Title: Florida Entomologist
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00104
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Title: Florida Entomologist
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Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1981
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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Volume ID: VID00104
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Full Text

(ISSN 0015-4040)


(An International Journal for the Americas)

Volume 64, No. 3 September, 1981

RAY, D. H., AND B. P. STARK-The Nearctic Species of Hydroperla ........ 385
of Corn Silks on Corn Earworm Feeding Response ...................... 395
FRANK, J. H., AND M. C. THOMAS-Oxytelus incisus Motschulsky and
0. pennsylvanicus Erichson (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Oxy-
telinae) in Florida --.......--..-.......-.......------....-------...-....--....--..-.. 399
McCoY, E. D., AND J. R. REY-Terrestrial Arthropods of Northwest
Florida Salt Marshes: Coleoptera ......-.................. ................ 405
DONNELLY, T. W.-A New Species of Archilestes from Mexico and
Central America With Further Notes on the Status of Cy-
ptolestes Williamson (Odonata, Lestidae) .---...............................-..-. 412
SNIDER, R. J.-Sminthurus carolinensis, New Species from South Caro-
lina (Collembola: Sminthuridae) ........-- ...-...---............ ............... 417
KURCZEWSKI, F. E.-Observations on the Nesting Behaviors of Spider-
Wasps in Southern Florida (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) ............ 424
PORTER, C. C.-Minixi Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae) in
the Lower Rio Grande Valley ----..----------............................ 437
PORTER, C. C.-Scoliidae (Hymenoptera) of the Lower Rio Grande
Valley ... ..------- ----........--.............................................. 441

Scientific Notes
Formation After Dealation by Virgin Females of Two
Species of Solenopsis ...-----.-----------------........ ....... 454
DAKIN, JR., M. E., AND D. L. FELDER-A Record of the Mayfly
Dolania americana in Louisiana (Ephemeroptera: Behn-
ingiidae) ----------------- -----.............................. .. 454
GREENFIELD, M. D.-Erratum: Moth Sex Pheromones: An Evo-
lutionary Perspective ......- .-.......- -..------- ----. --............ 455
ROBINSON, G.-Pseudohypocera kerteszi (Enderlein) (Diptera:
Phoridae), A Pest of the Honey Bee ............--- .................... 456
Continued on Back Cover

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


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Vice-President ------.... ......- .... .......................................................... W L. Peters
Secretary .---- -.. -- ..............................................-. ..... F. W Mead
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R. W. Flowers
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J. L. Taylor


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Associate Editors -------....... ...---------......................... J. E. Lloyd
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Business Manager --....-............................ --------.......... ... D. P. Wojcik

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Business matters for other Society officers can be sent to that individual at
the University Station address above.

This issue mailed September 30, 1981

Ray & Stark: Nearctic Hydroperla





The Nearctic Hydroperla are reviewed, and 3 species are recognized.
Hydroperla phormidia Ray and Stark, new species, is described for male,
female, and nymph, and a male holotype and female allotype are designated.
Further descriptions of male, female, and nymph for H. crosbyi (Needham
and Claassen) and H. fugitans (Needham and Claassen) are presented, and
adults and nymphs are keyed. Descriptions are supported by drawings and
SEM micrographs.

Se present un a revision de las species neoArticas de Hydroperla,
reconociendo 3 species. Se described la hembra, el macho, y la ninfa de
H. phormidia, especie nueva, ye se apunta un macho como holotipo y una
hembra como alotipo. Se presentan tambien descripciones del macho, la
hembra, y la ninfa de H. crosbyi (Needham y Claassen) y H. fugitans
(Needham y Claasen) y claves para los adults y las ninfas. Las descrip-
ciones estan acompafiadas por dibujos y por micrografias de SEM.

Hydroperla was proposed by Frison (1935) to include 3 species with
Perla crosbyi Needham and Claassen as type. Five additional species were
assigned to Hydroperla by Frison (1942) and one, H. parallel Frison, was
incorrectly identified by Hanson (1942) to be a synonym of Arcynopteryx
americana (Klapalek). Ricker (1943) placed H. parallel in the subgenus
Skwala. Hanson (1943) was doubtful of Hydroperla's generic validity, as it
was based on wing and genitalic features. Using other structures, especially
the thoracic sternum, he placed H. dorata Frison, H. olivacea (Walker) and
H. varians (Walsh) in Isogenoides. Ricker (1952) moved H. nalatus Frison
and H. subvarians (Banks) to the subgenus Helopicus, and gave subgeneric
status to Hydroperla, retaining H. crosbyi and H. fugitans (Needham and
Claassen) in that group. Hydroperla harti Frison was placed in synonymy
with H. fugitans at that time. Hydroperla was returned to generic status by
Illies (1966).
Specimens examined in this study were obtained from the Illinois Nat-
ural History Survey (INHS) and the personal collections of the authors.
Examination of specimens followed the procedures of Stark and Gaufin
(1979). Male genitalic figures were drawn using a Wild M5 stereomicroscope.
An AMR-1000 SEM and a Nikon Multiphot were used for the photomicro-

1Biology Section, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, 160 Governmental
Center, Pensacola. FL 32501.
2Biology Department, Mississippi College, Clinton, MS 39058.

386 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

Genus Hydroperla Frison
Hydroperla: Frison, 1935: 419 Type species Perla crosbyi Needham and
Claassen (original designation).
Isogenus (Hydroperla) (Frison) Ricker, 1952: 104.
Hydroperla: Illies 1966: 362.

Mesosternum with primitive isogenine pattern of ridges with 2 short
stubs to represent transverse band of Y-ridge. Well developed submental
gills present.
MALE.-Length of forewings 15-21mm; length of body ca. 12mm. No
lobe on sternum 7. Tergum 10 completely cleft, produced into erect or flat,
hairy, posterolateral lobes. Epiproct in lateral view an erect, decurved,
pointed or subtriangular process. Paired lateral stylets present.
FEMALE.-Length of forewings 19-23mm; length of body ca. 15mm. Sub-
genital plate slightly to moderately produced, round or bluntly triangular.
NYMPH.-Mature $ 13-20mm; mature 9 21-27mm. Lacinia bidentate
with small tuft of hairs below subapical tooth; inner lateral margin with
numerous long setae.
OVA.-Outline oval, cross section triangular. See Frison (1935) and
Oberndorfer and Stewart (1977).
DISTRIBUTION.-The genus is known from Northwest Florida and the
Mississippi River drainage, specifically Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas,
Missouri, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas.


1. Epiproct with dorsal posteriorly decurved hook; apex exca-
vated and hatchet shaped in lateral aspect (Fig. 4) ----
-.........---------------. -.----. -----............... crosbyi
1'. Epiproct narrowly pointed or subtriangular; apex entire ...-..--------. 2
2(1'). Epiproct with paired dorsal and ventral barbs (Fig. 3) --.. fugitans
2'. Epiproct with paired dorsal barbs; ventral barbs absent (Fig.
2) . ...........--------------- ----.. phormidia


1. Venter of abdomen with mesal longitudinal light stripe extend-
ing from sternum 2 over base of subgenital plate; subgenital
plate produced over no more than V of sternum 9 -----. crosbyi
1'. Venter of abdomen without mesal longitudinal light stripe;
subgenital plate produced over % or more of sternum 9 .-..........__ 2
2(1'). Body color light brown .------. -----------------............. fugitans
2'. Body color dark brown to black -. ..... .. ........- phormidia


1. Anterior /2 of abdominal terga dark in color, posterior %
light ----.. ..- ------------------...--............... crosbyi

Ray & Stark: Nearctic Hydroperla 387

Fig. 1. Hydroperla phormidia, mature male nymph.

388 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

1'. Anterior % of abdominal terga light in color, except for row
of 6-8 small dots (Fig. 1) .-.....-........----------.---- 2
2(1'). Labrum without central flap (Fig. 15) --.......------.....--------.. fugitans
2'. Labrum with central flap (Fig. 14) ---.....---.---.... .... -------.--- phormidia

Hydroperla crosbyi (Needham and Claassen)
(Fig. 4, 10, 13, 16)

Perla crosbyi Needham and Claassen, 1925: 79 Holotype S Allotype 9. Mis-
souri (Cornell University).
Hydroperla crosbyi: Frison, 1935: 419.
Hydroperla crosbyi: Illies, 1966: 363.
MALE.-Macropterous. Length to wingtop 21mm. General color, brown
with yellow. Wings subhyaline with dark venation. Remnant of fully de-
veloped submental gills usually present. Tergum 10 completely cleft, pro-
duced into erect hairy, thumblike posterolateral lobes. Epiproct in lateral
view bears an arcuate, decurved process at tip. Lateral stylets fingerlike,
acute at tips.
FEMALE.-Macropterous. Length to wingtip 23mm. Bluntly triangular
subgenital plate produced over less than V of sternum 9, apical margin well
chitinized and sometimes notched.
NYMPH.-Mature S up to 20mm; mature 9 up to 27mm. Dorsum of
head with W-shaped yellow mark forward of median ocellus. Abdominal
terga with anterior /2 darkly colored and posterior 1/ of lighter pigmenta-
tion. Labrum slightly produced anteriorly. Mesosternum similar to adult.
BIOLOGY.-Frison (1935) and Stewart and Huggins (1977) reported
that nymphs inhabit leaf packs in creeks and rivers. Frison (1935) found
that the adult is diurnal and the nymph is carnivorous. Emergence dates of
late February through mid-April are given by Stark and Stewart (1973)
and Szczytko and Stewart (1977). Oberndorfer and Stewart (1977) investi-
gated the life cycle and ecology of H. crosbyi in Texas and Stewart and
Stark (1977) described the reproductive system and mating behavior for
the species.
DISTRIBUTION.-Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma
and Texas.

Hydroperla fugitans (Needham and Claassen)
(Fig. 3, 9, 12, 15)

Perla fugitans Needham and Claassen, 1925: 85. Holotype $ Paratype S.
Austin, Texas (Cornell University) Missing since 1941.
Hydroperla harti Frison, 1935: 423. Syn. Ricker, 1952.
Isogenus (Hydroperla) fugitans (Needham and Claassen), Ricker 1952: 105.
Hydroperla fugitans: Illies, 1966: 363.
MALE.-Macropterous. Length to wingtip 15mm; length of body 12mm.
General color, brown with yellow. Wings subhyaline with dark venation.
Remnants of fully developed submental gills usually present. Tergum 10
cleft, produced into long hairy posterolateral lobes. Epiproct in lateral view
erect and pointed with paired barbs dorsally and ventrally. Lateral stylets
semilunate and clavate.
FEMALE.-Macropterous. Length to wingtip 21mm; length of body 15mm.

Ray & Stark: Nearctic Hydroperla



1 ,

' / N
\ --'I

Fig. 2-4. Hydroperla genitalia, lateral view. 2. phormidia, 3. fugitans, 4.


S / /

Florida Entomologist 64 (3)

September, 1981

Subgenital plate produced over approximately V2 of sternum 9, apical
margin rounded, truncate, or notched.
NYMPH.-Mature 3 up to 13mm; mature 9 up to 21mm. Dorsum of
head with dark transverse band anterior to epicranial arms. Abdominal
terga with anterior half light except for row of 6-8 small dots. Labrum not
produced anteriorly. Mesosternum similar to adult.
BIoLoGY.-Frison (1935) gave emergence dates of late April through
mid-May. Adults were found to be diurnal and the nymph restricted to
large rivers.
DISTRIBUTION.-Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Tennessee and Texas.

Hydroperla phormidia Ray and Stark, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14)

MALE.-Macropterous. Length to wingtip 17mm; length of body 13mm.
General color black, patterned with yellow (pink in fresh specimen). Wings
smoky, venation light brown. Tergum 10 completely cleft, produced into
thick, hairy posterolateral lobes. Epiproct in lateral view erect and sub-
triangular with short semilunate tip and paired minute dorsal barbs. Lateral
stylets spoon shaped.
FEMALE.-Macropterous. Length to wingtip 19mm; length of body 15mm.
Broadly rounded subgenital plate produced over approximately % of
sternum 9, apical margin chitinized.
NYMPH.-Mature 8 up to 16mm; mature 9 up to 20mm. General color
yellow-brown with yellow or pink and dark brown markings. Dorsum of head
similar to H. fugitans (Fig. 1). Mesosternum similar to adult. Abdominal
terga light with longitudinal rows of small distinct dark spots and num-
erous short, stout setae surrounded by small brown pigment spots that give
a freckled appearance. Femora with bare median longitudinal stripe. Lacinia
bidentate; thick subapical tooth 1z length of apical tooth; an inner tuft of
4 stout setae below subapical tooth with many long lateral setae along
inner margin. Galea with blunt spines on darkened apex and bare dorsal
region. Mandibles with long apical tooth and dorsal setae. Labrum with
long central flap. Paraglossae hairy and bluntly pointed. Glossae truncate
apically; cleft between glossae narrow. Long submental gills present.
MATERIAL EXAMINED.-Holotype & from Yellow River, Hwy. 189, Oka.
loosa Co., Florida, 27-II-80, D. H. Ray and W. T. Young. Allotype 9 same
location 4-11-81, D. H. Ray and G. L. Butts. Holotype 8 No. 76876, allo-
type 9, and 2 paratypes & deposited at the United States National Museum.
Paratypes as follows: FLORIDA: Okaloosa Co., Blackwater River, Hwy. 4,
12-IV-78, D. H. Ray, 1 S; Walton Co., Choctawhatchee River, Hwy. 20,
9-11-81, D. H. Ray, L. W. Donelan, 1 3. NYMPHS: FLORIDA: Escambia Co.,
Escambia River, upper bluff, 17-II-77, D. H. Ray, D. P. Dumas. Escambia
River, Hwy. 4, 26-II-80, D. H. Ray, G. L. Butts. Okaloosa Co., Yellow River,
Hwy. 189, 22-II-77, D. H. Ray. 16-II-78, D. H. Ray. 20-II-79, D. H. Ray,
D. P. Dumas. 27-II-80, D. H. Ray, W. T. Young. 6-III-80, D. H. Ray. Walton
Co., Choctawhatchee River, Hwy. 20, 22-II-77, D. H. Ray, D. P. Dumas.
14-II-79, D. H. Ray, L. W. Donelan. 14-1-80, D. H. Ray, L. W. Donelan.
EXUVIAE: FLORIDA: Okaloosa Co., Yellow River, Hwy. 189, 6-III-80, D. H.
Ray. Holmes Co., Choctawhatchee River, S. R. 2, 16-1-80, D. H. Ray, L. W.


Ray & Stark: Nearctic Hydroperla


Fig. 5-7. Hydroperla phormidia genitalia, dorsal view. 5. terminalia, 6.
epiproct, 7. lateral stylet.

Donelan. Paratype nymphs are deposited at the U.S.N.M., I.N.H.S., and the
personal collections of B. P. Stark and D. H. Ray.
ETYMOLOGY.-This species is named after the alga Phormidium inun-
datum Kiitzing which grows on the conditioned leaf packs where the nymph
is found.

Florida Entomologist 64 (3)

September, 1981


Fig. 8-13. Hydroperla nymphal mouth parts. 8. phormidia, mandible 9.
fugitans, mandible, 10. crosbyi, mandible, 11. phormidia, lacinia, 12. fugitans,
lacinia, 13. crosbyi, lacinia.

BIOLOGY.-This species has been collected in 3 medium sized, brown
water coastal rivers in Northwest Florida. Nymphs are found in decaying
leaf packs that are associated with the blue green alga Phormidium inun-
datum Kiitzing, a clean water indicator (Palmer 1977). Hydroperla phor-
midia is apparently carnivorous since Chironomidae and Simuliidae larvae
were found in gut contents and mouth parts. Other stonefly nymphs found
in association with H. phormidia include Acroneuria abnormis (Newman),
A. arenosa (Pictet), A. mela Frison, Helopicus subvarians (Banks), Isoperla
bilineata (Say), I. clio (Newman), I. dicala Frison, Nemocapnia carolina
Banks, Neoperla clymene (Newman), Paragnetina kansensis (Banks), Per-
lesta placida (Hagen), Pteronarcys dorsata (Say), and Taeniopteryx spp.
Although nymphs are common in their habitat, only 1 adult has been
collected. That adult a was collected 12-IV-78 on a dead tree 1 m above the
water line. Three exuviae were collected 6-III-80 on pilings of an old wooden
bridge, 30.5 cm above the water line. The holotype S emerged 11-III-80 in
the laboratory from a nymph collected 27-II-80. The allotype 9 emerged
25-II-81 in the laboratory from a nymph collected 4-II-81. Adults appear to
emerge February through mid-April as indicated by absence of nymphs in
samples taken in late April.


Ray & Stark: Nearctic Hydroperla


*-- :
II ~'.IC1I

Fig. 14-15. Hydroperla nymphal labra. 14. phormidia, 15. fugitans.
DIAGNOSIS.-H. phormidia has characteristics which place it much closer
phylogenetically to H. fugitans than to H. crosbyi. The 8 is distinguished
from the latter 2 by a broader subtriangular epiproct that has no ventral
barb or dorsal posteriorly decurved hook. The subgenital plate of the 9 H.
phormidia is more greatly produced over sternum 9 than in H. crosbyi and
H. fugitans. The nymph differs in having an expanded labrum.


394 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

Fig. 16. Nymphal labrum of Hydroperla crosbyi.

The authors would like to thank Dr. Gerald A. Moshiri for preparing
Fig. 1, Mr. Don Webb and I.N.H.S. for loan of material, and Mr. W. T.
Young for encouragement and assistance in collecting. Special appreciation
is given to Mr. Steve Foss, U.S.E.P.A. Sabine Island, for photomicrographs
of nymphal mouth parts and to Ms. Mary Lou Percy at the Univ. Miss.
Dental School for assistance with the SEM micrographs. Our thanks to Mrs.
Margaret Glasscock for typing the manuscript. This study was supported
in part by NSF Grant # DEB 78-12565.

FRISON, T. H. 1935. The Stoneflies or Plecoptera of Illinois Bull. Ill. Natur.
Hist. Surv. 20: 281-471.
1942. Studies of North American Plecoptera, with special reference
to the fauna of Illinois. Bull. Illinois Natur. Hist. Surv. 22: 235-355.
HANSON, J. F. 1942. Records and Descriptions of North American
Plecoptera. Part II. Notes on North American Perlodidae. American
Midl. Natur. 28: 389-407.
1943. Records and Description of North American Plecoptera. Part
III. Notes on Isogenoides. American Midl. Natur. 29: 657-69.
ILLIES, J. 1966. Katalog der rezenten Plecoptera. Das Tierreich, 82. Walter
de Gruyter and Co., Berlin. 632 p.
NEEDHAM, J. G., AND P. W. CLAASSEN. 1925. A monograph of the Plecoptera
or stoneflies of America, north of Mexico. Thomas Say Found. Ent.
Soc. America 2: 1-397.
OBERNDORFER, R. Y., AND K. W. STEWART. 1977. The life cycle of Hydro-
perla crosbyi (Plecoptera: Perlodidae). Great Basin Natur., 37:

Ray & Stark: Nearctic Hydroperla 395

PALMER, C. M. 1977. Algae and water pollution U.S.E.P.A. Cincinnati,
Ohio. p. 124.
RICKER, W. E. 1943. Stoneflies of Southwestern British Columbia. Indiana
Univ. Publ., Sci. Ser. 12: 1-145.
1952. Systematic studies in Plecoptera. Indiana Univ. Publ., Sci.
Ser. 18: 1-200.
STARK, B. P., AND A. R. GAUFIN. 1979. The Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Flor-
ida. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. 104: 391-433.
AND K. W. STEWART. 1973. Distribution of stoneflies (Plecoptera) in
Oklahoma. J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 46: 563-77.
STEWART, K. W., R. W. BAUMANN, AND B. P. STARK. 1974. The Distribution
and past dispersal of Southwestern United States Plecoptera. Trans.
American Ent. Soc. 97: 507-46.
-- AND D. H. HUGGINS. 1977. Kansas Plecoptera (Stoneflies). Tech.
Publ. St. Biol. Surv. Kansas. 4: 31-40.
-- AND B. P. STARK. 1977. Reproductive system and mating of Hydro-
perla crosbyi (Needham and Claassen): a newly discovered method
of sperm transfer in Insecta. Oikos 28: 84-9.
SZCZYTKO, S. W., AND K. W. STEWART. 1977. The Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of
Texas. Trans. American Ent. Soc., 103: 327-78.


Southern Grain Insects Research Laboratory, AR, SEA, USDA
Tifton, GA 31793 USA

A 2-year study was conducted in both the field and laboratory on the
silk-feeding responses of the corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie), to se-
lected corns when the exposed silks were either left intact and/or removed.
Exposed silk masses limited early earworm penetration into the ear in 1976
but not in 1978. An exception was the exposed silks of 'Zapalote Chico' in
which antibiosis appeared to be the overriding factor preventing penetration
into the ear rather than the physical characteristics expressed in the case
of the other corn entries. Significantly smaller larvae were produced on silks
of 'Zapalote Chico' as compared to other resistant and susceptible lines, and,
in general, on all corn lines when earworms were fed silks that were 6 or
more days past full silk, as compared to larvae fed fresher silks.

Un studio fue llevado a cabo en el laboratorio y en el campo durante 2
afios para determinar la actividad alimenticia de Heliothis zea (Boddie) en
relaci6n a las barbas de mazorca (estigmas) expuestas o intactas y/o
removidas, usando lines seleccionadas de maiz. Las barbas expuestas
limitaron fisicamente la penetraci6n temprana en la mazorca en 1976 pero

'Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.
21n cooperation with the University of Georgia College of Agriculture Experiment Stations,
Coastal Plain Station, Tifton, GA 31793.

396 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

no en 1978. La variedad 'Zapalote Chico' fue excepcional, pues, parece que la
antibiosis era el factor mas important en prevenir la penetraci6n de las
larvas, y no las caracteristicas fisicas de las barbas. Las larvas que se
criaron sobre las barbas de 'Zapalote Chico' resultaron significativamente
m6s pequefias que las que se criaron sobre otras lines resistentes o suscep-
tibles. En todas las lines, las larvas que se criaron sobre las barbas de seis
dias pasados de maduraci6n resultaron mas pequefias que las que se criaron
sobre barbas frescas.

Numerous studies have been conducted at the Southern Grain Insects Re-
search Laboratory on many aspects of plant resistance to the corn earworm,
Heliothis zea (Boddie) (McMillian and Wiseman 1972). In recent years,
Wiseman et al. (1976) identified 2 resistance mechanisms-tolerance and
antibiosis-in 2 different corn lines. Later, they identified some of the phys-
ical characteristics related to these 2 plant resistance mechanisms (Wiseman
et al. 1977); and more recently, they described larval behavior on ears of the
tolerant and antibiosis types of corn (Wiseman et al. 1978).
We report here a 2-yr study on the feeding responses of corn earworm
larvae, as measured by ear penetration and larval weight gains, on selected
corn lines on which the outer silks have been either left intact or removed
and on which the ears were infested at varying intervals past full silk.

Five corn hybrids and 1 population, previously known for their resistance
or susceptibility (Wiseman et al. 1976 and 1977), were planted in random-
ized complete blocks in a split-split plot design on 27 April 1976, and 30
March 1978, for each of 5 replicates. The resistance mechanisms were anti-
biosis for 'Zapalote Chico' and tolerance for 'Dixie 18' and 471-U6 x 81-1
(Wiseman et al. 1977). Plantings made in 1977 were abandoned because they
were contaminated by excessive natural infestations. Plots were 0.76 m apart
and consisted of 2 rows 6.1 m long. Whole plot treatments were days (0 day
= full silk and 3, 6, 9, and 12 = days after full silk) at which 3 laboratory-
reared Ist-instar corn earworms were placed on silks of individual ears. The
first split was corn entries and the second split was silk treatment (normal
and silk removed down to husk tip). Larvae were allowed to feed for 6 days
before damage ratings were made where 0 = no infestation; 1 = larvae in
upper 1/3 of silk channel; 2 = larvae in mid 1/3 of silk channel; 3 = larvae
in lower 1/3 of silk channel; 4 = larvae on ear tip, feeding on silk; 5 =
larvae on ear tip, feeding on ear; and 6-n = larval penetration down the
ear at increments of 1 cm and feeding on kernels (Wiseman and McMillian
Identical plantings were made for a concurrent laboratory experiment to
determine larval weight gains. Silks were excised to the ear tip and classified
as exposed or nonexposed (silk channel). The separated silks were placed in
diet cups containing a small portion of slightly moistened paper towel. One
Ist-instar corn earworm was placed in each of 10 cups/entry/replication.
Laboratory tests were held in a constant temperature room at 80 20F and
70 2% RH. The larvae were allowed to feed for 6 days and then mortality
and larval weights were recorded. Analysis of variance was made of the

Wiseman et al.: Heliothis Feeding Response 397

laboratory and field data; and combined means of larval silk penetration and
larval weights, as separated by Duncan's multiple range test, are presented
for each year.

Table 1 shows the corn earworm larval silk penetration on the ears of
the resistant and susceptible corn lines. Larvae penetrated more deeply into
the ears of susceptible than resistant lines. In 1976, significant differences
in larval penetration were found between the normal and nonexposed silk
treatments (4.1 cm vs 4.3 cm); however, in 1978, no differences were found.
In the case of 'Zapalote Chico', it appeared that larval penetration was not
affected by silk treatment (exposed or nonexposed) or by age at the time of
silk treatment. This may be due, in part, to the antibiosis mechanism of re-
sistance. Waiss et al. (1979) recently discovered a flavone glycoside, maysin,
in the silks of 'Zapalote Chico' that retards growth of corn earworm larvae.
This chemical appears to be responsible not only for retarding larval growth
but also could be responsible for slowing ear penetration by the earworm.
However, the maysin content quickly disappears (unpublished data). There-
fore, it is believed the physical characteristics of 'Zapalote Chico' comple-
ment the early influence of the maysin compound and thus alter the normal
feeding behavior to the point that ear penetration rarely occurs.
For the tolerant and susceptible entries, however, greater penetration
generally occurred when the outer silks were removed. Therefore, those en-
tries with exposed silks of good quality and quantity (maintained ca. 90%
moisture and were large enough so that larvae could complete development),
as described by Wiseman et al. 1977, in some way delayed larval pene-
tration. This is also true when age of silk is considered (Table 2) : the older
the silks at the time of infestation, the greater the degree of penetration.
This probably occurred because the larvae were not stopped at the silk tip
on the older silks and therefore penetrated further before feeding was initi-
ated (Wiseman and McMillian 1973).
Larval weights differed significantly among corn entries (Table 1). The


Silk penetration Larval weights
Entries** 1976 1978 1976 1978

'Zapalote Chico' (R) 1.04 a 0.60 a 7.1 a 6.8 a
'Dixie 18' (R) 3.06 b 1.95 b 54.2 d 47.5 bc
471-U6 x 81-1 (R) 3.33 b 2.85 c 50.2 cd 63.6 c
'Asgrow A204' (S) 5.26 c 4.15 d 34.7 b 35.5 b
'Stowell's Evergreen' (S) 5.78 d 4.80 e 63.4 e 61.9 c
'Ioana' (S) 6.60 e 5.05 f 45.1 c 55.0 c

*Averages within the same year followed by the same letter are not significantly different
at P 0.05 as separated by Duncan's Multiple Range Test.
**Resistance is antibiosis for 'Zapalote Chico' and tolerance for 'Dixie 18' and 471-U6 x

398 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981


Days after Silk penetration Larval weights
full silk 1976 1978 1976 1978

0 2.3 a 2.0 a 54.1 a 72.5 a
3 3.2 b 2.8 b 60.9 a 57.6 a
6 4.0 c 3.3 c 38.2 b 37.1 b
9 5.3 d 3.7 c 30.9 bc 23.6 b
12 6.2 e 4.4 d 28.3 c 32.7 b

*Averages (combined over entries) within the same year followed by the same letter are
not significantly different at P = 0.05 as separated by Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

silks of the tolerant corns, 471-U6 x 81-1 and 'Dixie 18', produced larvae that
weighed as much as those fed on susceptible silk. However, corn earworm
larvae fed silks of 'Zapalote Chico' were much smaller than those from all
other corn entries. These results are in agreement with our earlier findings
(Wiseman et al. 1976) and with those of Waiss et al. (1979) for the in-
fluence of maysin on corn earworm growth. However, significant differences
were found between weights of larvae fed on exposed and nonexposed silks.
In 1976 and 1978, respectively, weights of larvae fed exposed and nonexposed
silks were 23.7 vs 61.2 mg and 22.9 vs 67.1 mg. Weights were reduced when
larvae fed on silk > 6 days old. Mortality at 6 days was much higher (29%)
for larvae that were fed on exposed silks than for those fed on nonexposed
silks (6%). The greatest mortaility (32%) occurred when larvae were fed
the 12-day-old silks for the 6-day period as compared to 10% larval mortal-
ity with 0-day silks.
In summary, exposed silk masses limited early earworm penetration in
some cases, the exceptions being when antibiosis ('Zapalote Chico') was
present and when the silks had aged before infestation. It is felt that the
antibiosis in 'Zapalote Chico' was the overriding factor in limiting earworm
feeding in the early developmental stages of the ear. In addition, although
physical characteristics were important in altering the normal earworm
feeding behavior, they appear to be even more important in further limiting
ear penetration by the earworm during later ear development. The potential
of planting corns with this type of resistance (antibiosis) has been indicated
as a result of a 3-year study (Wiseman et al. 1978) where it was shown that
the resistance of 'Zapalote Chico' could reduce corn earworm populations by
60%. The corn entry 'Zapalote Chico' would still be preferred, and thus,
corn earworm moths would oviposit readily on this corn entry. However,
due to the ear characteristics and the high antibiosis of 'Zapalote Chico',
indications are that corn earworm populations would be drastically reduced
in large plantings. But, if corn entries of the tolerant type were planted
(Wiseman et al. 1972) then corn earworm numbers would not be reduced
since the tolerance mechanism of resistance is more of a plant response and
does not affect the insect's biology. Therefore, both the tolerant and suscep-
tible corn entries would be capable of producing one corn earworm larva/ear,

Wiseman et al.: Heliothis Feeding Response 399

but corn varieties that possess tolerance and especially the 'Zapalote Chico'
type of resistance could be used as an integral part of an IPM program.

MCMILLIAN, W. W., AND B. R. WISEMAN. 1972. A twentieth century look
at the relationship between Zea mays L. and Heliothis zea (Boddie).
Univ. of Florida Monograph Ser. 2. 131 p.
Maysin, a flavone glycoside from corn silks with antibiotic activity
toward corn earworm. J. Econ. Ent. 72: 256-8.
WISEMAN, B. R., AND W. W. MCMILLIAN. 1973. Response of instars of the
corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to two sus-
ceptible sweet corn hybrids. J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 8: 79-82.
-- ---, AND N. W. WIDSTROM. 1972. Tolerance as a mechanism of
resistance in corn to the corn earworm. J. Econ. Ent. 65: 835-7.
-- -- AND 1978. Potential of resistant corn to reduce corn
earworm populations. Florida Ent. 6: 92.
- ---, AND 1976. Feeding of corn earworm in the labora-
tory on excised silks of selected corn entries with notes on Orius
insidious. Florida Ent. 59: 305-8.
-- N. W. WIDSTROM, AND W. W. MCMILLIAN. 1977. Ear characteristics
and mechanisms of resistance among selected corns to corn earworm.
Florida Ent. 60: 97-103.
AND 1978. Movement of corn earworm larvae on
ears of resistant and susceptible corn. Environ. Ent. 7: 777-9.

-^----* ^- -- ^--- I --IL- ---< -- *- ^



The coprophilous staphylinids Oxytelus incisus Motschulsky and 0. penn-
sylvanicus Erichson are reported from Florida (U.S.A.) for the first time.
Distinguishing characteristics and a key are provided to adults of the 5
Oxytelus species now recorded thence. Other new records are: 0. incisus
from Texas (U.S.A.) and Costa Rica, 0. pennsylvanicus from Georgia
(U.S.A.), 0. sculptus Gravenhorst from Haiti, and Anotylus insignitus
(Gravenhorst) from Costa Rica and Honduras.

1Contribution 512, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services, P. O. Box 1269, Gainesville, FL 32602, U.S.A.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, P. O. Box 520, Vero Beach,
FL 32960, U.S.A.
3Student Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, 4327 NW 30 Terrace, Gaines-
ville, FL 32605, U.S.A.

400 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

Se reportan por primera vez de la Florida (E.U.A.) las species de
estafilinos coprofilicos Oxytelus incisus Motschulsky y 0. pennsylvanicus
Erichson. Se incluyen tambien una list de las caracteristicas distintivas y
una clave de identificaci6n, para 5 species de Oxytelus que ahora han sido
reportados en la Florida. Otros records recientes son: 0. incisus de Texas
(E.U.A.) y Costa Rica, 0. pennsylvanicus de Georgia (E.U.A.), 0. sculptus
Gravenhorst de Haiti, y Anotylus insignitus (Gravenhorst) de Costa Rica y

Certain staphylinid beetles occurring in bovine dung in North America
are known to be natural enemies of Diptera of veterinary importance, in-
cluding Haematobia, Musca, and Stomoxys. The role of other staphylinids
in this habitat is unknown or poorly known, partly due to insufficient taxo-
nomic study. Among these are members of the genus Oxytelus. This paper
provides a taxonomic background and source for further studies on Oxytelus
of Florida.
Dichotomous keys to staphylinid genera of America north of Mexico by
Arnett (1961) do not separate Anotylus from Oxytelus, though a tabular
key by Moore and Legner (1979) does so. Herman (1970) stated that adults
of Oxytelus differ from those of Anotylus in having a basolateral ridge on
abdominal tergum II, and in having a diamond-shaped scutellar impression;
the latter structure provides easy recognition of Oxytelus adults.

The following account of Oxytelus adults is based on specimens in the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA) and in the collection of J. H.
Frank (JHFC), some of which were collected by M. C. Thomas.

Oxytelus incisus Motschulsky
Oxytelus incisus is cosmotropical and is the most widespread and abun-
dant staphylinid in the West Indies (Blackwelder 1943). We have seen no
records of its occurrence in the southern United States; therefore, the fol-
lowing appear to be new: U.S.A., FLORIDA, Alachua Co., Austin Cary Forest,
VI-IX-1969, u.v. light trap, L. A. Hetrick (1: FSCA); Columbia Co. and
Baker Co. boundary, junction of Highway 90, 28-29-XI-1976, u.v. light trap,
C. Ross (31: FSCA); Indian River Co., Fellsmere, 4-IX-1975, u.v. light trap,
M. C. Thomas (4: FSCA); Marion Co., Ocala, 26-III-1977, u.v. light trap,
M. C. Thomas (1: JHFC); St. Lucie Co., Lakewood Park, IV-VI-1972, in
domestic light fixture (1: JHFC); TEXAS, San Patricio Co., Welder Wildlife
Sanctuary, 1-XII-1973, in cow dung, J. H. Frank (16: JHFC).
A description was given by Blackwelder (1943). It should be noted
especially that the male has a larger head and more transverse pronotum
than the female (Fig. 1). The eye facets are large, there being only ca. 11
along the length of the eye. Tempora are present (i.e., the eye does not ex-
tend as far as the posterior angle of the head), but are very short in the
female. Length 2.5-3.5 mm.

Frank & Thomas: Oxytelus in Florida

Fig. 1. Habitus of male Oxytelus incisus Motschulsky (length 2.5-3.5
mm), and outline of head and pronotum of female showing smaller head,
shorter tempora, and less transverse pronotum.

402 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

Oxytelus pennsylvanicus Erichson
The southernmost record for 0. pennsylvanicus appears to be from South
Carolina, as given by Kirk (1970). The following records therefore seem to
be new: U.S.A., FLORIDA, Liberty Co., Torreya State Park, 30-III-1979, pig
dung trap, P. M. Choate (46: FSCA); GEORGIA, White Co., near Helen,
Hickory Nut Mountain Camp, 14-17-VI-1978, u.v. light trap, J. H. Frank (2:
A description was given by Casey (1893). The male has a larger head
and more transverse pronotum than the female. The eye facets are small,
there being ca. 16 along the length of the eye even though the eyes are
small, leaving substantial tempora. Length 3.5-4.2 mm.

Oxytelus convergens LeConte
Oxytelus convergens was described by LeConte (1877) from a male
specimen, of 2 collected at Sand Point (? near Micco, Brevard Co.), Florida
by Schwarz (1878). Casey (1893) included Georgia in the range of the
species which is yet unrecorded from elsewhere. We have seen a series of
specimens collected in Liberty Co., Florida, and other specimens from
Columbia Co. and Suwannee Co. (FSCA).
Casey (1893) augmented the description by LeConte (1877). The male
has a larger head and more transverse pronotum than the female. The eye
facets are small, about 16 to the length of the eye, even though the eyes are
small, leaving substantial tempora. Adults have the following characteristics
which are lacking in 0. pennsylvanicus: the head and pronotum are coarsely
sculptate; the pronotum has 3 deep sulci; the head has a pair of sulci con-
verging from the base to the vertex; the frontal margin of the head is
raised, produced, explanate, and truncate, leaving posterior to it a large
depression near the front of the head with scaly microsculpture. Length
3.2-4.0 mm.

Oxytelus sculptus Gravenhorst
Oxytelus sculptus was described from Europe and is recorded from
temperate areas of both North and South America (LeConte 1877, Casey
1893, Blackwelder 1944). Schwarz (1878) recorded it from Florida but did
not name the collector or locality. We have not seen examples from Florida
but have examined 2 specimens from Haiti collected in mountains above
1,000 m.
Casey (1893) gave a description of the adult. The head and pronotum of
the male differ little from those of the female. The eyes extend to the rounded
hind angles of the head, so that tempora are absent; even so, there are only
about 12 large facets to the length of the eye. The pronotum has 3 deep
sulci. Length 3.5-4.2 mm.

Oxytelus incolumis Erichson
Oxytelus incolumis was described originally from 'Carolina meridionali'.
The Florida localities of Tampa (Hillsborough Co.) and Sand Point (Bre-
vard Co. ?) were added to the distribution by Schwarz (1878). We have ex-

Frank & Thomas: Oxytelus in Florida 403

amined a specimen from Columbia Co. (FSCA) and 2 from Marion Co.
A brief description was given by Casey (1893). The male has a larger
head and more transverse pronotum than the female. Eye facets are small,
about 16 to the length of the eye, and eyes are small so that tempora are
substantial. The pale flavous legs and elytra contrast strongly with the
shining nigrous head and pronotum, which are punctate but indistinctly
sculptured. Lack of distinct sculptation distinguishes adults of this species
from their congeners. Length 3.8-4.5 mm.

1. Tempora absent .O--------..----.- --.---..- 0. sculptus
1'. Tempora present ..-.---..-.. ---.-------....................----..-..------- 2
2(1'). About 11 large facets per length of eye .---.-----------.---- 0. incisus
2'(1'). About 16 small facets per length of eye ---------.---------- 3
3(2'). Pronotum nigrous, shining, smooth, with only a trace of median
longitudinal sulcus O---------- 0. incolumis
3'(2'). Pronotum brunneous or castaneous, sculptate, 3 longitudinal
sulci present .... .------ -..- --.....- -4.... .. 4
4(3'). Head with pair of sulci converging from base to vertex; front
of head with depression with scaly microsculpture --...- 0. convergens
4'(3'). Head at most with pair of short, parallel sulci; front of head
without depression and without scaly microsculpture -.--
.-..--...-.......... .--------- 0. pennsylvanicus

Anotylus insignitus (Gravenhorst) is probably second in abundance only
to Oxytelus incisus in the West Indies and is also part of the dung fauna
(Blackwelder 1943, J. H. Frank observation and collection). It is well known
from the southern United States and is recorded from Louisiana (Summers
1874), Florida (Schwarz 1878), Georgia (Leng 1911), North Carolina
(Brimley 1938), Alabama (Lbding 1945), Tennessee (Walker 1957), and
South Carolina (Kirk 1969). It is widespread and abundant in Florida and
often present in bovine dung (J. H. Frank observation and collection).
A West Indian oxyteline staphylinid of another genus found in this
habitat is Platystethus spiculus Erichson, which is less abundant. In the
southern United States, it has been recorded from Texas and Florida (Frank

Specimens examined during the preparation of this paper give the fol-
lowing new records for Costa Rica, Honduras, and Haiti: Oxytelus incisus:
COSTA RICA, Guanacaste, El Viejo, 21-27-VII-1979, in cow dung, J. H. Frank
(15: JHFC), in rotting fruit, J. H. Frank (1: JHFC), u.v. light trap, J. H.
Frank (8: JHFC), Playa Tamarindo, 25-VII-1979, in pile of grass clippings
on sea beach, J. H. Frank (1: JHFC), Nicoya, 23-VII-1979, in pile of
rotting fruit by highway, J. H. Frank (1: JHFC); Lim6n, Portete, 29-30-
VII-1979, u.v. light trap, J. H. Frank (3: JHFC), Moin, 30-VII-1979, u.v.

404 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

light trap (8: JHFC); tOxytelus sculptus: HAITI, D6partement de l'Ouest,
below Kenscoff, 28-IX-1970, in pile of rotting banana leaves, J. H. Frank (2:
JHFC); Anotylus insignitus: COSTA RICA, Guanacaste, El Viejo, 21-27-VII-
1979, in and under rotting breadfruit, J. H. Frank (1: JHFC), u.v. light
trap, J. H. Frank (7: JHFC); Lim6n, Portete, 29-30-VII-1979, u.v. light
trap, J. H. Frank (6: JHFC); HONDURAS, Choluteca, Choluteca, 17-VI-1974,
u.v. light trap, L. B. O'Brien (3: JHFC).

The Haitian specimens of Oxytelus sculptus were identified by P. M.
Hammond [British Museum (Natural History)]. We thank J. R. Rey (Vero
Beach) for translating the abstract into Spanish and R. E. Woodruff
(Gainesville) for a critical review of the manuscript.

ARNETT, R. H., JR. 1961. Staphylinidae. Fascicle 15, p. 233-310, in: The
beetles of the United States (a manual for identification). Catholic
Univ. America Press; Washington, D.C.
BLACKWELDER, R. E. 1943. Monograph of the West Indian beetles of the
family Staphylinidae. United States Nat. Mus. Bull. 182: 1-658.
1944. Checklist of the coleopterous insects of Mexico, Central Amer-
ica, the West Indies, and South America. United States Nat. Mus.
Bull. 185: i-xii, 1-188.
BRIMLEY, C. S. 1938. The insects of North Carolina, being a list of the in-
sects of North Carolina and their close relatives. North Carolina
Dept. Agric.; Raleigh. 560 p.
CASEY, T. L. 1893. Coleopterological notices V. Ann. New York Acad. Sci.
7: 281-606, pl. I.
FRANK, J. H. 1976. Pkatystethus spiculus:Er., (Staphylinidae) in Florida.
Coleopt. Bull. 30: 157-8.
HERMAN, L. H. 1970. Phylogeny and reclassification of the genera of the
rove-beetle subfamily Oxytelinae of the world (Coleoptera, Staphy-
linidae). Bull. American Mus. Natur. Hist. 142: 343-454.
KIRK, V. M. 1969. A list of the beetles of South Carolina. Part 1-Northern
coastal plain. South Carolina Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 1033:
1970. ibid. Part 2-Mountain, piedmont and southern coastal plain.
ibid. 1038: 1-117.
LECONTE, J. L. 1877. On certain genera of Staphylinidae Oxytelini,
Piestidae, and Micropeplidae, as represented in the fauna of the
United States. Trans. American Ent. Soc. 6: 213-52.
LENG, C. W. 1911. Notes on Coleoptera collected in northern Georgia-II.
J. New York Ent. Soc. 19: 209-16.
LbDING, H. P. 1945. Catalogue of the beetles of Alabama. Geol. Survey
Alabama, Monogr. 2: 1-172.
MOORE, I., AND E. F. LEGNER. 1979. An illustrated guide to the genera of
the Staphylinidae of America north of Mexico exclusive of the
Aleocharinae (Coleoptera). Div. Agric. Sci., Univ. California, Priced
Publ. 4093: 1-332.
SCHWARZ, E. A. 1878. The Coleoptera of Florida. Proc. American Philos.
Soc. 17: 353-472.
SUMMERS, S. V. 1874. Catalogue of the Coleoptera from the region of Lake
Pontchartrain, La. Buffalo Soc. Natur. Hist. Bull. 2: 78-99.

Frank & Thomas: Oxytelus in Florida


WALKER, T. J. 1957. Ecological studies of the arthropods associated with
certain decaying materials in four habitats. Ecology 38: 262-76.



Department of Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 and
University of Florida, IFAS, Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory,
P.O. Box 520, Vero Beach, FL 32960

Partial results of a 15-month sampling program designed to enumerate
the species of terrestrial arthropods found in Northwest Florida salt marshes
are presented. Fifty-one identified species of Coleoptera are listed. This
number of species compares favorably with the largest numbers recorded
from elsewhere in the United States. Several specimens of a new species of
Carpophilus (Nitidulidae) were collected.

Se presentan resultados parciales de un program de muestreo de 15
meses de duraci6n, el cual fue disefiado con el prop6sito de enumerar las
species de artr6podos terrestres presents en las marismas del noroeste de
La Florida (E.U.A.). Cincuenta ye una species pertenecientes a la orden
Coleoptera han sido recobradas de dichas colecciones. Este namero se com-
para favorablemente con el de las colecciones mas diversas de otras parties
de los Estados Unidos. En las muestras se han encontrado various individuos
de una nueva especie de Carpophilus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

The terrestrial arthropod fauna of the St. Marks' region of Florida's
Gulf Coast has been the object of exhaustive study for the past 6 years.
General accounts of the ecology of the fauna can be found in McCoy (1977),
Rey (1978), and Rey and McCoy (1981 and in preparation); specific as-
pects of its small-scale biogeography are in Rey (1979, 1981) and Rey and
McCoy (1979).
In this contribution, and others to follow, we tabulate the species col-
lected during a 15-month sampling program designed specifically to gain a
relatively complete picture of the richness of terrestrial arthropods in the
Northwest Florida salt-marsh. The species list presented here is of the
order Coleoptera.

The Coleoptera identified here were captured in sweep samples of salt-
marsh vegetation taken from June, 1975 to August, 1976. The salt-marshes
studied were located on the St. Marks' National Wildlife Refuge (30.090N,
20.120W). A total of 132 samples were taken at 20 sites located in 4 marsh

406 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

habitats (see below). We took samples only on sunny, windless days, be-
tween 1100 hrs and 1500 hrs, in order to obtain the largest number of
specimens possible.
A sample consisted of 120 sweeps using standard techniques (Southwood
1966). Material collected during each set of sweeps was placed into a plastic
bag and transported to the laboratory. All specimens of Coleoptera were
separated and placed into vials. We morphotyped these specimens, and
forwarded several individuals of each morphotypic species to The Division
of Plant Industry, Gainesville, for identification.


The sampling program encompassed 4 distinct types of habitats. We
term these habitats Spartina alterniflora Loisl. (smooth cordgrass) fringe,
Juncus roemerianus Scheele (black rush) marsh, Distichlis spicata (L.)
Greene (salt-grass) meadow, and halophytic shrub zone.
The S. alterniflora fringe is nearly monospecific in composition and
grows between the mean high tide and mean low tide marks along shore-
lines and tidal creeks and channels. The fringe is generally less than 2.5 m
wide partly because of low tidal amplitude (Provost 1976, Turner 1976),
but is found along most shores. Since the S. alterniflora fringe occurs be-
tween the mean high tide marks, it is subject to daily inundation. Both
growth forms occur at our sites, but the tall form never reaches more than
about 1 m in height. In summer, all tall-form plants remain nearly com-
pletely out of the water during high tides. In winter, however, when much
of the above-ground parts of the plants die (and are washed out quickly by
the tides), the same individuals may be virtually submerged, with only the
tips remaining out of the water. The more landward short-form plants
usually are less than one-third submerged, but occasionally may be fully
inundated in winter.
Juncus roemerianus marsh also is nearly monospecific in composition,
but covers vast, continuous areas of the Northwest Florida coastline (Kurz
and Wagner 1954, pers. obs.). This marsh occurs on slightly more elevated
ground that the S. alterniflora fringe and is thus subject to less frequent
Distichlis spicata meadow, unlike the previous 2 habitats, is very
heterogeneous in composition, usually containing S. patens (Ait.) Muhl.
(slender cordgrass), Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC. (sea oxeye), Limonium
carolinianum (Walt.) Britt. (sea lavender), and other halophytic species,
in addition to the Distichlis. This habitat occurs as small, isolated patches at
elevations slightly above the J. roemerianus marsh; and, therefore, is flooded
only by seasonal high tides.
The halophytic shrub zone occurs on sand ridges deposited immediately
behind the S. alterniflora fringe on windward shores, and consists almost
entirely of Baccharis halmifolia L. (marsh elder), Lycium carolinianum
Walt. (Christmas berry), and Myrica cerifera L. (wax-myrtle). These
shrubs are inundated only by storm tides.


STable 1 lists the 51 species of Coleoptera for which we have received

McCoy & Rey: Coleoptera in Salt Marshes


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Florida Entomologist 64(3)

September, 1981


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McCoy & Rey: Coleoptera in Salt Marshes

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410 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

identifications. Six additional distinct "morphotypic species" occurred in
our collections, but these were lost during the process of identification.
Absence of any species in a particular month should not be construed
as an absence of the species from the marsh system. Certainly, a margin of
error exists in our sampling effort; a chance always exists of missing species,
particularly rare ones. In addition, all sites were not sampled every month,
so if a species was confined to 1 site, we would fail to record it as present in
those months in which the site was not sampled (Glyphonyx sp. in Table 1
may be an example).
It should also be kept in mind that certain species will not be prone to
collection by sweep-netting, because of their habits. For example, D. R.
Strong (pers. comm.) finds a species of lizard beetle (Languriidae) on S.
alterniflora at St. Marks mostly by splitting open individual stems. Any
species living within plant tissues likely would be missed. We also would ex-
pect ground-dwellers and agile flyers to be missed.

Some of the species we captured are known to occur in other North Amer-
ican salt marshes, and additional ones have congeners there (Bickley and
Seek 1975; Cameron 1972, unpubl.; Davis 1978; Davis and Gray 1966; Kale
1964; Lane 1969; Marples 1964; Wall 1973). These species are designated
in Table 1. They likely comprise most of the "true" salt marsh beetle fauna
found at our sampling sites.
The number of species recorded here compares favorably with the largest
numbers recorded elsewhere. Bickley and Seek (1975) listed about 140
species, but their tabulation included individuals sampled from slightly
brackish marshes dominated by Typha angustifolia L., Phragmites com-
munis (P. australis (Car.)), and Pontederia sp. Such marshes clearly are
not comparable to ours. Davis (1978) recorded about 80 species from the
coasts of the Carolinas. Many of these species (those in the families Gy-
rinidae and Hydrophilidae, for example) were taken by dipping in marsh
ponds, others were gleaned from dubious published accounts, and still
others were captured on sea oats, Uniola paniculata L., a dry-coastal plant.
When such species are removed from consideration, Davis' tabulation of
salt-marsh Coleoptera is about the size of ours.

We thank R. Woodruff (IFAS, DPI, Gainesville), W. A. Connell (Univ.
Delaware), H. Frank (IFAS, FMEL, Vero Beach), P. J. Spangler (USNM),
and D. M. Anderson, R. H. Arnett, R. D. Gordon, T. J. Spilman, R. White,
and D. R. Whitehead (all at USDA, Syst. Ent. Lab.) for identifying our
specimens. Order of authorship was determined by coin-toss.

BICKLEY, W. E., AND T. R. SEEK. 1975. Insects in four Maryland marshes.
Univ. Md., Agric. Exp. Sta. Misc. Publ. 870.
CAMERON, G. N. 1972. Analysis of insect trophic diversity in two salt-marsh
communities. Ecology 53: 58-73.

McCoy & Rey: Coleoptera in Salt Marshes 411

DAVIS, L. V. 1978. Class Insecta. Pages 186-220 In: An Annotated Check-
list of the Biota of the Coastal Zone of North Carolina (R. G. Zing-
mark, Ed.). Univ. South Carolina Pr., Columbia.
AND H. E. GRAY. 1966. Zonal and seasonal distribution of insects
in North Carolina salt marshes. Ecol. Monogr. 36: 275-95.
KALE, H. W. 1964. Food of the long-billed marsh wren, Tematodytes
palustris griseus, in the salt marshes of Sapelo Island, Georgia. Oriole
29: 47-61.
KURZ, H., AND K. WAGNER. 1954. Tidal marshes of the Gulf and Atlantic
coasts of northeastern Florida and Charleston, South Carolina. Flor-
ida State Univ. Studies 24.
LANE, R. S. 1969. The insect fauna of a coastal salt marsh. M. A. Thesis,
San Francisco St. College.
MARPLES, T. G. 1964. A radionuclide tracer study of arthropod food chains
in a Spartina salt marsh ecosystem. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Georgia.
McCoY, E. D. 1977. The diversity of terrestrial arthropods in Northwest
Florida salt marshes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State Univ.
PRovosT, M. W. 1976. Tidal datum planes circumscribing salt marshes.
Bull. Mar. Sci. 26: 558-63.
REY, J. R. 1978. Abundance patterns of terrestrial arthropods in North-
west Florida salt marshes. M.S. Thesis, Florida State Univ.
1979. Colonization, turnover, and equilibrium of arthropods on
Spartina alterniflora islands in Northwest Florida. Ph.D. Disserta-
tion, Florida State Univ.
1981. Ecological biogeography of arthropods on Spartina islands
in Northwest Florida. Ecol. Monogr. 51(2): 237-265.
-- AND E. D. McCoY. 1979. Application of island biogeographic theory
to pests of cultivated crops. Env. Ent. 8: 577-82.
AND 1981. Terrestrial arthropod communities in North-
west Florida salt marshes. In: Salt Marshes of the Gulf Coast of
Florida (A. F. Clewell, Ed.). In press.
SOUTHWOOD, T. R. E. 1966. Ecological Methods with Particular Reference
to the Study of Insect Populations. Methuen and Co., London.
TURNER, R. E. 1976. Geographic variations in salt marsh macrophyte pro-
duction: a review. Cont. Mar. Sci. 20: 47-68.
WALL, W. J., JR. 1973. The intertidal sand and salt marsh invertebrate
fauna associated with the bloodsucking Diptera of Cape Cod, Massa-
chusetts. Env. Ent. 2: 681-4.

412 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981


Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods; address: Dept.
of Geological Sciences, State University of New York, Binghamton,
New York 13901, USA

Archilestes latialatus, new species, occurs from Chiapas, Mexico, to
Nicaragua. It is closely related to A. tuberalatus (Williamson), from which
it is distinguished by the anal appendages. The 2 species are put in the sub-
genus Cyptolestes (new status), distinguished by the widened cell marginal
to the quadrangle in the hind wind and by the vestigial inferior appendage
in the male.

Archilestes latialatus, especie nueva, se encuentra de Chiapas, M6xico
hasta Nicaragua. Esta relacionada con A. tuberalatus (Williamson), pero
difiere por los apendices anales. Las dos species pertenecen al subgenero
Cyptolestes (estado nuevo) que esti caracterizada por la celula exterior del
cuadringulo anchada, y tambi6n los ap6ndices inferiores rudimentarios en
el macho.

The discovery of a new species of Archilestes in Chiapas, Mexico, and in
western Honduras, eastern Guatemala, and northern Nicaragua, brings to
a total of 6 the species attributed to that genus. The new species is very
closely related to Cyptolestes Williamson, which has recently been designated
a synonym of Archilestes (Gloyd, 1980). The characteristics of the new
species latialatus strongly suggest that it and tuberalatus (Williamson)
(not tuberculatus, of Gloyd) be referred to the subgenus Cyptolestes (new

Archilestes latialatus2 Donnelly, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 4, 5, 6, 8, 9)

The new species Archilestes latialatus is closely related to A. tuberalatus
(Williamson, 1921), from which it is distinguished by the form of the male
superior appendage, which in the new species is sharply deflected and ends
in a protuberant ventral point, while in tuberalatus the termination is blunt.
HOLOTYPE MALE: Head: labrum, sides of mandibles, genae, anteclypeus
pale bluish green, the labrum with a thin dark marginal line; frons and
remainder of top of head and antennae, dark. Prothorax: partially pruinosed,

1Contribution No. 501, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602, US.A.
21atialatus (Latin): wide winged.

Donnelly: Archilestes & Cyptolestes


Fig. 1-5: Hind wing bases of Archilestes: 1. A. regalis, male; 2. A.
grandis, male; 3. A. tuberalatus, female, 4. A. latialatus, females; 5. A.
latialatus, male.

obscurely dark with metallic green sheen; lateral swellings of tergal mid-
lobe edged behind and laterally with yellow; hind lobe with low, raised,
rounded margin. Pterothorax: dominantly metallic green above (mesepi-
sternum and mesepimeron) and partially pruinosed pale yellow below (mes-
and metinfrapisternum, metepisternum, and metepimeron), with a thin
yellow line along dorsal carina and yellow line along dorsal carina and yel-
low band along humeral suture, continuing around margins of mesepimeron
and isolating the metallic color. Metathorax and pectus pale, with color
grading from bright on inferior marking of metepimeron to obscure on the
remainder of these areas. Venation: veins black, stigma dark reddish brown;
the marginal cell bordering the subquadrangle swollen in the hind wing, and
the distal cross vein of this cell 1.64 times as long as the corresponding
vein in the fore wing. Legs: dark, pale yellow as follows: inferior margins
of middle and hind coxae (which, however, are partially pruinosed), fore
parts of middle and hind trochanters, and lines on proximal 3/4 of dorsal
surface of femora. Abdomen: dark, grading to metallic green on dorsum of
segments 2 and 3; pale yellow on lateral portions of 1 and small lateral-
basal and lateral-apical spots on 2; thin yellow line along ventral margin
of terga of 3 to 8. Appendages: black, superior appendages forcipate with
tips deflecting downward, terminating in an outwardly recurved, flattened
point; in dorsal view with an internal rounded prominence of 3/4 the length

414 Florida Entomologist 64(3) September, 1981

and with a small basal internal rounded swelling; small teeth along external-
apical margin. Inferior appendages wanting, represented only by slightly
raised swellings.
ALLOTYPE FEMALE: generally similar to male, differing as follows: pale
color of front of head differentiated into a dominantly bluish labrum and
dominantly greenish anteclypeus, sides of mandibles, and genae. Top of head
with a pale yellow line extending laterally from the hind corners of the
vertex. Prothorax more pale than in male; pterothorax with yellow color of
mid-dorsal carina wider, causing restriction of metallic green of mesepi-
sterum to the center of that pleuron. Fore tibiae with a thin dorsal yellow
line. Abdomen dark with green dorsally from segment 2 to 7; lateral pale
yellow prominent on 1 and 2 and wider than in male on 3 to 8. Obscure
lateral pale spot on 9. Ovipositor with ventral margin armed with a row of
small teeth.
DIMENSIONS (in mm): Holotype male: abdomen 54, hind wing 35.5,
nodus of hind wing 12 from base. Paratype males: abdomens range from 52
to 56.5 (54.2, 1.33); hind wings range from 34 to 37 (35.4, 0.9) and the
nodus ranges from 11 to 12.25 (11.7, 0.4; 33 per cent of the wing length).
Allotype female: abdomen 49.5, hind wing 38, nodus of hind wing 12.75 from
base. Paratype female: abdomen 47.5, hind wing 35.5, nodus of hind wing 12
from base.
VARIATIONS AMONG THE PARATYPE SERIES: The type series of 16 males and
2 females shows relatively little variation. The broadening ratio, defined
here as the relative length of the distal vein in the cell marginal to the sub-
quadrangle in the hind wing to that in the fore wing, ranges from 1.32 to
1.64 (1.48, 0.10). The elongation ratio of the first post-quadrangular cell,
defined as the relative lengths of the anterior to the distal vein of that cell,
ranges from 1.45 to 2.00 (1.69, 0.17). The length of the stigma ranges from
2.4 to 2.8 mm (2.6, 0.1; which is 7 per cent of the wing length). Vein R4
(M3 of Williamson) originates 1.2 to 1.5 mm from the quadrangle (1.04,
0.1; which is 4 per cent of the wing length). Vein R3 (M2) originates 2.4
to 3.5 (2.9, 0.3) and vein IR2 (Mla) 5 to 7.8 cells (6.5, 0.8) from the
nodus. The 2 females are similarly close, having broadening ratios of 1.50
and 1.71, and elongation ratios of the first post-quadrangular cell 1.57 and
1.73. The stigmae are 2.7 and 2.8 mm long; the origin of R4 is 1.3 and 1.5
mm from the quadrangle. R3 originates 2.5 and 2.8 and IR3 6.6 and 6.0 cells
from the nodus.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Holotype male: HONDURAS: Cortez Province, Rio
Piedras at San Pedro Sula, 16-VII-1971, coll. T. Donnelly. Allotype female:
same locality, 9-15-VIII-1976, coll. T. and A. Donnelly. Paratypes: same
locality: 16-VII-1971, coll. T. Donnelly, 2 & ; same locality, 9-15-VII-1976,
coll. T. and A. Donnelly, 1 S; GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz Dept., Minas de
Oxec, 10 km ESE of Cahab6n, 200 m, 12-14-VI-1977, coll. T. Donnelly, 2 a
19; NICARAGUA: Matagalpa Prov., 10 km SE of San Ram6;, 700 m, 18-20-
VI-1974, coll. T. and A. Donnelly, 1 8; MEXICO: Chiapas; 21.4 km N of
Ocozocoautla, 600 m, 20-21-VII-1965, coll. D. R. Paulson, 5 ; MEXICO:
Chiapas; 20.1 km N of Ocozocoautla, 600 m, 25-VIII-1967, coll. D. R. and
M. L. Paulson, 4 a. The holotype and allotype specimens are deposited in

mean, standard deviation.

Donnelly: Archilestes & Cyptolestes 415


7 9

Fig. 6-9, structural details: 6. Ovipositor of A. latialatus; 7. Ovipositor
of A. regalis; 8. and 9. dorsal and lateral views of male appendages of A.

the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, Florida. Paratypes
are deposited in the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, and the
National Museum of Natural History, as well as in various private collec-

Williamson (1921) described the species Cyptolestes tuberalatus and
genus Superlestes for Lestes exoletus Selys. I have seen neither species and
know tuberalatus only from his excellent description and illustrations. At
the time of his paper the 2 species then known of Archilestes grandiss
(Rambur) and californica MacLachlan) seemed abundantly distinct from
Superlestes and Cyptolestes. The subsequent description of Archilestes
regalis (Gloyd, 1944) raised doubts that the 2 Williamson genera could
still be considered distinct. Gloyd (1980) relegated the 2 generic names to
synonymy, without, however, providing a strong descriptive defense for her
proposal. A study of the species (other than exoletus) suggests that some
of Williamson's criteria for the definition of Cyptolestes should be aban-
doned because of the character of regalis, but that others should be re-
tained and that the taxon Cyptolestes should not be abandoned entirely.
The swollen marginal cell of the hind wing subquadrangle remains a
striking character, and the broadening ratio, as defined above, shows a clear
separation between the 2 species, tuberalatus and latialatus, and the species
grandis, californica, and regalis. The lowest value for the ratio in a speci-
men of Cyptolestes is 1.32, and the highest for a specimen of the remaining
3 species is 1.16; the means and standard deviations are 1.05, 0.03 for
grandis; 1.05, 0.03 for regalis; and 1.06, 0.07 for californica; compared

416 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

with 1.48, 0.10 for latialatus (Wililamson's figure for tuberalatus suggests
about 1.5 but is not entirely clear).
Other characters suggested by Williamson were the retraction of the
nodus; the more distal forking of R2+R3 and R4 (M1+M2 and M3); the
distance from the quadrangle of the origin of R4 (M3); the greater rela-
tive length of the first postquadrangular cell; the termination of R4 (M3);
and the shortened stigma. The termination of R4 was considered briefly in
this investigation and not found to be useful; the remaining characters
were tabulated for 10 males of grandis, 6 of californica, and 5 of regalis.
The retraction of the nodus, expressed as the per cent length of the hind
wing of the nodal distance, is 33 per cent for latialatus, 35 per cent for
regalis, 36 per cent for grandis, and 38 per cent for californica. The origins
of R2+R3 were 2.9 cells from the nodus for latialatus, 2.6 for regalis, 1.1
for grandis, and 1.1 for californica, and the origin of IR2 was 6.5 cells
from the nodus for latialatus, 5.6 for regalis, 5.9 for grandis, and 5.0 for
californica. The distance to the origin of R4 averages 4 per cent of the wing
length in all 4 species (Williamson considered this distance compared to the
space between the 2 antenodals; this was also tabulated here and was found
to be little different among the 4 species.). The relative elongation of the
first postquadrangular cell is 1.69 for latialatus, 1.58 for regalis, 1.54 for
grandis, and 1.64 for californica; there is also considerable variation within
series of these species. The stigma averaged 7 per cent of the hind wing
length in latialatus (the same for the illustration of tuberalatus), compared
with 7 per cent for regalis, 10 per cent for grandis, and 11 per cent for
californica. Thus each of these supplementary criteria suggested by William-
son is considered to have been seriously weakened by the discovery of
The lower margins of the ovipositor of the species grandis, regalis, cali-
fornica, and tuberalatus (the latter not seen by me), as well as exoletus
(also not seen by me and not considered in this study), were said by Gloyd
(1980) to be similarly armed with teeth. As Fig. 6 shows, the teeth of
latialatus are much smaller than those of regalis (Fig. 7), which are them-
selves of the approximate size of those of grandis and californica (not
OTHER Archilestes EXAMINED: A. regalis, MEXICO: San Luis Potosi;
various localities ranging from 11 km S to 7 km N of Tamazunchale, col-
lected 4-5-IX-1963 by T. and A. Donnelly, 4 S, 1 9, and 5-VIII-1966 by
0. S. Flint, Jr., 1 $. A. grandis: various localities in Panama, Guatemala,
Mexico, Arizona, and Maryland, 10 S. A. californica, various localities in
southern California and Baja California, Mexico, 6 $.

Cyptolestes-A SUBGENUS OF Archilestes

The existence of a monotypic genus is somewhat of a taxonomic embar-
rassment, but the subsequent discovery of a second, closely related species
strengthens the rationale for separation of the 2 species into a named taxon.
I propose that Williamson's genus Cyptolestes be retained as a subgenus of
Archilestes, based on the following 2 criteria: 1) widening of the base of
the hind wing, expressed by the ratio of the length of the distal cross veins
of the cell marginal to the subquadrangle in the hind and fore wings, and 2)

Donnelly: Archilestes & Cyptolestes


the seemingly vestigial male inferior appendage. The principal reason for
not suggesting retention of the generic level is that the females are less
obviously separated for the 2 species taken together. Williamson's other
venational criteria all fail, largely because of the intermediate nature of
regalis for several characters. However, Cyptolestes remains extreme for
shortness of stigma, retraction of the nodus, and distal origin of R3. The
subgenus is further extreme by the relative length of the abdomen to the
hind wings.
The subgenus Cyptolestes contains the species tuberalatus (Williamson)
and latialatus.


I am very grateful to Dennis Paulson for the loan of specimens for ex-
amination in the present study.

GLOYD, L. K. 1944. A new species of Archilestes from Mexico (Odonata:
Lestidae). Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, no. 483: 1-4.
1980. The taxonomic status of the genera Superlestes and
Cyptolestes Williamson 1921 (Odonata: Lestidae). Occ. Pap. Mus.
Zool. Univ. Michigan, no. 694: 1-3.
WILLIAMSON, E. B. 1921. Two new neotropical genera of Lestinae
(Odonata). Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, no. 96: 1-9.


The Institute of Ecology,
University of Georgia,
Athens, GA 30602

A new species, Sminthurus (Sminthurus) carolinensis Snider, is de-
scribed from South Carolina. This species is most closely allied to Sminthurus
(Sminthurus) argenteornatus Banks, but can be separated on the basis of
color pattern, absence of outer tooth on unguis, tibial setal pattern, outer
edge of mucro toothed, and female subanal appendage morphology. The type
locality is the Savannah River Plant, U. S. Department of Energy, Aiken,
South Carolina. Specimens were taken from grass and Allium vineale L.

Se describe una nueva especie, Sminthurus (Sminthurus) caroliniensis
Snider, de Carolina del Norte. Esta especie es la mds parecida a Sminthurus

WMailing address: Department of Zoology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

418 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

(Sminthurus) argenteornatus Banks, sin embargo se pueden separar en base
al patron de coloraci6n, a la ausencia de diente externo en el unguis, al
patron de distribuci6n de bello en la tibia, al borde externo mucro dental, y
a la morfologia de la afiadidura subanal femenina. La localidad del ejemplar
tipo es The Savannah River Plant, U.S. Department of Energy, en Aiken,
Carolina del Sur. Los ejemplares fueron colectados en pastos y en Allium
vineale L.

During a late fall collecting trip to the Savannah River Plant, I had the
opportunity to make grass sweeping collections for Collembola. Among the
known species taken was a large sminthurid which later proved to be unique.
The purpose of this report is to describe that new species.

Sminthurus carolinensis Snider, NEW SPECIES
COLOR AND PATTERN ( ). Background light olive-green. Head with dark
median stripe on lower frons extending to clypeus; gena with broken line
of light dots forming a "C" from base of antenna to posterior; vertex with
light dots and rubiginous dusting between orbital crests; antenna purple
throughout. Body with dark, irregular polygons of purple pigment inter-
fused with white; irregular purple-brown spots occur over the body, with
light purple strip running from thorax to mid-dorsum of abdomen; anal
papilla with distinctive hourglass macula; parafurcular lobes, extended
position, colorless; furcula with light purple on dorsum of manubrium, and
dorsally on dens, becoming concentrated at base and apical areas. Legs
with irregular purple mottling (Fig. 1 and 2). 8 with same basic pattern
as 9 except rubiginous rather than purple. White maculations on body
narrow on dorsum and limited to upper anterolateral region.


Antennal segment ratio (9) 1:2:3:6, (3) 1:2:3:7; ANT IV with 14-15
intermediates (Fig. 4), 1 to 2 lobed apical bulb, low apical papilla and sense
rods (Fig. 5 and 6), intermediates each with single setula, except inter-
Fig. 1-2. Sminthurus carolinensis n. sp. 1. Habitus, lateral; 2. Habitus,
HEAD. Eyes 8 +8 with dark pigment; ocellus D diameter of B; A and B
subequal, their diameters at least % greater than other ocelli (Fig. 3).
Antennal segment ratio (2) 1:2:3:6, (U) 1:2:3:7; ANT IV with 14-15
intermediates (Fig. 4), 1 to 2 lobed apical bulb, low apical papilla and sense
rods (Fig. 5 and 6), intermediates each with single setula, except inter-

Snider: Sminthurus carolinensis 419

mediate distal to base (Fig. 4); ANT III with 9 outstanding setae (Fig. 7),
subapical sensillae in deep invagination, accessory setae lanceolate and lying
in shallow depression (Fig. 8); ANT II with 4 ventral setulae (Fig. 9);
ANT I with 2 fine ventral distal setae and 4 dorsal setae (Fig. 10). Inter-
ocular cephalic setae A-G typical of genus, setae D up to 3 diameter of
nearest ocellus, lanceolate and ciliated (Fig. 11); rows F to G spine-like;
2 unpaired frontal setae (Fig. 12). Frons with 2 oval organs near antennal
bases, 1 close to setae D, other in line with seta A, and 3rd located on lower
frons in line with 2nd unpaired frontal setae; 3 posterior oval organs form-
ing a right triangle on lower gena (Fig. 13).
BODY. Foreleg coxa without oval organ; trochanter with 3 anterior and 2
posterior setae (Fig. 14); femur with anterior oval organ, 9 anterior and
7 posterior setae (Fig. 15). Mesoleg coxa oval organ (Fig. 16); trochanter
with 2 oval organs, 5 anterior and 1 posterior setae (Fig. 17); femur with
1 posterior oval organ, 2 posterior setulae (Fig. 18). Metaleg coxa with oval
organ (Fig. 19); trochanter with 2 anterior oval organs, 5 anterior and 1
posterior setae (Fig. 20); femur with 1 posterior oval organ and 2 posterior
setulae (Fig. 21); anterior surface of tibiotarsus with 1 subapical pseudo-
pore, AE file with 9 setae, seta E3 0.95-1.27 times as long as outer edge of
unguis (Fig. 22), seta L2 0.89-1.02 times as long as outer edge of unguis
posterior surface with 5 pseudopores near external edge, PI file with 9 setae,
heavy setae distally on lateral edge, tenent hairs acuminate (Fig. 23).
Pretarsus with anterior and posterior setulae; unguis with tunica, anterior
and posterior pseudonychia, strong inner tooth; unguiculus of metaleg with
strong corner tooth (weakly developed on foreleg), subapical filament tap-
ering, unguiculus approximately 1.4 times as long as its filament (Fig. 24
and 25). Collophore with 1 + 1 subapical anterior setae, 1 + 1 posterior oval
organs, sacs warty (Fig. 26). Corpus of retinaculum with 4 setulae, ramus
with 3 teeth (Fig. 27). Manubrium with 8 + 8 dorsal setae (Fig. 28). Dens
with setae Idg present, seta Ve6 0 + 1, otherwise typical for genus (Fig. 29
and 30). Mucro with 2 to 3 outer and 3 to 5 (seldom 2) inner teeth, outer
edge 2.8 times length of its setae (Fig. 31). Female circumanal setae Ao -3,
P and Q typical for genus (Fig. 32 and 33); subanal appendage acuminate
and strongly curved in lateral view, heavy and blunt ventrally (Fig. 34);
bothriotrichium D accompanied by long VN setae. Male with Ao longer than
other setae of series, VN setae 1/3 longer than Ao (Fig. 35). Both sexes
with a single oval organ on the upper and lower anal valves. Body setae
long, slender and curving. Length 2.0 mm ( ), 1.3 mm ( ).
DIAGNOSIS: Sminthurus carolinensis Snider keys out nearest to Sminthurus
fitchi Folsom and Sminthurus argenteornatus Banks in Christiansen and
Bellinger (1980-81). Tibiotarsal seta L2 is 0.89-1.02 times as long as the
outer edge of the unguis. For S. fitchi L2 is 1-1.2 and S. argenteornatus is
Sminthurus fitchi can easily be separated from S. carolinensis by the
following morphological characteristics: Ocellus D /z diameter of A and B
for S. carolinensis; D 5/7 diameter of A and B for S. fitchi. Mucro with 2-3
outer and 3-5 inner teeth for S. carolinensis; outer margin entire or weakly
lobed and inner crenulate for S. fitchi. Female subanal appendage short,
blunt in ventral view for S. carolinensis; long, gladiform for S. fitchi. Hind

Florida Entomologist 64 (3)

September, 1981




.* /





Fig. 3-21. Sminthurus carolinensis n. sp. 3. Ocellar pattern, left side; 4.
ANT IV; 5. Apical view ANT IV; 6. Apical view ANT IV; 7. ANT III; 8.
Detail of ANT III organ and setae; 9. ANT II; 10. ANT I; 11. Postantennal
seta D; 12. Setal pattern of frons; 13. Frons showing position of posterior
oval organs; 14. Protrochanter; 15. Profemur; 16. Mesocoxa; 17. Mesotro-
chanter; 18. Mesofemur; 19. Metacoxa; 20. Metatrochanter; 21. Metafemur.





Snider: Sminthurus carolinensis

J 27 L E

2 829. 30

Fig. 22-31. Sminthurus carolinensis n. sp. 22. Metatibia, anterior view;
23. Metatibia, posterior view; 24. Proleg, claw; 25. Metaleg, claw; 26. Col-
lophore, showing posterior oval organs; 27. Retinaculum; 28. Manubrial
setae; 29. Dens, dorsal view; 30. Dens, ventral view; 31. Mucro.


422 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

g ... %... ABD V e rig

d 'lv.-w;.. A VI of e vnr \
.for S. f i.

Stion. Christiansen and Bellinger (1980-81) point out that when Maynard
species ile arges hs p e ent it is fined li

3wise the background color is white with a patch of tan dorsally on the

Fig.3 cotype series inthure MCZ colnletios n. sp. 32. Anatomical comparisons were madele, right
and though similarities ocur in this conservative genus, enough divergenceal ap-
pendageoccurs to separate the 2 spectral vies.w; 35. Male anal papilla, lateral view.
However, when separating S. carolinensis from S. argenteornatus com-
monly shared morphological characteristics require a more detailed explana-
tion. Christiansen and Bellinger (1980-81) point out that when Maynard
(1951) illustrated and improved the description of S. argenteornatus, he
had confused 2 species in a cotype series given to him by Nathan Banks. In
his original description, Banks (1899) presented a description much too
general for specific separation. The 3 cotypes of S. argenteornatus (MCZ
cotype series 14752) were borrowed from the Museum of Comparative
Zoology, Harvard University. Comparisons between the cotypes, Christian-
sen and Bellinger's description and S. carolinensis were made.
The strong color pattern of S. carolinensis is useful in separating the 2
species. While S. argenteornatus has purple pigment, it is confined to light
dusting on the postero-lateral region of the abdomen and antennae. Other-
wise the background color is white with a patch of tan dorsally on the
abdomen. One cotype has been in alcohol since 1899 and has obviously
faded. Christiansen and Bellinger (1980-81) base their description on the
3 cotype series in the MCZ collection. Anatomical comparisons were made
and though similarities occur in this conservative genus, enough divergence
occurs to separate the 2 species.
Similarities include: size 2 mm; presence of Id6 on the dorsal surface of
the dens; for S. argenteornatus the tibial setae E, and L2 are 1.1-1.2 and
0.85-0.90 as long as the unguis respectively; for S. carolinensis E3 and L2
are 0.95-1.27 and 0.89-1.02 respectively. These characters, coupled with the
14-15 intermediate subsegments of the antenna, will lead to S. argenteornatus
in the Christiansen and Bellinger key.
The following morphological characteristics will separate the 2 species:

Snider: Sminthurus carolinensis


S. argenteornatus S. carolinensis
unguiculus 2.5 times its apical filament 1.4 times apical filament
unguis with outer tooth outer tooth lacking
tibia with 6 AE and 8 AL setae with 9 AE and 9 AL setae
outer edge of mucro entire outer edge toothed
female subanal appendage slender, appendage thick, blunt
acuminate (ventral view) (ventral view)
Christiansen and Bellinger (1980-81) did not include in their mono-
graph 3 species described by D. L. Wray from North Carolina. They are:
Sminthurus virginidari Wray (1948), Sminthurus yonahlossee Wray (1948),
and Sminthurus adamsi Wray (1967). Color pattern alone will separate
them from S. carolinensis. In addition the following morphological char-
acteristics, taken from Wray's published descriptions, divide the 4 species:
S. carolinensis S. adamsi S. virginidari S. yonahlossee
ANT. segment ratio
1:2:3:6 (7) 1:1.75:2:3 1:2:4.5:12:5 1:2:3:9
outer edge of mucro outer with 17-20, outer smooth, outer weakly
with 2-3 teeth inner with 6-8 inner with 15 inner with 8-9
inner with 3-5 slight crenulations
TYPES: Holotype (9), allotype ( ) and 19 paratypes in alcohol; 6 para-
types on slides. Holotype, allotype and 16 paratypes deposited in the En-
tomology Museum, Michigan State University; 2 paratypes in alcohol de-
posited in the Entomology Museum, the University of Georgia at Athens.
Collection data: South Carolina, Barnwell County, Savannah River Plant,
site of old Ellenton, Road 3 at railroad crossing, on Allium vineale L., 12-
XI-1980, R. J. Snider, collector. In addition, numerous juvenile individuals
were taken at the type site and in Barnwell County, Savannah River Plant,
Lee Road at railroad crossing, in grass and on Allium vineale, 12-XI-1980,
R. J. Snider, collector. Those specimens are deposited at Michigan State
REMARKS: This species was collected on a bright, warm (23.30-250C) day.
Both habitats were in open, dry areas, with sparse grass mixed with Allium
vineale L. The dominant numbers within the population were subadults. It
is my belief that the species overwinters as subadults and commences re-
production of the next generation in the spring.
Special thanks are extended to Dr. J. Whitfield Gibbons and Mrs. Karen
Patterson of the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory of the University of
Georgia, for making possible a collecting trip to the localities described.
Thanks are offered to Dr. D. A. Crossley, Jr. and the Department of En-
tomology, University of Georgia at Athens for the use of facilities. Also
thanks are offered to Drs. Kenneth A. Christiansen and Peter F. Bellinger
for reviewing the manuscript. Field collecting was carried out under the
auspices of Contract DE-AC09-76SR00819 between the U. S. Department of
Energy and the University of Georgia.

BANKS, N. 1899. The Smynthuridae of Long Island, New York. Jour. New
York Ent. Soc. 7: 193-7.

424 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

CHRISTIANSEN, K. A., AND P. F. BELLINGER. 1980-81. The Collembola of
North America North of the Rio Grande, Grinnell College, Grinnell,
IA. 1322 p.
MAYNARD, E. A. 1951. A Monograph of the Collembola or Springtails of
New York State. Comstock Publ. Co., Ithaca, N.Y. 339 p.
WRAY, D. L. 1948. Some new species and varieties of Collembola from
North Carolina. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 43: 44-53.
.1967. Some new North American Collembola. Ent. News. 78:


Department of Environmental and Forest Biology
State University of New York
College of Environmental Science and Forestry
Syracuse, NY 13210 USA

Observations on the nesting behaviors of 11 species of Pompilidae made
in southern Florida are presented. Two of the species, Priocnemis sp. (pos-
sibly new) and Poecilopompilus a. algidus, are reported for the first time.
Priocnemis sp. and Anoplius cylindricus hunted Arctosa and Geolycosa
spiders, respectively, and used the spiders' burrows for nests. Tachypompilus
f. ferrugineus, Anoplius apiculatus autumnalis, A. marginalis, A. relatives,
A. bequaerti, and A. stenotus captured lycosid spiders on or near the sand
surface. Sericopompilus apicalis, Episyron conterminus posters and
Poecilopompilus a. algidus provisioned nests with web-spinning araneid
spiders. Poecilopompilus algidus searched for prey in high vegetation in late
afternoon and early evening and lined its cell and covered its entrance with
dried grasses and pine needles.

Se presentan observaciones hechas en la region sur de la Florida sobre el
comportamiento de nidificaci6n de 11 species de Pompilidae. Dos de estas
species, Priocnemis sp. (posiblemente nueva), y Poecilopompilus a. algidus,
se reportan por primera vez. Las species Priocnemis y Anoplius cylindricus
casaron las arafias Arctosa y Geolycosa, respectivamente, y usaron las
madrigueras de las arafias como nidos. Tachympoilus f. ferrugineus, Anoplius
spiculatus autumnalis, A. marginalis, A. relatives, A. bequaerti, y A. stenotus
capturaron unas araias lycosidas sobre o cerca de la superficie de la arena.
Sericopompilus apicalis, Episyron conterminus posters, y Poecilopmpilus a.
algidus proveyeron nidos con las arafias araneidas que hacen telarafias.
Poecilopompilus algidus buscaron sus press en vegetacion alta por las
tardes, y por las mafianas temprano, forrando sus celdillas, y cubriendo sus
entradas con pastos secos y agujas de pino.

Kurczewski: Nesting Behavior of Pompilids


Although nesting observations have been published for many species of
spider-wasps occurring in Florida, only a few species have been studied and
described in detail. The most comprehensive such study is that for Anoplius
(Pompilinus) fraternus (Banks) (Evans et al. 1955). Krombein and Evans
(1954, 1955) published brief notes on 3 species of Anoplius, including
fraternus, in their studies on Floridian wasps. Evans and Yoshimoto (1962)
reported briefly on several species from Florida in their comprehensive
treatment of the ecology and nesting behavior of the Pompilidae from the
northeastern United States. Krombein (1964) presented observations made
in Highlands and De Soto Counties on 5 species of spider-wasps belonging
to 3 genera. Kurczewski (1963) recorded new pompilid prey records, with
accompanying observations, for 5 species. Kurczewski and Kurczewski
(1968a, b, 1973) listed new host species of spiders for a number of
pompilids from Florida.
Nesting spider-wasps are often difficult to find and observe. Most species
are solitary and only a few tend to aggregate. To complicate making ob-
servations, some pompilids do not construct their own burrows but instead
use the spider's burrow for a nest. The purpose of the present study was to
investigate the nesting behaviors of some of the species that have escaped
observation, as well as to verify and complement previous studies on cer-
tain species that occur in Florida.

A total of 11 species of spider-wasps were observed and studied during
various facets of their nesting behavior. Two of the species, Priocnemis
(Priocnemis) sp., possibly new, and Poecilopompilus a. algidus (Smith)
were observed for the first time. In addition, the following species of
pompilids were collected and documented as belonging to the winter wasp
fauna of Florida: Priocnessus nebulosus (Dahlbom), Priocnemis (Pri-
ocnemis) cornica (Say), Phanagenia bombycina (Cresson), Ageniella
(Ameragenia) salti (Banks), Aporus niger (Cresson), Evagetes mohave
(Banks), Aporinellus medianus Banks, Aporinellus taeniatus (Kohl) (2
color forms) and Paracyphononyx funereus (Lepeletier).
The majority of observations and collections were made at the Archbold
Biological Station, Lake Placid, Highlands County, and a lesser number, in
De Soto County along the Peace River near Arcadia. Specimens were col-
lected between 30 December 1972 and 2 May 1973, and behavioral observa-
tions were made from 10 March to 2 May 1973. The species of Pompilidae,
whose nesting behaviors are described, are treated below in a phylogenetic
sequence following Krombein (1979). The wasp and spider specimens, which
bear associated ethology note numbers P-S1 to P-S28, have been deposited
in the SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry (Pompilidae),
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University (Araneidae), and
University of Florida (Lycosidae) collections.

Priocnemis sp., possibly new
A female was observed searching for prey at the edge of a grassy field

426 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

bordering low flatwoods at the Archbold Biological Station. She walked on
the sand, continuously tapped her antennae, and periodically sampled the
sand with the mandibles and forelegs. Her movements were noticeably more
rapid in sunlight than during cloud cover. She raised her wings at about a
450 angle and flicked them incessantly when walking. Periodically, she would
lower the wings over the dorsum, pause, and dig alternately with the fore-
legs in areas of sand with dried litter and debris. If unsuccessful she would
back out, pause, and clean the antennae with the forelegs. After 1.5 hours
of unsuccessful searching she dug into a small, conical mound of sand, en-
tered a small burrow, and closed herself inside. She remained below for
longer than an hour, and with her inside, I began to excavate the burrow.
The burrow, 3 mm in diameter, proceeded downward at a slight angle for
1 cm and then gave rise to a burrow of the same diameter running hori-
zontal to the sand surface for 2 cm (Fig. la). At the end of the horizontal
burrow I collected a live S Arctosa sp., possibly furtiva Gertsch (Lycosidae)
(P-S2), facing head toward the main burrow. The main burrow proceeded
downward for an additional 1.5 cm and then went horizontally for 2 cm.
The horizontal portion of the burrow enlarged to 4 mm in diameter. The
burrow then narrowed to 2.5 mm and plunged almost vertically downward.
The wasp was collected at a point where the burrow went downward (Fig.
la). She was facing head upward, and was in the process of closing her
nest. The burrow, tightly packed with damp sand, proceeded downward for
an additional 6 cm where it terminated in an oval cell, 4 x 6 mm. The cell
contained a paralyzed, 9 Arctosa sp., possibly furtiva Gertsch (P-S1) fac-
ing head outward and dorsum up (see Table 1 for weights of wasps and
prey). The wasp's egg had been placed on the spider's abdomen.

Sericopompilus apicalis (Say)
More than 20 females of this species were observed hunting for prey on
a sandy firetrail bisecting a slash pine-turkey oak forest on the Archbold
property. The hunting patterns of the individual females varied somewhat
but usually included searching on upright vegetation, including both short
flights and walking on the plants themselves, and investigating webs among
the vegetation, especially those made by orbweavers.
Prey capture by the wasps was observed 3 times. A small, unidentified
jumping-spider (Salticidae) was captured on vegetation, after which the
female flew to the ground with the prey, bent her abdomen underneath, and
stung the spider at least 2 or 3 times in the underside of the cephalothorax.
She then grasped it with the mandibles and flew away. A second wasp flew
at an immature Eriophora sp. (Araneidae) (P-S3) (Table 1) at the end of
a strand of silk attached between 2 branches. The spider dropped to the
ground, paying out a thread of silk in the process, and remained motionless
with its legs tucked in tightly. The wasp pursued the spider by flying down-
ward and stung it on the ground in the manner described above. A third
female pursued an adult & Eustala anastera (Walckenaer) (Araneidae)
(P-S4), minus its fourth right leg, on vegetation at the end of a thread of
silk near an orb web. The spider dropped to the ground and stinging took
place as described above. A fourth wasp was captured after landing on the
sand with an Eriophora ravilla (C. L. Koch), & (P-S5).

Kurczewski: Nesting Behavior of Pompilids




Fig. 1. Nests of Priocnemis sp. (a), Poecilopompilus a. algidus (b), and
Anoplius cylindricus (c), as viewed from the side. Stippled portion of burrow
is sand-filled. Scale beside Ic refers to Figs. la-c. Drawing (a) depicts S
Arctosa sp., possibly furtiva (P-S2) in lateral side burrow, wasp filling bur-
row, and paralyzed 9 Arctosa sp., possibly furtiva (P-S1) in cell; (b) grass
and pine needles on entrance and lining bottom of cell, and paralyzed S
Eriophora ravilla (P-S18) in cell; (c) wasp filling burrow, turret surround-
ing Geolycosa entrance, and paralyzed G. sp., either micanopy or hubbelli,
immature (P-S25) in cell.

Females of S. apicalis were not observed nesting because they flew away
with the spider immediately after prey capture. However, several wasps
were noted entering burrows, holes, and crevices in the sand in an apparent
search for a nest-site. I followed one female for over 10 m, as she searched


428 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981


Weights (mg)
Species of Pompilidae N Wasp Spider

Priocnemis sp. 1 5.1 8.9
Sericopompilus apicalis 3 56-84 (x= 67.0) 46-109 (= 87.7)
Episyron conterminus posters 12 13-41 (= 23.2) 19-95 (K=43.4)
Poecilopompilus a. algidus 1 284 679
Tachypompilus f. ferrugineus 1 278 1,067
Anoplius apiculatus autumnalis 1 13 11
A. marginalis 1 99 401
A. relatives 1 81 501
A. cylindricus 4 12-26 (x= 20.0) 22-35 (x=26.6)
A. bequaerti 1 36 49
A. stenotus 1 24 52

in a horizontal mole tunnel after which she exited by means of a second
opening and flew away.

Episyron conterminus posters (Fox)

One female was observed attempting to nest in hard-packed clay-sand
alongside the main road into the Archbold Biological Station. She attempted
4 burrows in 35 minutes but none of them reached completion. She dug in
one place for 7 minutes and then abandoned the incomplete, 2-cm long
burrow. These observations coupled with an examination of the extensive
foretarsal digging comb suggest that loose sand is a requisite for successful
nesting in this species.
Another female digging in loose sand of a firetrail at the Archbold Station
exhibited atypical behavior. She dug for nearly 4 minutes, after which she
backed out, turned away from the excavation, and began to close the burrow!
After filling the burrow nearly flush with the sand surface, she spent 1.5
minutes hammering the sand fill in the entrance with the end of the ab-
domen, and then went elsewhere and began a new burrow. She dug at her
second excavation for nearly 5 minutes and then exhibited the same be-
havior, only this time she hammered the sand fill in the entrance for almost
3 minutes before moving elsewhere. Finally, she stayed in one place and
completed a burrow.
Twelve females were observed nesting to completion at the Archbold
Biological Station. All wasps occupied firetrails in the same habitat as that
described under S. apicalis. These females exhibited species-typical digging
components (Kurczewski 1963). Orientation, prey transport, and nest entry
were similar to that described previously (Kurczewski and Kurczewski
1973). Wasps with spiders weighing from 0.9 to 1.3 times as much as them-
selves invariably carried their prey in a series of flights, whereas those with
prey weighing from 1.6 to 6.8 times as much as themselves transported the
spiders to the nest on the ground. During ground transport the spiders were
released by the wasps several times, interspersed with reconnaissance trips
between the released spiders and the burrow entrances. The 2 largest spiders

Kurczewski: Nesting Behavior of Pompilids


became wedged in the entrances for 1-2 minutes as they were being pulled in
by their spinnerets by the wasps.
All 12 nests were excavated and examined for structure, dimensions, and
contents. Tumuli in front of the entrances averaged 5.6 (4.0-9.5) cm long,
3.6 (2.5-5.0) cm wide, and 0.75 (0.6-1.0) cm high. The burrows, 6-8 (i = 6.8)
mm wide at the entrances, narrowed inside to diameters of 4-6 (i = 5.0)
mm. They were single-celled, mostly straight or occasionally curved, and
averaged 7.3 (5.9-10.0) cm long, including the terminus. The cells, distinctly
ovoidal in some nests but simply extensions of the burrows in others, were
located at depths of from 3.5 to 7.0 (x = 4.9) cm and ranged from 8 to 10
(x = 8.9) mm long and from 5 to 7 (x = 6.0) mm wide.
The prey Araneidae were as follows: Acacesia hamata (Hentz) (1 adult
9, 1 immature 2) (P-S12, 16); Larinia direct (Hentz) (1 adult 9)
(P-S6); Eriophora sp., possibly ravilla (C. L. Koch) (2 immature 2)
(P-S11, 15); and Eustala anastera (Walkenaer) (4 adult 2, 2 immature
9, 1 immature S) (P-S7-10, 13, 14, 17) (Table 1). One spider (P-S10)
had the first right leg missing at the coxal-trochanter joint.
The spiders were stored in the cells in a head-outward position, either
dorsal-side-upward or on the side. They exhibited various stages of paral-
ysis. The majority of the prey moved their anterior legs when taken from
the cells.
The egg was placed laterally and obliquely in the species-typical posi-
tion, one-third to halfway from the base of the spider's abdomen (Krombein
1953, 1955, Evans and Yoshimoto 1962, Kurczewski 1963). Eggs were affixed
rather loosely to either the right (7) or left (5) side. In cells where the
spider was positioned on its side, the egg was attached to the opposite side
of the abdomen. Seven females weighing 38, 33, 33, 22, 18, 18 and 13 mg laid
eggs measuring 2.1, 2.4, 2.3, 1.8, 1.9, 1.8 and 1.6 mm long, respectively, in-
dicating a correlation between size of wasp and egg.
Two satellite-flies (Sarcophagidae) reared from the nests of this species
were identified as Metopia lateralis (Macq.) and Senotainia rubriventris

Poecilopompilus a. algidus (Smith)
Two females were observed hunting for prey at the Archbold Biological
Station. One wasp hunted in the habitat described under S. apicalis. She
searched for prey at 1630 (E.S.T.) in a slash pine, 10 m above the ground
surface, by flying from branch to branch and investigating the lower por-
tion of the tree. The second wasp was observed searching for spiders on the
main grounds of the Station. She was first seen at 1735 (E.S.T.) on a scrub
oak, 3-5 m above ground level. She then flew into a nearby laurel oak 10 m
above ground surface and walked rather slowly on the vegetation while
flicking her wings. Interspersedly she flew from one branch to another, re-
maining in the periphery and never entering the interior of the tree until
she had reached a height of 20 m.
A third female was observed nesting at the Station between 1630 and
1730 (E.S.T.) on a firetrail just off the main road. The wasp constructed a
burrow in the shade in bare sand amongst dried pine needles. She used the
mandibles to break the sand crust and then used the forelegs alternately to

Florida Entomologist 64 (3)

September, 1981

remove the loosened sand. The wings were held flat on the dorsum during
burrow construction but when I approached closely the female would pause
and raise the wings to a 45-600 angle above the dorsum. As the wasp backed
out with the sand loads, her antennae tapped the ground continuously. She
removed the sand to distances of 10-13 cm, then reentered the burrow
throwing sand backward. Occasionally, she used her mandibles to remove
pine needles from the area. The rapidity of her movements increased notice-
ably as she dug deeper and her burrow neared completion.
Her prey, an adult 9 Eriophora ravilla (C. L. Koch) (Araneidae)
(P-S18), had been placed on a plant, 8 cm above the ground and 1.2 m from
the nest entrance, at the edge of a shrubby area. The wasp flew to her prey
twice during burrow construction and, after the first flight, moved the
spider to within 0.8 m of her entrance. She never flew directly to the prey
but landed nearby on the shrubbery and then walked slowly downward to
the spider, with the wings raised obliquely. After the second visit, the fe-
male began pulling the prey backwards on the ground over and under grasses
and other vegetation. During transport, she held the spider with the mandi-
bles by the base of a hind femur. The wasp released the prey on its side,
22 cm from the entrance, walked to her nest, entered, and began digging
rapidly. She threw sand backwards with the forelegs more vigorously
(jerkedly) than before, her entire body thrusting upward and downward as
she moved forward and backward near her burrow. Her head was held
somewhat downward as she removed the final loads of sand from the bur-
row. After 43 minutes of digging, the female began leveling the sand sur-
rounding the entrance. She then picked up pine needles and pieces of other
dried vegetation with the mandibles and pulled these backward into the
burrow. After 3 such entering with debris, the wasp walked to the spider,
grasped it as described above, and dragged it closer to the entrance. She
released the prey at a distance of 8 cm from the entrance, walked to the
nest, entered, and exited head first. She walked to the prey, grasped it as
before, pulled it to the entrance, and then released it. She then grasped the
spider by its spinnerets with her mandibles and pulled it inside the nest.
She reappeared in the entrance 50 seconds later and began backing into the
nest with pine needles and other vegetation in her mandibles. She then
filled the burrow by raking sand backwards with alternate strokes of the
forelegs. The female went both above and below the entrance to a distance
of 12 cm in order to obtain loose sand. As she backed into the burrow, the
wasp hammered the sand with the end of the abdomen. Every now and then
the female turned and examined the amount of fill. After filling flush, the
wasp began to throw debris backward onto the filled entrance with the fore-
legs and, with the mandibles, she placed dried pine needles on the area. The
closure took 14 minutes.
The nest was constructed in hard-packed sand mixed with humus and
containing many rootlets. The entrance to the nest was 12 mm in diameter
and the burrow narrowed slightly to 11 mm. The burrow was 8.3 cm long,
including cell length (Fig. Ib), and the cell, 6.4 cm deep beneath the sur-
face, including height. The cell was 22 mm long, 14 mm wide, and the floor
was lined with dried pine needles and grass. The spider was placed in the
cell in a head-outward position on its left side (Table 1). The wasp's egg,


Kurczewski: Nesting Behavior of Pompilids 431

5 mm long and 1.25 mm wide, was affixed laterally and obliquely to the right
side of the spider's abdomen, near the base (Fig. 2).

Tachypompilus f. ferrugineus (Say)
A female was observed dragging a large Lycosa backward across a
narrow, sandy trail surrounded by palmetto at the Archbold Biological Sta-
tion. Transport was slow and halting, the wasp grasping a base of one of
the spider's hind coxae with her mandibles. The spider, an adult 9 L.
timuqua Wallace (Lycosidae) (P-S28) (Table 1), was, at times, held in a
semi-perpendicular position.
Anoplius (Arachnophroctonus) apiculatus autumnalis (Banks)
A female was observed pursuing a spider on the sand flats near the Peace
River at Arcadia. She caught the spider, stung it once in the cephalothorax,

/ '

/ I


Fig. 2. Female of Poecilopompilus algidus and its prey, 9 Eriophora
ravilla (P-S18), showing position of wasp's egg. Scale (mm) to left refers
to both specimens. (Photograph by Fred E. Lohrer).


Florida Entomologist 64 (3)

September, 1981

and paused and cleaned herself. She then grasped one of the spider's fore-
legs with the mandibles, straddled the prey, and ran forward on the ground.
She released the spider 3 times on the sand, manipulated it with the mandi-
bles, and then rubbed the underside and tip of her abdomen over the dorsum
of the prey, especially its abdomen. After a 1.3 m-long journey of forward
prey transport, the wasp carried the spider beneath a low plant, released it
in the shade, and exhibited the same behavior for an additional 45 seconds.
The wasp then abandoned the spider, an immature Lycosa ceratiola Gertsch
and Wallace (Lycosidae) (P-S19) (Table 1), and began searching else-

Anoplius (Arachnophroctonus) marginalis (Banks)
In a cattle pasture behind the sand flats at Arcadia a female chased a
spider from a hole in the sand beneath leaves. She pursued it, caught it,
stung it in the cephalothorax, and then walked away 20 cm and cleaned
herself. She returned to the spider, straddled it, and stung it again in the
underside of the cephalothorax. She then walked to the front of the prey
and, with her own mouthparts, manipulated the spider's mouthparts for
35 seconds, otherwise remaining perfectly motionless. Shortly thereafter,
several small red ants began examining and eventually walking on the
spider. The wasp, after circling the prey several times at a distance, aban-
doned it, and began hunting elsewhere. The spider was identified as an im-
mature Lycosa sp., possibly miami Wallace (Lycosidae) (P-S20) (Table 1).
After 55 minutes, the paralyzing effect of the wasp's venom started to
disappear and the spider began to move its legs rhythmically. At first, the
first and second right legs moved in unison about once every 1-2 seconds.
After 6 hours of being kept in a vial, the spider had recovered sufficiently
to walk around.

Anoplius (Arachnophroctonus) relatives (Fox)
On the main east-west firetrail bisecting sand pine scrub habitat at the
Archbold Biological Station, a female was captured while transporting her
prey backward on the ground. The wasp grasped the base of the spider's
second right leg with the mandibles and pulled it backward with some dif-
ficulty. The spider was an adult 9 Lycosa lenta (Hentz) (Lycosidae)
(P-S21) (Table 1).

Anoplius (Pompilinus) cylindricus (Cresson)
Four females were observed during various facets of their nesting cycle,
3 at Arcadia in a pasture behind the sand flats and one at the Archbold
Station on an overgrown footpath in slash pine-turkey oak habitat. At
Arcadia, one wasp and her prey were collected after the female had flushed
the spider from its burrow and had stung it. Later, at this locality, another
female was observed searching in small holes and occasionally digging
therein. She became very excited at one entrance surrounded by a turret
but the wasp was too large to enter. Finally, she entered a larger burrow
and, a few seconds later, a spider ran out onto the sand surface. The wasp
followed and, after a chase of a few cm, pounced upon it, and stung it in the


Kurczewski: Nesting Behavior of Pompilids


cephalothorax. The wasp made no attempt to transport the spider for sev-
eral minutes, after which I collected the pair.
Later, at Arcadia, a female was seen attacking a spider on the sand
surface, 3 cm from the entrance to the spider's burrow. She stung it twice
in quick succession in the underside of the cephalothorax and then pulled it
backward into its burrow by the spinnerets. The female reappeared in the
entrance 14 minutes later and pulled sand into the burrow with the forelegs.
I captured the wasp prior to completion of the final closure. The spider's
burrow, surrounded by a conspicuous turrent of sand and debris, went al-
most straight downward for 4.7 cm. At the bottom and off to one side was a
chamber, 10 mm long, containing the spider. The prey was positioned in the
chamber head outward and on its side. The wasp's egg was attached to the
spider's abdomen.
At the Archbold Biological Station a female was seen running excitedly
on sand and mixed leaf and pine needle litter, flicking her wings and tapping
her antennae. Suddenly she plunged into an open Geolycosa burrow and, 22
minutes later, was observed breaking down the walls of the burrow with the
mandibles and forelegs and hammering this sand into place with the end of
the abdomen. The burrow was 6.5 mm wide at the entrance and narrowed
inside to 6.0 mm (Fig. Ic). The entrance was surrounded by a turret, 7 mm
high, which contained small pieces of leaves and sand bound together with
silk. The burrow plunged straight downward for 3 cm but then bent slightly
to one side and continued downward at this same angle. Although the bottom
third of the burrow was filled with sand, the sand was loose and the burrow
was easy to follow. The paralyzed spider was found in an ovoidal enlarge-
ment off one side of the burrow at a depth of 7.1 cm. It was positioned head
outward and ventral-side-upward. The wasp's egg was affixed to the spider's
abdomen, laterally and somewhat obliquely and less than halfway from the
In the 4 examples cited above the spider was an immature Geolycosa sp.,
either micanopy Wallace or hubbelli Wallace (Lycosidae) (P-S22-25) (Table

Anoplius (Pompilinus) bequaerti (Dreisbach)
On a firetrail at the Archbold Biological Station, one wasp had left her
spider, dorsal-side-upward, on the sand and had begun to excavate a burrow
nearly 1 m away. The spider was determined as an immature Schizocosa sp.
(Lycosidae) (P-S27) (Table 1).

Anoplius (Pompilinus) stenotus (Banks)
One female was collected behind the sand flats at Arcadia transporting a
spider backward on the ground, holding the base of a hindleg of the prey
with the mandibles. The spider was identified as an immature Lycosa sp.
(Lycosidae) (P-S26) (Table 1).

Unfortunately, a name is not available for the species of Priocnemis
which was studied. The species is related to P. notha (Cresson), which also

434 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

occurs in open areas and preys primarily upon lycosid spiders (Krombein
1979). Whether or not the practice of hunting small Arctosa (Lycosidae)
spiders in their burrows and then using the spider's burrow for a nest rep-
resents species-typical behavior is unknown. Whether or not this species at
times might attack the accompanying male spider in the burrow is also un-
known. Such behavior would be efficient from the standpoint of time and
energy conservation, yet pompilid wasps prefer to hunt and provision with
female spiders (Kurczewski and Kurczewski 1968a, b, 1972, 1973).
Sericopompilus apicalis hunts and stores a variety of spiders belonging
to the families Salticidae, Thomisidae, Anyphaenidae, Oxyopidae and
Araneidae (Krombein 1979). The observations recorded herein do not ex-
tend this range in prey variability, but the observations made on the diverse
methods of hunting and prey capture serve to underscore this variability. In
all cases prey transport by females of S. apicalis involved a long flight from
the point of capture to a suitable nesting site. The females can, therefore,
use different hunting and nesting areas.
Episyron conterminus posters (Fox) has been studied considerably
(Krombein 1979). My studies on the nesting behavior of this species provide
new information on nest-site selection and structure and dimensions of the
nests. The araneids Acacesia hamata, Larinia direct and Eriophora sp.,
possibly ravilla, extend the range of prey genera for this species of pompilid.
Metopia lateralis and Senotainia rubriventris (both Sarcophagidae: Milto-
gramminae) were confirmed as parasitoids of E. conterminus posters. At
which point females of this pompilid switch from ground to flight transport
is significant in view of the total lack of such information on other species
in the family. Similarly, the disparity in the sizes of prey spiders (19-95
mg) is striking. Some wasps, in fact, used prey smaller than themselves
(spider-wasp weight ratio, 0.9:1), whereas others stored spiders of con-
siderably larger size (4.1, 6.8:1 ratios). In one of the higher ratios the
wasp amputated the spider's right foreleg at the coxal-trochanter joint.
The observations on Poecilopompilus a. algidus are important because
they are the first for this species from North America and they reveal sig-
nificant behavioral traits which serve to separate this species from a more
common Nearctic species, P. interruptus (Say). The observations on the
hunting behavior of P. algidus indicate that the species searches for large
orb-weavers in high vegetation, sometimes extending into tall pines and
hardwoods. All of the wasps were observed between 1630 and 1730 (E.S.T.),
suggesting that this species is a late afternoon or, perhaps crepuscular,
hunter and nester.
The fact that the wings are not flicked continuously during burrow con-
struction may be a genus-typical trait as P. interruptus likewise keeps the
wings on the dorsum or raises and holds them at about a 450 angle, unless
disturbed (Kurczewski and Kurczewski 1968a). The noticeable increase in
the rapidity of a digging P. algidus' movements as her burrow nears com-
pletion has also been observed in P. i. interruptus in eastern Kansas (per-
sonal observation).
The utilization of large orb-weaving spiders by P. a. algidus supports
studies of other Nearctic Poecilopompilus (Krombein 1979). Lining the pro-
visioning cell with dried grasses and pine needles is an unusual behavior for

Kurczewski: Nesting Behavior of Pompilids


a pompilid and one which should be confirmed via additional observation to
ascertain whether this is a species-typical or habitat-related behavior.
Hammering the sand into the burrow with the tip of the abdomen during
final closure in P. algidus conforms with the final closing behavior of P.
interrupts (Bugbee 1939). Placing dried pine needles on the area of the
fill following final closure is a rather unique behavior for a pompilid.
Interestingly, a movie shown on television on 9 January 1973 entitled
"The Untamed World" and featuring scenes from the Florida Everglades
revealed a large black and red pompilid which appeared to be P. algidus
capturing and preying upon a large orb-weaving spider, Nephila clavipes.
No other pompilid of the size and color of P. algidus is known to prey upon
large araneids in Florida.
Lycosa timuqua Wallace (Lycosidae) is a new host species for Tachy-
pompilus f. ferrugineus. Other host records for this species include primarily
large Lycosa spiders (Krombein 1979).
The female of Anoplius apiculatus autumnalis which captured a small
Lycosa ceratiola and then abandoned it exhibited an unusual behavior dur-
ing which she rubbed her abdomen on the dorsum of the prey. Members of
this species of pompilid have been observed capturing and then abandoning
prey, either after rejecting it, perhaps for size reasons, or after briefly feed-
ing upon it (Evans et al. 1953, Evans and Yoshimoto 1962, Kurczewski and
Kurczewski 1973). This facet of the behavior of A. apiculatus should be in-
vestigated further to disclose the size limitations in prey and feeding dura-
tion and periodicity.
Anoplius marginalis prefers to hunt rather large lycosid spiders
(Krombein 1979). The record of its using Lycosa sp., possibly miami, under-
lines this fact. Gwynne (1979) has discussed the ecology of A. marginalis
in reference to its prey preferences and whether or not the females con-
struct their own burrows.
Anoplius relatives, a related species, has a broader range in prey selec-
tion in association with a wider range of habitat types than A. marginalis
(Krombein 1979, Gwynne 1979). My record of Lycosa lenta as prey of A.
relatives falls within this spectrum.
The detailed observations on the hunting behavior of Anoplius cylindricus
confirm that the species captures Geolycosa (Lycosidae) spiders on the sand
surface or within underground burrows built by the spider. In either case
the spider's burrow is renovated and used as a nest by the wasp. These ob-
servations confirm those made by Gwynne (1979). Gwynne (1979) com-
mented on the ecological narrowness and restricted habitat of A. cylindricus.
The fact that only Geolycosa spiders (hubbelli, micanopy, rafaelana,
wrightii) have been taken as prey during 10 separate observations by
Gwynne (1979) and by me (Kurczewski and Kurczewski 1968a, 1973) sub-
stantiates this narrow prey preference.
The host records of Lycosa sp. and Schizocosa sp., both immature
Lycosidae, for Anoplius stenotus and A. bequaerti fall in line with previous
records of immature lycosids as prey of these species (Krombein 1964,
Krombein and Evans 1955, Kurczewski and Kurczewski 1973). In southern
Florida these species seem to fill the niche of provisioning with small, im-
mature lycosids in contrast to those species such as Tachypompilus fer-

436 Florida Entomologist 64(3) September, 1981

rugineus, Anoplius marginalis and A. relatives, which utilize larger, often
adult female lycosids.

I am deeply indebted to the late Richard Archbold and his staff, par-
ticularly James Lane and Fred Lohrer, for providing the excellent facilities
of the Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, FL, where many of my
studies were made. I am grateful to Richard C. Miller for collecting some of
the spider-wasps in December 1972 and to Howard E. Evans, Colorado State
University, for identifying Anoplius stenotus and A. bequaerti and for in-
forming me that Priocnemis sp. is possibly new. R. J. Gagne, IIBIII
(USDA), H. Levi, Museum of Comparative Zoology, and H. K. Wallace,
University of Florida, kindly provided identifications for the Sarcophagidae,
Araneidae and Lycosidae, respectively.

BUGBEE, R. E. 1939. Some notes on the nesting habits of Batazonus navus
Cresson. J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 12: 87-90.
EVANS, H. E., K. V. KROMBEIN, AND C. M. YOSHIMOTO. 1955. An ethological
study of Anoplius (Pompilinus) fraternus (Banks) (Hymenoptera,
Pompilidae). Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 50: 77-84.
--, C. S. LIN, AND C. M. YOSHIMOTO. 1953. A biological study of
Anoplius apiculatus autumnalis (Banks) and its parasite, Evagetes
mohave (Banks) (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae). J. New York Ent. Soc.
61: 61-78.
AND C. M. YOSHIMOTO. 1962. The ecology and nesting behavior of
the Pompilidae (Hymenoptera) of the northeastern United States.
Misc. Publ. Ent. Soc. Amer. 3: 67-119.
GWYNNE, D. T. 1979. Nesting biology of the spider wasps (Hymenoptera:
Pompilidae) which prey on burrowing wolf spiders (Aranae: Ly-
cosidae, Geolycosa). J. Natur. Hist. 13: 681-92.
KROMBEIN, K. V. 1953. Biological and taxonomic observations on the wasps
in a coastal area of North Carolina. Wasmann J. Biol. 10: 257-341.
1955. Some notes on the wasps of Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina,
1954 (Hymenoptera, Aculeata). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 57:
-- 1964. Results of the Archbold Expenditions. No. 87. Biological notes
on some Floridian wasps (Hymenoptera, Aculeata). American Mus.
Nov. 2201: 1-27.
-- 1979. Pompilidae, Pages 1523-70 In Krombein, K. V., et al., eds.,
Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Vol. 2, Apocrita
(Aculeata). Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington DC.
-- AND H. E. EVANS. 1954. A list of wasps collected in Florida, March
29 to April 5, 1953, with biological annotations (Hymenoptera,
Aculeata). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 56: 225-36.
-- 1955. An annotated list of wasps collected in Florida, March 20 to
April 3, 1954 (Hymenoptera, Aculeata). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington
57: 223-35.
KURCZEWSKI, F. E. 1963. Some new pompilid prey records from southern
Florida (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Florida Ent. 46: 209-13.
- AND E. J. KURCZEWSKI. 1968a. Host records for some North Amer-
ican Pompilidae (Hymenoptera) with a discussion of factors in prey
selection. J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 41: 1-33.

Kurczewski: Nesting Behavior of Pompilids


- 1968b. Host records for some North American Pompilidae
(Hymenoptera). First Supplement. J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 41: 367-82.
-- 1972. Host records for some North American Pompilidae, Second
Supplement. Tribe Pepsini. J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 45: 181-93.
.1973. Host records for some North American Pompilidae (Hy-
menoptera). Third Supplement. Tribe Pompilini. J. Kansas Ent. Soc.
46: 65-81.
The untamed world (motion picture). 9 January 1973. CTV, Television
Network, Inc. John Must, Producer. 30 min., sound, color, 16 mm.



Minixi Giordani Soika is primarily a South American Neotropic eumenid
genus that may be identified by its petiolate gaster, elongate mandibles, and
presence of a sharp pretegular carina on the upper hind corner of its
pronotum. Minixi mexicanum (Saussure) is the only Middle American mem-
ber of its genus. It frequents open places in the shrub stratum of humid
woods and appears to fly at all seasons. Mexicanum herewith is cited for the
first time from the United States.

Minixi Giordani Soika es un g6nero neotropical de Eumenidae, la mayoria
de cuyas species se encuentran en Sudamdrica, siendo M. mexicanum
Saussure el inico representante meso-americano. El g6nero puede reconocerse
por el gaster peciolado, las mandibulas alargadas, y por la presencia en el
Angulo dorso-posterior del pronoto de una bien desarrollada carena pre-
tegular. Minixi mexicanum habitat lugares abiertos en el estrato arbustivo
de bosques hdmedos subtropicales y tropicales. Vuela durante todo el afio.
La especie no ha sido citada previamente de los Estados Unidos.

To earlier contributions on south Texas eumenid wasps (Porter 1975,
1978), I now add taxonomic and ecological notes on Lower Rio Grande Valley
populations of Minixi mexicanum (Saussure). Minixi recently was char-
acterized by Giordani Soika (1978) in his revision of several Neotropic
genera which belong to the Eumenes group of the solitary wasp family
The following diagnosis will separate Minixi from other eumenid genera
occurring in south Texas and nearby M6xico: head not much wider than
long; apical part of clypeus only a little shorter than the basal interocular

'Contribution No. 519, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, FL 32602 USA.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods; Biology Department, Fordham
University, Bronx, NY 10458 USA.

Florida Entomologist 64 (3)

September, 1981

part; pronotum with a conspicuous pretegular carina in its upper hind
corner, its lateral and dorsal faces not separated by a carina, its lateral face
anteriorly with a prominent carina that forms an extension of the dorso-
anterior carina; mesepisternum either more strongly convex on lower 1/2
than on upper 1/2 or with the prepectal carina well developed below; 2nd
recurrent vein always enters 2nd submarginal cell; propodeum not much
inflated, the median longitudinal sulcus not strongly impressed; 1st gastric
tergite 2.0 as long as wide at apex, parallel-sided on basal 1/4-1/3 and then
triangularly expanded apicad with the lateral margins continuing to diverge
right up to the apex, its apical rim strongly thickened, convex, and set off
anteriorly by a deep preapical transverse sulcus; 1st gastric sternite present
only near apical margin of 1st gastric segment, crescentic, much wider than
long; 2nd gastric tergite with an apical lamella.
Minixi fulfils a Neotropic distribution. It ranges from south Texas to
Argentina, Paraguay, and Brasil. It inhabits many types of lowland tropical
and subtropical evergreen or deciduous forest.

Minixi mexicanum Saussure
(Fig. 1-3)

MATERIAL EXAMINED. 3 9 and 5 : TEXAS, Hidalgo County, Bentsen
Rio Grande Valley State Park, 1 9, 6-1-1978, 1 $, 1-13-VI-1976, 1 $, 15-
VIII-1980, 1 9, 3 3, 21-XI-1977, 1 9, 27-XII-1977.
TAXONOMY. Mexicanum differs from the other species of its genus by the
following characters: 8 antenna with broad, depressed, shining tyloids on
segments 9-11; 13th S antennal segment elongate, gently arcuate, and
tapered toward the obtuse apex, which far surpasses the base of the 12th
segment; tegula impunctate; 9 clypeus shining, almost flat, with distinct
but small and sparse punctures; $ clypeus weakly and almost regularly
convex, longer than wide, its apical teeth ecarinate; 2nd gastric tergite with
rather large, sparse punctures; & 6th gastric sternite with a conspicuous
apical fringe of long, brownish yellow hairs; 8 7th sternite with a promi-
nent and percurrent median longitudinal carina.
HABITAT. Mexicanum ranges from full sun into deep shade but primarily
frequents exposed places along trails, in clearings, or at the forest edge. In
south Texas, it is associated with humid woods that are dominated by such
large trees as Celtis, Fraxinus, Salix, and Ulmus. I have collected it in gal-
lery forest along the Rio Grande and in the lush, bromeliad-hung vegetation
near waterholes. Mexicanum extends through the herb, shrub, and understory
tree strata of its community but most often perches on plants at 1-2 m above
ground level.
FLOWER RECORDS. Minixi often visits flowers of the shrubby composites,
Baccharis glutinosa Ruiz L6pez & Pav6n and B. neglecta Britton. It also
visits the blossoms of small trees, such as Condalia obovata Hooker and
Salix interior Rowlee. More rarely, it may be found on Rivina, Parthenium,
and other low herbs.
MONTHLY PHAENOLOGY. 1 9 in I, 1 $ in VI, 1 & in VIII, 1 9 and 3 $ in
XI, and 1 9 in XII.
YEARLY PHAENOLOGY. 1 & in 1976, 2 9 and 3 $ in 1977, 1 9 in 1978,
and 1 & in 1980.


Porter: Minixi

Fig. 1-3. Minixi mexicanum, 8, Bentsen Rio Grande Valley State Park,
Texas. 1) Lateral view of upper hind corner of pronotum, tegula, and part
of mesoscutum, showing pretegular ridge. 2) Ventral view of antennal seg-
ments 8-13, showing tyloids and modified last flagellomere. 3) Dorsal view of
1st gastric tergite.


Florida Entomologist 64 (3)

September, 1981

cies flies throughout the year and thus endures a wide range of tempera-
tures. On still, sunny winter days, it may begin activity when the shade
temperature has reached 230 C. In summer, Minixi continues flying up to at
least 350 C. It emerges as early as 1000 and may still be active as late as
1600, with a peak between 1300 and 1400.
GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. Giordani Soika (1978: 378-9) recorded this
species from many localities in M6xico (Tamaulipas and Sonora to Oaxaca),
as well as from Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica, PanamA, Colombia, and


ZOOGEOGRAPHY. Minixi has 3 species that occur in the warmer and wetter
regions of South America from north Argentina to Colombia. The 4th de-
scribed species, M. mexicanum, extends from south Texas to Colombia and
Trinidad. All these taxa are closely related. Minixi thus is centered in torrid
South America, but includes an important, although taxonomically not
sharply discrete, Middle American component. Other zoogeographically com-
parable (but not identical) eumenid genera that also reach south Texas are
Hypalastoroides, Pachodynerus, Monobia, and Zethus.
Minixi mexicanum thus belongs to the Middle American Neotropic biota,
an immense complex for the most part only specifically distinct from the
even larger South American Neotropic element. Many other south Texas or
north Mexican Hymenoptera fit this same pattern. Some other examples are
the ichneumonids Coccygomimus croceipes Cresson, C. punicipes Cresson,
Acrotaphus tibialis Cameron, Lymeon leucosoma Cameron, Cryptanura
compact Cresson, and C. lamentaria Cameron, the eumenids Hypalastoroides
mexicanus Saussure, Zethus montezuma Saussure, and Z. otomitus Saussure,
the vespids Brachygastra mellifica Say and Polistes instabilis Saussure, and
the sphecid Trachypus mexicanus Saussure.
PHAENOLOGY. Like many south Texas insects, Minixi mexicanum appears
sporadically and is not collected every year. It may be found at all seasons
but seems most abundant in late fall (November). Among south Texas
Eumenidae, a similar monthly phaenologic pattern is shown by the Neo-
tropic genera Hypalastoroides, Pachodynerus, and Zethus, by the mainly
Holarctic Leptochilus, and by the more nearly cosmopolitan Stenodynerus,
Parancistrocerus, and Eumenes. Other Lower Rio Grande Valley eumenids
have different monthly phaenologies. The Neotropic Monobia and the
Holarctic Euodynerus fly from March to November, the cosmopolitan Sym-
morphus has been taken only between November and March, and the
Sonoran Dolichodynerus appears exclusively from March to June.


Material covered in this study has been deposited in the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods (Division of Plant Industry, P. O. Box 1269,
Gainesville, FL 32602) and in the author's private collection (301 N. 39th
Street, McAllen, TX 78501).


Porter: Minixi


Fieldwork in south Texas was supported in 1980 by a Faculty Fellow-
ship from Fordham University, during 1973-75 and in 1979 by grants from
the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic
Society, and from 1976-77 by United States National Science Foundation
Grant DEB-75-22426. The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department has issued
permits for collecting in Bentsen Park (current permit number 1-81). Mr.
Anthony F. Cerbone of Texas A & M University has assisted me during
some of the fieldwork involved in this study.

GIORDANI SOIKA, A. 1978. Revisione degli eumenidi neotropicali apparten-
enti ai generi Eumenes Latr., Omicron (Sauss.), Pararaphiglossa
Schulth. ed affini. Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 29: 1-420.
PORTER, C. 1975. New records for Zethus from Texas. Florida Ent. 58:
1978. Ecology and taxonomy of Lower Rio Grande Valley Zethus.
Florida Ent. 61: 159-67.



The Lower Rio Grande Valley scoliid fauna includes 5 species: the
aestivally common Trielis octomaculata texensis (Saussure), Campsomeris
tolteca (Saussure), which abounds throughout the year, and the sporadically
encountered Campsomeris complete Rohwer, C. hesterae Rohwer, and C.
ephippium (Say). The Trielis seems to be of old Sonoran origin, while the
Campsomeris are Neotropic species, some of which invade Sonoran habitats.
Valley populations of T. octomaculata and C. tolteca differ in phaenology,
activity temperatures, flower selection, and habitat preference. Campsomeris
hesterae has not been recorded previously from the United States.

Cinco species de Scoliidae habitan el Valle del Bajo Rio Grande en el sur
de Texas: Trielis octomaculata texensis (Saussure), Campsomeris tolteca
(Saussure), C. complete Rohwer, C. hesterae Rohwer y C. ephippium (Say).
Trielis se encuentra con frecuencia durante el verano. Campsomeris tolteca
abunda en todos los meses del afio. Las otras species de Campsomeris
aparecen s61o esporidicamente. Trielis octomaculata parece pertenecer a una
estirpe sonorense muy antigua. Las species de Campsomeris son neotrop-
icales o neotropicales y sonorenses. Entre las poblaciones estudiadas de T.

'Contribution No. 520, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, FL 32602.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods; Biology Department, Fordham
University, Bronx, NY 10458 USA.


Florida Entomologist 64 (3)

September, 1981

octomaculata y de C. tolteca, pueden apreciarse diferencias ecol6gicas, en
factors, tales como fenologia, preferencias t6rmicas, flores visitadas, y
microambientes preferidos. Campsomeris hesterae es citada por primera vez
para los Estados Unidos.

Scoliids differ from other aculeate Hymenoptera by their longitudinally
wrinkled distal wing membrane, 3-spined & hypopygidium, and broad meso-
metasternal plate that projects over the bases of the mid and hind coxae.
They are large, hirsute, brightly patterned wasps. They often show striking
sexual dimorphism. Female scoliids spend much time underground in search
of rhizophagous scarabaeid grubs, which they attack ectoparasitically. Both
sexes avidly consume nectar, and different sympatric and synchronous taxa
diverge at least partially in floral selection.
Scoliids become most diverse in the tropics and subtropics. There they
invade many habitats from wet forests to desert and attain at least 3000 m
altitude. The North American scoliid fauna, consequently, is marginal. It
derives from Neotropic and Sonoran stocks. Four Lower Rio Grande Valley
Scoliidae are Neotropic and 1 is Sonoran. All Valley species occupy exten-
sive distributions, but 2 of the Neotropic species reach their northern limit
in Hidalgo County, Texas.

(Male of Campsomeris complete unknown)
1. Fore wing with 3 submarginal cells; 9 head and mesosoma
broadly reddish; $ 1st gastric tergite often marked with much
red in addition to black and yellow --......... ..
--- .------- ..... 1. Trielis octomaculata texensis (Saussure)
1'. Fore wing with 2 submarginal cells; 9 head and mesosoma
without reddish ground color; & 1st gastric tergite black or
black and yellow --..--. --.. -------- -------.----- -- ---. ........ .......... 2
2(1'). Females (12 antennal segments; last gastric sternite without
a triad of apical spines) -- --...-...--. ..... .......... ... 3
2'. Males (13 antennal segments; last gastric sternite with a triad
of conspicuously projecting apical spines) -------------.... -.... 6
3(2). Hind face of propodeum with dense, coarse punctation; longer
hind tibial spur acute at apex; wings uniformly black with
metallic reflections; gaster black with tergites 2 and 3 mostly
orange; body length about 40 mm ......... ---------------
----.......................... 5. Campsomeris ephippium (Say)
3'. Hind face of propodeum largely smooth and impunctate; apex
of longer hind tibial spur varying from acute to spatulate;
wings dusky or brownish with variably extensive and con-
spicuous hyaline areas; gaster marked with orange or yellow
on at least 3 tergites; body length usually under 25 mm ---.......... 4
4(3'). Pygidium with rather short, brownish black bristles; radial
and 1st submarginal cells largely glabrous, setose only an-
teriad; hind tibial spurs dark brown, the longer spur a little
spatulate at apex; pronotum and mesoscutum with white pub-
escence; pale areas of 2nd and 3rd gastric tergites mostly


Porter: Scoliidae

orange; legs black .--...--..-. .__ 2. Campsomeris tolteca (Saussure)
4'. Pygidium with long, reddish or golden brown bristles; radial
and 1st submarginal cells setose throughout; hind tibial spurs
whitish, the longer spur acute or rounded-off at apex; pro-
notum and mesoscutum with ferruginous or dull golden pub-
escence; pale areas of 2nd and 3rd gastric tergites yellow;
tarsi, and often also tibiae, brown or ferruginous ..--------......_----------. 5
5(4'). Clypeus in great part coarsely wrinkled; large punctures on
propodeal dorsum mostly adjacent; basal, 2nd submarginal,
and 1st discoidal cells extensively and conspicuously setose; no
yellow on mesosoma; gastric sternites without yellow pattern;
tibiae blackish and tarsi brown -- 3. Campsomeris complete Rohwer
5'. Clypeus broadly smooth and shining, especially mesad; large
punctures on propodeal dorsum with conspicuous smooth inter-
spaces; basal, 2nd submarginal, and 1st discoidal cells mostly
glabrous, except for a few long, peripheral setae; pronotum,
scutellum, and postscutellum; gastric sternites 2 and 3 with
yellow markings; tibiae and tarsi reddish brown-----------
------------. ------- I--- 4. Campsomeris hesterae Rohwer
6(2'). Vestiture black; wings black with metallic reflections; hind
tibial spurs black; gaster black with tergites 2 and 3 mostly
orange; 4th gastric sternite with an apical or apico-median
zone of fine, dense punctures that emit erect silky setae ------------
--.----.------------- ------ 5. Campsomeris ephippium (Say)
6'. Vestiture mostly pale; wings nearly hyaline; hind tibial spurs
white; gaster black with yellow bands on 3 or 4 tergites; 4th
gastric sternite without an apical area of fine and dense seti-
ferous punctures ..---.. .. ..------ ----- . -.-------- .-------- .- 7
7(6'). Fore wing uniformly setose; vestiture of front, vertex, and
thoracic dorsum yellowish; legs more or less extensively red-
dish brown ..-... ..-.------- -- 4. Campsomeris hesterae Rohwer
7'. Fore wing becoming prominently setose only on anterior 1/3
and no farther distad than radial cell; vestiture mostly white,
never yellow; legs black with yellow markings ------
.----. -------------- 2. Campsomeris tolteca (Saussure)

1. Trielis octomaculata texensis (Saussure)
(Fig. 1, 5)

SPECIMENS EXAMINED. 70 9 and 87 $ : TEXAS, Hidalgo County, Bentsen
Rio Grande Valley State Park, 1 $, 9-VII-1980, 1 S, 11-VII-1980, 1 9, 1 $,
14-VII-1980, 1 9,1 $, 16-VII-1980, 1 8, 18-VII-1980, 1 9, 1 $, 21-VII-1980,
1 9, 1-VIII-1980, 1 3, 20-VIII-1980, 1 9, 1 S, 21-VIII-1980, 1 9, 26-VIII-
1980, 1 9, 27-VIII-1980, 1 9, 28-VIII-1980, 2 $, 20-XI-1977; McAllen Bo-
tanical Gardens at McAllen, 2 9, 2 8, 16-V-1974, 1 S, 28-V-1975, 4 S, 1-VI-
1973, 4 9, 1-VI-1976, 1 $, 3-VI-1973, 1 8, 5-VI-1975, 2 8, 7-VI-1975, 1 $,
7-VI-1976, 2 3, 8-VI-1973, 1 8, 9-VI-1973, 1 9, 7 $, 10-VI-1973, 2 $, 11-VI-
1973, 1 9, 11-VI-1977, 3 8, 12-VI-1973, 2 9, 1 8, 12-VI-1977, 3 9, 3-VII-
1980, 4 9, 4-VII-1980, 3 9, 5-VII-1980, 3 9, 6-VII-1980, 1 9, 1 S, 2-VIII-


Florida Entomologist 64 (3)

Fig. 1-3. 1) Trielis octomaculata texensis, 8, McAllen, Texas. Fore wing
beyond basal vein, showing venation, setae, and longitudinal wrinkling of
distal membrane. 2) Campsomeris tolteca, 9, McAllen, Texas. Median por-
tion of fore wing, showing venation and setae. 3) Campsomeris complete,
9, McAllen, Texas. Stigmatic region of fore wing, showing venation and


September, 1981

Porter: Scoliidae


1980, 1 3, 22-VIII-1977, 1 9, 1 S, 27-VIII-1976, 2 9, 1 3, 27-VIII-1977,
3 9, 1 8, 28-VIII-1973, 19 9, 33 $, 27-31-VIII-1973, 1 ?, 1 S, 30-VIII-
1980, 1 9, 5 8, 31-VIII-1976, 2 3, 2-IX-1976, 1 9, 4-IX-1976, 1 9, 5-IX-
1975, 1 9, 6-IX-1976, 4 9, 8-IX-1975, 1 9, 11-IX-1975.
FLOWER RECORDS. During July and August 1980, I took 25 9 and 9 & of
T. octomaculata at flowers of 6 different herbaceous and woody plants. These
plants are listed below, according to the number of Trielis obtained from
each species.
1. Salix interior Rowlee (Salicaceae). 7 9, 7 $.
2. Ratibida columnaris D. Don (Compositae). 12 9.
3. Pluchea purpurascens Sw. (Compositae. 4 9, 1 a.
4. Heterotheca latifolia Buckl. (Compositae). 1 9.
5. Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Compositae). 1 9.
6. Croton sp. 1. (Euphorbiaceae). 1 S.
HABITAT. Trielis prefers exposed places. It is common in pioneering fields
(with grasses, Helianthus, Heterotheca, Parthenium, and Croton), in clear-
ings of Prosopis-Condalia scrub, and on Salix interior at the edge of Rio
Grande gallery woods.
MONTHLY PHAENOLOGY. 2 9 and 3 8 in V, 2 9 and 25 a in VI, 19 9
and 9 5, in VII, 35 9 and 46 $ in VIII, 8 9 and 2 8 in IX, and 2 $ in XI.
These data show that Trielis in the Lower Rio Grande Valley flies only
from May to November and becomes most numerous in the uniformly hot
period from June through September. The species may have 2 discrete gen-
erations, since no specimens were collected from 2-22 August.
TEMPERATURE AND DIEL PERIODICITY. Trielis octomaculata flies on sunny
to partly cloudy days at air temperatures between 27 and 370 C. From early
May until September, it begins activity around 0800, reaches greatest
abundance between 0900 and 1200, and becomes scarce in the afternoon.
During the cooler days of late fall, it appears to emerge progressively later,
since my only records for November are of males taken from 1400-1600.

2. Campsomeris tolteca (Saussure)
(Fig. 2, 4, 6, 12-14)

SPECIMENS EXAMINED. 97 9 and 154 $ : TEXAS, Hidalgo County, Bentsen
Rio Grande Valley State Park, 4 8, 3-1-1976, 1 $, 3-1-1981, 1 9, 3 3, 14-I-
1981, 1 3, 14-III-1977, 16 9, 10 8, 14-23-III-1981, 2 S, 1-VI-1973, 1 $, 1-VI-
1976, 1 S, 7-VII-1980, 1 9, 2 S, 10-VII-1980, 1 9, 11-VII-1980, 1 $, 14-VII-
1980, 3 9, 3 $, 16-VII-1980, 1 9, 6 5, 22-VII-1980, 1 9, 23-VII-1980, 1 9,
24-VII-1980, 1 9, 2 3, 29-VII-1980, 1 9, 31-VII-1980, 4 9, 3 8, 1-VIII-1980,
5 9, 7-VIII-1980, 1 8, 13-VIII-1980, 1 9, 5 8, 15-VIII-1980, 1 9, 7 5, 18-
VIII-1980, 4 8, 19-VIII-1980, 19, 2 S, 20-VIII-1979, 1 S, 20-VIII-1980,
1 9, 1 8, 21-VIII-1979, 1 9, 2 3, 22-VIII-1980, 2 S, 26-VIII-1980, 1 9,
2 8, 28-VIII-1980, 2 $, 29-VIII-1977, 1 8, 30-VIII-1977, 1 $, 27-XI-1980,
3 8, 29-XI-1980, 6 9, 10 $, 14-XII-1975, 4 9, 1 8, 27-XII-1975; McAllen
Botanical Gardens at McAllen, 1 $, 1-1-1918, 1 $, 4-1-1975, 1 9, 5-1-1974,
1 9, 8-1-1980, 1 $, 13-1-1980, 1 $, 15-1-1975, 1 9, 16-1-1975, 1 9, 20-1-1980,
2 $, 15-III-1976, 2 S, 16-III-1973, 1 9, 1 3, 17-III-1974, 1 9, 18-III-1973,
2 9, 1 3, 22-III-1973, 1 9, 1 8, 30-III-1975, 1 9, 31-III-1975, 1 8, 2-IV-
1975, 1 9, 3 8, 16-30-V-1974, 1 9, 1 8, 25-V-1975, 1 9, 28-V-1975, 7 S,

Florida Entomologist 64 (3)

8 9



Fig. 4-11. 4) Campsomeris tolteca, 8, McAllen, Texas. Dorsal view of 1st
gastric tergite, showing color pattern. 5) Trielis octomaculata texensis, 3,
McAllen, Texas. Dorsal view of 1st gastric tergite, showing color pattern.
6) Campsomeris tolteca, 9, McAllen, Texas. Spatulate apex of longer hind
tibial spur. 7) Campsomeris hesterae, 9, McAllen, Texas. Anterior view of
apical 1/2 of clypeus, showing sculpture and punctation. 8) Campsomeris
complete, 9, McAllen, Texas. Acute apex of longer hind tibial spur. 9)
Campsomeris complete, 9, McAllen, Texas. Anterior view of apical 1/2 of
clypeus, showing vertical wrinkling. 10) Campsomeris complete, 9, McAllen,
Texas. Median field of propodeal dorsum, showing dense punctation. 11)
Campsomeris hesterae, 9, McAllen, Texas. Median field of propodeal dorsum,
showing relatively sparse punctation.


September, 1981


Porter: Scoliidae

1-13-VI-1973, 1 3, 1-V-1976, 2 8, 3-VI-1973, 1 8, 5-VI-1975, 3 8, 6-VI-
1973, 1 8, 7-VI-1973, 1 9, 8-VI-1973, 2 9, 9-VI-1973, 1 8, 10-VI-1973, 1 9,
11-VI-1973, 1 12-VI-1976, 1 9, 19-VII-1980, 1 9, 26-VII-1980, 2 9, 2-VIII-
1980, 1 9, 12-VIII-1980, 2 3, 23-VIII-1977, 8 9, 15 3, 27-VIII-1973, 1 9,
1-IX-1975, 1 9, 2-IX-1975, 2 8, 3-IX-1975, 1 9, 4-IX-1975, 1 8, 5-IX-1975,
6-IX-1975, 1 $, 7-IX-1975, 3 9, 4 8, 8-IX-1975, 1 9, 3 3, 20-XII-1973, 5 8,
22-XII-1975, 2 9, 2 8, 23-XII-1975, 1 3, 24-XII-1974, 1 9, 24-XII-1976,
1 8, 25-XII-1975, 1 9, 24-XII-1976, 1 3, 25-XII-1975, 1 9, 26-XII-1975;
Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge near Alamo, 1 9, 2 8, 24-XII-1975.
FLOWER RECORDS. During November and December 1979, January, July,
August, November, and December 1980, and in January and March 1981, I
collected 54 9 and 80 8 of C. tolteca from 15 species of flowering plants.
These flower records are listed below, according to numbers of C. tolteca
netted from each species and to the months in which samples were taken.
1. Salix interior Rowlee (Salicaceae). 21 9, 36 8, VII, VIII, XI.
2. Teucrium cubense Jacq. (Labiatae). 17 9, 14 $, XII, I, III.
3. Aster subulatus Michx. (Compositae). 29, 99 XI, XII, I.
4. Pluchea purpurascens Sw. (Compositae). 5 9, VII, VIII.
5. Croton sp. 2 (Euphorbiaceae). 5 8, I.
6. Mikania scanden L. (Compositae). 2 9, 1 $, I.
7. Baccharis glutinosa R. &. P. (Compositae). 2 9, 1 8, XI.
8. Verbesina encelioides Cav. (Compositae). 1 9, 2 8, XII.
9. Bumelia celastrina HBK. (Sapotaceae). 3 8, VIII.
10. Lippia alba Michx. (Verbenaceae). 3 8, VIII.

12 T

Fig. 12. Habitat of Campsomeris tolteca, C. hesterae, and C. ephippium
photographed during January 1981 at Bentsen Rio Grande Valley State
Park. Serjania vines cover the fence on the left and humid Celtis woods
appears on the right. Scoliids and many other Hymenoptera abound in this
veritable flyway.


448 Florida Entomologist 64(3) September, 1981

11. Helianthus debilis Nutt. (Compositae). 1 9, 1 3, I.
12. Rhynchosia texana Turr. & Gray (Leguminosae). 1 9, 1 S, I.
13. Cissus incisa Nutt. (Vitaceae). 1 8, VIII.
14. Sarcostemma cynanchoides Decne (Asclepiadaceae). 1 9, VIII.
15. Stachys drummondii Benth. (Labiatae). 1 8, I.
HABITAT. Campsomeris tolteca is among the most pervasive and common
Lower Rio Grande Valley Hymenoptera. It occurs in both natural and dis-
turbed habitats, such as Celtis woods, gallery woods, semiarid scrub, pioneer-
ing fields, old fields, suburban gardens, and citrus orchards. It avoids only
the most densely shaded forest. Perhaps the species flies most consistently
in partially shaded thickets that are overgrown by Serjania vines, inter-
mingled with Teucrium cubense and Mikania scandens. Campsomeris tolteca
also may swarm in tall grass along trails through open woods or at the
forest edge.
MONTHLY PHAENOLOGY. 5 9 and 12 5 in I, 22 9 and 18 5 in III, 1 & in
IV, 3 9 and 6 8 in V, 4 9 and 20 & in VI, 12 9 and 15 S in VII, 28 9
and 48 & in VIII, 7 9 and 9 S in IX, 4 8 in XI, and 15 9 and 23 S in XII.
The preceding records show that C. tolteca has been collected during all
times available for fieldwork. Given the exceptional abundance of this
scoliid, I could retain only a few of the specimens actually seen. The species
thus may be characterized as "common" in months that yielded 1-10 records
and as "very common" at other periods. South Texas populations of C. tolteca
seem to occur throughout the year, with a major peak in late summer and a
lesser upsurge in January. Evidently, they have multiple and broadly over-
lapping generations.

Fig. 13. Teucrium cubense photographed during January 1981 at Bentsen
Rio Grande Valley State Park. This small, ubiquitous woodland labiate
attracts great numbers of C. tolteca during winter and early spring.

Porter: Scoliidae 449

TEMPERATURE AND DIEL PERIODICITY. This wasp flies under both clear and
overcast conditions. It is most active at air temperatures between 21.5 and
370 C but may emerge in sheltered, sunny spots when the temperature is as
low as 100 C.
Campsomeris tolteca, perhaps in agreement with the above thermic re-
quirements, displays marked seasonal changes in diel periodicity. I noted
hourly occurrence for 28 specimens taken in November 1979, December
1979, and January 1980. All these appeared between 1200 and 1600, with 5
collected in the 1st hour, 12 in the 2nd, 8 in the 3rd, and only 3 in the 4th. I
also kept 81 hourly records for specimens obtained during July and August
1980. The 25 individuals registered for July appeared from 0800 to 1400,
with 2 in the 1st hour, 3 in the 2nd, 11 in the 3rd, 9 in the 4th, none in the
5th and 1 in the 6th. The 56 specimens captured during August appeared be-
tween 0900 and 1200, with 11 in the 1st hour, 26 in the 2nd, and 9 in the 3rd.
Both summer and winter populations of C. tolteca thus show a 4 hour max-
imum activity period which, in summer, seems primarily matinal, but during
winter is shifted into the afternoon.

3. Campsomeris complete Rohwer
(Fig. 3, 8, 9, 10)
SPECIMENS EXAMINED. 2 : TEXAS, Hidalgo County, McAllen Botanical
Gardens at McAllen, 1 9, 1-IV-1975, 1 9, 2-IV-1975.
FIELD NOTES. My Valley specimens were caught in bright sun on trailside
foliage along a path through semihumid scrub composed of Celtis, Condalia,
Bumelia, Phaulothamnus, Prosopis, Opuntia, and Baccharis, with many
Uarthenium and grasses in open parts of the understory. Both records are
for early April, but Rohwer (1927: 152) cited Mexican specimens taken in
March and October. Campsomeris complete thus probably flies throughout
much of the year in south Texas.

4. Campsomeris hesterae Rohwer
(Fig. 7, 11, 12)
SPECIMENS EXAMINED. 2 : TEXAS, Hidalgo County, Bentsen Rio Grande
Valley State Park, 1 9, 23-XI-1979; McAllen Botanical Gardens at McAllen,
1 9, 31-VIII-1975.
FIELD NOTES. The Bentsen Park specimen was caught on flowers of the
shrubby composite, Baccharis glutinosa. This plant grew at the edge of
Celtis woods and emerged from a tangle of Serjania vines.
Campsomeris hesterae appears to be a late summer and fall species in
south Texas, although Rohwer (1927: 154) indicated that it may emerge as
early as June in Guatemala.
Previous literature contains no record of this scoliid from north of

5. Campsomeris ephippium (Say)
(Fig. 12)
SPECIMENS EXAMINED. 1 & : TEXAS, Hidalgo County, Bentsen Rio Grande
Valley State Park, 22-III-1978.

Florida Entomologist 64(3)

September, 1981

FIELD NOTES. My single Texas specimen of C. ephippium was found be-
tween 1100 and 1200 at an air temperature of 250 C. It was caught while
perched on a tangle of Serjania vines in a narrow clearing between damp
Celtis woods and the Serjania-covered barbed wire fence that separates the
western border of Bentsen Park from adjoining farm land. This segment of
the park boundary forms a natural flyway and yields an unusual variety of
aculeate and parasitic Hymenoptera.
Campsomeris ephippium is a fast, evasive flier. The Bentsen Park male
seemed to show territorial behavior, as it returned several times to the same
perch, before finally being netted.
This species probably occurs in south Texas throughout spring and
summer. I have several June records from northeast M6xico (Cafi6n Rayones
and Mesa de Chipinque in Nuevo Le6n State), where it is moderately com-
mon in habitats that range from lowland subtropical thorn scrub to Quercus-
Pinus woods at 1200 m.

TAXONOMY. There is no modern revision of New World Scoliidae. Bradley
(1928a, 1928b, 1945, 1957) and Rohwer (1927) gave keys and descriptions
that permit identification of the south Texas fauna. I have partially adapted

Fig. 14. Habitat of Campsomeris tolteca photographed at Bentsen Rio
Grande Valley State Park during January 1981. The clearing in the fore-
ground and many of the background trees are overgrown with Serjania
vines. The most common low herbs are Teucrium cubense and Mikania
scandens, both attractive to C. tolteca. The tall, flowering composites are
Helianthus debilis. These also are visited by moderate numbers of C. tolteca.
The background trees include Prosopis, Acacia, Celtis, and Fraxinus.


Porter: Scoliidae


my own key from these authors, but have expanded some couplets to ac-
count for previously overlooked variation and have shortened others to
furnish a simpler local identification guide.
Rohwer (1927: 150-1) used propodeal contour to separate females of
Campsomeris complete from those of C. hesterae. He described the "pos-
terior aspect of the propodeum" in complete as "sloping, not sharply sep-
arated from the dorsal aspect" and in hesterae as "perpendicular" and
"sharply separated from the dorsal aspect". This feature intergrades in
Texas material of the 2 species. Bradley (1957: 65) characterized the fe-
male "longer hind tibial spur" of Xanthocampsomeris (the subgenus under
which he included complete and hesterae) as "strictly acute". In my speci-
mens of Xanthocampsomeris the spur varies from acute to blunt or even
feebly spatulate.
ZOOGEOGRAPHY. Scoliids show most diversity in the tropics but have a few
species in temperate regions. No scoliid reaches the Neantarctic zone of
South America (Porter 1980: 22) or attains Canada in the Northern Hemi-
sphere. The American species display both Neotropic and Sonoran affinities
(Porter 1980: 11, 25). In warm climates they frequent all biomes from wet
forest to grassland and desert but become especially conspicuous in semiarid
to xeric communities. At cooler latitudes they are more strictly confined to
deserts or to the open, sunny pioneering stages of forest succession. Scoliids
fly powerfully and resist dessication well. These attributes may explain
their dispersal into the Greater Antilles, which have isolated populations of
certain mainland species as well as a few endemic species.
The Lower Rio Grande Valley constitutes primarily a Neotropic semi-
humid refugium but is surrounded by more arid habitats and supports a
substantial intrusive Sonoran biota (Porter 1977). For this reason, the
Valley scoliid fauna includes both Sonoran and Neotropic elements.
Trielis octomaculata texensis is a typical Sonoran taxon (Porter 1980:
25-7). It flourishes in the southwestern United States but in the south-
east is represented by a rare, disjunct subspecies. Three close relatives of
octomaculata are confined to the Sonoran biogeographic province. Trielis
occurs also in southern Brasil and the Palaearctic (Bradley 1928a: 196-7).
Our knowledge of scoliid evolution is too scant to permit speculation as to
whether the North American Trielis are more closely allied to their South
American or to their Old World congeners.
Campsomeris tolteca fulfils a semiarid northern Neotropic and Sonoran
distribution. It ranges from Texas to California and south as far as central
Mexico. Supposedly conspecific populations are reported from Haiti (Bradley
1928b: 317). Its nearest relatives are fully Neotropic. Campsomeris tolteca
resembles the parapatric Middle and South American C. dorsata (Fabricius),
which reaches as far south as the north Chilean desert on the west and
Uruguay on the east. Campsomeris plumipes (Drury) of the eastern and
central United States also belongs to this same species group. The whole
complex may have originated in early Tertiary South America and spread
to Middle and North America by the Oligocene. It adapted to late Tertiary
climatic drying but was fragmented in North America by Pleistocene
Campsomeris ephippium (south Texas to Ecuador) represents a South
American Neotropic radiation, which has extended also into Middle and

452 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

North America. Unlike the preceding subgeneric complex, this group is
absent from the United States west of south Texas. Like many other dis-
tributionally comparable taxa (e.g., 40 of the 174 Neotropic ichneumonid
genera, as listed in Porter 1980: 18-9), it does have an endemic species, C.
quadrimaculata (Fabricius), isolated in the eastern United States.
The closely related C. hesterae (Texas to Ecuador) and C. complete
(Texas and Arizona to El Salvador) are Middle American Neotropic and
marginally Sonoran elements. They belong to a species group also repre-
sented in the West Indies and south Florida.
The Lower Rio Grande Valley Scoliidae thus fall into familiar biogeo-
graphic patterns that have been attested not only for most other insects but
also for many plants and vertebrate animals (Porter 1980, Graham 1973,
Martin 1958). That so many ecologically disparate organisms should mani-
fest similar distributions casts doubt on the traditional viewpoint, which
regards dispersal across water or other grossly hazardous barriers as a
major factor in shaping the geographic ranges of most biota. At the same
time, such data strengthen the thesis that biogeographic paradigms prin-
cipally may be artifacts of past and present geological and climatic events.
ECOLOGY. The south Texas scoliid assemblage shows strikingly low
equitability. Of the 5 species taken since 1973, Campsomeris tolteca is rep-
resented by 251 specimens, Trielis octomaculata texensis by 157, C. complete
and C. hesterae by 2 each, and C. ephippium by a single male. Erratic rain-
fall, rare and unpredictable killing frosts, habitat destruction, and insecti-
cide overuse may be some of the density independent natural and anthropo-
genic factors, which contribute to this aberrant equitability. The Lower Rio
Grande Valley provides a marginal environment for many species but per-
mits a few adaptable species to flourish in extravagant numbers (cf. Porter
1977 for a similar equitability pattern in south Texas mesostenine Ich-
Campsomeris tolteca and Trielis octomaculata texensis, thus, have been
collected in quantities sufficient to allow comparison of their phaenology,
thermic requirements, habitat differentiation, and floral selection. Trielis
octomaculata flies from May to November and is most common in summer.
It is active when shade temperatures range between 27 and 370 C.
Octomaculata frequents open places, such as sparse thorn scrub or over-
grown fields. Its 1st and 3rd floral preferences, Salix interior and Pluchea
purpurascens, correspond to the 1st and 4th choices of C. tolteca. The re-
maining 4 flowers from which it has been recorded do not seem to attract
other Valley scoliids. Campsomeris tolteca flies throughout the year and is
common in summer and winter. It may emerge when the shade temperature
is as low as 10' C but becomes conspicuously active only between 21.5 and
370 C. Campsomeris tolteca occurs in a wide spectrum of natural and dis-
turbed habitats but often abounds in semi-open woods, where the more
phanerobiotic T. octomaculata never ventures. As already mentioned, C.
tolteca regularly visits 2 of the flowers that are most attractive to T.
octomaculata but also has been taken on blossoms of 13 additional pants
never visited by the Trielis.
The 2 dominant Valley scoliids thus show partial differentiation in at
least 4 ecologic parameters. The possible competitive significance of this

Porter: Scoliidae 453

differentiation will be clarified, when the hosts of both species are dis-

This study is based on collections made by the author. Material covered
in this study has been deposited in the Florida State Collection of Arthro-
pods (Division of Plant Industry, P. O. Box 1269, Gainesville, FL 32602)
and in the author's private collection (301 N. 39th Street, McAllen, TX


Fieldwork in south Texas was supported in 1980 by a Faculty Fellowship
from Fordham University, during 1973-75 and in 1979 by grants from the
Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic So-
ciety, and from 1976-77 by United States National Science Foundation Grant
DEB-75-22426. Collecting in the Bentsen Rio Grande Valley State Park was
done under permits issued by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department
(current permit number 1-81). Mr. Anthony F. Cerbone of Texas A & M
University assisted me during part of the fieldwork involved in these studies.

BRADLEY, J. C. 1928a. A revision of the New World species of Trielis, a
subgenus of Campsomeris. Trans. American Ent. Soc. 54: 195-214.
S1928b. The species of Campsomeris (Hymenoptera-Scoliidae) of
the Plumipes group, inhabiting the United States, the Greater Antilles,
and the Bahama Islands. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 80:
1945. The Scoliidae (Hymenoptera) of northern South America,
with especial reference to Venezuela. 1. The genus Campsomeris. Bol.
de Ent. Venezolana 4: 1-36.
1957. The taxa of Compsomeris (Hymenoptera: Scoliidae) occur-
ring in the New World. Trans. American Ent. Soc. 83: 65-77.
GRAHAM, A. 1973. History of the arborescent temperate element in the
northern Latin American biota. Pages 301-12 In A. Graham (ed.),
Vegetation and vegetational history of northern Latin America.
Elsevier Scientific Piblishing Company, Amsterdam.
MARTIN, P. S. 1958. Biogeography of reptiles and amphibians in the G6mez-
Farias Region, Tamaulipas, M6xico. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ.
Michigan 101: 1-102.
PORTER, C. 1977. Ecology, zoogeography, and taxonomy of the Lower Rio
Grande Valley mesostenines. Psyche 84: 28-91.
1980. Zoogeografia de las Ichneumonidae latino-americanas
(Hymenoptera). Acta Zool. Lilloana 36: 5-52.
ROHWER, S. A. 1927. Some scoliid wasps from tropical America. Washing-
ton Acad. Sci. J. 17: 150-4.

Florida Entomologist 64 (3)

September, 1981

largement of the esophagus following dealation to form a "thoracic" crop
has been reported for Lasius queens by Janet (1907. Ducourtieux and Gout
149 p.), for queen ants of 5 genera by Petersen-Braun and Buschinger (1975.
Insectes Sociaux 22: 51-66) and for mated and unmated queens of the red
imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren by Glancey et al. (1981. Sociobiol-
ogy 6: 119-27). It is generally concluded that the thoracic crop provides
space for contents of the gastral crop as ovarian development progresses.
The contents of the thoracic crop in S. invicta are composed of triglycerides,
free fatty acids and hydrocarbons, and these have been shown (R. K. Vander
Meer, unpublished data, 1980) to be identical to the fluid in the gastral crop.
These materials serve as food for the immature stages and the queen during
the founding of a new colony. Virgin females that lose their wings before
mating also develop a thoracic crop, but the process takes longer than in
mated queens.
We have observed similar physiological changes in 2 other species of fire
ants, S. richteri Forel, the black imported fire ant, and S. geminata (F.),
the "tropical" fire ant. Two-week-old virgin females were confined singly in
1-dram vials on moistened cotton swabs and held in the laboratory at 270 C.
The females dealated under these confined conditions, and 3 S. geminata
and 10 S. richteri females were sacrificed at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days post-
dealation. Observations were made on the esophagus following flight muscle
histolysis. In addition, we observed the gastral crop, ovaries, fat body, and
postpharyngeal gland.
Changes noted with both species paralleled those reported for S. invicta
(Glancey ibid.); S. richteri histolyzed the flight muscles and developed the
thoracic crop in 9 days as compared to 15 days for S. geminata. In addition,
S. richteri showed complete ovariole development in 6 days whereas S.
geminata required 15 days. The postpharyngeal glands of both species re-
mained filled during the entire time of the experiment. Of particular interest
was the observation that in S. richteri, very little change was seen in the
fat body, whereas S. geminata appeared to deplete almost all of their re-
Since virgin females were isolated from workers and no food was pro-
vided, the conclusion must be reached that the fluid in the thoracic crop
came from an internal source, namely the gastral crop. The role of dealated
virgin females in colonies is as yet unknown, but because of the high food
value of the material found in crops of both species, they could serve as a
food source during times of nutritional stress.-B. M. GLANCEY, A. GLOVER,
AND C. S. LOFGREN; Insects Affecting Man and Animals Research Labora-
tory, ARS, USDA; Gainesville, FL 32604 USA.

only 11 genera of mayflies had been recorded from Louisiana. Loudon (1975.
M.S. Thesis, Louisiana State Univ.) reported 26 genera from the state (one


Scientific Notes


of which was a new genus, as yet unnamed). Berner (1977. Bull. Florida
State Mus. Biol. Sci. 22: 1-56), in his extensive summary of mayflies from
the southeastern United States, added 2 genera not previously reported by
Loudon. We herein report an additional family, genus and species from
Dolania is the only North American genus in the Holarctic family
Behningiidae. It was originally described from South Carolina and since
has been reported only from other localities in South Carolina and Florida.
The first Louisiana specimens of Dolania were collected on 15-III-1977 from
Bundicks Creek in Allen Parish by a University of Southwestern Louisiana
limnology class. This collection consisted of 3 nymphs taken at a site 12 km
north of the LeBlanc, LA post office. Twenty additional nymphs were taken
among collections made 1 km upstream from the original site on 19-1-1978
and 18-III-1978. All specimens have been deposited in the University of
Southwestern Louisiana Insect Collection.
Bundicks Creek is a tributary of the Calcasieu River; it is dammed about
20 km north of the collection sites to form Bundicks Lake. There is a mod-
erate amount of organic material present in the water, but the substrate at
both collection sites is white sand. In general, the sites are similar to those
described for Dolania in Florida by Peters and Peters (1977. Int. Revue ges.
Hydrobiol. 62- 409-38).
All nymphs collected were sieved from sand bars in swiftly flowing water
less than 1 m in depth; however, depth and current in the creek are affected
dramatically by local rainfall runoff, and the collection sites are periodically
covered by 2 to 3 m of turbid, rapidly flowing water.
The Louisiana nymphal stages of Dolania have been compared to nymphal
stages of Dolania americana Edmunds and Traver from Florida and appear
to be conspecific. However, comparisons of adults from Louisiana with those
from other North American localities should also be undertaken when ade-
quate material becomes available. Because of the short adult life of Dolania,
efforts to collect adults in Louisiana have been unsuccessful.
We would like to thank Dr. William L. Peters for his help in confirming
the identification of the first 3 specimens of Dolania.-M. E. DAKIN, JR.,
AND D. L. FELDER; Dept. of Biology; University of Southwestern Louisiana;
Lafayette, LA 70504, USA.

Greenfield, M. D. 1981. Moth sex pheromones: An evolutionary perspec-
tive. 64: 4-17. Page 6, Paragraph 3 should read:
Bradypodicola hahneli may exhibit similar pair-forming behavior, but
male and female adults are found on sloths in approximately equal numbers,
possibly feeding on oily skin secretions. Upon arriving at a sloth, these
moths shed their wings. Mating occurs on the sloth's body, and the duration
of copulation is very long. As in C. choloepi, no signaling behavior charac-
teristic of moths has been seen in either sex (J. K. Waage, personal com-

456 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

RIDAE), A PEST OF THE HONEY BEE-(Note). Pseudohypocera
kerteszi (= P. nigrofascipes Borgmeir and Schmitz) has been found in
Mexico in the nests of Melipona ruficrus (Latreille), and in Brazil in M.
pallida (Latreille) and Trigona spp. nests (Borgmeier, T. 1925. Arch. Mus.
Nac. Rio de Janeiro 25: 183-5; Pickel, B. 1928. Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de
Janeiro 4: 67-8). Portugal-Araijo (1977. Acta Amazonica 7: 153-5) re-
ported that P. kerteszi destroys colonies of Melipona spp. The only recorded
observation of P. kerteszi in domestic hives of Apis mellifera L. was made
by Pickel (1928, op cit.) in Brazil. This note reports the occurrence of P.
kerteszi in domestic hives of A. mellifera in Colombia.
Pseudohypocera kerteszi adults are tiny, 2.25-3.0 mm in length. Males
and females are similar in appearance, with the females slightly larger.
Diagnostic features include a shiny head, brown thorax with yellow-brown
legs and a black abdomen. (For a complete description, see Borgmeier, 1928,
op cit.)
According to Pickel (1928, op cit.), P. kerteszi larvae feed on pollen in
the beehive, and both larvae and emerging adults are found exclusively in
cells containing pollen. Apparently, adults are attracted to a hive by the
odor of fermented pollen. They are found only in the weaker colonies, since
stronger colonies will not permit the adult flies to enter. In Brazil, the
presence of this fly causes no apparent problem (Pickel, 1928, op cit.), nor
is there any mention of it elsewhere in the literature as a pest of honey bees.
Pseudohypocera kerteszi, called "la mosca gris," the grey fly, is well-
known to beekeepers in Colombia. It is considered harmless by some, while
others feel that its presence is detrimental to their colonies. I observed the
grey fly in colonies of honey bees from February through September, 1979,
and again from November, 1979 to January, 1980, in the Departments of
Huila and Meta in Colombia. Huila, in the central corridor of the Andes
Mountains in southern Colombia is primarily mountainous, 1000 m in alti-
tude. Meta is in eastern Colombia, 500 m in altitude, in the area known as
"Los Llanos," the plains.
The grey fly was rarely seen during the hot and dry months of October
through April, when honey bee colonies were strongest, but from May to
September, with the weather cool and rainy and the colonies less populous,
I found larvae and adults in about 10% of the 900 living colonies I examined,
most frequently in the weaker colonies. The greatest infestations of the grey
fly were found in colonies at the more humid sites in these regions. Often
the localization of P. kerteszi was striking; colonies 100 m from severely
infested colonies were free of this fly.
Later in the rainy season, about 20% of 900 beehives examined were
found abandoned by the bees, a common occurrence in Colombia. In ca. 75%
of these hives I observed thousands of P. kerteszi larvae feeding on both
pollen and brood, in contrast to the earlier account (Pickel, 1928, op cit.),
in which feeding in the beehive was reportedly limited to stored food. Adult
flies were also present, entering empty cells, possibly to oviposit, or running
along the combs.
It is not known if the presence of this fly harms the colony, and influences
the rate of absconding, or if the bees absconded for other reasons, leaving

Scientific Notes 457

the colony remains to the flies. The grey fly had been present in many of the
colonies when I inspected them before the bees absconded. Lack of food and
poor weather are common causes of honey bee absconding in tropical regions
(Morse, R. A. and F. M. Laigo. 1969. Bee World 50: 9-14). However, food
stores were observed in many of the abandoned hives infested with P.
kerteszi. Furthermore, colonies at the less humid sites, from which this fly
was absent, rarely absconded despite their exposure to the same rains and
cool temperatures. Few colonies absconded before the appearance of the grey
fly in the hives. These observations suggest that P. kerteszi is a pest of honey
bees in Colombia. I am grateful to Dr. L. V. Knutson (Insect Identification
and Beneficial Insect Introduction Institute, USDA) for the identification
of the fly.-GENE E. ROBINSON, Department of Entomology, Cornell Univer-
sity, Ithaca, New York 14852 USA.

GEOGRAPHIC ORIGINS-(Note). Ground surface spiders were surveyed
over a 3 year period (1967-70) in Polk County in central Florida (Muma
1973. Florida Ent. 56(3): 173-96). Muma's extensive collections from 4 dis-
tinct habitats offer a unique opportunity to study local populations of 2
species of Castianeira (C. crocata [Hentz] and C. floridana [Banks]) over an
extended period of time and in numbers hitherto unobtainable.
The spiders were collected from 4 randomly placed pitfall traps in each
of the 4 habitats sampled; 2 xeric: sand-pine dune and pine flatwoods, and 2
mesic: citrus groves and residential (see Muma 1973 for details), the traps
being surveyed biweekly.
The 2 species were found to have distinct habitat preferences in central
Florida-almost all the Castianeira floridana found in the relatively mesic
citrus groves while C. crocata was found predominantly in the xeric sand-
pine dune habitat.
A marked seasonality in the occurrence of mature females was noted in
the 2 species (Fig. 1). Females of C. crocata, a species distributed from
central Florida north to New Jersey and west to Missouri and southern
Texas, were found throughout the year with a peak in the cooler months,
whereas females of C. floridana, a species found only in Florida and Cuba,
were restricted to the late spring and summer months. This phenological
difference reflects the release of climatic restrictions on the reproductive
activity of a northern temperate species (C. crocata), which is found mature
north of Florida only during the summer months, and the constriction of the
reproductive period in a tropical species (C. floridana) which is found ma-
ture in southern Florida and Cuba throughout the year. Outside of central
Florida the only other place in which females of C. crocata are found mature
in the winter is in southern Texas.
The relative geological youth of the present day Florida peninsula has
resulted in a fauna of mostly immigrant species. It is likely that the most
recent immigrants have physiological legacies that will express themselves
in the responses of these newcomers to their new environments. One type of
response is mirrored in the phenology of the species. It is likely that pheno-

Florida Entomologist 64(3)

September, 1981


Fig. 1. Seasonal variation in the monthly average number of mature fe-
males of each species of Castianeira.
logical studies will aid in determining the place of origin of the members of
this fauna. The cool winters and hot summers found in central Florida re-
sulted in distinctly different responses in the 2 species of Castianeira that
were correlated with the place of origin of each.-JONATHAN REISKIND, De-
partment of Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.






.c 0-

Florida Entomologist 64 (3)


Sexual hangup! Copulating Pteroptyx valida fireflies in a nipa swamp
near Bangkok, Thailand. The male has placed his elytra beneath the female's,
and hooked their bent tips over the anterior edge of her 6th abdominal
tergite. The notched hind margin of his 7th sternite, whose form comple-
ments the bent tips, is pushed against her abdomen from beneath. The
female is thus held in the jaws of a clamp. Whether for chastity guarding,
high-pressure sperm injection, or the internal manipulation of already-
deposited sperm, this clamp is essential hardware in the highly-competitive
sexual environment of Pteroptyx swarm trees. J. E. LLOYD AND S. WING,
Univ. of Florida (From work supported by the National Geographic So-

An international register of naturalists, their interests, collections, and
exchange desires called PIFON, an acronym for "Permanent International
File of Naturalists" now contains data on over 10,000 persons representing
every country in the world. The file is housed and maintained by the Oxycopis
Pond Research Station, a new institution established in 1980 in upstate New
York in a wooded area not far from the Hudson River.
To be registered in PIFON it is only necessary to send the following to
the editor (address below), in block letters or typed: 1) name (last or family
name underlined; include Dr., Prof., Mr., Mrs., etc.); 2) mailing address;
3) phone number; 4) group of main interest, area of specialization (e.g.
family group name, etc.) and kind of interest (e.g., collecting, exchanging,

- -- f -- -- Q-


v v v

460 Florida Entomologist 64 (3) September, 1981

systematics, ecology, etc.); 5) geographical area of greatest interest; 6)
short statement giving interest details (not over 25 words); 7) if a tax-
onomist, list groups willing to identify for others; 8) signature and date.
These data will be coded and entered into the file. No person is listed unless
these data are supplied by that person. The right to edit all listings published
in the Directory is reserved.
The first part of the new 44th edition of the Naturalists' Directory is
entitled "The Naturalists' Directory of Insect Collectors and Identifiers
(International)." This part includes persons interested in insects, spiders,
and other terrestrial invertebrates. The deadline for the receipt of new list-
ings is 1 OCTOBER 1981.
The additional parts will list plant collectors and identifiers, bird watch-
ers, field biologists (including those interested in vertebrates other than
birds, non-insect aquatic animals, mollusks, ecologists, conservationists, etc.),
and rock, mineral, and fossil collectors. The final part will consist of subject,
geographical, and name indexes for the entire edition.
Send registartions and/or requests for further information to the editor,
DR. Ross H. ARNETT, JR., Oxycopis Pond Research Station, 90 Wallace Road,
Kinderhook, NY 12106 USA.

Dethier, V. G. 1980. The World of the Tent-makers. A Natural History of
the Eastern Tent Caterpillar. Drawings by Abigail Rorer. University of
Massachusetts Press, Amherst, Massachusetts 01002. 148 p. $12.50 cloth,
$5.95 paper.
This delightful little book describes the life cycle of the eastern tent
caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (Fabricius). The events in the develop-
ment from egg to adult are discussed in considerable detail but always in
non-technical layman's terms. Molting, diapause, food selection, trail follow-
ing, and biological clocks are just a few of the topics discussed in flowing
prose. Interwoven into the story are vivid, colorful descriptions of other
natural events going on at the same time. A glossary is included for those
unfamiliar with entomological and other scientific terms. References are in-
cluded for each of the 17 chapters for those who desire more information. A
small section lists the first 3 centuries of studies of the tent caterpillar ar-
ranged chronologically. Finally the reported food plants and some of the
parasites and predators are listed. All in all, this extremely well written
book will provide pleasant reading not only for entomologists but anyone
interested in nature.

a -a a a- a- a- a -a a a

Annual Review of Entomology, 1981, Volume 26, 490 p. ($20.00 USA, $21.00
Contents: Regulation of the juvenile hormone titer, C.A.D. DE KORT AND
N. A. GRANGER; Delayed Neurotoxicity and other consequences of organo-
phosphate esters, RONALD L. BARON; Natural and applied control of insects

Book Notice

by protozoa, J. E. HENRY; Changing patterns of tickborne diseases in mod-
ern society, HARRY HOOGSTRAAL; Chagas' disease: An ecological appraisal
with special emphasis on its insect vectors, RODRIGO ZELE6N AND JORGE E.
RABINOVICH; Phylogeny of insect orders, NIELS P. KRISTENSEN; Biology of
Toxorhynchites, WALLACE A. STEFFAN AND NEAL L. EVENHUIS; The nutri-
tional ecology of immature insects, J. M. SCRIBER AND F. SLANSKY, JR.;
Landmark examples in classical biological control, L. E. CALTAGIRONE; Insect
conservation, R. PYLE, M. BENTZIEN, AND P. OPLER; The cereal leaf beetle
in North America, D. L. HAYNES AND S. H. GAGE; Field studies of genetic
control systems for mosquitoes, S. M. ASMAN, P. T. MCDONALD, AND
T. PROUT; Palaeozoic insects, ROBIN J. WOOTTON; Insect pests of tomatoes,
W. HARRY LANGE AND LORIN BRONSON; Insect behavior, resource exploita-
tion, and fitness, RODGER MITCHELL; The biology of Spiroplasmas, ROBERT
F. WHITCOMB; The biology of Heliconius and related genera, KEITH S.
BROWN, JR.; author, subject, cumulative indexes.-JEL

- *-- -^- ----- *- -- -*--- --


The US Post Office has done it again. "In order to improve our service"
they have changed the Editor's mailing address from Route 3, Box 115H,
Las Cruces, NM 88001 to 4849 Del Rey Blvd., Las Cruces, NM 88001. This
is supposed to be effective on 1 August 1981. I have submitted all of the
necessary change of address forms to the local postmaster so that I will still
receive your manuscripts, cards, letters, etc. regardless of which address you
use for at least the next calendar year.
Hopefully in time for the March 1982 issue of Florida Entomologist, we
will have some slightly revised instructions for authors. Although the
changes will not be major, perhaps the revised guide lines will be easier for
authors to use.


The Entomological Society of America will hold its annual meeting 29
November-3 December 1981, at the Town and Country Hotel, San Diego, CA.
The call for papers gave the deadline for submission of titles as 12 June
1981. The program chairman is:

Dr. Vahram Sevacherian
University of California
Riverside, CA 92521
(714) 787-3588


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