pneumolaelaps groenlandica (Tragardh). Female: A, dorsum; B,
venter; C, gnathosoma; D, chelicera; E, dorsum of femur and genu of leg II.
Pneumolaelaps longanalis, n. sp. Female: F, dorsum; G, venter; H,
gnathosoma; I, chelicera; J, dorsum of femur and genu of leg II. Male: K,
venter; L, chelicera; M, dorsum of femur and genu of leg II. Deutonymph: N,
dorso-ventral view.
ve ter L ceicea Mdru ffmr n euo e I.Duoyp:N
dosovnta view

Hunter and Husband: New Pneumolaelaps Mites

1D) chelate, fixed digit bidentate, movable digit with 3 teeth. Legs. Coxal setae
well developed; relative lengths of dorsal setae of femur II and genu II as
shown, Fig. 1E.
MALE. Unknown.
Our material (over 50 specimens) from TrAgardh's collection did not
include a specimen labelled as the type for the variety. The specimen we
designated as holotype had the following data: No. 31, 8/8, 39; Tigsalfik,
Tlumle, Greenland; off Bombus species; coll. W. L. Lundbeck. Paratypes (all
from Greenland) data included: off Bombus hyperboreus from following
locations-Moshusokse-fiord Loppenshin, 10 August 1930; Equaluit-landet
(Julianehaab), 21 July 1948; Kinissartut (Julianehaab), 22 June 1948; Gr6n-
nedal, T. Feddersen (no date); off Bombus species-Tigsalfk, Tlumle, 8
August 1889. Holotype deposited in ZMCD, paratypes in UG, RWH, and

Pneumolaelaps longanalis, n. sp.

FEMALE. Dorsum. Fig. 1F. Dorsal plate covering dorsum, small square-
shaped reticulation pattern over entire surface of plate; over 50 pairs of simple
setae, 28 pairs in podonotal area, relative lengths and distribution as shown;
setae jl much thicker than other dorsal setae; setae j2 to j5 extending no more
than 1/2 the distance to the base of the next posterior seta of the j row. Venter.
Fig. 1G. Sternal plate concave posteriorly; reticulation pattern and relative
lengths of sternal setae as illustrated; metasternal setae arise from
integument. Genital plate setae not reaching to base of seta Zv,; surface of
plate bearing strong reticulation pattern. Anal plate with distinct reticulation
pattern; lateral margins of plate with knob-like structure posterior of or on
level of para-anal setae. Two pairs of platelets between genital and metapodal
plate. Many short, simple opisthogastric setae; setae arising from integument
lateral of coxae III and IV; arrangement and numbers as shown. Presternal
plates appearing bead-like along striation lines. Relative width of peritremes
as illustrated. Gnathosoma. Fig. 1H. Deutosternal groove with 6 transverse
rows of teeth, rows 2-5 each with 1 long tooth; relative length of hypostomal
setae 3 as illustrated. Chelicera (Fig. I) chelate, movable digit bidentate, fixed
digit with 2 small and 1 larger tooth, plus setiform pilus dentilis. Legs. Femur
II and genu II chaetotaxy pattern, and relative setal size as illustrated (Fig.
1J); seta ad, on femur distinctly stouter than other setae.
MALE. Dorsum. Chaetotaxic pattern, setal length, and dorsal plate as in
female. Venter. Fig. 1K. Holoventral plate bearing 16 pairs of simple setae plus
3 anal setae, posterior setae shorter than sternal setae; striation pattern
distinct over entire plate. Narrow exopodal plates lateral of coxae III, IV, and
posterior part of II. Opisthosomal setae short, simple. Presternal plates ap-
pearing beaded along striation lines as in female. Gnathosoma. Venter as in
female. Cheliceae (Fig. 1L) with straight trough-like spermadactyl arising
from lateral surface of fixed digit; both fixed and movable digits unidentate,
movable digit bearing setiform pilus dentilis. Legs. All tarsi bearing paired
claws. Femur II (Fig. 1M) with seta av, very stout and spine-like, pd, also
stout; genu II with setae ad, and ad, thickened. Legs I, III, and IV not
modified, as in female.
DEUTONYMPH. Dorsum. Fig. 1N. Plate covering podonotal region, stria-
tions distinct along anterolateral margin only, seta jl thickened, other setae

The Florida Entomologist

short and simple; most of opisthonodal plate covered with weak striation
pattern, plate slightly smaller than podonotal plate; all dorsal plate setae
short, simple. Integument lateral of plates bearing simple, short setae as
illustrated. Venter. Fig. 1N. Sternal plate bearing 4 pairs setae, relative lengths
as illustrated; striation pattern indistinct or absent medially. Anal plate with
weak striation pattern; knob-like structure at lateral margin near level of
para-anal setae as in female. Metapodal plate drop-shaped. Endopodal plate
well developed medial of coxae III and IV; weakly developed between coxae II
and III. Peritremal plate not present. Presternal plate fused to sternal, bead-
like appearance along striation lines. Gnathosoma and legs as in female.
Holotype (female) data as follows: Gull Lake Biological Station,
Kalamazoo County, Michigan; 10 August 1964; on female Bombus
griseocollis; coll. R. W. Husband. Paratypes have been taken from bumble
bees collected in July, August and September in Michigan, in May and August
in Alberta, Canada, and in March in Lawrence, Kansas. Bumble bee hosts are
given in Table 1. Holotype deposited in UG. Paratypes deposited in UG, RWH,
Comments. The junior author has collected this species routinely from
bumble bees and bumble bee nests in Michigan. Only female mites have been
taken on bumble bees, the other mite stages were collected from the bee nests.

Pneumolaelaps sinhai, n. sp.

FEMALE. Dorsum. Fig. 2A. Single plate covering entire dorsal area, surface
of plate strongly reticulate. Podonotal area with 23 pairs of setae; setae j5, j6,
z5, and z6 short, similar to opisthonotal setae, other podonotal setae longer
and heavier, seta j4 approximately three times length of j5; seta j2 longer than
j3 or j4. Opisthosomal region with 18-19 pairs of simple, short setae. Venter.
Fig. 2B. Posterior margin of sternal plate strongly concave; reticulations
distinct over surface of plate; relative length and thickness of sternal and
metasternal setae as illustrated. Genital plate narrow, width approximately
equal to distance between sternal setae 2; not overlapping sternal plate;
surface of plate bearing heavy reticulations, pattern as illustrated; posterior
margin of plate appearing granulated; genital setae extending well past base of
seta Zv1. Anal plate bearing weak reticulations. Chaetotaxy of opisthogastric
area as illustrated; 2-3 platelets between genital plate and metopodal plate.
Peritremes as wide or slightly wider than base of tritosternum; peritremal
plate extending posterior to stigmata approximately equal to diameter of
stigmata. Presternal plates not sclerotized (some specimens show striation of
presternal integument). Gnathosoma. Fig. 2C. Deutosternal groove with 7
transverse rows of teeth; general type and relative sizes as illustrated; internal
mali split, lateral parts bearing median fringe as illustrated. Chelicerae (Fig.
2D) typical for genus. Legs. Dorsal chaetotaxy of genu II and femur II (Fig.
2E) as illustrated; femur II setae ad,, pd,, and pd, long and heavy, of
approximately equal size.
MALE. Unknown.
Holotype (female) data: Prairie Bluff Mountain, Alberta, Canada; 5200 ft
elevation; 26 May 1971; on female Psithyrus suckleyi; coll. L. A. Richards.
Paratypes collected in May and July in Canada, and during August in
Michigan. Bumble bee hosts are given in Table 1. Holotype deposited in UG;
paratypes deposited in UG and RWH.

Vol. 56, No. 2

Hunter and Husband: New Pneumolaelaps Mites 83

ig P./u, ep\ ,ha,.pF e o, vee- ,

1a a

S ''
\-1 *' ,T '

AG FH. .,-

Fig. 2. Pneumolaelaps sinhai, n. sp. Female: A, dorsum; B, venter, C,
gnathosoma; D, chelicera; E, dorsum of genu and femur of leg II.
Pneumolaelapspatae, n. sp. Female: F, dorsum; G, venter; H, gnathosoma; I,
chelicera; J, dorsum of genu and femur of leg I

Comments. Psithyrus suckleyi and P. insularis are socially parasitic bum-
ble bees which invade the established nests of other bumble bees. Of the 10
mite specimens in the type series, 3 were taken from bumble bee nests-1 mite
from the nest of each of Bombus flavifrons, B. frigidus and Bombus species.
Only 1 specimen was taken off a non-parasitic bee (B. californicus), and
socially parasitic bumble bees may be important in the distribution of this
Pneumolaelapspatae, n. sp.

FEMALE. Dorsum. Fig. 2F. Covered by single plate, surface of plate bearing
distinct reticulation pattern as illustrated; 34 pairs of dorsal setae (27 arising
from podonotal region) plus several unpaired setae between J rows; seta j4
slightly longer than j5; setae j2, j3, and j4 of approximately equal length,
slightly longer than j5; setae j2, j3, and j4 of approximately equal length,

The Florida Entomologist

relative lengths of other dorsal setae as illustrated. Venter. Fig. 2G. Sternal
plate concave posteriorly; striation pattern distinct over surface of plate;
sternal setae slender, relative lengths and widths as illustrated. Genital plate
bearing distinct striation pattern over entire surface; posterior margin of plate
appearing grandular; genital setae not extending beyond base of seta Zv,. Anal
plate with reticulation pattern. Opisthogastric area with many slender setae,
setae arising from integument lateral of coxa III and IV; 2 platelets in
integument between genital and metapodal plate. Exopodal and endopodal
plates at level of coxae III and IV. Peritremal plate extending well posterior of
stigmatal opening. Presternal plates distinct, joined medially by semi-sclero-
tized integument. Gnathosoma. Fig. 2H. Six transverse rows of deutosternal
teeth, posterior 3 rows with 2-4 teeth/row, anterior 3 rows with 5-6 teeth/row.
Internal mali fringed on both lateral and medial margins. Hypostomal setae 4
capitularr setae) approximately 3/4 length of setae 3. Cheliceae (Fig. 21)
typical for genus. Legs. Femur II seta ad, spine-like (Fig. 2J), relative length
and size of other setae of femur and genu of leg II as shown.
MALE. Unknown.
Described from a series of 10 specimens. Holotype (female) data: Tigsalik,
Tlumle, Greenland; on Bombus sp.; 8 August 1889; coll. W. L. Lundbeck.
Paratypes data: Marshall Bugt-Inglefieldland, Greenland, 29 June 1941, on
Bombus hyperboreus; Dansk Pesnyed Efp., 1036 N. Heilpoin, Greenland, 8 July
1949, on B. polaris; 5 specimens from Ellesmere Island, Canada, summer 1967,
on B. polaris, coll. K. W. Richards.
Holotype deposited in ZMCD; paratypes deposited in UG and RWH.
Comments. The 2 specimens from Greenland were included in Tragardh's
material as Hypoaspis bombicolens var. groenlandica. Host records and dis-
tribution data indicate this mite species occurs at the northern limits of the
range of North American bumble bees.

Pneumolaelaps connieae, n. sp.

FEMALE. Dorsum. Fig. 3A. Covered by single plate bearing reticulations over
entire surface. All dorsal setae simple, of approximately same size in podonotal
and opisthonotal regions; j setae of equal lengths; setae j2 and j3 reaching only
about 1/2 the distance to the base of the next posterior j seta; 22 pairs of
podonotal setae, 18 pairs of opisthonotal setae. Venter. Fig. 3B. Sternal plate not
concave on posterior margin, striations limited to anterior 2/3 of plate; sternal
setae long, narrow; metasternal setae shorter than sternal setae, arising from
integument. Genital plate with distinct striation pattern, median inverted V
striation more distinct than other striations, pattern as shown; genital setae
short, reaching 1/2 or less the distance to the base of setae Zv,. Para-anal setae
arising at anterior level of anal opening; anal plate bearing striations anterior to
post-anal seta. Opisthogastric setae simple, all approximately subequal in
length, those near genital and anal plates slightly longer than setae lateral of
coxa III and IV; 3 platelets between the elongate metapodal plate and genital
plate. Endopodal and exopodal plates weakly sclerotized. Peritreme narrower
than base of tritosternum; peritremal plate present, relative width as shown,
extending well posterior of stigmata. Presternal plates distinct from each other
and from sternal plate. Gnathosoma. Fig. 3C. Deutosternal groove with 5
transverse rows with teeth, anterior row without teeth. Chelicera (Fig. 3D) with
bidentate movable digit, fixed digit with 3-4 teeth (of approximate equal size)

Vol. 5 6, No. 2

Hunter and Husband: New Pneumolaelaps Mites


Fig. 3. Pneumolaelaps connieae, n. sp. Female: A, dorsum; B, venter; C,
gnathosoma; D, chelicera; E, dorsum of femur and genu of leg II.
Pneumolaelaps richardsi, n. sp. Female: F, dorsum; G, venter; H,
gnathosoma; I, chelicera; J, dorsum of femur and genu of leg II. Male: K,
venter; L, chelicera; M, venter of femur, genu and tibia of leg II.

The Florida Entomologist

plus setiform pilus dentilis. Legs. Coxal setae slender, of about equal thickness;
femur II setae ad, and ad, thickened, ad, peg-like; relative lengths of setae on
femur II and genu II as shown, Fig. 3E.
MALE. Unknown.
Described from a series of 6 specimens. Holotype (female) data: Grand
Rapids (Kent County), Michigan; on Bombus americanorum; coll. R. W.
Husband; no collection date given. Paratypes collected during July and August
in the following Michigan counties: Kalamazoo, Alpena, Baraga, and Delta.
One paratype collected from Clarke County, Georgia, 10 September 1971, on B.
impatiens, by R. W. Husband. Bumble bee hosts are listed in Table 1. Holotype
deposited in UG; paratypes deposited in UG, RWH, and NMNH.
Comments. The bumble bee hosts from Michigan-B. americanorum,
griseocollis, and terricola-have overlapping ranges (unpublished data of R. W.
H.). The collection from Georgia on B. impatiens would indicate that the mite
should be found between Michigan and Georgia and probably is generally
distributed over the eastern part of the United States.

Pneumolaelaps richardsi, n. sp.

FEMALE. Dorsum. Fig. 3F. Covered by a single plate; striations weakly
developed, distinct pattern absent medially. Dorsal setae slender, 24 pairs on
podonotal region, 15 pairs on opisthonotal region; seta j2 distinctly longer than
any other seta in j row, reaching almost to base of j3; setae j4 and j5 of equal
length, j3 slightly longer than j4; opisthonotal setae shorter than podonotal
setae; relative lengths of setae as illustrated. Venter. Fig. 3G. Sternal plate
slightly convex on posterior margin; striae weakly developed, distinct pattern
absent; setae slender, needle-like. Genital setae reaching to base of setae Zv,;
genital and anal plates without striation pattern. Para-anal setae arising near
posterior margin of anal opening. Opisthogastric setae needle-like, setae nearest
genital and anal plates at least twice length of marginal setae; relative lengths of
setae as shown. Metapodal and 2 platelets present on each side of genital plate.
Endopodal and exopodal plates sclerotized; posterior exopodal plate partially
encircling coxa IV. Peritreme approximately 1/2 width of base of tritosternum;
peritremal plate extending anterior to level of coxa I, lateral margin scalloped
between coxa II and III, pore in plate at this level; plate extending well posterior
of stigmata. Presternal plates present, integument weakly sclerotized between
plates. Gnathosoma. Fig. 3H. Six rows of deutosternal teeth, 1st row teeth small,
equal in size, posterior row with 1 or more longer plus several shorter teeth/row.
Chelicera (Fig. 31) with typical dentation plus setiform pilus dentilis. Legs.
Coxal setae II longer than other coxal setae; all setae on femur II slender (Fig.
3J), seta pd, longest; relative size of setae on genu II as shown, Fig. 3J.
MALE. Dorsum. General striation pattern, setae type, and chaetotaxy as in
female. Venter. Fig. 3K. Holoventral plate present; weak striations in area of
sternal setae 2 and 3; depending upon sclerotization anterior to anal area, 10-11
pairs of setae on holoventral plate setaee indicated by dash lines were broken off
on specimen illustrated, type and relative lengths of these setae taken from
paratype male). Fewer opisthogastric setae than in female. Peritreme about 1/2
width of base of tritosternum; peritremal plate extending to area of coxa I;
lateral margin scalloped, pore in plate at level of coxa II. Exopodal plates not
well sclerotized. Presternal plates present, integument striated medial and
anterior of plates. Gnathosoma. Chelicera (Fig. 3L) with straight, trough-like

Vol. 56, No. 2

Hunter and Husband: New Pneumolaelaps Mites

spermadactyl arising from movable digit and extending well beyond tip of digit;
fixed and movable digits bidentate; remainder of gnathosoma as in female. Legs.
Legs I, III, and IV as in female. Leg II (Fig. 3M) heavier than other legs, femur
with seta av, stout and spine-like, ventral setae of tibia thickened, other setae of
femur, tibia, trochanter, and genu similar to those in female; tarsus with
terminal ventral setae somewhat heavier and more whip-like than in female.
Described from a series of 9 females and 2 males. Holotype (female) data:
Prairie Bluff Mountain, Alberta, Canada; 5200 ft elevation; 8 August 1970; on
Bombus bifarius; coll. L. Richards. Four female paratypes collected in August
and/or May from Alberta, Canada; 1 female paratype collected in Delta
County, Michigan, May 1964, on B. ternarius. Bumble bee hosts for female
mites are listed in Table 1. Male paratypes collected from nest of B. bifarius,
other data same as for female. Holotype deposited in UG; paratypes deposited
in UG and RWH.

Pneumolaelaps costa, n. sp.

FEMALE. Dorsum. Fig. 4A. Covered by single plate bearing 40 pairs of
simple, needle-like setae; j2 slightly longer than other j setae; setae j3, j4, and
j5 approximately equal in length; weak striations along anterolateral margin
of plate, remainder of plate without striations. Venter. Fig. 4B. Posterior
margin of sternal plate straight or slightly convex; striations consist of few
weakly developed lines on anterior 1/3 of plate. Genital plate without stria-
tions except for 2 lines forming an inverted V-shape; 2 half moon shaped
muscle attachment lines in plate posterior to sternal plate margin; genital
setae extending to base of setae Zv,. Anal plate with a pair of lens-like struc-
tures on margin at anterior level of anal opening; striation pattern as shown.
Opisthogastric setae needle-like, longest setae nearest genital and anal plates;
metapodal plate and 2-3 platelets in integument lateral of genital plate. No
opisthogastric setae arising anterior to stigmatal opening. Peritremal plate
well developed, extending anterior to area of coxa I, extending posterior of
stigmata approximately twice diameter of stigmata, pores as shown; margin of
plate scalloped lateral to coxae II and III; peritreme extends to area of coxa I;
peritreme narrower than base of tritosternum. Presternal plates present, in-
tegument between plates showing some striation lines. Gnathosoma. Fig. 4C.
Six rows of deutosternal teeth, teeth of about equal length in anterior row,
other rows with 1 or more longer teeth per row; relative length of hypostomal
setae as shown; internal mali normal for genus. Chelicera (Fig. 4D) typical for
genus, pilus dentilis setiform. Legs. Leg II femur and genu (Fig. 4E) with
slender setae, seta pd, on genu longer than other seta on that segment, ad,
shortest seta of segment.
MALE. Dorsum. General features and chaetotaxy as in female. Venter. Fig.
4F. Holoventral plate present, bearing 10 pairs of simple needle-like setae plus
three anal setae; striation of plate limited to anal area and genital opening,
remainder of plate without striation pattern; lens-like structures on lateral
margin of anal plate as in female. Opisthogastric setae proportionally shorter
than in female, extending anteriorly to level of coxa IV as in female. Narrow
exopodal plate lateral of coxae IV, III, and posterior half of II. Peritreme
extending only to level of coxa II; peritremal plate extending to anterior end
of peritreme, width of plate and pores in plate lateral of coxa II and III as
shown, 3 pores in plate posterior of stigmata. Gnathosoma. Chelicera (Fig. 4G)

The Florida Entomologist

venter;^ G c l e H v l v e le II P e

0t \ i1
r IC

N J I, L. 3

Fig. 4. Pneumolaelaps costa, n. sp. Female: A, dorsum; B, venter; C,
gnathosoma; D, chelicera; E, dorsum of femur and genu of leg II. Male: F,
venter; G, chelicera; H, ventrolateral view, leg II. Pneumolaelaps
aequalipilus Hunter. Female: I, dorsum; J, genital plate. Pneumolaelaps
longipilus Hunter. Female: K, dorsum; L, genital plate. Pneumolaelaps mis-
tipilus Hunter. M, dorsum; N, genital plate.

Vol. 56, No. 2

Hunter and Husband: New Pneumolaelaps Mites

chelate, movable digit unidentate; spermatodacyl process trough-like, ter-
minally curving toward bidentate, fixed digit; pilus dentilis setiform.
Remainder of gnathosoma of general features as in female. Leg II heavier than
other legs, femur with seta av, spine-like (Fig. 4H), other setae as in female,
except that ventral tarsal setae proportionally longer than in female.
Described from a series of 9 specimens. Holotype (female) data:
Kalamazoo County, Michigan; from Bombus americanorum nest; 3 Sep-
tember 1963; coll. R. W. Husband. Paratype females collected in August and
September, Kalamazoo County, Michigan. Host records given in Table 1.
Male paratypes and one nymph collected from bumble bee nest, other collec-
tion data same as for holotype. Holotype deposited in UG; paratypes
deposited in UG and RWH.


All of the biological observations reported below were made by the junior
author in Michigan. In the nests, Pneumolaelaps mites are commonly found
in pollen cylinders and on honey pots. Mites appear attracted to and moved
onto bees coming into the nest; entering bees normally carry pollen which
may be an attractant to the mites. The food of the mites is unknown, but very
likely it is both pollen and honey. Other types of liquids may also serve as mite
food, 2 examples are illustrated. When a bee was accidently decapitated in
opening a nest, P. longanalis mites immediately swarmed over the cut surface
and fed on the haemolymph. In another instance, a bumble bee's air sac had
been opened and a P. longanalis mite came from between the thorax and
abdomen, stuck its chelicerae through the air sac and fed on haemolymph
until the mite's body became swollen.
In Michigan nearly all bumble bee nests collected during the summer
months have Pneumolaelaps mites in the nest material and/or on bees taken
from the nest. Nests left out-of-doors and collected in January did not have
Pneumolaelaps mites. Since only the queen bumble bees overwinter, this
suggests that only those mites-always females-which attach to the hiber-
nating queens survive northern winters. In a study of incidence of mites found
on bees taken from nests, Pneumolaelaps species were found to be much more
common on queen and male bees than on worker bees, although all castes are
equally exposed in the nest. Of 95 Bombus bimaculatus collected from nests,
the following observations were made: 3 of 28 queens had mites; none of 11
males and 56 workers had mites. Of 94 B. americanorum taken from nests, 7 of
17 queens had mites, 7 of 29 males had mites, and 1 of 48 workers had mites. In
collections of bumble bees at flowers in the summers of 1963-64, large numbers
of worker bees were taken, but very few had Pneumolaelaps mites attached.
Based upon the host association information and field observations, data
are available to speculate on the dispersal of Pneumolaelaps mites from nest
to nest and from host species to host species. Queen bumble bees of different
species often compete for nest sites in the spring, and at this time of the year it
is not unusual to find dead queens of more than 1 species outside the entrance
to a nest. In the struggle for the nest site, mites are likely to be brushed off into
the nest. Bumble bees, especially males, will commonly enter nests of their
own species as well as nests of other bumble bees species. This could afford an
opportunity for the transfer of Pneumolaelaps mites. The parasitic bumble
bees, Psithyrus species, would also provide an excellent source of mite dis-

The Florida Entomologist

tribution; however, the number of mite species recovered from Psithyrus
species compared to other species of bumble bees (Table 1) indicates that the
parasitic bees probably are not proportionally more important as a source of
mite transportation.

Pneumolaelaps species

B u m b l b;2 W |c ..
Bumble bee species "

S0 o '3 0 2
co +Q 4 g 'g

Bombus (Bombus) afinis
B. (B.) occidentalis
B. (B.) terricola
B. (Fraternobombus)
B. (Separatobombus)
B. (Fervidobombus)
B. (F.) californicus
B. (F.) fervidus
B. (Bombias)
B. (Alpinobombus)
B. (A.) polaris
B. (Pyrobombus)
B. (P.) bimaculatus
B. (P.) flavifrons
B. (P.) frigidus
B. (P.) huntii
B. (P.) impatiens
B. (P.) mixtus
B. (P.) perplexus
B. (P.) ternarius
B. (P.) vagans
Bombus sp.
Psithyrus ashtoni
P. insularis
P. laboriosus
P. suckleyi
P. variabilis

5 16

28 1 7 34 19 13

6 6 1

2 11

1 1



14 16



1 4

Vol. 56, No. 2

Hunter and Husband: New Pneumolaelaps Mites

The North American Pneumolaelaps mites neither show close host-
parasite associations (Table 1), nor distribution patterns correlated with the
distribution of a given species of bumble bee. The most extensive distribution
records we have at this time are for P. aequalipilus (Alabama, Florida, Geor-
gia, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, South Carolina, and Texas), P. longipilus
(Georgia, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, and Minnesota), and P. mistipilus
(Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, and Missouri).
Records for other species show a disrupted distribution, such as P. connieae
recorded from Michigan and Georgia, and very likely additional collections
will show a generally continuous distribution pattern similar to that for the
above 3 species. We have no evidence as to the factors that may limit the
distribution of Pneumolaelaps mites-possibly temperature, soil moisture, or
other soil conditions may be important.

Berlese, A. 1917. Centuria second di Acari nuovi. Radia 12:125-177.
Berlese, A. 1921. Centuria quinta di nuovi. Redi 14:143-195.
Berlese, A. 1924. Centuria sesta di Acari nuovi. Redia 15:237-262.
Costa, Michael. 1966. The biology and development of Hypoaspis
(Pneumolaelaps) hyatti (Acari: Mesostigmata). J. Zool. 148:191-200.
Costa, Michael. 1971. Mites of the genus Hypoaspis Canestrini, 1884 s. str. and
related forms (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with beetles. Bull. Brit.
Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Zool. 21:69-98.
Costa, M., and P. E. Hunter. 1970. The genus Coleolaelaps Berlese, 1914
(Acarina: Mesostigmata). Redia 52:323-360.
Evans, G. 0. 1963. Observations on the chaetotaxy of the legs in the free-living
gamasina (Acari: Mesostigmata). Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Zool.
Hunter, P. E. 1966. The genus Pneumolaelaps with description of three new
species (Acarina: Laelaptidae). J. Kan. Entomol. Soc. 39:357-369.
Hunter, P. E., and M. Costa. 1971. Gymnolaelaps shealsi n. sp. (Acarina:
Mesostigmata) associated with the imported fire ant. J. Ga. Entomol.
Soc. 6:51-53.
Lindquist, E. E., and G. O. Evans. 1965. Taxonomic concepts in the Ascidae,
with a modified setal nomenclature for the idiosoma of the gamasina
(Acarina: Mesostigmata). Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 47:1-64.
Oudemans, A. C. 1902. Acarologische Aanteekeningen. Entomol. Ber. 6:36-39.
Tragardh, I. 1906. Monographie der arktischen Acariden. In: Fauna Arctica
IV: 34, p. 78.
Van Aswegen, P. I. M., and G. C. Loots. 1970. A taxonomic study of the genus
Hypoaspis Canestrini sens. lat. (Acari: Laelapinae) in the Ethiopian
region. Das Publicaqoes Culturois, Separata da No. 82:169-213.
Vitzthum, H. G. 1943. Acarina. In: Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des
Tierreichs, Bd. V. Abt. 4, Buch 5. xi+ 1011 pp.
Willmann, C. 1953. Neue Milben aus den ostlichen Alpen. Oster: Akad. Wiss.
Stizber. 162:449-519.

The Florida Entomologist 56(2) 1973


Department of Management, College of Business Administration,
University of Florida, Gainesville


An example of a stochastic, computer-based model is described which
displays the population dynamics and defoliation damage for velvetbean ca-
terpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, infestation in soybeans. A factorial
experiment with the model is described which investigated percent leaf
damage at podset as a function of 4 variables and 2 levels of each variable.
Worst case conditions for the experimental variables are identified as well as
possible strategies for their avoidance. The experimental results led to
development of probability calculations for the efficacy of sampling tech-
niques in the field. The calculations implied that sample sizes should be
increased by about an order of magnitude over present practice if small initial
pest numbers are to be detected with high probability. General uses and values
of systems simulation modeling are discussed.

Increasingly sophisticated and multivariate studies by crop protection
researchers require increasingly sophisticated analytical tools. Further,
evaluating the consequences of alternatives among control strategies and
specific manipulations in agroecosystems require predictive tools heretofore
not generally utilized by entomologists and other crop protection specialists.
Systems simulation modeling can be a very useful tool to. biologists con-
cerned with understanding population dynamics of particular organisms, the
interactions among the many components of agroecosystems, and the effects
of a variety of manipulative strategies. In addition, important spinoff values
may be derived from modeling studies.
Systems simulation modeling consists of 2 complementary steps, model
synthesis and model experimentation or simulation. Model synthesis produces
an entity, the model, which considers the interactions within an agroecosys-
tem in sufficient detail to answer how something of interest (a dependent
variable, e.g., total population) depends upon other variables (independent
variables, e.g., time, temperature, day length, etc.) in the model. Model
experimentation or simulation is the operation of the model in order to
investigate how the dependent variables change for specific changes in the
independent variables.
The model may be of a part of an agroecosystem as in the large field
experiments of Gonzalez (1970) for Heliothis zea (Boddie) in cotton, or it may
be of a simplified, mini-environment as in typical laboratory experiments. It
may be. a series of mathematical equations (Watt 1963, Peliou 1969, Patten
1971) describing relations between the variables of the system or, as reported
here, it may be a logical, descriptive computer model. In fact, it could be a
hybrid model consisting of all of the above model types.
Whatever the model type, its output (i.e., the value of the dependent
variable) may be either deterministic or stochastic. A deterministic output is a

Menke: Computer Model of Velvetbean Caterpillar

single numerical value for the output. It is determined by the particular
numerical values assumed for the input independent variables.
The model described in this paper is stochastic. That is, the input
independent variables, where appropriate (e.g., the time that an insect
remains in a specific instar), are described in terms of probability distributions.
Each time the model is run the specific outputs from the model will have
different numerical values even though the input probability distributions are
unchanged. In the long run, that is when a large number of outputs from the
model are examined, the outputs themselves will form probability distribu-
Only recently, with the advent and accessibility of the high speed digital
computer, has it been possible to develop stochastic models, except in the most
idealized situations since the mathematical complexities involved are for-
midable. The states of nature describing a real agroecosystem are random
variates (probabilistic). A realistic model prescribes a stochastic approach in
order to simulate not only the relation observed in nature but their often large
The value of a computer based model is in its use in performing designed
experiments to answer specific questions about the performance of an
agroecosystem. It permits consideration of highly speculative procedures and
questions without risk to real resources (the real ecosystem, money, man-
power, time, etc.). It is particularly useful to the biological researcher in its
ability to simulate in minutes relations which may take years or decades to
observe in real life. Even a model of limited realism has value in that the
discipline required to develop the model forces hard appraisal of the depen-
dent and independent variables of the system. This often results in serendipity
of the highest order which leads the researcher to discover unanticipated
relations and effects.
The danger of using a computer based model lies in the tendency of the
researcher to forget that the model is no better than the assumptions on which
it is based and the data which are fed into it. Thus the user must constantly
check model outputs against known facts and theories to assure that the
model has not been pushed beyond its valid capabilities.
There are few pest organisms for which there are sufficient data to con-
struct models. The soybean agroecosystem has received and continues to
receive a degree of attention permitting the construction of useful com-
puterized models. This modeling study was begun in the fall of 1971 With
special reference to the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis
Hubner, and the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Linnaeus). The
study should eventually be expanded to consider interrelations with other
pests-insects, nematodes, weeds, pathogens-but the named insects have been
the starting point. This paper describes studies to date on the velvetbean
caterpillar. The research goals of these studies were to model the population
dynamics of the velvetbean caterpillar, the growth of the soybean crop, and
the defoliation damage to the crop causedby the caterpillars.

The model described here could not have been developed without the
constant advice and suggestions of the consulting entomologists-Dr. Gerald

94 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 56, No. 2

Greene of the University of Florida's Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Quincy, and Drs. S. H. Kerr and W. H. Whitcomb of the Department
of Entomology.

Concepts about the operation of the model emerged after many
conferences with the consultants. Simultaneously biological data needs
emerged and were filled in a variety of ways; some by literature search, some
by using unpublished research results, and some by posing PERT type ques-
tions (minimum-expected-maximum) to the entomologists. In a few cases, e.g.
survival rate per instar, little hard experimental information was available





Fig. 1.-Flow chart for simulation model.

Menke: Computer Model of Velvetbean Caterpillar

and reliance was placed upon general knowledge and intuition for reasonable
values. Based on these facts, the model description is given below.
The crop development portion of the model is a deterministic function of
time using EV (leaf area) since the leaf area per acre is so large (even at the
seedling stage, leaf area is approximately 1 X 106 cm2/acre). Critical points for
the functional relation are seedling, midbloom, podset and podfill. All soybean
leaf area growth and defoliation by the velvetbean caterpillar are expressed in
cm2 per acre. Insect population counts and leaf damage are calculated at
weekly intervals after the date of simulated planting.
The insect population dynamics modeled are described in terms of discrete
arrival times of the moth invasion, the egg laying schedule for each moth, the




Fig. 2.-Flow chart for simulation model (cont.).

The Florida Entomologist

stochastic growth of the caterpillars for all instars through the adult moth
stage, and the amount of defoliation caused by each caterpillar in each instar.
Fig. 1 and 2 show a simplified flow chart description of the operation of the
The model traces the development of each egg from each female adult
through the instar in which death occurs or until the individual becomes an
adult. If the adult is a female, the time of egg laying for the next generation of
progeny is calculated and recorded. After all eggs from all females of one
generation are traced, the program automatically repeats the calculations for
the next generation of caterpillars until the required number of generations
have been traced.
After all eggs from all females for all generations have been traced, the
program prints out a census calculated at weekly intervals from the starting
date for egg laying for the first generation. The census details for each day of
1. the population in each instar
2. the total population including eggs
3. the total population of larvae only
4. the cumulated soybean leaf area eaten by all the caterpillars
through this day
5. the crop leaf area available
6. the percent of the available leaf area eaten.
The variables of the model are described in Table 1. These are classified
according to type (dependent or independent), description, source for
numerical values, and if data, the basis for the data. Definitions of critical
functions and certain variables as well as quantitative values for them will
doubtless be refined in further studies.
Fig. 3 is a typical census print-out showing the 6 census responses
enumerated previously.
The stochastic nature of the model is achieved by using computer
generated random numbers to select a value for dwell time in each instar (i.e.,
length of time the insect remains in an instar), the growth stage in which death
occurs, and the sex of the moth from the respective probability distributions
for each. This technique is known as Monte Carlo and is an accepted way to
select random variates which in the long run will follow any specified
probability distribution (Naylor et al. 1968).


Preliminary runs with the model displayed population characteristics with
time that appeared reasonable and realistic to the consulting entomologists. It
was observed that the survival rates at each instar and the differing stochastic
dwell times in each instar combined to produce a mixed response for popula-
tion as a function of time. That is, the early peak population for each genera-
tion and the population in the latter instars including the number of females
laying eggs for the next generation, being random variates, exhibited large
variances from run to run. However, the population counts for time periods
when most of the population was in the central instars (roughly instars 3
through 5) approached closely the expected value calculations for those
regions, and showed much smaller variances.

Vol. 56, No. 2

Menke: Computer Model of Velvetbean Cate




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The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 56, No. 2

The usefulness of the model was quickly demonstrated in the first
experiment which was designed to investigate percent leaf damage at podset as
a function of the 4 independent variables: day of planting, day of moth
invasion, size of the invasion in females/acre, and survival rate of eggs laid by
the invading females. The experiment was designed to test each factor
(variable) at 2 levels suggested from earlier field studies. Note that the com-
puter model can assume precise values for the factor levels of the independent
variables whereas such control would be difficult if not impossible to achieve













206 IS
10.09 SQ.CM.

39900512.00SQ. CM.








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220 IS
1819.31 SQ*CM.

53347792.O05Q. CM.


Fig. 3.-Computer census print-out.

213 IS
190.81 SQ. CM.

46624160.0050S CM.


Menke: Computer Model of Velvetbean Caterpillar 99



20 60 20 60

z ".5 0.28 0.17 1.5 1.5 0 0 0 0
P 127 --
z =
< .7 0.40 0.35 1.0 1.6 0 0 0 0

0 <.5 7.4 2.4 4.6 10.4 0.38 0.31' 0.6 0.6
>- 175
o .7 17.0 2.2 6.5 50.8 0.31 0.55 3.1 0.9
Fig. 4. Factorial design for computer simulation experiment to test simul-
taneous effects of 4 variables.
in a field or laboratory experiment. The responses for the complete factorial
design (with 2 replications) are shown in Fig. 4.
It can be seen that the responses show high variability for early invasion
and late planting dates. This demonstrates the stochastic nature of the results
and confirms the expectations of field experimenters who typically observe
large response variations for repeated experiments performed under identical
conditions in a natural environment.
A formal analysis of variance of the data of Fig. 4 showed that one could be
95% confident that day of planting and day of moth invasion were highly
significant factors in determining percent damage at podset. Intuitively one
feels that the factors egg survival rate and the number of invading females
should be important. The data do not permit that conclusion. This is not proof
that the factors are unimportant but is rather an indication that more data
are required. The need for even more data than reported here is discouraging
to a biologist designing field experiments because of the large amount of
resources (time, money, number of experimental plots, effort, etc.) required to
obtain it, particularly under the same conditions of precise control of the
independent variables as simulated in the model.


The results from the analysis of variance of the first experiment can be
1. The worst that can happen is an early moth invasion and a late planting
date for the crop.
2. For early planting dates, within wide limits the magnitude of the initial
invasion is not too important for damage at pod set.
3. For late invasion arrival dates, egg survival rates are relatively unimpor-
tant and damage is insignificant; the converse is true for early arrivals.
4. Percent cumulative damage at pod set is highest when the egg survival rate
is high and the initial female invasion is large.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 56, No. 2

The implications of results to date are:
1. Find an early variety-early maturing species of soybean.
2. The initial females producing a 2nd generation progeny that damage the
crop are few and probably widely scattered early in the summer.
Therefore, increase field inspections early in the summer, and attempt
every means to reduce or eliminate the first generation progeny.
3. Moths invading after mid-bloom arrive too late for their progeny to cause
significant crop damage. (Note the results in Fig. 4 for day 127 for moth
invasion; mid-bloom was assumed to be 78 days after planting.)
The implication of the simulation results that a few widely scattered
females can invade early and their progeny can cause significant crop damage
demanded experimental evidence. Such evidence is being sought during the
summer, 1972. The need for experimental evidence in turn emphasized the
need to re-examine field inspection techniques for population sampling.
The following mathematical relations analyze the extreme conditions to
be expected when one randomly selects a row length d and makes population
counts within that row. Assume that the initial moth invasion in the soybean
field is random and Poisson distributed. The question raised is what is the
probability that 1 or more moths settled to lay eggs in a given length of
soybean row which is later selected at random by the experimenter for a
population count? This probability is then equal to the probability that a
perfect inspector will find population counts from the egg laying activity in
that length of row.
It can be shown that the probability in question is given
P = l-exp(-Ld) where
d = length of row examined and
L = Average number of invading female moths/acre
Total row length of crop/acre
Assume 20 invading females/acre and 13 x 10 ft of 40 in. spaced
rows/acre. Then L= 20/13 x 10:= .0015 moths/ft of row if it is assumed that
the female lays all eggs in the row where she first landed.
The above assumption is pessimistic since in fact the eggs are laid over an
approximately 9 day period and it is reasonable to assume that the female flits
randomly from row to row in laying eggs during that time. Therefore a plot of
1-exp(-.0015 d) vs d will show the most pessimistic display of the probability of
finding population counts from the egg laying activity in a randomly selected
row section of length d.
As an alternate approximation assume that the row to row flight over 9
days produces 9 egg sites for each female and that these have a Poisson
distribution over the field. Mathematically the effect is as though 9 times as
many females had invaded, each laying approximately 1/9th as many eggs.
The L = 9(.0015) = .0135 moths/ft of row. Therefore a plot of P = 1-exp(.0135d)
will approximate the most optimistic probability estimate of finding popula-
tion counts during sampling.
These 2 limiting relations are plotted in Fig. 5. The real condition in a field
may lie somewhere between the 2 extremes. Even under the most optimistic
conditions, this analysis shows that a randomly selected 50 ft row has only a
50% chance of containing eggs or progeny when sampled. Doubling the
sampled row length to 100 ft increases the probability of finding eggs or
progeny to about 75%, always assuming perfect inspection.


Menke: Computer Model of Velvetbean Caterpillar

.9 -

o .7 --- -- -- -- 0 --- -- -- -- --
0 .7

w .6

o .5

F- .3

m .2
o .I ___ __ __ ____

20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Fig. 5. Probability of velvetbean caterpillar detection vs. length of row.

The implications of the preceding calculations are clear. If more accurate
estimates of population dynamics are to be made from sampling schemes, hard
experimental facts about the egg laying habits of the moth are required. In
addition, sample sizes must be greatly increased over generally accepted
values (15-20 ft of row for sample sizes) if small initial moth invasions are to be
detected with high probability.
If the egg laying habits are known more fully one may also begin to develop
model relations about spot infestations and defoliation within a field in place
of the average values now used. In the present model 10% defoliation averaged
over a field may mean 100% defoliation over 10% of the field area. On the
average there is no economic damage; in reality, 10% of the soybean plants
may be completely destroyed.
Thus, as is often the case in simulation studies, the first planned
experiment with the model identified new questions in need of answers while
answering the specific questions of the experiment. New insights about the
variables of the ecosystem have been developed.

The Florida Entomologist

It is anticipated that future research with the computerized model will be
concerned with refining the model to explicitly include important environ-
mental effects (temperature, day length, humidity, etc.) on both the insects
and the crop and to describe the spread of pest infestations. In addition more
experiments will be designed to investigate such problems as:
--Are there specific instars in which a kill mechanism is most effective in
reducing economic damage?
--Does it make any difference to the ecosystem whether the kill mechanism
is by predator, parasite, fungus, or pesticide?
--How sensitive is the percent defoliation to the variety of soybean modeled?
--Where is the economic balance between crop loss caused by insects and
money spent on insect management?
--How would the crop management strategy change if money were allocated
to control weeds and other pests besides the velvetbean caterpillar?
In some cases, the answers to the above questions should be definite; in
others, they will serve to identify knowledge gaps to be filled in order to get
definitive answers. In either case the results will be important to the agricul-
tural, the business, and the scientific community.


Gonzalez, D. R. 1970. Sampling as a basis for pest management strategies.
Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. on Ecological Animal Control by Habitat
Management. 2:83-101.

Naylor, T. H., J. H. Balintfy, D. S. Burdick, and K. Chu. 1968. Computer
simulation techniques. Wiley-Interscience, N.Y.

Patten, B. C. (ed.). 1971. Systems analysis and simulation in ecology.
Academic Press, N.Y.

Peliou, E. C. 1969. An introduction to mathematical ecology. Wiley-Inter-
science, N.Y.

Watt, K. E. F. 1963. Mathematical population models for five agricultural
crop pests. Entomol. Soc. Can. Memoirs. 32:83-91.

The Florida Entomologist 56(2) 1973


Vol. 56, No. 2


Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida


SD 8447 (2-chloro-1-(2, 4, 5-trichlorophenyl) vinyl dimethyl phosphate)
used as a feed additive for cattle caused significant (p < .01) mortality of horn
fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus), larvae in manure samples from cattle.
At levels of 0.1, 0.15, and 0.20 mg/kg/day, the percent mortality was respec-
tively 63, 85, and 97.6. Similarly dichlorvos pellets (AtgardT") fed at 2.25
mg/kg/day produced 98.3% mortality, while 7.2 mg added to 100g manure
from untreated animals resulted in 99% mortality (p < .01) of horn fly larvae.

The use of feed additives for the control of flies breeding in dung has been
investigated for many years. Knipling (1938) and Bruce (1939) tested
phenothiazine for control of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L). Drum-
mond (1963) found that insecticides fed to Holstein cattle could control horn
fly and house fly, Musca domestic L., larvae breeding in the cattle manure.
House fly control using coumaphos as a feed additive was reported by Skap-
tason and Pitts (1962) and Miller et al. (1970a). Anthony et al. (1961) found
that Holstein cattle fed coumaphos at 1 mg/kg/day produced mortality to
larvae of the house fly and the face fly, Musca autumnalis De Geer. Feed
additives for face fly control were also reported by Treece (1962), Ode and
Matthysse (1964), and Treece (1964). Miller et al. (1970b) found that Gar-
donaT" fed to dairy cattle successfully controlled house fly larvae. Miller and
Gordon (1972) found that feeding encapsulated RabonT" to dairy cattle would
control house fly larvae and that more RabonTl was present in the feces than
when unencapstilated formulations were used.

Five yearling heifers were kept in an enclosed barn and fed a fattening
cattle ration. Initially, 2 animals were fed 0.1 mg/kg/day of SD 8447, [2-
chloro-l-(2, 4, 5-tri= chlorophenyl) vinyl dimethyl phosphate, RabonT', Shell
Chemical Company], 2 animals were fed 0.2 mg/kg/day of SD 8447, and 1
animal was used as a check. After 10 days, the dosage rates were changed from
0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg/day of SD 8447 to 0.05 and 0.15 mg/kg/day respectively and
fed for 10 days. The animals were then held on untreated rations for 5 days.
Two of the animals were then fed dichlorvos (AtgardTM, Shell Chemical
Company) at the rate of 2.25 mg/kg/day, the 3 remaining animals being
untreated. Chemicals were used as calculated technical concentrations of the
formulations. Manure samples taken from 2 of the untreated animals had 7.2
mg dichlorvos added to 100g manure in the laboratory. The same check animal
was used during the entire test. Manure samples used for the bioassay were
collected at least 5 days after initiation of a feeding trial.
'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4656.

The Florida Entomologist

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Vol. 56, No. 2



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Butler and Greer: Horn Fly Control

Horn fly eggs were obtained from wild flies. Twenty-five first instar larvae
were added to 50g manure placed over 3g wood chips in styrofoam cups. Four
cups containing 100 larvae were used for each replication. Pupae were ex-
tracted from the cups on the sixth day by water flotation. Statistical analysis
was by analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test.
Horn fly control in manure of cattle fed SD 8447 and dichlorvos is shown in
Table 1.
Horn fly mortality was calculated from the number of larvae successfully
pupating. Corrected percent mortality was calculated by a modification of
Abbott's formula used by Drummond et al. (1967).
SD 8447 fed at levels of 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 mg/kg/day significantly (p < .01)
reduced larval survival in collected manure samples. Manure of animals fed
SD 8447 at 0.05 mg/kg/day showed no significant effect on horn fly survival.
Dichlorvos fed at 2.25 mg/kg/day (0.45g/day) or 7.2 mg added to 100g manure
significantly (p<.01) reduced horn fly survival. SD 8447 at 0.2 mg/kg/day
produced a significantly greater fly mortality than when fed at 0.15
mg/kg/day. No animal toxicity from either SD 8447 or dichlorvos was ob-
served during the study. The results showed that SD 8447 fed daily at 0.1 to 0.2
mg/kg/day significantly reduced larval survival of the horn fly. Similarly,
dichlorvos fed at 2.25 mg/kg/day produced significant control of horn fly
Anthony, D. W., N. W. Hooven, and 0. Bodenstein. 1961. Toxicity to face fly
and house fly larvae of feces from insecticide-fed cattle. J. Econ. En-
tomol. 54:406-408.
Bruce, W. G. 1939. The use of phenothiazine in the medication of cattle for the
control of horn flies. J. Econ. Entomol. 32:704-706.
Drummond, R. 0. 1963. Toxicity to house flies and horn flies of manure from
insecticide-fed cattle. J. Econ. Entomol. 56:344-347.
Drummond, R. 0., T. M. Whetstone, and S. E. Ernst. 1967. Control of larvae of
the house fly and the horn fly in manure of insecticide-fed cattle. J.
Econ. Entomol. 60:1306-1308.
Knipling, E. F. 1938. Internal treatment of animals with phenothiazine to
prevent development of horn fly larvae in the manure. J. Econ. En-
tomol. 31:315-316.
Miller, R. W., C. H. Gordon, N. O. Morgan, M. C. Bowman, and M. Beroza.
1970a. Coumaphos as a feed additive for the control of house fly larvae
in cow manure. J. Econ. Entomol. 63:853-855.
Miller, R. W., C. H. Gordon, M. C. Bowman, M. Beroza, and N. O. Morgan.
1970b. Gardona as a feed additive for control of fly larvae in cow
manure. J. Econ. Entomol. 63:1420-1423.
Miller, R. W., and C. H. Gordon. 1972. Encapsulated Rabon for larval house
fly control in cow manure. J. Econ. Entomol. 65:455-458.
Ode, P. E., and J. G. Matthysse. 1964. Feed additive larviciding to control face
fly. J. Econ. Entomol. 57:637-640.
Skaptason, J. S., and C. W. Pitts. 1962. Fly control in feces from cattle fed
Co-ral. J. Econ. Entomol. 55:404-405.
Treece, R. E. 1962. Feed additives for control of face fly larvae in cattle dung.
J. Econ. Entomol. 55:765-768.
Treece, R. E. 1964. Evaluation of some chemicals as feed additives to control
face fly larvae. J. Econ. Entomol. 57:962-963.

The Florida Entomologist 56(2) 1973




Department of Entomology & Nematology
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601


Descriptions and illustrations are given of Lutzomyia recurva n. sp. from
Choc6 Dep., Colombia and Lutzomyia nocticola n. sp. from Antioquia Dep.,
Colombia. Both species belong in the subgenus Psychodopygus Mang., series
panamensis and 1 of them (L. recurva) is a common man-biter in forests on
the Pacific side of the Choc6.

Recent collections of phlebotomine sand flies in Choc6 and Antioquia
Deps., Colombia have yielded over 15,000 specimens belonging to 50 species in
3 genera Lutzomyia Franca (45 spp.), Brumptomyia Franca & Parrot (3 spp.)
and Warileya Fairchild & Hertig (2 spp.). At least 2 of the Lutzomyia spp. are
new and are described here to make their names available for a forthcoming
review of the Colombian species.
Holotypes and allotypes are to be deposited in the U.S. National Museum.
Paratypes are in the collection of INDERENA (Natural Resources Develop-
ment Institute, Bogota), Fla. State Collection of Arthropods, and in the
collection of the author. All measurements in the text are in millimeters and
were obtained from specimens mounted on microslides in Canada balsam.

Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) recurva n. sp.
(Fig. 1-10)

Male: A medium sized sand fly; mesonotum strongly infuscated, head,
procoxae, anterior abdominal tergites and genitalia faintly to moderately
pigmented, rest of insect pale. Cibarium lacking horizontal teeth but with
remnants of vertical teeth; chitinous arch ill defined, apparently complete but
lower (more anterior) than in female. Pigment patch subtriangular as in
female, barely visible. Pharynx (about 0.18 long) with transverse ridges
posteriorally. Eyes large, separated by distance = to about 4 facets. Length of
antenna 3 (0.20-0.22), nearly 1.2X length of 4 + 5; ascoids as figured, simple, on
all flagellar segments except last 6. Proboscis length about 0.18. Palp formula
1-4-5-2-3, mean length of segments as follows (8 specimens): 1 (0.029), 2 (0.077),
3 (0.108), 4 (0.041), 5 (0.057); Newstead's scales scattered over distal 2/3 of palp
3. With 8-13 upper and 5-11 lower episternal setae. Wing length 1.50-1.60,
width about 0.45; length of vein sections as follows (8 specimens): alpha
(0.35-0.42), beta (0.18-0.25), delta (0.04-0.10). Length of femorae, tibiae and
basitarsi of slide 124 as follows: foreleg, 0.61, 0.94, 0.52; midleg, 0.61, 1.00, 0.61;

'This investigation was supported in part by U. S. Army Medical Depart-
ment Contract No. DADA 17-72-C-2139 and by. the Air Force Office of
Scientific Research, Office of Aerospace Research, U. S. Air Force, AFOSR
Grant No. 68-1455.
2Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 4768.

Young: New Phlebotomine Sand Flies

1 3 4

5 _n


6 7


8 .0.05

Fig. 1-10 Lutzomyia recurva n. sp. 1. Male head (no. 87); 2. Male antennal
segment 4; 3. Female head (no. 127); 4. Female spermathecae, drawn in phenol
(no. 128); 5. Male genital pump and filaments (no. 61); 6. Female cibarium (no.
112); 7. Male aedeagus and paramere (no. 125); 8. Female wing (no. 128); 9.
Male wing (no. 150); 10. Male genitalia (no. 61). Scale in mm.


The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 56, No. 2

hind leg, 0.68, 1.20, 0.68. Abdominal tergites with broad, scalelike setae. Geni-
tal filaments about 2.8X length of pump, their tips simple. Style with 3 major
spines plus a small bristle at about 0.72 of segment. Coxite lacking
nondeciduous setae, its length slightly less than that of the unmodified lateral
lobe. Aedeagus rather long (about 0.12), slender distally and somewhat
downwardly curved. Paramere complex as shown, consisting of an arched
dorsobasal arm, a slender lateral arm bearing 2 (rarely 3) terminal strong
recurved setae and a main lobe also with mostly strong, recurved setae. Cercus
usually as figured but sometimes broader according to angle of view.
Female: Larger than male; pigmentation the same. Cibarium with 4
prominent, equidistant horizontal teeth and usually a nearly even row of 8-15
small, subequal vertical teeth; chitinous arch complete and high; pigment
patch as shown, faintly pigmented in most specimens. Pharynx (about 0.20
long) unarmed, with transverse ridges posteriorally. Interocular distance = to
about 4.5 facets. Length of antenna 3 (0.20-0.24) about 1.1X length of 4+5;
ascoids as in male, on all flagellar segments except last 2. Proboscis length
0.27-0.30. Palp formula 1-4-5-2-3, mean length of segments as follows (8
specimens): 1 (0.038), 2 (0.121), 3 (0.160), 4 (0.049), 5 (0.072); Newstead's scales
as in male. With 14-24 upper and 9-15 lower episternal setae. Wing length
1.80-1.96, width about 0.58, length of vein sections as follows (10 specimens):
alpha (0.49-0.56), beta (0.17-0.26), delta (0.11-0.21). Length of femorae, tibiae
and basitarsi of slide 151 as follows: foreleg, 0.70, 1.00, 0.60; midleg, 0.66, 1.15,
0.66; hind leg, 0.76, 1.36, 0.73. Abdominal tergites with recumbent scale-like
setae. Spermathecae imbricated, each with 9-10 distinct annuli; individual
duct=to or slightly greater than length of spermatheca; common duct
smooth walled except tapered, rugose portion as shown. Cerus acute, sub-
Type data: Holotype male (slide 61), approx. 3 km SE of the mouth of Rio
Curiche and about 1 km inland from Humboldt Bay, Choc6 Dep., Colombia in
shannon trap, 22-IV-67, D. G. Young. Allotype female (slide 62), same data as
holotype. Paratypes (slides 63-151), all collected at or near the type locality by
D. G. Young in 1967-1 male, 1 female, same data as holotype. 2 females in
malaise trap, 6-V. 15 females in shannon trap, 13-V. 5 females biting man,
16-V. 1 male, 1 female in malaise trap, 16-V. 32 females biting man, 18-V. 1
female biting man, 23-V. 1 male, 1 female in malaise trap, 29-V. 1 male in
shannon trap, 4-VI. 2 males in malaise trap, 4-VI. 1 male, 21 females biting
man, 8-VI. 1 male in malaise trap, 10-VI. 1 male in malaise trap, 1-VII. 1 male
in shannon trap, 17-X. About 400 additional females, taken at the type
locality, are stored in vials of alcohol in the author's collection.
Discussion: L. recurva belongs in the subgenus Psychodopygus Mang.,
series panamensis as defined by Theodor (1965). The included species are: L.
ayrozai (Barretto & Coutinho), L. carrerai (Barretto), L. fairchildi Barretto,
L. hirsuta (Mang.), L. nicaraguensis (Fchld. & Hertig), L. nocticola n. sp., L.
panamensis (Shannon), L. paraensis (Costa Lima), L. pessoana (Barretto),
and L. tintinabula Fchld. & Christensen.
The male of L. recurva differs markedly from the above males in the
following respects. Each paramere has a slender, curved dorsobasal arm as
well as a main lobe and smaller lateral arm which bear recurved setae. The
other species lack dorsal arms of the parameres and have either simple or
blade-like setae on the main or lateral lobes. The aedeagi of L. recurva, unlike
those of the other males, are rather long and slender.


Young: New Phlebotomine Sand Flies

The female of L. recurva closely resembles L. amazonensis (Root), known
only from the female, in having few, nearly subequal vertical teeth in the
cibarium. The other Psychodopygus females have teeth of varying size, often
with the largest ones forming median longitudinal rows, not seen in L. recurva
or L. amazonensis.
The females of these 2 species are separable on the basis of the individual
ducts of the spermathecae. In L. recurva, these ducts are much longer than
those of L. amazonensis, each being equal to or greater than the length of the
spermathecal body. In L. amazonensis, based on Root's description (1934) and
on the lectotype in the U. S. National Museum of Natural History each
individual duct is about 1/3 the length of the spermatheca.
Other differences, which may or may not be significant, include the
following. In L. recurva, the procoxae are lightly pigmented. The common
duct of the spermathecae is smooth walled except for the noticeably tapered
rugose portion. In L. amazonensis, the procoxae are pale and the common
spermathecal duct, including the rugose portion, is nearly uniform in width
throughout. It also seems to have faint transverse striations below the rugose
portion but these are barely discernible in the 1 specimen examined.
L. recurva was collected in rain forests on the Pacific side of Choc6 Dep.
where it appears to be seasonally abundant. Of 380 females taken in routine
human bait collections from April 1967 to December 1967, 375 were collected
from May to early July. Four were taken in August and only 1 in November.
During this 8 month period, only L. panamensis, L. hartmanni (Fchld. &
Hertig) and L. sanguinaria (Fchld. & Hertig) were more common in night
human bait collections. Other specimens of L. recurva were captured in light,
shannon, and malaise traps but none were found resting in the daytime,
although tree cavities were the only diurnal resting sites adequately sampled.

Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) nocticola n. sp.
(Fig. 11-23)

Male: A medium sized, nearly pale sand fly, with only lateromedian aspect
of mesonotum faintly to moderately infuscated. Cibarium unarmed except for
about 20 reduced vertical teeth; chitinous arch apparent only at sides; pig-
ment patch indiscernible. Pharynx (about 0.16 long) unarmed, with posterior
ridges. Eyes large, separated by distance = to about 4 facets. Length of anten-
na 3, 0.20-0.22, slightly over 1.1X length of 4+5; ascoids as figured, on all
flagellar segments except last 6. Proboscis length about 0.18. Palp formula
1-4-5-2-3, mean length of segments as follows (3 specimens): 1 (0.033), 2 (0.085),
3 (0.114), 4 (0.044), 5 (0.055); Newstead's scales scattered over distal 2/3 of palp
3. With 8-12 upper and 3-8 lower episternal setae. Wing length 1.73-1.81, width
about 0.51; length of certain vein sections as follows (5 specimens): alpha
(0.40-0.47), beta (0.20-0.23), delta (0.05-0.11). Length of femorae, tibiae, and
basitarsi of slide 215 as follows: foreleg, 0.75, 1.13, 0.78; midleg, 0.69, 1.27, 0.82;
hind leg, 0.80, 1.44, 0.88. Genital filaments about 3X length of pump with
simple tips. Style with 3 major spines plus a small bristle at about 0.67 of
segment. Coxite without nondeciduous setae, its length less than that of
unmodified lateral lobe. Aedeagus broad, pigmented only at distal end.
Paramere complex, consisting of a main lobe bearing about 14 relatively long,
blade-like setae and a slender, relatively long ventral arm as shown. Cercus as


The Florida Entomologist Vol. 56, No. 2




19 .05o




Fig. 11-23- Lutzomyia nocticola n. sp. 11. Male head (no. 224); 12. Male
antennal segment 4 (no. 224); 13. Female head (no. 231); 14. Female antennal
segment 4 (no. 233); 15. Female cibarium and pharynx (no. 233); 16. Male
aedeagus and paramere (no. 224); 17. Male genitalia (no. 224); 18. Anterior end
of genital pump (no. 215); 19. Genital pump and filaments of male (224); 20.
Female spermathecae, drawn in phenol (no. 231); 21. Female wing (no. 231);
22. Male wing (224); 23. Female cibarium (no. 233). Scale in mm.


Young: New Phlebotomine Sand Flies

Female: Slightly larger than male, degree and distribution of pigmentation
the same. Cibarium as figured, with 4 horizontal teeth, with 2 median longi-
tudinal rows (sometimes uneven) of 4-7 teeth in each row and with usually
smaller vertical teeth just anterior (under) the horizontal teeth, lateral teeth,
although inconspicuous, present; chitinous arch complete and high but less
distinct in middle; pigment patch as shown, only lightly infuscated. Pharynx
(about 0.19 long) unarmed as shown. Eyes large, interocular distance=to
about 6 facets. Length of antenna 3 (0.19-0.23), about 1.1X length of 4+5;
ascoids as shown, on all flagellar segments except last 2. Proboscis length
0.34-0.37. Palp formula 1-4-5-2-3, mean length of segments as follows (11
specimens): 1 (0.047), 2 (0.155), 3 (0.176), 4 (0.049), 5 (0.064); Newstead's scales
as in male. With 11-22 upper and 3-7 lower episternal setae. Wing length
1.89-2.13, width about 0.57; length of vein sections as follows (10 specimens):
alpha (0.47-0.61), beta (0.22-0.30), delta (0.07-0.17).
Length of femorae, tibiae, and basitarsi of slide 216 as follows: foreleg, 0.86,
1.29, 0.88; midleg, 0.79, 1.44, 0.90; hind leg, 0.90, 1.67, 1.02. Spermathecae
imbricated, each with 7-10 distinct annuli, terminal segment normally
symmetrical; spermathecal ducts as shown. Cerci subtriangular, unremarka-
Type Data: Holotype male (slide 215), about 24 km SW of Zaragoza, near
Rio Anori, Antioquia Dept., Colombia (elev. about 550 m above sea level), in
light trap, 9 May 1970, C. H, Porter coll. Allotype female (slide 216), same data
as holotype except collected on 17 Sept. 1970, by D. G. Young. Paratypes
(slides 217-230, all collected in light traps from the type locality in 1970); 5
females, 3 May, C. H. Porter coll. 1 female, 7 May, C. H. Porter coll. 1 female,
23 May, C. H. Porter coll. 1 male, 16 Sept., D. G. Young coll. 1 male, 3 females,
17 Sept., D. G. Young coll. 2 males, 2 females, 20 Sept., D. G. Young coll. 2
females, 22 Sept., D. G. Young coll.
Discussion: Although closely related to Lutzomyia ayrozai, L. tintinabula,
L. paraensis and its allies, the male of L. nocticola differs from them in the
shape and station of the paramere. In this species the main lobe is reduced
and bears only 10-14 long, blade-like setae. The lateral arm is relatively much
longer than that of L. ayrozai or L. tintinabula. The other species, L.
paraensis, L. fairchildi, L. pessoana, etc., have more setae, either simple or
blade-like, implanted on a broader main lobe.
The female of L. nocticola was associated with the male on the basis of
collecting data, metrical characters, and color. Also, no other possible mates
were found in the Rio Anori study area. It can be separated, with some
hesitation, from the other Psychodopygus females by the following combina-
tion of characters: cibarium with 4 nearly straight horizontal teeth, one
transverse row of 8-15 vertical teeth below the horizontal teeth and usually 2
median rows of larger longitudinal teeth as shown; pigment patch very faint;
proboscis length less than 0.40; mesonotum only faintly pigmented; sper-
matheca longer than individual duct, with terminal segment normally
symmetrical and with 7-10 distinct annuli; common duct smooth walled ex-
cept for rugose portion.
Other than being attracted to light traps in forested areas near the Rio
Anori, nothing is known about the habits of L. nocticola. Most of the well-
studied sand flies in the subgenus Psychodopygus are anthropophilic and some
such as L. panamensis, L. paraensis, L. wellcomei Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson,
and 1 undescribed species from northern Brazil have been found naturally


The Florida Entomologist

infected with promastigotes of Leishmania brazilensis (see Christensen et al.
1969, and Lainson and Shaw 1972).


For help during part of the field work, I wish to thank the following
persons: Dr. Thomas M. Yuill, Mr. Charles H. Porter, Mr. Norman E. Peter-
son of the University of Wisconsin, LTC Bruce F. Eldridge, Walter Reed Army
Institute of Research, and Dr. G. B. Fairchild of the University of Florida who
kindly offered support and suggestions whenever needed.


Christensen, H. A., A. Herrer, and S. R. Telford, Jr. 1969. Leishmania
braziliensis s. lat., isolated from Lutzomyia panamensis in Panama. J.
Parasitol. 55:1090-1091.

Lainson, R., and J. J. Shaw. 1972. Leishmaniasis of the New World:
taxonomic problems. Brit. Med. Bull. 28:44-48.

Root, F. M. 1934. Some American species of Phlebotomus with short terminal
palpal segments. Amer. J. Hyg. 20:233-246.

Theodor, 0. 1965. On the classification of American Phlebotominae. J. Med.
Entomol. 2:171-197.

The Florida Entomologist 56(2) 1973


Graduate students: your participation in Florida Entomological Society
meetings is desirable. To encourage your participation, cash prizes are
awarded to 1st, 2nd, and 3rd best student papers. Competition is open to
students from all recognized Florida colleges and universities. Papers are
judged particularly on presentation, composition, and content. The 1973
meeting will be held in Miami Beach at the Deauville Hotel, September 12 to


Vol. 56, No. 2



Insect Attractants, Behavior, and Basic Biology
Research Laboratory, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA
Gainesville, Florida 32601,
Florida Department of Agriculture,
Division of Plant Industry and Consumer Services
Gainesville, Florida 32601, respectively


The "lovebug", Plecia nearctica Hardy, is attracted to automobile exhaust
fumes irradiated with 3600 A UV light. However, they are not attracted to UV
light or exhaust fumes alone nor to the methane or CO., component of exhaust
fumes irradiated with 3600 A UV.

The "lovebug", Plecia nearctica Hardy, has been present in the Gulf Coast
area of the United States for many years. Large populations have been found
in Louisiana for over 20 years, and populations have increased gradually in the
states to the east, especially along the Gulf Coast. In Florida, the numbers
have been increasing since about 1954 from Pensacola to Tampa and in some
areas farther south according to reports in the files of the Division of Plant
Industry. The adults emerge in May and September and accumulate along
highways where they are smashed against windshields, obscuring the vision of
motorists. Cars often overheat when radiators become clogged, and the
smashed specimens damage car paint if the body fluids are not removed soon
after contact.
Hetrick (1970) studied the biology of the lovebug and estimated that the
flight of adults occurs over approximately one-fourth the land area of Florida.
Airplane pilots have reported the insects at altitudes of 1000 to 1500 ft., and
fishermen have reported mating pairs several miles from the coastline over the
Gulf of Mexico.
Our observations of the flight patterns of lovebugs indicate that the largest
number fly between 10:00 AM and 4:00 PM. However, flights of insects found
away from the highways appear to fly in a searching pattern, probably for food
and water, while those on or near highways appear to fly aimlessly and
without direction. Male and female adults take nectar and pollen during the 1
week, approximately, in which they live. We also observed larger numbers of
adults congregating at intersections, particularly near traffic lights, filling
stations, or recently parked cars with warm engines. Freshly painted build-
ings, especially light-colored ones, and heated asphalt roofing are also attrac-
tive to the adults.

'Contribution No. 250, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
2Mention of a proprietary product in this paper does not constitute an
endorsement of this product by the USDA or FDACS.

The Florida Entomologist

Callahan (1972) noted that Bibionidae were the most numerous of the
fossil Diptera collected at the Florissant, Colorado digging. He questioned
which characteristics of the catastrophic eruption of neighboring volcanoes
insured such an abundance of Bibionidae. During the Tertiary period the
Florissant, Colorado region of the Rampart Range had the same climate as
north central Florida. The marshes and lakes of the Florissant region were
buried in hot volcanic ash at some period during the Miocene epoch. Heated
volcanic gases have much in common with automobile exhaust fumes. Our
observations suggested testing the hypothesis that P. nearctica is attracted to
the burning hydrocarbon pollutants from automobile exhausts.


An olfactometer originally designed by the senior author for testing at-
tractants for noctuid moths was utilized in the experiments. It consisted of a
1 X 1 X 10 ft wooden box with a removable plexiglass top. At one end, a small
suction fan was mounted. It could be reversed to remove air or to pull air into
the box at slightly less than 1 mph wind speed. At the opposite end, a flexible
rubber hose was connected to an automobile exhaust pipe. A 150-W GE
photoflood light and a 6-W GE F8T5/BLB UV bulb were used as light sources
and were moved from end to end of the box during the experiments. Insects
were introduced into the box at the center. Each replication consisted of 20
copulating pairs collected in the field the morning of the tests. The box was
aired out for 1 hr between replications. The room was lighted by daylight type
fluorescent lights during all treatments.
Measurements of the ultraviolet light incident on the highway in the range
from 3000 to 4000 A were taken with an Ultraviolet Products light meter
having a range of 0 to 50 pw/cm2 x 100. Temperature was recorded with a
Model 43TD Yellow Springs Tele-thermometer. Readings were taken with a
surface thermistor directly on the road surface and with an air probe ther-
mistor 6 ft above the road.


Preliminary experiments indicated that bursts of exhaust fumes lastmg
more than 5 sec filled the olfactometer with such a high concentration of
fumes that the behavior of the insects was affected adversely. Five sec ex-
posure to the exhaust fumes at a low light intensity (60 ft-c) caused con-
siderable random walking movement but no flight or directional movement.
When the photoflood was turned on so that the light intensity 1 ft from the
bulb end of the box equaled 2240 ft-c, the insects were stimulated to flight, and
3 or 4 pairs out of 20 flew and/or walked toward the photoflood lamp. The
temperature in the box ranged from 350C at the bulb end to 280C at the
opposite end. Reversing the airflow did not affect the slight drift of the insects
toward the light.
Lovebugs flew both upwind and downwind to the light. When exhaust was
expelled and the box was aired for 1 hr, there was no flight toward the
photoflood bulb.
Further preliminary experiments demonstrated that temperatures above
280C and visible light above 2000 ft-c stimulated flight but not orientation
behavior. The insects are diurnal and fly in daylight. Neither of the authors


Vol. 56, No. 2

Callahan and Denmark: Fumes Attractive to 'Lovebugs' 115

have ever collected P. nearctica at a blacklight trap or tungsten light trap.
The species has never been reported collected at a point source of light.
Although the threshold for flight stimulation was not determined
precisely, these preliminary experiments indicated that it is approximately
between 260C and 320C and above 2000 ft-c of daylight.


Temp -----
u,: 0

45 + 34c

c a

1 U

40 4- 33*c

35 J 32c

30 31c

TIME 3:15 3:30 3:45 4:00

4:30 4:45

Fig. 1.-TemperAture and radiation measured with an ultra-violet meter
and a tele-thermonleter over the highway the afternoon of 12 October 1972.
45 t" 31c A

Temp 0----
UV 0

40 30"c

35 29"c

30 28'c

i I


1 0


TIME 10:00 10 20 30 40 50 11:00 10 20 30 40 50
Fig. 2.-Temperature and radiation measured with an ultra-violet meter
and a tele-thermometer over the highway the morning of 14 October 1972.

The Florida Entomologist

Figures 1 and 2 show the temperature and UV radiation recorded between
1000 to 1150 hr and 1515 to 1645 hr over the road. The UV radiation peaked at
approximately 40 to 50 jw/cm2 x 100 between 1100 and 1530 hr, and the daily
flight of the lovebug also peaks during this period. The temperature over the
roadway is also optimum for flight (Fig. 1 and 2). Cumulus clouds cause a
considerably greater drop in the UV radiation than in temperature, but the
cooling effect of passing clouds is sporadic and lags the decline of intensity ol
the UV radiation.
The significant finding of these preliminary experiments is that flight is
stimulated when temperature and light thresholds are reached; however, nc
flight orientation toward the visible light occurred without the presence ol
exhaust fumes. When the exhaust fumes were blown across the visible light,
the response was insignificant.
Callahan (1967) postulated that gaseous insect attractants are stimulated
to higher energy output by the interaction of radiation with the attractant
chemical. He called it MASER-like action (molecular amplification by
stimulated emission of radiation). His theories state that the dielectric an-
tennae of insect species might decode such high intensity chemical emissions
by resonating to the output frequencies of molecular vibration. Based on this
theory a 6-W BLB was substituted for the photoflood lamp. Table 1, Exp. 1,
gives the results of 5 sec bursts of exhaust fumes blown or pulled across the
BLB UV bulb.
The attraction to the combination blacklight and exhaust was extremely
high. The only insects that failed to respond within 1 to 10 sec were either
injured or moribund (some may have been dead). There was little or no
attraction to the exhaust fumes alone (Table 1, Exp. 2) or to the UV light
alone (Table 1, Exp. 3). Methane and CO, are components of automobile
combustion products, but there was no response to either of these gases alone
(Table 1, Exp. 4).

Percent Percent
flying to flying away
No. of Percent UV plus from UV
No. of mating remaining exhaust plus exhaust
Experiment replications pairs* at site fumes fumes

1 Attraction of adults to exhaust fumes plus UV light
9 180 7.2 92.8 0
2 Attraction to adults to exhaust fumes without UV light
4 80 81 10 9
3 Attraction of adults to UV light without exhaust fumes
4 80 96 4 0
4 Attraction of adults to technical grade methane and CO2
Methane 1 20 100 0 0
CO2 1 20 100 0 0

*20 pairs of insects per replication.


Vol. 56, No. 2

Callahan and Denmark: Fumes Attractive to 'Lovebugs' 117

When the blacklight source was moved from one end of the test box to the
other, the insects moved to the lighted end. They also flew both upwind and
downwind to the combination exhaust and blacklight (Table 2).
The insects did not condition to, and continued to respond to, exhaust
fumes plus blacklight after an hour-long exposure. When visible light was
reduced to low intensity (below 100 ft-c), the insects did not fly but crawled to
the attractant. The response to the attractant and the speed of the reaction
were the greatest ever witnessed by the authors.


No. moving remaining No. moving
Replication* to left at site to right

1 (light at left) 34 6 0
2 (light at right) 0 6 34
3 (light at left) 26 8 6

*Each replication consisted of the same 40 pairs used again.


The attraction of the lovebug to automobile exhaust and UV light
demonstrates the complex relationship between insect attractants and radia-
tion. Callahan (1967) pointed out that the high attraction of insects to
blacklight traps baited with pheromones is probably related to an interaction
between the UV radiation and the molecules of the pheromone. He postulated
a free-flowing, maser-like phenomenon, based on the close proximity of the
irradiated molecules to the sensilla sensors. Mathematically, such radiation
can be treated as coherent (in phase) (Metha and Wolf 1964). Treating the
insect sensilla as a dielectric waveguide system allows the utilization of an-
tennae and waveguide theory to an analysis of the insect antenna. Insect
physiologists, and biologists in general, have ignored wave principles in favor
of a more classical quantal treatment of sensory systems. This is unfortunate,
for wave theory has much to offer as a theoretical approach to interpreting
sensory systems. This experiment was rationalized on the basis of the
waveguide approach.
It occurred to us that photochemical smog was involved in this attraction.
The complex photochemistry of automobile emissions was reviewed by Cadle
and Allen (1970). The absorption of energy by atoms, molecules, free radicals,
or ions can produce excited species, decomposition, or ionization. However, a
minimum energy (frequency) is required for each type of reaction.
Solar radiation below 2900 A does not penetrate the atmosphere, but above
3300 A, the solar spectral intensity distribution is the same as that at the top
of the atmosphere (Cadle and Allen 1970). The blacklight bulb utilized in the
experiment duplicated this sky radiation since it peaks at 3600 A and has a
range from 3000 to 4000 A. Intensity of the radiation from the bulb was 40

The Florida Entomologist

pw/cm x 100 at 2 cm distance (by the UV meter). This equaled the peak
intensity taken over an asphalt roadway at a zenith angle of approximately
The best explanation of the unusual attractance of lovebugs to UV-
irradiated exhaust is that one of the products of the photochemical reactions
duplicates the oviposition attractant of the insect. (Since the insects are
already mated, pheromone duplication can be ruled out.) For oviposition,
lovebugs are known to prefer sites with decaying organic matter such as dead
leaves, grass clippings, well-kept lawns, and cow droppings in cutover pasture
lands (Schremer 1968). Hydrocarbons and aldehydes reach a peak in au-
tomobile exhaust fumes between 0800 and 1500 (Cadle and Allen 1970) which
are near the peak flight periods of the lovebug. Such compounds are also
generated by decaying organic matter in nature (Bethea and Narayan 1972).
Natural oviposition attractants could not compete with a duplicate attrac-
tant generated by millions of horsepower from automobiles. Well-traveled
highways are saturated with invisible vapor trails that are irradiated by the
UV that passes through the atmosphere.
Entomologists generally agree that larger than usual populations of
lovebugs have been emerging from certain areas of north Florida. These in-
sects appear to be able to fly great distances. Although they occur in great
numbers off the highways, we believe they are attracted to and are held over
the highway by the photochemical reaction of automobile exhaust fumes plus
UV radiation.
One of the best evidences that the attraction involves the interaction of
UV and molecular frequencies or ionization charges is the fact that the insect
is not attracted to UV alone.
In photochemical reactions (smog), atomic oxygen reacts with hydrocar-
bons and other organic compounds to produce a wide variety of organic-free
radicals. The energy from free radicals or ions is activated by UV radiation.
The attraction may involve frequencies from such reactions.
Many of the unpleasant properties of smog over cities are caused, in part,
by compounds produced by photochemical reactions (Cadle and Allen 1970).
Photochemical smog originates from automobile exhaust.
Since the automobile exhaust is apparently creating the problem by at-
tracting lovebugs to highways, a possible solution will be to isolate the com-
ponent(s) of automobile exhaust that serve as the attractants. If this material
can be identified and omitted from gasoline, the problem could be solved
easily. Tests will be continued when adults emerge again in May 1973.


Bethea, R. M., and R. S. Narayan. 1972. Identification of beef cattle feedlot
odors. Trans. of the ASAE. 1135-1137.

Cadle, R. D., and E. R. Allen. 1970. Atmospheric photochemistry. Science

Callahan, P. S. 1967. Insect molecular bioelectronics: A theoretical and
experimental study of insect sensilla as tubular waveguides, with par-
ticular emphasis on their dielectric and themoelectret properties. Misc.
Publ. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 5(7):315-347.


Vol. 56, No. 2

Callahan and Denmark: Fumes Attractive to 'Lovebugs' 119

Callahan, P. S. 1972. The Evolution of insects. Holiday House, New York. 192
Hetrick, L. A. 1970. Biology of the "love-bug", Plecia nearctica (Diptera:
Bibionidae). Fla. Ent. 53:23-26.

Metha, C. L., and E. Wolf. 1964. Coherence properties of blackbody radiation.
1. Correlation tensors of the classical field. Phys. Rev. 134:1143-1149.

Schremer, Von Fritz. 1958. Bibio larvae as utilizers of litter of dead needles.
Anzeiger Schadlingskunde 31:151-153.

The Florida Entomologist 56(2) 1973


The "Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil" will have its first annual meeting
at The Federal University of Vicosa at Vicosa, Mina Gerais from July 2-7,
One of the primary purposes of this new society is to sponsor these annual
meetings as a means of stimulating entomological research and to open new
channels of communication with the personal contacts.
Representatives from all parts of Brazil will present scientific papers on all
phases of entomology. The meeting is open to all.
The first issue of the society's new publication "Anais da Sociedade En-
tomologica do Brasil" will be ready for shipment very shortly. If you would
like to be a member of the society and receive the publication, contact Dr.
Williams at the address below.
Inquiries should be sent to Dr. Jose Alberto H. Freire, Vice President,
Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 36.570-
Vicosa, Mina Gerais, or to Dr. Roger N. Williams, Liaison Officer, Caixa
Postal 9, 13.400 Piracicaba, SP. Brazil.



Frost Entomological Museum,
Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, Pa.


Blepharida dorothea Mignot, a species described in 1971, is more southern
in distribution than the only other North American species, Blepharida rhois
(Forster). Previously no published information was available on the habits of
B. dorothea. The food plants, larval and adult types of feeding, and prolific egg
laying habits of Belpharida dorothea are discussed.

The genus Blepharida, of approximately 50 species, is world wide in dis-
tribution and well represented in South America, Central America, and
Mexico. According to Blackwelder (1946), 15 species occur in Mexico, 2 in
Guatemala, 1 in Chile, 1 in French Guiana, and 3 in the West Indies. Only 2
species occur in North America. Blepharida rhois (Forster) has a northern
distribution, and Blepharida dorothea Mignot has a southern distribution.
Both species feed on sumac, although B. dorothea has a wider range of food
plants. I reported in 1972 that B. dorothea was not collected on sumac, but
further observations revealed that eggs, larvae, and adults are common on
Rhus copallina as well as Brazilian pepper, Schinus sp. Both plants belong to
the Anacardiaceae as do mango, cashew, and poison ivy. Attempts were made
to rear B. dorothea on some of these hosts. In 12 tests, adults were offered the
leaves of mango on which they did not feed. The young tender leaves of mango
quickly wilted and were apparently undesirable. Older leaves are tough and
possibly objectionable to the insects. In 10 tests, the leaves of poison ivy were
offered, but in only 1 case did an adult feed, and then sparingly. Cashew leaves
were not available for tests. Mignot (1971) listed Rhus vernix, pine, and
strawberry as hosts. I reared it on leaves of R. typhina and R. glabra.
Rearing was conducted in 4-oz jars with lids to prevent evaporation from
the leaves. A little soft tissue paper was placed in each jar to absorb excessive
moisture. Rearing jars were examined, and fresh leaves were supplied at least
every other day. In Florida, the leaves of R. copallina were used. When the
cultures were transferred to Pennsylvania, R. glabra and R. typhina were
used, and both larvae and adults fed freely on these hosts.
It is possible that B. dorothea may have come to Florida from Central
America or Mexico where a number of species occur. Although Brazilian
pepper is indigenous to Brazil, Blepharida has not been reported from this
area. Species of sumac are common in Mexico and B. dorothea may have
originated on sumac and adapted to Brazilian pepper, an introduced species
now common in Florida.
The eggs of B. dorothea are laid in small masses of fecula deposited on the
leaves of the host. These masses are common on sumac and Brazilian pepper
from late January to the end of April. They are oval, from 3 to 4 mm long, with
a short tail-like terminal. Ten to 12 eggs are the average number in each mass

Frost: Hosts and

0 b


o o

* -i



Eggs of Blepharida dorothea

tl- C-CtD t- Cr-
i-4 l

1- 1- -

d4 OOQ)

D >- F~FC =
C3 k^ S3


I- C\1 2i

00 o wC<0 <>t-
i-4 (N (M

c cc) C) c) c] caa

8-^3 33 33k
-i-s -i>->



122 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 56, No. 2

except towards the end of the oviposition period. Then the egg masses are
irregular, smaller, and fewer eggs are laid in each mass. The males deposit their
fecula as small flecks scarcely 1/10th the size of those deposited by the
females. This difference was useful in separating the males from the females.
Characteristics of the pygidia may also be used. Mignot (1971) reported that
the first segment of the pro- and meso-tarsi are more developed in the male.
Young larvae are dark green, with black heads and thoracic legs. They are
naked, but, within a day or two, cover themselves with soft black fecula. The
feeding of the larvae is irregular, and they tend to skeletonize the leaves. The
adults eat large areas from the edges of the leaves. The larval period lasts
about 28 days. As the larvae mature, they become more elongate in form, and,
before entering the ground to pupate, they lose their fecular covering. When
mature larvae were placed on the soil they almost immediately penetrated to
form their cocoons. These are figured by Frost (1972). Pupation requires 15 to
30 days.
Adults were first noticed in the field on 5 December. At that time sumac
was in winter condition. Leaves were either red, dried, or absent. I surmise that
this first beetle was one of the last of the previous season's generation. Adults
were not common until mid-February. From then until the end of April adults
were abundant on sumac and Brazilian pepper. Many adults were active until
June and July. Adults generally rest on the upper leaf surface and are quite
conspicuous because of their bright shining colors. Like B. rhois, adults of B.
dorothea are jumpers and often escape capture. This species also has the habit
of feigning death. Males and females have relatively long periods of activity.
Females are very prolific, a single female laying approximately 900 eggs. The
length of life of the males and females and the number of eggs laid by the
females are presented in Table 1.


Blackwelder, R. E. 1946. Check list of the coleopterous insects of Mexico,
Central America, the West Indies, and South America. U.S. Nat. Mus.
Bull. 185(4):706.

Frost, S. W. 1972. Notes on Blepharida dorothea Mignot (Coleoptera,
Chrysomelidae). Entomol. News 83:45-47.

Mignot, E. C. 1971. Review of Blepharida Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae, Al-
ticinae) in America north of Mexico. Coleopt. Bull. 25(1):9-16.

The Florida Entomologist 56(2) 1973


University of Florida, Agricultural Research Center, Monticello, Florida


Dimethoate ULV gave excellent control of the twospotted spider mite,
Tetranychus urticae Koch, infesting peach trees. None of the acaricides tested
in 1972 gave good control of the twospotted spider mite when applied as 24X
concentrate. PlictranT" (Tricyclohexylhydroxytin) applied as a dilute spray
at 4 oz a.i./100 gal was the most effective acaricide tested, with GalecronT'
(N-(4-chloro-o-tolyl)-N,N-dimethyformamidine) at 8 oz a.i./100 gal, and
VydateT" (S-methyl 1-(dimethycarbamoyl)-N-[(Methylcarbamoyl) oxy]
thioformimidate) being nearly as effective as Plictran.

The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, has been a serious
pest of peach trees in central Florida since the early 1960's (G. Sweat. Personal
communication. 1972) Asquith (1970), Berry (1970), Hagel and Landis (1972),
Abid and Ridgeway (1969), and Cone (1968) reported results of experiments to
control the twospotted spider mite on various crops. During the year 1971, the
first outbreak of the twospotted spider mite was observed in a commercial
peach orchard in northern Florida.
It was noted that the mites began increasing to damaging levels during
June or July. The spider mite build up to damaging numbers relatively early in
the season requires control measures to be initiated as quickly as possible. The
long growing season in north Florida (March-November) requires that the
leaves be held on the trees until the first frost or freeze which usually occurs in
mid-November. With severe infestations of the twospotted spider mite, the
trees become defoliated resulting in loss of tree vigor and subsequent death of
the trees from secondary invaders.
Tests were begun in 1971 to determine the effectiveness of various
chemicals in controlling the twospotted spider mite. Chemical names of
materials tested without approved common names are:
PhosvelT 0-(2,5,dichloro-4-bromophenyl)0-methyl phenylthiophosphate
SupracideT" S-( (2-methoxy-5-oxo- L 2-1,3,4-thiadiazolin-4-yl) = methyl)
0,0-dimethyl phosphorodithioate
VydateT" S-methyl 1-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy]
PlictranT" Tricyclohexylhydroxytin
GalecronT' N'-(4-chloro-o-tolyl) = N,N-dimethylformamidine
Upjohn U-36,059 1,5-Di-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-3-methyl-1,3,5-Triazapen-

Results of the experiments conducted in 1971 and 1972 are reported herein.

'Acarina: Tetranychidae.
2Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4729.

The Florida Entomologist

In both experiments, the design used randomized single-tree plots,
replicated 10 times for each treatment.
Test 1 (1971) A SoloT"', Model 423, mistblower was used to spray ninety, 8
year old trees. Chemicals used were dimethoate ULV, methomyl 25% WP,
Supracide 2E, endosulfan 2M, dimethoate 2.67E, Phosvel 3 ULV, Phosvel
3EC, parathion 4EC, and carbofuran 4F. The chemicals were mixed at a 12X
concentration and applied at ca. 1 1 material/tree. Dimethoate ULV was
applied at the rate of 10 ml/tree and Phosvel 3 ULV at 2.4 ml/tree.
All trees in Test 1 had previously been sprayed with the same chemicals in
an earlier test for catfacing insect evaluation. All trees had been sprayed 5
times from 16 March until 25 May using the same rates as above. From 25 May
until 18 July, the trees did not receive any pesticide treatment. The samples to
determine the mite infestation were made by randomly taking 10 leaves from
each tree at each sampling date and checking each leaf for the number of live
Test 2 (1972) The effectiveness of 4 acaricides (Vydate, Plictran, U-36,059,
and Galecron) applied as a dilute spray and as a high concentrate spray (24X)
was evaluated in this test. The dilute sprays were applied with a John Bean
Speed Sprayer"', Model 577CP. The material was applied at the rate of 2
gal/tree or ca. 200 gal/acre. The concentrate sprays were applied with a
SoloT", Model 423, mistblower with each tree receiving 500 ml of mixed
material. The trees in this test had previously received sprays of parathion and
sulfur every 7 days at the dosage rate of 4 oz a.i. parathion +6 lb. sulfur/100
gal, with ca. 2 gal applied to each tree.

Mites/100 Leaves on Indicated Days

oz. a.i./ Pre-
Treatment 100 gal. treatment Post-treatment*

3 Days 7 Days 11 Days

Dimethoate ULV ** 0 Oa Oa Oa
Methomyl 25% WP 2 800 Oa 632ef 419de
Supracide 2E 4 750 Oa Oa 962f
Endosulfan TM 12 613 Oa Oa 75b
Dimethoate 2 67E 2.4 598 81b Oa 132bc
Phosvel 3 ULV f 621 94b 90b 268d
Phosvel 3EC 12 695 102b 581de 1450fg
Parathion 4EC 10 736 155b 476d 118bc
Carbofuran 8 822 580d 728ef 145bc
Check ft 787 169bc 253c 302d

*Numbers followed by the same letter are not considered significantly different at the 5%
level by Ducan's Multiple Range Test.
**10 ml/tree.
t2.4 ml/tree.
tt2 gal H20/tree.

Vol. 56, No. 2


Fluker: Twospotted Mite Control on Peaches

Test 1 The results of this test are shown in Table 1. Dimethoate ULV was
the most effective chemical. During the entire testing period, no mite infesta-
tion was found on any trees treated with dimethoate ULV. Parathion failed to
give satisfactory control of the mite even at double the recommended rate.
Dimethoate ULV, methomyl, endosulfan, and Supracide were significantly
more effective at 3 days post-treatment than parathion, dimethoate 2.67E,
Phosvel 3EC, and Phosvel 3 ULV. Carbofuran gave very little, if any, control
of the mites during this test.
At 7 days post-treatment, methomyl had lost its effectiveness, apparently
because of its short residual life. Dimethoate ULV, dimethoate 2.67E,
Supracide, and endosulfan continued to give significant control at 7 days
post-treatment. The slow control exerted by dimethoate 2.67E apparently was
because of its action as a systemic rather than a contact miticide.
At 11 days post-treatment, only dimethoate ULV gave absolute control of
the mites. Endosulfan gave good control at 11 days while all other treatments
were ineffective.
Test 2 The results of the tests conducted in 1972 are shown in Table 2. The
data indicate that dilute sprays were more effective in controlling the two-
spotted spider mite than 24X concentrate sprays. Galecron at 8 and 192 oz
a.i./100 gal showed the least difference at all days checked post-treatment. At
10 days post-treatment, Galecron at 8 and 192 oz was not significantly
different in controlling the mites. The mite infestation that occurred on the
trees treated with 24X Vydate was unusual because Vydate is considered a
variable translocated systemic insecticide. Apparently the action of Vydate
against mites on peach trees is contact and not systemic.
Although most dilute treatments showed significant control over the 24X


oz. a.i./ treat- Mites/100 Leaves on Indicated Days
Treatment 100 gal. ment Post-treatment

1 5 10 14 21
Day Days Days Days Days

Vydate 2E 8 4744 130 26 936 27 55
Vydate 2E 192** 4008 755 971 748 2083 1708
Plictran 50W 4 5312 10 3 12 5 1
Plictran 50W 96** 4420 735 400 195 243 1058
U-36,059 1.66E 3 5958 70 50 470 524 28
U-36,059 1.66E 72** 4681 451 1050 358 1273 2788
Galecron 4EC 8 3841 672 111 431* 74 10
Galecron 4EC 192** 4370 343 466 393* 1555 1031
Check 3899 3849 3842 3836 3863 5113

*Not significantly different by chi-square test.
**Concentrate sprays.


The Florida Entomologist

all of the chemicals tested provided significant control at the 5% confidence
level when compared to the check.
Only dimethoate ULV gave economic control of the twospotted spider
mite, of the chemicals tested at the high concentration. The limiting factor in
controlling the twospotted spider mite with high concentrate sprays seems to
be adequate coverage of the materials on the infested leaves. If the acaricide is
not a systemic poison, then it is necessary to assure complete coverage on both
sides of the leaves in order to insure reaching all the mites and bringing about
economic control.


Abid, M. K., and R. L. Ridgeway. 1969. Mortality, longevity, and fecundity of
spider mites on cotton treated with systemic acaricides. J. Econ. En-
tomol. 62:13-16.

Asquith, D. 1970. Codling moth, Red-banded leaf roller, apple aphid,
European red mite, and twospotted spider mite control on apple trees.
J. Econ. Entomol. 63:181-185.

Berry, R. E. 1970. Control of the twospotted spider mite on peppermint. J.
Econ. Entomol. 63:1708-1709.

Cone, W. A. 1968. Twospotted spider mite and hop aphid control on cluster
hops with acaricides. J. Econ. Entomol. 61:1685-1689.

Hagel, G. T., and B. J. Landis. 1972. Chemical control of the twospotted
spider mite on field beans. J. Econ. Entomol. 65:775-778.

The Florida Entomologist 56(2) 1973


Members needing audio-visual material to aid in giving talks on en-
tomology to students and organizations may borrow free a display of 72 color,
2 x 2 slides with a script. Write for reservations giving date and alternate date
to Secretary, Florida Entomological Society (i.e., Frank Mead), P. O. Box
12425, Gainesville, Florida 32601.

Vol. 56, No. 2



Caribbean Fruit Fly Research Laboratory, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA,
Miami, Fla. 33158

Random samples of fresh fallen or ripe-picked fruits in the lower Florida
keys were collected weekly and held to determine the presence of larvae of the
Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew). Of the 37 species of fruit
sampled during a 12-month period (1970-71), 20 were found infested. A total of
32,215 fruits produced 45,286 larvae. The 2 hosts that contributed most to the
fly population were Psidium guajava L. (mean of 165 larvae/kg) and Ter-
minalia catappa L. (90 larvae/kg). Eribotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl,
Eugenia uniflora L., and Achras zapota L. were the next most important

For 1 year prior to and including the early months of a sterile fly release
experiment on Key West, Fla. and adjacent islands in 1970 and 1971, we
sampled fruit-bearing vegetation to determine the number of larvae of the
Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew), in host fruits, the rates of
infestation, and the seasonal variation in infestations. Previous surveys by
Stone (1942) and a cooperative survey by the USDA, PPD, and Fla. Dep. of
Agr., Division of Plant Industry (1967) had listed infestations in field-occur-
ring and experimental plants, but no attempt was made to determine seasonal
variations in the population of this species within its natural hosts or the
capability of the specific hosts to support the insect.
During the period of our study, we took weekly samples of bearing plants
that were either known hosts or considered by us as potential hosts to deter-
mine whether they contained larvae of A. suspense and, if so, how many.
Because of the subtropical climate of the area, some of the species are capable
of producing fruit all year; other types fruit for only a short time. Thus some
fruits were collected in greater quantity and frequency than others.


Key West is an irregularly shaped island ca. 1 mile wide and 5 miles long.
Fruit collections were made on Key West, Stock Island, Racoon Key, and
Sigsbee Park. Since there are no commercial fruit plantings on these islands,
we made all collections from "dooryard", ornamental, or shade-type vegeta-
tion. A sample was taken at random from ripe fruit on the plant or on the
ground or from both.
The number of fruit in a sample was limited by the number of fruit
available, by the size of the holding tray, and by the need to avoid a depth of
more than 2 fruit. Hence, collections could range from 3 or 4 papaya to several

'Diptera: Tephritidae.
2Received for publication 8 Nov. 1972.
3Florida State Dep. of Agr., Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL.

128 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 56, No. 2

hundred governor's plums. We did not attempt to dissect or to hold fruit
individually since our previous examinations of individual fruit showed that
uninfested and heavily infested fruits occur on the same trees; thus, large
numbers are required to obtain reliable estimates of infestations.
The containers used to hold the fruit were fiberglass boxes (45 x 30 x 15 cm)
with lids. Three 6-cm holes were bored in opposing sides of the boxes to provide
ventilation; these were covered with a 32-mesh SaranT' screening. The fruit
was held 5 cm above the base of the box on a 1/4-in. mesh hardware-cloth
platform. The bottom of the box was covered to a depth of 1 cm with sand
sieved to a 12-mesh screen size. Emerging larvae dropped from the fruit
through the hardware cloth onto the sand. There, the larvae pupated on or in
the sand. Once a week, the sand was removed from the box and washed
through a 12-mesh sieve (the pupae and larvae were retained by the sieve).
Clean sand was added to the box, and the fruit replaced. The fruit samples
were discarded after 2 successive negative sievings, after the fruit became too
liquified or too dry (in our opinion) to produce more larvae, or after
examination of each fruit revealed no larvae.
The pupae and larvae collected in the sieve were counted, placed in plastic
vials (3 x 5 cm) containing damp vermiculite, and covered with a cheesecloth
lid. The vials were retained until adult eclosion was complete. Then the
species were verified, and the sex was recorded.


Thirty-seven species of fruit-bearing plants were examined for A. suspense
infestation. Of these, 20 species were found to support immature stages of the
fruit fly. A total of 32, 215 fruits, weighing 563 kg, yielded 45,286 A. suspense
larvae. Those hosts which supported a mean infestation of more than 15
larvae/kg fruit are listed in Table 1. There were another 10 minor hosts of
infrequent and low infestation. These were egg fruit, Pouteria campechiana
(HBK) Baehni; natal plum, Carissa grandiflora (E. Mufr.) A. DC.; peach,
Prunus persica L. (Batsch); cocoa plum, Chrysobalanus icaco L.; satin leaf,
Chrysophyllum oliviforme L.; lime, Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle;
mango, Mangifera indica L.; sea grape, Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L.; date palm,
Phoenix dactylifera L., and sugar apple, Annona squamosa L.
The fruit-bearing plants sampled but negative for fruit fly infestation
were: Annona reticulata L., Bourreria revoluta (HBK) O. E. Schulz, Cap-
sicum frutescens L., var. grossum Sendt., Carica papaya L., Cestrum noctur-
num L., Citrus aurantium L., Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Cordia lutea Lam.,
Cordia sebestena L., Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce, Ficus lyrata Warb., Ficus
glomerata Roxb., Ixora coccinea L., Mimusops emarginata (L.) Britt.,
Muntingia calabura L., Ochrosia eliptica Labill., and Triphasia trifolia
(Burm. f.) P. Wils.
Because guava produced fruit year-round and tropical almond had fruit
most of the year, it is difficult to see any movement of the fly population from
host to host as fruiting ends in one host and begins in another. The main
population is apparently maintained in guava and tropical almond, and the
infestation of other fruits occurs as they become available. Two other host
fruits, sapodilla and calamondin, appear to be available often enough to allow
a year-round population of A. suspense to exist even if guava and tropical
almond were not present. Both loquat and surinam cherry are heavily infested

vonWindeguth et al.: Anastrepha suspense Infestations 129


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The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 56, No. 2



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vonWindeguth et al.: Anastrepha suspense Infestations 131

when fruit is present, but both have a moderately short fruiting season in Key
West. The infestation in the remaining fruits listed in Table 1 is apparently
highly variable.


Stone, A. 1942. The fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha. USDA Misc. Publ. 439,
112 p.

Florida Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry. 1967. Fruit fly
detection memorandum No. 1.

The Florida Entomologist 56(2) 1973


A limited number of copies .of Fishing with Natural Insects by Alvah
Peterson are still available. Price $6.00 each. Send order to The Florida En-
tomological Society, P. 0. Box 12425, University Station, Gainesville, Florida



Systematic Entomology Laboratory,
Agricultural Research Service, USDA'


The genus Axiologina is characterized, data concerning the type-species
Axiologina ferrumequinum Hendel are brought together, including new
records from South and Central America as well as North America (Florida),
and a new species A. aitkeni is described from Pard, Brazil.

The discovery of the neotropical Axiologina ferrumequinum Hendel in
considerable numbers in Florida, as well as an undescribed additional
Brazilian species of this hitherto monotypical genus, prompts this review of
our knowledge of the genus.
Hendel (1909a:268) described the genus as "Axiologina (n. g.) ferrum-
equinum n. sp.," a formula no longer permitted under the present rules of
nomenclature, which also now require removal of the hyphen in the species
name. The genus was at that time declared to be sufficiently characterized by
its peculiar wing venation, and Hendel (1910:10, 43, Fig. 76-79) soon keyed the
genus, gave an extended description, and figured the head, tip of female
abdomen, and wing of the type-species.
Axiologina was separated from many other genera in Hendel's key by the
position of the anterior crossvein (ta or r-m) over the basal one-sixth of the
discal cell. The genus is similar to Euxesta and Pareuxesta (of which latter
Ulivellia may be a synonym). The following combination of characters will
distinguish Axiologina from all other Ulidiinae: antennae not lying at rest in
margined facial grooves; 3rd antennal segment not over 3 times as long as
wide, rounded apically; facial profile concave; front not pitted nor wrinkled,
rather evenly covered with coarse setae; head higher than long; anal cell of
wing well developed, with acute extension; anal vein extending to wing mar-
gin; vein r, without setae, but covered with fine, short, procumbent hairs;
costa evenly arcuate; vein r-m basad of basal one-third of discal cell; 2nd vein
(r, ,) curved upward to apical dark brown mark and then bending rather
sharply apicad and running close to costa; wing with 4 blackish crossbands,
median 2 of which are conjoined along costa and form a U-shaped mark;
humeral bristle strong; ovipositor slender.

Axiologina ferrumequinum Hendel
(Fig. 1)

The characteristic wing pattern (Fig. 1) will easily distinguish A.
ferrumequinum. The types consist of 9, Peru (Meshagua; November,
December), Koll. Schnuse, und Brasilien, Exped. Wettstein." A male
specimen from Brazil labeled "Young, Iguape / Bras. Exped. Wettstein '91 /
Axiologina ferrum equinum det. Hendel" has been located in the Naturhis-
LMail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560.

Steyskal: The Genus Axiologina

Fig. 1 and 2. Wings of Axiologina species: 1) A. ferrumequinum Hendel; 2)
A. aitkeni n. sp., paratype.

torisches Museum Wien by Dr. A. Kaltenbach and labeled lectotype at my
request. The only other published record of the species is by Curran (1934:428)
of a male specimen from Kartabo, Guyana, 30 October 1920.
Specimens are in the U. S. National Museum collection from PANAMA:
Ancon, Canal Zone, 25 September 1922 (J. Zetek), no. Z-1758; Ancon, 20-24
April 1926 (C. T. Greene); El Cermeno, Dec., 1939 Jan., 1940 (J. Zetek), in fly
trap; Fort Kobbe, Camaron, Canal Zone, 23 June 1952 (F. S. Blanton); COS-
TA RICA: Higuito, San Mateo (Pablo Schild); GUATEMALA: Quirigua, 8
May 1926 (J. M. Aldrich); MEXICO: Colonia 23 de Marzo, Union Juarez,
Chiapas, 11 July 1972 (H. Sdnchez R.); and BOLIVIA: Rurrenabaque, Beni,
1921-1922, Mulford Biol. Exped. (Wm. M. Mann). The number with the
specimens collected at Ancon by Zetek refers to a card in a file in USNM; on
that card is "Z-1758 Axiologinaferrum-equinum Hendel. Det. JMA November
25, 1922. Diptera in trunk of Phoenix datilifera (sic, = dactylifera). Ancon, C.
Z. September 25, 1922. This date palm was inoculated with red-ring disease
nematodes. The palm was practically dead this date. It was dissected and the
interior was found to be well rotted, the tough bundle fibres were loose. Within
this dark brown mass we found a large number of dipterous larvae (jumping
habit pronounced). These were reared to adult stage." The Mexican specimen
was taken in a Steiner trap in an orange tree.
I am indebted to Howard V. Weems, Jr., for bringing to my attention 170
specimens of A. ferrumequinum mostly captured in Florida in McPhail traps


The Florida Entomologist

hung in several kinds of trees: various kinds of citrus, tropical almond (Ter-
minalia catappa), mango, rose-apple (Eugenia jambos), sapodilla
(Manilkara zapota), seagrape (Coccoloba uvifera), surinam cherry (Eugenia
uniflora). Among the number is also a series collected 12 November 1971 and
reared to adults between 16 November 1971 and 7 January 1972 from rotting
inflorescence of a coconut palm dying from lethal yellows disease at Miami
Beach (G. H. Gwin). The trapped material was taken in several places in Dade
County (Hialeah, Miami, Miami Beach, Miami Bay Front Park, Miami
Springs, Virginia Gardens) between 5 October 1971 and 10 January 1972. The
material is in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, with the
exception of a few retained in the U. S. National Museum.

Axiologina aitkeni Steyskal, new species
(Fig. 2)

Female. Length of wing 2.5 mm. Very similar to A. ferrumequinum, but
differing as follows: mesoscutum, scutellum, and dorsum of abdomen nearly
glossy rather than decidedly dull with minute rugulosity; size perhaps smaller
(wing of A. ferrumequinum 2.5 3.0 mm long); intradorsocentral rows of
setulae 4 (rather than 8); halter with white capitulum (rather than blackish);
wing as in Fig. 2, more regularly elliptical, arms of U-mark less curved,
apicocostal band ending bluntly basally and expanded apically, extension of
anal cell shorter, anterior crossvein farther from base of discal cell.
Holotype and one paratype, females, Belem, Para, Brazil, October 1969,
light trap (T. H. G. Aitken), no. 72113 in USNM.
Euxesta insolita Hendel (1909b:168), from Vilcanota, Peru, may also
belong in Axiologina, but the wing as figured by Hendel (1910:pl. 2, Fig. 41),
does not have vein r, ,bent near tip, crossvein r-m is at basal one-third of discal
cell, and the median wing bands are scarcely U-shaped, inasmuch as the band
passing through im is a little bent in a reverse direction to that in the
Axiologina species. There is still the possibility that Axiologina may ulti-
mately prove to be no more than a subgenus of Euxesta, but for the present
the concept is at least easily recognizable.
The assistance provided by Arthur D. Cushman in drawing the figures of
the wings is gratefully acknowledged.


Curran, C. H. 1934. The Diptera of Kartabo, Bartica District, British Guiana.
Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 66:287-532.
Hendel, F. 1909a. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Ulidiinen (Dipt.). Wien Entomol.
Ztg. 28:247-270.
Hendel, F. 1909b. Ueber die Gattung Euxesta Loew (Dipt.). Ann. Mus. Natl.
Hung. 7:151-172.
Hendel, F. 1910. Diptera, Fam. Muscaridae, Subfam. Ulidiinae. In P. Wyts-
man: Genera Insectorum, fasc. 106:1-76, pls. 1-4.

The Florida Entomologist 56(2) 1973


Vol. 56, No. 2


11335 N.W. 59th Ave., Hialeah, Fla. 33012


Aristida gyrans Chapman is a host plant for many insects and their
associates in south Florida. A mealybug, Antonina nortoni P. and C. is com-
monly found on the bases of stems of this plant. A chloropid, Chlorops sp. nr.
melleus Loew and a cecidomyiid, Chilophaga gyrantis Gagn6, each produce
stem galls. A spore feeding thrips, Rhaebothrips lativentris Karny is a new
continental United States record. A stem infesting scolytid, Hypothenemus
sp., was reared. Two platygasterids, Platygaster sp. and Platygaster lon-
giventris (Ashm.) and a encyritid, Meromyzobia sp., were reared from the
midge C. gyrantis. Eurytoma sp. and a possible new genus of Eurytomidae
were reared parasites of Chlorops sp. nr. melleus.

Literature sources concerning the insect associates of the corkscrew 3-awn,
Aristida gyrans Chapman, are very scanty. My observations on the insect
complex of this plant are fragmentary as most of my collections were made in
the fall and spring seasons at which time the plant was not actively growing. I
suggest that a more intensive study of the insect associates of all parts of the
plant be conducted in all areas to obtain a more comprehensive understanding
of its role as a host plant. The basic purpose of this paper is to report on the
insect associates of this plant since my studies began in October 1967.
Small (1933) gave a detailed description of the corkscrew 3-awn and stated
that there are about 150 species of Aristida growing in the warmer areas of the
world. He reported that the common names for these grasses as follows:
needle-grasses, poverty-grasses, and wire-grasses. Small listed 20 species of
this genus from southeastern United States and he stated that of these 20, 16
are known to occur in Florida. Aristida gyrans grows in the pinelands and
coastal plains of Florida and Georgia.
I am indebted to the following individuals for contributing their services to
make this paper possible: Dr. D. B. Ward (The Herbarium, Univ. of Fla.) for
the determination of this grass; S. Nakahara (systematic entomologist,
Animal and Plant Health Service) and R. J. Gagn6 (systematic entomologist,
USNM) for the critical review of this manuscript and for determinations of
insects. I also wish to thank D. L. Wray for determinations of the Collembola;
E. L. Mockford for the Psocoptera; D. R. Miller for Pseudococcidae; R. E.
White and D. M. Anderson for Coleoptera; D. R. Smith, B. D. Burks, and P.
M. Marsh for Hymenoptera; K. O'Neill for Thysanoptera; E. W. Baker and R.
L. Smiley for Acarina; and G. W. Dekle for literature.

'Contribution No. 238, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Fla.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,

The Florida Entomologist

Drepanocyrtus sp., det. D. L. Wray, Miami, Fla., 2 Feb. 1971. A single
specimen was found associated with the mealybug, Antonina nortoni Parrott
and Cockerell. Other specimens were seen but not collected. Deposited in the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
Caecillus antillanus Bank, det. E. L. Mockford, Miami, Fla., 14 Dec. 1970.
A single specimen was submitted for determination; however, other psocids
were seen commonly associated with the corkscrew 3-awn in my rearing
Karnyothrips melaleucus (Bagnall), det. S. Nakahara, Miami, Fla., 14
Nov. 1970. This is a predaceous species and it is cosmopolitan. Retained for the
U. S. National Collection.
Nesothrips sp., det. S. Nakahara, Miami, Fla., 8 Oct. 1970. A single
specimen was found in a rearing container.
Rhaebothrips lativentris Karny, det. S. Nakahara and K. O'Neill, Miami,
Fla., 14 Jan. 1971. This species was found in a rearing container on 20 Jan.
1971. I swept 21 other specimens from unknown grasses on 24 Jan. 1971, det. S.
Nakahara and K. O'Neill, at Miami, Fla. Nakahara (personal communication,
20 Apr. 1971) reported that the collection was a first continental United States
record. The species occurs in Java, Australia, Formosa, Oceania, Guam, Wake
Island, and Hawaii. A check of some incompletely determined slides in the
Collection revealed that the species has been taken at quarantine from the
Bahamas, Cuba, and Dominican Republic. Nakahara stated that Medina
Gaud, in his "Thysanoptera of Puerto Rico", listed a Rhaebothrips sp., which
Stannard determined as probably R. lativentris. Sakimura (1971) recorded the
species from Jamaica, Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. He recorded the species
from Mauritius, Java, Phillippines, Formosa, southern Japan, Guam, Yap,
Ponape, Solomon Islands, northern Queensland, and Hawaii. The entire
collection of R. lativentris was retained for the U. S. National Collection.

Antonina nortoni Parrott and Cockerell, det. S. Nakahara and D. R.
Miller, Miami, Fla., 14 Jan. 1971. About 50 females and 8 males were collected
from the bases of the stems of the corkscrew 3-awn. I have observed common
infestations from January through May 1971. All specimens were retained for
the U. S. National Collection. Merril (1953) reported the species from grasses,
Sorrento, Fla. The infestations were at the bases of the stems. Further infor-
mation on A. nortoni was reported by Afifi and Kosztarb (1967), Ferris (1953),
McKenzie (1967), and Riherd (1954). Fig. 1. illustrates the mealybug infesta-
tions at the bases of the stems ofA. gyrans.

Possibly Ormiscus sp., det. R. E. White, Miami, Fla., 8 Oct. 1970. A single

Vol. 56, No. 2


Stegmaier: Insects of Aristida gyrans

specimen was collected from one of my rearing containers. The specimen was
retained for the U. S. National Collection.
Hypothenemus sp., det. D. M. Anderson, Miami, Fla., 8 Oct. 1970. Two
reared adults; 14 Jan. 1971, 3 reared adults, they emerged as adults on 22 Jan.
1971; 20 Jan. 1971, a single scolytid was reared. The 6 scolytids infest the stems
of A. gyrans as immatures. Retained for the U. S. National Collection.

Calamomyia sp., det. R. J. Gagn6, Miami, Fla., 18 Dec. 1970. A single adult
was reared. Retained for the U. S. National Collection.
Chilophaga gyrantis Gagn6, Gagne and Stegmaier (1971). Six newly
formed galls were found at Miami, Fla., 28 May 1972. Fig. 2 and 3 illustrate
variations of the galls formed by C. gyrantis.
Chlorops sp. nr. melleus Loew. Stegmaier (1971). This species forms a gall
on the stems of A. gyrans. No infestations of this species were found 28 May

Meromyzobia sp., det. B. D. Burks, Miami, Fla., Gagn6 and Stegmaier
(1971). This species is a parasite of C. gyrantis. It was reared in numbers only
Possibly new genus. Stegmaier (1971). The host insect is Chlorops sp. near
melleus Loew.
Eurytoma sp. Stegmaier (1971). The species was reared from Chlorops sp.
nr. melleus Loew.
Brachymyrmex obscurior Forel, det. D. R. Smith, Miami, Fla., 14 Jan.
1971. A single worker was found tending the mealybug, A. nortoni near the
root system. Retained for the U. S. National Collection.
Gonatocerus sp., det. B. D. Burks, Miami, Fla., 8 Oct. 1970. A single female
was reared from an unknown host. Deposited in the Florida State Collection
of Arthropods.
Platygaster longiventris (Ashm.), Gagnd and Stegmaier (1971). This is a
parasite of the midge, C. gyrantis. Muesebeck et al. (1951) reported a single
female from Jacksonville, Fla., without host data.
Platygaster sp., det. P. M. Marsh, Miami, Fla., 14 Jan. 1971, 3 reared
adults; 2 Feb. 1971, 3 reared adults; 3 Feb. 1971, 20 reared adults. The insect
host is C. gyrantis. Twenty-four specimens were retained for the U. S. Na-
tional Collections.

Kleemania sp., det. R. L. Smiley, Miami, Fla., 3 Feb. 1971. A single

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 56, No. 2


- li

'' :



Stegmaier: Insects of Aristida gyrans 139

specimen was collected from inside a stem gall of C. gyrantis. The specimen
was retained for the U. S. National Collection.
Bdella sp., det. E. W. Baker, Miami, Fla., 20 Jan. 1971. A single specimen
was collected in a damaged condition and discarded.
Penthaleus sp., det. R. L. Smiley, Miami, Fla., 14 Jan. 1971. This species
was found associated with the mealybug, A. nortoni, on the root system of A.
Afifi, S., andM. Kosztarab. 1967. Studies on the morphology and taxonomy of
the males of Antonina and one related genus (Homoptera: Coccidea,
Pseudococcidae). Va. Polytech. Inst. Res. Div. Bull. 15. 43 p.

Ferris, G. F. 1953. Atlas of the scale insects of North America. Series VI. The
Pseudococcidae (Part 2). 506 p.

Gagn6, R. J., and C. E. Stegmaier, Jr. 1971. A new species of Chilophaga
(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Aristida (Gramineae) in Florida. Fla.
Entomol. 54:335-338.

McKenzie, H. L. 1967. Mealybugs of California. Univ. Calif. Press. Berkeley
and Los Angeles. 525 p.

Merrill, G. B. 1953. A revision of the scale insects of Florida. State Plant Board
of Florida. Bull. No. 1. 143 p.

Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein, and H. K. Townes. 1951. Hymenoptera
of America North of Mexico. Synoptic Catalog. USDA Monogr. No. 2.
1520 p.

Riherd, P. T. 1954. A morphological difference between the nymphs of An-
tonina graminis (Mask.) and Antonina parrotti (Ckl.) and Antonina
nortoni Parr. (Coccidae: Homoptera). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer.

Sakimura, K. 1971. Review of the genus Rhaebothrips Karny. Pac. Ins. 13

Small, J. K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Chapel Hill. North
Carolina Press. 1554 p.

Stegmaier, Carl E., Jr. 1971. A grass-infesting fly, Chlorops n. sp. (Diptera:
Chloropidae) and its parasite, Eurytoma n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eury-
tomidae) in south Florida. Fla. Entomol. 54:237-239.

The Florida Entomologist 56(2) 1973

Fig. 1-3, insect infestations on Aristida gyrans: (1) The mealybug, An-
tonina nortoni, on the bases of the stems of Aristida gyrans. A single
mealybug, far right, became detached from the base-of the stem; (2) Stem gall
variations of the cecidomyiid, Chilophaga gyrantis, on the stems of the
corkscrew 3-awn, Aristida gyrans; (3) More variations of the stem galls of C.
gyrantis on Aristida gyrans.

A- ,.


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Toxic baits of 319 chemicals were evaluated in the laboratory to determine
their effectiveness in controlling the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta
Buren. No chemical was consistently as effective as mirex for the control of
the imported fire ant, although 3 compounds showed some promise when
cold-aged before testing.

Recent restrictions on the agricultural application of mirex bait for the
control of the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Ruckelshaus 1972)
have stimulated an extensive research program in laboratory and field
evaluations of candidate chemicals to replace mirex.
Three hundred thirty-four chemicals were screened in the laboratory by
Lofgren, et al. (1967). Their results indicated that no toxic bait was as effective
as mirex for controlling the imported fire ant. Wojcik et al. (1972) have
continued this screening program and have evaluated 590 bait toxicants. Their
results also indicated that no chemical was as effective as mirex for fire ant
Since the imported fire ant is considered to be an agricultural as well as
public health problem (Metcalf et al. 1962) a continuing program for
evaluating additional candidate toxic baits in the laboratory has been es-


A portion of a colony containing mixed castes of the imported fire ant was
collected from the Gainesville, Fla. area and maintained in large metal cans in
the Insects Affecting Man and Animals Research Laboratory, USDA, from
48-72 hr before a test. This enabled the ants to adapt to the changes in
temperature, humidity, and light.
Before a series of chemicals could be evaluated, 150-200 test chambers4 for
holding the ants and toxicants had to be prepared. This procedure was
modified from Lofgren, et al. (1967). A 1/8 1/4 inch hole was drilled in the
base of each plastic 1 oz medicine cup. These cups were 1 1/2 in. high and 1 1/2
and 1 1/4 inches in diameter for the top and bottom respectively. The
chambers were then filled to a level of 1/8 in. with a 9 to 1 plaster of paris-
cement mixture.

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4767.
2Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida,
3Insects Affecting Man and Animals Research Laboratory, USDA,
Gainesville, Florida 32601.
4Dixie CupTM, American Can Co., Greenwich, Conn. 5000 No. P01-06.

The Florida Entomologist

Toxic baits were evaluated on mixed groups of major and minor workers in
the laboratory. These ants were removed from the field collected colony with
wooden tongue depressors and placed in groups of 20 into the disposable test
chambers which were ringed with talc to prevent the ants from escaping. Each
chamber was then covered with a cardboard disc, labelled with a chemical
identification number, and placed in a tray on a layer of moistened peat moss.
The small hole drilled in the bottom of each plastic chamber allowed sufficient
moisture to be absorbed into the plaster-cement mixture to maintain the ants.
The ants were maintained in the test chambers for 24 hr without food to
assure acceptance of the toxicants as well as allow them to adapt to their new
environment. Dead ants were replaced before addition of the toxicants.
Candidate toxicants were selected by item number from USDA Agricul-
tural Handbook No. 340 (1967). Fifteen to thirty of these chemicals were
tested weekly using 2 replicates in a soybean oil bait at initial concentrations
of 1.0, 0.1 and 0.01%. A total of 319 compounds was tested. Chemicals that were
insoluble in soybean oil were treated with heat, acetone, and/or tap water.
The acetone and water were evaporated before testing. One percent
monoglycerides of lard were added to hold several toxicants in suspension.
Equal volumes of a chemical at each concentration were pipetted into
cotton-stuffed vial caps or applied to the cotton tip of 6 in. swab sticks.s The
swab sticks were dipped into each concentration, broken off at the cotton tip,
and placed into each test chamber in a vial cap. The latter procedure was
found to reduce many problems.
Worker ants were allowed to feed on the candidate toxicant for 24 hr. The
vial caps containing the toxicants were then removed and an interim period of
24 hr was allowed before providing pure soybean oil food for the duration of
the experiment. Eight mortality counts were made at 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10, 13, and 14
days after exposure to the chemicals. All chemicals that caused complete
mortality at the 0.01% level were further tested at the 0.001%, 0.0001%, or
0.00001% level to determine the lowest concentration for complete kill.
Fifteen to 30 soybean oil controls and 1-2 mirex standards were used to test
the adequacy of each experiment. If control mortality for a test was greater
than 20% or if the mortality of the mirex standard was significantly below
Class V (Lofgren et al. 1967) the experiment was terminated and repeated the
following week. The effectiveness of the chemicals was evaluated against
mirex (Class V) according to previously established criteria, and the chemicals
were categorized into mortality classes based on the percent mortality during
the 14 day experiment.
Bait toxicants were classified by the following system (Lofgren et al. 1967).
Delayed toxicity was defined as less than 15% mortality after 24 hr and more
than 89% mortality at the end of the test period.
Class I.-Compounds that gave insufficient kill at the preliminary test con-
centrations (less than 90% kill at the end of the test period).
Ia-Maximum kill 0 to 29%.
Ib-Maximum kill 30 to 59%.
Ic-Maximum kill 60 to 89%.
Class II.-Compounds that killed too fast at the higher concentrations but
gave insufficient kill at the lower concentrations; that is, 15% or more kill after

5Johnson'sT" Cotton Buds, No. 8762BH, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Vol. 56, No. 2


Levy et al.: Bait Toxicants for Imported Fire Ant 143

24 hrs and 90 to 100% at the end of the test period at the higher concentrations
but less than 90% kill with the lower concentrations at the end of the test

IIa-Produced fast kill at 1.0%.
IIb-Produced fast kill at 0.1 and 1.0%.
IIc-Produced fast kill at 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0%.
Class III.-Compounds that show delayed action over a onefold to ninefold
dosage range.
IIIa-Delayed action occurred between 0.25 to 1%.
IIIb-Delayed action occurred between 0.025 to 0.1%.
IIIc-Delayed action occurred between 0.0025 to 0.01%.
Class IV.-Compounds that show delayed action over a tenfold to ninety-
ninefold dosage range.
Class V.-Compounds that show delayed action over a hundredfold or greater
dosage range.
Room temperature was monitored and ranged from 75-800F. Room
humidity was also monitored but did not indicate the humidity within the test


Results indicated that no chemical bait was consistently as effective as
mirex for fire ant control (Table 1), although compound ENT-27916, seemed
to show ant mortality comparable to mirex when aged for several weeks in a
refrigerator before testing. Two other toxicants, compounds 6063 and 7215
(Fervenulin), also seemed to show delayed mortality against the imported fire
ant when cold-aged but were not as effective as mirex (5008) or ENT-27916 in
repeated tests.
Preliminary results indicated that these 3 compounds were unstable but
promising for fire ant control under laboratory conditions. However, the
possibility exists for aging the chemicals to obtain the necessary delayed
action before field application. Only compounds ENT-27916 and 7215 were
available in sufficient quantity for field testing and are presently being
evaluated against the imported fire ant in large field plots in Plant City,
It must be understood that the percent mortality indicated by a class is not
absolute but may be subject to variations due to the differences in diet and
general "health" of the ants within a colony. For example, hungry field
collected ants were observed to accept a greater amount of toxicant in a
shorter time period than ants from a sufficiently fed colony. Therefore, this
could affect delayed mortality and the subsequent mortality class assigned to
a chemical at the end of a 14 day test.


The authors wish to gratefully acknowledge the'following personnel from
the Insects Affecting Man and Animals Research Laboratory, USDA for their
technical assistance throughout the screening program: D. M. Hicks, J. K.

The Florida Entomologist

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The Florida Entomologist

Plumley, and D. P. Wojcik. Special thanks are extended to D. P. Wojcik for
the time he spent selecting and ordering the chemicals used in the tests. This
research was supported by Cooperative Agreement Grant No. 12-14-100-10,
951(33) entitled Toxicants For Control Of Imported Fire Ants.
Lofgren, C. S., C. E. Stringer, W. A. Banks, and P. M. Bishop. 1967. Labora-
tory tests with candidate bait toxicants against the imported fire ant.
ARS 81-14. 25 p.
Metcalf, C. L., W. P. Flint, and R. L. Metcalf. 1962. Destructive and useful
insects, 4th ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. p. 896.
Ruckelshaus, W. D. 1972. Products containing mirex; determination and
order. Federal Register 37(130):13299-13300.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1967. Hand-
book No. 340. Materials evaluated as insecticides, repellents, and
chemosterilants at Orlando and Gainesville, Fla., 1962-1964. Washing-
ton, D. C. 424 p.
Wojcik, D. P., W. A. Banks, J. K. Plumley, and C. S. Lofgren. 1972. Results of
laboratory tests with additional candidate bait toxicants against the
imported fire ant. USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Special
Report 72-03W. 43 p.
The Florida Entomologist 56(2) 1973



Carefully Executed Delivered on Time




Vol. 56, No. 2


Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi


Aluminum phosphide (PhostoxinT") was tested against Eriophyes man-
giferae Sayed which is associated with the malformation disease of mango.
The disease is common in mango orchards all over the world. Complete
control of the mites resulted when malformed shoots and mango saplings
containing E. mangiferae were exposed to 2 pellets of aluminum phosphide
(1.8 mg phosphine/litre) for 72 hr inside an iron bin. Predatory mites including
Cheletogenes ornatus (Canestrini and Fanzago), however, also were killed.

Mango malformation is common in most mango orchards of the world. The
disease affects adversely both the vegetative and floral parts. In case of severe
malformation the fruit setting is extremely poor. Mango is grown in about 70%
of the total area under fruit crops in India. The tremendous loss incurred by
the mango industry due to this disease can not be over-emphasized. Hydrogen
phosphide has been recommended for the control of numerous pests of storage
by various workers (Lindgren et al. 1958, and Sinha et al. 1967). Present
investigations were undertaken to find the efficacy of this fumigant against
Eriophyes mangiferae Sayed which is associated with the mango malforma-
tion disease (Narasimhan 1954, Puttarudriah and Channa Basavanna 1961,
Nariani ar:d Seth 1962, Yadava 1969).


Six 3-year old mango saplings growing in moist soil in the Division of
Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, were treat-
ed. Five malformed shoots containing the mites were taken from a mango tree
and stuck into the soil close to each sapling. An aluminum phosphide pellet
(0.6 g) enclosed in muslin cloth was tied to the sapling. A maximum-minimum
thermometer was then placed at the base of the plant. A galvanized iron sheet
bin (56 cm diam, 90 cm height, and 2211 capacity) was inverted over the
sapling and the bin's edges were carefully sealed by mud. Saplings and shoots
were exposed to 2 different doses of aluminum phosphide for 24, 48, and 72 hr.
For each period of exposure, 3 replications were made. These tests were con-
ducted during October 1969 to January 1970.


The mortality figures presented in Table 1 are the averages of the 3
replications for each exposure period under the 2 treatment conditions. Ex-
posure to 1 pellet of aluminum phosphide even up to 96 hr gave only about 91%

'Present Address: Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin,
Madison, Wisconsin (U.S.A.).

The Florida Entomologist

Percent mortality (Aver. of 3 replications)

In closed
In open axillary
Hours axillary buds (with In
of buds (with compact terminal Average %
Dosage exposure loose scales) scales) buds mortality

0.9mg/1 24 86.7 77.3 73.5 79.1
(1 pellet) 48 88.4 85.8 88.9 87.7
72 89.8 87.4 95.6 90.9

1.8mg/1 24 91.8 91.5 94.9 92.7
(2 pellets) 48 99.8 99.9 98.8 99.5
72 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

mortality of mites. When the dosage was increased to 2 pellets, 100% control
was achieved after 72 hr exposure. At low dosage the mortality in compact
buds was less than in open buds. But the compactness of buds had no effect on
the mortality of the mites when the dosage was doubled. Unlike hydrogen
cyanide (Pradhan et al. 1962), phosphine did not produce any phytotoxic
effect on the mango saplings.
Total control of E. mangifera was achieved when mango saplings and
malformed shoots were exposed to 2 phostoxin pellets for 72 hrs. The preda-
tory mite Cheletogenes ornatus (Canestrini and Fanzago), however, also was
killed by this treatment. Since E. mangiferae has been reported as one of the
causative agents for the malformation disease by several workers, the results
of this study have obvious economic implications. Phostoxin fumigation
shows much promise in control.

Lindgren, D. L., L. E. Vincent and R. G. Strong. 1958. Studies on hydrogen
phosphide as a fumigant. J. Econ. Entomol. 51: 900-903.
Narasimhan, M. J. 1954. Malformation of panicles in mango incited by a
species of Eriophyes. Curr. Sci. 23:297-298.
Nariani, T. K. and M. L. Seth. 1962. Role of eriophyid mites causing malfor-
mation disease in mango. Indian Phytopath. 15:231-234.
Pradhan, S., H. J. Bhambhani, and S. R. Wadhi. 1962. Tolerance of mango
saplings to insecticidal applications. Indian J. Hort. 19:162-167.
Puttarudriah, M., and G. P. ChannaBasavanna. 1961. Mango bunchy top
and the eriophyid mite. Curr. Sci. 30:114-115.
Sinha, R. N., B. Berk, and H. A. Wallace. 1967. Effect of phosphine on mites,
insects and microorganisms. J. Econ. Entomol. 60:125-132.
Yadava, T. D. 1969. Role of mango bud mite, Aceria mangiferae Sayed in
mango malformation. Symp. Mango & Mango Culture, Delhi, Abs., p.

The Florida Entomologist 56(2) 1973


Vol. 56, No. 2

` %' 1'

Photograph by Frank W. Mead at Gainesville, Florida, 1967.


Alvah Peterson, age 83, an honorary member of The Florida En-
tomological Society (conferred in 1964) was born at Galesburg, Illinois, on
September 13, 1888. He died unexpectedly on September 11, 1972, at Univer-
sity Hospital in Columbus, Ohio. Dr. Peterson was cremated, and a memorial
service was held at First Congregational Church, Columbus, Ohio, on Sep-
tember 15, 1972.
I~|f .Al,,uu I I = C w |
!lpi, r 1 [IF =ku6uf ll i i risl r
Phtgahb rn .Ma t ansilFoia 97

The Florida Entomologist

Dr. Peterson received his B.S. in 1911 from Knox College; his M.S. and
Ph.D. were obtained in 1913 and 1916 from the University of Illinois. From
1916-1925 he was an Associate Professor in the Department of Entomology,
Rutgers University. He served as a Senior Entomologist in Fruit Insect
Investigations, Bureau of Entomology, USDA, from 1925-1928. His 30 years
service as an Entomology Professor at Ohio State University extended from
1928 to 1958. Upon retirement he was made an Emeritus Professor, and he
shared offices on the third floor of the Botany & Zoology Building with
Emeritus Professors D. M. DeLong and J. N. Knull. In 1970 Ohio State
awarded Dr. Peterson an honorary doctoral degree. He served as consultant or
visiting professor at the Universities of Arizona, Florida, Michigan State,
Minnesota, and Oregon State.
From September 19, 1958 to May 8, 1960, Dr. Peterson served as an En-
tomologist with the State Plant Board of Florida, Gainesville (now Division of
Plant Industry). His collecting, identifications, and life history studies greatly
strengthened the collection of immature insects at the Florida State Collec-
tion of Arthropods. It was about this time that his work on insect eggs began in
earnest, resulting in numerous, profusely illustrated articles, most of which
were published in The Florida Entomologist. He received many awards and
honors for his work on eggs. This was the third area in which he did pioneering
work, the first area being his work upon parasites used to control insect pests
feeding upon and destroying orchard fruits, and the second upon immature
stages of insects, a field scarcely touched until his pioneer work. He completed
approximately 100 publications (the first in 1912) six of which were books. The
two volumes on the larvae of insects are considered outstanding pieces of work
and are used throughout the world.
Among his many honors were Phi Beta Kappa as an undergraduate at
Knox College; President of The Entomological Society of America in 1949;
and the first member of ESA to be elected to honorary life membership in that
Society (1965).
He is survived by wife, Helen (n6e Hoff), at 2039 Collingswood Road,
Columbus, Ohio, 43221; 2 sons, Jon, of Great Neck, N. Y., and David, of
Seattle, Wash.; 3 grandchildren; sister, Mrs. D. E. Warren, of Oregon, Illinois,
and brother, Dr. Evan Peterson, of Burlington, Iowa.
Frank W. Mead


Vol. 56, No. 2

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Professor (Dr.) Stratton H. Kerr (left) Florida's Man Of The Year in
Entomology, receives his plaque from Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr., Chairman, Honors
and Awards Committee, while President W. B. Gresham, Jr., (right) looks on
approvingly. Photograph by F. W. Mead, Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.

The man we honor today was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, 17 May
1924. During the 19 years which he has served as an entomologist at the
University of Florida he has distinguished himself by the accuracy and
precision of his work.
He received his B.S. in entomology from the University of Massachusetts
in 1949, and in 1953 he received his Ph.D. in entomology at Cornell University.
Following graduation from Cornell he joined the staff of the University of
Florida as an Assistant Entomologist. In 1963 he was promoted to Associate
Entomologist, and in 1968 he became a full Professor in entomology. During
most of this period his primary work was pioneering research on the biology
and control of arthropod pests of turfgrass and sod in Florida and in or-
namental horticulture. In recent years he has assumed additional duties and
responsibilities in teaching and as a graduate student advisor. He has taught
or is teaching courses which include toxicology, pest management, insec-
ticides, and effective scientific communication. He is the author or coauthor of
more than 90 publications in the field of entomology. In addition to his
teaching and research duties he has served on numerous faculty committees
through which he has consistently striven to upgrade the standards and

The Florida Entomologist

quality of the University of Florida's Department of Entomology and Nema-
In 1964 he became Associate Editor of The Florida Entomologist, and in
1967 he became Editor of this well regarded journal, a position he continues to
hold. As Editor of The Florida Entomologist, Dr. Stratton H. Kerr has con-
sistently worked to maintain the high standards of this journal. No one in
entomology is more conscientious. "Strat," as he is called by his many friends,
says that he enjoys "playing with words" as a mathematician enjoys "playing
with numbers."
Always responsive to any legitimate request, Dr. Kerr is dependable. If he
commits himself to do a thing, one may be certain that it will be done and done
well. Not one to seek recognition for the work which he does, he may, at times,
be candid and stubborn in defense of what he believes to be in the best
interests of this Society, his students, or of entomology in general. It can be
said that if Strat is associated with something he is in it all the way as a
working participant.
Among his academic and professional activities, Dr. Kerr is a member of
the Society of Sigma Xi, Council of Biological Editors, American Association
for the Advancement of Science, Florida State Horticultural Society, En-
tomological Society of America, and the Florida Entomological Society, and
has been Secretary, Chairman of the Program Committee, and Chairman of
the Constitutional Revision Committee of the latter. He is an Advisory
Member of the Florida Turf-Grass Association. He is an Honorary Member of
the Horticultural Sprayman's Association of Florida and in 1963 was awarded
a certificate by that society for Outstanding Service.
Dr. Kerr served in the United States Air Force during 1943-45 ending his
military career as a Second Lieutenant (pilot). He is a member of the United
Church of Gainesville and has served his church as Financial Secretary, Board
of Business Chairman, Clerk, and Moderator. He has served as Chairman of
both Cub Scout and Boy Scout committees. It is with pride and pleasure that
we recognize Florida's Man Of The Year in Entomology-Dr. Stratton H.
Kerr. On behalf of the Florida Entomological Society we present this plaque
which reads, "For his Unselfish Devotion and Contributions in the Field of
Entomology to the Nation, the State, and the Florida Society."

J. E. Porter
H. H. True
W. H. Whitcomb
H. V. Weems, Jr., Chairman


Vol. 56, No. 2



. r-'-







The 55th Annual Meeting of The Florida Entomological Society was held
at the Causeway Inn, Tampa, Florida, 6-8 September 1972. On the evening of
the 6th, a pre-meeting "Bull Session" of submitted topics was held, with S. L.
Poe, Moderator.
President William B. Gresham, Jr., brought the convention to order at 9:00
AM on 7 September. The invocation was offered by Rev. Walter N. Kalaf,
Minister, Palma Ceia United Methodist Church. The welcoming address was
by Mr. Richard Cheney, Chairman of the Council, City of Tampa. The re-
sponse was presented by President Gresham.
Highlights of the meeting consisted of the presidential address by Mr.
Gresham on, "Entomology in action ... an endangered species" and 4 invita-
tional papers as follows: "Entomology and the environment" by W. G. Eden,
President, Entomological Society of America, and Chairman, Department of
Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida; "Insect attractants ...
Let's use them" by L. F. Steiner, USDA, ARS (retired), Miami, Florida;
"Social and political factors affecting control strategy" by F. R. Lawson,
Biocontactics, Inc., Gainesville, Florida; "Plants and aphids with endosym-
biotic microorganisms . a balanced nutritional system" by W. J. Kloft,
Universities of Florida and Bonn. Thirty-three other papers were presented.
Registrations at the meeting totalled 132 (10 of these were students). At-
tendance at the combination buffet dinner-theatre presentation totalled 97.
The preliminary business meeting was called to order at 11:20 AM on 7
September. Ninety members were present. The minutes of the 54th Annual
Meeting were presented by the Secretary as published in Vol. 55, No. 1 (March
1972) of The Florida Entomologist. The minutes were approved as read.
President Gresham appointed the following committees.
D. Laury Ego
Ed. Terczak
Elisabeth C. Beck, Chairman
F. Robert DuChanois
R. J. Nielsson
H. H. Samol, Chairman


President Gresham called upon H. A. Denmark, Chairman of the Special
By-Laws Amendment Committee, for a report. Mr. Denmark read the
proposed amendment to the By-Laws as published in The Florida En-
tomologist 55(2):128, June 1972. He explained the need for the amendment
and that the constitutional requirements for a change had been met in bring-
ing the proposed amendment before the Society for the necessary two-thirds
affirmative vote of the active members present. In essence, the editorial
workload of The Florida Entomologist had increased to the point that 2 more
Associate Editors were needed. Mr. Denmark moved that the proposed
amendment be adopted; seconded by S. H. Kerr; passed unanimously.
The reader is referred to the governing documents of the Society as
published during June 1966 in The Florida Entomologist 49(2):136, VIII,
Publications. Part VIII, as amended, now reads as follows:
Section 1. The Society shall issue a publication containing the transactions
of its meetings and such other matters as may be of interest to en-

The Florida Entomologist

tomologists. This publication shall be known as The Florida Entomologist
and shall be issued at such intervals as may be determined by the Society
or by the Publications Committee. A copy of each issue shall be sent to the
Active, Honorary, and Student members of the Society.
Section 2. The direction of The Florida Entomologist shall be entrusted to
the Board of Publications. This board shall consist of a Business Manager,
who shall be Treasurer of the Society, the Editor, and three Associate
Editors. All board members except the Business Manager shall be ap-
pointed by the Executive Committee for terms of three calendar years. To
assure an orderly transfer of editorial responsibilities, the Executive
Committee shall designate new members of the Board of Publications at
least six months before expiration of the incumbents' terms of office.
During the past months, the advantages of membership in The Florida
Entomological Society have been proclaimed by the Committee to individuals
throughout the State. In search for new members, Committee members have
made special efforts to contact emeritus members of The Entomological
Society of America, students, and female entomologists residing in Florida.
The results of these efforts are not fully realized at this time; however, we are
hopeful that in the near future, current members (409) of the Society will have
the opportunity to welcome many new members.
D. W. Anthony
W. C. Bargren
E. C. Beck
H. D. Bowman
R. C. Bullock
P. J. Hunt
G. S. Burden, Chairman

During last year's meeting in Jacksonville, it was decided that a good
project for the Committee would be a portable regulatory exhibit patterned
after the present forest entomology type. The use of a few mounted insect
specimens is also being considered for this exhibit. This type of exhibit seems
to be the most practical because of the mobility, appearance, and relatively
low cost. Although we have had some problems obtaining material for this
exhibit, it should be ready in the near future. Mr. Frank King is doing a fine job
on construction of these cases.
The Entomology in Action Committee is stressing the use of all of our
exhibits, slides, and accompanying talks. We need the help of any Society
member who can show one or more of these exhibits for a while. They can be
used in schools, museums, meetings, and fairs. These exhibits are on display in
the lobby of this hotel.
The following is a summary of exhibit presentations made during the past
year: exhibits displayed by Mr. W. B. Gresham, Jr. at Hillsborough Com-
munity College, Tampa, were the "Careers in Entomology", "Public Health
Careers in Entomology," and "Environmental Manipulation and Biological
Control". These exhibits were displayed at the 4-H Club State Council, the
Florida Academy of Sciences annual meeting, and before 700 people at
elementary and high schools. He also displayed them at the Georgia En-
tomological Society annual meeting, having an attendance of 38.
Dr. D. R. Minnick prepared an apiculture exhibit which was displayed at
the state fair in Tampa, the American Federation of Beekeepers annual
meeting at Orlando, and the Florida Beekeepers Association annual meeting
at Gainesville.


Vol. 56, No. 2

Minutes of 55th Annual Meeting

The "Careers in Entomology" exhibit has been used for part of the past
year in the West Palm Beach area by W. T. Rowan. Displays were held at the
Science Museum and Planetarium, Palm Beach Junior College, and elemen-
tary and high schools.
Please contact the Society Secretary, Frank W. Mead, if you wish the loan
of any of the exhibits.
C. W. Chellman
D. R. Minnick
C. E. Stegmaier, Jr.
W. T. Rowan, Chairman
The meeting adjourned at noon.
The final business meeting was called to order by President Gresham at
2:45 PM, 8 September. Sixty members were present.


Cash used at 54th Meeting, Jacksonville .................................... $ 100.00
Registration Fees........................................................ ... .......... 883.00
Commercial Company Donations (Social hour) .......................... 143.94
D u e s ...... ................. ................................ ............... . 1 ,4 3 6 .0 0
Subscriptions ............. .......... ................... .......... 1,204.44
A dvertisem ents ............................ ........................................... .......... 420.41
P publication, R eprints, P lates .............................................................. 2,717.84
Back Issues ..... ............................................................. 78.00
B a n q u et ................................................................. ................ .. ........ 2 8 0 .0 0

$ 7,263.63
Cash Balance on 30 June 1971 2,747.23


Cash used at 54th M meeting Jacksonville ........................................ $ 100.00
Jacksonville Hilton Hotel ...................... .... .............. 611.42
Ladies Program, Jacksonville Meeting .......................................... 36.00
Entom ology in A action ........................................ ............................... 341.07
Jacksonville Convention Bureau .................................... ......... 12.20
Secretarial help ....................................... ............ 127.00
Post Office and Box Rent .............. ..... .............. ......... 142.11
Post Office (miscellaneous mailing)............. ............. .......... 58.20
State Tax ....................................... ............ .. ... ...... 2.00
R ep rin ts ........... ................................................ .. ........ $ 3 1.18
Awards 1972 .............................................................. 84.15
Letter Shop (Journal Addressing) ............... .......... ............ ...... 23.57
Business Manager Postage Due and Supplies ................................. 29.00
Storter Printing Com pany......... ................................................... 5,126.56
Editor (Style M manuals) ........................................................... 24.00

$ 6,748.46
Cash Balance 31 August 1972 $ 3,262.40



156 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 56, No. 2

Savings, Guaranty Federal Balance 31 August 1972 ................... $ 3,242.72
Interest since last report .... . ...... ......................................... 124.02

$ 3,366.74

Cash Balance 31 August 1972 $ 3,262.40

Total Cash on Hand 31 August 1972 $ 6,629.14

J. F. Butler
Business Manager and Treasurer


Members deceased since the last meeting include:
Curran, Dr. Charles Howard. 77. At Leesburg, Florida, 23 January 1972. Dr.
Curran was a world famous Dipterist at the American Museum of
Natural History, New York for many years. After retirement from
there, he was associated with the University of Florida, Watermelon
and Grape Laboratory, Leesburg until his death. Also, he was a
Research Associate with the Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville. He was an
Emeritus Member of the Entomological Society of America.
Hitchings, D. L. 35. At Homestead, Florida, 13 September 1971, result of a
motorcycle accident. He was an entomologist for Rohm & Haas, Inc.,
and a member of the Entomological Society of America.
Lopez-D., Fernando. 47. At Miami, 17 May 1972, as a result of a cerebral
hemorrhage 15 May 1972. Mr. Lopez was a native of Mexico City. He
joined the USDA in 1949 and served on the staff of the Mexican Fruit
Fly Laboratory in Mexico City. He achieved expertise on fumigants,
attractants, lures, and sterile fly techniques to combat the Mexican
fruit fly, and was transferred to Miami in 1968 to use this knowledge in
similar research on the Caribbean fruit fly.
Weeks, William Allen. Mr. Weeks was killed in a car wreck 5 May 1972. His
address was P. O. Box 405, Lakeland, Florida; he worked for Hercules,
President Gresham asked all members to stand, then he said a prayer in
memory of these deceased members.

Frank W. Mead, Secretary


The Auditing Committee has examined the books of the Business Manager
for the fiscal year ending 31 August 1972. The records of receipts and disburse-
ments are in balance and are presented neatly and accurately.
We wish to commend Jerry Butler for his precise and accurate record
keeping, and for the diligence he has shown as Business Manager.

F. Robert DuChanois
R. J. Nielsson
H. H. Samol, Chairman

Dr. Samol moved that the Society accept the Business Manager's Report.
The motion was seconded and passed unanimously.

Minutes of 55th Annual Meeting


This report is given on the assumption that the responsibility of the Public
Relations Committee is to promote the Florida Entomological Society and
the profession of entomology. It contains not only activities of the Public
Relations Committee but also examples of activities by other members of the
Information regarding the 55th annual meeting was made available to the
Editorial Department of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences of
the University of Florida. From this a newspaper release was developed and
disseminated approximately 1 week before the annual meeting.
W. G. Eden, President of the Entomological Society of America, talked to
5 ESA branch societies, including the Southwestern branch which met jointly
with the Mexican Entomological Society, and the Pacific branch which met
with the Entomological Society of British Columbia. He also talked to 6 civic
clubs in Florida and appeared on 3 television and 3 radio programs this past
President Gresham made 12 talks and displayed exhibits as mentioned
Society members from the University of Florida, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Florida
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, and U. S. Navy Disease
Vector Ecology and Control Center at Jacksonville Naval Air Station, gave 15
talks to over 1,000 youths in grade schools and 4-H camps throughout the
A number of scientists in Florida, including members of the Florida En-
tomological Society, served on a newly formed, special Committee on Pests
and the Environment. This is an effort to develop solutions on problems
involving pesticides and the environment. This Committee met at Orlando in
February and Miami in July 1972.

R. E. Dixon
C. S. Lofgren
J. F. Reinhardt
D. O. Wolfenbarger
D. E. Short, Chairman


Three University of Florida students gave the prize winning student
presentations: 1st prize ($25.00) to S. M. Ulagaraj for, "Acoustical behavior of
mole crickets" (Advisor: Dr. T. J. Walker, Jr.); 2nd prize ($15.00) to Awinash
P. Bhatkar for, "Mandibular "trigger hairs" of the tropical tic ant" (Advisor:
Dr. W. H. Whitcomb); 3rd prize ($10.00) to John F. Carroll for "Comparison of
the habitats of various Florida species of the genus Aphaenogaster
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (Advisor: Dr. Whitcomb). The checks were for-
mally presented to these students at an entomology seminar, held 25 Sep-
tember 1972, in McCarty Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville. Committee
Chairman Dr. Howard Weems made the presentations.

R. M. Baranowski
D. H. Habeck
W. H. Whitcomb
H. V. Weems, Jr., Chairman


The Florida Entomologist


The Committee prepared a notice to all members to submit drawings for an
official Society seal and to suggest Society colors. This notice appeared on
page 33 of the March 1972 issue of The Florida Entomologist.
Five official seal designs had been submitted to the Committee Chairman
by the start of the 1972 annual meeting in Tampa. The 5 designs were
displayed at the registration desk at the annual meeting, and members were
given the opportunity to vote by ballot for the official seal and to suggest
official Society colors.
An initial ballot and run-off ballot were required to select an official seal.
The winning design was submitted by Mr. Lawrent Lee Buschman, student in
the Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida.
The color combination which received the greatest number of votes for the
official Society colors was blue and orange.
P. S. Callahan
E. G. Farnworth
H. V. Weems, Jr.
E. P. Merkel, Chairman


Honoree No. 1: Certificate of Appreciation to Dr. L. A. Hetrick.
Dr. Lawrence A. Hetrick joined the teaching faculty of the Department of
Entomology in April 1947. He came to the University of Florida with con-
siderable experience in his chosen field, applied entomology.
Dr. Hetrick was born 9 February 1910 in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania.
He attended Dauphin County public schools. He received his B.A. from the
American University, Washington, D.C. in 1931. He continued his education
at Louisiana State University, receiving his M.S. in 1932. He received his Ph.D.
from Ohio State University in 1951.
During his long career as an entomologist, Dr. Hetrick held several posi-
tions giving him a broad background for his teaching. He was first employed
with the Louisiana Department of Agriculture as a technician and inspector.
From Louisiana he moved to Virginia Polytechnic Institute as Assistant
Entomologist with the Agricultural Experiment Station where he did inves-
tigational work on the cowpea curculio and the pine sawflies. He was with the
Ohio State Research Foundation as a Research Assistant before joining the
faculty of the University of Florida in 1947.
His interest in forest entomology brought him to the University of Florida
as Assistant Professor to develop courses in this important area of forestry. He
has taught forest entomology for the last 25 years and is a recognized
authority on forest insect pests. Each year he has visitors who are interested in
forest insects to come and study with him the various types of insect injury to
wood and how to recognize the. cause of each. While at the University of
Florida Dr. Hetrick also developed an effective course in insect identification.
His knowledge of insect identification has been shared with many, and one of
his greatest pleasures has been helping people with their insect problems.
During his long career as a professor he has taught in addition to forest
entomology and insect identification, courses in the principles of entomology,
insect ecology, insect control, insect techniques, history of entomology, insect
histology and others. Dr. Hetrick is greatly respected by his students and
co-workers for his vast knowledge of entomology. His love for his chosen field
and his ability for teaching will long be remembered by his students and
friends. Dr. Hetrick has been recognized and honored by his fellow en-
tomologists. He is a member of many entomological, biological, and forestry


Vol. 56, No. 2

Minutes of 55th Annual Meeting

societies. He served as President of the Florida Entomological Society in 1968
and is a past Chairman of the Southern Forest Insect Work Conference. He is
a member of the Society of Sigma Xi, Xi Sigma Pi, Beta Beta Beta, and Phi
Kappa Phi, and he is recognized in American Men and Women of Science,
Who's Who in the South and Southwest, and Florida Lives. He is a Research
Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, assisting that
program by identifying termites. He and his wife, Willie Mae are members of
the Methodist Church. He has maintained a long-time interest in working
with Boy Scouts. Two of his 3 sons earned Eagle Scouts awards.
Dr. Hetrick retired from teaching in June 1972 and was promptly ap-
pointed a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Entomology and Nema-
tology of the University of Florida.
Dr. Hetrick is the author of more than 40 entomological publications.

Fig. 1. Professor (Dr.) Lawrence A. Hetrick. Photograph by E. M. Collins,
Jr., Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of
Plant Industry, Gainesville.


The Florida Entomologist

"Larry" will be remembered for his quiet dedication to his teaching duties
and research interests and as a keen observer of nature. He is continuing his
life-long interest in ecology.
It is our pleasure on behalf of The Florida Entomological Society to
present to Dr. Lawrence A. Hetrick this CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION FOR
(Secretarial Note: In the absence of Dr. Hetrick, Dr. W. G. Eden accepted
the Certificate for him).
Honoree No. 2: Certificate of Appreciation to Dr. D. 0. Wolfenbarger.

Fig. 2. Professor (Dr.) D. O. Wolfenbarger (left) receiving his CERTIFICATE
from Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr. (right). Photograph by Frank W. Mead, Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant In-

The second man whom we recognize today for his contributions in the field
of entomology is Dr. D. 0. Wolfenbarger, known affectionately by his many
friends as "Wolfie."
Dr. Wolfenbarger was born 22 June 1904 in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. He
received his B.S. in 1928 from Colorado State University. He worked toward
his M.S. degree at South Dakota State University during 1929-30. In 1938 he
received his Ph.D. at Cornell University. His doctoral dissertation was titled
"Spraying and dusting potatoes on the mucklands."
During his career as an entomologist, Dr. Wolfenbarger served as a
Research Assistant at the New York State College of Agriculture from 1930
into 1934, as an Assistant Entomologist at the University of Delaware during
1942-1945, as an Associate Entomologist at the University of Florida during
1945-1946, and as an Entomologist at the University of Florida from 1946 to

Vol. 56, No. 2


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