Title: Florida Entomologist
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00101
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1982
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Volume ID: VID00101
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Full Text

(ISSN 0015-4040)

(An International Journal for the Americas)

Volume 65, No. 2 June, 1982

O'BRIEN, C. W.-Hilipinus nearcticus, New Species in a Genus New to
the United States (Curculionidae: Coleoptera) ...----..-.......-------. 211
SNIDER, R. J., AND S. J. LORING-Sminthurus incognitus, New Species
from Florida (Collembola: Sminthuridae) ......................------ 216
SNIDER, R. J.-Redescription of Sminthurus floridanus MacGillivray,
1893 (Collembola: Sminthuridae) --............-- .....-- ....------..----- 221
STEINER, J. W., AND J. L. HULBERT-Nimbocera pinderi, A New Species
(Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Southeastern United States 228
HENRY, T. J., AND A. G. WHEELER, JR.-New United States Records for
Six Neotropical Miridae (Hemiptera) in Southern Florida ........- 233
REY, J. R., AND E. D. McCoY-Terrestrial Arthropods of Northwest
Florida Salt Marshes: Hemiptera and Homoptera (Insecta) ....- 241
WIRTH, W. W.-New Species of Neotropical Culicoides (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae) ---.........-----.............------ -----------...-------- 248
SHELLEY, R. M.-Confirmation of the Status of Euryurus mississip-
piensis (Causey) with Congeneric Records from the Gulf States
(Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Platyrhacidae) .................................... 254
BEAVERS, J. B.-Biology of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Cur-
culionidae) Reared on an Artificial Diet .......................................-- 263
BECK, E. C.-F. E. S. Presidential Address-1981 .................................... 270
DENMARK, H. A., ET AL.-Ad Hoc Committee on Amended Articles of
Incorporation and the Bylaws ..........................---........----- ....... ..... 273

Scientific Notes
CHILDERS, C. C., AND E. A. CRosS-Pyemotes tritici (Acari:
Pyemotidae), A Parasite of the Coffee Bean Weevil in
Florida ............--...........-....--....---.-------------- 283
WALKER, T. J., AND J. L. NATION-Sperm Storage in Mole
Crickets: Fall Matings Fertilize Spring Eggs in Scapteris-
cus acletus .................-----........ ------------------283
STILING, P. D., AND D. R. STRONG--Egg Parasitism in the Grass-
hopper Orchelimum fidicinium (Orthoptera: Tettigoni-
idae) .....-...-----.....--------------------............................ 285
Continued on Back Cover

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


President ..... ....-------.............................................................. W L. Peters
Vice-President --.................... .............-. ........................... Abe White
Secretary .........-----------...................--..........----- F. W. Mead
Treasurer ..----................-.......................-.. --........................ D. P. W ojcik

E. C. Beck
W. Keith Collinsworth
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R. G. Haines
D. C. Herzog
C. A. Musgrave Sutherland


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Associate Editors ....................-----------....... .......................... F. W. Howard
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Business matters for other Society officers can be sent to that individual at
the University Station address above.

This issue mailed June 30, 1982

O'Brien: Hilipinus nearcticus


Department of Entomology
Florida A and M University
Tallahassee, FL 32307 USA

A new species, nearcticus O'Brien, is described in the weevil genus
Hilipinus Champion (Hylobiinae). This is the first record of the genus from
the United States. An outline illustration of the rostrum and specialized
scrobe, the $ phallus and endophallus, and 9 8th sternite and spermatheca
are included, along with diagnoses of related genera.

Se describe una especie nueva de gorgojo, nearcticus O'Brien, en el g6nero
Hilipinus Champion (Hylobiinae). Esta es la primera vez que se report el
g6nero para EE.UU. Se incluyen ilustraciones del contorno del rostro y
escrobo especializado, del falo y endofalo del $, y de 80 esternito y espermat-
eca de la 9,asi como diagnosis de g6neros vecinos.

During the past several years I have accumulated a small series of a
distinctive species of Hylobiinae from the southern United States. Following
a careful check of the literature and various collections, including all avail-
able types, I have determined it to be a new species in the genus Hilipinus,
a genus not previously known from the Nearctic Region.
Pascoe (1881) established the genus Arniticus with 3 Brazilian species,
designating gladiator Pascoe as the type-species. Subsequently many other
species were described from South and Central America.
Champion (1902) established the genus Hilipinus separating it from
Arniticus with only a few characters, e.g., the continuation of the scrobes on
the underside of the rostrum in the 8 is sometimes long enough to receive
the entire antenna; the ventral projections of the scrobes in some S& form
sharp teeth; and the tibiae are usually more or less sulcate in most species.
All of these characters are variable and represent extremes of characters
found in Arniticus spp. Dalla Torre et al. (1932) treated Hilipinus as a
synonym of Arniticus. However, Kuschel (1955) recognized Hilipinus as a
valid genus based on a single character, presence or absence of a stridulatory
structure on the costal margin ["interestria marginal"] of the elytra. He
included this character in his key to the genera of the Neotropical Hy-
lobiinae, Hylobiini. This stridulatory file extends externally along the costal
margin of the elytra as a single row of raised transverse lines or tubercles
of varying lengths in different species of Arniticus. The stridulatory scraper
is located on the inner surface of the hind femur. Both file and scraper are
lacking in Hilipinus.
In addition to the above structures, another stridulatory file is present
on the internal area of the apex of the elytra in both of these genera. I


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

recognize this as a subfamilial character since the following tribes and
genera of Hylobiinae have a similar stridulatory apparatus: Anchonini,
Anchonus Schoenherr; Hylobiini, Arniticus Pascoe, Eudociminus Leng,
Heilipodus Kuschel, Heilipus Germar, Heilus Kuschel, Hilipinus Champion,
Hylobius Germar, Marshallius Kuschel, Pachylobius LeConte, and Rhineilipus
Kuschel; Plinthini, Steremnius Schoenherr; and Sternechini, Sternechus
Schoenherr. This type of stridulatory apparatus is present also in members
of the Ceutorhynchinae, Cryptorhynchinae, Erirhininae, and Ithaurinae.
Kissinger (1964) keyed the genera of Hylobiinae in America north of
Mexico. I have modified his key as follows to include Hilipinus.
5. Elytral strial punctures with fine, hairlike scales; elytral intervals
clothed with very fine to coarse hairlike scales; ascending comb of
hind tibia formed by a single row of bristles ..-...... ..-..- Hylobius Germar
Elytral strial punctures with broad scales; elytral intervals clothed
with broad scales; ascending comb of hind tibia formed by a single
row of bristles or with a 2nd short row, as well ..-..-..... .... 5a.
5a. Femora unarmed; uncus of foretibia arising from middle of apical
carina in both sexes; frons slightly wider than rostrum at middle
in dorsal view; ascending comb of hind tibia formed by a single
row of bristles .......-..-------------. ----........ Eudociminus Leng
Femora armed; uncus of foretibia arising from inner apical
margin in male; frons narrower than rostrum at middle in dorsal
view, ascending comb of hind tibia formed by 1 long row of bristles
and a 2nd short row, as well ..-------......-......- ... -Hilipinus Champion

Hilipinus Champion
Elongate oval to broadly oblong oval; medium sized to large, 7.5 to 22 mm.
Rostrum with epistome truncate across middle; scrobe directed towards
lower 1/3 of eye, ventral margin of scrobe usually ending sharply and
abruptly, at times evanescent posteriorly, scrobe extending forward ventrally
at base of rostrum to receive at least segment 1 of funicle (Fig. 1), in &
extending onto ventral surface of rostrum for reception of much or all of
funicle. Head with frons narrower than rostrum at middle, in dorsal view.
Antennae inserted near apex in both sexes. Elytra with broad scales in strial
punctures; apices often emarginate and projecting acutely, may be con-
jointly rounded; internal apical area of elytra with large interstrial stridula-
tory structure. Legs with femora armed with strong tooth; tibiae strongly
mucronate, often sulcate on outer edge; hind tibia with ascending comb
composed of more than single row of bristles, usually with uneven sparse
second row. Venter with hind margin of abdominal sternum 1 sinuate, not
projecting over sternum 2.
TYPE-SPECIES: Heilipus ascius Germar. Subsequent designation, Kuschel,
1955: 293.
REMARKS AND COMPARATIVE NOTES: Among the Hylobiinae, Hilipinus is
most closely related to the genus Heilipus in our region, but the latter has
a single row of bristles forming the ascending comb of the hind tibia. Also
the rostrum is much more strongly curved in Heilipus, and lacks the anterior
ventral continuation of the scrobes. The single Nearctic species, Heilipus
squamosus LeConte, has large stripes and spots of dense white scales not
found in Hilipinus nearcticus. In addition to the characters listed in the key,


June, 1982

O'Brien: Hilipinus nearcticus 213

the specialized anterior ventral continuation of the scrobe and the attenu-
ately narrowed, emarginate, apically acute elytra will readily separate
Hilipinus from the remaining U.S. Hylobiini, Hylobius, Pachylobius and
Eudociminus, which have normal lateral scrobes and conjointly rounded
elytral apices.

Hilipinus nearcticus O'Brien, NEW SPECIES.
HOLOTYPE &. Oblong ovate, moderately robust; black with reddish brown
declivital fascia; clothed unevenly with sparse and dense pale brown, and
white, broad scales. Rostrum weakly curved, stout; dorsally weakly im-
pressed at apical 1/4; with distinct dorsal median carina in middle 1/2, and
with indefinite lateral carina above suprascrobal groove; basal 3/4 with
dense coarse rugose punctures, apical 1/4 with sparser finer non-rugose
punctures; basal 1/4 with moderately dense, recumbent brown oval scales,
apically sparsely setose to glabrous; at base with 2 sharp prominences
beneath formed by inner margin of ventrally developed scrobe, scrobe con-
tinuing on ventral surface to near apex for reception of entire funicle and
basal segments of club. Head with large dense coarse punctures, with sparse
to dense setae and oval brown scales, scales denser around eyes; frons
broadly impressed, clothed with rather dense oval recumbent brown scales,
densely coarsely punctate, with distinct deep median fovea. Antennae with
segment 2 of funicle slightly longer than segment 1; club elongate oval, ca.
as long as funicular segments 1 and 2 together. Prothorax transverse, ca.
1/3 wider than long, sides rounded from base to middle, there narrowed
sharply to strongly constricted apex, apical margin multisinuate; disc
coarsely confluently rugosely punctate, with short subcarinate impunctate

I a

> c |--- 2




Fig. 1-3. Hilipinus nearcticus O'Brien, new species: 1. Head and rostrum,
lateral view. 2. Phallus, (a) dorsal and (b) lateral view; (c) endophallus,
dorsal view. 3. 9 : (d) 8th sternite, dorsal view; (e) spermatheca and
spermathecal gland, lateral view. Scales are 1 mm.

Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

median line; margins of punctures raised, producing granulate appearance;
sparsely clothed with moderately fine to coarse recumbent brown and/or
white setalike scales, coarse scales forming 2 oblique lateral lines from base
to near apex and 1 short median basal line and 2 small mesal spots between
lateral lines and impunctate median line; hind margin shallowly bisinuate.
Scutellum large, broadly transverse, apex rounded; densely clothed with
large recumbent imbricate white scales. Elytra ca. 1/4 wider than prothorax;
elongate, ca. twice as long as wide; weakly convex; anterior margin sharply
reflexed; humeri angulately rounded, not produced anteriorly; striae scarcely
impressed, with large deep dense punctures, becoming smaller and sparser
towards declivity and apex; sides subparallel, gradually narrowed from in
front of declivity to subacute, slightly divergent apices; intervals weakly
convex, subequal to or slightly wider than strial punctures, granulately
wrinkled; moderately sparsely clothed with recumbent, oval, brown, and
white scales; with indefinite, scale covered, declivital fascia; with weakly
developed posterior declivital calli. Legs with femora sparsely clothed with
coarse setalike scales, armed with large acute tooth; tibiae with coarse
shallow confluent rugose punctures, with anterior surface shallowly broadly
sulcate, with anterior inner margin carinate; unci nearly horizontal, arising
from inner apical margin. Venter with prosternum, mesosternum, lateral
areas of metasternum and margins of abdominal sternum 1 clothed with
moderately sparse large pale whitish scales; remainder with sparse fine
setae, apical 1/2 of sternum 5 with denser longer erect fine setae; sterna 1
and 2 with broad shallow median impression; sternum 5 with weak median
impression, with apex weakly emarginate. Length, pronotum and elytron:
8.8 mm.
ALLOTYPE : Same as & except as follows: Rostrum slightly more
slender and curved; with punctures sparser and finer on apical 2/3; lacking
sharp prominences at base beneath, scrobe ventrally developed only for
reception of funicular segment 1, scrobe not continued further. Head lacking
distinct frontal fovea. Elytra with sides gradually expanding to declivity,
there suddenly narrowed to apex. Legs with tibial unci arising obliquely
from middle of apical carinae. Venter with abdominal sterna 1 and 2 with
narrow median flat area (subimpressed); sternum 5 medially evenly convex,
with apex evenly rounded. Length, pronotum and elytron: 9.1 mm.
TYPE-LOCALITY: Mississippi, Hancock County, Gainesville.
ETYMOLOGICAL NOTE: The specific epithet is based on the distribution of
the species. This is the first species of the genus known from the Nearctic
Region. All previously described species are from the Neotropical Region.
REMARKS AND COMPARATIVE NOTES: This new species is not likely to be
confused with any of the described species in the genus. It resembles most
closely the Central American species punctatoscabrosus (Boheman). How-
ever, punctatoscabrosus has larger, coarser, and deeper thoracic punctures.
These punctures have flat margins which lack a granulate appearance. Also
the latter has a nearly straight broad rostrum, and a much more convex
thorax and elytra, with a very robust appearance.
A second allied species, alternatus Champion from Guatemala, is more
robust with a short broad rostrum and an evenly densely distributed scale
covering over the elytra. Each elytron has a usually distinct black median
spot and the apices of the elytra are not acuminate.


June, 1982

O'Brien: Hilipinus nearcticus

The remaining related Central American species biguttatus Champion,
ingens Champion, laticollis Champion and latipennis Champion are all much
larger (14.5-21.5 mm.) and much more robust.
No South American species should be confused with nearcticus.
RANGE: Known from Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi.
MATERIAL EXAMINED: The 10 specimens on hand range in size from 7.7 to
10.1 mm.
HOLOTYPE $: MISs[ISSIPPI]. Hancock County, Gainesville, 17-V-1966,
H. R. Hepburn. ALLOTYPE : L[OUISIAN]A. [Natchitoches Parish] Natch-
itoches, 16-VI-71, G. Heinrich. PARATYPES.-FLORIDA: Alachua Co., Gaines-
ville, 30-IV-68, blacklight trap (1) F. W. Mead, 25-V-70, UV trap (1) F. W.
Mead, Paynes Prairie, 11-15-IV-1977, Insect Flight Trap (1) G. B. Fair-
child & H. V. Weems, Jr.; Hernando Co., Brooksville (7 mi. N.W.), 6-IV-66,
buttress debris, Oak (1) W. Suter; Liberty Co., Torreya State Park, 6-V-79
(1) M. C. Thomas. LOUISIANA: Avoyelles Parish, Eola, 5-11-VII-72 (2)
G. Heinrich; Feliciana Parish, Idlewild Exp. Sta., 27-V-81 (1) E. G. Riley.
The holotype, allotype and 4 paratypes are deposited in the author's col-
lection. Four paratypes are also deposited in the following collections: British
Museum (Natural History), London, England; Florida State Collection of
Arthropods, Gainesville, FL; and National Museum of Natural History,
Washington, DC.

This research was supported by a research program (FLAX 79009) of

CHAMPION, G. C. 1902. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Insecta. Coleoptera.
Rhynchophora. Curculionidae. Curculioninae (part), 4(4): i-viii,
1-144, illus.
Coleopterorum Catalogus, pars 122, Curculionidae: Hylobiinae, 28:
KISSINGER, D. G. 1964. Curculionidae of America North of Mexico, a Key to
the Genera. Taxon. Publ., South Lancaster, MA, p. i-v, 1-143, illus.
KUSCHEL, G. 1955. Nuevas sinonimias y anotaciones sobre Curculionoidea
(1) (Coleoptera). Rev. Chilena Ent. 4: 261-312.
PASCOE, F. P. 1881. On the genus Hilipus, and its neo-tropical allies. Trans.
Ent. Soc. London, 1881, p. 61-102, illus.


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)


The Institute of Ecology
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602 USA
Department of Zoology
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824 USA

A new species, Sminthurus (Sminthurus) incognitus Snider and Loring,
is described from Florida. This species is most closely allied to Sminthurus
(Sminthurus) fitchi Folsom and Sminthurus (Sminthurus) argenteornatus
Banks, but can easily be separated on the basis of numerous dental setae and
metatibiotarsal setal pattern. The type locality is Collier County, Florida.
Specimens were taken from Polygonum hydropiperiodes Michaux.

Se describe una nueva especie, Sminthurus (Sminthurus) incognitus
Snider and Loring, para el estado de Florida. Esta especie es la mas cercana
a Sminthurus (Sminthurus) fitchi Folsom and Sminthurus (Shinthurus)
argenteornatus Banks, pero puede ser separada facilmente en base a lo
numeroso de sus setas dentales y al patron metatibiotarsal de setas. La
localidad del tipo es Collier County, Florida. Los ejemplares fueron colectados
de Polygonum hydropiperiodes Michaux.

In 1979 Dr. E. S. Del Fosse sent a collection of Collembola from the Lee
County Hyacinth Control District to the senior author for identification. His
samples came from semi-aquatic and aquatic plants located in Broward,
Collier, Glades and Lee Counties. In the course of identification, an unusual
Sminthurus sp. was detected. Several times during identification procedures
the species name was changed to reflect recent publications on collembolan
systematics. Finally, the co-investigator was asked to analyze the species in
light of his research on the genus. He found several characteristics which
separated it as a distinct species. The purpose of this report is to describe
that new species. Setal nomenclature follows Christiansen and Bellinger
(1981), except for metatibiotarsal setae, which use unpublished designations.

Sminthurus incognitus Snider and Loring, NEW SPECIES
COLOR DESCRIPTION ( ) : Background white. Antennal segments with
light purple dusting, more coarsely distributed on segments I and II. Frons
with faint blue-purple polygons becoming darker on gena. Postgena with
dark purple polygons. Trunk with many light and dark purple polygons
forming irregular patterns. Faint mid-dorsal stripe originating on meta-
thorax and ending at midpoint of abdomen. Large, saddle-shaped maculation


June, 1982

Snider & Loring: Sminthurus incognitus 217

on posterior, made up of dark purple polygons, leaving a dorsal median area
of white. Abdominal segment VI with purple delimiting 2 white spots.
Laterally with alternating light and dark polygons. Legs with alternating
light purple, becoming heavier distally. Furcula colorless. (Fig. 1 and 2).
& unknown.
MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION, HEAD: Eyes 8 + 8; ocelli A and B sub-
equal, twice diameter of C and D (Fig. 3). Antennal segment ratio 1:1.5:
2.5:6; ANT IV with 15 subsegments (Fig. 4), subsegments V and VII-XIII
bearing 2 setulae (Fig. 5), III, IV and XIV with 1 setula, I, II and XV with-
out setulae; single apical bulb present (Fig. 6); ANT III with 6 heavy
setae (Fig. 7), subapical sensillae in deep invagination, accessory setae
absent (Fig. 8); ANT II with 4 ventral setulae (Fig. 9); ANT I with 3
fine posterior distal setae and 4 anterior setae (Fig. 10). Interocular cephalic
setae A-G typical of genus, seta D up to 3/4 diameter of nearest ocellus,
lanceolate and ciliate (Fig. 11); rows F to G spine-like; 2 unpaired frontal
setae (Fig. 12). Frons with 2 oval organs near antennal bases, 1 near seta
D, other in line with seta A, a 3rd located on lower frons in line between
unpaired frontal setae; 3 posterior oval organs forming a right triangle on
lower postgena (Fig. 12).
BODY: Foreleg coxa without oval organ (Fig. 13); trochanter with 2
anterior oval organs (Fig. 14), femur with 9 anterior and 7 posterior setae
(Fig. 15). Mesoleg coxa with oval organ and 3 anterior setae (Fig. 16);
trochanter with 2 oval organs, 5 anterior and 1 posterior setae (Fig. 17);
femur with 1 posterior oval organ and 1 setula (Fig. 18). Metaleg coxa with
oval organ and 3 setae (Fig. 19); trochanter with 2 oval organs, 5 anterior
setae and 1 posterior setula (Fig. 20); femur with posterior oval organ and
2 setulae (Fig. 21); anterior surface of tibiotarsus lacking subapical
pseudopore, AE file with 10 setae, seta E3 1.31-1.38 times as long as outer
edge of unguis, seta AI2 0.60-0.95 times as long as outer edge of unguis
(Fig. 22), posterior surface with 3 pseudopores near external edge between
PE setae, PI file with 9 setae, PE file with 8-9 setae, L setae heavy with

view; 2) dorsal view.
I a

Fig. 1-2. 'minthurus incognitus n. sp. Habits of holotype. 1) Lateral
view; 2) dorsal view.

218 Florida Entomologist 65 (2) June, 1982

A 6

V o/ -I

e5- 9

12. 19.
S -s \" Pp f
C -l3-t 6t, 3 ; 16.
-A i
t ; 6) : AN

II; 8i orga ', AI I 1 AT -
f/- l,<-' k 4 1 ?
2 ,9 \ 17

21. 18. 2 2. 23"

Fig. 3-23. Sminthurus incognitus n. sp. (All drawings are from Collier
; 8) detail of ANT III sense organ; 9) ANT ; 10) ANT I; )post-

21 18. 22. ^aE LN pl l:tuw23.
Fig. 3-23. Sminthurus incognitus n. sp. (All drawings are from Collier
Co., Florida paratype). 3) Eye patch, right side; 4) ANT IV; 5) ANT IV
subsegment showing position of setulae; 6) ANT IV, apical view; 7) ANT
III; 8) detail of ANT III sense organ; 9) ANT II; 10) ANT I; ll)post-

Snider & Loring: Sminthurus incognitus

L, short, L, missing, tenent hairs PEo and AEo acuminate (Fig. 22 & 23).
Pretarsus with anterior and posterior setulae; unguis with tunica, anterior
and posterior pseudonychia, inner tooth, and outer basal tooth; unguiculus
with strong corner tooth, subapical filament tapering, unguiculus 2.7-3.0
times length of its filament (Fig. 24); mesotarsus similar, foretarsal unguis
with minute inner tooth, unguiculus without corner tooth, approximately
1.42 times the length of its filament (Fig. 25). Collophore with 1 + 1 sub-
apical setae, 1 + 1 lateral setae, no posterior oval organs, sacs warty (Fig.
26). Corpus of tenaculum with 4 setulae, ramus with 3 teeth (Fig. 27).
Manubrium with 8 + 8 dorsal and 1 + 1 ventral setae (Fig. 28). Dens with
12 ID setae (either ID4 or ID, may be lacking), with D4 seta, 13 E file setae,
11-12 L file setae, Ve setae normal for genus (Fig. 29-30). Mucro with 12-15
inner teeth, outer edge smooth, basal seta 0.45-0.5 times its length (Fig.
31-32). Bothriotrichium D similar in length to VN seta and at least twice
that of N seta (Fig. 33). Female circumanal setae Ao-A3, P and Q typical
for genus (Fig. 34), single oval organ on lower valve and upper valve
posterio-lateral to seta N1; subanal appendages acuminate, curved in lateral
view, gladiform in ventral view (Fig. 35). Length 1.5 mm.
DIAGNOSIS: Sminthurus incognitus Snider and Loring keys out nearest
to Sminthurus fitchi Folsom and Sminthurus argenteornatus Banks in
Christiansen and Bellinger (1981). The metatibiotarsal seta AI, (=L, of
Christiansen and Bellinger) is 0.60-0.95 times as long as the outer edge of
the unguis. For S. fitchi, L2 is 1.0-1.2 and S. argenteornatus 0.89-0.90. Both
S. fitchi and S. argenteornatus can easily be separated from S. incognitus
by the following morphological characteristics:

incognitus fitchi argenteornatus

6 E setae on metatibiotarsus 7 E setae 7 E setae
10 AE setae on metatibiotarsus 9 AE setae 9 AE setae
8-9 PE setae on metatibiotarsus 7 PE setae 7 PE setae
3 posterior pseudopores on tibiotarsus 4 pseudopores 4 pseudopores
13 E seta on dens 8 E setae 8 E setae
11-12 L setae on dens 7 L setae 7 L setae
12-15 inner teeth on mucro 7-14 weak teeth 8-10 teeth
outer edge smooth outer edge smooth 8 weak outer teeth
1 + 1 lateral setae on collophore 1 + 1 0 + 0

In Stach (1956), S. incognitus keys out nearest S. fitchi and Sminthurus
packardi Folsom. Separation from S. packardi can be accomplished on the
basis of 16-17 ANT IV subsegments for S. packardi and 15 subsegments for
incognitus; tibiotarsal seta E, 1.31-1.38 times as long as outer edge of
unguis for S. incognitus, while it is 1.5-1.7 for S. packardi.
TYPES: Holotype and paratypes deposited in Entomology Museum, Mich-
igan State University. Collection data: 'Holotype (9) and 2 paratypes;
Florida, Collier County, Bridge 120061, SR. 82, on Polygonum hydro-

antennal seta D; 12) setal pattern of frons, arrows indicate posterior oval
organs; 13) procoxa; 14) protrochanter; 15) profemur; 16) mesocoxa; 17)
mesotrochanter; 18) mesofemur; 19) metacoxa; 20) metatrochanter; 21)
metafemur; 22) metatibiotarsus, anterior view; 23) metabibiotarsus, pos-
terior view.

Florida Entomologist 65 (2)


2 8

2- 8

^77- --- ^~?

/1 '/
I' <', ^

/ Y 29.

S if/

/ ,,"
/, I
A/ i
// 7\

'' 3Q

&- /
\3 ( '

A, A




33. \


Fig. 24-35. Sminthurus incognitus n. sp. (All drawings are from Collier
Co., Florida paratype). 24) Proleg, claw; 25) metaleg, claw; 26) collophore;
27) tenaculum; 28) manubrial setae; 29) dens, dorsal view; 30) dens, ventral
view; 31) mucro, dorsal view; 32) mucro, inner view; 33) bothriotrichium
D complex; 34) female papilla, dorsal view; 35) female subanal appendage,
lateral view.
piperiodes Michaux, 02-III-1978, E. S. Del Fosse, collector, in alcohol. Para-
types: Glades County, Bridge 050031, SR. 29, on Polygonum sp., 28-VI-1978,
E. S. Del Fosse, collector, 1 on slide; Lee County, Bridge 120060, on Poly-
gonum sp., 02-XI-1977, 22-XI-1977, E. S. Del Fosse, collector, 2 on slides and
1 in alcohol.


June, 1982

/ y


Snider & Loring: Sminthurus incognitus

Special thanks are offered to Dr. D. A. Crossley, Jr. and the Department
of Entomology, University of Georgia at Athens for laboratory facilities.
Thanks are also extended to Dr. Kenneth A. Christiansen for reviewing the
manuscript. Mailing address of the senior author: Department of Zoology,
Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 USA.

CHRISTIANSEN, K. A., AND P. F. BELLINGER. 1981. Pages 1043-1322 in The
Collembola of North America North of the Rio Grande. Part IV.
Families Neelidae and Sminthuridae. Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa.
STACH, J. 1956. The Apterygotan Fauna of Poland in Relation to the World
Fauna of this Group of Insects, Family: Sminthuridae. Polska
Akademia Nauk. 287 p.


The Institute of Ecology
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30302 USA

Adequate numbers of Sminthurus floridanus MacGillivary were collected
from grass sweepings at the Savannah River Plant, U.S. Department of
Energy, Aiken, South Carolina to prepare a redescription of the species.
Characteristics not presented in early reports include: presence of unequal
pseudonychia, 4 tenacular setae, mucronal seta and acuminate subanal ap-
pendage. Details of metatibiotarsal and dental setae are presented.

Una cantidad adecuada de ejemplares de Sminthurus floridanus Mac-
Gillivray se recolect6 en pastos, con red para atrapar, en la Plana del Rio
Savannah, Departemento de Energia de los Estados Unidos, Aiken, Carolina
del Sur, para preparar una nueva descripci6n de la especie. Algunas carac-
teristicas que no se presentaron en informes anteriores incluyen: la presencia
de pseudoniquias desiguales, cuatro (4) setas tenaculares, seta mucronal y
apendice sub-anal acuminado. Ee presentan detalles de las setas metatibio-
tarsales y las setas dentales.

Recently, preliminary field investigations at the Savannah River Plant,
U.S. Department of Energy, Aiken, South Carolina, produced a remarkable
collembolan species. For 88 years specialists have had to rely on incomplete
descriptions and a single specimen of Sminthurus floridanus MacGillivary
for identification purposes and systematic studies. While making grass

Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

sweeping samples, it was my good fortune to collect this unique species in
numbers adequate for redescription.
The following is the original description of Sminthurus floridanus pub-
lished by MacGillivray (1893) :
"Black, sides lighter, hairy. Head black, with lighter lines, mouth olive.
Antennae long, slender, as long as the body, basal joint black, remainder
olive. Thorax and abdomen with a triangular black spot, base of the triangle
at the apex of the thorax and its apex at the apex of the abdomen. Sides of
the abdomen olive mottled with light brown. Underneath olive. Anal papillae
with its front and upper part black, the remainder olive mottled with brown.
At the median two-thirds of the back, a stout porrect spine; spine as broad
at base and higher than anal papillae; concolorous with the black triangle,
except a small olive spot on each side. Legs slender; pale olive; inner claw
two-thirds the length of outer, stout and blunt. Spring short, slender; third
joint elongate with an apical and two smaller inner teeth. Length, 1.5 mm."

Forty-one years later, the single type had further darkened and grown
in length! Folsom (1934) re-examined the type and commented: "Legs pale
olive. Furcula unpigmented. Ant. 2:3:4 about as 2:3:10. Ant. 4 with 20 sub-
segments (18 intermediate segments). Unguis stout, with a tunica, an inner
tooth at the middle, and an outer margin entire, inner margin with several
blunt teeth, apex obliquely truncate, without mucronal setae. Body with long
white setae, curving on the anterior dorsum, stiff posteriorly. Length, 1.6
Richards (1968) comments that median dorsal protuberances have been
recorded in a number of genera and that those structures may be the result
of reactions to parasitic fungi. Christiansen and Bellinger (1981) follow
Richards' (1968) suggestion and incorporate his conclusion in their text (p.
1193). They further comment: "the unique type is in very poor condition; we
did not mount it and cannot confirm the existence of only 2 tenacular setae."
All their illustrations are taken from Folsom (1934).

Sminthurus floridanus MacGillivray, REDESCRIPTION
COLOR AND PATTERN ( ): Background white with light yellow. Head
entirely covered with dark reddish-purple polygons; antennal segment I
dark purple, segments II-IV light olive in mature individuals, white in
juveniles and subadults; many white dots between ocellar patches and on
upper gena, orbital crests ringed with white dots. Trunk with dorsal triangle
of dark purple; white medial line originating behind head, extending to
abdomen, few white dots on abdomen forming 2 paramedial broken lines;
dorsal protuberance purple; anal papilla dorsally purple; laterally white
with diffuse yellow on to greater abdomen. Legs white, mature individuals
with faint olive dusting distally on tibiotarsus. Furcula white (Fig. 1-2).
HEAD: Eyes 8+8 with dark pigment; ocelli C and D 1/2 diameter A and
B, their diameters slightly greater than other ocelli (Fig. 3). Antennal seg-
ment ratio 1:1.7:2:5; ANT IV with 18-19 intermediates (Fig. 4), inter-
mediates I, II, IV, XX without setulae, III, V, VII, VIII, IX, XII, with 1,
VI, X-XI, XIII-XIX with 2, apical bulb absent, papilla and sense rods
present; ANT. III with 9-10 outstanding setae (Fig. 5), subapical sensillae
in deep invagination, accesory seta lanceolate and lying in shallow depression


June, 1982

Snider: Sminthurus floridanus

1. Z t2.

Fig. 1-2. Sminthurus floridanus MacGillivray.
(Fig. 6); ANT II with 2-4 ventral setulae (Fig. 7); ANT I with 3 fine
ventral distal setae and 4 dorsal setae (Fig. 8). Interocular cephalic setae
A-G typical of genus, seta D may be greater than diameter of closest ocellus,
lanceolate and cilated (Fig. 9); rows F to G more spine-like; 2 unpaired
frontal setae. Frons with 2 oval organs near antennal base, 1 close to seta
D, other in line with seta A, lower postgena with 1 oval organ (Fig. 10).
BODY: Foreleg coxa without oval organ; trochanter with 3 anterior and 2
posterior setae (Fig. 11); femur with anterior oval organ, 9 anterior and 7
posterior setae (Fig. 12). Mesoleg coxa with oval organ and 2 setae (Fig.
13); trochanter with 2 oval organs, 5 anterior and 1 posterior setae (Fig.
14); femur with 1 posterior oval organ, 2 posterior setulae (Fig. 15). Meta-
leg coxa with oval organ with 4 setae (Fig. 16); trochanter with 2 oval
organs, 5 anterior and 1 posterior setae (Fig. 17); femur with 1 posterior
oval organ and 2 setulae (Fig. 18); anterior surface tibiotarsus with 1 sub-
apical pseudopore, AE file with 9 setae, AL file with 9 setae, seta AI2 0.68-
0.90 times as long as outer edge of unguis (AI,=L2 of Christiansen and
Bellinger, 1981), seta E, 1.12-1.38 times as long as outer edge of unguis,
surface with 5 pseudopores near external edge (Fig. 19); posterior surface
has PI file with 9 setae, L5 missing while L6 short and finer than normal,
PL file with 7 setae, PL5 missing, tenent hairs AEO and PEo acuminate,
absent if using older classifications (Fig. 20). Pretarsus with anterior and
posterior setulae; unguis with tunica, strong anterior and posterior pseu-
donychia, inner tooth; unguiculus of metaleg with strong corner tooth (not
developed on foreleg), subapical filament tapering, unguiculus approximately
1.9 times as long as its filament (Fig. 21-22). Collophore with 1+1 subapical
anterior setae, 1+1 lateral setae, sacs warty (Fig. 23). Corpus of tenaculum
with 4 setulae, ramus with 3 teeth (Fig. 24). Manubrium with 8+8 dorsal
setae, 1+1 ventral (Fig. 25). Dens with 12 Id setae, setae Ve, 0+1 (Fig.
26), with 9 L setae (Fig. 27). Mucro with outer edge entire, sometimes ab-
normally with distal teeth (Fig. 28), up to 11 inner teeth, outer edge 3.0
times length of its seta (Fig. 29). Bothriotrichium D complex with seta vn
1.7 times the length of D, seta p stout and finely ciliated (Fig. 30). Female
circumanal setae A,-3, P and Q typical for genus (Fig. 31); subanal ap-


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

i ifIllNL11 V1 mIx x X LMXLL[1i-L
/i~~ ///I/k/i



\ 6

V J 6 .

'-~. 1




Fig. 3-15. Sminthurus floridanus MacGillivray. 3) Right eyepatch. 4)
Antennal segment IV. 5) Antennal segment III. 6) Detail of subapical sensil-
lae of ANT III. 7) Antennal segment II. 8) Antennal segment I. 9) Seta D
and nearest ocellus. 10) Head, frontal setae, arrow indicates posterior oval
organ. 11) Foreleg trochanter. 12) Foreleg femur. 13) Mesoleg coxa. 14)
Mesoleg trochanter. 15) Mesoleg femur.


June, 1982

Snider: Sminthurus floridanus


/ \ r 7 I? ; 'L7 (]
A/ 7
AE K17 /Is1 A

A/ p ., P L,
: AL~ 'AL

AY A i0 I

P/ r..: ... ..... ^y '/ l' ^4

18,. 2

2 223.


21. r 24

Fig. 16-24. Sminthurus floridanus MacGillivray. 16) Metaleg coxa. 17)
Metaleg trochanter. 18) Metaleg femur. 19) Right metatibia, anterior view,
arrow indicates pseudopore. 20) Right metatibia, posterior view, arrows
indicate pseudopores. 21) Left foretarsus. 22) Right metatarsus. 23) Col-
lophore. 24) Tenaculum.

Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

pendage acuminate, strongly curved in lateral view. Oval organs on upper
and lower valves of segments VI. Body setae long, slender, slightly curving.
Dorsal protuberance outstanding, large in proportion to body, curving
forward (Fig. 32-34). Length 1.75 mm.
DISCUSSION: Rediscovery of S. floridanus has clarified a few misconcep-
tions about the species and provided a basis from which its interrelationships
within Sminthurus s.l. can be delineated. All specimens examined had dorsal
protuberances as illustrated (Fig. 1-2). Dorsal protuberances were present
on 75 individuals from 3 sample dates, 2 1/2 and 7 months apart, at the
same location. Individuals ranged from juveniles to adults on the first 2
dates and adults in spring 1981. Conclusions as to the cause for this peculiar
growth pattern cannot be presented here. Close examination of a well cleared
slidemounted specimen showed what appeared to be round, heavy-walled



\ 26.







{ J t-;

\tY Y 31




Fig. 25-34. Sminthurus floridanus MacGillivray. 25) Manubrium, dorsal
view. 26) Left dens, dorsal view. 27) left dens, ventral view. 28) Right
mucro. 29) Left mucro. 30) Bothriotrichium D complex. 31) 9 circumanal
setae. 32) Profile of 9 abdomen, specimen 1. 33) Profile of 9 abdomen,
specimen 2. 34) Profile of S abdomen.


June, 1982



~bL ~

Snider: Sminthurus floridanus

structures within the protuberance. Richards' (1968) suggestion of a fungal
infection could well apply here. However, there is no morphological differ-
ence between the observation of Folsom (1934) and the present study.
Further characteristics which make this species conform to the conserva-
tiveness of Sminthurus s.l. include: presence of ungual pseudonychia, 4
tenacular setae, presence of a mucronal seta, and acuminate subanal ap-
pendage. However, the unique body shape and color pattern easily separate
S. floridanus from all other members of the genus.
COLLECTION DATA: South Carolina, Barnwell County, Savannah River
Plant, Rd. A, 25-VIII-1980, XI-12-1980, 18-VI-1981, roadside grass beneath
tall loblolly pine trees, R. J. Snider, collector. All specimens deposited in the
Entomology Museum, Michigan State University.

Grateful thanks are offered to Dr. D. A. Crossley, Jr. and the Department
of Entomology, University of Georgia at Athens, for facilities; and to Dr.
J. Whitfield Gibbons and Mrs. Karen Patterson of the Savannah River
Ecology Laboratory of the University of Georgia for field assistance. Special
thanks are offered to Dr. Peter F. Bellinger for corrections and suggestions.
Field collecting was carried out under the auspices of Contract DE-ACO9-
76SR00819 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the University of
Georgia. Mailing address: Department of Zoology, Michigan State Univer-
sity, East Lansing, MI 48824 USA.

CHRISTIANSEN, K. A., AND P. F. BELLINGER. 1981. Pages 1043-322 in
Christiansen, K. A. and P. F. Bellinger, The Collembola of North
America North of the Rio Grande. Part IV, Families Neelidae and
Sminthuridae. Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa.
FOLSOM, J. W. 1934. Redescriptions of North American Sminthuridae. Iowa
St. Coll. J. Sci. 8: 461-511.
MACGILLIVRAY, A. D. 1893. North American Thysanura. Canadian Ent. 25:
RICHARDS, W. R. 1968. Generic classification, evolution, and biogeography of
the Sminthuridae of the world (Collembola). Mem. Ent. Soc. Canada
53: 1-54.


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

3232 Brisbane Way, Lithonia, GA 30058 USA and
Florida Department of Environmental Regulation,
3319 Maguire Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32803 USA, respectively

The larva of Nimbocera pinderi Steiner and Hulbert, new species, is de-
scribed and illustrated. Habitat and water quality data are given.

Se describe y se ilustra la larva de Nimbocera pinderi sp. nov. Se pre-
sentan datos del habitat y de la calidad del agua.

The genus Nimbocera Reiss was described from the larvae, pupae and
adults of a single species, N. patagonica Reiss, collected in Chile (Reiss
1972). The larvae of Nimbocera can be separated from those of Tanytarsus
Wulp by the interrupted second antennal segment and the sclerotized an-
nulations of the lauterborn organ petioles. Nimbocera was included in Beck's
(1976) key to the larval chironomids of the southeast and in Beck's (1977)
tabulation of the environmental requirements of the larval Chironomidae.
The genus was not mentioned in Coffman's (1978) compilation of the
chironomids of North America. We have collected larvae from Georgia,
South Carolina, and Florida which are very similar to Nimbocera patagonica
and are described here as Nimbocera pinderi. Roback (1966) described 2
similar larvae from Peru as Calopsectra spp. 11 and 12. From his limited
descriptions it appears that these might also be species of Nimbocera. In
the following description, the measurements are in pm, unless otherwise
noted and are given: mean 1 SD (range). The terminology follows
Saether's (1980) glossary.

Nimbocera pinderi Steiner and Hulbert, NEW SPECIES
TYPE LOCALITY: Oklawaha River at Moss Bluff, Florida.
TYPE MATERIAL: Holotype: Fourth instar larva, Florida, Marion County,
canalized section of Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, 6-XI-1973, Leg. J. L.
Hulbert. Deposited in the U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C.
Paratypes: One 4th instar larva, Florida, Lake County, Dead River,
1-X-1969, Leg. J. L. Hulbert. Deposited in, the U.S. National Museum, Wash-
ington, D.C. One 4th instar larva, Florida, Orange County, Lake Sylvan,
28-1-1976, Leg. J. L. Hulbert, one 4th instar larva, Florida, Dade County,
canal adjacent to Tamiami Trail 9 km west of Highway 27, 22-IV-1980, Leg.
Bill Steiner. Deposited in Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville,
ETYMOLOGY: The species is named in honor of Dr. L. C. V. Finder of the
Freshwater Biological Association, Dorset, England.

June, 1982


Steiner & Hulbert: Nimbocera pinderi

Color. Body light pink. Head capsule tan with dark brown occipital
Size. Body length about 8 mm.
Head. Length about 415. Eye spots paired. Mouthparts dark cinnamon
brown. Mentum (Fig. 1) with 11 teeth in an even convex arc with median
tooth light colored and pentifid; width 110 6 (102-119). Ventromental
plate wide, thin and bar-shaped with faint striations; width 146 10 (132-
158). Mandible (Fig. 2) with light colored distadentis, dark apical tooth and
3 descending dark inner teeth; inner margin with 3-4 sharp serrations;
pecten mandibularis consists of about 20 setae with distal 3 produced into
clear sclerotized spines; seta subdentalis long, curving; seta internal with

I ,100 I I

Fig. 1-2. Nimbocera pinderi, 1) larval mentum with ventromedial plates;
2) larval mandible.


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

4-5 variably serrated branches; length 156 14 (132-170). Epipharynx
(Fig. 3) with SI unilaterally serrate; labral lamella regular and symmetrical
with 21-27 clear points; pecten epipharyngis with 3 subequal pectinate
plates; 4-5 chaetulae laterales with lower 2 serrate; 2-3 chaetulae basales.
Premandible with 3 teeth and prominent premandibular brush; length 85
4 (82-90). Antenna (Fig. 4) 5-segmented with blade about as long as Seg-
ment II; length of segments 202 9 (192-215), 75 8 (66-88), 30 4
(25-35), 11 1 (10-12), 5 1 (5-6). Segment I with ring organ at base
and lateral seta at about 0.74. Segment II with unsclerotized band at about
0.1. Segments III, IV and V very slightly sclerotized. Lauterborn organs
paired at apex of Segment II, each with about 20 sclerotized annulations;
length 133 8 (123-148). AR 1.66 0.04 (1.61-1.72). Ventral postoccipital
margin widened into a dark, sclerotized, gular plate; tentoria length about
Body. Length about 7.5 mm. Segments IV-VIII with long (about 160)
bifid plumose setae. Setal tufts present at center of lateral margin on all
segments. Single scattered setae present on all segments. Procerci each with
8 dark brown setae. Posterior parapods each with 16 clear yellow claws. Anal
tubules about as long as posterior parapods.
Variation. In some specimens, the points of the median tooth of the
mentum may be higher or wider.
DIAGNOSIS: Nimbocera pinderi differs from N. patagonica in several char-
acters. The antennal tubercle of N. pinderi is apically truncate; the tubercle

3 4

Fig. 3-4. Nimbocera pinderi, 3) larval epipharynx; 4) larval antenna on


June, 1982

Steiner & Hulbert: Nimbocera pinderi 231

S( c m00 c1 c C


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C0 0 t- t- L LO 00
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r- T 100 000 00 0 0 CO t-
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Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

ent, and organic tolerances compare well with those described by Beck (1977)
for the genus. Larvae of Nimbocera pinderi are eurythermal and alkali-
philous; whereas, Beck (1977) found Nimbocera Reiss to be metathermal,
preferring temperatures of 5 to 150C, and acidophilous, occurring at a pH
around 7 but usually below 7. Nimbocera pinderi does not appear to be an
ideal organism for use in a water quality indicator program since it dis-
plays wide tolerances for many parameters.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida, coastal Georgia, and south coastal South Carolina.
ADDITIONAL RECORDS OF Nimbocera pinderi LARVAE: Georgia: Chatham
County. Florida: Sumter, Lake, Brevard, Orange, Osceola, Indian River,
Putnam, Seminole, Marion, and Volusia counties. The specimens from these
locations were collected in conjunction with water quality investigations.


We would like to thank Mr. William M. Beck, Jr., who reviewed the
manuscript; Mr. William M. Fife, who identified the gut content algae; and,
Jan Murray, who persevered through all the typing.
published keys except for Beck's (1976) key to southeastern larvae.
Ecology. The larvae are found in lakes, slow flowing rivers, and drainage
canals of the south Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, and most of Florida. Larvae
are typically collected from detritus, mud, and sand as well as from artificial
substrates. Larvae also inhabit vegetation where they feed on algae such as
species of the diatoms Melosira Agardh, Cyclotella Kutzing, Fragilaria
Lyngbye, and Eunotia Ehrenberg. The population densities that we collected
were quite low, approximately 6-43/m2. However, records from south Florida
(personal communication from Rick Cantrell, Florida Department of En-
vironmental Regulation, Punta Gorda, Florida) show Nimbocera to oc-
casionally occur in much larger numbers in that area.
Larvae are found in moderate oxygen concentrations (Table 1). They
do not tolerate much organic pollution but do quite well in fairly eutrophic
conditions which have high phosphorus concentrations. These oxygen, nutri-
of N. patagonica has a short blunt apicomesal projection. The mentum of
N. pinderi has a light colored median tooth; the median tooth of N.
patagonica is dark. The AR of N. pinderi is 1.66; the AR of N. patagonica
is 1.82.


The maxillae were obscured on our specimens and thus were not il-
lustrated or described. Nimbocera pinderi will key to Tanytarsus in all


BECK, W. M., JR. 1976. Biology of the larval chironomids. State of Florida
DER Technical Series 2(1): 1-58.
1977. Environmental requirements and pollution tolerance of com-
mon freshwater Chironomidae. EPA-600/4-77-024, Environmental
Monitoring Series. Cincinnati, OH. 261 p.
COFFMAN, W. P. 1978. Chironomidae. Pages 345-76 In R. W. Merritt and
K. W. Cummins, ed., An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North
America. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. 441 p.


June, 1982

Steiner & Hulbert: Nimbocera pinderi

REISS, F. 1972. Die Tanytarsini (Chironomidae, Diptera) Siidchiles und
Westpatagoniens. Mit Hinweisen auf die Tanytarsini-Fauna der
Neotropis. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna 7:49-94.
ROBACK, S. S. 1966. The Catherwood Foundation Peruvian-Amazon expedi-
tion. XII-Diptera, with some observations on the salivary glands of
the Tendipedidae. Monogr. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14: 305-75.
SAETHER, O. A. 1980. Glossary of Chironomid Morphology Terminology
(Diptera: Chironomidae). Ent. Scand. Suppl. 14: 1-51.


Systematic Entomology Laboratory, IIBIII,
Agricultural Research Service, USDA,
c/o U. S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. 20560
Bureau of Plant Industry, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture,
Harrisburg, PA 17110 USA

Six species of plant bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae) collected in southern
Florida are reported as new United States records: Hyalopsallus diaphanus
(Reuter) (Phylinae); Ceratocapsus nigropiceus Reuter, Jobertus chrysolec-
trus Distant, and Paramixia carmelitana (Carvalho) (Orthotylinae); Para-
carnus cubanus Bruner (Deraeocorinae); and Proba hyalina Maldonado
(Mirinae). Distribution and host plants in Florida and diagnoses are pro-
vided for all 6 species.

Se registran por primera vez en los Sstados Unidos 6 species de Miridae
colectadas en el sur de Florida: Hyalopsallus diaphanus (Reuter) (Phy-
linae) ; Ceratocapsus nigropiceus Reuter, Jobertus chrysolectrus Distant, y
Paramixia carmelitana (Carvalho) (Orthotylinae); Paracarnus cubanus
Bruner (Deraeocorinae); y Proba hyalina Maldonado (Mirinae). Se pre-
sentan datos sobre la distribuci6n y las plants hospederas, y diagnoses para
las 6 species.

The Miridae of Florida are inadequately known, despite Blatchley's
(1926) monumental "Heteroptera of Eastern North America" in which the
Floridian fauna was emphasized. Fewer than 300 species have been recorded
from Florida and surrounding states, a figure that is low in comparison to
the numbers recorded from certain other states. For example, Knight (1928)
recorded 296 mirids from New York. Later Knight (1941) raised the num-
ber to 316 and listed 300 species from Illinois. Considering the presence of


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

a rich temperate fauna combined with a strong Neotropical element, well
over 400 species should be expected to occur in Florida.
During trips to Florida in 1980 and 1981, we collected several Neotropical
Miridae not recorded previously from the United States. On the first trip,
one of us (AGW) collected specimens of Jobertus chrysolectrus Distant and
Proba hyalina Distant. In 1981 we confirmed that breeding populations
of these species are established in Florida and collected 3 additional Neo-
tropical mirids: Ceratocapsus nigropiceus Reuter, Paramixia carmelitana
(Carvalho), and Paracarnus cubanus Bruner. The 6th species, Hyalopsallus
diaphanus (Reuter), is recognized from specimens sent by Dr. R. I. Sailer,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
In this paper we summarize the distribution records and host plants of
these 6 species in southern Florida and provide diagnoses to facilitate their
recognition. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the insect collections
of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agri-
culture, Gainesville (FSCA); Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture,
Harrisburg (PDA); U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington,
D.C. (USNM); and the University of Florida, Agriculture Research and
Education Center, Homestead (UF, AREC).

Hyalopsallus diaphanus (Reuter)
Reuter (1907) described H. diaphanus, a phyline, in the genus Atomoscelis
from a single 9 collected in Mandeville, Jamaica. Van Duzee (1907) listed
this specimen in his "Notes on Jamaican Hemiptera." Carvalho and Schaffner
(1973) later erected the monobasic genus Hyalopsallus for diaphanus, il-
lustrated the adult and S genitalia, and reported this species from the
Dominican Republic. No host has been reported.
Our Florida record is based on 8 5, 7 9, and 3 nymphs collected at
Miami, Dade Co., 6 February 1979 by Paul Chobrda on Crotalaria incana L.
(Fabaceae) (FSCA, USNM). Specimens identified by J. C. M. Carvalho and
J. C. Schaffner (Texas A & M University, College Station) were examined
and served to confirm our identification.
ADULT : Length 3.12-3.32 mm, width 1.20-1.28 mm. Head: Width 0.68-
0.77 mm, vertex 0.38. Rostrum: Length 0.80 mm, reaching bases of mesocoxae.
Antenna: Segment I, length 0.20-0.22 mm; II, 0.80-0.84 mm; III, 0.56-0.58
mm; IV, 0.34-0.38 mm. Pronotum: Length 0.50 mm, basal width 1.08-1.12
General coloration pale yellowish green; hemelytra distinctly hyaline,
tinged with pale yellow green, often with a few, small, scattered, fuscous
spots on clavus and corium, membrane clear to smoky brown, with 2 small,
dark subapical clouds; antenna testaceous, segment I with ventral aspect
having a narrow, sub-basal, fuscous line (line sometimes forming a complete
band around segment) and a large, subapical, fuscous spot; II with a fuscous
band at base; III and IV uniformly infuscated; venter and legs pale; femora
with numerous, small, fuscous spots; black tibial spines with fuscous spots
at bases; dorsum with numerous long, erect, brown to fuscous, simple setae,
intermixed with shorter, silvery, simple setae.
ADULT 9 : Length 3.12-3.36 mm. Similar to 8 in color and pubescence.
REMARKS: Hyalopsallus diaphanus will key to the genus Plagiognathus
Fieber and the species chrysanthemi (Wolff) in Blatchley (1926), but


June, 1982

Henry & Wheeler: New U.S. Mirid Records

chrysanthemi has the hemelytra opaque (rather than hyaline), the apex of
the tylus fuscous (rather than greenish), 2 rows of large fuscous spots on
the metafemora (rather than a few, small, scattered spots), and has a longer
rostrum that reaches beyond the metacoxae (rather than only to the

Ceratocapsus nigropiceus Reuter
Ceratocapsus nigropiceus was described from specimens collected by E. P.
Van Duzee at Mandeville, Jamaica, in 1906 (Reuter 1907). The only other
records for this orthotyline mirid are Balaclava and Montego Bay, Jamaica
(Van Duzee 1907).
We collected a single 4th-instar nymph on Upper Key Largo on 17 April
1981. The nymph was beaten from a dense colony of the halophyte Batis
maritima L., a saltwort of the family Bataceae, and was reared on sprigs of
this plant, aphids, and crushed caterpillars. We did not observe C. nigropiceus
feeding on plant material, but the nymph readily accepted the supplemental
animal food. Recent observations of species of Ceratocapsus feeding on
Homoptera have suggested that they are primarily predacious (Wheeler and
Henry 1978). The adult, a 3 that matured on 29 April, was identified by
comparison with a S collected at Mandeville by Van Duzee and borrowed
from the 0. M. Reuter collection (Mus. Zool., Helsinki).
ADULT : Length 3.04 mm, width 1.12 mm. Head: width 0.70 mm, vertex
0.24 mm. Rostrum: Length 1.02 mm, reaching mesocoxae. Antenna: Seg-
ment I, length 0.24 mm; II, 0.74 mm; III, 0.42 mm; IV, 0.40 mm. Pronotum:
Length 0.56 mm, basal width 1.00 mm.
General coloration shiny fuscous, hemelytra a somewhat lighter, dark
brown, membrane fumate; venter and metalegs (except for bases of meta-
femora) fuscous, pro- and mesolegs, rostrum, and antennae pale testaceous.
Head shagreened, weakly rugose; pronotum distinctly punctate; hemelytra
thickly set with silvery, sericeous pubescence intermixed with testaceous,
pilose setae.
REMARKS: Ceratocapsus nigropiceus keys nearest C. serious Knight in
Blatchley (1926). From this species, nigropiceus is distinguished by the more
shiny dorsal surface and more complex, branched right paramere, which is
slender and unbranched in serious. Ceratocapsus nigropiceus is more similar
to a species not included in Blatchley's key, C. balli Knight and C. divaricatus
Knight. However, C. nigropiceus differs from balli and divaricatus in having
the antennae and the pro- and mesolegs uniformly pale testaceous, rather
than having all the legs fuscous divaricatuss sometimes has the pro- and
mesolegs somewhat paler than the metalegs), and the 3rd, 4th, and apex of
the 2nd antennal segments reddish. The left, 3-pronged paramere in
nigropiceus has only a short, recurved basal prong; in balli the basal prong
is reduced to a sharp spike, and in divaricatus it is long and broad. These
species will be treated in a forthcoming revision of Ceratocapsus (by TJH).

Jobertus chrysolectrus Distant
Jobertus chrysolectrus, another orthotyline, was described from Mexico
(Distant 1893) and later recorded from Cuba (Bruner 1935, Alayo 1974)
and Puerto Rico (Maldonado 1969). Maldonado also redescribed and il-


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

lustrated the adult, figured $ parameres, and provided a key to the 3 species
of the genus. Alayo (1974) also described and illustrated the adult. Bruner
(1935) reported this species from beans, and Maldonado (1969) listed speci-
mens from the shrubs Clerodendrum philippinum Schauer (=fragrans
Willd.), Cordia nitida Vahl., and Cordia sp.; eggplant, Solanum melongena
L., and squash, Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne) Poir; and mixed grasses.
We collected J. chrysolectrus at 2 localities in southern Florida. On 21
March 1980 and 10 April 1981 numerous adults were taken in Dade Co. along
the Tamiami Trail, Rt. 41, 5 mi. west of Rt. 27; they were beaten from foli-
age of a morning-glory, Ipomoea alba L., heavily infested with leafhoppers.
On 12 April 1981, we took 2 adults from Solanum erianthus D. Don near the
Everglades National Park Headquarters and Visitor Center, Rt. 27. The
collection of J. chrysolectrus on plants of diverse families and its abundance
on leafhopper-infested foliage suggest that this mirid is at least partially
Among undetermined material (FSCA) we found additional specimens:
Marion Co., near Ocala, 27 August 1925, Drummon and Wiley, and High-
lands Co., Archbold Biological Station, 13-14 July 1979, H. V. Weems, Jr.
and T. A. Webber, in insect flight trap.
ADULT : Length 2.88-3.04 mm, width ca. 1.00 mm (wings spread).
Head: Width 0.54 mm, vertex 0.20 mm. Rostrum: 1.02-1.06 mm, reaching
just beyond metacoxae. Antenna: Segment I, length 0.32-0.34 mm; II, 1.02-
1.06 mm; III, 0.54-0.60 mm; IV, 0.54-0.66 mm. Pronotum: Length 0.36-0.38
mm, basal width 0.76-0.78 mm.
General coloration pale green, frons and vertex of head, pronotum (ex-
cept lateral margins), middle of base on scutellum, and a slender mark con-
necting apex of clavus and inside angle of corium black (in some specimens
the pronotum lacks much of the fuscous coloration); venter, rostrum, legs,
and antennae (except for a fuscous mark on basal 1/2 of 1st antennal seg-
ment) pale green. Membrane mostly smoky gray with inside of large areole
green, posterior margins of veins sometimes narrowly bordered with darker
gray. Dorsum impunctate, sparsely set with fine, erect, simple setae.
ADULT 9 : Length 2.80-2.90 mm. Very similar to 8 in color and form.
REMARKS: Jobertus chrysolectrus will key to the genera Hyalochloria
Reuter and Diaphnidia Uhler in Blatchley (1926) but can be distinguished
by the dark markings on the head, pronotum, and hemelytra. Some of the
species once placed in Diaphnidia have been transferred to the genera
Brachynotocoris Reuter, Diaphnocoris Kelton, or Paraproba Distant. In
most cases J. chrysolectrus can be separated by its dark markings on the
dorsum, but in Henry's (1977) key, Jobertus may run to the couplet con-
taining Paraproba because of the choice "head black or pale." Paraproba,
however, has the head uniformly black and the remainder of the body pale
greenish; Jobertus has the head predominately pale with black markings, in
addition to black markings on the pronotum and hemelytra.

Paramixia carmelitana (Carvalho)
Carvalho (1948) described P. carmelitana from Brazil, placing it in the
phyline genus Rhinacloa Reuter; later, Carvalho (1955a) transferred it to
the orthotyline genus Orthotylellus Knight and recorded the species from
Ecuador and Puerto Rico. Schuh (1974) has shown that Orthotylellus is a

June, 1982


Henry & Wheeler: New U.S. Mirid Records

junior synonym of the pilophorine genus Paramixia Reuter. Maldonado
(1969) redescribed carmelitana, figured the adult and the S parameres,
and included it in his key to the genera of Puerto Rican Miridae. This mirid
has been taken on Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth, Cyperus rotundus L., grasses,
and sedges (Maldonado 1969).
We collected 5 S and 3 9 at the Homestead research station (UF,
AREC), 13-19 April 1981, by sweeping grasses and weeds, and by black
lighting. In sorting undetermined Miridae we found that R. M. Baranowski
had taken 14 additional specimens at the same locality on 20 August 1968
and 27 March 1977. We also have examined a S taken at blacklight in
Trinidad (Curepe, Santa Margarita, Circular Rd.) by F. D. Bennett on 12
January 1976 (UF, AREC).
ADULT S : Length 2.32-2.60 mm, width 1.00-1.08 mm. Head: Width 0.66-
0.72 mm, vertex 0.32-0.34 mm. Rostrum: Length 1.10-1.18 mm, reaching just
beyond metacoxae. Antenna: Segment I, length 0.18 mm; II 0.74-0.80 mm;
III, 0.32-0.36 mm; IV, 0.30-0.32 mm. Pronotum: Length 0.40-0.42 mm, basal
width 0.88-0.94 mm.
General color brown to fuscous, legs and antennae (except for fuscous
3rd and 4th antennal segments) uniformly testaceous; thickly clothed with
recumbent, pale setae intermixed with more silvery, sericeous setae on
dorsum and pleural areas of the pronotum and abdomen.
ADULT 9 : Length 2.52-2.72 mm. Very similar to & in color, form, and
REMARKS: Paramixia carmelitana superficially resembles members of the
subfamily Phylinae, especially those of Chlamydatus Curtis. The convergent
parempodia, however, will place the species in the Orthotylinae. They will
key to Orthotylus Fieber in Blatchley (1926) but can be separated by the
small size, oval form, sericeous pubescence, and dark color with pale ap-

Paracarnus cubanus Bruner

Bruner (1934) described and figured P. cubanus from specimens col-
lected in Cuba, and Wolcott (1948) recorded this species from Puerto Rico.
Maldonado (1969) redescribed the $ and 9, figured the adult and the S
parameres, and included a key to species of the genus.
Bruner (1934) suggested that P. cubanus, a deraeocorine of the tribe
Hyaliodini, is predacious. He observed that nymphs and adults were
abundant in an orange grove infested with citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus
woglami Ashby. He also noted that nymphs were reared on leaves of
Pothomorpha pertata L. infested with a yellow aphid. Other host records
include Cordia sulcata DC, Pariti titaceum [=Paritium titaceum A. ?], and
Petitia domingensis Jacq. (Wolcott 1948); and Annona sp., Fraxinus spp.,
Montezuma speciossisima Sesse & Moc., and Solanum ficifolium Ortega ?
[=torvum Sw.] (Maldonado 1969).
The genus Paracarnus is difficult to distinguish from the genera Hyaliodes
Reuter and Hyaliodocoris Knight. Neither Carvalho's (1955b) key to the
world genera of Miridae nor Maldonado's (1969) key consistently separates
these 3 genera, which are in need of revision.
There is confusion regarding the taxonomic status of P. cubanus and P.
mexicanus Distant. After conferring with the British hemipterist W. E.


238 Florida Entomologist 65 (2) June, 1982

China, Bruner (1934) maintained both taxa as distinct because China felt
that cubanus was less punctate and had shorter 2nd antennal segments than
Distant's mexicanus. In his "Miridae of Puerto Rico," Maldonado (1969)
suggested that P. cubanus is a junior synonym of P. mexicanus based on
China's apparent change of opinion, but he noted that "this point has to be
definitely clarified in the future." Until Distant's specimens of mexicanus
can be re-examined and compared with cubanus, we feel it is best to recognize
the distinctness of Bruner's species.
One of us (AGW) and D. R. Whitehead (Systematic Entomology Lab-
oratory, USDA, Washington, D.C.) collected a single & at the Homestead
research station (UF, AREC), 11 April 1981; the specimen was beaten from
avocado, Persea americana Miller. We later found in the USNM a $ and a
9 that had been taken at Homestead by D. O. Wolfenbarger on 23 December
1947, det. R. I. Sailer.
ADULT $ : Length 3.60 mm, width 1.36 mm. Head: Width 0.64 mm, vertex
0.24 mm. Rostrum: Length 0.94 mm, reaching mesocoxae. Antenna: Segment
I, length 0.38 mm; II, 0.88 mm; III, 0.38 mm; IV, 0.24 mm. Pronotum:
Length 0.74 mm, basal width 1.12 mm.
General coloration testaceous, head pale yellow, triangular area on frons
and tylus reddish; pronotum testaceous with contrasting brown to red
punctures, collar and 3 short carinae (1 at each side and at middle) pale
yellow; scutellum pale yellow; hemelytra transparent except for narrow,
claval margins, apical areas of coria, apices of cunei, and membranal veins;
venter and legs pallid; antenna with 1st segment reddish, 2nd pale, 3rd, 4th,
and apex of 2nd fuscous.
REMARKS: Paracarnus cubanus will key to Hyaliodes in Blatchley (1926)
and Knight (1941). It is distinguished from our 3 known species of Hyaliodes
by having the 1st antennal segment much shorter than the width of the head
and by having 3 distinct, pale yellow carinae on the pronotum.

Proba hyalina Maldonado
Proba hyalina was known only from 3 specimens collected at Jayua (near
Cerro de Puntas), Puerto Rico, on Clibadium erosum DC. (Maldonado 1969).
Maldonado figured the adult and the 8 parameres and included Proba in his
key to the mirid genera of Puerto Rico.
We collected numerous nymphs and adults of this mirine species on the
weedy composite Parthenium hysterophorus L. growing along roadsides and
in crop fields. In Dade Co. one adult was collected near Florida City along
Rt. 27 on 18 March 1980, and a large series was taken at the same locality on
7 April 1981; another large series was collected near Homestead on 10
April 1981. Proba hyalina often was more abundant than the other mirids
that we found on Parthenium: Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois),
Polymerus sp., Reuteroscopus ornatus (Reuter), Rhinacloa sp., and Taylori-
lygus pallidulus (Blanchard). We later found 13 specimens that R. M.
Baranowski had taken at light, 27 June-30 August 1969, at the Homestead
research station (UF, AREC).
ADULT & : Length 3.84-4.28 mm, width 1.64-1.75 mm. Head: Width 0.96-
1.00 mm, vertex 0.40-0.42 mm. Rostrum: Length 1.68-1.76 mm, reaching just
beyond metacoxae. Antenna: Segment I, length 0.42-0.44 mm; II, 1.22-1.30

Henry & Wheeler: New U.S. Mirid Records

mm; III, 0.76-0.84 mm; IV, 0.46-0.52 mm. Pronotum: Length 0.86-0.90 mm,
basal width, 1.50-1.54 mm.
General coloration bright, shiny green, head green, tylus reddish; hem-
elytra strongly hyaline, devoid of pubescence, inside margin of clavus
fuscous, scutellum greenish yellow, base of scutellum sometimes with a
fuscous mark at middle; legs uniformly greenish, claws fuscous; antenna
green with 3rd, 4th, and apical 1/3-1/2 of 2nd segment fuscous.
ADULT $ : Length 4.20-4.40 mm. Similar to $ in coloration but larger
and slightly more robust.
REMARKS: Proba hyalina could be confused with Taylorilygus pallidulus
and species of Dagbertus Distant, but hyalina is separated by the shiny,
hyaline, glabrous hemelytra and by the complete basal carina on the head.
The genus Proba will key to Horcias Distant (U.S. species now are placed in
Metriorrhynchomiris Kirkaldy) in Blatchley (1926). Proba differs in the
smaller size, the longer rostrum that reaches just beyond the metacoxae, the
uniformly greenish color, and the distinct basal carina on the head. Proba
hyalina is most similar to Proba scutellata (Distant), found in Mexico
and Texas, but hyalina lacks the fuscous 1st antennal segments and the
fuscous marks or annuli on the metafemora, as noted by Maldonado (1969).

Finding 6 Miridae new to Florida is hardly surprising considering the
lack of intensive mirid collecting in southern Florida. In addition, the ex-
treme southern areas of Florida are vulnerable to invasion by new taxa
from the tropics. Darlington (1938), in his studies on the origin of a Greater
Antillean fauna, considered hurricanes of prime importance in dispersal.
Mirids have been taken at high altitudes (e.g., see Gaines 1938, Glick 1939)
and appear capable of long-range dispersal by self-sustained flight, as well
as by passive movement on convective air currents. Our collection of several
Neotropical species in the fruit-growing regions near the University of
Florida Agricultural and Education Center, Homestead (formerly the Sub-
Tropical Experiment Station) suggests that mirids may be introduced with
tropical fruits or other products. The 6 species appear to be recently intro-
Of the 65 species treated by Maldonado (1969) in his "Miridae of
Puerto Rico," 27 are known to occur in Florida. Four of the 6 species in this
paper are also known from Puerto Rico, which brings the number of species
in common to 31. Based on the well-studied distributions of butterflies in
the West Indies (Monroe 1948, Riley 1975), we would expect the mirid fauna
of southern Florida to show a closer relationship to that of the Bahamas or
Cuba than to Puerto Rico. Unfortunately, the Miridae inhabiting the
Bahamas and Cuba are inadequately known. We feel that an extensive survey
of the Caribbean region is needed to record the movement of mirids into the
fruit-growing regions of southern Florida and to elucidate the origin of the
West Indian mirid fauna.

We thank Antti Jansson (Zoological Museum, Helsinki, Finland) for the
loan of Reuter's type of Ceratocapsus nigropiceus, and Richard M. Baranow-


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

ski (UF, AREC), Frank W. Mead (FSCA), Howard V. Weems, Jr. (FSCA),
and R. I. Sailer (UF, Gainesville) for lending other specimens examined
during this study. We also thank George Avery (Homestead, FL., through
the courtesy of R. M. Baranowski) for identifying plant material collected
during our 1981 trip, and R. T. Schuh (American Museum of Natural His-
tory, New York) for bringing to our attention the synonymy of Orthotylellus
under Paramixia.

ALAYO, P. 1974. Los hemipteros de Cuba. Parte XIII. Familia Miridae.
Torreia (new series) 32: 3-41.
BLATCHLEY, W. S. 1926. Heteroptera or true bugs of eastern North America.
Nature Publ. Co., Indianapolis. 1116 p.
BRUNER, S. C. 1934. Notes on Cuban Dicyphinae (Hemiptera, Miridae).
Mem. Soc. Poey 8: 35-50.
BRUNER, S. C. 1935. La maruca y otros insects de las habas de Lima. Bol.
Est. Exp. Agron. Santiago de las Vegas, Prov. Habana 56: 3-52.
CARVALHO, J. C. M. 1948. Mirideos neotropicais, XXX: Generos Ellenia
Reuter, Eurychilopterella Reuter e Rhinacloa Reuter, com descricoes
de species novas (Hemiptera). Bull. Mus. Nac. Zool. 85: 1-12.
1955a. Analecta Miridologica: Miscellaneous observations in some
American Museums and bibliography. Rev. Chilena Ent. 4: 221-7.
-- 1955b. Keys to the genera of the Miridae of the World (Hemiptera).
Bol. Mus. Goeldi. 11: 1-151.
-- AND J. C. SCHAFFNER. 1973. Neotropical Miridae, CLIV: Bicurvi-
coris, Hyalopsallus and Nigrimiris, new genera of Phylini (Hemi-
ptera). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 33 supply. ) : 17-22.
DARLINGTON, P. J., JR. 1938. The origin of the fauna of the Greater Antilles,
with discussion of dispersal of animals over water and through air.
Q. Rev. Biol. 23: 1-26.
DISTANT, W. L. 1884-1893. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Rhynchota. Hemi-
ptera-Heteroptera. I, Supplement: 304-462.
GAINES, J. C. 1938. The relation of wind currents, as indicated by balloon
drifts, to cotton flea hopper dispersal. J. Econ. Ent. 31: 674-7.
GLICK, P. A. 1939. The distribution of insects, spiders and mites in the air.
United States Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 673: 1-150.
HENRY, T. J. 1977. Orthotylus nassatus, a European plant bug new to North
America (Heteroptera: Miridae). United States Dept. Agric. Coop.
Plant Pest Rep. 2: 605-8.
KNIGHT, H. H. 1928. Family Miridae. Pages 110-34 In Leonard, M. D., ed.
A list of the insects of New York. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn.
Mem. 101.
-- 1941. The plant bugs, or Miridae, of Illinois. Illinois Nat. Hist.
Surv. Bull. 22: 1-234.
MALDONADO-CAPRILES, J. 1969. The Miridae of Puerto Rico (Insecta, Hemi-
ptera). Univ. Puerto Rico Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Paper 45: 133.
MONROE, E. G. 1948. The geographical distribution of butterflies in the
West Indies. Ph. D. thesis, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. 555 p.
REUTER, O. M. 1907. Capsidae novae in insula Jamaica mense Aprilis 1906 a
D. E. P. van Duzee collectae. Ofv. F. Vet. Soc. Forh. 49: 1-27.
RILEY, N. D. 1975. A field guide to the butterflies of the West Indies.
Demeter Press, Boston. 224 p.
SCHUH, R. T. 1974. The Orthotylinae and Phylinae (Hemiptera: Miridae)
of South Africa with a phylogenetic analysis of the ant-mimetic tribes
of the two subfamilies for the world. Ent. Americana 47: 1-332.

June, 1982


Henry & Wheeler: New U.S. Mirid Records

VAN DUZEE, E. P. 1907. Notes on Jamaican Hemiptera. Bull. Buffalo Soc.
Nat. Sci. 8: 3-79.
WHEELER, A. G., JR., AND T. J. HENRY. 1978. Ceratocapsus modestus (Hemi-
ptera: Miridae), a predator of grape phylloxera: Seasonal history
and description of fifth instar. Melsheimer Ent. Ser. 25: 6-10.
WOLCOTT, G. N. 1948. The insects of Puerto Rico. J. Agric. Univ. Puerto
Rico 32(1) : 1-224.


Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
P. O. Box 520, Vero Beach, FL 32961, USA
University of South Florida, Department of Biology
Tampa, FL 33620, USA

A list of 69 species of Hemiptera and Homoptera collected in northwest
Florida salt marshes during a 15-month period is presented. Data on location
of capture, as well as qualitative abundances are given for each species. The
total number of species collected is comparable with those reported from
similar habitats in other North American marshes. Megamelanus bicolor
Ball (Homoptera: Delphacidae) is reported east of the Mississippi River for
the first time.

Se present una lista de 69 species de Hemiptera y Hom6ptera pro-
cedentes de las marismas del noroeste de la Florida (E.U.A.), obtenidas
durante un program de muestreo de 15 meses de duraci6n. Por cada especie
se presentan datos sobre la localidad donde fue capturada, asi como sobre sus
abundancias cualitativas. El total de las species fue semejante como el de
habitates similares en marismas norteamericanas. Melamelanus bicolor
(Ball) (Homptera: Delphacidae) es reportado por primera vez al este del
Rio Mississippi.

In a previous contribution (McCoy and Rey 1981b), we described the
beetle fauna of salt marshes in the St. Marks area of northwest Florida.
Here, we list the species of Hemiptera and Homoptera collected from these
marshes during the same period. Various aspects of these arthropod com-
munities have been under study during the last 6 years; the data reported
below resulted from a 15-month sampling program designed to investigate
the diversity and abundance patterns of arthropods within the various zones
of these marshes.


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

General descriptions of the study area can be found in Kurz and Wagner
(1954), McCoy (1977) and Rey (1978); and previous publications on the
ecology and biogeography of resident arthropods are listed in McCoy and
Rey (1981b),and Rey (1981).

Full descriptions of the collection methods, sampling program, and study
sites are given in McCoy and Rey (1981a, b). The study area is located in
Wakulla County within the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, near
Wakulla Beach in northwest Florida (30.090 N, 29.120 W). The salt marshes
along this area of the Gulf of Mexico are dominated by the black rush,
Juncus roemerianus Scheele. This is in contrast to most Atlantic coast
marshes in which smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora Loisl. predomi-
nates. At St. Marks, the latter species occurs only in narrow fringes along
the coast and along the banks of tidal creeks, and on the emergent tops of
oyster bars or sand bars in the bay. Between the Spartina fringes and the
extensive Juncus stands, one often finds a halophytic shrub community on
narrow sand levees deposited by winds and tides; Baccharis halimifolia L.
(marsh elder), Lycium carolinianum Walt. (christmas berry) and Myrica
cerifera L. (wax myrtle) are the species found most commonly on these
levees. Landward from the Juncus there are often small patches of a mixed-
species community which we term Distichlis meadows. Distichlis spicata (L.)
Greene (salt grass) is the predominant species, but Spartina patens (Ait.)
Muhl. (slender cordgrass, salt hay), Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC. (sea
oxeye), Limonium carolinianum (Walt.) Britt. (sea lavender), Salicornia
virginica L. (perennial glasswort), and other species are also present in
varying proportions.
Samples were taken monthly or quarterly from June, 1975 to August,
1976 at each of 20 stations located throughout the 4 main habitat types. Each
sample consisted of 120 sweeps using standard removal-sweeping methods
(Southwood 1966). Collections were placed in individual plastic bags, sorted
in the laboratory, and separated into species. A reference collection contain-
ing several specimens of each species was deposited at the Division of Plant
Industry (Florida Dept. of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Gainesville)
for identification.

The 69 species of adult and immature Hemiptera and Homoptera identi-
fied from our collections are listed in Table 1. These include 23 species of
Hemiptera and 46 species of Homoptera. Note that exclusively ground-
dwelling species, and some strong-flying species are not likely to be collected
by sweeping. Also, species restricted to only a few sites will not be recorded
during some months if these sites were sampled only quarterly. Eight species
that were lost during processing are not included in the list.

Approximately 57% of the Homoptera and 50% of the Hemiptera that
were identified to species have also been reported from other North American


June, 1982

Rey & McCoy: NW Florida Salt Marsh Insects


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244 Florida Entomologist 65 (2) June, 1982

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Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

June, 1982


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Rey & McCoy: NW Florida Salt Marsh Insects

marshes (Bickley and Seek 1975; Cameron 1972, unpubl.; Davis 1978; Davis
and Gray 1966; Kale 1964; Lane 1969; Marples 1964; Wall 1973). In total,
about 83% of the Homoptera and 72% of the Hemiptera have at least con-
generic species recorded from other North American marshes.
The delphacid Megamelanus bicolor Ball, collected at a Distichlis meadow
site, represents the first known record of this species east of the Mississippi
River (F. W. Mead, pers. comm.). Both adults and immatures were collected,
indicating that breeding by the species occurred in Florida. A single adult
was collected on Juncus and probably represented a dispersing individual.
These collections also resulted in the first series of specimens of the genus
Paratrioza (Homoptera: Psyllidae) from Florida. The only known previous
record of the genus in Florida was of a single female from Miami (L. M.
Russell, pers. comm.).
The numbers of species of Hemiptera and Homoptera collected at St.
Marks are comparable to those on other U.S. marshes when similar habitats
are considered. Davis (1978) reported 54 species of Hemiptera and 48
species of Homoptera from Carolina marshes. Of the Hemiptera, 7 species
were collected only on Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl., an uncommon plant
species at St. Marks. Approximately 20 other species were collected from
plant species not present in our study area (i.e., Panicum virgatum L.) or
from habitats not sampled in our study (i.e., brackish water pools). The
corresponding numbers for the Homoptera are: 7 (from S. patens only), 5
(from plant species absent from St. Marks), and 2 (from other habitats).
Discounting these species leaves approximately 25-30 species of Hemiptera
and 30-35 species of Homoptera in the Carolinas, compared with 23 and 46,
respectively, in our collections. Bickley and Seek (1975) report larger num-
bers of species of Hemiptera and Homoptera from Maryland marshes than
we do from Florida, but they include species from Phragmites, Typha, and
Pontederia marshes which are not comparable to ours.

We thank F. W. Mead (DPI, Gainesville, Florida), A. G. Wheeler (Penn.
Dept. of Agriculture), Duane Flynn (Ft. Myers, Florida), and Louise H.
Russell (U.S.D.A. Syst. Ent. Lab, Maryland) for identifying our specimens.
We also wish to thank L. V. Davis (Winthrop College, South Carolina) for
providing us with pre-publication copies of his South Carolina species lists.
We also wish to thank "Red" Gidden and Joe White of the St. Marks
National Wildlife Refuge for their cooperation during this study. Order of
authorship determined by coin toss. This is University of Florida, IFAS
Experimental Stations Journal Series No. 3093.

BICKLEY, W. E., AND T. R. SEEK. 1975. Insects in four Maryland marshes.
Univ. Maryland Agric. Exp. Sta. Misc. Publ. 870.
CAMERON, G. N. 1972. Analysis of insect trophic diversity in two salt marsh
communities. Ecology 53: 58-73.
DAVIs, L. V. 1978. Class Insecta. Pages 186-220 In R. G. Zingmark, ed. An
annotated checklist of the biota of the coastal zone of South Carolina.
Univ. of South Carolina Press, Columbia.
AND H. E. GRAY. 1966. Zonal and seasonal distribution of insects in


Florida Entomologist 65(2)

North Carolina salt marshes. Ecol. Monogr. 36: 275-95.
KALE, H. W. 1964. Food of the long-billed marsh wren, Telmatodytes
palustris griseus, in the salt marshes of Sapelo Island, Georgia.
Oriole 29: 47-61.
KURZ, H., AND K. WAGNER. 1954. Tidal marshes of the Gulf and Atlantic
coasts of northern Florida and Charleston, South Carolina. Florida
State Univ. Studies 24.
LANE, R. S. 1969. The insect fauna of a coastal salt marsh. M. A. Thesis,
San Francisco State College.
MARPLES, T. G. 1964. A radionuclide tracer study of arthropod food chains
in a Spartina salt marsh ecosystem. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of
McCoY, E. D. 1977. The diversity of terrestrial arthropods in northwest
Florida salt marshes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State University.
AND J. R. REY. 1981a. Patterns of abundance, distribution and
alary polymorphism among the salt marsh Delphacidae (Homoptera:
Fulgoroidea) of northwest Florida. Ecol. Ent. 6: 285-91.
AND J. R. REY. 1981b. Terrestrial arthropods of northwest Florida
salt marshes: Coleoptera. Florida Ent. 64: 405-11.
REY, J. R. 1978. Abundance patterns of terrestrial arthropods in northwest
Florida salt marshes. M. S. Thesis, Florida State University.
1981. Ecological biogeography of arthropods on Spartina islands in
northwest Florida. Ecol. Monogr. 51: 237-65.
SOUTHWOOD, T. R. E. 1966. Ecological methods with particular reference to
the study of insect populations. Methuen & Co., London.
WALL, W. J., JR. 1973. The intertidal sand and salt marsh invertebrate
fauna associated with the bloodsucking Diptera of Cape Cod, Massa-
chusetts. Environ. Ent. 2: 681-4.


Systematic Entomology Laboratory, IIBIII, Agric. Res. Serv., USDA,
c/o U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560 USA
(Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods,
Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida)

The following new species of neotropical Culicoides are described: C.
atelis from Panama, collected into a trap baited with a spider monkey; C.
cuiabai from Brazil, collected from the Rio Paraguay drainage of the state
of Mato Grosso; and C. flinti from Argentina, collected in Entre Rios
Province. The last species occurs near the southern limit of Culicoides dis-
tribution in temperate South America.

Se described las species nuevas de Culicoides neotropicales siguientes:
C. atelis de Panama, colectada en una trampa con un ateles; C. cuiabai de
Brasil, colectada de la cuenca del Rio Paraguay, Mato Grosso; y C. flinti de


June, 1982

Wirth: New Neotropical Culicoides

la Provincia de Entre Rios, Argentina. La ultima especie ocurre cerca del
limited meridional de la distribution de Culicoides en la zona templada de

I am taking this opportunity to describe 3 new species of neotropical
biting midges with unusual distribution or habit, based on material in the
National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. These species may
be distinguished from other neotropical Culicoides by use of the keys pub-
lished by Wirth and Blanton (1959) for Panama, Wirth and Blanton (1973)
for the Amazon Basin, or Aitken et al. (1975) for Trinidad. Explanation of
terminology may be found in each of these papers.

Culicoides atelis Wirth, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 1)

Y HOLOTYPE.-Wing length 1.02 mm, breadth 0.37 mm.
Head: Brown, antennae and palpi pale straw-yellow. Eyes (Fig. Id)
separated by a distance equal to one facet, bare. Antenna (Fig. la) with
lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 28-20-21-22-23-23-23-23-36-38-
40-42-60, antennal ratio 1.18; sensilla coeloconica present on segments 3, 7-11.
Palpus (Fig. Ib) with lengths of segments in proportion of 10-30-45-12-10;
3d segment slender with small, round, shallow, sensory pit; palpal ratio 2.8.
Proboscis moderately long, proboscis/head ratio 0.86; mandible with 15
Thorax: Bright yellow; mesonotum (Fig. If) with a prominent pair of
brown longitudinal vittae laterally on anterior portion. Legs uniformly
yellowish white; hind tibial comb with 4 spines, the one nearest the spur
longest (Fig. Ig). Wing (Fig. Ic) uniformly yellowish white; without
macrotrichia but microtrichia well developed, apparently in areas of coarser



3. ; --g

Fig. 1. Culicoides atelis, : a) antenna; b) palpus; c) wing; d) eye
separation; e) spermathecae; f) thoracic pattern; g) hind trochanter, femur,
and tibia.


250 Florida Entomologist 65 (2) June, 1982

and finer microtrichia giving wing a slightly darker shading along veins;
radial veins not very distinct, but apparently radial cells well formed; costal
ratio 0.70. Halter whitish.
Abdomen: Pale brown, 9th segment darker brown. Spermathecae (Fig.
le) 2, oval with long slender necks; one spermatheca collapsed but the 2
apparently subequal, each measuring 0.058 by 0.039 mm, plus neck 0.010 mm
long; rudimentary spermatheca and sclerotized ring present.
& -Unknown.
TYPE-Holotype 9, Panama, Panama Province, Bayano River, Altos de
Maje, 28-30-VIII-1975, P. Galindo and A. J. Adames, in trap over red spider
monkey (Type no. 72239, USNM).
DISCUSSION-The species is named from a genus of spider monkeys,
Ateles, used to bait the collection trap. One 9 was taken, along with one 9
each of C. camposi Ortiz and Leon, C. hylas Macfie, and C. tetrathyris
Wirth and Blanton, in an oil trap using a red spider monkey as bait.
Calicoides atelis is apparently not closely related to any other neotropical
species, although in appearance it somewhat resembles C. floridensis, a small
pale yellow species from Florida which lacks the mesonotal vittae and lacks
visible sensilla coeloconica.

Culicoides cuiabai Wirth, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 2)
9 HOLOTYPE.-Wing length 1.00 mm, breadth 0.43 mm.
Head: Pale brown. Eyes (Fig. 2d) contiguous for a distance equal to 2
facets, bare. Antenna (Fig. 2a) with lengths of flagellar segments in pro-
portion of 25-20-20-20-21-22-23-26-41-41-46-52-80, antennal ratio 1.47; sensilla
coeloconica present on segments 3, 7-10, single on 7, double on 8-9, triple on
10, with long fringing setulae. Palpus (Fig. 2b) with lengths of segments in
proportion of 15-25-44-14-10; 3rd segment slightly swollen, with a shallow,
round, sensory pit; palpal ratio 2.5. Proboscis short, proboscis/head ratio
0.65; mandible with 11-12 fine teeth.



C d

e "f

Fig. 2. Culicoides cuiabai, 9 : a) antenna; b) palpus; c) wing; d) eye
separation; e) spermathecae; f) hind trochanter femur, and tibia.

Wirth: New Neotropical Culicoides

Thorax: Brown, with faint darker brown patches on mesonotum as seen
on slide-mounted specimen. Legs (Fig. 2f) brown, concolorous with thorax;
knee spots blackish; narrow subapical pale rings on fore- and midfemora and
sub-basal pale rings on all tibiae; hindtibial comb with 4 spines, the one
nearest the spur longest. Wing (Fig. 2c) with moderately prominent pat-
tern of small pale spots; costal area between basal arculus and pale spot
over r-m crossvein and over radial cells darker brown; pale spot over r-m
crossvein moderately large, extending slightly into cell M2 and narrowly to
costal margin; 2nd radial cell dark to tip; cell R5 with a small round pale
spot in basal portion midway between veins R4+5 and M1, located at level
of base of 2nd radial cell, a 2nd small pale spot on anterior margin just past
tip of costa, and a 3rd round pale spot in middle of cell just distad of second
spot; cell M1 with 2 small oval pale spots, the distal one located well-
removed from wing margin, the proximal one nearly obsolete; cell M2 with
small, nearly obsolescent pale spots lying behind medial fork and in front
of midportion of vein M3+4, and a larger, more prominent pale spot near
wing margin; cell M4 with a round pale spot nearly filling distal portion
but not meeting wing margin; anal cell with 2 pale spots in distal portion;
a large pale area at wing base from basal arculus nearly to anal angle in
anal cell; wing tip narrowly pale at tip of vein M1. Macrotrichia sparse on
distal third of wing; radial cells well formed, second exceptionally long and
narrow; costal ratio 0.75. Halter brownish.
Abdomen: Brown. Spermathecae (Fig. 2e) 2, ovoid and gradually taper-
ing to slender necks; unequal, measuring 0.058 by 0.038 mm and 0.048 by
0.038 mm including necks; rudimentary spermatheca and an elongate
sclerotized ring present.
S -Unknown.
TYPES-Holotype female, one 9 paratype, Brazil, Mato Grosso, Cuiab6,
21-22-IV-1972, W. H. Whitcomb, light trap (Type no. 75364, USNM).
DIscussIoN-This species keys out to C. albuquerquei Wirth and Blanton
in couplet 46 of Wirth and Blanton's (1973) key to the Amazonian
Culicoides. That species differs in its wing and leg patterns, short normal
2nd radial cell, and antennal sensory pattern 3, 9, 11-14. It belongs to the
C. discrepans group of large, prominently yellow-marked species with elon-
gated thorax. In Wirth and Blanton's (1959) key to the Panama Culicoides,
C. cuiabai keys out near C. volcanensis, but is apparently not closely related
to that species either.
CuiabA is located on the southern slope of the Planalto do Mato Grosso,
separated by a highland region from the Amazon Basin to the north. Its
drainage is to the south into the Rio Paraguay.

Culicoides flinti Wirth, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 3)

9 HOLOTYPE-Wing length 1.19 mm, breadth 0.58 mm.
Head: Brown. Eyes (Fig. 3e) separated by a distance equal to 1.5 facets,
bare. Antenna (Fig. 3a) with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of
28-20-21-22-23-23-23-23-36-38-40-42-60, antennal ratio 1.18; sensilla coelocon-
ica present on segments 3, 7-10. Palpus (Fig. 3b) with lengths of segments
in proportion of 10-30-45-12-10; third segment distinctly swollen distally,


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)


c d

^y ^-- ----- --------- ~" ~""^ ^ .

Fig. 3. Culicoides flinti, 9 : a) antenna; b) palpus; c) wing; d) sper-
mathecae; e) eye separation; f) hind trochanter, femur, and tibia.

with a large round, moderately deep, sensory pit; palpal ratio 2.3. Proboscis
moderately long, proboscis/head ratio 0.87; mandible with 15 teeth.
Thorax: Dark brown, scutellum pale brown; mesonotum with obscure
pattern of paler areas. Legs (Fig. 3f) brown, knee spots blackish; femora
slightly paler at bases, fore- and midfemora with faint subapical pale rings;
tibiae with sub-basal pale rings, hindtibia with apex broadly pale; hindtibial
comb with 4 spines, the one nearest the spur longest. Wing (Fig. 3c) dark
brown with moderately distinct pattern of small rounded pale spots as
figured, veins darkened; 2nd radial cell dark to tip; pale spot over r-m cross-
vein small, not extending into cell M2 or to costal margin; 2 more or less
confluent small poststigmatic pale spots, the posterior one lying behind tip
of 2nd radial cell; cell R5 with a small rounded pale spot in middle of distal
portion, well separated from wing margin; cell M1 with 2 oval pale spots,
the distal one separated by about its own length from wing margin; cell
M2 with pale spot lying behind medial fork and a round pale spot near wing
margin; cell M4 with a large round pale spot; anal cell with one round pale
spot in distal portion; a small pale spot just distad of basal arculus; apices
of veins without pale spots. Macrotrichia moderately dense on distal half of
wing and extending along posterior margin to base of anal cell; radial cells
well developed, the 2nd short and broad; costal ratio 0.60. Halter brown.
Abdomen: Brown, darker distally. Spermathecae (Fig. 3d) 2, ovoid with
long slender necks; slightly unequal, measuring 0.049 by 0.039 mm and
0.044 by 0.036 mm, plus necks 0.014 mm long; rudimentary spermatheca and
a large, doughnut-shaped sclerotized ring present.
& -Unknown.
TYPES-Holotype 9, 3 9 paratypes, Argentina, Entre Rios, arroyo
P. Verne, vie. San Jose, 15-XI-1973, O. S. Flint, Jr. (Type no. 75370,
DiscussioN-The species is named for the collector, Dr. Oliver S. Flint,
Jr., Trichoptera specialist with the Smithsonian Institution in Washington,
D.C., in appreciation of his interest and help in collecting ceratopogonids
during his studies of aquatic insects throughout the Americas.


June, 1982

Wirth: New Neotropical Culicoides 253

In Wirth and Blanton's (1973) key this species keys to C. debilipalpis
Lutz, but C. debilipalpis differs in its more slender antenna with antennal
ratio 0.83, antennal sensory pattern 3, 8-10, more widely separated hairy
eyes, more slender 3rd palpal segment with smaller, deeper pit, more distinct
wing pattern and less deeply infuscated wing, and a small, cylindrical ring
on the spermathecal duct. In the key to the species of the C. debilipalpis
group by Vitale et al. (1981) C. flinti could be confused with C. glabrior
Macfie in couplet 10, but C. glabrior has the 2nd radial cell much broader,
the poststigmatic pale spots in cell R5 are well separated, and there is a pale
spot lying in front of the mediocubital fork.

I wish to acknowledge the assistance of Dr. Pedro Galindo, formerly
Director, and Dr. Abdiel Adames, Head of the Department of Ecology,
Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, Balboa Heights, Panama Canal Zone, for their
interest in Culicoides biology and disease transmission, and for submission
of specimens. I am grateful to Ms. Molly K. Ryan for the illustrations.

TIKASINGH. 1975. A review of the bloodsucking midges of Trinidad
and Tobago, West Indies (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J. Ent. (B)
44: 101-44.
VITALE, G. C., W. W. WIRTH, AND T. H. G. AITKEN. 1981. New species and
records of Culicoides reared from arboreal habitats in Panama, with
a synopsis of the debilipalpis group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Proc.
Ent. Soc. Washington 83: 140-59.
WIRTH, W. W., AND F. S. BLANTON. 1959. Biting midges of the genus
Culicoides from Panama (Diptera: Heleidae). Proc. United States
Natl. Mus. 109: 237-482.
-- AND 1973. A review of the maruins or biting midges of the
genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in the Amazon Basin.
Amazoniana 4: 405-70.

254 Florida Entomologist 65 (2) June, 1982


North Carolina State Museum of Natural History
P. O. Box 27647, Raleigh, NC 27611 USA
Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Affairs,
Gainesville, FL 32602 USA

Anatomical studies and comparisons with Euryurus maculatus Koch
confirm that Euryurus mississippiensis (Causey) is properly referred to
that genus and that Singuliurus Causey is a synonym of Euryurus Koch. A
full description and illustrations are presented for mississippiensis, along
with new locality records of maculatus, E. cingulatus Hoffman, and E.
leachii fraternus Hoffman from Alabama and Mississippi.

Estudios anat6micos, y comparasiones con Euryurus maculatus Koch
confirman que E. mississippiensis (Causey) se refiere propriamente a este
g6nero, y que Singuliurus Causey es un sin6nimo de Euryurus Koch. Se
presentan una descripci6n complete y ilustraciones para E. mississippiensis,
con nuevas localidades registradas para E. maculatus, E. cingulatus Hoff-
man, y E. leachii fraternus Hoffman de Alabama y de Mississippi.

The taxonomic status of Euryurus mississippiensis (Causey) has never
been satisfactorily determined. It is a modified euryurine species with a
simple telopodite that lacks a subterminal process, and Causey (1955)
erected the new genus Singuliurus to accommodate it. Chamberlin and Hoff-
man (1958) repeated her combination in their listing, but Jeekel (1963)
noted the extremely close relationship between Singuliurus and Euryurus
Koch, and expressed doubt about the significance of the generic difference.
He suggested that Singuliurus be withdrawn, and 15 years later Hoffman
(1978) did so, transferring mississippiensis to Euryurus. However, Hoffman
qualified his action with the admission that he had not seen any specimens
and was acting solely on Causey's description, which is inadequate by modern
standards. The holotype of mississippiensis was absent from its published
repository, the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and could
not be examined, but Hoffman noted that Singuliurus might justifiably be
retained if Causey's statement (1955) were true that the coxae were con-
nected by a short, flexible suture. He showed that all other species of
Euryurus possessed a distinct intercoxal sternum, and this supposed differ-
ence in mississippiensis might be worthy of generic distinction. Thus, doubt

Shelley: Euryurus mississipiensis

still exists as to the proper systematic position of mississippiensis, and the
description by Causey (1955) has never been upgraded.
Following the death of Dr. Causey in 1979, her large myriapod collection
was transferred to the Florida State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA).
Through the courtesy of Howard V. Weems, Curator of the'FSCA, I have
sorted through this vast amount of material and found several samples of
mississippiensis. I also discovered what must be the lost holotype, which had
gone unrecognized because it was mislabeled. Thus, the status of mississip-
piensis can now be settled, and a thorough study of these specimens leaves
no doubt that it is a valid species of Euryurus. Causey overlooked the inter-
coxal sternum, and the absence of a subterminal process on the telopodite is
merely a specific difference. I agree with Jeekel (1963) and Hoffman (1978);
Singuliurus is a synonym of Euryurus. I publish herein a full description of
mississippiensis to clarify its identity, and comparative illustrations of
Euryurus maculatus Koch, to confirm the congeneric relationship. The
Causey collection also contained several samples of E. maculatus, E.
cingulatus Hoffman, and E. leachii fraternus Hoffman from unreported
localities in Alabama and Mississippi, and I have obtained other new records
in my field studies. These new records are also presented to update knowledge
of the species of Euryurus in the Gulf states. Material from the North
Carolina State Museum collection is indicated by the acronym NCSM and is
accompanied by the invertebrate catalog number.

Euryurus mississippiensis (Causey)
Fig. 1, 3-6

Singuliurus mississippiensis Causey, 1955: 23-4, Fig. 2. Chamberlin and
Hoffman, 1958: 59.
Euryurus mississippiensis: Hoffman, 1978: 65-6.
TYPE SPECIMEN: As stated by Hoffman (1978), the male holotype is not
at the AMNH, as reported by Causey (1955) and Chamberlin and Hoffman
(1958), nor did I discover a specimen labeled as such in the Causey collec-
tion. However, the collection does contain a male labeled, "Eutheatus simplex
Causey, Holotype," whose locality and date of collection-MS, Jackson Co.,
Vancleave, 1 January 1954, N. B. Causey-match what Causey (1955) re-
ported for the holotype of S. mississippiensis. I also discovered an entry in
Dr. Causey's notes stating that she could not find the type of S. mississip-
piensis and that it must be lost. Three years before she described mississip-
piensis, Causey (1952) described Eutheatus aculeatus from Illinois and re-
ported Eutheatus erythropygus from North Carolina, so at this time in her
career Causey thought that Eutheatus was the correct name for this genus.
However, Hoffman (1954) synonymized Eutheatus with Euryurus. Eutheatus
simplex was never published, and Causey apparently either forgot that she
had chosen this binomial or changed her mind and opted to erect the new
genus and to call the species mississippiensis. Later she must have forgotten
her original decision and hence could not find the specimen in her own collec-
tion, since it was labeled Eutheatus simplex instead of S. mississippiensis.
Thus, since Eutheatus simplex never was published, I consider this male the
holotype of Singuliurus mississippiensis Causey, and deposit it in the AMNH
collection in accordance with her wishes (1955), where a male and a female
topotype also are housed.


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

June, 1982


Shelley: Euryurus mississipiensis 257

DIAGNOSIS: Acropodite simple and falcate, tapering smoothly to acumi-
nate tip, without subterminal process; femoral lamella absent; prefemoral
knob vestigial, laminate.
HOLOTYPE: Length 27.1 mm, maximum width 3.9 mm, W/L ratio 14.4%,
depth/width ratio 64.1%. Body parallel sided for most of length, tapering at
both ends.
Color in life (Causey 1955): metaterga olive-black with middorsal row
of red-orange spots; paranota with concolorous red-orange spots.
Head capsule smooth, polished, width across genal apices 2.3 mm, inter-
antennal isthmus 0.8 mm. Epicranial suture sharp, distinct, terminating in
interantennal region, not bified. Antennae moderately long and slender,
reaching back to caudal edge of 3rd paranota, becoming progressively more
hirsute distally, articles 2-6 clavate and similar in length, 7 short and trun-
cate, with four terminal sensory cones. Genae not margined laterally, with
distinct medial impression, ends broadly rounded and projecting slightly
beyond adjacent cranial margins. Facial setae as follows: epicranial and
interantennal absent, frontal 1-1, genal 2-2, clypeal about 8-8, labral about
Terga smooth, polished, without detectable wrinkling. Collum moderately
broad, ends projecting slightly beyond those of following tergite, edges set
off by faint marginal ridge. Paranota relatively large and transversely
quadrate, flat and projecting subparallel to substrate, interrupting slope of
dorsum and imparting distinct 'flat backed" appearance to animal; scapu-
lorae marginal; anteriolateral corners with distinct acute dentation, reduced
on anteriormost segments; caudolateral corners rounded through segment 3,
blunt on segments 4-7, becoming progressively more acute posteriorly. Peri-
tremata thick and conspicuous on segments 5-18, sharply set off from
paranotal surface; ozopores located in slight swelling near middle of para-
nota, opening laterad. Epiproct large, broadly spatulate, widest apically,
corners rounded.
Sides of metazonites smooth, without noticeable grooves or indentations.
Strictures sharp, distinct. Pregonopodal sterna essentially unmodified; that
of segment V with 2 small paramedial knobs between 4th legs and slight
depression between 5th legs. Postgonopodal sterna generally flat and un-
modified, with indentations between leg pairs leading to distinct transverse
grooves. Legs generally without modifications, first 2 pairs smaller and more
crassate than others; gonopores arising from coxae of 2nd legs, relatively
long, apically expanded; tarsal claws slightly curved, not bisinuate. Hypo-
proct broadly ovoid, paraprocts with margins slightly thickened.
Gonopodal aperture relatively large, extending nearly to anterior margin
of prozonum, 1.4 mm wide and 1.1 mm long at midpoint, indented slightly
anteriolaterally, sides strongly elevated above metazonal surface. Gonopods
in situ (Fig. 1, not this specimen), with telopodites projecting ventrad from
aperture, curving medially and crossing' each other in midline, extending
anteriad beyond anterior margin of aperture. Gonopod structure as follows
(Fig. 3-5): coxae large, subglobose, completely filling aperture, connected

Fig. 1-2. 1) Euryurus mississippiensis, gonopods in situ, ventral view of
male from Gulf Hills, Jackson Co., MS. 2) E. maculatus, gonopods in situ,
ventral view of male from Jefferson Co., FL. Scale lines = 1.00 mm for each.

Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

medially by elongate, narrow sternal remnant. Telopodite elongate and
slender, subglobose basally, widening slightly at midlength into vestigial,
laminate prefemoral knob, knob located on caudal margin, without femoral
lamella on anterior margin, narrowing smoothly and continuously distal to
knob to acuminate tip; perfemur about 2/3 of telopodite length, acropodite
about 1/3. Acropodite falcate, curving and tapering smoothly to acuminate
tip, without subapical process. Prostatic groove arising in pit in prefemur
running along medial side of prefemur and continuing to apical opening on
FEMALE TOPOTYPE: Length 28.2 mm, maximum width 4.1 mm, W/L ratio
14.5%, depth/width ratio 73.2%. Agreeing closely with holotype in somatic
Cyphopodal aperture broadly ovoid, curving caudad to 2nd legs, with
indentation between legs. Cyphopods in situ located caudolaterally to 2nd
legs, with valves and tip of receptacle visible in aperture. Receptacle (Fig.
6) triangular, located on medial side of valves. Valves quadrate, subequal.
Operculum small, located under free (lateral) end of valves.
VARIATION: The gonopods of a few males have a blunt corner proximal
to the tip, indicated by the arrow in Fig. 3-4, and the distal prefemoral knob
is more distinct in some individuals.
ECOLOGY: Causey (1955) stated that the holotype was taken from a
rotting log in mixed woods; the sample from Hancock-Harrison counties
(NCSM A3763) was also collected in rotting logs in a mixed hardwood-
conifer forest.
DISTRIBUTION: Known only from southern Mississippi. The species is
most common in counties bordering the Gulf of Mexico, but it ranges in-
land for at least 90 miles to Wayne County. It should also occur in south-
western Alabama (Washington and Mobile counties). Specimens were ex-
amined as follows:
MISSISSIPPI: WAYNE CO., S of Waynesboro, along MS Hwy. 63 at
Chickasawhay R., 8, 22 June'1960, collector unknown (FSCA); unspecified
locality, 8, 29, 4 June 1960, N. B. Causey (FSCA); and Buckatunna, $,
15 June 1959, N. B. Causey (FSCA). GEORGE CO., ca. 11 mi. W. Lucedale,
along MS Hwy. 26 at Pascagoula R., 9, 11 April 1966, L. D. Wilson (FSCA).
JACKSON CO., Vancleave, 8, 1 January 1954, N. B. Causey (AMNH) and $,
9, 28 June 1959, N. B. Causey (FSCA) TYPE LOCALITY; Ocean Springs,
Gulf Hills, 2 29, 1 October 1958, collector unknown (FSCA), 8, 24 June
1959, collector unknown (FSCA), and several $& and 9 9, 1 June 1961,
N. B. Causey (FSCA). HANCOCK-HARRISON Cos., along MS Hwy. 53 at
county line, 2 several 9 9 and juvs., 1 February 1980, A. K. Johnson
(NCSM A3763).
REMARKS: In addition to the above records, Dr. H. Enghoff has informed
me that the Zoologisk Museum Copenhagen has a sample of 2 $, 3 9, from
Biloxi, Harrison Co., collected by H. Kroyer in 1853-1854.
Euryurus mississippiensis is unique in having a strongly falcate acro-
podite and in lacking a subterminal process. It also lacks the femoral lamella
and has a vestigial prefemoral knob, but these structures are also reduced
or absent in other species. The prefemoral knob is more laminate than knob-
like, as it also is in the specimens of maculatus I have examined. Causey
(1955) was wrong in stating that the coxae were connected by a short, flex-


June, 1982

Shelley: Euryurus mississipiensis

ible suture. In fact they are firmly attached by the sclerotized sternal rem-
nant, and it is therefore difficult to dissect one gonopod without the other.
Consequently, Singuliurus cannot be justified by the absence of this feature.
In other respects, the in situ configuration of the gonopods of mississip-
piensis and the configurations of the telopodite in medial and ventral views
conform to the general patterns of maculatus, the type species (compare
Fig. 2 and 3, 3-4 and 7-8). The hooked acropodite and the absence of the
subterminal process are only of specific value and serve to distinguish mis-
sissippiensis from its congeners. The curve of the acropodite is the sharpest
in the genus, but there is also a slight bend in maculatus. The blunt corner
proximal to the tip is suggestive of a subterminal process, but there is not
even a vestige of such a projection. The valves in the female cyphopods are
distinctly quadrate, which may allow for reasonably accurate determinations
of females, especially when combined with geographical information.
Anatomically, mississippiensis is most closely related to maculatus, the only
other species in the Gulf Coastal Plain, and it probably represents an isolated
population of an ancestral stock that was once continuous along the Gulf

Euryurus cingulatus Hoffman
At the time of its description, cingulatus was known only from the male
holotype, collected in Jasper, Walker County, Alabama. The range can now
be expanded to 3 other counties in western Alabama, and I agree with Hoff-
man (1978) that it will eventually be found in Mississippi (Itawamba and
Monroe counties). The females of maculatus that Hoffman reported from
Tuscaloosa County are probably referrable to cingulatus, since it has now
been collected both north and south of this county. I show this record as
cingulatus in Fig. 9. Specimens were examined from the following new
ALABAMA: WINSTON Co., ca. 12 mi. N Jasper (Walker Co.), Natural
Bridge Recreation Area, Bankhead National Forest, 3 &, 9, 29 October 1975,
B. R. Wall (NCSM A2575) and $, 9,21 July 1980, R. M. Shelley (NCSM
A3360). MARION Co., Hamilton, 9, 18 June 1958, collector unknown (FSCA);
and Hackleburg, Davis Water Mill, $, 9, 25 May 1963, H. R. Steeves
(FSCA). HALE Co., 15 mi. NE Greensboro, Payne Lake Recreation Area,
Talladega National Forest, $, 9, 7 August 1980, R. M. Shelley (NCSM

Euryurus maculatus Koch
Fig. 2, 7-8

Hoffman (1978) reported maculatus from Jackson and Liberty counties,
Florida, and Lee and Tuscaloosa counties, Alabama. As mentioned above,
however, the Tuscaloosa record is probably referrable to cingulatus. He also
showed a site in north-central Alabama in the distribution map but did not
include a corresponding record in the list of localities. I have not seen any
material of maculatus from north-central Alabama and believe that leachii
fraternus is the only form of Euryurus in this part of the state. The only
authentic Alabama records of maculatus are from the easternmost counties
south of the Talladega Division of the Talladega National Forest. In Florida,


Florida Entomologist 65(2)

3 '

medial view. 4) the same, ventral view. 5) eternal remnant between coxae,
has not been collected anywhere other than near Marianna, and I have never ,

I ..

Fig. 3-8. 3-6, Euryurus mississippiensis. 3) left gonopod of holotype,
medial view. 4) the same, ventral view. 5) sternal remnant between coxae,
ventral view, specimen from Gulf Hills, Jackson Co., MS. 6) right cyphopod
of female from same locality, caudal view. 7-8) E. maculatus. 7) left
gonopod of male from Jefferson Co., FL1 medial view. 8) the same, ventral
view. Scale line = 1.00 mm for figs. 5-6, 1.25 mm for Fig. 3-4 and 7-8.

the species has been collected repeatedly in and near Florida Caverns State
Park, outside of Marianna, Jackson County, and in Torreya State Park,
Liberty County. The popularity of these 2 Florida parks seems to have
diverted the attention of naturalists away from other areas of the pan-
handle. For example, in Florida west of the Chattahoochee River, maculatus
has not been collected anywhere other than near Marianna, and I have never


June, 1982

Shelley: Euryurus mississipiensis

even seen a diplopod sample from Calhoun or Gulf counties, south of Jackson
County. The situation improves a little east of the Chattahoochee River, as
several localities in Leon, Jefferson, and Wakulla counties have been in-
vestigated. For all practical purposes, however, the Florida panhandle has
been largely ignored by diplopod collectors, except for Florida Caverns and
Torreya State Parks, and the Tall Timbers Research Station near Tallahas-
see. More attention should be given to other areas of the panhandle in order
to produce more complete knowledge of the distribution of maculatus and
other millipeds in this part of Florida. Specimens were examined from the
following new localities:
ALABAMA: CLEBURNE CO., 6 mi. N Heflin, Pine Glenn Recreation Area,
Talladega National Forest, 20 May 1980, R. M. Shelley (NCSM A3113);
and Cheaha State Park, 8, 20 May 1980, R. M. Shelley (NCSM A3118).
LEE CO., 5 mi. S Auburn, 14 June 1958, N. B. Causey (FSCA).

Euryurus leachii fraternus Hoffman
Hoffman (1978) reported both subspecies of leachii from Alabama, but
did not see any material from Mississippi. Thus, the following 2 records of
1. fraternus from Mississippi constitute new state records. The Alabama
listing of 1. leachii was from Jackson County in the northeastern corner of
the state, which is isolated by over 200 miles from other records of this race,
from central Kentucky northward. I have not seen this particular sample,
containing a single male and female, but Hoffman explained why he included
it under the nominate subspecies instead of 1. fraternus. For the purposes
of this paper, however, I show it as 1. fraternus in Fig. 9. Thus, I. fraternus
occurs in the northernmost counties of Alabama and Mississippi, which are
the southern range limit for the species. Specimens were examined from the
following new localities:
MISSISSIPPI: ALCORN Co., Pickwick Landing near Corinth, 39, 20 May
1973, N. B. Causey (FSCA). PRENTISS Co., 9 mi. S Booneville, 2 19 June
1958, collector unknown (FSCA).
ALABAMA: COLBERT CO., near McCluskey Cave, 8, 25 March 1962,
H. R. Steeves (FSCA). MADISON Co., several collections from Shelta Cave
in Huntsville, & 8, 9 9, 1965-1966, J. E. and M. R. Cooper and S. B. Peck
(FSCA). MARSHALL Co., near Guffey Cave, $,22 March 1959, H. R. Steeves

In a brief discussion of biogeography, Hoffman (1978) noted the im-
portance of the southern Appalachians in the evolutionary history of
Euryurus, and stated that 5 species occur within a 150 mile radius of Ashe-
ville, North Carolina. The Gulf states alsocontain a diversity of species, and
assuming the occurrence of mississippiensis in the southwestern corner near
Mobile, 4 of the 7 species of Euryurus occur in Alabama. The 3 that are ab-
sent are orestes Hoffman, in the Blue Ridge Province, and amycus Hoffman
and carolinensis (deSaussure), both endemic to North Carolina. Thus, all
of the species of Euryurus that are potential inhabitants of Alabama prob-
ably do occur there. This known diversity in one milliped genus raises the
question of what it might be in others. Unfortunately, Alabama has received

Florida Entomologist 65(2)

Fig. 9. Distribution of species of Euryurus in Alabama, Mississippi, and
the adjacent Florida panhandle. Dots, mississippiensis; triangles, maculatus;
squares, cingulatus; stars, leachii fraternus.

little attention from field collectors, and the fauna of the state is poorly
known. Most of the available material is the result of random collecting by
non-myriapodologists; there have been no systematic surveys by anyone
versed in the preferred habitats of diplopods. In addition to cingulatus, an-
other species known only from Alabama is Choctella hubrichti Hoffman,
described in 1965 from Roebuck Plaza near Birmingham, Jefferson County.
In 1980 I found large numbers of C. hubrichti in Oak Mountain State Park,
Shelby County, suggesting that the species is endemic to the Birmingham
area. Thus, the little that is known about Alabama reveals an interesting,
unique milliped fauna, and suggests that more discoveries await the per-
sistent collector. Now that the southern Blue Ridge Province, one of the
prime global centers of milliped evolution, has been thoroughly sampled
(Shelley 1981), Alabama looks like a good place for productive field research
in the southeastern United States.

I am indebted to Howard V. Weems, Curator of the FSCA, for access to
material in the Causey collection, now under his care. Topotypes of missis-


June, 1982

Shelley: Euryurus mississipiensis

sippiensis in the AMNH collection were loaned by Norman Platnick, and
Henrik Enghoff advised me of the sample in the Zoologisk Museum Copen-
hagen. Specimens of maculatus and C. hubrichti from Cheaha and Oak
Mountain State Parks, respectively, were taken with permission of the State
Parks Division, Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Re-
sources. Renaldo G. Kuhler, NCSM scientific illustrator, prepared Fig. 1-2.
This research was supported in part by NSF Grant No. DEB 7702596.

CAUSEY, N. B. 1952. Some records and descriptions of polydesmoid millipeds
from the United States. Chicago Acad. Sci. Nat. Hist. Misc. No. 106:
1955. New records and descriptions of polydesmoid millipeds (Order
Polydesmida) from the eastern United States. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash-
ington 68: 21-30.
CHAMBERLIN, R. V., AND R. L. HOFFMAN. 1958. Checklist of the millipeds of
North America. United States Nat. Mus. Bull. No. 212: 1-236.
HOFFMAN, R. L. 1954. Further studies on American millipeds of the family
Euryuridae (Polydesmida). J. Washington Acad. Sci. 44: 49-58.
.1965. A second species in the diplopod genus Choctella (Spiro-
streptida: Choctellidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 78: 55-8.
.1978. North American millipeds of the genus Euryurus (Poly-
desmida: Platyrhacidae). Trans. American Ent. Soc., 104: 37-68.
JEEKEL, C. A. W. 1963. Diplopoda of Guiana (1-5). Pages 1-157 In: Studies
on the Fauna of Suriname and other Guyanas, Vol. 4, No. 11. D. C.
Geijskes and P. W. Hummelinck, Eds., Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague,
SHELLEY, R. M. 1981. Revision of the milliped genus Sigmoria (Poly-
desmida: Xystodesmidae). Mem. American Ent. Soc. No. 33: 1-140.

U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory,
Agricultural Research Service, USDA,
Orlando, FL 32803 USA

A method is described for rearing the so-called sugarcane rootstalk borer
weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), on an artificial diet, and its biology on
this diet is reported. Females and males einerged after a mean of 381 4.7
days and 382 6.4 days, respectively. The mean number of eggs per mass
was 69.2 7.8; the mean number of eggs deposited per female was 6517
931.1. Females lived a mean of 147 17.1 days, and males 135 21.5 days.
Virgin females produced a mean of 1910 349.3 eggs. Most larval hatch
occurred 7-8 days after oviposition, with the longest incubation period being
15 days. Hatchling larvae were able to survive for 53 days with adequate


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

Se describe un m6todo de criar Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) sobre una
dieta artificial, y se relata su biologia sobre esta dieta. Las hembras y los
machos nacen despues de un promedio de 381 4.7 y 382 6.4 dias, respec-
tivamente. El promedio de huevos en cada masa fue 69.2 + 7.8; el promedio
de huevos depositados por cada hembra fu4 6517 931.1. Las hembras
vivieron un promedio de 147 17.1 dias, y los machos 135 21.5 dias. Las
hembras virgenes producieron un promedio de 1910 + 349.3 huevos. La
mayoria de las larvas nacieron 7-8 dias despu6s de oviposicion, y el period
m6s largo de incubaci6n dur6 15 dias. Con suficiente humedad las larvas
reci4n naicdas pudieron sobrevivir por 53 dias.

Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) is a major pest of citrus and sugarcane in
Puerto Rico and the West Indies. In the United States, it is presently found
only in the State of Florida, infesting citrus and other host plants in Orange,
Seminole, Lake, and Broward Counties. The adult weevils feed on the foliage
of at least 41 plant species in Puerto Rico (Martorell 1945), and the larvae
are root feeders. Although D. abbreviatus has not been found infesting
Florida sugarcane, it is a threat to that industry.
Previous reports on the biology and development of D. abbreviatus have
been based on observations and information obtained from a few specimens
recovered from plant material. These indicated that the insect has a highly
variable developmental period that ranges from ca. 6 mo to over 2 yrs
(Watson 1904; Ballow 1912; Nowell 1913; Jones 1915; Barrow 1924; Wol-
cott 1933b, 1934, 1936; and Beavers and Selhime 1975). However, to facilitate
studies related to the potential control of this insect, more detailed biological
information was needed, including immature development and adult repro-
duction potential and longevity. An artificial diet and rearing procedures
were therefore developed to facilitate the necessary laboratory studies.


Initially several artificial insect diets were investigated, including diets
for the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Vanderzant and Davich
1961); the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Yonce et al.
1971); and Dectes texanus Le Conte (Hatchett et al. 1973). However, most
were not accepted by the hatchling larvae. Therefore, a formulation was
developed which provided the necessary physical characteristics acceptable
to the hatchling larvae, and which could be easily prepared and stored for
several weeks without spoilage. Ingredients of this diet were alphacel 307 g,
cotton seed meal 250 g, soybean protein 104 g, sucrose 70 g, casein 70 g,
wheat germ 60 g, cornstarch 44 g, Vanderzant's vitamin mix 31 g, Wesson@
salts 16 g, methyl paraben 15 g, ascorbic acid 6 g, sorbic acid 5 g, cholesterol
3 g, choline chloride 2 g, agar 75 g, formalin (38.5%) 6 ml, and water 2550
ml. Batches of diet were prepared in amounts up to 38 liters in a gas-fired
mixer by first weighing out the desired ingredients and placing them in the
required volume of tap water while the agitators were revolving. Thus, the
ingredients were thoroughly mixed before heat was applied. The medium was
then heated to ca. 90-950 C during a period of 15-20 min. Finished diet was
poured (ca. 18 ml) into 35-ml clear, plastic cups and allowed to solidify at


June, 1982

Beavers: Diaprepes abbreviatus 265

ambient temp. The open cups of diet were held 2-3 days until excess moisture
had evaporated before introducing the hatchling larvae.
Hatchling larvae were obtained from egg masses of field-collected adult
weevils. The procedure was as follows: the adult weevils were held in 60 x
60 x 74-cm screen cages and provided with citrus foliage for food and with
folded kitchen wax-paper strips suspended from the top of the cage as
oviposition sites (Wolcott 1933a). These strips with the egg masses were re-
moved daily, attached to 12 x 25-cm paper cards, and placed in a black 6 x
10 x 18-cm wooden frame with spacers that held the cards 2.5 cm apart.
This unit was positioned over a 6 x 30 x 53-cm plastic collection tray that
had a barrier glued around the inside top edge, forming a 900 angle with
the sides of the tray. This barrier prevented the larvae that dropped into
the tray from escaping. Predetermined numbers of the larvae were subse-
quently transferred to the plastic cups of diet, and foil-lined paper lids were
heat sealed onto the cups to prevent escape of the very active larvae. After
60 days, the larvae were transferred to fresh diet, and fresh diet was sup-
plied at ca. 45-day intervals until the insects pupated. The infested cups
were held throughout in a dark room at ca. 25 C and 60-70% RH. Since ca.
18 ml of prepared diet/cup was used, a weevil was provided with ca. 150 ml
of diet during the average 1-year life cycle.


Egg Incubation and Neonate Larval Longevity.-Wolcott (1936) indi-
cated that D. abbreviatus eggs hatched 7 days after oviposition and that the
larvae could survive a week or longer without food. To confirm this, we
collected 10 egg masses 24 h after adult females were put in a cage, placed
the masses in individual vials, held the vials at 250 C and 80 5% RH, and
observed the eggs daily. Eclosion began on the 7th day, and within 24 h
90.0% of the 1,061 eggs contained in the 10 egg masses had hatched. How-
ever, eclosion in one egg mass did not start until the 10th day when 78.4%
hatched. By the 10th day, 91.3% of total eclosion had occurred. In all,
93.6% of the eggs hatched. A single larva hatched on the 15th day, the
longest incubation period. Thus, most eclosion occurs 7-8 days after oviposi-
After eclosion the larvae continued to be held in the vials to determine
the length of survival without food. All vials contained live larvae 25 days
after eclosion began, and after 31 days, 80% contained live larvae. After 53
days, 40% of the vials contained live larvae. All were dead at 60 days.
Larval, Pupal and Adult Development.-The developmental stages of D.
abbreviatus are shown in Fig. 1. Hatching larvae (0.1 mg/larva) were
placed onto diet at the density of 1, 5, 10, or 25 larvae cup. Larvae were
introduced into 50 cups at each density. Most larval growth occurred during
the first 3-4 mo, when a maximum weight of ca. 0.55 g was reached. Wolcott
(1933b) reported the occurrence of up to 16 instars in D. abbreviatus larvae,
but he considered the 8th instar equivalent to full growth because maximum
weight was attained at that time. Later, Beavers and Selhime (1975) re-
covered larvae on a weekly basis from potted citrus seedlings, but because of
individual variation in growth, were unable to determine the number of
instars from the frequency distribution curve of head capsule measurements.
Under the test conditions, a few larvae survived for 29 mo, although in other

266 Florida Entomologist 65 (2) June, 1982

Fig. 1. Stages in the life cycle of D. abbreviatus. A, egg mass (5X); B,
hatchling larvae (2X); C, 2-month-old larvae (6X); D, pupa (3.7X); and E,
adult (3.5X).

,~ -*
.~ t ~
-r , 9~



Beavers: Diaprepes abbreviatus

tests larvae have required up to 4 yr to complete development. The larval
period of D. abbreviatus entails a period of rapid growth for ca. 3-4 mo and
then a period when the weight tends to decrease at pupation. Therefore, the
most active and injurious period would be the first 3-4 mo after hatch, when
growth is most rapid.
The percentage larvae, pupae, and adults recovered when cups were in-
fested with 1, 5, 10 or 25 larvae/cup are indicated in Table 1. Mortality was
greatest during the first 60 days after hatch, and increased when cups con-
tained more than 1 larva, perhaps because of crowding or injury to each
other. However, the greatest number of adults were recovered from the diet
infested with 10 larvae/cup. Also, the exarate pupae proved to be extremely
fragile and highly susceptible to injury when disturbed, and this contributed
significantly to the overall mortality of the immature stages. The diet main-
tained good quality and texture with all densities of larvae infested.
Although the maximum yield of adults from the artificial diet appears
low relative to production of other insects with shorter developmental
periods, it was greater than has been found on plant hosts. When Beavers
and Selhime (1975) infested 1200 citrus trees in 12-cm-diam pots with a
total of 16,000 larvae, they obtained only 90 adults after 1-1/2 yrs, (0.5%
yield). Also, when Hamlen et al. (1979) tested chemicals for control of the
weevil on potted citrus, only 12-18% of the larvae in the controls were re-
covered 8-10 weeks after infestation.
Male and Female Development Time on Artificial Diet.-The first 500
adults reared on the artificial diet were used to determine the developmental
periods for D. abbreviatus males and females.
The mean developmental periods ( SE) for larvae and pupae, re-
spectively, were 377 4.8 days and 15.2 0.43 days for females and 378
6.4 days and 15.4 0.77 days for males. Adult females emerged after a
mean of 381 47 days; adult males required 382 6.4 days. Thus, de-
velopment of D. abbreviatus on artificial diet compared favorably with de-
velopment on plant hosts (Ballow 1912; Jones 1915; Wolcott 1936; Beavers
and Selhime 1975). The ratio of females to males for adults from the diet
was 61.8:38.2; in Florida in 1972 and 1973, field-collected adults had ratios
of 55.6:44.4 and 59.1:40.9, respectively (Beavers and Selhime 1976).
Reproductive Potential and Adult Longevity.-Twelve pairs of adults
emerging from artificial diet were individually coded with enamel paint


% larvae
No. larvae/ recovered % pupae % adults
cup after 60 days' obtained1 obtained1

1 30.0 (15.0) 10.0 ( 5.0) 6.0 ( 3.0)
5 12.8 (32.0) 5.2 (13.0) 2.8 ( 7.0)
10 10.6 (53.0) 5.8 (29.0) 3.8 (19.0)
25 2.5 (31.0) 1.7 (21.0) 1.1 (14.0)

'Numbers in parentheses indicate actual numbers of insects obtained.


268 Florida Entomologist 65 (2) June, 1982

(Cross and Mitchell 1964), and placed in 1-liter cages with citrus foliage as
the food source. Wax-paper strips were placed in each cage as oviposition
sites, but some egg masses were deposited in the foliage. Dead adults were
recorded and removed, and fresh foliage was provided 3 times a week. Adults
were observed and egg masses were removed daily to determine the repro-
ductive potential and adult longevity. The preoviposition period of females
reared on the artificial diet was 21.8 3.2 days; the mean number of eggs
per mass was 69.2 7.8; the mean number of eggs deposited per female
was 6517 931.1; mean hatch was 89.4% 27.2; mean female longevity
was 147 17.1 days; and mean male longevity was 135 21.5 days.
Wolcott (1936) determined that the reproductive potential of 12 females
obtained from larvae reared on plant material ranged from 3000 to 7000 eggs
with a mean of ca. 5000. Thus the 3 to 7-day preoviposition period reported
by Wolcott (1936) vs. the 21.8 3.2-day mean we obtained indicates that
females are probably more mature when they emerge from the pupal cell in
the soil.
Although virgin females did oviposit, none of these eggs hatched. For
example, 10 unmated females, maintained as previously described, produced
a mean of 31.8 7.7 egg masses and a mean of 1910 349.3 eggs/ 9. How-
ever, the mean number of eggs per mass was about the same for virgin and
mated females (64.1 10.2 vs. 69.2 7.8).


The results of these tests confirm that D. abbreviatus has a mean de-
velopmental period of ca. 1 year. The long subterranean period of the im-
mature stages combined with the ability of hatchling larvae to survive under
optimum conditions for long periods indicates the potential for movement of
this pest to uninfested areas with plant hosts shipped in containers of soil.
The adult weevils are present in Florida from May through November with
the peak population period occurring from July through October (Beavers
and Selhime 1976). This indicates the economic problem presented in de-
veloping control and containment strategies using conventional or presently
approved techniques. The long developmental period of D. abbreviatus pre-
cludes mass production, although with adequate planning, adults can be
produced in limited numbers for research purposes. This diet has been bene-
ficial in the production of adult weevils for biological studies, and large
numbers of 4- to 6-mo-old larvae for chemical and biological control studies.


Mention of a trademark, or proprietary product does not constitute a
guarantee or warranty of the product by the USDA and does not imply its
approval to the exclusion of other products that may also be suitable.

BALLOW, H. A. 1912. Insect pests of the Lesser Antilles. Imp. Dep. Agric.,
Barbados, W.I. Pamphlet Ser. 71: 66-9.
BARROW, E. H. 1924. White grubs, Lachnosterna sp., and larvae of the
weevil root-borer, Diaprepes spengleri L., attacking sugarcane in the
Guanica District of Puerto Rico, and methods practiced for con-

Beavers: Diaprepes abbreviatus

trolling them. J. Dep. Agric. Puerto Rico 8: 22-6.
BEAVERS, J. B., AND A. G. SELHIME. 1976. Population dynamics of Diaprepes
abbreviatus in an isolated citrus grove in central Florida. J. Econ.
Ent. 69: 9-10.
---, AND A. G. SELHIME. 1975. Development of Diaprepes abbreviatus.
on potted citrus seedlings. Fla. Ent. 58: 271-3.
CROSS, W. H., AND H. C. MITCHELL. 1964. Color chart for marking insects.
J. Econ. Ent. 57: 301.
HAMLEN, R. A., W. J. SCHROEDER, AND J. B. BEAVERS. 1979. Toxicity and
persistence of surface applied and soil incorporated insecticides
against Diaprepes abbreviatus larvae. J. Econ. Ent. 72: 131-4.
HATCHETT, J. W., R. P. JACKSON, AND R. M. BARRY. 1973. Rearing a weed
cerambycid, Dectes texanus, on an artificial medium, with notes on
biology. Ann. Ent. Soc. America 66: 519-22.
JONES, T. H. 1915. The sugarcane weevil rootborer (Diaprepes spengleri
Linn.). Insular Exp. Stn. (Rio Piedras, P. R.) Bull. 14: 1-9, 11.
MARTORELL, L. F. 1945. A survey of the forest insects of Puerto Rico. Part
II. J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 29: 457-81.
NOWELL, W. 1913. Report of the assistant superintendent of agriculture on
the entomological and mycological work carried out during the season
under review. Rep. Local Dep. Agric., Barbados, 1911-13: 34-45.
VANDERZANT, E. S., AND T. B. DAVICH. 1961. Artificial diets for the adult
boll weevil and techniques for obtaining eggs. J. Econ. Ent. 54: 923-8.
WATSON, N. B. 1904. The rootborer of sugarcane (Diaprepes abbreviatus)
West Indian Bull. 4: 37-47.
WOLCOTT, G. N. 1933a. Otiorhynchids oviposit between paper. J. Econ. Ent.
26: 1172-3.
-- 1933b. The larval period of Diaprepes abbreviatus L. J. Dep. Agric.
Puerto Rico 17: 257-64.
.1934. The diapause portion of the larval period of Diaprepes ab-
breviatus L. Ibid. 18: 417-27.
- 1936. The life history of Diaprepes abbreviatus at Rio Piedras, P.R.
Ibid. 20: 883-914.
YONCE, C. E., C. R. GENTRY, AND R. R. PATE. 1971. Artificial diets for rear-
ing larvae of the plum curculio. J. Econ. Ent. 64: 1111-2.


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)


Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services
Jacksonville, FL 32231 USA

Thinking about what to say in a Presidential Address was a very
humbling experience. At first glance it seemed the ideal opportunity to
present some new or unusual information about the insects of particular
interest to me, but I hastily abandoned that idea; I have been totally out of
research for a number of years and, in truth, only rarely get into the labora-
tory at all.
The second possibility that occurred to me was that I might discuss some
of the problem areas in entomological work. But there seems little point in
bringing up problems unless we can see them from a new perspective or
offer some innovative solutions.
In desperation I even toyed with the idea of talking about women in
entomology. But I feel very strongly that there is no reason to view a
woman entomologist any differently than a male entomologist-they have
the same interests, the same frustrations, the same curiosity, and the same
delight in accomplishments. So I think the less attention paid to that sub-
jec, the better!
All of which leaves me with only a state of the union-state of the
society-report. This is not all that bad; surely the members want and
need to know what the society is doing and what it plans to do in the
I have probably had the easiest year as president of anyone in the last
decade. I was preceded by a series of presidents who gave a great deal of
thought to the purpose of your Society and who were deeply committed to
improving it for the benefit of all members. These officers have seen to it
that the by-laws were revised to make the organization more effective. These
revisions should be completed by vote of the members at this meeting; these
officers who preceded me have gone through the trauma of changing print-
ers and changing editors; they have instigated and encouraged a long-range
planning committee and a committee to encourage inter-American coopera-
tion. With these matters settled, the Executive Committee has been able this
year to stand back a little and think about what we're doing and what we
should be doing. One conclusion has been that we need to broaden our
membership and the scope of our programs, to try to bring together more of
the diverse groups working with insects and insect problems.
We have set about this in three ways: first, we have tried to include in
the program papers from areas not usually represented there, such as com-
mercial pest control, mosquito control and industry.
Secondly, we are having this year, at the instigation of Dr. Peters, the
first of what we would like to think will become an Annual Past Presidents'
Breakfast. It is our hope that these individuals who have been deeply in-
volved in the Society in the past and have watched it over a number of years
will be able to see the long range direction in which we're moving and will
have firm ideas about whether we're on target.
Our third effort has been to appoint a committee to investigate the feasi-
bility of having a Florida Congress of Entomology, an opportunity to bring


June, 1982

Presidential Address

together entomologists in different kinds of work and to expose them to each
other's ideas, philosophies, problems, limitations and abilities.
When you think about it there is an amazing diversity in the practice of
entomoolgy in Florida. There are entomologists doing taxonomic and life
history studies, curating museum collections, there are teachers and stu-
dents; there are entomologists employed in giving advice, performing and
researching control of crop insects, lawn and ornamental insects, citrus in-
sects, household pests, structural pests such as termites, mosquito control,
beekeeping and honey production, control of disease bearing insects, espe-
cially for the military services, and forest insects; there are entomologists
testing pesticides to get efficacy data; and some are marketing control
products-a diverse group, yes, but one with a strong common interest and a
need for each to know what the others are doing and learning.
Dr. Selhime chairs the Florida Congress Committee and will report on
its activities this year at the business meeting.
We feel the proposed Congress has tremendous potential. Many of the
problems that we encounter in our work, no matter where we are employed,
arise because of conflicts between the philosophies, responsibilities and legal
restraints of the various agencies and organizations involved in entomolog-
ical work. Just in mosquito control alone-the area with which I am most
familiar-our work is directly affected by or is tangential to that of DER,
DNR, DACS, EPA and the U.S. Corps of Engineers. Getting to know the
individuals in these various agencies and what their responsibilities and
problems are is a first essential step toward solving our own problems.
Each of us has a tendency toward focusing in on our own particular prob-
lem without seeing the whole picture. I was more than a little horrified
recently to read an editorial in an aerial applicator's publication in which
the author made the point that while farmers grow their crops on their own
land, beekeepers use the property of others to produce their crop of honey.
His contention was that while a pesticide applicator should avoid killing
bees where practical, that his purpose was to kill insects that might injure
or destroy the crop.
Nowhere in the article was there any indication that the author was
aware that without the bees there would be no crops! I think we are all at
least occasionally guilty of this kind of tunnel vision, of sighting in on our
target problem with such concentration that we don't see that others have a
concern with our problems and our solutions, and that their concerns must
also be addressed.
Our Society needs to draw membership and participation from all these
factions. Ideally our annual meeting should become a sounding board for
new ideas and approaches, the arena for dealing with conflicts, the meeting
place of old friends, the debut party for new entomologists in the state, and
the source of information on what's happening that affects our work. If all
of us work toward expanding and improving F.E.S., the Society can in turn
provide each of us with information and support which will enable us to do
a better job every day.
In closing, I just want to publicly offer a word of praise and appreciation
to all those members who have served this year on the executive board, as
editors of Florida Entomologist, or on committees. I hope that all members
are aware how much time and thought each of those serving gives to better-

272 Florida Entomologist 65 (2) June, 1982

ing the Society. And I would urge all of you who have not done so to fill in
the committee choice sheet you received in the June mailout. The Society
needs your involvement and you will enjoy and benefit from the association.


Amended Articles of Incorporation & Bylaws


The above committee was appointed by President William L. Peters to
completely revise the Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws. Changes to be
considered and adopted at the annual meeting must be received by the
membership 30 days before the meeting. Recommended changes (see below)
will be discussed and adopted at the bull session at the 65th Annual Meeting
of the Florida Entomological Society.
Respectfully submitted,

NOTE: Proposed deletions are show [inside square brackets.] Proposed addi-
tions within each section are shown in italics.

The name of the Corporation which heretofore has been The Florida
Entomological Society, Inc. shall [remain] be

and said Corporation shall be a nonprofit corporation incorporated under
Chapter 617, Florida Statutes, and it shall maintain its office at its Post
Office address as Post Office Box 12425, University Station, Gainesville,
Florida 32604.

The objectives of the Corporation shall be: (1) to promote entomology as
a science and as a profession; (2) to encourage research relative to insects
and related arthropods in Florida; (3) to distribute and publicize knowledge
pertaining to insects and related arthropods; and (4) to publish the Florida

Section 1. Classes of Membership.-The classes of membership shall be
Regular, Family, Student, Sustaining, Honorary, and Emeritus.
Section 2. Regular Membership.-All persons having entomological train-
ing and/or a sincere interest in entomology may apply for Regular Member-
ship by submitting an application form and annual dues payment to the
Treasurer and Business Manager. Regular Members shall have the privileges
of voting, holding office, and otherwise participating in the affairs of the
Society. They shall receive the Florida Entomologist and other Society pub-
Section 3. Family Membership.-Two or more persons in the same family


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

with entomological training and/or a sincere interest in entomology may
apply for family membership by submitting an application form and annual
dues payment to the Treasurer and Business Manager. Family members shall
have the privileges of voting, holding office and otherwise participating in
the affairs of the Society. They shall receive only one copy of the Florida
Entomologist and other Society publications. Annual dues shall exceed, but
by not more than fifty percent, the dues of Regular Members.
Section 4. Student Membership.-Any person interested in entomology
who is enrolled at a recognized educational institution may become a Student
member by submitting an application form and annual dues payment to the
Treasurer and Business Manager. Student Members shall have the same
privileges and benefits as Regular Members; however, they will pay reduced
Section 5. Sustaining Membership.-Sustaining Members shall have the
qualifications, privileges, and benefits of Regular Members, including voting
by the designated institutional representative of each Sustaining Member-
ship; however, their financial contribution will exceed that of annual dues.
They shall be formally recognized for their beneficience.
Section 6. Honorary Membership.-Honorary Membership may be con-
ferred by action of the Society on anyone who has performed distinguished
service in the field of entomology. Special consideration should be given to
service to entomology in Florida. [Such individuals shall have been active in
entomological work for a minimum of 20 years.] Any member may nominate
a candidate by submitting a written proposal to the Secretary. If approved
by the Executive Committee, the candidate's name shall be submitted to the
Society for secret vote by mail ballot at least thirty days prior to any annual
meeting. Election to Honorary Membership shall require a two-thirds ma-
jority of those balloting. The total number of Honorary Members shall not
exceed ten, and not more than two may be elected in any one year. Honorary
Members shall have all the privileges of Regular Membership including a
continuing subscription to the Florida Entomologist. They shall be exempt
from annual dues.
Section 7. Emeritus Membership.-Regular Members in good standing
who have retired from full-time employment may request emeritus status.
Granting of emeritus membership shall require approval by a two-thirds
majority of the Executive Committee. Emeritus Members shall be exempt
from payment of annual dues and registration fee. They shall have all the
privileges of Regular Membership except they shall not receive the Florida
Entomologist gratis; they shall have the privilege of subscribing at half
Regular Membership rates.

This corporation shall have perpetual existence.

[Dr. D. H. Habeck, Dept. of Entomology, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, Florida]
[Dr. S. H. Kerr, Dept. of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville,


June, 1982

Amended Articles of Incorporation & Bylaws

[Dr. J. E. Brogdon, Dept. of Entomology, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, Florida]
[Mr. J. B. Gahan, Insects Affecting Man and Animals Laboratory, 1600
S. W. 23 Dr., Gainesville, Florida.]

The officers of this Society shall be a President, President-Elect, a Vice-
President, a Secretary, and Treasurer. The Vice- President and Secretary
shall be elected annually. The Treasurer shall be elected for a term of three
years. The President-Elect and Vice-President shall automatically succeed
the President and President-Elect respectively.
In case of death, incapacitation or if the President leaves the Society, the
President-Elect will assume the duties of the President.

[The names of the officers who are to manage the affairs of the Corpora-
tion until the first election under the Charter and Bylaws are as follows:]
[President-Dr. J. R. King]
[Vice President-Mr. J. E. Brogdon]
[Secretary-Dr. S. H. Kerr]
[Treasurer-Dr. D. H. Habeck]

The [first] Board of Directors shall be composed of the Executive Com-
mittee. [this Board shall be the same in all respects, powers, functions, and
membership as the Executive Committee. The names and addresses of those
persons who are to serve as directors until the first election thereof are:]

[Dr. J. R. King, P. O. Box 36, Fort Pierce, Florida]
[Mr. N. C. Hayslip, P. O. Box 1251, Fort Pierce, Florida]
[Dr. S. H. Kerr, Dept. of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville,
[Dr. D. H. Habeck, Dept. of Entomology, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, Florida]
[Mr. J. E. Brogdon, Dept. of Entomology, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, Florida]
[Mr. J. B. Gahan, Insects Affecting Man and Animals Laboratory, 1600
S. W. Dr., Gainesville, Florida]
[Dr. J. E. Porter, P. O. Box 1246, Miami Beach 39, Florida]
[Dr. W. A. Simanton, Citrus Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida]
[Dr. E. D. Harris, Jr., Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Flor-

Amendments to the Bylaws (1) may be proposed at an annual meeting,


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

or (2) may be proposed to the Executive Committee at any time by petition
of ten voting members. The President shall appoint a special committee to
consider the proposed amendments, and this committee shall report its
recommendation at the next annual meeting. Each Society member shall be
supplied a copy of the proposed amendment by the Secretary at least ten
days prior to the annual meeting. A two-thirds affirmative vote of the active
membership present shall be required to sanction a change in the Bylaws. A
quorum (Bylaws Article V-2) (must be present). Minor changes in the
wording of proposed amendments may be made during the course of their
DELETE: [X. Amendments to Articles of Incorporation]
[Amendments to Articles of Incorporation (may be proposed at any an-
nual meeting, or (2) may be proposed to the Executive Committee at any
time by petition of 10 voting members. The President shall appoint a special
committee to consider the proposed amendment, and this committee shall re-
port its recommendations at the next annual meeting. Each Society member
shall be supplied a copy of the proposed amendment by the Secretary at least
10 days prior to the annual meeting. A two thirds vote of the active member-
,ship present shall be required to sanction a change in the Articles of In-
corporation. A quorum must be present. Minor changes in the wording of
proposed amendments may be made during the course of their consideration.]


[Section 1. All members shall have equal privileges as to discussion and
presentation of papers at meetings.]
Section [2.] 1. Members shall not use the name of the Society for com-
mercial advertising. Such a practice shall be sufficient grounds for expulsion
from the Society.
Section [3.] 2. A member may be dropped from membership in the Society
by action of the Executive Committee for conduct which in any way injures
the Society or affects adversely its reputation. Before expulsion, a person
shall have the right to a hearing before the Executive Committee.

Section 1. The President shall preside at the annual meeting of the So-
ciety, serve as [Chairman] Chairperson of the Executive Committee, and
otherwise shall have and exercise such powers as are reasonably necessary
to carry out these duties, including the filling of vacancies on standing com-
mittees and naming special committees. The President shall deliver an ad-
dress [pertinent to the objectives of the Society] at the annual meeting over
which he/she presides.
Section 2. The President-Elect [Vice President] shall assume the duties of
the President in the latter's absence; he/she shall be the program chair-
person; fulfill specific duties as outlined by the President; develop projects
that may be completed during his/her term of office.


June, 1982

Amended Articles of Incorporation & Bylaws

Section 3. The Vice President shall be the Chairperson of the local ar-
rangements Committee.
Section 4. The Secretary shall make and preserve a record of the meetings
of the Society and of the Executive Committee, submit a record of the So-
ciety's proceedings to the Editor for publication, conduct general corre-
spondence of the Society except as otherwise provided, and keep a current
list of all members and their addresses.
Section 5. The Treasurer shall collect all monies due, pay all bills in-
curred by the Society, act as Business Manager of publications, and submit
a report at each annual meeting. His/her accounts shall at all times be open
to inspection by the Executive Committee and be audited before each annual
meeting and at the termination of the Treasurer's term of office should his/
her termination occur between annual meetings.

Section 1. [Amendment No. 1 of the 59th Annual Meeting. Refer to the
Florida Entomologist 49(2) :134 (June 1966) III. Executive Committee, Sec-
tion 1. Change the first sentence (only) to read:] There shall be an Execu-
tive Committee consisting of the President; President-Elect; the Vice-Presi-
dent; the Secretary; the Treasurer; Four members, two members-at-large,
one of whom shall be elected each year to serve for two years-[and one of
whom shall be elected each year to serve for two years] and two [of whom
shall be] student members appointed by the President to serve for one year;
[for one year] a representative of each [Branch] Affiliate; the chairperson of
the Public Relations Committee; the immediate Past President; and the
Editor of the Florida Entomologist. [Chairman] Chairpersons of the various
committees will be invited to attend the Executive Committee meetings as
non-voting members. The President shall act as [Chairman] Chairperson of
the Committee. The Executive Committee shall be in charge of affairs, funds,
and property of the society subject to decisions on policy by the membership
by mail ballot or at an annual meeting. The President may call Executive
Committee meetings at any time. The presence of [four] six members of the
Executive Committee at any meeting shall establish a quorum, provided all
Executive Committee members have been notified in advance of the meeting.
The Executive Committee may vote on matters by mail ballot.
Section 2. Vacancies that occur in any office of the Executive Committee,
except [Branch representatives shall be filled by appointment by the Execu-
tive Committee, and to be seated, require approval of two thirds of the re-
maining Executive membership. Vacancies occurring among Branch repre-
sentatives shall be filled immediately by the affected Branch] representatives
of each affiliate, shall be filled by approval of two-thirds of the Executive
Committee. Vacancies occurring among the affiliate representatives shall be
filled immediately by the affected affiliate.

Section 1. The standing committees shall include: Public Relations, [Com-
mittee] Program, [Committee a] Local Arrangements, [Committee, a] Mem-
bership, [Committee, an] Honors and Awards, [Committee, a] Nominating,
[Committee, a] Rules of Order, [Committee, a] Resolutions, [Committee, an]


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

Auditing, [Committee, a] Student Activities, [Committee,] and Long-Range
Planning. [Committee.] All committee [chairmen] chairpersons and members
shall be approved, or appointed if required, by the incoming President.
[Other standing committees may be authorized by a vote of the Society after
recommendations by the Executive Committee; and any standing committee
may be dismissed by similar procedure.] All standing committees shall docu-
ment their activities and provided an annual report to the Secretary.
Section 2. The Public Relations Committee shall consist of three members.
Each will serve a three-year staggered term, one new member to be ap-
pointed each year by the incoming [Chairman] Chairperson. The [Chairman-
ship] Chairperson [of the Committee] shall be decided [inherited] by virtue of
seniority on the committee. This Committee shall handle such matters as
publicity, education, and general public relations for the Society. [in fulfill-
ment of the first objective in the Articles of Incorporation, "to promote en-
tomology as a science and a profession."] This committee shall [also be con-
cerned with matters which affect the interest of the entomological profession
and accordingly shall] work closely with the President in fulfilling those
objectives, and where possible shall (1) provide representation at public
hearings on matters which affect the interests of the profession; (2) keep
informed on all public affairs affecting entomology, including legislation,
and represent the Society in all such matters by offering advise and counsel
to the State Government and to the public in these matters; and (3) promote
activities designed to improve the status of professional entomology.
Section 3. The Program Committee shall consist of three members. Each
will serve a one-year term. The Chairperson [Vice] President-Elect of the
Society, will appoint the other two members. This committee shall solicit and
schedule speakers, compose and distribute a written program, and in con-
junction with the Executive and Local Arrangements Committees coordinate
all activities necessary for the annual meeting.
Section 4. The Local Arrangements Committee shall consist of three
members. Each will serve a one-year term. [The Chairman, after appoint-
ment by the President,] The President will designate the other two members.
This committee shall handle local publicity for the annual meeting, [make]
coordinate arrangements with the Treasurer for registration, assure that
there will be adequate meeting and exhibit space, provide for a banquet and
entertainment if such are to be held, and make other necessary detailed ar-
rangements in cooperation with the Executive and Program Committees.
Section 5. The Membership Committee shall consist of five members, two
of whom shall be students. Each will serve a three-year staggered term,
except the student members who will serve a one-year term, one new three-
year member and two student members to be appointed each year by the
incoming Chairperson. The Chairperson shall be decided [inherited] by virtue
of seniority on the committee. This committee shall actively search for and
solicit new members for the society among professional workers, students,
and amateurs in entomology.
Section 6. The Honors and Awards Committee shall consist of three
members. Each will serve a three-year staggered term, one new member to be
appointed each year by the incoming [Chairman] Chairperson. The [chairman-
ship] Chairperson [of the committee] shall be decided [inherited] by virtue of
seniority on the committee. This committee shall examine and evaluate


June, 1982

Amended Articles of Incorporation & Bylaws

candidates for honors, and present appropriate awards to entomologists
who make outstanding contributions to science and to the public. The com-
mittee need not necessarily honor any individual or organization yearly.
Section 7. The Nominating Committee shall consist of three members. The
[Chairman] Chairperson, Past-President of the Society, will appoint the
other two members. All will serve for one year. This committee shall prepare
a list of candidates comprising one nominee for each elective office for pres-
entation to the membership at the annual meeting. The committee shall
secure the consent of each candidate before presentation. Candidates also
may be nominated from the floor at the annual meeting.
Section 8. The Rules of Order Committee shall consist of two members.
Each will serve a two-year staggered term, one new member to be appointed
each year by the incoming [Chairman] Chairperson. The [Chairmanship]
Chairperson [of the committee] shall be decided [inherited] by virtue of
seniority on the committee. This committee shall formulate rules of parlia-
mentary procedure not otherwise provided for in the Society Articles of
Incorporation and Bylaws, shall serve as Parliamentarians at the annual
and special meetings of the Society, and shall on request, or voluntarily
interpret the rules and usage of parliamentary authority used in conduct of
Society meetings.
Section 9. The Resolution Committee shall consist of two members. Each
will serve a two-year staggered term, one new member to be appointed each
year by the incoming [Chairman] Chairperson. The [Chairmanship] Chair-
person [of the committee] shall be decided [inherited] by virtue of seniority on
the committee. This committee shall formally recognize and commend in-
dividuals and organizations that contribute materially to attainment of the
Society's objectives as stated in the "Governing Documents". The committee
shall express the membership's encouragement of and support for activities
that directly affect the Society, entomology, and the biological sciences in
Section 10. The Auditing Committee shall consist of three members. Each
will serve a three-year staggered term, one new member to be appointed
each year by the incoming [Chairman] Chairperson. The [Chairmanship]
Chairperson [of the committee] shall be decided [inherited] by virtue of
seniority on the committee. This committee shall audit the accounts, examine
the annual "Report of the Business Manager and Treasurer", and review
the overall financial condition of the Society at least once each year. The
committee shall recommend action for improving the management of re-
sources. [to achieve the Society's "Object and Purpose".]
Section 11. The Student Activities Committee shall consist of three
members. Each will serve a three-year staggered term, one new member to
be appointed each year by the incoming [Chairman] Chairperson. The [Chair-
manship] Chairperson [of the Committee] shall be decided [inherited] by
virtue of seniority on the committee. This committee shall solicit speakers,
conduct judging, and bestow awards for the annual student paper contest.
The committee shall coordinate [all other] special activities that involve the
participation of student members in Society affairs.
Section 12. The Long-Range Planning Committee shall consist of five
members. Each will serve a five-year staggered term, one new member to be
appointed each year by the incoming [Chairman] Chairperson. The [chair-


280 Florida Entomologist 65 (2) June, 1982

manship] Chairperson [of the committee] shall be decided [inherited] by virtue
of seniority on the committee. This committee shall provide long-term con-
tinuity, direction, and leadership for the Society by: (1) advising and assist-
ing the Executive Committee in overseeing long-range fiscal policies and
other policies of the Society, (2) fostering liaison with allied scientific and
technological organizations, and (3) initiating special projects to further
the Society's [aims] objectives. [In achieving these objectives the committee
may review certain documents, poll the Membership and interact with other

Section 1. There shall be an annual meeting. The time and place of such
meeting shall be decided by the Executive Committee.
Section 2. [Twenty] Forty [active] members shall constitute a quorum for
the transaction of business of the Society.
Section 3. Special meetings may be called by the Executive Committee,
and may be called by the President upon written request of ten [active]
members. Notice of such meetings shall be provided to all members by the
Secretary at least ten days prior to such meetings.
Section 4. Matters of major importance, may, upon approval of the Ex-
ecutive Committee, be placed before the membership between annual meet-
ings by mail ballot.


Section 1. The funds of the Society shall consist of [two] three types: an
operating fund, a reserve fund, and a designated fund.
Section 2. The operating fund shall [be available for current expenses]
consist of those funds collected from dues, page charges, subscriptions, back
issues, registration and other such funds not specified as reserve or desig-
nated funds.
Section 3. The reserve fund shall include undesignated bequests, dona-
tions, gifts and other such property and funds as may be specified by the
Executive Committee. [The principal of this] Reserve funds shall be invested
and shall be in the custody of the Executive Committee. The [investments]
accrued interest may be used to meet the necessary expenditures, but if not
used [during the year] it is to be left in the reserve fund. The reserve fund
may be expended only upon the recommendation of the Executive Committee.
Section 4. The designated funds shall include bequests, donations, gifts
and other such property and funds as may be specified by the donor. The
designated funds and accrued interest shall be in the custody of the Execu-
tive Committee and must be spent as specified by the donor.

Section 1. Dues shall be set by the Executive Committee subject to ap-
proval of the Society at a business meeting or by mail ballot. [Dues shall
include the cost of a subscription to the Florida Entomologist.] Dues cover
[a period of] one calendar year, and are payable [on] prior to January 1 of
that year.

Amended Articles of Incorporation & Bylaws

Section 2. Persons who apply for membership before July 1 shall have
their membership begin the preceding January 1; those applying [at a later
date] after July 1 shall have their membership begin the following January 1,
unless the earlier date is requested.
Section 3. Dues are in arrears January 1 of a calendar year. Members in
arrears will forfeit all Society privileges.
Section 4. Members [in good financial standing] have the right to resign.
Resigned members may be reinstated through regular application procedures.

Section 1. The Society shall issue a publication containing the transactions
of its meetings and such other matters as may be of interest to entomologists.
This publication shall be known as the Florida Entomologist and shall be
issued at such intervals as may be determined by the Society or by the Pub-
lications Committee. [A copy of each issue shall be sent to the Active,
Honorary, Sustaining, and Student Members of the Society.]
Section 2. The direction of the Florida Entomologist shall be entrusted to
the Board of Publications. This Board shall consist of a Business Manager,
who shall be the Treasurer of the Society, the Editor and one or more As-
sociate Editors.

Section 1. [Branches] Affiliates may be established on a geographical basis
for the purpose of holding meetings, presenting papers, conducting con-
ferences, and stimulating interest in Entomology.
Section 2. Membership in [a Branch] an Affiliate shall be restricted to
members of the Society residing or stationed in the area covered by the
[Branch] Affiliate. [A Branch may certify as affiliates non-society members
to participate in local activities of the Branch.]
Section 3. The officers of each [Branch] Affiliate shall be a [Chairman]
Chairperson, a [Vice-Chairman] Vice-Chairperson, a Secretary-Treasurer,
and a representative on the Executive Committee. [These officers shall be
Branch members who are voting members of the parent Society.] They shall
be elected annually by procedures to be adopted by the [Branch] Affiliate.
Section 4. [Branches] Affiliates may hold meetings or conferences at ap-
propriate times and places. [Branches] Affiliates shall not charge dues, but
they may charge registration fees for those in attendance at meetings in an
amount to be determined by the [Branch] Affiliate. A charge may also be
made for the proceedings, minutes, or records of [Branch] Affiliate meetings.
Section 5. To become established, proposed [Branches] Affiliates must
formally petition the Society, be endorsed by the Executive Committee, and
be approved by the Society. The petition must set forth the territorial limits
of the proposed [Branch] Affiliate and indicate clearly the particular purpose
for which the [Branch] Affiliate is to be formed; that an organized group of
Society members desiring to form [a Branch] an Affiliate already exists; and
that the establishment of the proposed [Branch] Affiliate will be useful to
the Society and to entomology.
Section 6. [A Branch] An Affiliate shall submit reports to the parent So-
ciety in order to maintain its status as [a Branch] an Affiliate. The frequency

282 Florida Entomologist 65 (2) June, 1982

and details of this report shall be determined by the Executive Committee of
the Society.

Section 1. The Society may affiliate with other organizations in order to
further the aims of the Society, upon recommendation of the Executive Com-
mittee and approval by vote of the membership.

Section 1. In matters of procedure not stipulated by the Articles of In-
corporation, Bylaws, or by the Rules of Order Committee, the authority fol-
lowed shall be Robert's Rules of Order, newly revised.

Scientific Notes

been reported attacking coffee bean weevil (CBW), Araecerus fasciculatus
(DeGeer) in Louisiana (Tucker 1909. USDA Bur. Ent. Bull. 64: 61-4) and
A. levipennis Jordan in Hawaii (Sherman and Tamashiro 1956. Proc.
Hawaiian Ent. Soc. 15: 138-48; Vaivanijkul and Haramoto 1969. Proc.
Hawaiian Ent. Soc. 20: 443-54). The mites collected from A. levipennis
were subsequently identified as Pyemotes tritici (Lagreze-Fossat and Mon-
tane) by Cross and Moser (1975. Ann. Ent. Soc. America 68: 723-32).
The straw itch mite, P. tritici parasitizes and kills many insects (Bruce
and LeCato. 1979. Recent Advances in Acarology. Vol. 1: 213-20), but para-
sitization of CBW by this mite has not been previously reported.
From 1978-80, ca. 20 citrus grove sites with previously reported or
suspected CBW problems were surveyed (Childers, in press. J. Econ. Ent.).
Pyemotid mites were found to attack and to kill CBW larvae, pupae and
adults in 'Hamlin' oranges during August and September, in 'Valencia'
oranges during April and August, and in dried fruit of chinaberry from
December through April in Lake County, Florida. Parasitized CBW ranged
from 0-4% in dropped citrus fruit and 0-1% in dried chinaberry fruit. One
or more pyemotid mites were observed attached to various paralyzed weevil
stages. Sites of mite attachment on adults were under the elytra into the
abdomen and at the suture lines between the pro- and mesosternum.
Positive identification is only possible with males. All males identified
were P. tritici and all of the females collected were in the P. ventricosus
group which includes P. tritici. These collections broaden both the geographic
and host ranges of P. tritici. University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station Journal Series No. 3607.-CARL C. CHILDERS, Agricultural Research
and Education Center, University of Florida, 700 Experiment Station Road,
Lake Alfred, FL 33850 USA; and EARLE A. CROSS, Department of Biology,
Ecology and Systematics Section, University of Alabama, University, AL
35486 USA.

Scapteriscus acletus has but one generation a year in central Florida. Egg
laying starts in March, peaks in May, and ends in September (Hayslip,
N.C. 1943. Fla. Ent. 26: 33-46). Overwintering is both by late instar juve-
niles and by adults that achieved their final molt during fall. At least some
fall-adult males call, and females can be attracted in substantial numbers to
broadcasts of synthetic calling song during October and November (Walker,
T. J., J. A. Reinert, and D. J. Schuster. 1982. Ann. Ent. Soc. America: sub-
mitted). These circumstances suggest that some S. acletus females mate in
the fall even though they lay no eggs until the following spring. We studied
the occurrence of fall mating and egg maturation by dissecting females and
tested for long-term storage of viable sperm by holding isolated females in
outdoor cages.
S. acletus females sometimes mate in the fall. Of 25 females caught flying


284 Florida Entomologist 65 (2) June, 1982

to synthetic calling song Oct.-Dec. 1978, 7 (28%) carried sperm. Of 5 fe-
males captured Oct. 1978 and caged outdoors with males for 1-3 months, 5
(100%) had sperm when dissected. In early November 1980 we placed each
of 20 females collected at sound with a male in 500 ml. of moist sand. After
4 days at 25 1C and 16L:8D, 12 of the 20 (60%) had sperm in their
S. acletus females, even if mated, generally do not mature eggs in the
fall. Fourteen females were captured at sound in October 1978 and held out-
doors for one, two, or three months (n=5,4,5,) prior to dissection. Nine
were caged alone (n=3 for each month of dissection) ; 3 had sperm; 6 did
not. All of their oocytes were immature (-1.1 mm long). As noted above, the
5 females that were confined with males had sperm. One of these, dissected 3
Jan. 1979, had nearly mature oocytes (>3.0 mm). On rare occasions S.
acletus may mature and lay eggs in the fall: E. L. Matheny (personal com-
munication, 1980) collected early instar juveniles in late November at
Gainesville. However, subsequent collections at the same site suggested that
such juveniles perished rather than contributed to the overwintering popu-
S. acletus females can keep sperm alive for as long as 7 months. During
fall 1979 and 1980, we exposed 32 sound-collected females to males for 4-23
days and then caged them individually beneath a shelter outdoors in sand-
filled plexiglas observation units (1 x 29 x 29 cm inside dimensions). Every
1-2 weeks the crickets were given ca. 1 ml of ground dog chow and the sand
was moistened and inspected for egg cells. When an egg cell was found, the
cricket was transferred to a new cage and the clutch of eggs monitored for
hatching. Of seven females that laid eggs, five apparently carried viable
sperm (Table 1). (We did not refute the alternative hypothesis of faculta-
tive parthenogenesis but consider it unlikely because of the high percent
hatch in clutches that produced nymphs: Maynard Smith, J. 1978. The
evolution of sex. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge; Harrison, R. G. 1982.
Evolution 36: in press.) One female produced two successive fertile egg
batches (27 Apr. and 19 May); another laid a fertile clutch (24 Apr.) fol-
lowed by an infertile one (19 June). The three other fertile females pro-


Fall, winter, spring of
Category of females 1979-80 1980-81

Started in Oct.-Nov.1 12 20
Laying eggs Oct.-March 0 0
Surviving through March 7 62
Laying eggs April-June 2 5
Laying fertile eggs April-June 1 4

'Based on 12 of 20 similarly treated females having sperm (see text), 38-82% of these
females should have been inseminated (P=0.05, binomial distribution).
2Mortality was high when air temperature dropped to -100C, 13 Jan 1981.

Scientific Notes

duced single clutches 17 May-5 June. The longest period between isolation
from males and laying fertile eggs was 6 Nov. 1980 to 5 June 1981.
S. acletus occurs in disturbed, therefore transient, habitats. Females that
mate at the first opportunity insure their capability of colonizing newly
available habitats and do not forego later matings with choicer males
(Forrest, T. G. 1981. M.S. thesis, Univ. Florida, Gainesville). S. acletus is
not native to the U.S. (Walker, T. J., and Nickle, D. A. 1981. Ann. Ent.
Soc. Amer. 74: 158-163), and it is possible that fall matings in Florida re-
flect a homeland where a second or partial second generation is produced
each year. Matheny's finding young juveniles in November (see above) sup-
ports this hypothesis.
S. vicinus in central Florida has a univoltine life cycle similar to acletus,
but Hayslip (1943, ibid) reported that 85% of vicinus overwintered as adults
whereas only 25% of acletus did so. Nonetheless, fall flights to synthetic
sound are later and sparser (Walker et al., 1982, ibid). Dissection of 24
females caught at sound in Gainesville, Nov.-Dec. 1979 and 1981, and 52
caught in Jacksonville, Nov. 1981, revealed that 1 of the 24 and 3 of the 52
had mated. Of 24 outdoor-reared vicinus females that were confined with
males in 1.5 m diameter outdoor cages during fall 1981, only 2 had sperm by
15 Dec. Although the proportion maturing in the fall is larger for vicinus
than for acletus, the proportion of fall adults mating in the fall is ap-
parently greater for acletus.
Long term sperm storage has not been reported previously for crickets,
but adults are generally short-lived and reproductive diapause is uncom-
mon. In his review of cricket life cycles (1968. Quart. Rev. Biol. 43: 1-41),
R. D. Alexander lists only three likely examples of adult diapause: two
semivoltine mole crickets (winter diapause) and a univoltine burrowing
cricket, Brachytrupes aclatinus (=Brachytrypes portentosus) (summer
diapause). Two coneheads (Copiphorinae, Tettigoniidae) overwinter in
adult reproductive diapause in north peninsular Florida: Neoconocephalus
triops and Pyrgacorypha uncinata (Whitesell, J. J. 1969. M.S. thesis, Univ.
Florida, Gainesville). Both species become adult in fall, but each remains
reproductively dormant, eschewing calling, mating, and egg maturation,
until spring.-T. J. WALKER and J. L. NATION, Dept. Entomology and Nema-
tology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.

Rehn and Hebard is the most common grasshopper inhabiting salt marsh
cord grass, Spartina alterniflora Loisel (Davis 1978. Pages 186-220 In An
annotated checklist of the biota of the coastal zone of South Carolina, R. G.
Zingmark, ed; Davis and Grey 1966. Ecology 36: 275-95). Eggs are inserted
underneath leaf sheaths. From 0. fidicinium eggs collected at Oyster Bay,
Wakulla County, northwest Florida, we have reared out 2 species of egg
parasite: an unidentified eulophid and a scelionid, Macroteleia surface
(Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). The rearing of M. surface from 0. fidicinium
eggs represents the first host record for this parasite (P. M. Marsh, pers.
comm.). In 205 eggs examined, the overall rate of parasitism was 18.5%;

Florida Entomologist 65(2)

10.2% by Eulophidae and 8.3% by M. surface. The eulophid is superparasitic
with up to 20 adults (mean = 10.3, S.D. = 3.6) emerging from each host
egg. Only one scelionid emerged per host. We thank Drs. D. A. Nickle (0.
fidicinium), P. M. Marsh (M. surface) and E. E. Grissell (eulophid), Sys-
tematic Entomology Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture,
for species identifications. Work supported by National Science Foundation
Grant DEB 7921828 to Donald Strong and by the Department of Biological
Science, Florida State University.-PETER D. STILING and DONALD R. STRONG,
Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee,
Florida 32306 USA.

harrisii Walsh and H. tessellaris (J. E. Smith) are distinctly different and
readily separated in the field. Larvae of H. tessellaris feed on a wide variety
of trees and shrubs including sycamore, but H. harrisii larvae feed only on
sycamore. Adults are not distinguishable on exterior characters, but the males
can be separated by differences in the shape of the male valve of the genitalia
(Watson 1980, Bull. British Mus. Nat. Hist. Ent. Ser. 40(1): 1-65). Watson
ibidd.) implied that H. harrisii did not occur in Florida or along the Gulf
Coast because of absence of its host plant, while Kimball (1965, Arthropods
of Florida & Neighboring Land Areas, 1: 76) speculated that since sycamore
occurs in Florida, H. harrisii should be present, although he had no authentic
records in Florida.
Three larvae of H. harrisii were collected 19 August 1975 in Lake City,
Columbia County by C. Webb on sycamore Platanus occidentalis L. extending
the range well within the Florida border. Examination of 126 male H.
tessellaris or undetermined moths in the Florida State Collection of Arthro-
pods revealed a single H. harrisii collected at Ocean City, Okaloosa County,
21 July 1963 by H. 0. Hilton. Halysidota harrisii does occur in Florida and
is probably uncommon but fairly widely distributed throughout northern
Florida since sycamore occurs naturally in west Florida and has been widely
planted as an ornamental in the northern part of peninsular Florida.-DALE
H. HABECK, Department of Entomology and Nematology, IFAS, University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Florida Agric. Expt. Sta. Jour.
Series No. 3712.

(L.)-Several studies have been published regarding tick-host resistance and
immunological interactions between ticksand animal hosts (McGowan and
Barker, 1980, Bull. Ent. Soc. America 26: 17-25). Most deal with naturally
acquired host resistance, but an increasing number report the immunization
of animals with tick antigens to produce resistance. The majority of these
studies used homogenates of either unfed whole adult ticks or various parts
of the tick as the immunogen (McGowan et al., 1980, J. Parasitol. 66: 42-8;
Ackerman et al., 1980, J. Med. Ent. 17: 391-7). However, Allen and
Humphreys (1979, Nature 280: 491-3) noted that guinea pigs and cattle im-


June, 1982

Scientific Notes

munized with antigen prepared from unfed Dermacentor andersoni Stiles
did not develop resistance to subsequent tick infestation. Resistance was
induced when extracts of partially fed ticks were used as the immunogen.
They hypothesized that the increased antigenicity of the preparation was
related to developmental changes in midgut epithelium and other tissues. We
performed the following experiment to assay for changes in the protein
content of unfed vs. partially fed ticks.
A homogeneous group of unfed, adult male Amblyomma americanum
(L.) from our colony was used in this experiment. Male rather than female
ticks were used since they imbibe a smaller quantity of blood and therefore
fewer host blood-associated proteins are taken up during the feeding process.
One hundred ticks were randomly separated into 2 groups of 50 ticks each.
One group was allowed to feed on a sheep for 5 days prior to collection and
antigen preparation; the other group was not fed. A third extract was pre-
pared from gut tissue dissected from unfed, adult male A. americanum. The
3 extracts were prepared by homogenizing in sterile water using an Omni-
mixer (Sorvall, Inc., Newton, CT). The homogenates were centrifuged on a
Beckman Ultracentrifuge (Model No. J021B) at 13,000 rpm (19,000 g) for
1 h, and the supernatants drawn off, lyophilized and stored at -260C. Pro-
teins from the homogenates were separated in 7.5% polyacrylamide gels (pH
8.9) as previously described (McGowan et al., loc. cit.).
Spectrophotometric scans of the gels of partially fed (Fig. 1A) and unfed
ticks (Fig. 1B) suggested that the same number of bands was present in
both homogenates, however, the concentration of a number of proteins was
greatly increased in partially fed ticks (Fig. 1A). The scan of the unfed
male gut tissue (Fig. 1C) shows a reduction in both the number and concen-
tration of proteins. This scan suggests that the 7 bands represent proteins
that are present in the gut tissue and not associated with the blood meal it-
self. All 3 gels showed a major peak near the cathode. In addition, the
partially fed tick extract had increases in at least 2 proteins that displayed
greater mobility toward the anode. The sensitivity of the scanner was auto-
matically reduced in Fig. 1B and 1C causing the anode peak to appear to be
of the same magnitude in all 3 scans.
The origin of these proteins has not been determined. However, it has
been shown that feeding initiates an increased activity in organs associated
with digestion (Balashov, 1972, Misc. Publ. Ent. Soc. America 8: 159-376).
Destruction of these organs and/or inhibition of their products by antibody
to specific immunogens could serve to alter or inhibit further tick develop-
The in vivo antigenicity of extracts of ticks or tick tissues requires
further study. In our initial studies, laboratory rabbits were injected with
unfed tick gut extracts but we were unable to produce a resistance response.
This observation coincides with that of Allen and Humphreys (loc. cit.) but
does not agree with the findings of Ackerman et al. (loc. cit.). However, if
the immunogens produced from partially fed ticks prove to possess increased
antigenic activity, then the production of tick antigens may be simpler. In-
creased activity of organs associated with feeding and digestion may also
allow the development of more specific antigens. These materials could serve
as important immunogens in a vaccine developed for tick control. (Journal
article 4084 from the Agricultural Experiment Station, Oklahoma State


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

1 II1 1 III 11 I I i I I I 1II I ll
E Top B. Bottom
o 0.86

LJ 0.6


Top C. Bottom
0.8 G




RECORDED RESPONSE (1.25 cm/sec.)
Fig. 1. Disc polyacrylamide gel (7.5%, pH 8.9, 2 mA/tube) electrophoresis
of whole adult male Amblyomma americanum. A. Partially fed male extract.
B. Unfed male extract. C. Unfed male gut extract.
University, Stillwater, OK 74078).--MICHAEL J. McGOWAN, West Florida
Arthropod Research Laboratory, c/o USDA-ARS, P. 0. Box 14565, Gaines-
ville, FL 32604, USA; JOHN T. HOMER, 'Department of Microbiology and
Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University,
Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA; and R. W. BARKER, Department of Entomology,
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

I ii I I111 I II III i I II 1 1 1i


June, 1982

Scientific Notes 289

CYPRESS LEAF BEETLE-On 16 July 1981, sand pine, Pinus clausa
(Chapm.) Vasey, with partial to entire crowns of reddened foliage were ob-
served in sand pine plantations (10-15 yrs old) located near Tennille, FL.
During a field inspection 28 July 1981, we observed adult Systena marginalis
(Ill.) feeding and mating on sand pine needles (Fig. 1). Commonly known
as the cypress leaf beetle, S. marginalis is usually associated with bald-
cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard, or pondcypress, Taxodium
distichum var. nutans (Ait.) Sweet (Chellman, C. W. 1975. Florida Dept.
Agric. Bull. No. 196).
A map, constructed from aerial surveys, shows that all affected sand pine
bordered cypress ponds within the sand pine plantations (Fig. 2). Within




Fig. 1-2. 1) Adult Systena marginalis, ca. 5 mm in length. Photo credit:
J. Windsor (DPI Photo No. 702284-16). 2) Distribution of sand pine dam-
aged by Systena marginalis. Blank areas either planted sand pine or open

the ponds, most baldcypress and pondcypress trees exhibited severe foliar
damage by S. marginalis. Feeding scars of S. marginalis were similar in
appearance (3.2 mm long x 0.3 mm wide) for all 3 tree species (Fig. 3).
Generally, the feeding pattern was from crown tops to the bottoms on ob-

Florida Entomologist 65(2)


SSand Pine'


Fig. 3. Feeding damage of Systena marginalis on host trees. Foliage and
damage to scale, ca. 1/ natural size.
served sand pines; however, not all trees experienced complete crown loss.
Upon reinspection of damaged sand pines on 8 October 1981, we found most
trees refoliated and not readily discernible as having been damaged by S.
Also, we observed nymphs of an assassin bug, Psellips cinctus (F.),
preying on S. marginalis on sand pine foliage; 2 instances of impaled S.
marginalis were seen on one tree. (S. marginalis and P. cinctus determined
by R. E. Woodruff and F. W. Mead, respectively, Bureau of Entomology,
Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL).-W. N. DIXON, Forest En-
tomologist, Div. of Forestry, Gainesville, FL 32602 and D. I. ENSMINGER, Re-
search Forester, Buckeye Cellulose Corp., Perry, FL 32347 USA. Contribu-
tion No. 536, Bureau of Entomology, P.O. Box 1269, Gainesville, FL 32602.


June, 1982


]^1mi. ,1

r ~isif ^

Scientific Notes

WORM FEMALES-Ganyard and Brady (1972, Ann. Ent. Soc. America
65: 1279-82) reported male Schinia (= Heliophana) mitis (Grote) (Lep-
idoptera: Noctuidae) were attracted to sticky traps baited with female fall
armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), also a noctuid. S. mitis
males were also attracted to traps baited with female Indian meal moths,
Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner) and almond moths, Ephestia cautella
(Walker), both in the family Pyralidae. I report here the cross attraction
of S. mitis males to yet another noctuid species-the southern armyworm,
Spodoptera eridania (Cramer).
S. mitis males first began to appear in a survey trap for southern army-
worm (SAW) males during the first week of April 1981. The trap (Pherocon
1C, Zoecon Corp., Palo Alto, CA) was baited with 3 virgin SAW females
which were replaced twice weekly. An unbaited control trap was set in posi-
tion ca. 30 m from the survey trap on 7 April. The traps were located along
a fence row close to a fallowed field heavily populated with various weed
species including Carolina false dandelion, Pyrrhopappus carolinianus
(Walt.) DC, the reported host of S. mitis (Habeck et al. 1974, J. Lepidop.
Soc. 28: 152-7). The traps were inspected and captured insects were re-
moved every 1-3 days over the next 5 weeks. A total of 489 S. mitis males
were captured in the female-baited trap; the unbaited control caught only
26 males during the same period. About 94% of the total captures were
recorded during the last 3 weeks of April with the remainder taken during
the first 2 weeks of May.
The chemical basis for this interspecific sex attraction is unknown al-
though (Z,E) -9,12-tetradecadien-l-ol acetate is a common sex pheromone
component of 3 of the 4 species to which S. mitis males have reportedly
been attracted; the fall armyworm is the exception. In recent years, reports
of interspecific sex attraction have become more frequent. In several cases,
the cross attraction reported was, as in the present study, of short duration
and appeared to have resulted from having fortuitously positioned the at-
tractant source in an area heavily populated by a favored plant host during
a period of peak emergence by the species captured. I am grateful to D. H.
Habeck and F. W. Mead for identifying S. mitis. (Mention of a commercial
or proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement by the USDA).-
EVERETT R. MITCHELL, Insect Attractants, Behavior, and Basic Biology Re-
search Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Gainesville, FL 32604 USA.

^-- -^- --^- -^- -^ -- i--^-^

OCHRACEA-Euphasiopteryx ochracea is a tachinid fly of the tribe
Ormiini. One aspect of its biology is well known: gravid females respond
phonotactically to the calling songs of male field crickets (Gryllus "integer")
and larviposit on or near these males (W. Cade 1975, Science 190: 1312-3).
Parasitized crickets usually die in about one week. J. R. Mangold (1978,
Florida Ent. 61: 57-61) reported that gravid E. ochracea females are at-
tracted to broadcast songs of the mole cricket Scapteriscus acletus. S. acletus
is not known to be a host of E. ochracea, but its calling songs are similar to
those of Gryllus rubens.

Florida Entomologist 65(2)

While observing populations of Caribbean fruit flies (Anastrepha sus-
pensa) in guava trees at the University of Florida Agricultural Research
and Education Center, Homestead, Florida, in September 1980 and 1981, I
observed individuals of E. ochracea resting on the underside of leaves. Three
males, 2 gravid females, and 1 non-gravid female were collected. Gravid
females are easily distinguished by the presence of dark larvae, readily vis-
ible through the female's semi-transparent abdomen.
From 8-15 September 1981, John Davis of the Insect Attractants, Be-
havior, and Basic Biology Research Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Gainesville,
Florida, conducted a field evaluation of the attractiveness of colored wing
traps to the Caribbean fruit fly in guava trees at the University of Florida
Agricultural Research and Education Center in Homestead. Traps used had
ca. equal levels of reflectivity (50-70% of maximum) and sharp reflectance
cut-offs at ca. 10 nm steps from yellow-green (550 nm cut-off) to orange
(605 nm cut-off) (J. Davis, Pers. Comm.). Traps were coated with a sticky,
insect-trapping substance and placed about 1.8 m high in the peripheral
canopy of the trees.
On 9 September, I noticed that 13 E. ochracea had been trapped in these
wing traps. Dr. Davis collected additional specimens on 10-15 September. In
all, 42 E. ochracea were collected: 26 males, 11 non-gravid females, and 5
gravid females.
R. M. Weseloh (1981, Environ. Ent. 10: 131-5) described the trapping of
9 species of tachinid parasites on sticky-coated white panels and yellow
panels in trees infested with gypsy moths. He attributed species differences
in catch sex ratio and height of capture (0.6 m or 15 m) to differences in
reproductive mode. Microtype egg depositors were caught in relatively even
sex ratios near the ground; macrotype egg depositors were caught in high
sex ratios (i.e., mostly males) in the canopy. He suggested that the latter
group of species was using the canopy as a mating encounter site, as is com-
mon in tachinid flies (see next reference for examples).
Although the sex ratio of trap-caught E. ochracea was only 1.6, the pre-
ponderance of males and non-gravid females suggests that these guava trees
were similarly serving as mating encounter sites, as well as resting sites for
gravid females. No previous information has been available on mating sites
in Euphasiopteryx, but aggregations, predominantly male, have been ob-
served in other Ormiini. R. C. Lederhouse et al. (1976, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer-
ica 69: 656-8) observed aggregations of Ormia dominicana at the base of
water tower bulbs and 0. lineifrons on the top of towers, at the Archbold
Biological Station, Lake Placid, Florida. The very high sex ratios and timing
of activity (just after dusk) suggested that these were mating aggregations.
This use of "non-resource-based"encounter sites (T. Burk 1981, Florida Ent.
64: 30-43) by 2 close relatives supports the idea that E. orchracea use trees
for mating encounter sites. The use of sticky colored-panels may be a useful
way of obtaining specimens of certain tachinids, especially species such as
E. ochracea in which males are difficult to obtain.-THEODORE BURK, Depart-
ment of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, and the Insect
Attractants, Behavior, and Basic Biology Research Laboratory, ARS, USDA,
P. O. Box 14565, Gainesville, FL 32604 USA.


June, 1982

President's Message

In this message we will continue to discuss Society business. While none
of us likes to discuss financial affairs, it is time our Society consider several
critical issues.
It has been years (1975) since our dues structure was reviewed in rela-
tion to our annual budget. Our current dues are a bargain; however, budget
demands increase annually. Much of this is due to inflation, but many mem-
bers would like our Society to grow in size and to provide more services.
Therefore, I asked our new ad hoc Committee on Finance to study the
dues structure of our Society. The Committee's recommendation was given
at the November meeting of the Executive Committee. Upon their recom-
mendation, the Executive Committee made and approved a motion to in-
crease dues for 1983. As our Society is a corporation, a dues increase will
have to be implemented by vote of the membership at the annual meeting in
Sarasota. As each of you will have to decide if your vote is "yes" or "no," I
think you should understand the reasons behind this action.
It is recommended that Student Dues be increased from $2.00 to $5.00.
Students receive the same benefits as Full Members including subscription to
the Florida Entomologist. The total cost of printing and mailing one volume
of our journal now averages about $20.00 per year per member. We feel the
future of our Society lies with our Student Members and we currently have
about 150 Student Members. The Executive Committee believes that a
Student Dues of $5.00 is among the best bargains for students in entomolog-
ical societies.
It is recommended that Full Members dues be increased from $10.00 to
$15.00. Approval of this recommendation will not create a substantial cash
balance in our Society. In the 1981-1982 Society budget receipts will come
from dues, additional subscriptions to our journal, and registration fees for
the annual meetings. The expenses include-in general words-the business
of keeping Society records, cost of annual meeting, editor's page grants,
honors and awards including 4-H participation, and various committee ex-
penses. Further, several new committees will ask for funds this year for new
projects. Two points should be raised here. Page charges pay for the costs
of printing our journal; however, these charges do not include cost of mail-
ing our journal and printing of Society business in the journal. Also, as
noted in the last President's Message, we have now set registration fees for
our annual meetings at cost; however, the 1981-1982 budget must pay for the
1981 annual meeting. All in all, the 1981-1982 Society expenses will probably
exceed expected receipts. The Executive Committee believes that a Full
Members Dues of $15.00 will provide for some years a balanced budget with
a steady but small growth in the Society program. Further the problem of
finding a new Business Manager may well be resolved as discussed later in
this message.
It is recommended that Subscriptions be raised from $15.00 to $20.00.
This raise reflects the current average cost of printing and mailing the
Florida Entomologist. This year the Executive Committee has approved a
temporary measure to charge $20.00 for a subscription to Volume 66, 1982.
It is recommended that Sustaining Members Dues remain the same at
$30.00. This rate was established 2 years ago when we started to promote
the Sustaining Membership. Currently we have almost 50 sustaining mem-


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

bers. This new source of revenue has been greatly appreciated and the
Society hopes to increase the number of sustaining members. At percent the
revenue has been used to support student activities and participation at our
annual meetings. Several new projects have also been proposed.
From the inception of our Society, the business affairs have been handled
by our own members. For many years such work was minimal and could be
fitted into any scientist's routine. As our Society is now one of the largest
state entomological societies, the task of Business Manager-Treasurer is
awesome with many hours of work per week. This year our current Business
Manager-Treasurer, Dan Wojcik, will complete his term of office. He has
indicated he will not be available for re-election. While we have sought a
new candidate for Business Manager-Treasurer since last August, no one
has come forward. Based on past experience this position should be filled by
a person living in the Gainesville area.
Therefore I asked the Committee on Finance to study the position of
Business Manager-Treasurer. The committee's recommendation, as given at
the November meeting of the Executive Committee, was that the Business
Manager-Treasurer should be a Society member and be paid (starting with
the new term of office) a monthly salary of $100.00 and that the Business
Manager-Treasurer should present to the Executive Committee an itemized
monthly invoice. Further the Business Manager-Treasurer should continue
to receive (as currently in the 1981-1982 society budget) a maximum of
$1,000 per year for secretarial assistance and supplies.
The Executive Committee approved a motion to accept this recommenda-
tion on the Business Manager-Treasurer. However such a recommendation
should be implemented by the membership at the annual meeting in Sarasota.
The Committee on Finance also recommended that the Business Manager-
Treasurer develop on an annual basis a preliminary Society budget for
presentation at the first yearly meeting of the Executive Committee. This
procedure has been followed for the last 2 years. The Executive Committee
approved a motion to continue this financial procedure.
All of these financial issues are most important to the future of our
Society. I hope all members will study these issues and be ready to respond
at our annual meeting in Sarasota.
Department of Entomology
Florida A & M University
Tallahassee, FL 32307 USA


June, 1982

Scholarship Award

You are invited to submit the names of students at your institution whom
you wish to have considered for the scholarship. They may be undergradu-
ates or graduates but they must be student members of the Florida En-
tomological Society. Selection will be based on the quality of scholarship as
reflected in the student's transcript; letters of recommendation from 2
faculty members; the curriculum vitae of the student; and a statement from
the student about his or her commitment to the study of insects.
Names of students and required documentation should be sent by 1 June
1982 to:
DR. LEWIS BERNER, Chairman F.E.S. Ad Hoc Committee
on Scholarships, Department of Zoology, University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.

-- --e--e e- --a --- -- -a -a -a


MORSE, ROGER A. 1980. The Complete Guide to Beekeeping. E. P. Dutton,
New York, N.Y. 10016. 124 p. $5.95 (paper)
Written primarily for the beginner or hobbyist beekeeper this book (by
one of the world's best known apiculturists) should appeal to a very large
audience. Although described as a "New Revised Edition" the average reader
will find few significant changes between this and earlier editions. Several
illustrations have been reoriented in this edition and certainly it's better to
see queen cells in their normal position rather than upside down, but the
only really new material is the chapter on "Honey Wine Making".
In addition to his expertise about bees, Dr. Morse is thoroughly qualified
to write about the intricacies involved in making (mead) honey wine, and
the reader for whom this book is intended will find this chapter on wine
making a welcome edition. Morse's clear descriptive style of writing makes
the step by step instructions easy to follow and even the novice should be
able to produce a "drinkable" if not a quality product!
It is unfortunate that several discussions which are no longer valid were
not deleted from this edition before printed. Recommending the use of the
drug sulfathiazole which is no longer registered for such use and to suggest
that the reader write for information about government programs that no
longer exist, does detract from an otherwise excellent book! In spite of these
dificiencies anyone interested in bees or beekeeping will find this book well
worth its modest cost.-FRANK ROBINSON, Dept. of Entomology & Nema-
tology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.


Florida Entomologist 65 (2)

ANNUAL REVIEW OF ENTOMOLOGY, 1982, Volume 27, 503 p. ($22.00 USA,
$25.00 elsewhere)
Contents: Courtship and mating behavior in spiders, M. H. Robinson;
Immune responses to arthropods and their products, S. K. Wikel; The rice
brown planthopper: feeding physiology and host plant interactions,
K. Sogawa; Structure and function in tick cuticle, R. H. Hackman; Thermal
responses in the evolutionary ecology of aquatic insects, J. V. Ward and
J. A. Stanford; Biology of mayflies, J. E. Brittain; Chemical ecology and
biochemistry of insect hydrocarbons, R. W. Howard and G. J. Blomquist;
Insect pests of potato, E. B. Radcliffe; Maternal direction of oogenesis and
early embryogenesis in insects, S. J. Berry; Mite pests of honey bees, D. D.
Jong, R. A. Morse, and G. C. Eickwort; Recent advances in mode of action
of insecticides, R. W. Beeman; Rangeland entomology, J. G. Watts, E. W.
Huddleston, and J. C. Owens; Biology of New World bot flies: Cuterebridae,
E. P. Catts; Biochemistry of insect venoms, J. O. Schmidt; Effects of air
pollutants on insect populations, D. N. Alstad, G. F. Edmunds, Jr., and L. H.
Weinstein; Evolutionary biology of astigmatid mites, B. M. O'Connor; The
role of pheromones, kairomones, and allomones in the host selection and
colonization behavior of bark beetles, D. L. Wood; A perspective on systems
analysis in crop production and insect pest management, W. M. Getz and
A. P. Gutierrez; author, subject, cumulative indexes.-JEL.

FES 82056
Contents: The behavioral ecology of hermit crabs, Brian A. Hazlett;
Mechanisms of speciation-a population genetic approach, Alan R. Temple-
ton; Community organization in marine algal epifaunas, Raymond Seed
and Raymond J. O'Connor; Zoogeographys of West Indian vertebrates in
relation to Pleistocene climatic cycles, Gregory K. Pregill and Storrs L.
Olson; Adaptation and evolution in Heliconius: a defense of NeoDarwinism,
John R. G. Turner; Primary productivity, decomposition and consumer
activity in freshwater wetlands, Mark M. Brinson, Ariel E. Lugo, and
Sandra Brown; Late Cenozoic freshwater fishes of North America, Gerald
R. Smith; Significance of fossil evolution and dynamics of intraspecific
predation, Gary A. Polis; Flower and fruit abortion: proximate causes and
ultimate functions, A. G. Stephenson; Insect seasonal cycles: genetics and
evolution, Catherine A. Tauber and Maurice J. Tauber; Ecology and eco-
nomics: complex systems in changing environments, Brock B. Bernstein;
Community structure in the deep-sea benthos, Michael A. Rex; Panorpa
(Mecoptera: Panorpidae) scorpionflies: systems for understanding resource-
defense polygyny and alternative male reproductive efforts, Randy Thorn-
hill; Numerical phenetics: its uses in botanical systematics, Thomas Duncan
and Bernard R. Baum; A unified approach to marine plant-herbivore inter-
actions. I. Populations and communities, Jane Lubchenco and Steven D.
Gaines; author, subject, cumulative indexes.-JEL.


June, 1982

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