Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00123
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1976
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00123
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text



Volume 59, No. 4 December, 1976


MUSGRAVE, C. A., AND D. R. BENNETT-Bicentennial Rez'ew of Early
American Entomology ...... ......... .. ................... ...... 329
McCov, C. W., P. L. DAIS, AND K. A. MUNROE-Effect of Late Season
Fruit Injury by the Citrus Rust Mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora
(Prostignota: Eri;phjoidea), on the Internal Quality of Valencia
O range ......... .. .... ........... ........ ..... ... ..... .............. ... ........ 335
GOODWIN, J. T.-I- mature Stages of Some Eastern Nearctic Tabanidae
(Diptera). II. Additional Species of Chrysops Meigen .......... 343
PORTER, C. C.-Cyclaulus in the Peruvian Coastal Desert (Hymenoptera:
Ichneum onidae) ......................... ................................... .............. 353
MUCHMORE, W. B.-Pseudoscorpinns from Florida and the Caribbean
Area. 6. Caribchthonius, a New Genus with Species from St.
John and Belize(Chthoniidae) .................. .... .................. ................ 361
GOODwIN, J. T.-iimmature Stages of some Eastern Nearctic Tabanidae
(Diptera). VII. Haematopota Meigen and Whitneyomyia Be-
quaert Plus Other Tabaniini ............ .............. .. .......................... 369
ASHLEY, T. R., P. D. GREANY, AND D. L. CHAMBERS-Adult Emergence
in Biosteres (Opius) longicaudatus and Anastrepha suspense in
Relation to the Temperature and Moisture Concentration of the
P upation M edium ............................................................................. 391
LOOMIS, H. F.-Sorie Blue-Green, Rhachodesimid Millipeds of Mexico
Related to Stronglyodesmus Saussure ..................................... 397
McCoY, C. W.-Leaf Injury and Defoliation Caused by the Citrus Rust
M ite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora .......... .............................. 403
ADAMS, C. T., W. A. BANKS, AND J. K. PLUMLLEY'-Polygyny in the
Tropical Fire Ant, Solenopsis geminata, with Notes on the Im-
ported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta ......... ............................. 411
JAMES M. T.-New Spec;es and Syinoioy of Stratioyiidne (Diptera)
from Jamaica, Based o: the R. E. Il'oodruff Collections ........ 417
EMERSON, J. C.. AND R. D. PRICE-.4brocomiophagidae (.1allophaga:
Am blycera), a 'New Family tro C ile .......................... .. .... 425
WILLIAMS, C. E., AND S. W DI-INKLE-The Laroa of Neurocordulia
xanthosoma (Odonata :Cordul;idae I........ .............. ........... 429
BARANOWSKI, R. M.-'ocatioiis, Av'ocations, and Obligations .............. 435

Continued on Back Cover

Published by The Florida Entomological Society

fpun 5


President......................... ........ ......... ......... ......... C. S. Lofgren
V ice-President ................................................. .......... .. ........ J. B T aylor
Secretary ............. .. ...... ........ ........ ............ .. .............. .. F W M ead
Treasurer ...................................... .............. N. C. Leppla

E. C. Beck
S. H. Kerr
Other Members of Executive Committee......... C.W. McCoy
A. K. Burditt, Jr.
W. L. Peters

Editor... ...................... ... ............... .S. H K err
A associate Editors ...................................... .................. E. E. Grissell
J. E. Lloyd
H. V. Weems, Jr.
Carol A. Musgrave
R. M. Baranowski
B business M anager................................. ........................................ N C L eppla

THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, September, and
December. Subscription price to non-members $15.00 per year in advance, $3.75 per
copy. Entered as second class matter at the post office at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor, Entomology
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numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box 12425, University Station, Gaines-
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When preparing manuscripts, authors should consult "Instructions to Authors",
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This issue mailed February 17, 1977

The Florida Entomologist

Department of Entomology & Nematology
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Various aspects of entomological history have been reviewed pre-
viously but little attention has been given to the development of this
science in the United States prior to 1800. Admittedly, most refer-
ences to early American insect studies are brief, sometimes vague, and
widely scattered. Nevertheless, these accounts do allude to the impact
that beneficial and pest insects had on colonial economy. In keeping
with the bicentennial spirit, we have researched some of these little
known aspects of America's entomological heritage, tracing some sub-
jects back 200 or more years.
Silk production was actively promoted in the English colonies as
early as 1613 (Gray 1933). Encouraging reports on the extensive
growth of wild mulberry and "silkworms" (possibly the Spicebush
silk moth, Callosamia promethea Drury) in Virginia prompted King
James to commission the writing of an agricultural treatise, includ-
ing a special section on sericulture; each Virginia colonist was in-
structed to read the text carefully. In 1679 one of the more zealous
American proponents of silk culture, Edward Digges, wrote a pamph-
let entitled "The Reformed Virginian Silkworm." Digges extrava-
gantly claimed that native silkworms could be kept outdoors on native
mulberry trees and that Indians could be employed to care for the
worms. Compulsory mulberry planting laws were passed by the Vir-
ginia assembly, the first appearing as early as 1619. Indeed, mulberry
planting became one of the initial conditions of land tenure. By 1750,
a deputy in the Commons House of Assembly had to produce 15
pounds of silk for each 15 acres that he owned; he also had to have
at least 1 female member of the family trained in the art of reeling
silk. By this time, the true silkworm had been imported and a well
subsidized industry was established, the character of which resembled
a manufacturing enterprise employing mostly well trained women and
children. The most successful silk growers in the Georgia colonies
were the Salzburgers of Ebenezer who were producing 20,000 pounds
of cocoons in 1766 (Bonner 1964). However, Indian problems, severe
winters, tobacco and rice speculation, and general planter disinterest
doomed American sericulture to ultimate collapse. During the Revo-
lution, Ebenezer was devastated by British invaders; the silk subsidy
disappeared with independence, and the industry slowly died despite
sporadic efforts to revive it up through the nineteenth century.
Interest in apiculture dates back to at least 1621 when a load of
"honeybees, peacocks, pigeons, conies and mastiffs" was delivered to
Jamestown (Gray 1933). Transhipment and subsequent swarming
helped distribute these beneficial insects throughout the colonies. The
Indians marvelled at the productivity of these newly introduced bees
(Apis mellifera L.) and the efforts white men made to culture them.

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


The Florida Entomologist

Since they had no name for them, most Indians referred to honeybees
as "white man's flies" (Pellett 1938).
One of the earlier enterprises of Newberry, Massachusetts was
municipal beekeeping. In 1645 the legislature ordered that John Eels,
a bee hive builder, should be stationed in Newberry and paid by New-
berry citizens (Pellett 1938). Undoubtedly, many of the other north-
ern colonies made such arrangements for beekeepers since honey was
frequently the only available sweetener.
Although some colonial planters kept bees, the bulk of the honey
and beeswax was taken from wild hives. Honey was a ready source
of cash for pioneers lacking other valuables for sale or trade. Since
bounties were paid for both wax and honey, frontiersmen usually ex-
ported their surpluses (Gray 1933). For instance, during the fiscal
year 1776-1777, British Florida exported several hundred pounds of
honey and beeswax in addition to small amounts of ginger, sarsapa-
rilla, salt, indigo, lumber, 65,000 oranges, and 2 casks of orange juice.
Another beneficial use of insects was in medicine. In the 1723
edition of "The Natural History of North Carolina . ." Dr. John
Brickell recommended applying dried powdered silkworms to the head
for "Megrims, Vertigoes and Convulsions, and the ashes of the silk
cleaneth wounds, &c." "Powdered cicadas given with pepper, help the
Cholick." Hog lice were a readily obtained panacea. Ant "eggs" were
recommended for treating deafness, and a cordial made from lady
beetles was supposed to "cure all Fevers how poysonous or malignant
soever, by its sudorifick quality" (Weiss 1937).
Not surprisingly, colonial America had its supply of entomological
students and artists. Mark Catesby (1679-1749) was one of the first
illustrators of American insects. In "The Natural History of Caro-
lina, Florida and the Bahama Islands . ." (1726), Catesby included
26 engravings of insects. More extensive drawings, paintings and life
history studies of American insects were done by John Abbot (1750-
1840) when he worked in Georgia. William Bartram (?-1823) pub-
lished "Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and
West Florida"; it included a number of illustrations and observations
on insects and plants of those regions. Periodical cicadas were first
described by Peter Collinson (1694?-1768), a botanist, and Andreae
Hesselius, a Swedish pastor in a Wilmington, Delaware church. Hes-
selius described the "most peculiar insects" which he understood had
not been seen for 15 years. He discussed the emergence of nymphs,
the loud singing of adults and their predation by Indians and squir-
The most outstanding American entomologists of the period were
active by the late 18th century. Frederick Valentine Melsheimer
(1749-1814) made the first important collection of American insects
and in 1806, published the first important entomological work in the
United States. Thomas Say (1787-1834), though younger than Mel-
sheimer, is usually called the "Father of American Entomology." Say
is credited with making extensive insect collections and the taxonomic
descriptions of numerous American species. Although Thaddeus Har-
ris (1795-1856) is referred to as the "Pioneer Economic Entomolo-
gist," his work is preceded by that of William D. Peck (1763-1822).


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Musgrave and Bennett: Early American Entomology 331

Peck was one of the first entomology students to devote himself to the
life history and control of harmful insects.
Naturally this early entomological research fostered development
of scientific societies and journals. For example, Paul Dudley (1675-
1750), Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Court and amateur
entomologist, wrote a scholarly paper on finding bee trees in the woods.
His paper appeared in a 1723 volume of the "Philosophical Transac-
tions," an affiliate of the Royal Society of London. In 1785, the South
Carolina Agricultural Society, first of its kind in America, was or-
ganized with George Washington and Thomas Jefferson as honorary
officers (Gray 1933). The society was dedicated to "promoting and im-
proving agriculture." With proceeds from a lottery, they bought a
40-acre research farm and began offering rewards for research on cot-
ton insect control, production of cotton seed oil, sheep breeding, and
rice culture.
Annoying and destructive insects were commonplace in all of the
colonies. The pest most often associated with colonial America is the
Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say). Supposedly this cecidomyiid
wheat pest entered this country in the straw bedding of Hessian
soldiers enlisted to fight in the Revolutionary War (Jones 1973).
These flies or jointwormss" nearly destroyed the wheat crops in Mary-
land, Virginia, and North Carolina in 1778 (Gray 1933). By the early
1800's, Hessian flies were widely distributed throughout the original
13 colonies and the frontier settlements in Tennessee and Kentucky.
Cotton leafworms, Alabama argillaceae (Hubner), were the first
major pests of that southern crop, sometimes destroying 25-90% of
the cotton grown before 1800. Colonists also considered "cotton lice"
and ants as pests. Bollworms, Heliothis zea (Boddie), first became
notorious in the early 19th century. These and leafworms frequently
destroyed all cotton fields in some areas. Since many early research-
ers could not differentiate between bollworms and leafworms, esti-
mates of damage done by each pest were probably often inaccurate.
Other colonial crops were also plagued by insects. Hornworms,
cutworms, and aphids were particularly abundant on tobacco, while
armyworms, seed-eating pests and foliage feeders reduced yields in
many crops including rice and indigo (Caffrey 1952). Outbreaks of
grasshoppers and armyworms were recorded in New England as early
as 1770.
The people of the day most certainly fought a continuous battle
against many types of medical and stored product pests. The Swedish
Professor Peter Kalm wrote about some of these in his "Travels into
America." He discussed "moths which eat clothes and furs, fleas in
the beds of Indians, a plentifulness of bed bugs, and an abundance
of cockroaches or 'mill beetles' found in almost every house in New
York." Concerning "wood lice," (psocids?) he wrote that, "scarcely
anyone of us sat down but a whole army of them crept upon his
clothes . ." "There are examples of people whose ears were swelled
to the size of the fist, on account of one of the insects creeping into
them and biting them." (Weiss 1937).
The British general Cornwallis may have lost the Revolutionary
War at Yorktown in 1781 partly because of insect activity. When the

The Florida Entomologist

victorious Americans and French gathered up their prisoners they
found that over 2000 British soldiers, or one-fourth of Cornwallis'
army, was incapacitated by malaria. Prior to the battle, the weather
had been warm and Cornwallis himself complained that Yorktown was
a post "which only gives us some areas of unhealthy swamp" (Nealon
Indeed, the lowly mosquito may have been partly responsible for
the genocide of one race and the enslavement of another. The Ameri-
can Indians had virtually no resistance to white men's pathogens.
Several tribes were nearly exterminated by the mosquito-transmitted
diseases yellow fever and malaria. The French and Spanish colonial
priests were distraught at the decimation of their new Indian con-
verts, while the English, religious and otherwise, generally looked
upon it as evidence of God's favor for His chosen people. At the same
time, the black man's relative toleration of malaria meant that he
could, and did, serve admirably as a substitute laborer for the white
master. If malaria had not been such a prominent factor in agricul-
tural and industrial labor, the American slave trade might have been
limited and the whole course of American, and possibly African, his-
tory might have been different.
Other historians noted that stored wheat could support large popu-
lations of black weevils, particularly if the grain had not been threshed
for a long time (Gray 1933). Considerable quantities of flour and
meal were probably ruined by the activities of miscellaneous stored
product pests. Other "weevils" were well known for their ability to
destroy seed crops, particularly cotton (Gray 1933).
Although their pest problems seemed insurmountable, the colonists
did fight back with a curious combination of folk medicine, common
sense and innovation. In 1738, William Byrd wrote that horseflies
could be repelled by fastening dittany, an unidentified weed, to a
horse's bridle. He also noted that the Indians liberally applied "bear
oyl to keep both bugs and musquetas from assaulting their persons"
(Weiss 1936). Tobacco planters dusted aphid-infested plants with
pulverized sulfur and sassafrass bark (Gray 1933). A rather common
farm chore for women or slave children was picking caterpillars off
the field crops. Rice growers perfected a method of coating their seeds
with clay, supposedly saving the crop from insects and birds. Plant-
ers of other crops sometimes mixed seed with plaster of Paris, tar, or
saltpeter to discourage cutworms. Other farmers planted with the
strategy of "One for the crow, One for the cutworm, and Two to
grow." Some wheat farmers tried soaking their seed in very hot
water to discourage Hessian flies. Others worked with particular
varieties of wheat, encouraged by reports in 1785 that "yellow bearded
wheat" was resistant to jointworms (Jones 1973). Plagued by raven-
ous aphids, armyworms, cutworms, leafworms, bollworms, and plant
diseases, cotton farmers resorted to burning stubble and residues, ro-
tating crops, and running turkeys in the fields to eat the pests.
Thus, insects have played a significant role in the history of the
United States ever since the first European colonies were established.
Few historians have reviewed early American entomology or the colo-
nists' first attempt to describe and deal with beneficial and destructive


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Musgrave and Bennett: Early American Entomology 333

insects. While the eminent scientists and major entomological de-
velopments of the period 1600-1800 admittedly were in Europe, Ameri-
can agriculturists and naturalists were laying the framework for the
development of many phases of entomology in the United States. In
this bicentennial year it is appropriate to recall these events and
people so that modern American entomologists are aware of this aspect
of their heritage.
BONNER, J .C. 1964. A history of Georgia agriculture 1732-1860.
University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia. 242 p.
CAFFREY, D. J. 1952. Insects that attack tobacco. P. 621-8 In In-
sects-The Yearbook of Agriculture, U.S. Government Print-
ing Office, Washington, D.C.
GRAY, L. C. 1933. History of agriculture in the southern United
States to 1860. Vols. 1 and 2. Carnegie Institution, Washing-
ton, D.C. 1,086 p.
JONES, D. P. 1973. Agricultural entomology. P. 307-32 In Smith,
R. F. et al. History of Entomology. Annual Reviews, Inc.,
Palo Alto, California.
NEALON, E. 1976. The bugs bit what bullets bypassed in bygone
battles. Smithsonian (May, 1976): 77-81.
PELLET, F. C. 1938. History of American beekeeping. Collegiate
Press, Ames, Iowa. 213 p.
WEISS, H. B. 1937. The pioneer century of American entomology.
Published by author, New Brunswick, N. J. 320 p.


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The Florida Entomologist



Late season injury (bronzing) to mature Valencia orange by the
citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead), occurred from
mid-October through December during 1974 and affected 30 to 45%
of the fruit in experimental groves. At harvest, fruit with localized
and extensive surface bronzing and peel shrinkage had a lower juice
volume, higher soluble solids, higher acids, and higher concentrations
of acetaldehyde and ethanol than normal fruit. Off flavors were de-
tected only in juice extracted from fruit with extensive surface bronz-
ing and peel shrinkage where the acetaldehyde and ethanol concentra-
tions were highest. Dehydrated fruit harvested from a grove under
severe moisture stress had lower juice volume and higher concentra-
tions of acetaldehyde and ethanol in both normal and bronzed fruit.

Fruit surface discoloration caused by the feeding activity of the
citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead), has been asso-
ciated with the formation of lignin and probable oxidation of some
substances of the cytoplasm within epidermal cells (McCoy and Al-
brigo 1975). Final appearance of injured areas of the fruit surface
depend on the stage of fruit development at the time of initial injury.
Three known visible types of fruit injury caused by citrus rust mite
feeding have been reported, namely "sharkskin," "russet," and "bronz-
ing" (Griffiths and Thompson 1957, Albrigo and McCoy 1974). For
the purpose of this paper, the characteristics of bronzing will be men-
tioned briefly.
Fruit bronzing occurs from initial rust mite injury in late fall
when little additional fruit growth takes place. Epidermal cells die,
become brown, no wound periderm forms, and usually the cuticle does
not develop cracks (Albrigo and McCoy 1974, McCoy and Albrigo
1975). Unlike russet oranges, which develop when fruit is still in the
developmental stages, these fruit will polish since the natural cutin
and wax layer is not broken up. Griffiths and Thompson (1957) sug-
gest that the bronzing type of injury may cause localized peel shrink-
age and rapid loss of moisture which results in a concentration of the
juice with a correspondingly higher percentage of sugar.
As the result of a prolonged dry fall and early winter, citrus rust
mite populations increased to higher than normal densities and re-
mained high for as long as 3 months in many groves on the central
ridge of Florida in 1974. Naturally, this resulted in more extensive
fruit injury of the bronzing type. At the time of harvest (April-May
1975) in many groves, late season oranges (Valencia primarily) be-
1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 6071. Research supported
in part by CSRS Grant PL 89-106.
2University of Florida, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, Fla.
'USDA Horticultural Research Laboratory, Orlando, Fla. 32805.

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


The Florida Entomologist

gan to exhibit considerable peel shrinkage in the injured areas having
the bronzing appearance. This was particularly noticeable in groves
under severe moisture stress. About this time, reports of off-flavor
juice were reported by processors. This was traced to groves under
moisture stress where a high percentage of the fruit had the bronzing
type of citrus rust mite injury.
A high concentration of acetaldehyde and ethanol in stored citrus
fruit have been associated with off-flavor juice (Chase et al. 1967,
Davis et al. 1974). The purpose of this study was to determine the
effect of the bronzing injury in groves with and without moisture
stress on the accumulation of acetaldehyde and ethanol in fruit.

A nonirrigated (designated Turkey Lake) and an overhead irri-
gated grove (designated Bay Lake), both Valencia cultivar, Citrus
sinensis (L.) Osbeck on rough lemon rootstock, C. jambhiri Lush,
were selected for experimentation. No chemical control measures
were applied during the fall of 1974 in either grove. In the Bay Lake
grove, citrus rust mite populations were monitored regularly through-
out the year on fruit.
During the spring of 1975, the Turkey Lake grove received little
precipitation; in fact, at the time fruit for analysis was harvested,
many were dehydrated (soft) and leaves were wilted. In the Bay
Lake grove, an average of 0.98 inch of free water per week was re-
corded during March and April. Furthermore, reports of off-flavor
juice had been noted by commercial processors.
Fruit were classified according to the presence or absence of bronz-
ing, peel shrinkage, and dehydration. The categories used for rating
damage were: 1) no bronzing, no peel shrinkage, 2) soft (Turkey
Lake) or firm with bronzing (Bay Lake), no peel shrinkage, 3) some
bronzing and peel shrinkage, and 4) extensive bronzing and peel
shrinkage. Fruit from the grove in categories 2, 3, and 4 remained
firm while that from Turkey Lake was soft. No dehydrated fruit were
found in the Bay Lake grove. Fruit were collected on 12-13 May, 21
May and (for the Bay Lake grove only) 4 June.
Twelve fruit of approximately the same size of each condition were
selected from field samples and juiced for subsequent analysis. To
test for acetaldehyde and ethanol, a 10 ml aliquot of juice was placed
in 60 ml bottles, stopped with rubber septa, and warmed to 35*C for
1 h in a water bath. Then a 2 ml sample of headspace over the juice
was removed by syringe and chromatographed in the manner described
by Davis and Chace (1969). Juice solids were determined by refrac-
tive index and juice acid by titration with NaOH. Five laboratory
workers were used to taste test juice samples.

Late season citrus rust mite injury (bronzing) to mature fruit
began to develop during mid-October when mite populations reached
an average of about 3,500 mites per fruit (29.1 mites/cm2 fruit sur-
face) in the Bay Lake grove (Fig. 1). By mid-November, about 30%


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

McCoy et al.: Citrus Rust Mite Injury

Fig. 1. Seasonal population trend for the citrus rust mite on fruit
with designated time of late-season injury in the Bay Lake grove.

of the fruit (Fig. 1) showed visible injury. At the time of harvest,
an estimated 45% of the fruit exhibited the bronzing type of mite
injury. Although mite populations were not monitored in the Turkey
Lake grove, fruit injury probably occurred during October through
December too.
In the Bay Lake grove, a significant positive correlation (r= 0.98)
was found between acetaldehyde concentration and fruit condition
(Fig. 2A). In the Turkey Lake grove, a high positive correlation
(r=0.93) was also found between acetaldehyde concentration and
fruit condition (Fig. 2A). The more severe the injury due to bronz-
ing and peel shrinkage the higher the acetaldehyde concentration.
The softer dehydrated fruit from the Turkey Lake grove had a higher
acetaldehyde concentration than similarly rated but firm fruit from
the Bay Lake grove.
A high positive correlation was also found between ethanol con-
centration and fruit condition for both the Bay Lake (r=0.92) and
Turkey Lake (r=0.94) groves (Fig. 2B); however, category differ-
ences were not significant. Probably the lack of significance can be
attributed to the low numbers of observation per fruit condition.


338 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Again, fruit with localized and extensive surface bronzing and shrink-
age had juice with the highest levels of ethanol. Fruit from the
Turkey Lake grove also had more ethanol overall.

-1.2 A
E *-- BAY LAKE o
E0' r= 0.926 --
0.8- Y=0.29+0.185X


S0.4. r=0.9988
.-1' Y = 0.23 +0.IIIX
0.2 -


I o-----o TURKEY LAKE o
o 400 -
Sr= 0.942
S300- Y=(-) 36.5 + 105.4 X

S200- o
Sr =0.917
"' 100- / Y= (-)94+86X

1 2 3 4


Fig. 2. Linear relationship between mean concentration of acetal-
dehyde, ethanol and fruit condition: 1) firm without bronzing; 2)
soft without bronzing (Turkey Lake), firm with extensive bronzing,
but no peel shrinkage (Bay Lake); 3) soft (Turkey Lake) or firm
(Bay Lake) with localized bronzing and peel shrinkage; 4) soft
(Turkey Lake) or firm (Bay Lake) with extensive bronzing and peel
shrinkage (condition means calculated from values for 12 fruit from
2 samples, Turkey Lake and 3 samples, Bay Lake).

In taste tests, off flavors were detected in juice from fruit with
extensive surface bronzing and shrinkage (category 4). All fruit
of this type harvested from the Turkey Lake grove had off flavors,
substantiating earlier grower reports, whereas only the last fruit
sample (June 4) from the Bay Lake grove produced off flavors. The
acetaldehyde concentration in normal tasting juice from the exten-
sively bronzed and shrunken fruit ranged from 0.50 to 0.56 mg/100

McCoy et al.: Citrus Rust Mite Injury

ml, while acetaldehyde in off-flavored juice ranged from 0.91 to 1.50
mg/100 ml. Ethanol concentration in juice from normal fruit ranged
from 86 to 100 mg/100 ml while ethanol in off-flavored juice ranged
from 288 to 696 mg/100 ml.
In the Bay Lake grove, a significant negative correlation (r=
-0.977) was found between juice volume and fruit condition (Fig.
3A). Fruit with localized and extensive surface bronzing and peel
shrinkage contained less juice. Similarly, a negative correlation (r=
-0.819) was also found in the Turkey Lake grove (Fig. 3B). Total
juice volume for all conditions was less in the Turkey Lake grove,
indicating that severe moisture stress within the grove appeared to
affect juice volume. It should be pointed out that measurement of
fruit size (diam) was not conducted prior to juice extraction; there-
fore, some variability in juice volume within treatments could have
influenced results slightly.
In the Bay Lake grove, a significant positive correlation (r=0.99)
was found between the percent soluble solids in the juice and fruit
condition (Fig. 3A). No significance was found in the Turkey Lake
fruit (r=0.60). Percent soluble solids were highest for all fruit in
the Turkey Lake grove and this may have reduced the trend.
In both groves, a positive correlation (r=0.91) (r=0.82) was
found between the percent acid in juice and fruit condition (Fig. 3C),
extensively bronzed fruit with peel shrinkage having the highest acid
levels. The percent acids were higher in all fruit of similar condition
in the Turkey Lake grove.

Generally, fruit exhibiting peel shrinkage within the area of
bronzing were located in regions of the tree canopy exposed to direct
sunlight. Since the brownish to black appearance of fruit with ex-
tensive bronzing and peel shrinkage may decrease the ability of the
fruit to reflect heat, and since injury of this type may also increase
peel permeability, the possible increase in fruit temperature within
these exposed areas could result in loss of moisture from both the
peel and juice. As previously mentioned, rapid loss of moisture in
bronzed fruit has been associated with concentration of juice (Griffiths
and Thompson 1955). More recently, Ismail (1970) reported greater
moisture loss from fruit with early season citrus rust mite injury
(russet) compared to normal fruit. Furthermore, in situations such
as in the Turkey Lake grove where severe drought conditions forecd
the tree to retain some water from the fruit, apparently various
natural compounds, including those causing off flavors, were concen-
trated even more.
Since the acetaldehyde concentration in juice increases proportion-
ally with an increase in soluble solids during normal fruit maturation
(Davis 1971), one might conclude that off flavors produced in exten-
sively bronzed fruit with peel shrinkage resulted from excessive water
loss and concentration of juice, particularly when juice from fruit
with extensive bronzing, but without peel shrinkage had no off flavors.
However, when the ratio of acetaldehyde to soluble solids is com-













--.--* BAY LAKE
r = 0.60
Y= 13.9 -0.18 X o __ ----

r =0.9923 "
Y= 12.2 + 0.59X

... o -* ~Y =1138-131.6 X

r= 0.828 o -
Y= 1.02+0.106X

r =0.913
Y= 0.85 +0.091 X

I 2 3 4

Fig. 3. Linear relationship between percent soluble solids, mean
juice volume, percent acid and fruit condition: 1) firm without bronz-

McCoy et al.: Citrus Rust Mite Injury

pared for condition 1 (normal fruit) and 4 (off-flavor fruit), one finds
that the ratio in both the Bay Lake (0.025:0.045) and Turkey Lake
groves (0.037:0.077) increased by two-fold indicating some break-
down in metabolic processes which in turn resulted in a disproportion-
ate increase in acetaldehyde concentration. This may also explain
why there was a significant increase in ethanol. When sugar is con-
verted to pyruvate in the Embden-Meyerhof scheme, probably some
physiological change either initiated independently or by microbial
action may inhibit normal passage into the TCA cycle, causing pyru-
vate to be decarboxylated to acetaldehyde and then acetaldehyde re-
duced to ethanol by fermentation.
From a practical standpoint, these data suggest that a low inci-
dence of late citrus rust mite injury will not influence internal fruit
quality. Also, light damage (<15 to 20% of the fruit surface) will
not affect juice volume or flavor; however, if 40 to 50% of the fruit
in a given grove receive extensive bronzing type injury, it should be
harvested as early as possible, or irrigation should be applied reg-
ularly to prevent peel shrinkage, overall loss of moisture from the
juice, and possible development of off flavors.


ALBRIGO, L. G., AND C. W. McCoY. 1974. Characteristic injury by
citrus rust mite to orange leaves and fruit. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 87:48-55.
CHACE, W. G., JR., P. L. DAVIS, AND J. J. SMOOT. 1967. Response of
citrus fruits to controlled atmosphere storage. Proc. 12th Int.
Cong. Refrig. 3:383-91.
DAVIS, P. L., AND W. G. CHACE, JR. 1969. Determination of alcohol
in citrus juice by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace.
HortScience 4(2) :117-9.
DAVIS, P. L. 1971. Further studies of ethanol and acetaldehyde in
juice of citrus fruits during the growing season and during
storage. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 84:217-22.
DAVIS, P. L., R. C. HOFFMAN, AND T. T. HATTON, JR. 1974. Tempera-
ture and duration of storage on ethanol content of citrus fruits.
HortScience 9(4) :376-7.
GRIFFITHS, J. T., AND W. L. THOMPSON. 1957. Insects and mites
found on Florida citrus. Univ. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 591.
p. 39-42.
ISMAIL, M. A. 1970. Seasonal variation in bonding force and abscis-
sion of citrus fruit in response to ethylene, ethephon, and
cycloheximide. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 84:77-81.
McCoY, C. W., AND L. G. ALBRIGO. 1975. Feeding injury to the
orange caused by the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora
(Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 68:289-

ing; 2) soft without bronzing (Turkey Lake), firm with extensive
bronzing, but no peel shrinkage (Bay Lake); 3) soft (Turkey Lake)
or firm (Bay Lake) with localized bronzing and peel shrinkage; 4)
soft (Turkey Lake) or firm (Bay Lake) with extensive bronzing and
peel shrinkage (condition means calculated from values for 12 fruit
from 2 samples, Turkey Lake and 3 samples, Bay Lake).

342 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

ping chambers extending from a 60.5 X 33.2 cm X 30 cm, Plexiglass R,
fan-operated suction of olfactometer designed at the West Florida
Arthropod Research Laboratory, Panama City, Florida, (D. F. Williams,
unpublished) were modified to prevent the escape of the stable fly,
Stomoxys calcitrans L., once the flies had entered a baited capture
chamber. This olfactometer was tested initially with a 2-sectioned,
straight capture tube arrangement (6 cm inside diam (I.D.) X 11 cm
or 6 cm I.D. X 26 cm) inserted around a perforated capture funnel
attached to the body of the olfactometer (Fig. 1,A).
Similar straight capture tube designs have been used by other re-
searchers to prevent the escape of dipterans; however, these tubes did
not prove to be satisfactory for testing the olfactory response of stable
flies over prolonged periods. During several experiments, we observed
migration out of a baited capture chamber and in one observation 15
of 20 flies trapped in one of the straight capture chambers escaped
within 45 min. Since the capture chambers were short and in the same
plane as the funnel opening, we assumed that random movement over
an extended period could account for the migration from a capture
tube back into the main body of the olfactometer, especially when fly
populations in a capture chamber became high.
Therefore, the basic body of each capture chamber was redesigned
to consist of a 16 cm I.D. X 18 cm cylinder composed of several de-
tachable sections (Fig. 1,B).
Experiments determined that the new capture chambers were highly
effective. In over 20 tests no escapes were observed when 100 flies of
both sexes were placed in the chambers from 0.5-48.0 hr. R. Levy1
and A. J. Rogers, West Florida Arthropod Research Laboratory, Pan-
ama City, Florida 32401.

(a attractant holding chamber; a organdy partition; a y cap-
1 D

Fig. 1. Diagramatic representation of modified stable fly ofacto-
(a attractantt holding chamber; a2 =organdy partition; a3=fly cap-
ture chamber). B= MODIFIED CAPTURE CYLINDER (bl=attract-
ant holding chamber; b = organdy partition; b3 = removable cover of
capture cylinder section; b= remaining section of capture cylinder;
b,=capture funnel). C=MAIN BODY OF OLFACTOMETER
WHERE FLY RESPONSE INITIATED (ci=wire screen separation
between fan air duct and olfactometer). D=DUCT LEADING TO
ROOF EXHAUST FAN. Arrows represent direction air is being
'Present address: Lee County Mosquito Conrol District, Route One, Fort Myers, Florida

The Florida Entomologist


USAF Environmental Health Laboratory
Kelly Air Force Base, Texas 78241

Descriptions are provided of the larvae and pupae of Chrysops
brunneus Hine, C. dixianus Pechuman, C. dorsovittatus Hine, and C.
hinei Daecke and the pupa only of C. pudicus Osten Sacken.

Teskey (1969) published descriptions, figures, and keys for the
larvae and pupae of 36 species of Chrysops. I described the imma-
tures of 2 additional species in Part I of this series (Goodwin 1972).
No descriptions of additional species of the eastern Nearctic fauna
have appeared, but Tidwell (1973) also provided descriptions of 12
species treated in one or both of the above.
Below are the descriptions of the larvae and pupae of 4 and the
pupa of 1 species of Chrysops. Two of these species conform to the
generic characterizations of the juvenile stages furnished by Teskey,
however, 3 (C. brunneus, C. dixianus, C. dorsovittatus) exhibit the
first departures from these characterizations known to me.
For figures illustrating the descriptive terminology see Part I of
this series or the paper by Teskey (1969). No keys are provided, but
points of separation based on the keys furnished by Teskey are noted
in the comments following each description.
I am indebted to Dr. Kirby L. Hays, Department of Zoology and
Entomology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, for the loan of the
specimen of C. pudicus described below.

Chysops brunneus Hine
Mature larva (Fig. 1): ca. 19 mm long, whitish with contrasting
moderately dark brown pubescent pattern. Head capsule 1.49 X 0.59
mm wide. Anal segment 1.06 mm long, ca. 1/4 greater than basal
diameter. Respiratory siphon 0.5 mm long, ca. 1/3 greater than basal
diameter; with a stigmatal spine. Striations on all aspects of every
segment, except prothoracic dorsum, spacings ca. 0.042 mm, not notice-
ably compressed laterally. Pubescence on all segments as follows:
anterior pubescence present on all segments except anal, encircling
thoracic and first 3-4 abdominal segments, absent from progessively
wider areas midlaterally on remaining; united with pseudopodial
pubescence dorsolaterally on first 7 and ventrolaterally on first 6 ab-
dominal segments; prothoracic annulus with 2, meso- and metathoracic

'The opinions and assertions contained herein are the private ones of the author and are
not to be construed as the views, either official or nonofficial, of the Department of the Air
'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Gainesville.

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


The Florida Entomologist

Fig. 1-4. Lateral views of Tabanidae larvae: 1) Chrysops brun-
neus; 2) C. dixianus; 3) C. hinei; 4) C. dorsovittatus.

annuli with 4 short, slender, tapered, caudal projections laterally,
those of meso- and metathorax crossing ca. 1/3 and 1/4 of otherwise
non-pubescent areas of respective segments. Pseudopodial pubescence
encircles first 6 abdominal segments, being absent between lateral and
ventral pseudopodia on VII. Posterior pubescence encircles abdominal
segments V-VIII, very faintly evident on V. Remaining pubescence of
anal segment covers following: anal lobes and ridge and a dorsally
and slightly anteriorly directed extension from latter, extension almost
reaching lateral midlines; a longitudinal band on lateral midline iso-


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Goodwin: New Chrysops Species

lated from both dorsal extension of anal ridge pubescence and posterior
annulus; 7 small, faint spots, 1 ventrolateral anterior to anal ridge,
a ventrolateral pair posterior to anal ridge, a lateral pair anterior to
midlateral longitudinal band, and a dorsolateral pair above anterior
end of the midlateral longitudinal band.
Female pupa (Fig. 5): ca. 15 mm long, yellow brown, a little
darker dorsally and anteriorly. Area of antenna ridges a pronounced
swollen mound directed anteroventrally, the mound in lateral and
posterior views narrowly and broadly rounded, respectively, except for
the slender, paired, obliquely compressed projections at summit, these
projections being elevated ca. 0.17 mm above the median cleft and ap-
parently representing the median portions of the antennal ridges.
Callus tubercles irregular in outline and elevation, highest point 0.1
mm; unisetose. Thoracic spiracle ca. 0.1-0.6 mm long; spiracular promi-
nence exceeding anterior thoracic margin ca. 0.33 mm. Uniseriate
fringes of attenuate spines encircling abdominal segments II-VII, the
spines smaller ventrally but not absent from noticeable areas; fringe
of tergite VII of 50 spines. Ventrolateral preanal combs each with
7-8 spines. Dorsal, lateral and ventral tubercles of aster 0.31, 0.49,
0.27 mm long, respectively.
Collection: The single larva was taken at the Wedge Plantation,
near McClellanville, Charleston Co., South Carolina, in May, 1972. The
larva was taken from between the basal portions of the leaves of a
clump of Spartina sp. in a salt marsh. The particular plant was part
of the previous year's growth, and all that remained above the roots
was about 15 inches of the plant. The plant was in about 10 inches of
water, and the larva was positioned just above the water line. It was
in prepupal state at the time of collection.
Comments: Larvae of C. brunneus would key to C. aberrans
Philip (couplet 16) in Teskey and may be distinguished as follows:
the midlateral, longitudinal dash on the anal segment is not united
with the narrow posterior annulus, and the remaining isolated pubes-
cent spots on this segment are small and typically in pairs including
a ventrolateral pair posterior to the anal ridge in C. brunneus; in C.
aberrans the longitudinal dash unites with the posterior annulus, and
the other isolated spots are large, unpaired, and no spots are located
ventrolaterally posterior to anal ridge. The pupae of C. brunneus, C.
dixianus, and C. dorsovittatius (the last two described below) have
only 1 seta on each of the callus tubercles, a departure from the bisetate
callus tubercles of all other known Chrysops pupae. They conform to
all other characters noted in the generic characterizations given by
Teskey (1969), and no difficulty should be encountered in recognizing
them as Chrysops. They may be differentiated by comparing the por-
tions of the descriptions and figures describing the frontal plates.

Chrysops dixianus Pechuman
Mature larva (Fig. 2): 14.5 mm long, whitish with extensive light
brown pubescence, darker caudally. Head capsule 1.66X0.36 mm wide.
Anal segment 1.06 mm long, nearly 1/3 greater than basal diameter.
Respiratory siphon 0.5 mm long, ca. 1/3 greater than basal diameter;


The Florida Entomologist

5 b 6
Fig. 5-6: Frontal plates of Tabanidae pupae (a=ventral view,
b=anterior view): 5) Chrysops brunneus; 6) C. dixianus.

stigmatal spine present. Striations on all aspects of all segments ex-
cept prothoracic dorsum; spacings ca. 0.033 mm, only slightly more
compressed on lateral surfaces. Pubescence on all segments as fol-
lows: anal segment entirely pubescent; anterior pubescence encircles
all segments, that on abdominal segments V-VII fainter and light in
color; prothoracic annulus with a single broad, fan-shaped, lateral
caudal projection; mesothoracic annulus with 4 slender, tapered, lateral
caudal projections, the middle 2 obviously shorter than the others
which cross nearly 1/2 on non-pubescent length; metathoracic annulus
with 2 short caudal projections, these on line with upper and lower
projections of preceding segment; anterior and pseudopodial pubes-
cence united dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally on all pseudopodial seg-
ments, appearing almost totally united on abdominal segments V-VII.
Pseudopodial pubescence forms complete annuli on all pseudopodial
segments. Posterior pubescence on abdominal segments II-VII, en-
circling at least IV-VII, absent midlaterally and dorsally and/or ven-
trally on II-III.
Female Pupa (Fig. 6): ca. 11.0 mm, yellowish brown, a little
darker dorsally and on cephalothorax. Antennal ridges subdivided
into median and lateral portions, the median portions sharply crested,
elevated ca. 0.07 mm, ca. 0.22 mm wide, slightly skewed mesally; lateral
portion represented by flattened projections only slightly raised above
surrounding surfaces. Callus tubercles irregularly circular in outline,
truncate apically, elevated ca. 0.09 mm, unisetose. Antennal sheaths
ca. 0.46 X 0.36 mm. Setae of head sessile, or vertical setae may be


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Goodwin: New Chrysops Species

very slightly tuberculate. Thoracic spiracle 0.40 mm long; spiracular
prominence exceeds dorsal thoracic margin ca. 0.15 mm. Meso- and
metanotal setae sessile. Tergal setae of abdominal segment I sessile,
lateral setae tuberculate. Spinous fringes of abdominal segments II-
VII uniseriate, attenuate, without evident gaps ventrally although
obviously reduced in size; fringe of tergum VII of 32 spines. Ven-
trolateral preanal combs of 4-6 spines. Dorsal, lateral, ventral tuber-
cles of aster ca. 0.16, 0.22, 0.16 mm long respectively.
Collection: The single larva was taken at the same locality as
noted for C. brunneus. The larva, however, was taken from the wet
mud and decomposing leaves at the margin of a permanent freshwater
lake. The area was shaded and essentially devoid of shoreline grasses.
Larvae of C. flavidus Wiedemann and C. montanus Osten Sacken were
taken in the same habitat.
Comments: Larvae of C. dixianus would key to couplet 7 in Tes-
key, agreeing most closely with C. celatus Pechuman from which they
can be distinguished as follows: in C. dixianus the anal segment is
entirely pubescent, the posterior annulus of the preanal segment lacks
anterior projections, and the upper and lower of the 4 caudal projec-
tions from the meso- and metathoracic anterior annuli are decidedly
longer than middle 2; in C. celatus some non-pubescent areas occur
very near anterior margin of anal segment, the posterior annulus of
the preanal segment bears at least 1 anterior projection laterally, and
the length differences noted above are not evident on meso- and meta-
thorax. Pupal distinctions are discussed above in comments on C.
C. dixianus was described very recently (Pechuman 1974). Adults
of the species had been considered variants of C. pudicus, the pupa of
which is described below. The degree of difference between pupae of
C. dixianus and C. pudicus indicates that the recognition of 2 species
is valid.

Chrysops dorsovittatus Hine
Mature larva (Fig. 4): ca. 14.5 mm long, whitish with light brown
pubescent pattern; stigmatal spine absent. Head capsule 1.59 X 0.36
mm. Anal segment 1.06 mm long, a little more than 1/3 its basal
diameter. Respiratory siphon 0.6 mm long, nearly 4 times its basal
diameter. Striations on all aspects of all segments, spacings ca. 0.22
dorsally and ventrally, slightly more compressed laterally. Pubescence
forming complete annuli on thoracic segments, these covering ca.
anterior 1/4, 1/5, 1/6 of pro-, meso-, and metathoracic segments, re-
spectively; thoracic pubescent annuli lack caudal projections; anterior
pubescence absent midlaterally from abdominal segments I-VII, the
non-pubescent area increasing in size caudally, absent middorsally
from abdominal segments VI-VII. Pseudopodial pubescence forms
complete annuli on abdominal segments I-II, absent between dorsal
and lateral pseudopodia on III-VII and between lateral and ventral
pseudopodia on VII; united with anterior pubescence dorsolaterally on
I-VII, ventrolaterally on I-III. Posterior pubescence present only on
preanal segment (VII) where it forms a complete annulus bearing a


The Florida Entomologist

single, short, midlateral, anterior projection. Pubescence of anal seg-
ment reduced; covers anal ridge and lobes; forms a short isolated
midlateral band that curves ventrally at anterior end; forms 2 distinct,
isolated dorsolateral spots above the midlateral band; forms 2 faint
anterior spots, 1 dorsolateral and 1 ventrolateral.
Male Pupa (Fig. 8): ca. 12.3 mm long, light brownish yellow ex-
cept for darker brown color of anterior half of thoracic dorsum and
the area of the head dorsal to the antennal sheaths and extending
laterally to the tips of the antennal sheaths. Antennal ridges small;
elevated ca. 0.07 mm above median cleft; strongly skewed towards
midline; lacking any evidence of a sublateral notch. Front smooth.
Callus tubercles viewed anteriorly with an irregularly triangular out-
line; apical surfaces ridged; each unisetose; elevated above frontal
surface ca. 12 mm. Vertical and orbital tubercles small, rounded.
Antennal sheaths ca. 0.39 X 0.30 mm. Thoracic spiracles ca. 0.45 mm
long; spiracular prominences extend anteriorly beyond dorsal thoracic
margin ca. 0.24 mm. Spinous fringes present on all aspects of ab-
dominal segments II-VII; spines attenuate and not much darker than
abdominal surface. Fringe of tergite VII with 58 spines. Ventral
preanal comb of 22 spines. Dorsal, lateral, and ventral tubercles 0.15,
0.24, 0.18 mm long, respectively.
Collection: A single specimen was taken at Torreya State Park,
Liberty Co., Florida, in wet organic silt covered by moss a few feet
from the margin of a small stream. The stream flowed in a valley
between two hills. The entire valley floor and 1/3-1/2 of the hillsides
bordering it were wet and silty. Numerous larvae of Tabanus petio-
latus, T. melanocerus, and C. geminatus, plus 5 larvae of Haematopota
punctulata Macquart, also were found at this site.
Comments: Larvae of C. dorsovittatus would key to the first half
of couplet 23 in the keys of Chrysops larvae furnished by Teskey
(1969). Separation of larvae of C. dorsovittatus from C. macquarti
may be made on the basis of anal segment pubescence. In the latter
pubescence extends from the anal lobes upward to encircle the anal
segment over the middle of the segment length; in the former only
isolated pubescent spots exist laterally, there being no dorsal pubes-
cence and no upward extension from the pubescence of the anal lobes.
Pupae, because of the unisetate condition of the callus tubercles, do
not conform to Teskey's characterization of the genus. However,
were it not for this discrepancy, pupae would key to the first half of
couplet 8 in Teskey's key to Chrysops pupae. The greater elevation
of callus tubercles and antennal ridges and greater number of spines
in the fringe of tergite VII of C. dorsovittatus would separate it from
C. niger.

Chrysops hinei Daecke
Mature larva (Fig. 3): 13 mm long, whitish with light brown pu-
bescent pattern. Head capsule 1.39 X 0.36 mm. Anal segment 1.16
mm long, slightly more than 1/3 basal diameter. Respiratory siphon
0.43 mm long, a little more than 1/2 greater than basal diameter.
Striations on all aspects of every segment except prothoracic dorsum;


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Goodwin: New Chrysops Species

dorsally and ventrally spacings ca. 0.033 mm, noticeably compressed
laterally where spacings ca. 0.02 mm. Pubescence on all segments as
follows; anterior pubescence encircles all but last 2 segments, being
absent midlaterally from abdominal segment VII, absent dorsolaterally
and ventrally from VIII (anal); prothoracic annulus broad, covering
nearly 2/3 of segment and lacking caudal projections; meso- and meta-
thoracic annuli broad, crossing roughly 1/3 of segments, the former
with 4 short lateral caudal projections, the latter with 2, these on line
with most dorsal and most ventral projections of mesothorax; anterior
pubescence united dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally with pseudopodial
pubescence on first 7 abdominal segments. Pseudopidal pubescence
always forming complete annuli. Anal segment entirely pubescent
except for a narrow irregular ring in anterior 1/4 of segment.
Pupa (Fig. 7): 10-11 mm long, yellowish brown, a little darker on
cephalothorax. Antennal ridges absent in male, small in female, ele-

a a

b 7 b 8
Fig. 7-8. Frontal plates of Tabanidae pupae (a=ventral view,
b=anterior view): 7) Chrysops hinei; 8) C. dorsovittatus.

vated at most 0.06 mm above median cleft, ca. 0.17 mm wide, lying
entirely perpendicular to longitudinal axis, at most weakly divided into
median and lateral portions by differences in elevation. Callus tuber-
cles elevated ca. 0.06 mm, truncate, bisetose, with irregular, roughly
circular basal outline. Antennal sheaths ca. 0.55 X 0.33 mm. Orbital
setae on very low tubercles, or sessile; vertical setae on moderately
developed tubercles. Thoracic spiracle ca. 0.36 mm long, comma
shaped; spiracular prominence exceeds dorsal thoracic margin ca. 0.15
mm. Setae of meso- and metathorax not tuberculate; basal alar setae
paired. Tergal setae of abdominal segment I sessile, pleural setae
tuberculate. Spinous fringes of segments II-VII uniseriate, attenu-
ate, not noticeably reduced ventrally; fringe of tergite VII of ca. 40


The Florida Entomologist

spines. Ventral or ventrolateral preanal combs composed of ca. 18 or
5-7 spines, respectively. Dorsal, lateral, and ventral tubercles of aster
ca. 0.22, 0.33, 0.19 mm long, respectively; all tubercles gradually ta-
pered to pointed apices; dorsal tubercles directed vertically, parallel,
widely separated in female, slanted mesally in male so that ips nearly
touch or slightly overlap.
Collection: Six larvae (3 reared) were taken from 2 areas. Four
larvae were taken from a roadside borrow pit beside Georgia State
Highway 177 approximately 6 miles west of U. S. Highway 23. This
locality is in Ware Co., in the northeastern corner of the Okefenokee
Swamp. The larvae were under 18 inches of water and nearly 20 ft.
from shore. The bottom was silty, very wet, and highly organic. The
other 2 larvae were taken from wet mud beneath, or mixed in, the
roots of shoreline grasses at the margin of a roadside borrow pit about
5 miles south of the Georgia State line along U. S. Highway 441 in
Columbia Co., Florida. The first collection was made in March and
the second in late May, 1972. Pupation in all cases occurred in late
Comments: Larvae of C. hinei would key to couplet 3 in Teskey
where neither alternative is applicable, because the prothoracic an-
nulus is very broad and lacks caudal projections, and the meso- and
metathoracic annuli are moderately broad and have 4 and 2 lateral
caudal projections, respectively. These 2 characters taken together
will separate these larvae from other known Chrysops. Pupae of C.
hinei are dimorphic, the females bearing antennal ridges, the males
lacking these ridges. Males would key to the combination of C. parvu-
lus Daecke, C. nigribimbo Whitney (couplet 1) and females to C. uni-
vittatus Macquart (couplet 7). Separation in either case is difficult.

Chrysops pudicus Osten Sacken
Male Pupa (Fig. 9): ca. 10.5 mm long, yellowish brown, the entire
dorsum darker. Antennal ridges small, entire, slightly skewed mesally,
elevated ca. 0.06 mm, apically crested. Callus tubercles bisetose,
gnarled, irregularly ovoid, elevated ca. 0.06 mm. Antennal sheaths
ca. 0.43 X 0.3 mm. Remaining setae of head on low, ridgelike tuber-
cles. Thoracic spiracle ca. 0.43 mm long, evenly bowed; spiracular
prominence exceeds anterior thoracic margin ca. 0.15 mm. Setae of
meso- and metathorax not tuberculate. Dorsolateral setae of abdomi-
nal segment I not tuberculate, lateral setae tuberculate. Fringes of
abdominal segments II-VII complete, shorter and weaker on venter;
fringe of tergite VII of ca. 24 spines. Ventral preanal comb of ca. 24
spines. Dorsal, lateral, ventral tubercles of aster 0.26, 0.37, 0.22 mm
long, respectively, slender and more or less gradually tapered to apices.
Collection: The single specimen was loaned for study by Dr. Kirby
L. Hays. It was taken in Baldwin Co., Alabama, II-IV-1964, by R. L.
Watson. Habitat data are not available.
Comments: The pupa of C. pudicus, like that of C. hinei noted
above, would key to C. univittatus (couplet 7) in Teskey. However,

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


Goodwin: New Chrysops Species

the spinous fringe of tergite VII numbers only ca. 24 spines, whereas
pupae of C. univittatus and C. hinei have fringes of 30 or more spines.

b 9

Fig. 9. Frontal plate of Tabanidae pupa of Chrysops pudicus (a=
ventral view, b= anterior view).

GOODWIN, J. T. 1972. Immature stages of some eastern Nearctic
Tabanidae (Diptera). I. Introduction and the Genus Chrysops
Meigen. J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 7(2):98-109.
PECHUMAN, L. L. 1974. Two new Tabanidae from southeastern
United States (Diptera). J. New York Ent. Soc. 82(3):183-8.
TESKEY, H. J. 1969. Larvae and pupae of some eastern North Amer-
ican Tabanidae (Diptera). Mem. Ent. Soc. Canada 63:1-147.
TIDWELL, M. A. 1973. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of Louisiana. Tu-
lane Studies in Zool. and Botany 18(1&2) :1-95.


The Florida Entomologist

WATERHYACINTH CONTROL1 (Note). Neochetina eichhorniae
Warner was imported in 1972 to combat the weed, waterhyacinth, Eichhornia
crassipes (Mart.) Solms (B. D. Perkins, 1973. Proc. 26 Annu. Meet. S.
Weed Sci. Soc. Abstr. 368). Established field sites have been useful sources
of weevils for distribution to other sites. Removing the weevils from the
waterhyacinth plants, however, is a slow process, even though field popula-
tions exceed 200 adult weevils/m2 in some Fort Lauderdale sites. A collector
must break the petioles and separate them to find adult weevils, which hide
at the petiole base, and there is no way of knowing before examination
whether a plant has a large adult population or none. A good collector using
this system averages ca. 100 weevils/hr. Methods tried but found ineffective
for improving collecting efficiency include light traps, sweep nets, a vacuum-
type insect sampler, and laboratory extraction using a Berlese funnel. An
effective collecting technique was found while handpicking weevils in the
field over a 2-day period. Plants examined the first day were checked the
second day and found to have more weevils than undisturbed plants. To
determine whether breaking plants in the first examination had increased
their attractiveness, adult weevils were removed from each of 20 plants in a
heavily-infested field site and counted. These plants were then broken and
the petioles bent and separated. Ten plants had their central fresh petiole
broken at the base and removed, and 10 had the central petioles broken at
the base and left in place. The next day the same plants were examined,
and the numbers of adults recorded. Another 20 undisturbed plants were
examined as controls. In addition, since the first 2 days were sunny, a study
was conducted during the next 2 days, which were overcast. The results
were as follows:
Weevils/ Weevils/ Weevils/
Weather undisturbed undisturbed broken
condition plant,,b plants plant.
Sunny 5.0 1.1 4.8--0.9 39.3 + 4.2
Overcast 4.0-1-0.7 3.1 0.9 43.1--4.1

a Avg. + s.e.; b these plants were the same undisturbed plants examined and broken during
first day examination when all weevils were removed.

The difference was highly significant (P 0.001) between the numbers col-
lected from undisturbed and from broken plants.
No significant difference was found between numbers of weevils collected
from undisturbed or broken plants under different weather conditions or
from undisturbed plants on consecutive days. Moreover, plants with petiole
broken and removed and plants with petiole broken but left in place had
more weevils than the controls. A maximum of 88 adults was collected on
a disturbed plant during sunny weather and 98 during overcast weather.
Perhaps an attractive aroma was released by breaking the waterhyacinth.
This may explain why a field plant has often been found to bear several adult
insects while many adjacent plants have had none; feeding by a single insect
could release the chemical which attracts other weevils.
Trap plants can be prepared in the field 1 day before collection by twisting
and breaking the central petioles. B. David Perkins, USDA, ARS. Florida
Area, SRAO; M. M. Lovarco, Univ. Fla. Agri. Res. Cen.; and Willey C.
Durden, USDA, ARS, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314.

'Cooperative research of the Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Fla. Dep. of Natural
Resources, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and Central and So. Fla.
Flood Control District.


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

The Florida Entomologist



Department of Biological Sciences
Fordham University, Bronx, N. Y. 10458

The mesostenine genus Cyclaulus, previously known only from east
Andean cloud forests between northwest Argentina and Colombia, is re-
ported for the first time from the Peruvian Coastal Desert. Cyclaulus
eremia n. sp. is described from Samne, Peru, and the Valle de Lluta in
northernmost Chile.

During July and August of 1975 I collected 2 specimens of an unde-
scribed mesostenine ichneumonid belonging to the genus Cyclaulus, 1 from
Samne in the north Peruvian Coastal Desert and the other from 1500 km
farther south near Arica in the Chilean part of the same biotic province. Cy-
claulus previously has been known only from Andean cloud forests be-
tween Colombia and northwest Argentina (Townes, 1969:171); therefore, it
was surprising to take this wet-adapted genus from 2 widely separated river
valleys in one of the world's driest deserts. Herewith I describe the new de-
sertic Cyclaulus, compare it with the other known species of the genus, and
discuss the biogeographic implications of its presence on the west coast of
South America.
A grant from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the Na-
tional Geographic Society supported my South American fieldwork. Col-
lecting at Samne, Peru, was facilitated by Mr. Hans Stein and Mr. Francis
Wise of Northern Peru Mining Company, who arranged lodging in the
company's guest house at that remote locality. Ing. Alfonso Matta and
Ing. Juan Pacheco W. of the Universidad del Norte at Arica provided an
official vehicle and other assistance for my work in northern Chile.

Genus Cyclaulus Townes
Cyclaulus Townes, 1969:171-172.
The following diagnosis will separate Cyclaulus from all other South
American genera of the Tribe Mesostenini: front without a projecting tooth
or horn; mandible broad, its teeth subequal; last female flagellomere
apically truncate; clypeus low and gently convex in profile, its apex
armed with a median tooth; mesoscutum finely and densely punctate, vary-
ing from completely mat to partly shining, notaulus faintly to strongly
impressed and reaching about 3/5 length of mesoscutum; sternaulus reach-
ing a little more than half the length of mesopleuron and then turned up
toward speculum; hind rim of metanotum without a small projection just
laterad of each side of postscutellum; areolet moderately large, the inter-

'Contribution No. 353, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.
'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agri-
culture and Consumer Services, Gainesville.

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


354 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

cubiti convergent dorsad; mediella gently arched; axillus close to hind
margin of wing; female front tibia strongly inflated; fourth female front
tarsomere not bilobed at apex; hind coxa without a groove on its anterior
surface; propodeum with spiracle round, pleural carina obsolete, and
apical trans-carina medially weakened or complete and sublaterally de-
veloped into weak cristae; first gastric tergite short and stout with spiracle
only a little behind middle, ventrolateral carina sharp throughout, dorso-
lateral carina varying from clearly traceable to indistinct, and dorsal
carinae absent or faint; second tergite mat with abundant fine punctures
and many short setae that approximately equal the length of their inter-
spaces; ovipositor compressed and rather stout, its sheathed portion 0.3 as
long as fore wing, its dorsal valve on tip with a faint notch and rudimen-
tary nodus, the ventral valve on tip with nearly vertical ridges and some-
times produced into a lobe which partly covers dorsal valve.

1. Mesoscutum mat with uniform fine puncto-reticulation; post-
petiole 1.3-1.4 as wide apically as long from spiracle to apex;
mesosoma black with sparse white markings; gaster with broad
white apical bands on tergites 1 and 7 and narrower white apical
band on tergite 2 ................................................................ C erem ia n. sp.
1'. Mesoscutum centrad on each lobe becoming contrastingly
shinier with reduced wrinkling and subadjacent to sparser punc-
tures; postpetiole 1.0 as wide apically as long from spiracle to
apex; mesosoma pale red with profuse white markings including
median spot on mesoscutum, large blotch on lower front
quadrant of mesopleuron, and large blotch on lower meta-
pleuron; gaster with broad white apical bands on tergites 1-7
......................... .......................................................... C trisp ilus T ow nes

Cyclaulus eremia Porter, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 1, 2)
FEMALE. Color: scape mostly shining pale brown; pedicel and flagel-
lum blackish brown above and a little paler brown below; head and meso-
soma black with variably intense pale brown staining on apical 1/3 of
clypeus, median 1/3 of mandible, mandibular condyle, broadly on an-
teriolateral region of pronotum, on front and hind margin of mesopleu-
ron, almost throughout on mesosternum, on about lower 1/5 of meta-
pleuron and adjoining metasternum, and on apical rim of propodeum, as
well as with the following white pattern: blotch covering basal 1/3 of
mandible; large blotch on clypeus; orbital ring, interrupted briefly at
bottom of eye, which is narrower on front orbit and becomes wider ventrad
on hind orbit whence it reaches broadly across malar space below; large
transverse area on dorsum of pronotal collar; band on dorso-lateral area
of pronotum from upper end of epomia to apex; small spot on inner hind
corner of tegula; most of axillary sclerites; anterior 1/4 and narrow apical
margin of scutellum; large blotch on speculum; and pair of oblique
stripes laterally on posterio-dorsal aspect of propodeum covering cristae;
gaster dull red with some irregular blackish staining and with a broad white

Porter: Cyclaulus eremia, n. s.p.

Fig. 1. Cyclaulus eremia, female holotype. Lateral view of body showing
color pattern.

apical band on tergite 1, a narrower white apical band on tergite 2, a small
white mark near hind corner of 3, some white in hind corner and on lateral
margin of 6, and a very broad white apical band on tergite 7; legs with
femora, tibiae, and tarsi dull red to reddish brown with some dusky staining
and fore coxa black with a large white area before and behind, fore tro-
chanter black above with white below and throughout on tip, fore trochan-
tellus dark brown above and white below, mid coxa, trochanter, and tro-
chantellus like those of fore leg except for much dull red staining an-
teriorly and ventrally on coxa, hind coxa dull red with blackish on about
basal 2/3 above and a white spot above at base, and hind trochanter and
trochantellus dull red with blackish staining; wings hyaline with a slight
dusky tinge on apical 1/10 of fore wing and more briefly on hind wing, the
stigma dull pale brownish.
Length of fore wing: 7.5 mm. Front: mostly with dense reticulate wrink-
ling. Occiput: nearly mat with abundant small, subadjacent punctures and
delicate intercalated wrinkling. Malar space: 0.8 as long as basal width
of mandible. Mesoscutum: mat with almost uniform fine puncto-reticu-
lation; notauli only faintly impressed, especially beyond basal 1/4.
Mesopleuron: largely with fine and dense reticulate wrinkling; dorsally
curved part of sternaulus very weakly impressed. Metapleuron: with fine
reticulate wrinkling throughout on lower division. Wing venation: bra-
chiella 1.0 as long as lower part of nervellus. Propodeum: area basad of
basal trans-carina with more or less uniform strong puncto-reticulation;
cristae elongate and weakly crescentic. First gastric tergite: postpetiole
1.3-1.4 as wide apically as long from spiracle to apex, its surface finely
shagreened with sparse punctures. Ovipositor: ventral valve moderately
overlaps dorsal valve on tip.


356 The Florida Entomologist

Fig. 2. Map. Distribution of Cyclaulus eremia in Peru and northern Chile.

Vol. 59, No. 4Q, 1976

Porter: Cyclaulus eremia, n. s.p. 357

MALE. Unknown.
TYPE MATERIAL. Holotype female: PERU, La Libertad Department,
Samne, 1500 m., 12-20-VII-1975, C. Porter, L. Stange. Paratype: female,
CHILE, Tarapaca Province, Molinos nr. Poconchile in the Valle de Lluta,
2-VIII-1975, C. Porter, A. Matta. Holotype in Florida State Collection
of Arthropods, Gainesville. Paratype in collection of Charles C. Porter
at McAllen, Texas.
VARIATION. The paratype female differs from the holotype in the fol-
lowing minor features: Color: scape and flagellum paler brown; clypeus
pale brown except for the central white blotch; head otherwise with a
little brownish staining on face and considerable brownish on lower 3/4 of
posterior half of temple; lower metapleuron stained with dull reddish
brown; propodeal cristae dull reddish brown without any white; broad
white band on most of lower margin of pronotum beginning at ventral end
of epomia; no white on apex of scutellum; anterior margin of mesopleuron
brownish white; white apical band of tergite 2 interrupted on about median
2/3; no white on tergites 3 or 6; no black staining on hind coxa. Length of
fore wing: 5.9 mm. Occiput: a little more shining and with less fine wrink-
ling than in holotype. Propodeum: cristae more weakly defined than in
holotype; area basad of basal trans-carina a little less densely puncto-
reticulate, especially mesad.
FIELD NOTES AND BIOGEOGRAPHY. Samne, the holotype locality, is in a
fertile river valley of the north Peruvian Coastal Desert 80 km east of
Trujillo. The valley and surrounding slopes are covered mostly by thorn
scrub that includes small trees of the genera Prosopis and Acacia as well
as many cacti and grasses. However, some narrow, shady, north-south
oriented ravines come down at right angles into the main valley. Here a
lusher growth of herbaceous plants and small shrubs flourishes in the
humid micro-environment. It was in one of these ravines that I collected
the first specimen of C. eremia. Besides Cyclaulus, numerous other typically
wet forest ichneumonid genera, such as the mesostenines Baltazaria, Basi-
leucus, Biconus, Diapetimorpha, Lymeon, and Messatoporus, were taken
from sheltered quebradas at Samne. Indeed, on the basis of flora and insect
fauna we may regard the Samne biota as a degraded cloud forest com-
munity. Only 300 km north of Samne we see at comparable altitudes on
the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes the beginnings of genuinely humid
woodlands. For example at 33 km east of Olmos on the road to Ja6n there
are shaded, well-watered ravines which support a growth of moderately
large trees covered with epiphytic bromeliads. Farther north these rather
sparse woods merge with the exuberant cloud forests of Ecuador. Evidently,
Cyclaulus and other wet-adapted ichneumonid genera moved southward
along the western Andean slopes of Peru at some time in the past (perhaps
the most recent Pleistocene glacial maximum) when rainfall was greater
than now and permitted existence of a continuous strip of cloud forest at
least as far south as Samne. At present rainfall has decreased and the forest
has retreated northward, leaving behind remnants of its biota in isolated
humid refugia.
The paratype of C. eremia was swept from an alfalfa field at Molinos
in the Valle de Lluta of extreme northern Chile about 1500 km south of
Samne and in a much drier part of the Coastal Desert. At Samne the sides
of the valley far above the river are covered with xerophilous vegetation,

358 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

but in northern Chile there is so little rain (about 0.5 mm per year) that
the plant and animal life below 3000 m is confined to narrow green strips
along those few rivers which flow down to the ocean from the high Andes.
Furthermore, conditions but slightly less rigorous prevail all along the
Peruvian coast from Trujillo southward. Only at elevations above 1500
m (in the north) to 3000 m (in the south) is there enough rain for a con-
tinuous band of vegetation to cover the western slopes of the Andes. This
vegetation, which is mostly puna or high Andean steppe, provides a corridor
for north-south migration of cold-adapted ichneumonid genera such as
Trachysphyrus and Thymebatis (e.g. Trachysphyrus metallicus ranges all
the way from Ecuador to northern Chile) but is not suitable for tropical
elements like Cyclaulus. Consequently, south of the northern third of the
Coastal Desert, populations of Cyclaulus and other wet forest ichneu-
monids are isolated in widely scattered river valleys which may be sepa-
rated from one another by scores or hundreds of nearly lifeless desert
kilometers. If such isolation were long-standing, we would expect to find
specific or at least subspecific distinctions between populations shut off
in each valley. On the contrary, the paratype of Cyclaulus eremia shows
only minor differences from the holotype. In fact, the entire hymenop-
terous fauna of northermost Chile turns out to be a moderately impov-
erished sample of the same species and genera common throughout much
of the Peruvian Coastal Desert. Some cases of this distributional pattern
in addition to C. eremia are provided by the ichneumonids Itoplectis phoeno-
gaster, Coccygomimus punicipes and a new species of Tromatobia, the
eumenid Pachodynerus peruensis, the vespid Polistes weyrauchorum, and
the sphecid Sphex peruanus. Consequently, we must view as a recent
phenomenon today's extreme isolation in river valleys of low and middle
altitude desert species populations. Since the desert results from inter-
action of the cold Humboldt Current and the Andes mountains, western
Peru certainly has been very arid since late Tertiary times when the Andes
reached their greatest height. However, during Pleistocene glacial maxima
the wetter and cooler zone on mountainsides above the coastal plain may
have received more rain than it does now and also would have been de-
pressed to lower altitudes. Possibly at that time lush cloud forests reached
as far south as Trujillo in Peru and many cloud forest taxa ranged con-
tinuously to northern Chile. This idea is supported not only by the present
day distribution of Cyclaulus and many other insects but also by certain
plant distributions. For example, the rosacean tree Polylepis grows in a
few wet quebradas along the lower edge of the puna at 3000 m above Arica,
Chile (e.g. near Bel6n). This far south Polylepis is the only tree, but north-
ward in the Andes it usually forms the uppermost stratum of cloud forest
communities. In any case and whatever the precise mechanism, most
species now present in Tarapaca Province of Chile must have come from
the north because the 3000-4000 m high altiplano at this latitude is so broad
that any eastward connection would be limited to puna elements, while,
south of Tarapaca there extends more than 1000 km of absolute desert (the
driest on earth), so that the very different biota of semiarid central Chile
now has no possible contact (below the puna) with that of Tarapaca from
which it seems to have been isolated since the late Tertiary.
RELATIONSHIPS. The only other described species of Cyclaulus is C.
trispilus from east Andean cloud forests of northern Argentina. Eremia

Porter: Cyclaulus eremia, n. s.p.


rather closely resembles trispilus but may be distinguished by the charac-
ters given in the key as well as by the following additional details: scu-
tellum white only on anterior 3/4 instead of almost throughout; fore and
mid coxae black with a large white area before and behind instead of white
with a black apico-dorsal spot; no white below on fore and mid femur and
front tibia; hind coxa dull red with blackish staining on basal 2/3 above
and a small white spot above at base instead of black and red with large
white areas dorso-basally and ventro-apically; malar space 0.8 instead of
0.7 as long as basal width of mandible; mesopleuron with reticulate rather
than longitudinal wrinkling; dorsally curved part of sternaulus weaker;
brachiella about as long as lower part of nervellus instead of only half
as long; propodeal cristae crescentic rather than weakly tuberculate; and
ventral valve of ovipositor more strongly overlapping dorsal valve on
SPECIFIC NAME. Eremia, used here in apposition, is a Greek noun mean-
ing "desert."

Cyclaulus trispilus Townes
Cyclaulus trispilus Townes, 1969:171-172. Holotype: female, ARGENTINA:
Horco Molle near San Miguel de TucumAn in TucumAn Province (Collec-
tion of Henry and Marjorie Townes, Ann Arbor, Michigan).
FEMALE. Color: scape shining brownish black with a small dull
whitish spot beneath; pedicel and flagellum blackish brown, tending to be
a little paler beneath; head black with a little irregular brownish stain-
ing, especially on antennal sockets, slightly on face, around anterior base
of mandible, and on apical 1/4 of clypeus as well as with white on a very
broad orbital ring that is interrupted only briefly on bottom of eye and
which covers most of temple behind and also reaches below across most of
malar space, on a large transverse blotch covering most of clypeus, and
on about basal 1/3 of mandible; mesosoma pale red with blackish staining
narrowly on upper part of front margin of pronotal collar, medio-dor-
sally on apical half of pronotum, on lower part of prepectus, above and
narrowly behind subalarum, in prescutellar area, irregularly in axillary
troughs of meso- and metanotum, on ventral half of front margin of lower
metapleuron, and on submetapleural carina as well as with profuse white
markings as follows: large blotch on propleuron; broad band on most of
anterior margin of pronotum; broad band for all but a short distance medi-
ally on dorsal margin of pronotum; median spot on mesoscutum between
ends of notauli; most of scutellum and of postscutellum; subalarum;
speculum; very large blotch in lower front quadrant of mesopleuron be-
tween prepectal carina and upturned sternaulus; upper end of mesepimeron;
very large blotch over most of dorsal 2/3 of lower metapleuron; and a
pair of blotches on upper hind aspect of propodeum covering cristae; gaster
dull pale red with extensive blackish staining on most tergites and a broad
white apical band on tergites 1-7; front and mid coxae white with an apico-
dorsal black spot; all trochanters and trochantelli white with black
above on basal 2/3-3/4 of trochanters and black to brownish above through-
out on trochantelli; femora, tibiae, and tarsi dull brownish red becoming
a little more dusky on tarsi, with femora narrowly darker brown above
near base, with white below on most of front femur and about basal half

360 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

of mid femur, and dull white below on front tibia; hind coxa black with a
large white blotch occupying most of basal 2/3 above, with another large
white blotch on apex whence it extends anteriad below to cover most of
apical 3/4 of ventral surface, and with much pale red staining basad on
anterior face; wings hyaline with a slight trace of dusky staining apicad,
the stigma dull pale brown.
Length of fore wing: 6.1 mm. Front: with fine reticulate wrinkling cen-
trad but becoming broadly smooth and shining laterally and below.
Occiput: shining with numerous mostly sparser than subadjacent punctures
and with a little intercalated wrinkling. Malar space: 0.7 as long as basal
width of mandible. Mesoscutum: peripherally mat with fine puncto-
reticulation but centrad on each lobe becoming shining with reduced wrink-
ling and subadjacent to sparser punctures; notauli almost throughout
rather sharply impressed. Mesopleuron: in great part with moderately fine
longitudinal wrinkling; dorsally curved part of sternaulus shallow but
clearly traceable to speculum. Metapleuron: throughout on lower di-
vision with rather strong, mostly oblique wrinkling. Wing venation: bra-
chiella about half as long as lower part of nervellus. Propodeum: area
basad of basal trans-carina with fine wrinkling and well spaced punctures,
becoming narrowly smooth and shining mesad; cristae broad and low,
weakly tuberculate. First gastric tergite: postpetiole 1.0 as wide apically
as long from spiracle to apex, its surface mostly with conspicuous fine
reticulate wrinkling and small, dense intercalated punctures. Ovipositor:
ventral valve only slightly overlaps dorsal valve on tip.
MALE. See Townes (1969:171-172).
SPECIMENS EXAMINED. 1 female, ARGENTINA, Tucuman Province,
Trancas Department, Tacanas, 11-IX-1971, C. Porter. (In collection of
Charles C. Porter, McAllen, Texas).
FIELD NOTES. C. trispilus inhabits the subtropical wet forest known as
Selva Tucumano-Boliviana which extends somewhat disjunctly at alti-
tudes between 500 and 1800 m along the eastern fringe of the Andes in the
northwest Argentine provinces of Tucumdn, Salta, and Jujuy. It may be
collected by sweeping herbaceous undergrowth in damp, shady places, and,
like most north Argentine ichneumonids, it flies throughout the year but
becomes most common in spring and fall.

TOWNES, H. K. 1969. Genera of Ichneumonidae, Part 2: Gelinae. Mem.
Amer. Ent. Inst. 12:1-537.

The Florida Entomologist


Department of Biology, University of Rochester
Rochester, New York 14627

The genus Caribchthonius is defined with C. butler, new species,
from St. John, U. S. Virgin Islands, as the type species. C. orthodenta-
tus, from Belize, is also described.

Among pseudoscorpions which I collected recently on St. John, U. S.
Virgin Islands, were representatives of a new species belonging to the
family Chthoniidae. Shortly thereafter, I received several collections
of pseudoscorpions made by M. & C. Goodnight in Belize, one of which
contained a single individual of another new species, congeneric with
the St. John form. The genus to which these belong has not been
recognized until now, and, together with the new species, is described
Caribchthonius Muchmore, NEW GENUS
Type species: Caribchthonius butler Muchmore, new species.
DESCRIPTION: With the general characters of the family Chthoni-
idae. All parts lightly sclerotized and colored. Carapace longer than
broad, only slightly narrowed posteriorly; anterior margin with epis-
tome and spinules; no eyes; chaetotaxy 6-4-4-2-4= 20. Apex of palpal
coxa broadly trapezoidal and coxa I without an apical projection; no
intercoxal tubercle. Setae on apex of palpal coxa straight, subequal
in length; coxa I with no setae on medial edge; coxae I, II and III
with flat, fringed scales (=coxal spines) medially; coxa II with a
short, heavy seta in an enlarged base just lateral to the group of scales.
Tergites and sternites entire; 11th sternite greatly reduced; pleural
membranes with fine longitudinal striations. Tergal chaetotaxy usu-
ally 4:4:4:6:6:6:6:6:6:4:T2T:0. Chaetotaxy of genital area in male
generally typical; internal genitalia of male with only 3 lateral gland
openings on each side (Legg 1974:71); anterior genital operculum of
female with 6-8 setae in an irregular, transverse row; lateral setae of
sternites 5-7 reduced in size. Chelicera about 0.75 as long as cara-
pace; hand with 5 setae; flagellum of 8 pinnate setae; spinneret a
distinct knob in both sexes. Palps generally of chthoniid faces, but
rather stout and with femur noticeably expanded distally. Setae on
medial side of femur large and stout, those on lateral side small. Tri-
chobothria remarkable only in that sb is nearer to b than to st on mov-
able finger, and ist is far distad of esb on fixed finger (much as in

'Contribution No. 363, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agri-
culture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


The Florida Entomologist

Pseudochthonius). Marginal teeth of both fingers low, cusped, and
either contiguous or slightly spaced; fixed finger with a small, internal,
accessory denticle at distal end. Movable finger with 2 darkened
structures (which may be sensilla), one near tip and one near tri-
chobothrium sb. Legs typical but stout.
ETYMOLOGY: The genus is named for the Carib Indians, who
formerly inhabited the region where it is found.
REMARKS: The genus Caribchthonius is nearly unique in the

1 3

Fig. 1-4. Caribchthonius butler, new species. 1) Pedal coxae I-IV;
2) Coxal scales, surface and lateral views; 3) Genital opercula of
male; 4) Genital opercula of female.


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Muchmore: New Pseudoscorpion Genus

family in having coxal spines (scales) on pedal coxae I and II and III,
most other genera having such spines only on coxa I, or on coxa II, or
on both I and II, or on both II and III, or none at all. Only in some
species of Pseudochthonius (Muchmore 1977) are spines also found
on coxa III as well as on I and II. Caribchthonius is also similar to
Pseudochthonius in the placement of the trichobothria on the papal
chela, in the general body chaetotaxy, and in the occurrence of only
3 pairs of lateral gland openings in the male genitalia; but it is easily
distinguished from the latter genus by the nearly contiguous teeth on
the chelal fingers and by the lack of eyes.
The occurrence of coxal scales (spines) on coxae I-III may be con-
strued as a primitive feature in Caribchthonius. It is conceivable that
the ancestral chthoniid developed simple scales (function unknown)
on the first three pedal coxae. As these became more complex by the
addition of fringing rays and by lengthening into spines, they also be-
came restricted (for economy or efficiency) to 2 or 1 pair of coxae. It
is tempting, but premature, to use the nature and distribution of the
coxal spines as the prime basis for a consideration of phylogenetic
relationships among the genera of the Chthoniidae and Tridenchthoni-
Caribchthonius butler Muchmore, NEW SPECIES
MATERIAL: Holotype male (WM3713:03003) and 23 paratypes (3
males, 20 females) taken by Tullgren funnel separation of forest litter
from along Reef Bay Trail, Virgin Islands National Park, St. John.
U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, 13-VI-1974, by the author; subsequently, many

7\ ---

Fig. 5-7. Caribchthonius butler, new species. 5) Dorsal view of
palp; 6) Lateral view of chela; 7) Representative teeth from middle
of fixed finger of chela.


The Florida Entomologist

more specimens were collected at the original location and also in
various litter at Cinnamon Bay, Windberg and Coral Bay on St. John
(17-30-VII-1975). The types are deposited in the Florida State Col-
lection of Arthropods, Gainesville.
DIAGNOSIS: Slightly larger than C. orthodentatus Muchmore, with
palpal femur 0.385-0.41 mm long; and with teeth of chelal fingers
slightly retrorse and contiguous.
DESCRIPTION (based upon 3 males and 8 females mounted on
slides): Males and females are very similar except for genital struc-
tures. All sclerotized parts light tan. Carapace a little longer than
broad, slightly narrowed posteriorly; anterior margin with small epi-
stome and 15-20 tiny denticles; no eyes present; surface essentially
smooth, chaetotaxy 6-4-4-2-4=20. Coxae generally normal in propor-
tions; apex of palpal coxa broadly trapezoidal, and coxa I without an
apical projection; no intercoxal tubercle. Coxal chaetotaxy 2-3-1:3-2-
CS:2-2-m-CS:2-6-CS:2-6 (Fig. 1); setae on apex of palpal coxa
straight and subequal in length; coxa I with no microsetae on apex,
with 2 flat, fringed scales (Fig. 2) at posterior medial angle; coxa II
with 6-7 similar scales in 2 unequal rows on medial surface, and with
a short, stout seta (m) set in an enlarged socket just lateral to the
group of scales; coxa III with 2 scales near anterior medial angle;
coxa IV without scales or other unusual features; on coxae I-III the
area around scales depressed and roughened.
Abdominal tergites and sternites entire; 11th sternite greatly re-
duced; surfaces nearly smooth; pleural membranes with fine longitu-
dinal striations. Tergal chaetotaxy 4:4:4:6:6:6:6:6:6:4 :T2T:0;
sternal chaetotaxy of male 8:[3-3]:(2) 9(2):(2)8(2):10:10:8:9:8:
1T1T1:0:2, genital opercula as in Fig. 3 (the figures in brackets in
the formula [3-3] refer to the openings of the lateral glands intern-
ally; these were formerly referred to in chthoniids as internal guard
setae); sternal chaetotaxy of female similar to that of male but with
genital opercula 8:(2)11(2), as in Fig. 4; lateral setae on sternites 5-7
reduced in size.
Chelicera fairly robust, about 0.75 as long as carapace; hand with
5 setae; flagellum of 8 pinnate setae; fixed finger with 9-10 marginal
teeth and movable finger with an isolated distal denticle and 8 margi-
nal teeth, the teeth on both fingers evenly graded in size from tip to
base; spinneret a distinct knob, equally developed in male and female;
serrula exterior with 15-16 blades.
Palp generally of chthoniid facies, but rather stout and with femur
noticeably expanded distally (Fig. 5); femur about as long as cara-
pace, and chela 1.5-1.6 times as long as those; femur 3.4-3.6, tibia 1.6-
1.85, and chela 3.95-4.3 times as long as broad; hand 1.4-1.5 times as
long as deep; movable finger 1.55-1.75 times as long as hand. Surface
of femur scaly, other segments essentially smooth; vestitural setae
small on lateral surfaces, fairly stout on medial surfaces, especially on
femur. Trichobothria positioned as shown in Fig. 6. Movable chelal
finger with 35-43 slightly retrorse, contiguous marginal teeth (Fig.


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Muchmore: New Pseudoscorpion Genus

7); fixed finger with 48-57 similar marginal teeth and 1 small acces-
sory denticle on internal surface near 5th marginal tooth; marginal
teeth on both fingers less well developed at ends of rows. Movable
finger with 2 darkened structures, which appear to be sensilla or the
nervous apparatus associated with sensilla, 1 just inside the tip and
the other on the lateral surface near the dental margin, distal to tri-
chobothrium sb.
Legs generally typical but quite stout; leg IV with entire femur
1.95-2.1 and tibia 3.1-3.4 times as long as deep. Leg IV with tactile
setae on metatarsus and telotarsus.
MEASUREMENTS (mm): Body length 1.15-1.36. Carapace length
0.37-0.43. Chelicera 0.27-0.31 by 0.13-0.16. Palpal trochanter 0.155-
0.17 by 0.09-0.105; femur 0.385-0.41 by 0.11-0.115; tibia 0.185-0.22 by
0.11-0.125; chela 0.59-0.65 by 0.14-0.16; hand 0.23-0.25 by 0.155-0.17;
movable finger 0.38-0.415 long. Leg IV: entire femur 0.34-0.355 by
0.16-0.18; tibia 0.215-0.235 by 0.065-0.075; metatarsus 0.12-0.13 by
0.045-0.06; telotarsus 0.21-0.22 by 0.03-0.04.
ETYMOLOGY: The species is named for Dr. and Mrs. Robert E.
Butler, whose hospitality made possible the collection of the specimens
on St. John.
REMARKS: On St. John this species was found in slightly moist
to relatively dry litter, in company with the following other kinds of
pseudoscorpions: Pseudochthonius sp., Tyrannochthonius sp., Vesci-
chitra sp., Pachychitra sp., Olpiolum sp., Aphelolpium sp., and Planctol-
pium sp.

Caribchthonius orthodentatus Muchmore, NEW SPECIES
Material: Holotype female (WM2952.01001), collected at Corozal,
Belize, 14-VII-1972, by M. Goodnight. The type is in the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville.
DIAGNOSIS: Smaller than C. butler, with palpal femur about 0.35
mm long; and with teeth of palpal chela perpendicular to margin
rather than retrorse and spaced, in part.
DESCRIPTION OF FEMALE: All parts very light in color. Carapace
a little longer than broad, anterior margin with conspicuous, serrate
epistome flanked by numerous small denticles; no eyes; surface smooth
dorsally, becoming reticulate laterally; chaetotaxy 6-4-4-2-4=20.
Coxae as in C. butler; no intercoxal tubercle. Coxal chaetotaxy 2-3-1:
3-2-CS:2-2-m-CS:2-6-CS:2-6; coxa I with 3 spinous scales at posterior
medial angle; coxa II with 8-10 similar but larger scales on medial
surface and a short, stout seta in enlarged base lateral to the scales
(Fig. 8); coxa III with a single scale or spine at anterior medial angle.
Abdomen as in C. butler. Tergal chaetotaxy 4:4:4:5:6:6:6:6:6:
4:T2T:0; sternal chaetotaxy 8:(2)10(2) :(2)8(2) :7:7:7:8:6:1T1T1:
0:2; setae on anterior genital operculum in irregular, transverse row.
Chelicera robust, 0.77 as long as carapace; hand with 5 setae; fla-
gellum of 8 pinnate setae; fixed finger with 9 marginal teeth, and
movable finger with an isolated distal denticle and 7 marginal teeth;
spinneret a distinct knob.
Palp only moderately robust, femur slightly expanded distally


The Florida Entomologist

12 11

WV9 7w.

Fig. 8-12. Caribchthonius orthodentatus, new species. 8) Pedal
coxa II; 9) Dorsal view of palp; 10) Lateral view of chela; 11) Teeth
from distal end of fixed finger of chela; 12) Teeth from middle of
fixed finger.

(Fig. 9); femur as long as carapace, and chela 1.5 times as long as
those; femur 3.8, tibia 1.7, and chela 4.3 times as long as broad; hand
1.65 times as long as deep; movable finger 1.87 times as long as hand.
Surface of femur slightly scaly, other segments smooth; setae fine on
lateral surfaces, heavy on medial surfaces, especially on femur. Tri-
chobothria as shown in Fig. 10. Fixed chelal finger with 37 marginal
teeth, the distal 13 small and contiguous (Fig. 11), the others larger
and distinctly spaced (Fig. 12); movable finger with 11 small, con-
tiguous and 19 larger, spaced teeth; all teeth cusped and standing at
right angles to dental margin. Fixed finger with a small internal ac-
cessory denticle at distal end; movable finger with darkened sensilla
(?) near tip and distal to trichobothrium sb, as in C. butler.
Legs typical, but stout; leg IV with entire femur 1.9 and tibia 3.1
times as long as deep. Leg IV with usual tactile seta on metatarsus
and telotarsus.


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Muchmore: New Pseudoscorpion Genus

MALE: Unknown.
MEASUREMENTS (mm): Body length 0.94. Carapace length 0.345.
Chelicera 0.265 by 0.135. Papal trochanter 0.12 by 0.075; femur 0.345
by 0.09; tibia 0.155 by 0.09; chela 0.52 by 0.12; hand 0.19 by 0.115;
movable finger 0.355 long. Leg IV: entire femur 0.305 by 0.16; tibia
0.185 by 0.06; metatarsus 0.11 by 0.04; telotarsus 0.185 by 0.03.
ETYMOLOGY: The species is named orthodentatus because of the
perpendicular stance of the marginal teeth of the chela.
REMARKS: The known occurrence of a species of Caribchthonius in
Belize as well as in the Virgin Islands makes it appear probable that
the genus is actually present throughout the Caribbean region.

I would like to express appreciation to Mr. William Webb, Super-
intendent of the Virgin Islands National Park, for permission to col-
lect pseudoscorpions within the boundaries of the Park. Many thanks
are due to C. H. Alteri, who prepared the illustrations. The work was
supported in part by a grant (GB 37570) from the National Science

LEGG, G. 1974. A generalized account of the male genitalia and asso-
ciated glands of pseudoscorpions (Arachnida). Bull. Brit.
Arach. Soc. 3:66-74.
MUCHMORE, W. B. 1977. Preliminary list of the pseudoscorpions of
the Yucatan Peninsula and adjacent areas, with descriptions of
some new species (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpionida). In Studies
on the cavernicole fauna of the Yucatan Peninsula, J. Reddell,
ed. (in press).


368 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

cent experiments with the waterhyacinth mite, Orthogalumna tere-
brantis Wallwork (Del Fosse, E. S. 1976a. Temperature optima for
development of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner and Orthogalumna
terebrantis Wallwork. In prep., and 1976b. Effect of Orthogalumna
terebrantis Wallwork on Neochetina eichhorniae Warner eggs and
oviposition. In prep.), over 2,000 live adult mites were needed per
week. Using a camel's hair brush it took 3.5-4h to collect this number
of mites, so a new, selective aspirator was developed which cut collect-
ing time to 30-45 min.
The new aspirator was constructed from a 6-dram plastic vial, a 3-
dram glass specimen vial, and scraps of glass and plastic tubing (Fig.
1). Total cost of materials was ca. $0. 38, and total time for construc-
tion was ca. 15 min. Commercially-available aspirators of less quality
and suitability cost several times as much (e.g. $4.00 from Wards 1976
catalog and $3.50 from BioQuip Products 1976 catalog).
Another advantage of this aspirator is that in mixed species popula-
tions (e.g. galumnid, tetranychid and phytoseiid mites, which all occur
together in small areas on'waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)
Solms-Laubach), given numbers of a particular species or stages)
can be collected without apparent harm in the removable collection vial.
Ernest S. Del Fosse, Univ. of Fla., Dep. of Ent. and Nem., Gainesville.
Fla. 32611. Present address: Res. Entomol., Lee Co. Hyacinth Contr.
Distr., Rt. 1, Ft. Myers, Fla. 33905.

plastic plastic
screening screening

7cm 5.9cm lm
Lk------- 7cm ------ f-\f -------- p--- _____
glass tube .__ plastic tubing
3 dram glass vial plastic shell vial
S6 4cm -r

cap of glass vial
forced into neck silicone rubber
of plastic shell
vial sealant

Fig. 1.-Schematic view of mite aspirator used to collect adult
Orthogalumna terebrantis Wallwork from waterhyacinth in the field.

'Received for publication 5 November 1976. Part of Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of FL,

The Florida Entomologist


USAF Environmental Health Laboratory
Kelly Air Force Base, Texas 78241
Descriptions of the larvae and pupae of Haematopota punctulata
Macquart, Whitneyomyia beatifica var. atricorpus Philip, Tabanus
birdie Whitney, T. imitans Walker, T. sackeni Fairchild, and T. tri-
junctus Walker and the pupae only of T. catenatus Walker, T. venustus
Osten Sacken, T. zythicolor Philip, and Hybomitra cincta (Fabricius)
are provided. Also, the larva and pupa of an additional species not
successfully reared are described as both stages exhibit characters
sufficiently unique to indicate the species represents one of the un-
reared tabanid genera.

Information on the immatures of Nearctic Haematopotini is
limited to descriptions of the larva and pupa of Haematopota ameri-
cana Osten Sacken furnished by Cameron (1926, 1934) and to brief
comments on H. punctulata Macquart given by Jones and Anthony
(1964). Knowledge of the immature stages of the Tabanini of the
eastern Nearctic is limited to data on species of 3 of the 6 genera
occurring there. Teskey (1969) characterized the immatures of Ta-
banus Linnaeus, Atylotus Osten Sacken, and Hybomitra Enderlein
and described the larvae and pupae of 19, 7, and 18 species of each,
respectively. The larvae and pupae of 8 additional species of Tabanus
and the pupa only of another were described in Part III of this series
(Goodwin 1973). Descriptions of the larvae of 4 species of Tabanus
not treated in the above were furnished by Tidwell (1973).
Tidwell and Tidwell (1973) gave descriptions of the larvae and
pupae of 5 other species of the same genus.
Below are found descriptions of the larvae and pupae of Haemato-
pota punctulata, Whitneyomyia beatifica var. atricorpus, Tabanus
birdie, T. imitans, T. trijunctus, and T. sackeni and the pupae only of
T. catenatus, T. venustus, T. zythicolor, and Hybomitra cincta. In
addition, the larva and pupae of a species not successfully reared are
described. The characters of this last species seem generically di-
No taxonomic keys are provided, but characters allowing separa-
tion of these taxa (using the keys in Teskey (1969) as a base) from
other known juveniles of the eastern Nearctic fauna are noted in the
comments. The reader is referred to Teskey (1969) or Goodwin
(1972) for figures illustrating descriptive terminology.
'The opinions and assertions contained herein are the private ones of the author and are
not to be construed as the views, either official or non-official, of the Department of the Air
2Contribution No. 355. Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.
'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville.

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


The Florida Entomologist

I wish to thank Dr. G. B. Fairchild, Department of Entomology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, and Dr. Kirby L. Hays,
Department of Zoology and Entomology, Auburn University, Auburn,
Alabama, for furnishing some of the specimens utilized in compiling
the descriptions.

Haematopota Meigen
Cameron (1926, 1934) described the larvae and pupae of H. ameri-
cana from North America and H. pluvialis Linnaeus from Europe.
Based on Cameron's descriptions and the descriptions of H. punctulata
which follow, the immatures may be characterized as follows: larvae
are small to medium size (11-22 mm), whitish with lightly contrast-
ing pubescence; thoracic segments with anterior annuli and caudal
projections from them; integment lacking integumentary striations;
Cameron (1926, 1934) stated that living specimens appeared striated,
but preserved larvae and exuvia were non-striated; midlateral pu-
bescence present or absent (present in known North American species)
on anal segment but when present not united with pubescence of anal
lobes; respiratory siphon length and width essentially equal; 4 pairs
of pseudopodia on each of the first 7 abdominal segments. Pupae are
small, less than 14 mm long; abdominal fringes uniseriate; lateral
preanal combs absent; dorsal tubercles of aster shorter than lateral
or ventral tubercles.

Haematopota punctulata Macquart
Mature larva (Fig. 1): 12-15 mm long; whitish with faintly con-
trasting pubescent markings. Head capsule ca. 1.50 mm long, 0.39
mm wide. Anal segment rounded posteriorly, ca. 0.84 mm long and
wide. Respiratory siphon small, ca. 0.27 mm long and 0.24 mm wide.
No evidence of integumentary striations in exuvia or preserved speci-
mens. Tracheal trunks ca. 0.1 mm in diameter, not noticeably tapered
anteriorly. Pubescence on all segments, not sharply contrasting.
Thoracic segments with anterior annuli, that of prothorax with 2
lateral caudal projections that are narrowly separated along midline;
meso- and metathoracic annuli with 4 lateral caudal projections, these
about 1/3 and 1/5 lengths of respective segments. Anterior pube-
scene encircles abdominal segments I-V, forms a small isolated ven-
trolateral patch on VI, absent from VII. Pseudopodial pubescence
forms complete annuli on abdominal segments I-VII, united with an-
terior pubescence dorsolaterally on I-II and ventrolaterally on I-IV.
Posterior pubescence only on anal segment where it forms a narrow
annulus; a midlateral band extends anteriorly from the annulus to
the middle of the anal segment, the band expanded in middle; a single
small isolated dorsolateral spot above midlateral band; anal ridge and
lobes pubescent but lacking dorsal extension.
Pupa (Fig. 9, 19): 10.5-12.5 mm long, light brownish yellow; spi-
racular prominences, antennal sheaths, and tubercles of the head a
little darker. Antennal ridges sharply divided into median and lateral
portions; median portions sharply ridged apically, not skewed, and
elevated ca. 0.09 mm above median cleft; lateral portions represented
by a low mound surmounted by 3-4 short, sinuous ridges. Frontal


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Goodwin: New Tabanidae


Fig. 1-4. Lateral views of larvae of Tabanidae: 1) Haematopota
punctualata; 2) Whitneyomyia beatifica var. atricorpus; 3) Genus A;
4) Tabanus birdie.

tubercles represented by a single, median, irregularly rectangular out-
line of low ridges; maximum elevation 0.02 mm. Callus tubercles
unisetose elevated ca. 0.12 mm above frontal surface. Antennal
sheaths 0.36 mm long, 0.27 mm wide; distinctly annulated, the basal
annulation with a small median tubercle; not attaining epicranial
suture in male, attaining or slightly exceeding epicranial suture in
female. Vertical and orbital tubercles small; anterior and posterior
orbital tubercles laterally compressed, others rounded. Thoracic spir-
acles nearly linear, only ca. 0.18 mm long; spiracular prominence not
exceeding dorsal thoracic margin. Setae of meso- and metathoracic
segments not tuberculate. Dorsolateral setae of first abdominal seg-
ment not tuberculate; lateral setae tuberculate. Spinous fringes uni-


The Florida Entomologist

seriate; present on all aspects of abdominal segments II-VII; fringe
of tergite VII with 22-28 spines. Lateral preanal combs absent; dor-
sal and ventral or ventrolateral combs well developed with 2-4 and 5-7
or 18 spines, respectively. Tubercles of aster all gradually tapered to
bluntly rounded apices; dorsal tubercles nearly parallel and directed
dorsally; lateral and ventral tubercle on each side nearly parallel in
side view and directed caudally, flaring slightly in lateral direction;
lengths of dorsal, lateral and ventral tubercles 0.15, 0.21, 0.18 mm,
Collections: A total of 9 larvae was collected yielding 4 adults.
Five larvae were collected at Torreya State Park, Liberty Co., Florida.
Two were found in moss-covered silt near the margin of a small
stream flowing through a valley between 2 hills. The others were in a
decaying pine log lying near the stream. The entire valley and much
of the 2 hillsides comprised a large silty, seepage area. Four larvae
were found in wet mud and root mat about 2 feet from the edge of
Wright Lake in the Apalachicola National Forest, Franklin Co., Flor-
Comments: Only 1 other North American species is known. Cam-
eron (1926, 1934) provided descriptions and figures of H. americana.
Based on these descriptions, pupae of the species cannot be separated.
A single larval difference, however, exists. The midlateral pubescence
of the anal segment is an isolated spot in H. americana, but it is con-
nected with the posterior annulus in H. punctulata. Jones and An-
thony (1964) included in their generic key for larvae the genus Hae-
matopota (as Chrysozona Meigen) based on a single specimen of H.
punctulata. They did not provide descriptions of the larva and pupa.

Whitneyomyia Bequaert
Larvae and pupae of Whitneyomyia are so similar to those of some
species of Tabanus that they cannot be separated readily at the ge-
neric level. In fact, the generic characterization given by Teskey
(1969) for his combined treatment of Tabanus and Atylotus readily
encompass the immatures of Whitneyomyia. However, the following
generic diagnoses allow separation of Whitneyomyia immatures from
those of Atylotus and the majority of the known Tabanus.
Larvae of Whitneyomyia are characterized as follows: third an-
tennal segment shorter than second; 4 pairs of pseudopodia on each
of the first 7 abdominal segments; well-developed striations present
only on the lateral surfaces of all segments and the ventral surface
of the anal segment; anterior thoracic annuli with caudal projections
on lateral surfaces, that of the prothorax a single broad fan-shaped
band, those of the meso- and metathorax 4 slender pointed ones; evi-
dent pubescent markings on midlateral surfaces of anal segment;
respiratory siphon longer than broad basally; stigmatal spine present.
Pupae of Whitneyomyia exhibit the following: callus tubercles
unisetose; antennal sheaths exceed epicranial suture, at least in fe-
male; frontal tubercles present; abdominal fringes biseriate; all
preanal combs present, the dorsolateral and lateral ones reduced; dor-


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Goodwin: New Tabanidae

sal and lateral tubercles of aster on decidedly different planes in lateral

Whitneyomyia beatifica var. atricorpus Philip
Mature larva (Fig. 2): 26.5 mm long, whitish with moderately
dark brown pubescent pattern; respiratory siphon with a stigmatal
spine; 4 pairs of pseudopodia on each of the first 7 abdominal seg-
ments. Head capsule brown, 3.5 mm long, ca. 1.0 mm wide. Anal
segment ca. 2.4 mm long, 2.0 mm broad basally. Respiratory siphon
ca. 1.0 mm long, 0.83 mm broad basally; stigmatal spine about same
length as siphon, the upper and lower edges slightly concave in lateral
view. Dorsal tracheal trunks ca. 0.35 mm in diameter in anal seg-
ment, markedly constricted anteriorly in region of first abdominal seg-
ment. Striations present laterally on all segments, also ventrally
posterior to anal lobes on anal segment; spacings 0.038-0.042 mm on
anal segment, 0.028-0.035 mm on remainder. Pubescence on all seg-
ments, brown, a little darker on last 2 segments. Anterior pubescence
encircles thoracic and first 5 abdominal segments, absent midlaterally
from VI and VII and also midventrally from VII, totally absent from
anal segment; prothoracic annulus with a single broad, fan-shaped,
posterior projection on lateral surface; meso- and metathoracic annuli
each with 4 posterior projections laterally, these crossing 2/3 and 1/2
of non-pubescent areas on respective segments; anterior pubescence
united with pseudopodial pubescence dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally
on abdominal segments I-IV and VII, ventrolaterally only on V-VI.
Pseudopodial pubescence encircles all pseudopodial segments, the pu-
bescence predominantly velvety but with evident, small recumbent
spines on anterior half of most pseudopodia. Posterior pubescence
on all abdominal segments, very faint on first 3, obviously encircling
last 5 or 6 segments, absent laterally from remainder; annulus of pre-
anal segment laterally with 4 short, pointed, anterior projections, the
most dorsal one on same line as a short caudal projection from pseudo-
podial annulus, the interval between the 2 projections with some very
faint pubescence. Posterior annulus of anal segment broad with an
anteriorly directed midlateral extension that curves ventrally to ap-
proach but not unite with pubescence of anal ridge and lobes; re-
maining pubescence of anal segment includes 2 faint spots (1 ventro-
lateral and the other nearly dorsal, very near anterior margin) and
above the anterior end of, the midlateral band a more obvious dark
area that may be a single large irregular patch or composed of 2
patches, 1 much smaller than the other.
Female pupa (Fig. 8, 20): Ca. 18.5 mm long, uniformly light
brown. Antennal ridges partially divided into median and lateral
portions by a broad, shallow depression; median portion sharply
crested, crescentric in outline, elevated above broad median cleft ca.
0.17 mm; lateral portions somewhat rounded apically, as wide as
median portions but only half as high. A pair of low, frontal tuber-
cles evident. Callus tubercles unisetose, ca. 0.17 mm high, slightly
skewed laterally, with apex truncate. Antennal sheaths long, slender,
uncurved, ca. 0.95 mm long and 0.54 mm broad, exceeding epicranial
suture ca. 0.17 mm. Vertical and orbital setae tuberculate, the tuber-


The Florida Entomologist

Fig. 5-7. Lateral views of larvae of Tabanidae: 5) Tabanus tri-
junctus; 6) T. imitans; 7) T. sackeni.

cles of the anterior and posterior orbital setae obliquely compressed.
Thoracic spiracle 0.67 mm long, nearly a question mark in outline;
spiracular prominence very slightly exceeds anterior margin of thorax.
Setae of meso- and metathorax not tuberculate. Dorsolateral setae of
abdominal segment I not tuberculate, lateral setae tuberculate. Ab-
dominal segments II-VII encircled by biseriate fringes of spines, those
of anterior series less than half the length of posterior on same seg-
ment; fringe only slightly reduced ventrally; fringe of tergite VII of
ca. 46 spines, the posterior series reduced to a dorsal and 2-3 lateral
pairs of spines. Dorsolateral and lateral preanal combs reduced, com-
posed of 3-4 and 1-2 short spines, respectively, these spines not on
evident tubercles; ventrolateral preanal combs of 7-8 spines, most of
moderate length. Entire aster very smooth; dorsal, lateral, and ven-
tral tubercles broad basally, tapering rapidly to sharp apices; respec-
tive lengths of tubercles 0.23, 0.33, 0.13 mm.
Collection: I reared a single female from a larva taken from wet
mud at the margin of a cattle pond on the Auburn University campus.
Other species collected in the same general area included T. aranti
Hays and T. trimaculatus Palisot. A second pupa, also female, was
obtained on loan from Dr. Kirby Hays. It was taken at the same
Comments: Immatures of W. beatifica seem closest to those of


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Goodwin: New Tabanidae

Tabanus from which they cannot be separated at the generic level.
However, the presence of a stigmatal spine in the larva distinguishes
this species from all but a few species of Tabanus, and the full-grown
larvae of all of these are noticeably larger and longer, exceeding 30
mm. In addition, a comparison of the pubescent pattern of the pro-
thorax and anal segment likely would eliminate confusion with early
instars of the Tabanus larvae. Pupae would not readily key beyond
couplet 9 (Teskey, 1969), but the obliquely compressed anterior and
posterior orbital tubercles and the fact that the thoracic spiracular
prominences do not exceed the anterior thoracic margin indicate closer
agreement with the first choice in that couplet. Taking that alter-
native, the length, size, and the degree to which the antennal sheaths
exceed the epicranial suture would distinguish Whitneyomyia. Jones
and Anthony (1964) reported rearing field collected larvae of this
taxon, but they provided no descriptions of the immature stages.

Tabanus birdie Whitney

Mature larva (Fig. 4): Ca. 36 mm long; living larva light green
with dark contrasting pubescent markings, exuvia whitish with brown,
pubescent markings. Head capsule ca. 4.55 mm long, 1.18 mm wide.
Anal segment attenuate, ca. 2.73 mm long, 2.37 mm wide. Siphon ca.
1.18 mm long, 0.82 mm wide; stigmatal spine present. Striations
present laterally at 0.03 mm spacings, dorsally on abdominal segments
at 0.45 mm spacings, absent or broken and inconspicuous elsewhere.
Pubescence on all segments, moderately dark. Thoracic segments
with anterior pubescent annuli; prothoracic annulus with paired, lat-
eral, club-shaped, caudal extensions; mesothoracic annulus with 4
lateral caudal projections, progressively shorter from dorsal to ventral;
metathoracic annulus with 3 short lateral, caudal projections, the most
ventral of the usual 4 projections absent. Anterior pubescence form-
ing complete annuli on abdominal segments I-II; absent ventrolaterally
from III-VII and midlaterally from V-VII. Pseudopodial pubescence
forming complete annuli on abdominal segments I-VII; united dorso-
and ventrolaterally with anterior pubescence on I-VII. Posterior pu-
bescence forms complete annuli on abdominal segments IV-VIII; pos-
terior annulus of VII with 4 short anterior lateral projections, the
most dorsal on line with a short caudal projection from the pseudopo-
dial annulus. Remaining pubescence on anal segment as follows;
covering anal lobes and ridge and extending anterodorsally from anal
ridge to anterior border of the segment, the cephalic border of the
extension irregular, attaining anterior of segment dorsolaterally, the
posterior border with 2 caudal projections, 1 on the midline and 1
dorsolateral, neither reaching posterior annulus.
Female pupa (Fig. 11, 21): 22-24 mm long; brownish yellow, with
antennal sheaths and ridges, tubercles of head and aster, and spirac-
ular prominences distinctly darker. Antennal ridges sharply crested
and distinctly divided into median and lateral portions; median por-
tions slightly skewed mesally, elevated ca. 0.21 mm above median cleft;
lateral portions nearly half as high. Paired frontal tubercles each
represented by 2 low, sinuous ridges; maximum elevation ca. 0.09 mm.


The Florida Entomologist

Remainder of front relatively smooth. Callus tubercles with irreg-
ular basal outline; skewed laterally; vertical surfaces rugose; apical
surfaces concave; unisetose with seta arising laterally from concavity;
elevated ca. 0.21 mm. Antennal sheaths annulated; each bearing a
mid-basal tubercle; ca. 0.61 mm long, 0.54 mm wide; not exceeding
epicranial suture. Anterior and posterior orbital tubercles moderately
large, obliquely compressed; vertical tubercles moderately large. Tho-
racic spiracle ca. 0.67 mm long, comma-shaped; spiracular prominence
not extending anteriorly beyond dorsal thoracic margin. Meso- and
metathoracic setae not tuberculate. Dorsolateral setae not tuberculate
on first abdominal segment; lateral seta tuberculate. Spinous fringe
present on all aspects of abdominal segments II-VII; biseriate; pos-
terior series reduced to a submedian and 2-3 lateral pairs on tergite
VII. Fringe of tergite VII with 40-44 spines. Lateral preanal combs
absent; dorsolateral and ventrolateral combs of 6-7 and 7-8 spines, re-
spectively. Tubercles of aster swollen basally, only gradually tapered
over basal 2/3, sharply tapered over remainder to acute apices; dorsal,
lateral, and ventral tubercles all subequal, ca. 0.27 mm long.
Collections: Five larvae were taken at Carr Lake located on the
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Hatchery near Holt, Santa Rosa
Co., Florida. Four larvae were found at the soil-sand interface be-
neath a dense grass mat about 1 foot from the lake margin. One larva
was in the cavity of a pitcher plant lying on the ground at the lake
Comments: See comments following descriptions of T. trijunctus
on succeeding page.

Tabanus imitans Walker
Mature larva (Fig. 6): Ca. 38.5 mm long, whitish with light
brown pubescent markings; stigmatal spine absent. Head capsule
dark reddish brown, ca. 6.3 mm long and 1.67 mm broad. Anal seg-
ment ca. 3.83 mm long, 3.0 mm broad basally. Respiratory siphon ca.
1.0 mm long and broad. Dorsal tracheal trunks ca. 0.5 mm in diam-
eter in anal segment, sharply constricted in region of first abdominal
segment. Striations fine and evenly spaced laterally on thoracic and
all abdominal segments except anal, intervals ca. 0.03 mm on thoracic,
0.02 mm on abdominal segments; anal segment coarsely striate on all
surfaces with intervals of 0.055 mm; striations absent or broken and
inconspicuous elsewhere. Pubescence on all segments, brown, darker
on thoracic and anal segments. Anterior pubescence encircles thoracic
and first 3 abdominal segments, absent midlaterally from abdominal
segments IV-VI and also dorsally and ventrally from VI, entirely ab-
sent from VII-VIII; prothoracic annulus laterally with 2 broad,
apically-rounded, diverging, caudal projections; meso- and metatho-
racic annuli laterally with 4 slender, tapered, caudal projections which
cross ca. 3/4 and 2/3 of otherwise non-pubescent surfaces of respective
segments; anterior and pseudopodial pubescence united dorsolaterally
on first 3 and ventrolaterally on first 4 abdominal segments. Pseudo-
podial pubescence encircles pseudopodial areas of first 6 abdominal
segments, being absent from seventh between dorsal and lateral
pseudopodia. Posterior pubescence encircles last 4 abdominal seg-


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Goodwin: New Tabanidae

ments, faintly and narrowly on segments V-VI; annulus of VII broad,
light brown with dorso- and ventrolateral anterior projections which
attain or nearly attain pseudopodial pubescence. A midlateral pube-
scent band extends anteriorly from the posterior annulus of the anal
segment crossing roughly 2/3 of segment, bending abruptly downward
to unite broadly with pubescence of anal ridge and lobes. Also evi-
dent on anal segment is a large, ovoid, dorsolateral patch of pube-
Female pupa (Fig. 13, 27): Ca. 33 mm long, abdomen light yel-
lowish brown, cephalothorax darker, reddish brown. Antennal ridges
low, entire, with nearly uniform elevation over entire length, elevated
above median cleft ca. 0.17 mm. Callus tubercles ca. 0.17 mm high,
unisetose, with roughened surfaces and more or less gradual taper to
rounded apex which bears the seta. Definitive frontal tubercles not
discernible among numerous ridges. Antennal sheaths ca. 0.75 mm
long and broad in male, 0.9 mm long and broad in female; not attain-
ing epicranial suture in male, attaining or just exceeding suture in
female; in both an anterobasal tubercle evident. Vertical and orbital
setae tuberculate, those bearing the anterior and posterior orbital
setae small but obliquely compressed. Thoracic spiracle ca. 1.07 mm
long, evenly bowed; spiracular prominences low, truncate anteriorly,
not exceeding the anterior thoracic margin. Meso- and metathoracic
setae not tuberculate. Dorsolateral setae of abdominal segment I not
tuberculate, lateral setae tuberculate. Abdominal segments II-VII en-
circled by biseriate fringes, those of anterior series less than half the
length of posterior on same segment; reduced ventrally, especially
posterior series; fringe of tergite VII of 42-50 spines, the posterior
series reduced to a dorsal and 3-4 lateral pairs. Dorsolateral, lateral,
and ventrolateral or ventral preanal combs well developed, composed
of 4-7 spines (moderately long in female, short in male), 3-6 short
spines, and 8-11 short spines or ca. 20 moderately long spines, re-
spectively. Dorsal, lateral, and ventral tubercles of aster 0.35, 0.83,
0.26 mm long, respectively; tubercles gradually tapered from base to
apices; dorsal and lateral tubercles on different planes; entire aster
with smooth surface.
Collection: Three larvae (2 reared) were taken at the margin of
Wright Lake in the Apalachicola National Forest, Franklin Co., Flor-
ida. One larva was found in moist mud ca. 0.5 m from the edge of the
lake under ca. 25 cm of earth. The other 2 larvae were taken from
wet sphagnum moss growing in a flat depression at the lake margin.
Comments: Until recently T. imitans included 3 recognized va-
rieties, T. i. imitans, T. i. excessus Stone, and T. i. pechumani Philip.
Tabanus imitans excessus is now considered a synonym of T. maculi-
pennis Wiedemann. The validity of the separation of T. maculipennis
(=T. i. excessus) is well supported by the characters of the larvae.
Tidwell (1973) described larvae of T. maculipennis noting the pres-
ence of a stigmatal spine and other characters indicating a close re-
lationship of the species with a number of other species including
several discussed in part III (Goodwin 1973) of this series and pos-
sibly T. trijunctus described herein (see comments on T. trijunctus).


The Florida Entomologist

On the other hand, larvae of T. i. imitans lack a stigmatal spine and
seem most like those of T. calens Linnaeus described by Teskey
(1969). In fact, the larvae would key to T. calens in Teskey's keys.
Separation of the 2 can be made by comparison of the midlateral pu-
bescence of the anal segment as follows: posterior annulus and anal
ridge pubescence connected by a broad, continuous, curved, midlateral
band of pubescence above which is a single, large, oval patch in larvae
of imitans whereas in larvae of calens the area equivalent to the broad
band noted above possesses 2 elongate, isolated, pubescent spots above
which are 3 small, faint spots. Pupae of imitans would not key be-
yond couplet 9 in Teskey's keys. However, their size and the fact
that the thoracic respiratory prominences do not exceed the anterior
thoracic margin would separate them from species indicated by the
second half of couplet 9. The evident difference in the sizes of the
dorsal and lateral tubercles of the aster, length of pupa, and the shape
of the thoracic spiracles would separate them from species indicated
by the first half of the couplet.

Tabanus catenatus Walker
Female pupa (Fig. 10, 24): 33 mm long, yellowish brown. An-
tennal ridges sharply ridged, divided into median and lateral portions
by a narrow notch; median portions elevated above the median cleft
about 0.32 mm, the apical ridge transverse and maintaining a more
or less uniform height; lateral portion only about half as high and
with apical ridge rounded. Distinct frontal tubercles absent, but
numerous well-defined ridges present, some nearly attaining the apical
ridge on the antennal ridges. Callus tubercles truncate and smooth,
about 0.16 mm high at middle, irregularly oval in basal outline; each
bearing a single seta at apicolateral extreme. Antennal sheaths about
0.83 mm long and wide, not attaining epicranial suture; indistinctly
annulate. Vertical and orbital tubercles tuberculate and tubercles low
and rounded. Thoracic spiracles 0.83 mm long, comma shaped; spirac-
ular prominence not exceeding mid-dorsal thoracic margin and only
slightly raised above dorsal thoracic surface. Meso- and metathoracic
setae not tuberculate. Dorsolateral seta not tuberculate on first ab-
dominal segment; lateral seta tuberculate. Abdominal segments II-
VII with biseriate fringes, those of anterior series about 1/3 length
of posterior; fringes a little reduced ventrally on abdominal segments
II-IV; posterior fringe of tergite VII not reduced; fringe of tergite
VII of ca. 88 spines. Abdominal spiracles on low tubercles, crescen-
tric with concavity anterior. Dorsolateral, lateral, and ventrolateral
preanal combs composed of 11, 9, and 10 moderately long spines, re-
spectively. Dorsal, lateral, and ventral tubercles of aster 0.33, 0.5,
and 0.15 mm long, respectively; dorsal tubercles directed upward and
curved slightly inward; lateral and ventral tubercles directed almost
straight rearward; all broad basally and gradually tapered to pointed
Collection: The single specimen of T. catenatus was collected by
A. B. Champlain in 1911 at New Haven, Connecticut. No habitat data
are available. This specimen was furnished by Dr. G. B. Fairchild.


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Goodwin: New Tabanidae



N -3


-4 -a
I, -'




Fig. 8-11. Frontal plates of pupae of Tabanidae (a=ventral view,
b=anterior view): 8) Whitneyomyia beatifica var. atricorpus; 9)
Haematopota punctulata; 10) Tabanus catenatus; 11) T. birdie.


, ', .ll' ,

I 1 0
1^. c ^


The Florida Entomologist

Comments: Difficulty would be encountered in couplet 2 of Tes-
key's key because the posterior series of spines on tergite VII is com-
plete, but included in this fringe is one submedian and a few sublateral
pairs of spines that are evidently longer than remaining, but all of
the spines in this series are long and any breakage of the fragile tips
of the longer spines would prevent accurate judgment of the character.
However, 28 mm represents the maximum length noted for any pupae
included in the second half of couplet 2. Taking the route indicated
by the first half of, couplet 2, difficulty is immediately encountered in
couplet 9. Again length of the pupa will separate T. catenatus from
all species keying to couplet 9, except those keying beyond to couplet
13. Couplet 13 was modified in Goodwin (1973), and if this modified
couplet is used, T. catenatus would key to T. calens Linnaeus, although
the frontal ridges are a little more developed in T. catenatus than indi-
cated by the key for T. calens. These 2 species may be separated on
the basis of the spinous fringe of tergite VII which includes ca. 88
spines in T. catenatus and 45-55 in T. calens; the former also has all
3 pairs of preanal combs well developed, whereas in the latter the
lateral combs are vestigial or absent, and the dorsal combs are often
reduced. Pupae T. catenatus may be separated from those of T. imi-
tans described above by differences in length of thoracic spiracles,
fringe of tergite VII, and lengths of tubercles of aster.

Tabanus sackeni Fairchild
Mature larva (Fig. 7): Ca. 18 mm long; whitish with faintly
contrasting pubescent markings. Head capsule ca. 2.45 mm long, 0.59
mm wide. Anal segment ca. 1.1 mm long, 1.4 mm wide. Respiratory
siphon short and blunt, ca. 0.27 mm long and wide. Striations on all
aspects of every segment, spaced ca. 0.03 mm laterally, 0.06 mm else-
where. Tracheal trunks ca. 0.10 mm in diameter, not noticeably ta-
pered anteriorly. Pubescence very light in color and greatly reduced.
Prothorax with a narrow anterior annulus and no caudal projections;
meso- and metathorax without pubescence. Anterior and posterior
pubescence absent from abdominal segments I-VII: Pseudopodial pu-
bescence not forming complete annuli, being absent between lateral
and ventrolateral pseudopodia on abdominal segments I-VII. Anal
segment with a narrow posterior annulus and with anal ridge and
lobes pubescent; pubescence absent elsewhere.
Male pupa (Fig. 12, 29): Ca. 15.0 mm long; brownish yellow, the
antennal sheaths and ridges, tubercles of head and aster, and spirac-
ular prominence a little darker. Antennal ridges sharply crested;
distinctly divided into median and lateral portions; median portions
not skewed, nearly touching at midline, elevated above median cleft
ca. 0.15 mm; lateral portions 1/3 as high as median. Frontal tubercle
represented by an irregularly trapezoidal area; depressed in middle;
border an irregular series of ridges; maximum elevation ca. 0.05 mm.
Numerous low ridges in areas between frontal tubercle and antennal
ridges; remainder of front smooth. Callus tubercles rounded basally;
unisetose; lateral portion of apical surface a raised mound, seta aris-
ing from center of this mound; elevated ca. 0.15 mm. Antennal
sheaths slender, pointed apically; ca. 0.61 mm long, 0.36 mm wide;

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976-


Goodwin: New Tabanidae


b '13

t A



Fig. 12-15. Frontal plates of pupae of Tabanidae (a=ventral view,
b=anterior view): 12) Tabanus sackeni; 13) T. imitans; 14) T. ve-
nustus; 15) T. trijunctus.

b 12

b J14


The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

I ]

1 ~ i :' -~C

b- 17




b 21
Fig. 16-18: Frontal plates of pupae of Tabanidae (a= ventral view,
b= anterior view) 16) Hybomitra cincta; 17) Tabanus zythicolor; 18)
Genus A. Fig. 19-21: Posterior view of asters of pupae of Tabanidae:
19) Haematopota punctulata; 20) Whitneyomyia beatifica var. atri-
corpus; 21) Tabanus birdie.



Goodwin: New Tabanidae 383

/. .... .

22 23 24


25 26 27


28 29
Fig. 22-29. Posterior view of asters of pupae of Tabanidae: 22)
Hybomitra cincta; 23) Tabanus trijunctus; 24) T. catenatus; 25)
Genus A; 26) T. venustus; 27) T. imitans; 28) T. zythicolor; 29) T.
very slightly exceeding epicranial suture; annulated, but lacking mid-
basal tubercle. Vertical and orbital tubercles small; anterior and
posterior orbital tubercles laterally compressed. Thoracic spiracle ca.
0.21 mm long, comma shaped; spiracular prominence not exceeding
dorsal thoracic margin. Meso- and metathoracic setae not tuberculate.
Dorsolateral setae of first abdominal segment not tuberculate: lateral
setae tuberculate. Spinous fringes on all aspects of abdominal seg-
ments II-VII; biseriate; posterior series 4-6 times as long as anterior
on same segment; posterior series not reduced on tergite VII. Fringe
of tergite VII with 30 spines. Dorsolateral and lateral preanal combs
absent; ventral comb with 16 spines. Tubercles of aster gradually
tapered to acute apices; dorsal tubercles sharply hooked posteriorly,
others uniformly curved posteriorly; dorsal, lateral, and ventral tu-
bercles ca. 0.21, 0.45, 0.21 mm long, respectively.
Collections: All larvae were collected just south of Fayetteville,
Washington Co., Arkansas, at the same site discussed by Schwardt
(1936) as the location where he collected immatures of Goniops chry-
socoma (Osten Sacken). More than 75 larvae of Goniops were found
on 4 different visits, all at the upper level of soil just beneath the leaf
litter. Seven, 9, 0, and 1 larvae of T. sackeni were taken on the 4
visits, all but the last dying. These larvae were from 4-7 inches deep

The Florida Entomologist

in soil and appeared to always be near mats of small roots. A second
species of Tabanus also was taken, but 1 specimen was injured at the
time of collection, later dying, and the other escaped from the rearing
container and was never found. The site was a steep hillside with an
overstory of maple and a variety of low shrubby and viney plants.
Although well-drained, the soil at a depth of 4 inches was moist during
all visits. A much more thorough discussion of the site was given by
Schwardt (1936).
Comments: Larvae of T. sackeni would not key readily to Tabanus
in the keys to genera furnished by Teskey (1969). If not confused
with Leucotabanus, they would key to Hybomitra and Atylotus in the
first half of couplet 7. However, the lack of meso- and metathoracic
anterior pubescent annuli, the lack of posterior pubescence except for
the narrow annulus of the anal segment, the lack of any midlateral
pubescence on the anal segment, and their size would separate them
from known larvae of Tabanus, Hybomitra, Atylotus, and Leucota-
banus. Pupae would key to the second half of couplet 5 in Teskey's
key to Tabanus pupae. The extremely small size of the thoracic spi-
racles of the T. sackeni pupa would readily separate it from those of
T. quinquevittatus and T. nigrovittatus.

Tabanus trijunctus Walker
Mature larva (Fig. 5): Ca. 36 mm long, whitish with contrasting
brown pubescent pattern. Head capsule ca. 5.5 mm long, 1.39 mm
wide. Anal segment ca. 3.5 mm long, nearly 1/3 greater than basal
diameter. Respiratory siphon ca. 1.2 mm long, a little more than 1/3
greater than basal diameter; siphon with a stigmatal spine that is, in
lateral view, broad basally and evenly tapered to pointed apex in con-
trast to the more usual spines with concave upper and lower margins
and narrow bases and in contrast to the spines of some Bouvieromyiini
in which the upper and lower margins are convex and the base is
broad. Striations apparently absent dorsally and ventrally; present
laterally with spacings of 0.045-0.06 mm. Pubescence present on all
segments as follows: anterior pubescence on all segments except pos-
sibly the anal, encircling the first 7, being absent midlaterally from
abdominal segments V-VII and ventrally also from VII; prothoracic
annulus with a single, broad, fan-shaped, lateral caudal projection;
meso- and metathoracic annuli with 4 slender lateral caudal projec-
tions crossing 3/4 and 2/3 of non-pubescent lengths of respective seg-
ments; anterior pubescence united with pseudopodial pubescence dor-
solaterally on first 6 and ventrolaterally on first 5 abdominal segments.
Pseudopodial pubescence completely encircling all pseudopodial seg-
ments. Posterior pubescence on last 6 segments, encircling last 3 or 4,
absent midlaterally and sometimes dorsally and/or ventrally from
others; faint except on last 2 segments; posterior annulus of preanal
segment with 4 lateral anterior projections, the upper and lower ones
faintly crossing and uniting with pseudopodial pubescence. Anal ridge
and lobes pubescent, the former with a broad dorsal projection that
bends sharply caudally and unites with posterior annulus midlaterally;
a shorter caudal projection from the dorsal extension evident ventro-


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Goodwin: New Tabanidae

laterally; a faint irregular anterodorsal extension projects from the
bend to attain or nearly attain the anterior margin.
Female pupa (Fig. 15, 23): Ca. 26.5 mm long, abdomen brown,
cephalothorax lighter yellowish brown except for the sides of the tho-
racic spiracular prominences and a large area of the head that is
roughly trapezoidal and includes the stem and arms of the epicranial
suture. Antennal ridges sharply crested, separated into median and
lateral portions by deep V-shaped notch, elevated above median cleft
ca. 0.3 mm; median portion about twice as high as lateral; outline of
apex of median portion roughly in the shape of a question mark, the
median end being recurved. Paired frontal tubercles well developed,
ca. 0.36 mm long and 0.16 mm high, skewed ventrally. Callus tubercles
apically smooth and truncate, unisetose, basally nearly circular, ele-
vated ca. 0.19 mm. Antennal sheaths ca. 0.67 mm long and wide with
a small evident median basal tubercle; sheaths ending just short of
epicranial suture. Setae of head on small tubercles, none obliquely
compressed. An obvious dark brown trapezoidal area of cuticle on
anterodorsal surface, the venter running transversely across frontal
plate on a line just above the tips of antennal sheaths; sides of dark
area slightly concave and extending caudally to dorsal thoracic mar-
gin; dark area including epicranial arms and the vertexal tubercles,
expanding slightly at caudal end. Thoracic spiracle ca. 0.94 mm long,
comma shaped, the posterior end only very slightly straightened; spi-
racular prominence very slightly (ca. 0.03 mm) exceeds anterior tho-
racic margin; lateral portion of prominence included in the arc of the
spiracle, dark reddish brown Meso- and metathoracic setae not tuber-
culate. Dorsolateral setae of abdominal segment I not tuberculate,
lateral setae tuberculate. Abdominal segments II-VII with biseriate
fringes, those of anterior series evidently less than half length of pos-
terior on same segment; series reduced ventrally especially on seg-
ments II-III where wide gaps exist ventrolaterally in both series;
fringe of tergite VII of ca. 50 spines, the posterior series reduced to
a dorsal and 4-6 lateral pairs. Dorsolateral, lateral, and ventrolateral
preanal combs on low mounds and composed of 1-3, 4-5, and 6-8 short,
stout spines, respectively. Dorsal, lateral, and ventral tubercles of
aster 0.64, 0.67, 0.5 mm long, respectively, the dorsal and lateral tuber-
cles on decidedly different planes; all tubercles broad basally, tapering
uniformly to sharp apices.
Collection: The single female specimen was reared from a larva
taken from a hummock in a cypress swamp which is located 13 miles
north of Lukens, Levy Co., Florida along Florida Highway S-347. It
was given to me by Dr. G. B. Fairchild.
Comments: Larvae of T. trijunctus and T. birdie would key to
T. stygius Say in Teskey's key. Tabanus stygius is the only larva of
Tabanus with a stigmatal spine discussed by Teskey. In part III of
this series (Goodwin 1973), a key to 5 species whose larvae possessed
a stigmatal spine was presented. Since then, Tidwell (1973) described
the larvae of 2 additional species exhibiting this character, namely
T. maculipennis and T. proximus Walker. The latter species and T.
trijunctus would key to T. stygius in Goodwin (1973), but differences


The Florida Entomologist

in the pubescence of the midlateral surface of their anal segments
allows their separation. Larvae of T. birdie do not agree fully with
either alternative in couplet 3, but may be easily separated from other
larvae by the pubescence pattern of the anal segment. Pupae of T.
trijunctus agree most closely with the first half of couplet 9 in Tes-
key's key, even though the orbital tubercles are not noticeably com-
pressed obliquely. If this alternative is taken, difficulty is encount-
ered in using couplet 13. This problem was discussed and dealt with
in part III in which couplet 13 was rewritten and an expanded key
was given to deal with species indicated by the first half of couplet 13.
In this expanded key, pupae of T. trijunctus could not be identified
satisfactorily. Comparison with the available choices would likely
indicate a closer resemblance with pupae of T. fumipennis Wiedemann.
As noted in part III, this key serves only as "a possible means of
separation of the pupae." However, it should be noted that the dark-
ened areas of the head noted in the above description are not evident
in any of the other species involved. Pupae of T. birdie would key to
T. reinwardtii in Teskey (1969). The subequal lengths of the tuber-
cles of the aster allow its separation from T. reinwardtii. Jones and
Anthony (1964) reported rearing this species, but they provided no
description of the immatures.

Tabanus venustus Osten Sacken
Female pupa (Fig. 14, 26): Ca. 19.5 mm long, uniformly yellowish
brown. Antennal ridges large, sharply crested, divided into median
and lateral portions by both an obvious difference in elevation and by
a broad shallow depression; median portions elevated above median
cleft ca. 0.2 mm. Well-developed paired frontal tubercles present, ca.
0.33 mm long and 0.16 mm high. Callus tubercles unisetose, elevated
ca. 0.23 mm; ventral and lateral walls nearly vertical, the dorso-mesal
surface inclined ventrolaterally from base to small concave apex, the
seta arising from the concavity. Antennal sheaths ca. 0.46 mm long
and broad, not reaching epicranial suture, bearing an evident mid-
basal tubercle. Anterior and posterior orbital tubercles large and
obliquely compressed; vertical and lateral orbital setae on smaller,
irregular tubercles. Thoracic spiracle ca. 0.76 mm long, comma
shaped; spiracular prominence not exceeding anterior thoracic margin.
Setae of meso- and metathorax, and first abdominal segment on low
tubercles; occasional seta bifid near apex; anterior metanotal seta
absent from one side. Fringes of spines biseriate on abdominal seg-
ments II-VII, only a little reduced ventrally; fringe of tergite VII of
ca. 48 spines; posterior series on tergite VII reduced to a dorsal and
2-3 lateral pairs of spines. Dorsolateral, lateral, and ventrolateral
preanal combs composed of 3-5, 1-3, and 6-7 spines, respectively, the
lateral combs obviously reduced. Dorsal, lateral, and ventral tuber-
cles of aster 0.3, 0.36, 0.2 mm long, respectively; all tubercles broad
basally, tapering rapidly to pointed apices; dorsal and lateral tubercles
on decidedly different planes.
Collection: The single female was reared from a specimen taken
by O. Schonberg near Stillwater, Payne Co., Oklahoma, in 1950. The

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


Goodwin: New Tabanidae

stage collected is unknown, and no habitat data are available. The
specimen was loaned for study by Dr. Kirby L. Hays.
Comments: Pupae of T. venustus would key to T. reinwardtii
Wiedmann in Teskey's key. See the comments following T. zythicolor
appearing below for characters useful in separation.

Tabanus zythicolor Philip
Male pupa (Fig. 17, 28): Ca. 17.5 mm long, light yellow-brown.
Antennal ridges sharply crested, elevated ca. 0.22 mm above median
cleft; median and lateral portions delimited mainly by an evident
difference in elevation, the median areas crescentric in outline and
projected well above general surface, the lateral areas about half as
high at mesal end where they form a narrow step-like plateau which
tapers rapidly to the general surface. Frontal tubercles represented
by a median area ca. 0.33 mm long and wide, with a median dorso-
ventral depression, the maximum elevations to each side of the depres-
sion ca. 0.09 mm. Callus tubercles large, truncate apically, unisetose,
circular in basal outline, elevated ca. 0.11 mm, with general surface
ridged. Antennal sheaths ca. 0.5 mm long and wide, not reaching
epicranial suture. All setae of head tuberculate, the tubercles small
and none noticeably compressed obliquely. Thoracic spiracle only 0.34
mm long, crescentric in outline; spiracular prominence low, not ex-
ceeding anterior margin of thorax. Setae of meso- and metathorax
not tuberculate. Dorsolateral setae of abdominal segment I not tuber-
culate, lateral setae tuberculate. Abdominal segments II-VII en-
circled by biseriate fringes of spines, the anterior spines half or less
the length of posterior on same segment, the series only slightly re-
duced ventrally; fringe of tergite VII of ca. 28 spines, the posterior
series reduced to a dorsal and 3-4 lateral pairs. Dorsolateral preanal
combs represented by low tubercles bearing 1-3 very short spines;
lateral preanal combs absent, ventral preanal combs of ca. 20 mod-
erately long spines. Dorsal, lateral, and ventral tubercles of aster of
nearly equal size, lengths ca. 0.3 mm; dorsal and lateral tubercles on
decidedly different planes.
Collection: A single male was reared from a pupa taken from
moist sod ca. 4 m from the edge of shallow, water-filled depression in
a pasture. The water covered nearly 1/2 acre except for numerous
mounds, or islands, on which vegetation ranging from shrubby growth
to large oak trees was growing. The deep hoof prints in the vicinity
of the larval collection site indicated that the area had recently been
very wet, and the general appearance of the entire area indicated that
the depth and extent of surface water varied greatly, depending on
precipitation. The pasture was on the west side of Florida State High-
way 145, ca. 5 miles north of Madison, Madison Co., Florida. No other
immatures of Tabanidae were taken in association with this species.
Comments: Pupae of T. zythicolor would not key readily beyond
couplet 9 in Teskey (1969). Size, number of spines in the fringe of
Tergite VII, and the fact that the spiracular prominence scarcely, if
at all, exceeds the dorsal thoracic margin, separates it from species
indicated by the second half of couplet 9. Of the species indicated


The Florida Entomologist

by the first half of couplet 9, only T. reinwardtii Wiedemann, T. fair-
childi Stone, T. venustus Osten Sacken (described above), and T.
rufofrater Walker (the last described by Goodwin, 1973) need close
consideration, since all other species indicated exceed 25 mm in length.
Comparisons of length, number of spines in the fringe of tergite VII,
the elevation of the callus tubercles, and the length of the thoracic
spiracles will facilitate separation of these taxa.

Hybomitra cincta (Fabricius)
Female pupa (Fig. 16, 22): Ca. 30 mm long, yellow-brown with
some darker areas on cephalothorax as follows: epicranial suture nar-
rowly outlined dark brown; venter of frontal plate posterior to an-
tennal ridges dark brown, this dark area noticeably narrowed at level
of frontal sutures. Antennal ridges with 2 sharp crests that overlap
but do not unite, the narrow gap the only evidence of division into
median and lateral portions, elevated above median cleft ca. 0.16 mm.
Numerous low mid-facial ridges but distinct frontal tubercles absent.
Callus tubercles small conical mounds, elevated ca. 0.07 mm, unisetose.
Antennal sheaths ca. 0.83 mm long and wide, only faintly annulate,
with a very small, mid-basal tubercle; sheaths slightly exceeding epi-
cranial suture. Setae of head on very small, rounded tubercles. Tho-
racic spiracle ca. 0.67 mm long, evenly bowed; spiracular prominence
not exceeding epicranial suture. Meso- and metathoracic setae not
tuberculate. Dorsum of thorax darkened. Dorsolateral setae of ab-
dominal segment I not tuberculate; lateral setae tuberculate. Ab-
dominal segments II-III with uniseriate fringe of short, stout spines,
the mid-dorsal ones evidently stouter; IV-VII with biseriate spines,
the anterior spines stouter basally, especially mid-dorsally, and pos-
terior series reduced dorsally on VI-VII; fringe of tergite VII of ca.
30 spines. Dorsolateral, lateral, and ventrolateral preanal combs of
1-3, 6-8,11-13 short spines, respectively; all spines arising from evi-
dent tubercles or ridges. Dorsal, lateral, and ventral tubercles of aster
0.5, 0.88, 0.4 mm long, respectively; lateral tubercles broad basally,
others slender, all with little taper over basal half, gradually tapered
to pointed apices over remainder.
Collection: The single female was reared from a specimen taken
on Cheaha Mt., Talledaga Co., Alabama, in 1964, by L. G. Sanford.
Habitat data are not available. The specimen was loaned by Dr. Kirby
L. Hays
Comments: Pupae of H. cincta key to H. criddlei (Brooks) in
Teskey (1969) indicating the same close relationship evidenced in the
adults. Separation of the pupa, on the basis of very limited material,
is possible on the basis of differences in overall length, length of an-
tennal sheaths, and lengths of the tubercles of the aster.

Genus A
Mature larva (Fig. 3): Ca. 27.0 mm long; whitish with contrast-
ing brown pubescent markings. Head capsule ca. 3.91 mm long, 0.91
mm wide. Anal segment attenuated, ca. 2.28 mm long, 2.0 mm wide.
Respiratory siphon ca. 0.73 mm long, 0.59 mm wide; siphon unique


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Goodwin: New Tabanidae

among known tabanid larvae in that the sclerotized spiracular lips are
thickened so that they project caudally above siphon surface, and the
middle of each lip is drawn out into a short spine-like point( without
magnification readily mistaken for a siphon with a stigmatal spine).
Striations reduced to absent from thoracic discs, elsewhere spaced ca.
0.023 laterally and 0.045 dorsally and ventrally. Pubescence on all
segments moderately dark. Thoracic segments with anterior pube-
scent annuli; prothoracic annulus with a single, broad, fan-shaped,
caudal projection laterally; meso- and metathoracic annuli with 4
lateral caudal projections about 1/2 and 1/3 length of respective seg-
ments. Anterior pubescence forming complete annuli on abdominal
segments I-III, absent midlaterally from IV-VII and mid-dorsally from
V-VII or VI-VII. Pseudopodial pubescence absent between lateral
and ventrolateral pseudopodia on abdominal segments I-VII; united
with anterior pubescence dorsolaterally on I-II and ventrolaterally on
I-V. Posterior pubescence faintly evident dorsally and ventrally on
abdominal segment III, forming complete annuli on IV-VIII; posterior
annulus of VII with 4 short anterior projections laterally. On anal
segment the anal lobes and ridge pubescent without any dorsal exten-
sion; an evident midlateral pubescent band extends forward from pos-
terior annulus, the band thicker anteriorly and down curved some-
what at middle of segment; a single, small isolated spot above the
anterior end of mid-lateral band also present.
Male pupa (Fig. 18, 25): Ca. 15.0 mm long; brownish yellow.
Antennal ridges sharply crested; divided into median and lateral por-
tions by deep, narrow notch; median portions skewed mesally, elevated
ca. 0.24 mm above median cleft; lateral portions half as high. Paired
frontal tubercles represented by mounds elevated ca. 0.07 mm; apices
crested. Numerous low ridges between frontal tubercles and antennal
ridges; remainder of front relatively smooth. Callus tubercles circular
in basal outline; obliquely truncate apically, being highest at lateral
extreme; elevated ca. 0.15 mm; unisetose, seta arising at lateral ex-
treme of apical surface. Antennal sheaths annulated; mid-basal tu-
bercle present; ca. 0.24 mm long, 0.33 mm wide, not exceeding epi-
cranial suture. Anterior and posterior orbital tubercles very large,
obliquely compressed. Thoracic spiracle ca. 0.48 mm long, comma
shaped; spiracular prominence extending anteriorly beyond dorsal tho-
racic margin ca. 0.24 mm. Meso-and metathoracic setae not tuber-
culate. Dorsolateral setae of first abdominal segment not tuberculate;
lateral setae tuberculate. Spinous fringes on all aspects of abdominal
segments II-VII; biseriate; posterior series reduced to a submedian
and 3-7 lateral pairs on all tergites. Fringe of tergite VII with 26
spines. Dorsolateral, lateral, and ventral preanal combs of 2-3, 3-4,
and 16 spines, respectively. Tubercles of aster swollen basally, gradu-
ally tapered on basal half, rapidly tapered on apical half to acute
apices; dorsal, lateral, and ventral tubercles 0.27, 0.30, 0.27 mm long,
Collection: A single larva was taken from the bank of John's
Creek, Shelby Co., Tennessee by Cathy Wu. The specimen was in wet
clay-like soil 2-4 ft above the waterline at time of collection. How-


The Florida Entomologist

ever, this creek rises and falls many times during the year, depending
on rainfall.
Comments: The single larva molted to a somewhat malformed
pupa in early May, 1971. The pupa died 2 days later. Descriptions
are given here because the uniqueness of 2 characters suggests it
represents an unreared genus of Tabanidae. The unique structure
of the respiratory siphon and the reduction of the posterior abdominal
fringe series on all tergites to a submedian and several lateral pairs
separate it from known immatures. Other characters indicate it rep-
resents a species of Tabanini, and based on those species known to
occur in West Tennessee and surrounding areas, my speculative opin-
ion is that it is Hamatabanus sp.

CAMERON, A. E. 1926. Bionomics of the Tabanidae (Diptera) of the
Canadian prairie. Bull. Ent. Res., 17:1-42.
CAMERON, A. E. 1934. The life-history and structure of Haematopota
pluvialis Linne (Tabanidae). Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb. 58:211-
GOODWIN, J. T. 1972. Immature stages of some eastern Nearctic
Tabanidae (Diptera) I. Introduction and the Genus Chrysops
Meigen. J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 7(2) :98-109.
GOODWIN, J. T. 1973. Immature stages of some eastern Nearctic
Tabanidae (Diptera) III. The Genus Tabanus Linnaeus. J.
Georgia Ent. Soc. 8(2) :82-99.
JONES, C. M. AND D. W. ANTHONY. 1964. The Tabanidae (Diptera)
of Florida. USDA Tech. Bull. 1295:1-85.
SCHWARDT, H. H. 1936. Horseflies of Arkansas. Ark. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bull. 332:1-66.
TESKEY, H. J. 1969. Larvae and pupae of some eastern North Amer-
ican Tabanidae (Diptera). Mem. Ent. Soc. Canada 63:1-147.
TIDWELL, M. A. 1973. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of Louisiana. Tu-
lane Studies in Zool. and Botany 18(1&2) :1-95.
TIDWELL, M. A. AND M. A. TIDWELL. 1973. Larvae and pupae of five
eastern North American Tabanus species (Diptera: Tabanidae).
Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 66:390-8.
WEBB, J. L. AND R. W. WELLS. 1924. Horseflies: biologies and rela-
tion to western agriculture. USDA Bull. 1218:1-36.

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


The Florida Entomologist


Insect Attractants, Behavior and Basic Biology Research Laboratory
Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Gainesville, Fla. 32604

The effects of temperature and moisture concentration (MC) of the
pupation medium were studied in relation to the developmental success
of the parasitoid Biosteres (Opius) longicaudatus Ashmead and its
host Anastrepha suspense (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly. Tempera-
tures ranged from 22-32oC in 2*C increments; pupation media of 25,
50, and 75% MC (by weight) were tested. The developmental time
for B. longicaudatus within the puparium of A. suspense ranged from
10.6 to 24.4 days over the temperature range selected, but was not
affected by MC.
Emergence periods for B. longicaudatus ranged from 5-7 days for
temperatures from 26 to 280C and lasted ca. 2 days for A. suspense at
temperatures above 22C. Both parasitoids and flies had high rates of
mortality at temperatures above 28"C. Total adult emergence was ca.
33% greater from A. suspense larvae not exposed to parasitoids.
Parasitoid emergence was significantly reduced at 22 and 24C in the
driest MC. The use of 25% MC significantly increased diapause
among last-instar parasitoid larvae. Pupal diapause was not observed
for A. suspense.

Biosteres (Opius) longicaudatus Ashmead, a solitary larval-pupal
endoparasitoid, has been established as a biological control agent
against a number of species of tephritid fruit flies (Greany et al.
1976). This parasitoid was recently introduced into Florida by Dr.
R. M. Baranowski, Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Homestead, Fla., to help suppress populations of the Caribbean fruit
fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew). In spite of its importance as a
biological control agent (Greany et al. 1976), little knowledge is cur-
rently available regarding its developmental requirements.
This paper presents the results of research to determine the ef-
fects of temperature and moisture concentration of the pupation me-
dium on the developmental success of B. longicaudatus and on the
pupal survival of A. suspense. These data will be of value in refining
rearing conditions so as to maximize parasitoid production.

B. longicaudatus was reared using A. suspense (caribfly) larvae as
hosts. Details of the techniques for rearing the host and parasitoid
are presented by Burditt et al. (1975) and Greany et al. (1976), re-
'Hymenoptera: Braconidae.
2Diptera: Tephritidae.
aMention of a commercial or proprietary product in this paper does not constitute an
endorsement of that product by the USDA. Received for publication 1 April 1976.

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

The Florida Entomologist

A. suspense larvae developed in bagasse diet kept at 26-27*C, 60-
70% ambient RH, and under a photoperiod of 13:11 LD. Five-day-
old larvae (500/replicate) were evposed to 125 pairs (male and fe-
male) of parasitoids in string units consisting of larvae and diet
secured between 2 pieces of paper toweling in an embroidery hoop.
Host larvae were removed from the sting units after 24 hr and given
sufficient diet to complete maturation. As the mature larvae left the
diet, they were collected and placed in plastic cups 7.1 cm high and 9.5
cm diam that contained moistened plaster-grade vermiculite to a depth
of 1.3 cm. Each cup had 2 side ventilation pores (3.6 X 1.2 cm)
covered with 100-mesh screen. Fifty caribfly larvae were distributed
uniformly over the surface, and then an additional 0.6 cm of vermi-
culite was placed over the larvae. The cups were kept at 60% RH
with a photoperiod of 13:11 LD at 700 lux (Vitalite@). Larvae not
exposed to parasitoids were reared and handled in the same manner
other than being placed in sting units.
Treatments consisted of puparia held in vermiculite moistened to
25, 50, or 75% (by weight) and at temperatures from 22-32C in in-
crements of 2C. Each treatment was replicated 4 times. The data
were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan's new multiple
range test. Text references to treatment differences in the figure
are made only where significance at the 1% level occurred.
The percent water remaining in the pupation medium at the onset
of emergence was determined from duplicate cups not containing A.
suspense puparia. This determination was made when emergence was
noted in corresponding cups containing puparia. The water content
dropped to ca. 21, 41, and 68% from the initial values of 25, 50, and
75%, respectively and was not significantly influenced by temperature.

Duration of Parasitoid and Fly Development. Commencement of
eclosion was influenced by temperature but not by moisture concentra-
tion (MC). B. longicaudatus females required an average of 23.7,
19.8, 15.2, 12.3, and 13.3 days to complete their development at 22, 24,
26, 28, and 30C, respectively. Male and female caribflies (exposed
and not exposed) required similar amounts of time; however, male
parasitoids completed their development 2 days before the females at
each temperature. For all insects concerned, developmental time was
significantly (1% level) shortened with each 2C rise in temperature
from 22-28C. Between 28 and 30C, no significant changes in de-
velopmental time occurred. At 32C, insufficient emergence prevented
reliable values from being calculated.
Parasitoid and Fly Emergence Periods. A. suspense males and fe-
males emerged within the cups over a period of ca. 2 days between 24
and 32C. At 22'C, the period increased to 3-4 days. These emerg-
ence periods were not influenced by MC. B. longicaudatus adults, how-
ever, displayed longer emergence periods at most temperatures and
MC (Table 1), although high morality abbreviated emergence at 32C.
Peak eclosion for both sexes of B. longicaudatus occurred 48 hr after
the onset of emergence.

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


Effects of Pupation Medium

Temperature % HO in pupation medium
0C 25 50 75
22 3.6-+1.2 ab 9.30.8 a 7.5-L-1.0 a
24 5.92.1 a 7.51.0 a 11.00.7 b
26 6.5+0.3 a 7.51.0 a 7.50.3 a
28 5.50.3 a 6.30.6 ab 5.01.0 ac
30 1.90.8 bc 3.41.0 bc 3.81.0 c
32 0.0 c 1.01.0 c 0.10.1 d
*Calculated from 4 replicates (cups)/treatment. Defined as the length of time between
the emergence of the first and last adult insects within a cup.
**No significant differences were present for emergence periods between male and female
parasitoids; therefore, the data were pooled.
tMeans in the same column followed by the same letter or underscored means in the
same row are not significantly different at the 1% level by Duncan's new multiple range
100 -. l ong icaudatus
O 25 %
90 EB/ r 50 %

z 80 / A susoe nsa
C 70 / \\ 50
c* 75

S 60


o 30

W 20

22 24 26 28 30 32
Fig. 1. Percent emergence of adult insects from A. suspense larvae
exposed to B. longicaudatus (parasitoids only) and not exposed (flies).

Parasitoid and Fly Emergence. A comparison was made of the
production of adult parasitoids and flies from hosts either exposed or
not exposed to parasitoids (Fig. 1). Production in both groups fol-
lowed the same general pattern with respect to temperature and MC.
Neither temperature nor MC had any significant effect on emergence
for either group from 22-28"C with the exception of the 22*C-25%
and 28*C-25% combinations for hosts not exposed to parasitoids, and
the 22*C-25% and 24*C-25% combinations for hosts exposed to para-

Ashley et al.:


The Florida Entomologist

sitoids. About 28C significant reductions in emergence occurred in
both groups. No significant differences in adult production occurred
at any temperature between the 50 and 75% MC except for the 30'C-
50% and 30*C-75% combinations for larvae not exposed to parasi-
toids. Exposing larvae to the parasitoids decreased total adult emerg-
ence (parasitoids plus flies) by ca. 33%. Caribflies accounted for ca.
10% of the adults emerging from exposed hosts with B. longicaudatus
adults comprising the remainder.
Analysis of Puparial Contents. Puparia without emergence holes
were dissected unless they had collapsed rendering the contents un-
identifiable. Analysis of the puparial contents from larvae exposed
to parasitoids was not conclusive because it was impossible to dis-
tinguish a dead unparasitized fly larva from a parasitized larva which
died before the developing parasitoid reached sufficient size to be rec-
ognized. Nevertheless, certain general results can be reported. In
exposed larvae, death usually occurred for the fly pupa and for the
developing parasitoid prior to the formation of imaginal character-
istics. At 28*C, 63 and 20% of the puparia without emergence holes
had collapsed for the 75 and 50% MC, respectively. None of the
puparia formed from unexposed larvae collapsed and ca. 83% of the
flies which died during this stadium did so after forming the imaginal
Some parasitized puparia were found to contain diapausing last
instar B. longicaudatus larvae 2 months after the initial period of
adult emergence. These larvae became motile upon removal from the
puparium. Clausen et al. (1965) reports that the majority of diapaus-
Temperature % H20 in pupation medium
"C 25 50 75
22 7.01.3 ab 6.0-1.4 a 5.53.6 a
24 7.01.3 ab 4.5+0.5 ab 2.5-+1.0 ab
26 10.0--1.4 ac 1.00.6 ab 1.00.6 ab
28 4.51.5 b 0.50.5 b 1.51.0 ab
30 14.02.2 c 2.5-+-1.0 ab 0.0 b
32 6.04.8 ab 0.5+0.5 b 0.0 b
*Percentages calculated from 4 replicates with 50 puparia/replicate. Percentages in the
same column followed by the same letter or underscored percentages in the same row are
not significantly different at the 5% level by an analysis of means using Duncan's new
multiple range test.

ing B. longicaudatus larvae became adults in about 6 months. In-
cidence of diapause was consistently higher for the 25% MC and
significantly increased for the cooler temperatures at 50 and 75% MC
(Table 2).
Within the temperature and moisture ranges studied, B. longi-
caudatus appeared to have developmental optima similar to those of
A. suspense. This is not always the case, as Darby and Kapp (1934)
found that Doryctobracon (Opius) crawfordi (Vier.) had more re-
strictive temperature requirements than its host A. ludens (Loew),
the Mexican fruit fly. Studies by Prescott and Baranowski (1971) on


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Effects of Pupation Medium

the effects of temperature on the survival of A. suspense pupae indi-
cated an optimum at ca. 25*C, and our investigations support their
Survival of nonexposed hosts was quite high under most experi-
mental conditions, while under the same conditions hosts that had
been exposed to parasitoids produced ca. 33% fewer adults (parasitoids
plus flies). It is likely that most of the exposed hosts that died were
parasitized as Greany et al. (in press) found that opportunistic bac-
terial pathogens were better able to attack parasitized A. suspense
puparia, especially at elevated temperatures. It is also possible that
some hosts were superparasitized, and thereby stressed even further.
Diapause in fruit fly parasitoids was recorded for B. (Opius) tryoni
(Cameron) and B (Opius) fulliway (Silv.) by Pemberton and Willard
(1918). Clausen et al. (1965) notes larval diapause among B. longi-
caudatus collected from areas having cool winters. The results of our
study add quantitative support to Clausen's observations because an
increase in diapause was noted when temperatures were reduced to
24 and 22"C. Darby and Kapp (1934) recorded a higher incidence of
diapause in D. crawfordi where the conditions under which the host
pupae were held had become dryer than normal. Our data agree with
their findings since the use of 25% MC significantly increased the in-
cidence of diapause. From the standpoint of mass rearing B. longi-
caudatus, it would seem advisable to have at least a 50% MC in the
host's pupation medium because this moisture level reduces diapause,
thereby permitting a higher proportion of adult parasitoids to emerge
and lessens the potential effect of the rearing program in selecting
against diapause.
In summary, the optimum temperature range for development of
B. longicaudatus and for the pupal stage of A. suspense appears to be
between 24 and 28*C, with moisture concentrations in the pupation
medium of 50 and 75%.

R. BARANOWSKI, AND M. ANWAR. 1974. Application of sterili-
zation techniques to Anastrepha suspense (Loew) in Florida
(submitted as a report to IAEA, -SM-186/42).
CLAUSEN, C. P., D. W. CLANCY, AND Q. C. CHOCK. 1965. Biological
control of the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and
other fruit flies in Hawaii. USDA Tech. Bull. 1322, 102 p.
DARBY, H. H., AND E. M. KAPP. 1934. Studies on the Mexican fruit
fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). USDA Tech. Bull. 444, 20 p.
BERS. 1976. Rearing and life history studies on Biosteres
(Opius) longicaudatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Entomo-
phaga 21:207-15.
CHAMBERS. 1976. Stress-induced septicemia as an impedi-
ment to laboratory rearing of the fruit fly parasitoid, Biosteres
(Opius) longicaudatus, and the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha
suspense. J. Invert. Pathol. (in press).


Ashley et al.:

396 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

PEMBERTON, C. E., AND H. F. WILLARD. 1918. Interrelations of fruit
fly parasites in Hawaii. J. Agr. Res. 15: 419-65.
PRESCOTT, J. A. AND R. M. BARANOWSKI. 1971. Effects of tempera-
ture on the immature stages of Anastrepha suspense (Diptera:
Tephritidae). Fla. Ent. 54: 297-303.

SOUTHERN ARMYWORM'-(Note). Although considerable dam-
age often is inflicted on sweetpotatoes by Lepidoptera, no information
was found on resistance of sweetpotatoes to leaf-feeding Lepidoptera in
the field. An experimental planting of 8 sweetpotato varieties heavily
infested with southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) af-
forded an opportunity to evaluate feeding differences.
Eight sweetpotato varieties were planted in single row randomized
plots 30 ft long with 5 replicates. The caterpillar population was dis-
persed fairly evenly over the plots and the vines of the different sweet-
potato varieties often extended across 2 and sometimes 3 rows; as a
result larvae had access to as many as 4 varieties within a small area.
Twenty leaves randomly selected from plants originating in each plot
were evaluated as to percent injury, and rated on a scale of 1-8, for
increasing levels of damage. Results were analyzed by Friedman's test
(Langley, R. 1960. Practical Statistics. Dover, New York. 399 p.).
NC Porto Rico 198 was significantly (p=0.05) less damaged than
were either NC 212 or Gold Rush (Table 1). Although other varieties
suffered intermediate levels of damage, these data were not significantly
different from varieties most or least damaged. These results clearly
indicate that southern armyworm exhibits a preference for some va-
rieties of sweetpotato. The assistance of Dr. L. E. MacCarter in an-
alyzing the data is gratefully acknowledged. Dale H. Habeck, Depart-
ment of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, Florida 32611.

Feeding Index*
Variety 1 2 3 4 5 Mean
NC Porto Rico 198 2.6 4.5 4.3 3.4 4.1 3.8at
Centennial 4.5 6.0 5.6 4.8 4.7 5.lab
Gem 3.7 6.0 4.6 4.8 7.2 5.2ab
Rose Centennial 3.3 5.5 6.4 6.4 5.3 5.3ab
Georgia Red 3.4 5.5 6.0 6.3 5.8 5.4ab
Porto Rico Unit #1 5.4 5.7 5.3 6.4 4.9 5.5ab
NC 212 5.3 6.6 6.4 6.6 5.2 6.0 b
Gold Rush 5.9 6.0 6.7 7.2 5.6 6.3 b
*Data are the mean damage on 20 leaves examined in each replicate where 1=0-12.5% leaf
consumed, 2=12.5-25.0%, etc. to 8=87.5-100%.
tMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different from each other at p=
'Florida Agricutural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 184.

The Florida Entomologist Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976 397


H. F. LooMIS2
5355 S.W. 92nd St., Miami, Florida 33156

Ceuthauxus mediator Chamberlin is redescribed and illustrated,
with C. hispidipes Loomis made a synonym of C. nuevus Chamberlin;
2 n. gen., 3 n. spp. are described and illustrated, Chromodesmus (n.
gen.) woodruffi type species, C. plans, C. viridis, Ceuthauxus potosi-
anus Chamberlin transferred to this genus; Strongylodesmus harri-
soni Causey made type of Mexidesmus n. gen., illustrated.

The first known of these unusually colored millipeds was Stron-
gylodesmus cyaneus, made the type of the genus by Saussure, in 1859,
saying it was either blue or green. He illustrated it in beautiful color
in 1860. Since then, more or less similarly colored species have been
named, principally in the genera Strongylodesmus, Pararhachistes
Pocock, and Ceuthauxus Chamberlin. The color, in some of the species
at least, changes from a shade of blue in life to one of green when
held in preservative. The generic assignment of some of the recently
described species is in doubt. Several months ago, in identifying a
collection of millipeds for the Florida State Collection of Arthropods,
3 new species of this group were found, and, in studying them, it be-
came possible to verify the correctness of the generic position of some
of the previously described species.
Holotypes and available allotypes of the n. spp. are in the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, with male paratypes, where
available, in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, D. C.

Ceuthauxus Chamberlin
R. V. Chamberlin founded this genus in 1942 on Pararhachistes
nuevus, which he had described a year earlier. His 1942 paper also
included the very small new species, C. palmitonus. In 1943 he added
C. morelus and C. cruzanus, and described C. mediator and C. potosi-
anus in 1947, thus bringing the total species in the genus to 6. It is a
curious fact that in none of these descriptions did he mention the pore
formula, or the genus Strongylodesmus, although 2 of his species are
known to have the unusual formula of that genus. Since Pararha-
chistes has the normal formula of most large polydesmoids, it was as-
sumed that the type species, C. nuevus was no exception, borne out by
what I now consider its synonym, C. hirsutipes Loomis 1968a (p.
383). Recent examination of the holotype of nuevus by Dr. R. L.
Hoffman, who is cataloging the Chamberlin type collection of millipeds
for the National Museum of Natural History, verified its normal pore
formula. In Loomis 1968a (p. 383) it was stated that a topotype of

'Contribution No. 361, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Fla. Dep. Agr.
and Consumer Serv., Gainesville 32602.
2Research associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Fla. Dep. Agr. and Con-
sumer Serv.. Gainesville (deceased, 5 July 1976).

The Florida Entomologist

C. morelus had the formula of Strongylodesmus, as also was found
to be the case, in the present study, of the holotype of C. potosianus.
This holotype and that of C. mediator were lent to me by The Academy
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.


2 4

Fig. 1-5. Mexican millipeds; setae omitted from Fig. 2-5. 1)
Ceuthauxus mediator Chamberlin, right gonopod of holotype, slightly
mesad of ventrad. 2) Chromodesmus woodruff n. sp., right gonopod,
ventral view. 3) C. plans n. sp., left gonopod, ventral view. 4. C.
viridis n. sp., left gonopod, ventral view. 5) Mexidesmus harrisoni
(Causey), left gonopod, ventral view.


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Loomis: New Milliped Genus and Species

Ceuthauxus mediator Chamberlin
Strongylodesmus mediator Loomis 1968b: 41, new synonymy.
The following characters, noted in the holotype, are in addition
to those in the original description.
Description: Segment 1 with anterior angles broadly rounded;
posterior ones more broadly rounded than in other species seen here.
On succeeding segments keels high on sides of dorsum with outer
margins raised as high or higher than convex middorsum; all anterior
angles of keels rounded, posterior angles produced backward only after
segment 16, those of segment 19 acute at tip. Pores more dorsal than
lateral, opening almost upward from large, flattened marginal rim.
Margins of anal valves unusually thick and strongly raised. Gonopods
(Fig. 1), in microvial with holotype, unaccountably do not in the least
resemble the illustration accompanying Chamberlin's description;
mesal cavity very large, its long setae not projecting; setae on basal
half of outer joint unusually short. Gonopodial opening of segment 7
trapezoidal, as long as broad, anterior margin almost straight across,
posterior margin considerably longer and slightly concave, oblique
lateral margins almost straight, no margins raised.

Chromodesmus Loomis, new genus
Type species: Chromodesmus woodruffi Loomis, new species.
Diagnosis: Like Strongylodesmus Saussure in having the peculiar,
nearly continuous, pore formula, but each gonopod has a large, strongly
chitinized, translucent, 2-3 pronged process projecting from ventral
face of outer joint.
Description: Large-bodied species of some shade of green. Seg-
ment 1 decidedly more rectangular than in Strongylodesmus; other
segments, except caudal ones, subrectangular, with rounded anterior
corners and more or less squarely angled posterior ones. Segment
19 with apex of keels broadened, not coming to a sharp point. Pores
in segments 5 and 7-19 in specially thickened part of rim which oc-
cupies almost all of outer margin of keels, except on several caudal
ones. Gonopods large, lower portion of each outer joint with numer-
ous long setae which also extend somewhat up dorsal face of spatulate
upper portion. Gonopodial opening in segment 7 oval, its margin
raised in part. Coxal processes on 2nd legs only. Some anterior legs
with pad of dense setae beneath outer part of last joint.

Chromodesmus woodruffi Loomis, new species
Description: Body in alcohol only faintly green; keels almost color-
less. Largest male holotypee) 50 mm long, 6.2 mm wide. Segment 1
subrectangular, anterior corners quite abruptly rounded, posterior ones
almost squarely angled. Segments 2-16 subrectangular with dorsum
considerably wider than keels each side, these nearly horizontal, but
slightly raised on caudal segments; anterior angles rounded, bearing
a tiny tooth from segments 2-16 or 17; posterior angles more or less
abruptly rounded through segment 16, strongly produced thereafter;
posterior apex of keels of segment 19 squarely short-truncate; outer
margin of keels of segments 2-4 and 6 thick, others almost completely
occupied by the thicker poriferous margin except on last few segments.


The Florida Entomologist

Surface of keels finely granular, intervening dorsum shining-coriaceous.
Margin of anal valves thick but not greatly raised. Gonopod (Fig. 2)
with upper, outer prong of process turned sidewise; outer face convex,
inner face concave, ventral margin thickened throughout, with nodules
along proximal part. Gonopodial opening of segment 7 broadly oval,
posterior midmargin scarcely raised but increasingly raised around
each back angle. Outer joint of legs 2 and 3 with pad of short setae
beneath outer end. Seminal processes of 2nd legs curving caudo-
ventrad with tips held over 3rd sternum.
Holotype and male paratype, MEXICO, State of Hidalgo, Durango,
about 29 km S Jacala, hwy. 85, 18-VI-1963, R. E. Woodruff, in moun-
tains along road.

Chromodesmus plans Loomis, new species
Diagnosis: Closely related to C. woodruffi but greener; keels more
horizontal; and gonopods with basal half of each outer joint longer
and more slender; spatulate dorsal half narrower and scarcely excised
at tip; outer prong of process not turned edgeon.
Description: Holotype badly broken, 6.5 mm wide; female 49 mm
long, 7 mm wide; color in alcohol light green, outer portion of keels
yellowish. Dorsal surface of body quite flat; keels not appreciably
raised, their surface less distinctly granular than in woodruffi, outer
margins seldom as high as middorsum, thickened outer edge less
sharply raised than in woodruffl; dorsum little wider than keels. Seg-
ment 1 transversely trapezoidal, front and back angles more rounded
than woodruffi. Segments 2-10 or 11 with tiny tooth on anterior
angles, at most a faint hump thereafter. Segment 10 with produced
angles obliquely rounded, rather than truncate or acute. Gonopods
(Fig. 3) with outer prong of each process not turned with edge down,
only its lower extension thickened along edge; spatulate distal half of
joint little excised at tip. Gonopodial opening of segment 7 suboval,
anterior margin much more concave than posterior one which is
slightly and evenly raised. Coxal processes of 2nd legs much as in
woodruffi but more slender at apex; legs 2 and 3 with pad of short
setae below outer portion of last joint. Female with coxae of 2nd legs
quite squarely elevated and with a small knob at distomesal corner
almost touching opposite one; margin of segment behind sex organs
elevated into a triangular median lobe.
Holotype male and female, MEXICO, State of Hidalgo, San Vincente,
N of Ixmiquilpan, about 2,435 m, on hwy. 85, 18-VI-1963, R. E. Wood-
Chromodesmus potosianus (Chamberlin), new combination
Ceuthauxus potosianus Chamberlin 1947: 32.
Strongylodesmus potosianus Loomis 1968b: 41.
Examination of the holotype definitely places it in this genus on
the basis of the pores being on segments 5 and 7-19, shape of 19th
keels, and coxal processes on 2nd legs only.
The following structural features also were observed.
Segment 1 subrectangular with anterior corners broadly rounded.
Lateral keels raised from sides of body but their outer margins not
reaching above middorsum except on caudal segments; dorsum

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


Loomis: New Milliped Genus and Species

strongly convex transversely; posterior corners of anterior keels
rounded, not squarely or sharply angled until behind midbody; keels
of segment 19 obliquely angled at tips. Only right gonopod found
with holotype; seminal hook of telopodite as shown in original illustra-
tion, but the other prong is a shorter, bluntly rounded projection, and
the spatulate dorsal element has been broken off below apex. Gono-
podial opening in segment 7 oval, its posterior margin nearly straight
across and not raised, but lateral margins slightly elevated behind.
Coxal processes of 2nd legs short and raised ventrad but not bent

Chromodesmus viridis Loomis, new species
Diagnosis: Body narrower and greener than in other species.
Base of outer joint of gonopods more slender and with shorter setae
than in other species; spatulate dorsal portion short, thick, and with
sides medianly expanded; chitinized process heavy.
Description: Body narrow, badly broken but about 50 mm long,
5 mm wide, decidedly green, only outer margins of keels lighter. Seg-
ment 1 subrectangular, anterior corners broadly rounded, posterior
ones more rounded than in other species. Succeeding keels subrec-
tangular, considerably narrower than dorsum, mostly horizontal, only
a little elevated on segments 16-9, those of latter broadly rounded at
apex; a very small tooth at anterior corner of keels of segments 2-7 or
8 only. Surface of dorsum essentially coriaceous, that of keels faintly
granular. Inner margins of anal valves quite thin and only moderately
raised. Gonopods (Fig. 4) with setae on lower half of outer joint
shorter than in other species, those on dorsal surface and in mesal
cavity long. Gonopod opening in segment 7 a short, broad oval, its
margin raised into a high rounded scallop at each posterior corner but
scarcely raised between them. Legs 1-3 with dense pad of short setae
beneath distal part of last joint. Coxal processes of 2nd legs small,
slender, and projecting downward but hardly backward.
Holotype male, MEXICO, Tamaulipas, km 165, hwy. 101, 1,830 m, on
rock in moist jungled mts., 25-VI-1970, R. E. Woodruff.

Mexidesmus Loomis, new genus
Type species: Strongylodesmus harrisoni Causey 1971: 31.
Diagnosis: Differing from Chromodesmus in having normal pore
formula, very thin keels, and gonopods with base of last joint shorter,
less columnar, its upper half narrower to apex, rather than spatulate.
Description: Body long, slender, loose jointed; females nearly as
slender as males. Dorsum narrower than keels which are unusually
thin and outwardly raised above middorsum from segments 2-19,
especially those at ends of body, their surface strongly concave. Seg-
ment 1 broadly subrectangular, front angles broadly rounded, posterior
ones almost square. Anterior angles of keels of succeeding segments
with a small but quite distinct tooth mesad of which are 1 to several
minute serrations on anterior segments. Posterior margin of keels
broadly convex, more or less dentate, back corner separately produced
as a short angulation. Margin of keels thin, except at pore and be-
hind it; on segment 19 this thickening contains a broad, more or less


The Florida Entomologist

distinct channel ending at the nearly square truncation at apex of
keel. Gonopod (Fig. 5) with long setae on basal half and up dorsal
face of upper half, those in mesal cavity longer than elsewhere. Gono-
podial opening in segment 7 oval, its sides and back margins thinly
but abruptly considerably raised. Processes on coxae of 2nd legs
broad-based, short cones. Outer joint of legs 2 and 3 somewhat more
setose beneath apex than elsewhere but no obvious pad.

Mexidesmus harrisoni (Causey), new combination
Strongylodesmus harrisoni Causey, 1971, p. 31.
Four males, 2 females, several young, MEXICO, Tamaulipas, 0.5 km
W of Gomez Farias, Resumidero de los Mangos, 14-V-1971, Wm. R.
Elliott. These specimens were sent to me by Dr. Causey and were said
to be paratypes, although the locality was not listed in her description.

CAUSEY, N. B. 1971. Millipeds in the collection of the association
for Mexican cave studies (Diplododa). Bull. Assoc. for Mexi-
can cave studies 4:23-32.
CHAMBERLIN, R. V. 1941. On five new polydesmid millipeds from
Mexico. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 54:63-6.
CHAMBERLIN, R. V. 1942. On centipeds and millipeds from Mexican
caves. Bull. Univ. Utah 33(4):3-19.
CHAMBERLIN, R. V. 1943. On Mexican millipeds. Bull. Univ. Utah
34(7) :3-103.
CHAMBERLIN, R. V. 1947. Some records and descriptions of diplopods
chiefly in the collections of the academy. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
Philadelphia 99:21-58.
LooMIs, H. F. 1968a. New species and records of millipeds from
Nuevo Leon, Mexico. J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 41(3) :382-94.
LooMIs, H. F. 1968b. A checklist of the millipeds of Mexico and
Central America. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 266:1-137.
SAUSSURE, H. 1859. Note sur la famille des polydesmides princip-
palement au pointe de vue des especes Americaines. Diagnoses
de divers myriapods nouveaux. Linn. Ent. 13: 318-327, 328-32.
SAUSSURE, H. 1860. Essai d'une faune des myriapodes du Mexique,
avec la description de quelques especes des autres parties de
l'Amerique. Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve (pt. 2), 15:259-

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


The Florida Entomologist


C. W. McCoY
University of Florida,
Agricultural Research and Education Center
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

The persistence of high populations of citrus rust mite in untreated
Valencia orange groves from late October 1974 to early January 1975
combined with abnormally dry weather caused severe injury to both
the spring and summer flushes of leaves. Seventy percent of the
leaves had one or more types of rust mite injury of varying severity.
Upper surface injury occurred on 43.7% of the leaves and was most
prevalent on spring flush. Lower surface injury and mesophyll col-
lapse occurred on 37.4 and 19.0% of the leaves, respectively, and were
most prevalent on summer flush.
Overall defoliation of both healthy and injured leaves was 9.5%
being significantly greater on summer flush. Citrus rust mite injury
to the lower leaf surface appeared to be associated with defoliation.
The area of injured leaf surface in relation to leaf size appeared to
have no effect on leaf abscission. The interaction between the various
types of leaf injury associated with citrus rust mite and prolonged
moisture stress in relation to defoliation is discussed.

Leaf injury caused by feeding of the citrus rust mite, Phyllo-
coptruta oleivora (Ash.) exhibits many distinct symptoms. Injury
to the upper leaf surface is confined to epidermal cells and appears as
small brownish spots or blotches resembling the russetingg" condition
common to immature fruit (Albrigo and McCoy 1974). When injury
is severe, the upper cuticle frequently appears to lose its glossy char-
acter taking on a dull bronze-like color and a rough texture that can
be detected by touch (Hubbard 1885, Yothers and Mason 1930). In
many cases of severe injury, localized degreening of the upper leaf
cuticle may also develop causing these degreened areas to become a
yellowish color similar to the condition occurring on immature fruit
(McCoy and Albrigo 1975). Injury to the lower leaf surface is con-
fined to epidermal cells which include the stomatal guard cells (Al-
brigo and McCoy 1974). Lower surfaces often show "leaf mesophyll
collapse" appearing first as yellow degreened patches and later as
necrotic spots (Thompson 1946, Albrigo and McCoy 1974). However,
lower leaf surface injury frequently stops with a browning of the epi-
dermal cells (Yothers and Mason 1930, Griffiths and Thompson 1957).
Generally, visible injury to fruit is more common than leaf injury;
however, the latter can occasionally be severe. The literature presents
conflicting reports as to whether citrus rust mite injury to leaves, even
when severe, will cause defoliation. According to Hubbard (1885),
leaves never drop no matter how severe the rust mite attack; but
'Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 9050. Research supported
in part by CSRS Grant PL 89-106.


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

The Florida Entomologist

growth and vitality of the tree can be affected. Likewise, Yothers and
Mason (1930) consider loss of vigor important if rust mite populations
reach high densities. According to Griffiths and Thompson (1957),
however, high populations on leaves and green twigs may cause a
general defoliation similar to that caused by citrus red mite, parti-
cularly during periods of dry, windy weather in late fall, winter, and
early spring. Recently, van Brussel (1975) presenting the only pub-
lished quantitative results on the subject of leaf drop found in Suri-
nam, that copper-treated grapefruit trees with high citrus rust mite
populations and without greasy spot disease suffered no defoliation
while untreated trees with lower mite populations and greasy spot had
extensive defoliation.
During the fall and winter of 1974, abnormally high populations
of citrus rust mite persisted from late October to the end of December
in a number of untreated experimental Valencia plots. This abnormal
buildup of mites in the fall did not occur in the untreated plots during
the previous 2 years. During this period, rainfall averaged 0.2 inch
weekly. Severe injury to both the spring and summer flushes of
leaves and fruit was evident in these plots by mid-November. Since
citrus rust mite populations are generally less severe in the fall, this
opportunity was used to conduct specific quantitative studies to de-
termine if the various types of visible injury occurring on the differ-
ent flushes subsequently resulted in premature leaf drop.

Experiments were conducted in 10-acre plots in 2 mature com-
mercial groves (designated Coca-Cola and Adams) of Valencia orange
on rough lemon rootstock near Lake Alfred, Florida. The Coca-Cola
grove had a hedgerow tree spacing pattern (15 ft X 30 ft) whereas
the Adams grove had a wider spacing (30 ft X 30 ft). Although an
overhead irrigation system was maintained in both groves, neither
system was used more than once during the fall of 1974 (about 2
inches free water in each grove on 4 to 5 Nov.) and had no apparent
effect on the increase of citrus rust mite populations and their sub-
sequent injury. The Adams plot received no pest control in 1974,
while the Coca-Cola grove received no control after treatment for
greasy spot disease on 1 July.
During the last 2 weeks in December 1974, 64 shoots representing
spring and summer flushes were selected on the north and south sides
of 16 trees (4 shoots/tree) in each grove and tagged at the origin of
growth of each flush. Only shoots with leaves maintaining high citrus
rust mite populations (visible to the naked eye) and exhibiting visible
mite injury were selected for study. Shoots with leaves showing early
greasy spot symptoms were avoided. A total of 2,014 leaves, an aver-
age of 15.7 leaves/shoot, were evaluated in the 2 groves.
Beginning with the first leaf of the summer flush, leaf dimensions
(L X W), type or types of mite injury/leaf, and the estimated per-
cent surface area with each type of injury were determined for sum-
mer and spring flushes. Atypical leaves, leaves with some insect-feed-
ing (i.e., katydid feeding), and leaves with one or more greasy spot
lesions were recorded, but not evaluated for abscission. Previous leaf


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

McCoy: Rust Mite Injury to Leaves

abscission was determined by identifying scarred nodes. Unfortu-
nately, 706 of 1,012 leaves (69.8%) in the Adams grove developed
greasy spot lesions prior to final evaluation and were excluded from
the test. After leaves were evaluated for mite injury, all shoots and
the surrounding foliage were immediately sprayed to run-off with
chlorobenzilate (0.25 pt/100 gal). In late March, when early spring
flush was first beginning to appear, each leaf/shoot was examined for
The area of leaf blade was determined by the formula of Turrell
(1961). The statistical relationship between type or types of injury
per leaf and healthy leaves as to abscission was determined using a
contingency table-Chi square test and one-way analysis of variance.




S 10-

0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49

Fig. 1. Frequency distribution of percent leaf defoliation on 64
Valencia shoots representing spring and summer flushes in the Coca-
Cola grove.

When leaves were examined in December, 44.5% had either upper
or lower surface injury or mesophyll collapse only, 25.5% had more
than one type of injury, and 30.0% had no injury at all (Table 1).
Upper surface injury occurred on 43.7% of the leaves and was most
prevalent on spring flush. In many cases, upper surface injury was
localized on and around the leaf midrib and petiole affecting no more
than 1 to 10% of the leaf surface area. Lower surface injury and
mesophyll collapse occurred either alone or in combination with other
injury on 37.4 and 19.0% of the leaves, respectively, and were most
prevalent on summer flush. Frequently, mesophyll collapsed areas


The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


eo' Lo Ln
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McCoy: Rust Mite Injury to Leaves

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Fig. 2. Scatter diagram showing the relation between total leaf
surface and estimated leaf surface injury for abscised and attached
leaves with different types of injury in two Valencia orange groves.



nl I

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The Florida Entomologist

Percent injury per leaf
No leaf abscission Leaf abscission F
Leaf condition Mean Range Mean Range Valuet
Lower surface injury 7.6 1-60 16.4 1-90 7.55**
Mesophyll collapse 12.3 1-80 20.5 1-70 1.95 NS
Upper & lower surface
injury 9.3 1-90 19.0 1-100 5.16*
tOne-way analysis of variance with unequal sample size: *P<0.05; **P <0.001.
were found within areas with visible lower surface injury indicating
that lower surface injury may be a precursor to mesophyll collapse.
Mesophyll collapse was also found exclusive of any lower surface in-
jury however. Upper and lower surface injury (14.2%) was most
common among leaves with more than one type of injury.
In the Coca-Cola grove, defoliation of Valencia shoots exhibiting
various types of mite injury was relatively scattered, 59.4% having
less than 10% leaf drop with only 1 shoot (1.6%) having more than
40% (Fig. 1). Excessive defoliation from greasy spot disease pre-
vented evaluation of individual shoots in the Adams grove. Overall
defoliation of both healthy and injured leaves was 9.5% for the 2
groves (Table 1). Although injured leaves appeared to be more preva-
lent on the south (60.2%) rather than north side (39.8%) of the
tree, leaf abscission was not significantly different (Table 1). De-
foliation was significantly greater, however, on summer flushes com-
pared to spring (Table 1).
When considering each type of leaf injury, rust mite damage to the
lower leaf surface appeared to be associated with defoliation. As
shown in Table 1, defoliation was significantly higher for leaves with
only lower surface injury or leaves with a combination of upper and
lower surface injury when compared to drop of healthy leaves. In the
case of upper and lower surface injury on the same leaf, we are assum-
ing the effect was due mainly to injury to the lower surface, since
upper surface injury alone had no significant effect on defoliation
(Table 1). Furthermore, the mean percent injury to the lower sur-
face for leaves that ultimately abscised was significantly higher than
the mean for injured leaves that remained on the trees (Table 2).
When leaf surface injury per given leaf regardless of leaf size was
considered, however, the area of leaf surface injured had little effect
on leaf abscission or drop (Fig. 2). Many leaves with extensive lower
surface area injury remained on the tree while other leaves with little
surface area with injury abscised.
Leaves with only mesophyll collapse had a significantly higher per-
cent defoliation compared to healthy leaves whereas leaves with meso-
phyll collapse and one or more of the remaining types of injury showed
no significant difference in percent defoliation (Table 1). Possibly
the low number of samples recorded with these injury combinations
were responsible for the lack of significance. The mean percent of

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


McCoy: Rust Mite Injury to Leaves

the leaf surface with mesophyll collapse for leaves that abscised was
not significantly higher than the mean for leaves remaining on the
tree (Table 2). As was true for leaves with lower surface injury, the
extent of the leaf surface area with mesophyll collapse appeared to
have little effect on abscission (Fig. 2).

Injury to the lower leaf surface appeared to contribute to defolia-
tion more than any of the other types of injury occurring on leaves
exposed to high populations of citrus rust mite during the 10 to 12
weeks of dry weather. Sparse rainfall (aver. weekly rainfall of 0.2
inch) must be considered important when speculating on the slightly
higher defoliation rate of these leaves. According to Ferry and Ward
(1966), transpiration through the stomates is responsible for 85 to
95% of the water vapor diffusing from plants into the air. Therefore,
when stomatal guard cells of the lower leaf surface are destroyed
through the action of rust mite feeding (Albrigo and McCoy 1974),
stomatal control of water loss can be greatly impaired. Furthermore,
extensive injury or destruction of single or groups of epidermal cells
may weaken the cuticular layer resulting in excessive vaporization.
Therefore, increased water loss through the destruction of epidermal
cells of the lower leaf surface may possibly be enough, particularly
during the dry periods, to cause leaf abscission.
Since more leaves had upper leaf surface injury, in many cases, of
a severity equal to that for lower surface injury, it might be well to
speculate as to why defoliation from this type of injury was insig-
nificant. Here again water loss could be involved. Morphologically,
the upper leaf surface lacks stomates, has a highly developed waxy
layer, and has a compact palisade parenchyma layer of cells beneath
the epidermis that contribute to the prevention of water loss.
As previously mentioned, frequently areas of mesophyll collapse
were found exclusive of any lower surface injury. In fact, 90 leaves
of which 13.3% subsequently abscised were identified. Possibly, in-
jury of this type was totally unrelated to citrus rust mite since lower
surface injury was not detected in surrounding areas. Both Haas
(1937) and Turrell et al. (1943) define mesophyll collapse as a physio-
logical injury associated with the difficulty in the tree securing an
adequate water supply. This can be triggered by dry or humid winds,
saline water or soil, open sandy soil types, weeds, poor irrigation, and
long periods of hot weather coupled with insufficient soil moisture.
According to Haas (1937), increased water loss by the leaf through
mite feeding (red spiders) may aggravate the problem too.
Although these data suggest that mite populations, when left un-
controlled for a long period, can inflict enough injury to cause some
defoliation under ideal weather conditions; it would appear that an
increase of 3.0% defoliation caused by citrus rust mite, on occasion,
might not be severe enough to affect tree vigor and subsequent yield
of Valencia orange. Further research is needed, however, on the effect
of citrus rust mite injury on leaf photosynthesis, water transport, as
well as defoliation, and yield of different varieties. If the ultimate
cause of defoliation as hypothesized here is water loss, management


The Florida Entomologist

through irrigation may supply more immediate, practical benefits to
the grower.

ALBRIGO, L. G., AND C. W. McCOY. 1974. Characteristic injury by
citrus rust mite to orange leaves and fruit. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 87:48-54.
FERRY, J. F., AND H. S. WARD. 1966. Fundamentals of plant physi-
ology. Macmillan Co., New York. 53 p.
GRIFFITHS, J. T., AND W. L. THOMPSON. 1957. Insects and mites found
on Florida citrus. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 591. p. 39-40.
HAAS, A. R. C. 1937. Mesophyll collapse of citrus leaves. Calif.
Citrog. 22:114.
HUBBARD, H. G. 1885. Rust of the orange. USDA Rep. p. 361-73.
McCOY, C. W., AND L. G. ALBRIGO. 1974. Feeding behavior and na-
ture of injury to the orange caused by citrus rust mite, Phyl-
locoptruta oleivora (Postigmata:Eriophyoidea). Ann. Ent. Soc.
Amer. 68:289-97.
THOMPSON, W. L. 1946. Preventive sprays for mite control on citrus.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 59:60-5.
TURRELL, F. M. 1961. Growth of the phytosynthetic area of citrus.
Bot. Gaz. 122:284-98.
TURRELL, F. M., V. P. SOKOLOFF, AND L. J. KLOTZ. 1943. Structure
and composition of citrus leaves affected with mesophyll col-
lapse. Plant Physiol. 18(3) :463-75.
VAN BRUSSEL, E. W. 1975. Interrelations between citrus rust mite,
Hirsutella thompsonii and greasy spot on citrus in Surinam.
Landbouwproefstation Surinam/Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion Surinam Bull. 98. 43 p.
YOTHERS, W. W., AND A. C. MASON. 1930. The citrus rust mite and
its control. USDA Tech. Bull. 176. 16 p.

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


The Florida Entomologist



Thirty-one queens of the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (F.),
were found in a single nest in the field. All produced worker ants in
laboratory colonies indicating that all had been inseminated. The eggs
and immature forms produced by 14 of the queens were tended mutu-
ally in a common nest by all 14 queens and their workers, an example
of true polygyny. Oil soluble dyes of 7 colors were incorporated into
the food of the ants of 14 individual colonies (2 colonies per color).
The ants were permitted to feed ad lib for 7 days. Individual colors
appeared in the eggs laid by queens feeding on their respective dyes.
Colonies were recombined on the 17th day and the colors continued to
appear in the eggs deposited in the large colony until trophallaxis
blended the dyes to the point that they were indistinguishable, indi-
cating a continued mutual contribution by each queen present in the
composite colony.

Polygyny has been known for several years among the species of
a number of genera of ants (Wilson 1971). The relatively common
occurrence of polygyny in some Solenopsis species, however, is a fairly
recent discovery. Wilson (1971) stated that M. S. Blum had reported
the occasional coexistence of 2 queens in the red imported fire ant.
Glancey et al. (1973) found 2 small nests of S. invicta Buren (esti-
mated to be 6-8 months old) that contained 20 fertile females. On
another occasion, they found 3 mounds that contained a total of 16
dealated females, all of which produced eggs in the laboratory. How-
ever, the eggs from only 3 of the females subsequently produced
worker ants. Later, Glancey et al. (1975) reported that a group of
10 nests of S. invicta in southeastern Mississippi contained from 7 to
677 fertile queens per mound. Also, Summerlin (1976) found that 5
of 12 dealated females taken from a single nest in the southern fire
ant, Solenopsis xyloni McCook, near College Station, TX, were fertile.
Banks et al. (1973) reported that 2 physogastric females taken from
a single nest of Solenopsis geminata (F.) were both fertile.
This paper reports observations of polygyny in the tropical fire ant,
S. geminata.

During our routine field studies, numerous mounds of S. geminata
and of the red imported fire ant, S. invicta, are opened with a shovel,
and observations are made of conditions of the colony or the presence
of the various castes. Often, colonies and a portion of the mound are
excavated and returned to the laboratory for study. These colonies
are then separated from the soil of the mound by flotation, or the
'Hymenoptera: Formicidae.
'Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.
"Insects Affecting Man Research Lab, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Gainesville, Fla. 32604.

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


The Florida Entomologist

ants may be forced to move into the moist plaster of paris nests by
spreading the soil in a shallow tray to dry.
One colony of S. geminata, excavated in northwest Gainesville, con-
tained 31 dealated females. Tests were conducted to determine if all
the females were fertile.
Fourteen of the 31 queens were established in individual 10 cm
circular plexiglass ant nests with ca. 25 worker ants each. Each nest
was placed in the center of a 22.5 X 30 cm plastic dishpan. The sides
of the pan were dusted with inert talc to prevent the ants' escape.
The remaining 17 queens were placed together with several hundred
workers and larvae in a single 19 cm circular plexiglass nest. The nest
was placed in a 40 X 50 cm plastic tray, and the sides of the tray
were dusted with talc. All the colonies were maintained at a tempera-
ture of 27+2C. Laboratory-reared German cockroaches, Blatella
germanica (L.), and an artificial medium (macerated insects, beef
baby food, whole egg, multiple vitamins, water, and agar) were pro-
vided for food. After 21 days, 14 of the queens from the large nest
(2 had died and 1 had been transferred to replace a queen that had
died in a small individual nest) were each placed in separate 10-cm
nests with 25-50 workers and a small quantity of larvae. Each colony
was then permitted to feed ad lib for 7 days on peanut butter con-
taining, oil-soluble orange, red, blue, green, yellow, bronze or black
dye (2 colonies per color). The colonies were then returned to the
regular diet. Daily observations were made and the egg production
of each colony was noted. On the 17th day after removal of the dyed
food, the queens and workers from these 14 colonies were recombined
in a large nest, and observations of egg production were continued.

From observations of colonies of S. geminata in the field or from
studies of colonies brought into the laboratory, we know that most
mounds of S. geminata contained only 1 queen but some mounds con-
tained as many as 31 queens. At a site in northwest Gainesville,
8 of 11 nests of S. geminata examined contained multiple queens.
Two of the nests contained 2 queens, 3 other nests contained 7, 10,
and 31 queens, respectively; the number of queens in the other 3 nests
was not determined except to note that more than 1 was present. In
the laboratory studies with the 31 queens taken from the 1 nest, all
14 females established in individual nests began producing eggs within
24-48 hr. By 7 days, each nest contained numerous larvae that were
recognizable as sexual larvae. After 16 days, worker larvae were
present in all 14 nests, and by the 25th day, callow workers were
present. This production of worker ants indicated that all the queens
were fertile since by Dzierzon's rule, virgin queens produce only males
(Wilson 1971). Six of the 14 queens died between the 20th and 50th
days after establishment so their colonies were destroyed once all the
immatures had completed development. The other 8 colonies con-
tinued to increase through 120 days, when the study was ended.
The 17 queens placed together in the large nest also began to pro-
duce eggs within 24-48 hr. No counts were made of the number of

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976-


Adams et al.: Polygyny in Tropical Fire Ant

eggs laid. From the size of the egg clutches, it would appear that
most, if not all, of the queens were contributing as the egg clutches
were several-fold greater than the number produced by any single
queen in an individual nest. All the eggs and the resulting larvae
were maintained in a common cluster and were tended mutually by all
the queens and workers, an example of true polygyny as defined by
Wilson (1974). After these queens were placed in the individual
nests, and their colonies were allowed to feed on the peanut butter
containing dye, the eggs produced by the queens contained the dye.
When the queens were recombined in the large nest, all 7 dyes were
seen in the eggs laid during the first 2 days, thus indicating that all
of the queens continued to lay in the presence of other queens. By
the 3rd day, intermixing of the dyes from the trophallaxis made the
individual colors indistinguishable. There did not appear to be any
dominance exhibited by any queen or any inhibition of egg laying by
a queen due to the presence of other functional queens since all dyes
were present in the eggs laid and the relative quantity of eggs of each
color was about equal.
Colony founding by groups of queens may be a prominent factor
in the survival of new colonies of Solenopsis. Markin et al. (1972)
found that when colonies were started by 3 queens nearly one-third
more of the colonies survived than when colonies were founded by a
single queen. Also, Wilson (1966) showed that queens starting nests
cooperatively survived longer and produced more workers per queen
in the first brood than those founding colonies singly.
Markin et al. (1972, 1973) found that 1-5 queens of S. invicta
may cooperate in founding a colony and that at least 5% of the nests
that were 2 or more years old contained more than 1 queen. Glancey
et al. (1973, 1975) and our own unpublished data, confirm these ob-
servations for colonies as young as 6-8 months of age.
Several Solenopsis queens may therefore found a colony coopera-
tively and live together in a common nest throughout the life of the
colony. This arrangement could seem a waste of reproductive po-
tential unless each queen can lay a normal complement of eggs and
produce the expected number of ants. Coexistence may have an adap-
tive advantage for colony survival, however, as Wilson (1974) has
hypothesized for Leptothorax curvispinosus Mayr. He proposed that
any disadvantages imposed on a given queen in a polygynous colony
may be outweighed by the fact that multiple queens provide suffici-
ently greater potential for survival of the colony so as to make mutual
tolerance by the queens adaptive.
Our observations suggest that some mature colonies of Solenopsis
may adopt newly-mated queens after nuptial flights. We recently
found workers of S. invicta apparently caring for newly-mated queens
under debris in the vicinity of established nests. This evidence is in
direct contrast to the reports of numerous researchers (Arant et al.
1958, Hays 1959, Green 1967, Markin et al. 1971, Whitcomb et al.
1973) who have seen workers of established colonies quickly kill many
newly-mated queens as they alight on the soil surface after the nuptial
flight. Why worker ants sometimes kill the newly-mated queens, and
apparently sometimes do not, is uncertain. It could reflect the re-


The Florida Entomologist

lationship of the newly-mated queens to the ants in the mounds: sister
queens arising from those same mounds or adjacent related mounds
would more likely to be accepted; queens from unrelated mounds would
be killed.
There is also the possibility that the multiple queens within single
mounds may result from mating within the nest. Our studies suggest
that this is not the case, however. Since 1969 we have maintained
many large queenless colonies of both S. geminata and S. invicta in
the laboratory. Although many of these colonies have contained both
male and female sexual within the same nest, we have seen no attempt
on the part of the ants to mate within the nest, and we have never had
any of these colonies begin production of worker larvae or adult
worker ants which would indicate that a female has been inseminated
within the nest.
Although the discovery of polygyny in Solenopsis occurred recently,
present evidence indicates that it is rather common in the genus.
Further studies will be necessary to determine what effects polygyny
may have on the survival and success of the fire ants.

ARANT, F. S., K. L. HAYS, AND D. W. SPEAKE. 1958. Facts about the
imported fire ant. Highlights Agr. Res. 5: 12-13. Auburn
Univ., Auburn, Ala.
BANKS, W. A., J. K. PLUMLEY, AND D. M. HICKS. 1973. Polygyny in
a colony of the fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (F.). Ann. Ent.
Soc. Am. 66: 234-5.
BARBER, E. R. 1925. The Argentine ant as a household pest. USDA
Farmers Bull. 1011. 6 p.
Multiple fertile queens in colonies of the imported fire ant,
Solenopsis invicta. J. Ga. Ent. Soc. 8: 237-8.
An extraordinary case of polygyny in the red imported fire ant.
Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 68: 922.
GRAY, B. 1971. Notes on the biology of the ant species, Myrmecia
dispar (Clark) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Insectes Soc. 18:
GREEN, H. B. 1967. The imported fire ant in Mississippi. MS State
Univ. Exp. Sta. Bull. 737. 23 p.
HAYS, K. L. 1959. Ecological observations on the imported fire ant,
Solenopsis saevissima richteri Forel, in Alabama. J. Ala. Acad.
Sci. 30: 14-18.
HEADLEY, A. E. 1943. Population studies of two species of ants,
Leptothorax longispinosus Roger and L. curvispinosus Mayr.
Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 36: 743-53.
HEADLEY, A. E. 1949. A population study of the ant, Aphaenogaster
fulva ssp. aquia Buckley (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ann.
Ent. Soc. Am. 43: 265-72.
MARKIN, G. P., H. L. COLLINS, AND J. H. DILLIER. 1972. Colony Found-
ing by queens of the red imported Fire ant( Solenopsis invicta.
Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 65: 1053-8.
MARKIN, G. P., H. L. COLLINS, AND J. H. DILLIER. 1973. Growth and
development of colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis
invicta. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 66: 803-8.


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

Adams et al.: Polygyny in Tropical Fire Ant

MANN. 1971. Nuptial flight and flight ranges of the imported
fire ant, Solenopsis saevissima richteri (Hymenoptera: Formi-
cidae). J. Ga. Ent. Soc. 6: 145-56.
SMITH, M. R. 1936. Distribution of the Argentine ant in the United
States and suggestions for its control or eradication. USDA
Circ. 387. 39 p.
STUMPER, A. 1962. Sur un effet de group chez les femelles de Campa-
notus vagus (Scopoli). Insectes Soc. 9: 329-33.
SUMMERLIN, J. W. 1976. Polygyny in a colony of the Southern fire
ant. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 69: 54.
TALBOT, H. 1951. Populations and hibernating conditions of the ant
Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) rudis (Emery). Ann. Ent. Soc.
Am. 44: 302-7.
WALOFF, B. 1957. The effect of the number of queens of the ant,
Lasius flavus (F.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on their sur-
vival and on the rate of development of the first brood. In-
sectes Soc. 4: 391-408.
tors of Solenopsis invicta queens prior to successful colony
establishment. Environ. Ent. 2: 1101-3.
WILSON, E. 0. 1966. Behaviour of social insects. Symp. R. Ent. Soc.
London 3: 81-96.
WILSON, E. 0. 1971. The insect societies. Belknap Press of Harvard
Univ. Press. Cambridge, MA. 548 p.
WILSON, E. 0. 1974. The population consequences of polygyny in the
ant, Leptothorax curvispinosus. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 67: 781-6.


The Florida Entomologist

Laster (1972, Environ. Ent. 1: 682-7) discovered that in the laboratory
the progeny of Heliothis virescens (F.) that mated with H. subflexa
(Guen6e), a closely related species, were sterile. He therefore pro-
posed that native H. virescens populations might be controlled by re-
leases of these sterile hybrids. In various trapping experiments, I
have observed cross sex attraction among several Spodoptera species.
For example, traps baited with Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) often
attract males of S. eridania (Cramer), and female S. eridania attract
male S. exigua though female S. frugiperda (J. E. Smith) attract only
conspecific males.
I report here the results of experiments designed to determine the
degree of cross mating, if any, among several species of Spodoptera
All insects used in the experiments were reared from larvae main-
tained on artificial diet (Burton, R. L., 1970, J. Econ. Ent. 63: 1969-70);
The insects were sexed in the pupal stage and held separately until they
were tested. All possible male-female combinations were made among
S. exigua, S. eridania, S. frugiperda, and S. ornithogalli. The moths
(5 females and 10 males) of each combination were confined in 3.8-liter
paper cartons with screened ends, and they were held in a temperature-
controlled cabinet maintained at ca. 27C and 65% RH under a 14:10
light:dark cycle. The moths remained together until all insects in each
cage died. Then they were collected and preserved in 70% alcohol.
Later the insects were sexed, and the females were dissected for evi-
dence of mating (the presence of a spermatophore in the bursa copula-
trix). Each treatment (male:female combination) was replicated 2-3
times. Controls (5 females and 10 males of each species) were main-
tained to confirm conspecific mating in the test conditions.
Mating among conspecific males and females was: S. exigua, 67%;
S. eridania, 63% ; S. frugiperda, 84%; S. ornithogalli, 57%. There
was no evidence of cross mating between any of the Spodoptera spp.
Therefore, the possibility of obtaining hybrid sterility among 2 or more
species in this particular group of Spodoptera in the laboratory or in
nature appears remote despite the evidence of cross sex attraction in
the field.-E. R. Mitchell, Insect Attractants, Behavior, and Basic
Biology Research Laboratory, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Gainesville FL
32604. I gratefully acknowledge the following personnel of this labora-
tory for their assistance in insect rearing-C. Green, I. Rodgers, and
R. Hines.


Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

The Florida Entomologist


Department of Entomology
Washington State University
Pullman, Washington 99163

The Jamaican species of Nothomyia are reviewed and a key pre-
sented. New species are N. flavipes, N. woodruffi, and N. alticola.
Pareidalimus Lindner is a junior synonym of Gowdeyana Curran.
Chaetohermetia insularis, possibly a transitional link between Chaeto-
hermetia and Hermetia, is described as new.

This paper is presented at this time to make available for publica-
tion the names of new species to be listed in a comprehensive report
by Dr. Woodruff on the results of his collection expedition to Jamaica.
Holotypes are being placed in the Florida State Collection of Arthro-
pods. I am grateful to Dr. Woodruff and to Dr. Howard Weems Jr.
for making this collection available to me for study.

In the collection before me there are 4 species represented, un-
fortunately 2 of them by unique. In all of these the scutellar spines
are reduced to short tubercles which may be overlooked, the scutellum
consequently being interpreted as unspined. The reduction of scutel-
lar spines is known otherwise to occur only in the Cuban scutellata
Loew which may be distinguished easily from the Jamaican species
by its yellow scutellum. No mention of scutellar spines is made in the
original description of Nothomyia fasciatipennis (Lindner), but it
must be assumed that the scutellum of that species is 2-spined, since
Lindner considered the presence of spines a generic character of the
genus Berisargus to which fasciatipennis was referred.
Only 10 species of Nothomyia are known from the rest of the
world (see James 1942 for key). All are Neotropical, if we disregard
the probably adventitious record of viridis, and extend from southern
Florida to southern Brazil. The occurrence of 4 species on a small
island of varied topography is interesting but not surprising in view
of the documented profuse speciation that occurs in some other insular
areas, such as in Hawaii.

1. Wing with a distinct brown cross band and apex; legs and an-
tennae mostly yellow; scutellar spines so small that they ap-
pear completely absent (female unknown) ---........----- flavipes n. sp.
1.' Wing hyaline; scutellar spines present but reduced to small
tubercles; legs, except basal 1 or 2 tarsomeres, and antenna
'Scientific paper number 4574, Washington State University College of Agriculture Re-
search Center, Pullman, Washington. Work was conducted under Project 9043.

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


The Florida Entomologist

black to metallic blue -------- ...... ......................-----...........-- ---.. 2
2. Basitarsus and most of second tarsomere of hind leg yel-
low; stigma pale yellow, heavier veins yellow to brownish
yellow .................................------ ----.- ....woodruffi n. sp.
2.' At most basitarsi except apices yellow, second tarsomere of
all legs black .........---- ......... ..---------------------- 3
3. Stigma and heavy veins dark brown to brownish black; meso-
notum of male with sparse, erect black hairs and appressed
yellowish pile ..................-------------..........intensica (Curran)
3.' Stigma and heavy veins yellow to pale brownish yellow; meso-
notum of male with abundant long erect black hairs contrast-
ing in length with the short, though erect, black pile (female
unknown) ............... ..---------.. ---------.....--alticola n. sp.

Nothomyia intensica (Curren)
Merosargus intensicus Curren, 1928, Bull. Agr. & Sci. Jamaica 4,
suppl. 4: 18.
Described from a male from Cinchona, Jamaica. I have 1 male, Bath,
Jamaica, 1-IV-1931, E. L. Bell, which agrees well with Curran's de-
scription but is somewhat smaller (5.4 rather than 6.0 mm). The
female is undescribed; the following notes are based on 1 female,
Holywell Forest Camp, St. Andrew Parish, 11-VIII-1971, M. Winegar,
and 2 females, Worthy Park, 2.2 mi. N. on Camperdown Road, St.
Catharine Parish, 12-V and 14-17-V-1969, R. E. Woodruff, Malaise
trap: Frons 0.35X head width at antennal bases, narrowing to 0.18 at
vertex. No black hair patches of mesonotum as described for the male,
only a very few erect black hairs. Abdomen broader than in the male,
its hairs less conspicuous. The hind basitarsus of the male is di-
stinctly thicker than the remaining tarsomeres and is about 1.25x
their combined lengths.

Nothomyia flavipes James, new species
MALE: Length, 5.0 mm. Head black in ground color; frons and
face subshining, purplish on most of lower frons, green to coppery
green on orbits and above transverse sulcus, chiefly black and more
conspicuously shining on face. Eyes subcontiguous but leaving a
distinct triangle between narrowest part of frons and transverse
sulcus. Some pale yellow hairs on lower frons, upper face, and genae;
those of lower half of face dense, black, setula-like and erect but curv-
ing upward toward their apices. Occipital orbit widened below and
with appressed white hairs. Antenna (cf. Fig. 1) structurally as in
intensica; first 3 flagellomeres combined about as long as combined
lengths of scape and pedicel, next 2 short, arista bare; yellow, fourth
and fifth flagellomeres and arista becoming brown to dark brown.
Proboscis dark brown to black.
Mesonotum and scutellum mostly subshining, mostly dull blue to
purplish blue, in places with violet reflections, more blue-green and
shining toward notopleural suture and above wing bases; pleura blue-
green to bluish black, shining. Scutellum practically unspined, the

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


James, M. T.: New Stratiomyidae


Fig. 1-4. Jamaican Strationyidae. Fig. 1. Nothomyia intensica
(Curran), antenna. Fig. 2. Nothomyia flavipes James, male genitalia,
ventral view. Fig. 3. Nothomyia alticola James, wing. Fig. 4.
Chaetohermetia insularis James, antenna, inner view. All hairs and
setulae omitted except on terminal flagellomere of C. insularis.

remnants of the spines barely noticeable even at magnifications of
100X. Hairs of mesonotum and scutellum mostly appressed, yellowish
white, a few slender, short, erect black ones on scutellum and pre-
scutal area. Pleural hairs yellowish white or pale yellow, mostly in-
conspicuous except on posterior parts of mesopleuron and sterno-
pleuron, where they are relatively long and subappressed. Legs mostly
orange yellow, coxae in part brownish yellow; front and middle tarsi
becoming brown to brownish black on apical 3 tarsomeres; first and
second tarsomeres of hind leg almost white but apex of each, as well
as remaining tarsomeres, becoming brown to brownish black. Hairs
largely black on front and mid tarsi, apices of middle and hind femora,
ventral surface of middle and hind tibiae, and darkened areas of mid-
dle and hind tarsi, otherwise yellow. Hind basitarsus distinctly
broader than remaining tarsomeres and about equal to their combined
lengths. Wing hyaline but with a light, though distinct, brown cross
band extending from stigma across discal cell to posterior margin and
occupying most of cell Cu,; wing apex, extending basad about halfway
to apex of discal cell, also of that color. Stigma and heavier veins of
wing brown. Halter pale brownish yellow.
Abdomen subshining black at base, becoming reddish brown to
brownish black toward apex and on intermediate sterna; with green to


The Florida Entomologist

purplish reflections under certain lights. Hairs of terga black, short,
inconspicuous, and appressed on disc, long, erect and pale yellow on
sides; those of sterna mostly appressed, subappressed on 1 and 2,
mostly yellow. Genitalia (Fig. 2) wholly orange yellow to brownish
yellow; dististyle short, claw-like, spine-like at apex; aedeagus pale
yellow, trifid, its components delicate and thin-walled.
FEMALE: Unknown.
HOLOTYPE MALE: Green Hills Institute, Portland, St. Andrews
Parish, Jamaica, 17-VIII-1969, R. E. Woodruff, blacklight trap.

Nothomyia woodruffi James, new species
MALE: Length 4.7-5.1 mm, holotype 4.9 mm. Head except occiput
largely metallic blue to blue green, face, however, green with coppery
reflections. Eyes subcontiguous for a greater distance than in the
other Jamaican species, the transverse sulcus consequently greatly re-
duced and the area above it small, black, and dull. Lower frons with
appressed to subappressed yellow hairs; face with erect black hairs
on lower part, with only scant yellow hairs above; some erect to sub-
appressed yellowish white hairs on gena and lower occiput, lower occi-
pital orbits with some appressed yellow hairs. Antenna as described
for flavipes but wholly black, with black hairs on scape and pedicel.
Proboscis orange yellow to brownish yellow.
Thorax shining green with coppery reflections. Scutellar spines
reduced to small, rounded tubercles, inconspicuous but clearly visible
at magnifications of 60X or higher. Thoracic hairs mostly yellow,
largely appressed but some subappressed to suberect on anterior mar-
gin of mesonotum and on pleura; a few scattered erect hairs on meso-
notum. Legs mostly black; middle basitarsus and first 2 tarsomeres
of hind tarsus yellow, tarsi otherwise black, transition from yellow to
black gradual on last 3 tarsomeres of hind leg. Hind basitarsus but
slightly thicker than remaining tarsomeres and about 1.25X their
combined lengths. Wing hyaline, stigma, costal cell, and heavier veins
clear yellow. Halter yellow becoming orange-yellow toward apex of
Abdomen spatulate, bright green dorsally, a more subdued green,
becoming bluish green toward sides, and with coppery reflections,
ventrally. Pile of terga mostly appressed, short, inconspicuous, and
black with some yellow intermixed, becoming long, erect, and pale
yellow laterally; that of venter short, appressed, pale yellow. Geni-
talia yellow; dististyle strongly curved, rounded apically; aedeagus
similar to that of flavipes but somewhat less delicate in structure.
FEMALE: Length 4.4-4.6 mm. Frons 0.35X head width, narrowing
to 0.12 at vertex; a poorly defined callus developed below transverse
sulcus. Frons and upper face with short pale yellow hairs as in the
male but more abundant and becoming suberect on part of upper
frons; lower occipital orbit broader than in male and appressed pile
more conspicuous. Abdomen slightly broader than in male. Only
apical segment of ovipositor and cerci yellow. Otherwise as described
for the male.
HOLOTYPE MALE: Worthy Park, 2.2 miles N. on Camperdown Road,
St. Catherine Parish, Jamaica, 12-V-1969, R. E. Woodruff, Malaise

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976

James, M. T.: New Stratiomyidae

trap. Paratypes: 7 males, 4 females, same data except 10, 12, and
14-17-V; 2 females, Worthy Park Estate, 10-V-1969, R. E. Woodruff,
blacklight trap.

Nothomyia alticola James, new species
MALE: Length 5.2 mm. Head except occiput largely metallic
green with purplish reflections, becoming purple on frons. Eyes sub-
contiguous; transverse sulcus short but distinct; small triangle above
sulcus dull black. Head hairs wholly black; those of frons and upper
face erect or suberect but becoming gradually shorter on lower face.
Antenna structurally as in intensica, wholly black. Proboscis dark
Mesonotum and scutellum dark green to greenish blue, with strong
violet reflections; pleura brighter green and lacking the violet re-
flections. Hairs of mesonotum and scutellum black, consisting of
short, erect, abundant pile, also with long erect hairs which are much
more abundant and conspicuous than in the other Jamaican species.
Hairs of pleura mostly yellow. Legs mostly black; hind and middle
basitarsi except extreme apices yellow; pile largely black, that of yel-
low parts of basitarsi to a considerable extent yellow, that on anterior
and anterodorsal surfaces of hind tibia and ventrally on middle and
hind femora, including a sparse ventral fringe on basal half of middle
femur, pale yellow. Wing (Fig. 3) hyaline; stigma bright yellow;
heavy veins bright yellow to slightly brownish yellow. Halter mostly
pale yellow, becoming somewhat brownish yellow toward base of stalk.
Abdomen blue-green, shining to subshining, venter with some weak
cupreous reflections. Pile of terga mostly black, short, and appressed,
lateral and apical hairs long, yellow, erect to suberect; those of venter
yellow and appressed. Genitalia brown; dististyle broadly oval, nar-
rowing toward apex; aedeagus as in flavipes but less delicate.
FEMALE: Unknown.
HOLOTYPE MALE: Holywell Forest Camp, St. Andrew Parish, Ja-
maica, 4000 ft., 15-VII-1972, M. Winegar, blacklight trap.

Genus GOWDEYANA Curran
Gowdeyana Curran, 1928, Bull. Agr. & Sci. Jamaica 4, Suppl. 4:15.
Type species, G. mirabilis Curran.
Pareidalimus Lindner, 1964, Stuttgarter Beitr. zur Naturkunde 203:3.
Type species, Eidalimus vitrisetosus Lindner.
The above synonymy is based on the examination of a male and
female of mirabilis from Worthy Park, St. Catharine Parish, Jamaica,
and comparison with specimens of Eidalimus vitrisetosus Lindner
from Brazil and Eupachygaster punctifera Malloch from North Amer-
ica. These 3 species are certainly congeneric and very closely related
to one another; indeed, they may prove conspecific, though small dif-
ferences occur among them.

Lindner described 2 species of this genus, apicalis Lindner 1929,
the type species, from Brazil, and aenea Lindner 1949. Both are rela-


The Florida Entomologist

tively large species, 10-11 mm in length, Hermetia-like but with the
terminal flagellomere greatly reduced in length and the terminal por-
tion forming a bristle-like or arista-like structure which is about as
long as the broadened basal part. As in Hermetia the flagellum is
distinctly grooved longitudinally on its inner surface. The species
described here seems best referable to Chaetohermetia. It is much
smaller than either of Lindner's species, and it differs in many respects
from both of them; in addition to size it may be distinguished readily
from the largely brownish yellow apicalis by its metallic blue head and
thorax, from aenea by its black-haired frons and face and largely
black femora. The vane-like broad portion of the last flagellomere is
pilose; Lindner illustrates it as bare in apicalis, though no statement
concerning this is made in either his description of aenea or apicalis.

Chaetohermetia insularis James, new species
FEMALE: Length 7.5 mm. Head largely bluish black; upper frons
with strong blue reflections; frontal callus distinct but not strongly
developed; dull yellow; frons below callus and larger part of face with
variable coppery, green, or bluish green reflections, depending on light
incidence; face below antennal bases with a broad, transverse, dull
yellow band extending, like the similarly colored callus, from eye to
eye, and producing the effect of 2 prominent parallel transverse bands
interrupting a dark background. Eyes bare. Frons 0.25X head width
across antennal bases, widening to 0.20 at vertex. Face from an-
terior view broadly rounded at oral margin, with just a trace of a
median downward extension such as occurs prominently in many
species of Hermetia. Pile of vertex, frons, and face black, at vertex
as long as combined lengths of first and second segments, becoming
shorter on lower frons and most of face, then somewhat longer toward
oral margin; mixed black and yellow hairs on gena, black on lower
occiput; other hairs of occiput inconspicuous, short, appressed. An-
tenna (Fig. 4) 1.60X as long as head, black with black hairs, those of
flagellum very scant except on basal part of terminal flagellomere.
Ratio: scape, 5; medical, 2; flagellomeres 1-6 combined, 13; seventh
flagellomere, 1; basal part of eighth, 4, its seta-like apical part, 5.
Inner surface of flagellomeres 3-6 grooved longitudinally, most promi-
nently so on 4 and 5. Proboscis bright yellow.
Thorax mostly blue-black with blue reflections; humerus and pos-
tular callus reddish brown. Pile of mesonotum and scutellum yellow,
mostly short, appressed, and inconspicuous, somewhat more prominent
but still inconspicuous on posthumeral and prescutellar areas, longer,
subappressed, and bright yellow laterally before the suture; hairs of
pleura yellow, moderately long, suberect, most conspicuous on posterior
part of mesopleuron. Coxae and femora except extreme apices black
with blue reflections; hind tibia black on apical half; tibiae otherwise
pale yellow; tarsi almost white except apical 2 tarsomeres of hind leg
brown. Wing similar in venation to Hermetia; stigma long and
slender, ending well beyond apex of discal cell; mostly hyaline to sub-
hyaline, becoming lightly infumated on apical part (beyond stigma)
and toward posterior margin; stigma dark brown, veins dark brown
to black. Microtrichia well set beyond and below discal cell, densest

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


James, M. T.: New Stratiomyidae

at wing apex but with some bare areas at bases of cells M,, M2,, M
and Cu,; costal, discal, first and second basal, and first anal cells with-
out microtrichia except toward veins and in scattered patches. Halter
dark brown at base of stalk, merging into lemon yellow over most of
Abdomen mostly black with coppery to blue reflections; apical two-
fifths of tergum 2 reddish yellow, this color extending briefly onto base
of tergum 3; tergum 2 also with a translucent yellow area at base,
extending toward but not reaching sides and, medially, extending
toward but not reaching band on posterior margin of the segment;
venter more extensively yellow, sternum 2 wholly so except on anterior
corners, yellow merging through brown into black on sternum 3.
Hairs mostly black, appressed; some long, pale yellow ones laterally on
tergum 1; those of tergum 2 on posterior one-fourth largely yellow,
of 3 and 4 on posterior one-fourth largely white except medially on 4
where they give way largely to black ones; those of sterna 1 and 2
pale yellow. Ovipositor dark brown to black; cerci dark brown.
MALE: Unknown.
HOLOTYPE FEMALE: Worthy Park, 2.2 miles N on Camperdown
Road, St. Catherine Parish, 18-25-II-1970, R. E. Woodruff, Malaise
In general appearance this species bears considerable resemblance
to the common South American Hermetia flavipes Wiedemann. The
fact that that species has a small but distinct seta at the tip of an
otherwise typical Hermetia-like antenna may suggest that it and the
present species are transitional between the 2 genera.

JAMES, M. T. 1942. A review of the Myxosargini (Diptera, Stra-
tiomyidae). Pan-Pac. Ent. 18:49-60.
LINDNER, E. 1929. Ergebnisse einer zoologischen Sammelreise nach
Brazilien inbesondere in das Amazonasgebiet, ausgefuhrt von
Dr. H. Zerny. Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 43:257-68.
LINDNER, E. 1949. Neotropische Stratiomyiiden des Britischens Mu-
seums in London. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12)1:782-821, 851-91.


The Florida Entomologist

ATLAS OF AN INSECT BRAIN. By Nicholas J. Strausfeld, published
by Springer Verlag, N. Y. Cost $100.00. This is one of the best con-
tributions to the study of arthropod brain since Bullock and Horridge's
superb 2 volume set of 1965. This is far more specialized than Bullock
and Horridge since it deals only with the insects and in particular,
only one species, Musca domestic L., where the most extensive research
has been done. The arrangement of the text is as follows: Chapter 1
reviews some of the more significant contributions historically in insect
neuroanatomy, Chapter 2 introduces the main cellular constituents of
the brain i.e. glia, neurons and trachea as well as demonstrating some
of the complexities of the ramifications of insect neurons. Chapter 3
details the main divisions of the brain according to their affiliations
with visual, chemo and mechanosensory inputs. Chapter 4 presents a
coordinate system which is imposed on several different sections and is
of considerable value not only to electrophysiologists but also to mor-
phologists. Chapter 5 provides some numerical data about the abso-
lute numbers of neurons, the distribution of glia, and some comments
on the relative packing of neurons in some sensory synaptic regions.
Chapter 6 is an atlas of sections through the brain with a number of
excellent photographs. Chapter 7 is on the forms and dispositions of
neurons in the brain, and is packed with very fine photos and diagrams.
Chapters 6 and 7 constitute the main body of the book and because of
the large numbers of photographs both in black-and-white and color, it
is easy to see how the cost of printing rose so high. The Appendix
is excellent and details all the histological techniques used in the prepa-
ration of the sections and also includes embedding and dehydration pro-
cedures for electron microscopy.
The book contains a wealth of information and is well worth reading.
My major gripe is that in translation somebody goofed because through-
out the book neuropil is used instead of neuropile and neural lemma
instead of neurilemma. The prohibitive cost of this work precludes
most scientists from owning personal copies, but I do believe it is an
excellent addition to any research library especially where neurophysi-
ological, electrophysiological, and/or advanced morphological research
is being conducted.
H. L. Cromroy
University of Florida

DOPTERA-(Note). On 7 October 1975, between 2 and 4 PM, the
ground speed of 4 spp. of migrating Lepidoptera was measured in a
plowed field in Alachua Co., FL. Two 15.2 m lines were spaced 30.4 m
apart perpendicular to the SSE migratory direction, and the traverse
times were recorded. The Lepidoptera were flying into a ca. 8 k/m wind,
which gusted out of the SE. The mean ground speeds were as follows:
the cloudless sulfur, Phoebis sennae (L.), 13.0 km/hr (n=66, s=0.81,
s= 0.10) ; the bean leaf roller, Urbanus proteus (L.), 15.5 km/hr (n=
60, s= 0.66, sx= 0.08) ; the buckeye, Precis lavinea Cramer, 9.7 km/hr
(n=7, s==0.49, sx=0.09); and the gulf fruitilary, Agraulis vanilla
(L.), 10.1 km/hr (n=2, s=0.66, si=0.47). S. Correale and R. L.
Crocker, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


The Florida Et,,fwoloqi.st

2704 North Kensington Street, Arlington, Virginia 22207, and
Department of Entomology, Fisheries, and Wildlife, University of
Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108, respectively.

A new mallophagon family, Abrocomophagidae, is erected for Abro-
comophaga chilensis, new genus and new species, from a Rat Chin-
chilla, Abrocoma bennetti Waterhouse, from Chile.

A long series of Mallophaga from a Rat Chinchilla, Abrocoma
bennetti Waterhouse, collected in Chile represents a new species which
is unplaceable in any presently known family or genus. It is our pur-
pose to describe and illustrate this species and to erect a new family
and genus for it. Clay (1970) recently reviewed the families of am-
blyceran Mallophaga and terminologies in so far as possible conform to
those utilized by her.

ABROCOMOPHAGIDAE Emerson and Price, new family
TYPE-GENUS: Abrocomophaga Emerson and Price, new genus.
DESCRIPTION: Head triangular; maxillary palpi 2-segmented; an-
tennae 4-segmented, exposed, with third segment pedunculate and
fused with fourth to form club. Prothorax with pair of spiracles;
meso- and metanotum not fused. With 2 large thoracic sternal plates,
anterior plate apparently representing fused pro- and mesosternal
plates. Legs of almost equal size, each with normal-size single claw.
Femora without combs or patches of setae. Abdominal segments III-
VII each with pair of spiracles; no spiracles on VIII. Male genitalia
DIAGNOSIS: Amblyceran Mallophaga separable from all others by
having a single unmodified tarsal claw on each leg and only 5 pairs of
abdominal spiracles. The following key provides additional data for
separation of the families of Mallophaga.

1. Maxillary palpi absent; third antennal segment not pedunculate 2
1.' Maxillary palpi present; third antennal segment pedunculate
(Suborder Amblycera) .--......................--- ---------------....-- 3

2. Mandibles at end of long proboscis ....Suborder Rhynchophthirina
2.' Mandibles not at end of long proboscis ......-.....Suborder Ischnocera

3. Legs II and III with 2 tarsal claws each .------..........--................-- 4
3.' Legs II and III with only 1 tarsal claw each ..............----............-- 8

4. With 5 pairs of abdominal spiracles (limited to segments III-
VII) ......................... ...----------------- ..--------Trimenoponidae
4.' With 6 pairs of abdominal spiracles (on segments III-VIII) .... 5

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


The Florida Entomologist

5. Meso- and metanotum separate ..............-..................................---- 6
5.' Meso- and metanotum fused ...................................................... .. 7

6. Tergum I fused with metanotum .............-............................-Boopidae
6.' Tergum I not fused with metanotum ............................Menoponidae

7. Tergum I fused with metanotum ----......----..---.....--- Ricinidae
7.' Tergum I not fused with metanotum -..................---Laemobothriidae

8. Leg I without tarsal claw .....----......................Gyropidae (Gliricolinae)
8.' Leg I with tarsal claw or claws .......-~.........-------.. ..---------- 9

9. With 5 pairs of abdominal spiracles (limited to segments III-
VII) ..........-------------....................--- .. .....---. Abrocomophagidae
9.' With 6 pairs of abdominal spiracles (on segments III-VIII) .... 10

10. All legs with simple unmodified claw Gyropidae (Protogyropinae)
10.' Leg I with modified tarsal claw, legs II-III often with en-
larged claw ......-...-.....-..-----..--........ .....Gyropidae (Gyropinae)

Abrocomophaga Emerson and Price, new genus
TYPE-SPECIES: Abrocomophaga chilensis Emerson and Price, new
DESCRIPTION: Head triangular; width across temples equal to or
greater than length. Maxillary palpi short, 2-segmented. Antennae
4-segmented, exposed, with third segment pedunculate and fused with
fourth to form club. Prothorax semicircular, much wider than long;
with pair of spiracles. Meso- and metanotum not fused; with ptero-
thorax rectangular, wider than long. With 2 large thoracic sternal
plates, anterior plate apparently representing fused pro- and meso-
sternal plates. Legs of almost equal size, each with normal-size single
claw. Femora without combs or patches of setae. Abdomen long and
slender, segment I short, segments II-VIII of approximately equal
length. Segments III-VII each with pair of spiracles; no spiracles on
VIII. Male genitalia symmetrical, of general type as in Fig. 3 and 4.

Abrocomophaga chilensis Emerson and Price, new species
TYPE-HOST: Abrocoma bennetti Waterhouse.
DESCRIPTION: Male external morphology and chaetotaxy as in Fig.
5. Head with numerous medium-length setae on dorsal and ventral
surfaces; mandibles small. Setal counts below represent median fol-
lowed by range in parentheses. Pronotum with 14 setae; fused pro-
and mesosternal plate with 6 (5-6) anterior setae, 8 (8-9) posterior
setae. Metanotum with 10 setae, including 6 longer median setae
and each side laterally with 1 long, 1 short seta; metasternal plate
with 13 (12-14) setae. Abdominal tergal setae: I, 4; II, 6 (6-8) ; III,
8 (8-10) ; IV, 11 (10-12) ; V, 12 (11-13) ; VI, 13 (12-13) ; VII, 11 (10-
12); VIII, 8 (7-9). Terga III-VII each with small median sclerite;
V-VIII each with median pair of shorter setae recessed posteriorly to
principal row. Each of pleura II-VIII posteriorly with 1 very long and
1 adjacent short seta. Last tergum with 2 short, 1 very long seta on

Vol. 59, No. 4, 1976


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