Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00099
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1982
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00099
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text

(ISSN 0015-4040)


(An International Journal for the Americas)

Volume 65, No. 4 December, 1982

66th Annual Meeting of the Florida Entomological Society: First
Announcement and Call for Papers ................-.....-.... .....- 443
MCGOWAN, M. J., J. T. HOMER, AND R. W. BARKER-Electrophoretic
and Antigenic Comparisons of the Ixodid Ticks Amblyomma
maculatum and A. americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) -......-.....-. .. 447
POSEY, D. A.-The Importance of Bees to Kayap6 Indians of the Bra-
zilian A m azon -. ... .- ..-....... ...... --.. -- ..... ........ .... ... 45
GARDNER, W. A., R. D. GETTING, AND G. K. STOREY-Susceptibility of
the Two-spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, to the
Fungal Pathogen Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher ... ..-...-......-- ...... 458
ELSEY, K. D.-Photoperiod and Temperature Effects on the Occurrence
and Periodicity of Mating in Pickleworm Moths (Lepidoptera:
Pyralidae) -... -.. ....... ..--..-- ........ .... 46 466
ELSEY, K. D.-Effect of Extreme Temperatures on Pickleworm Larvae
and Adults (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) ..-- --.....-... ... -. ....- 471
ALI, A., AND B. H. STANLEY-Effects of a New Carbamate Insecticide,
Larvin (UC-51762), on Some Nontarget Aquatic Invertebrates 477
FRITZ, G.-Zygoribatula floridana n. sp. (Acari: Oribatulidae), with a
List of Species in the Genus .... -.. ....... .....-- -......... .............. 483
BARANOWSKI, R. M., AND J. A. SLATER-The Pachygronthinae (Hemi-
ptera: Lygaeidae) of Trinidad with the Description of a New
Species and Notes on Other Sedge Feeding Lygaeids .................... 492
CALDWELL, B. A., AND A. R. SOPONIS-Hudsonimyia parrishi, A New
Species of Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Georgia 506
MANSOUR, F., et al.-Spiders of Florida Citrus Groves ........--.......... .. 514
FLOWERS, R. W., AND R. T. YAMAMOTO-Feeding on Non-host Plants
by the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera:
Sphingidae) --........-----....-......- ............ 523
DONG, NGO, AND H. W. BECK-Mark-release of Sound-attracted Mole
Crickets: Flight Behavior and Implications for Control ................ 531
RUSSELL, L. M.-The Genus Neophyllaphis and Its Species (Hemiptera:
Homoptera: Aphididae) ...---...... --- ....... ..... .......... 538
Continued on Back Cover

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


President .- ---..... ...........~.~. .................. A. C. (Abe) White
President-Elect .....-..----...---------------------...----.... C. W. McCoy
Vice-President .....-..............- .................. .. -. M. L. Wright, Jr.
Secretary .--......--......... .............................. ..... ...... .. D. F. W illiams
Treasurer ......----.. ..---................ .......-- ....................... D. P. W ojcik

J. R. Cassani
SJ. L. Knapp
Other Members of the Executive Committee Lee
C. A. Morris
W. L. Peters
C. A. Musgrave Sutherland


Editor -- --- -------.. C. A. Musgrave Sutherland
Associate Editors .-...........-----...................--------- F. A. Howard
J. E. Lloyd
J. R. McLaughlin
C. W. McCoy
A. R. Soponis
H. V. Weems, Jr.
Business Manager ...........................-.......- .....-.... ------D. P. Wojcik

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, September,
and December. Subscription price to non-members is $15.00 per year in
advance, $5.00 per copy. Membership in the Florida Entomological Society,
including subscription to Florida Entomologist, is $15 per year for regular
membership and $5 per year for students. Inquiries regarding membership
and subscriptions should be addressed to the Business Manager, P. O. Box
12425, University Station, Gainesville, FL 32604. Florida Entomologist is
entered as second class matter at the Post Office in DeLeon Springs and
Gainesville, FL.
Authors should consult "Instructions to Authors" on the inside cover of
all recent issues while preparing manuscripts or notes. When submitting a
paper or note to the Editor, please send the original manuscript, original
figures and tables, and 3 copies of the entire paper. Include an abstract and
title in Spanish, if possible. Upon receipt, manuscripts and notes are ac-
knowledged by the Editor and assigned to an appropriate Associate Editor
who will make every effort to recruit peer reviewers not employed by the
same agency or institution as the authors(s). Reviews from individuals
working out-of-state or in nearby countries (e.g. Canada, Mexico, and
others) will be obtained where possible.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
C. A. Musgrave Sutherland, 4849 Del Rey Blvd., Las Cruces, NM 88001.
Business matters for other Society officers can be sent to that individual at
the University Station address above.
This issue mailed January 31, 1983


The following slide policy will govern slide presentations at the Annual
Meetings. Only Kodak Carousel projectors for 2 x 2 slides will be available.
However motion picture projectors will be available by special request to
the Local Arrangements Chairman prior to the date of the meeting.
Authors should keep slides simple, concise, and uncluttered with no more
than 7 lines of type on a rectangle 2 units high by 3 units wide. All printed
information should be readable to an audience of 300 persons.
A previewing room will be designated for author's use. A projectionist
will be available in the previewing room at least one hour before each session.
Authors are expected to give the projectionist their slides in the previewing
room prior to each session. Slides will be returned to the authors after each
session in the meeting room.
Authors are expected to organize their slides in proper order in their
personal standard Kodak Carousel slide tray (no substitution, please). Only
a few slide trays will be available in the previewing room from the projec-
tionist for hardship cases. Slides in the tray should be in correct order start-
ing with slot #1 of the tray and positioned correctly (position of slides to go
into tray: 1. upside down, and 2. lettering readable from this position upside
down and from right to left). A piece of masking tape should be placed on
the slide tray by the author and the following information should be written
on the tape: 1. author's name, 2. session date, and 3. presentation time.


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The Florida Entomological Society will hold its 66th Annual Meeting on
9-12 August 1982 at the Sheraton Sand Key Hotel, Clearwater Beach, Flor-
ida. The location is 1160 Gulf Boulevard, Clearwater Beach, Florida 33515;
telephone-1-813-595-1611. Room rates will be $45.00 either single or double;
student rates will be a flat $15.00 per person, with a minimum of 3 students
per room. Pre-registration and registration fees will be released in the
March, 1983 Florida Entomologist.
Questions concerning the local arrangements should be directed to:

DR. ROBERT W. METZ, Chairman
Local Arrangements Committee
Florida Entomological Society
1808 North 57th Street
Tampa, Florida 33619
Phone: 1- (813)-626-3184
Since many will present papers please tear out the sheet and submit be-
fore 1 June 1983, to:
M. LEWIS WRIGHT, JR., Chairman
Program Committee, FES
P. O. Box 2185
Winter Haven, Florida 33880
Phone: 1- (813) -299-1131
Eight minutes will be allotted for presentation of oral papers, with 2
minutes for discussion. In addition, there will be a separate session for
members who may elect to present a Project (or Poster) Exhibit. The three
oral student papers judged to be the best on content and delivery will be
awarded monetary prizes during the meeting. Student authors must be
Florida Entomological Society Members and must be registered for the

McGowan et al.: Comparisons of Ixodid Ticks



Disc gel electrophoretic patterns of female and male Amblyomma
maculatum Koch extracts are similar but not identical. A comparison of
combined male-female A. americanum (L.) with male and female A.
maculatum extracts suggests that several common proteins exist. Sera from
rabbits immunized with unfed male A. maculatum extract formed a precipitin
band with both male and female A. maculatum antigens as well as the com-
bined male-female A. americanum antigens. However, sera from calves im-
munized with unfed male and female A. maculatum gave no detectable
precipitin reactions.

Los patrons electrof6ricos formados en discos de gelatina por los ex-
tractos de hembras y machos de Amblyomma maculatum Koch son similares,
pero no id6nticos. Una comparaci6n del extract combinado de los machos-
hembras de A. americanum (L.), y el de machos y hembras de A. maculatum,
sugiere que estos tienen varias proteinas en comdn. Los sueros de conejos,
inmunizados con extract de machos A. maculatum sin alimentar, formaron
una banda precipitante con antigenos de ambos machos y hembras de A.
maculatum y A. americanum. Sin embargo, los sueros de terneros, inmuizados
con machos y hembras de A. maculatum sin alimentar, no demostraron
ninguna reacci6n precipitante detectible.

Numerous studies have shown that animals develop antibodies to tick
infestation or immunization with tick extracts (Riek 1959, Wikel and Allen
1976, Allen and Humphreys 1979, and McGowan et al. 1980). These anti-
bodies are thought to be one component of acquired resistance to ticks
(Wikel and Allen 1976).
Trager (1939) observed that guinea pigs first infested with either
Dermacentor andersoni Stiles or D. variabilis (Say) exhibited a cross re-
sistance to larvae of the other species. Similar results were observed in
rabbits infested with D. variabilis and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris
(Packard) (Trager 1939, McGowan et al. 1982a). Cross-resistance in guinea
pigs to D. andersoni, D. variabilis, Amblyomma americanum (L.) and Ixodes
scapularis Say was studied by McTier et al. (1981). They concluded that
guinea pigs resistant to D. andersoni were also resistant to D. variabilis but
not to A. americanum or I. scapularis. Furthermore, guinea pigs resistant to
A. americanum were resistant to D. variabilis but not to D. andersoni. These

Journal article 8907 of the Agricultural Experiment Station, Oklahoma State University,
Stillwater, OK 74078.
'Senior Entomologist, Lilly Research Laboratories, Division of Eli Lilly & Co., P. O. Box
708, Bldg. 295, Greenfield, IN 46140 USA.
2Associate Professor, Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Microbiology and Public
Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 USA.
3Associate Professor, Department of Entomology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater,
OK 74078 USA.

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

findings suggest that antigens may be shared among some tick species. In
the present study extracts of A. maculatum Koch and A. americanum were
examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and with the combined
polyacrylamide gel-agar gel immunodiffusion technique for the presence of
common antigens.


Preparation of unfed tick extracts and polyacrylamide disc gel elec-
trophoresis were as outlined by McGowan et al. (1980). Briefly, the tick
extracts were electrophoresed in 7.5% gels with a pH of 8.9 and an electric
current of 2mA/tube. Gels were stained for the presence of proteins with
analine blue-black. A Beckman DU spectrophotometer with a Gilford Model
2410 scanning attachment was used to scan stained gels at 550 nm and a
slit width of 0.2 mm.
Four New Zealand White rabbits of both sexes that weighed 1.8-2.2 kg,
were injected in the footpads with 3 mg/kg of unfed male A. maculatum
antigen dissolved in sterile water and mixed with an equal volume of
Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). A subsequent injection of antigen in
Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) was administered 14 days following
the initial injection. Hereford bull calves that weighed ca. 215 kg were in-
jected with 6 mg/kg of combined male-female A. americanum antigen in
FIA at 2 week intervals for a total of three injections. Serum for serological
tests was collected prior to immunization and at weekly intervals during the
The basic procedure for the combined polyacrylamide gel-agar gel im-
munodiffusion was modified from that of Wright et al. (1971). Following
disc gel electrophoresis the unstained gels were extruded, placed on glass
plates (100 x 100 x 3 mm) and overspread with 1% agar (lonagar #2, Colab
Laboratories, Inc., Chicago Heights, IL) in phosphate buffered saline. The
plates were incubated at room temperatures (23-250 C) for 24 h to allow
diffusion of antigens into the agar. Troughs (2 x 85 mm) were then cut 5-8
mm from and parallel to the disc gels, charged with serum, and the plates
incubated at room temperature for 24-48 h.


The electrophoretic patterns of female and male A. maculatum are sim-
ilar but not identical (Fig. 1A and B). There appears to be at least one
additional protein and increased concentrations of several common proteins
in the male extract (Fig. 1A). A comparison of the combined male-female
A. americanum (Fig. 1C) with male and female A. maculatum (Fig. 1A
and B) suggests that several common proteins exist, as seen in the top 5 to
7 bands. There are, however, distinct species differences as evidenced by the
difference in patterns toward the bottom of the gels. The sensitivity of the
scanner was set automatically thereby causing the anode peak to appear to
be of the same magnitude in all 3 scans.
Sera from rabbits immunized with male A. maculatum extract formed a
single precipitin band with both male and female A. maculatum antigens
(Fig. 2A) as well as the combined male-female A. americanum antigens
(Fig. 2B).

December, 1982

McGowan et al.: Comparisons of Ixodid Ticks

Lop A I E Bottom
r^-\ / B A maculatum Btto
(D ( -

Fig. 1. Disc polyacrylamide gel (7.5%, pH 8.9, 2mA/tube) electrophoresis
of unfed whole adult tick extracts. A. Male Amblyomma maculatum scan.
B. Female A. maculatum scan. C. Combined male-female A. americanum

No detectable reactions were observed with sera from nonimmunized
rabbits or immunized calves.

Previous studies utilizing electrophoretic techniques have demonstrated
that tick extracts contain many proteins, some of which are shared among
species of a genus. Krasnobaeva et al. (1971) reported similarities of the
electrophoretic patterns on agar gel of 3 species of Hyalomma ticks. Sim-
ilarities were also observed between the genera Hyalomma and Dermacentor.
Similar findings were noted in the present study of A. maculatum and
A. americanum utilizing the more sensitive technique of polyacrylamide gel
electrophoresis. Distinct differences were observed in the eletrophoretic pat-

mEl-11 1 111 -IHiTTI...


Florida Entomologist 65(4)

December, 1982

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McGowan et al.: Comparisons of Ixodid Ticks

terns of these two species, however, the 5 to 7 bands near the top of the gels
were similar in appearance (Fig. 1A, B and C). Differences in the elec-
trophoretic pattern between male and female A. maculatum were seen. The
male extract appears to contain at least one additional band as well as higher
concentrations of several proteins. Comparison of these banding patterns
suggests but does not prove the existence of common proteins between male
and female A. maculatum and between A. maculatum and A. americanum.
Prior studies have shown that animals immunized with tick extracts
develop precipitating antibodies. Using gel diffusion Riek (1959) found that
sera from rabbits immunized with extracts made from the eggs and larvae
of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) formed 1-7 distinct precipitin bands
when tested against the extracts. Similar findings were reported by Boese
(1969, 1974) who observed precipitating antibodies in rabbits injected with
whole-tick extracts of H. leporispalustris. Precipitating antibody was also
observed in cattle immunized with extracts of D. andersoni (Allen and
Humphreys 1979).
Only a single male A. maculatum protein located near the top of the
disc gel reacted with antibodies in the sera from injected rabbits. We are
uncertain as to the reason for this, however, based upon gel scans (Fig. 1)
and precipitin patterns (Fig. 2), the immunogenic protein appeared to be
present in the largest quantity. Other proteins in the extracts may have in-
duced antibody production had they been present in sufficient quantities.
Allen and Humphreys (1979) observed no response in cattle to injection of
extracts of unfed ticks but reported circulating antibody production in cattle
immunized with ticks which had been fed for five days prior to antigen prep-
aration. They hypothesized that feeding increased gut enzyme concentrations
in tick extracts which may increase the extracts' antigenicity. This increase
in the number and/or concentration of tick proteins was seen in A. amer-
icanum which had fed for 5 days prior to extract preparation (McGowan
et al. 1982b). Our findings support these observations in cattle, but the un-
fed tick extract did cause resistance in rabbits (McGowan et al. 1980).
The cross reactivity of the A. maculatum antisera with the A. amer-
icanum antigens suggests that at least one of the proteins which appears to
be similar in the disc gels also shares antigenic determinants. The in vivo
studies of Trager (1939), McTier et al. (1981) and McGowan et al. (1982a)
suggest that the resistance which develops following repeated infestations
extends to other members of the same tick species. Although the present
study does not determine the in vivo effect of immunization with these ex-
tracts one may speculate that these or other unidentified proteins may induce
or enhance host resistance to tick infestations.

ALLEN, J. R., AND S. J. HUMPHREYS. 1979. Immunization of guinea pigs and
cattle against ticks. Nature 280: 491-3.
BOESE, J. L. 1969. Interaction of innate and acquired immunity of the
domestic rabbit to the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris
(Acari: Ixodidae). Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Kansas,
Lawrence. 157 p.
1974. Rabbit immunity to the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis
leporispalustris (Acari: Ixodidae). I. The development of resistance.
J. Med. Ent. 11: 503-12.

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

KAYA. 1971. Study of homogenates of organs and hemolymph of
blood sucking ticks by means of electrophoresis. Med. Parasitol.
Parasitarn. Bol. 4: 704-8.
BARKER. 1980. Performance of ticks fed on rabbits inoculated with
extracts derived from homogenized ticks Amblyomma maculatum
Koch (Acarina: Ixodidae). J. Parasitol. 66: 42-8.
-- R. W. MCNEW, J. T. HOMER, AND J. H. CAMIN. 1982a. Relationship
between skin-sensitizing antibody production in the Eastern cottontail
Sylvilagus floridanus, and infestations by the rabbit tick, Haema-
physalis leporispalustris, and the American dog tick, Dermacentor
variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Ent. 19: 198-203.
-- J. T. HOMER, AND R. W. BARKER. 1982b. Polyacrylamide gel electro-
phoresis of unfed, partially fed and gut tissues of Amblyomma
americanum (L.). Florida Ent. 65: 286-88.
McTIER, T. L., J. E. GEORGE, AND S. N. BENNETT. 1981. Resistance and
cross-resistance of guinea pigs to Dermacentor andersoni Stiles, D.
variabilis (Say), Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus), and Ixodes
scapularis Say. J. Parasitol. 67: 813-22.
RIEK, R. F. 1959. Studies of the reactions of animals to infestation with
ticks. IV. The protein components of tick extracts. Australian J.
Agric. Res. 10: 604-13.
TRAGER, W. 1939. Acquired immunity to ticks. J. Parasitol. 25: 57-81.
WIKEL, S. K., AND J. R. ALLEN. 1976. Acquired resistance to ticks. II.
Effects of cyclophosphamide on resistance. Immunology 30: 479-84.
WRIGHT, G. L., JR., K. B. FARRELL, AND D. B. ROBERTS. 1971. Gradient
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of human serum proteins: Im-
proved discontinuous gel electrophoresis technique and identification
of individual serum components. Clin. Chim. Acta. 32: 285-96.


Center for Latin American Studies
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA

A total of 56 folk species of Apidae are discussed in the classification
system of the Kayap6 Indians of the Brazilian Amazon; 54 of these are
stingless Meliponidae. These folk species correspond to 66 scientifically rec-
ognized species, reflecting an 86-percent correlation between scientific and
folk taxonomic systems. A highly specialized indigenous knowledge about bee
behavior (folk ethology) exists that allows for the semi-domestication of 9
folk species. Folk ethology is a field little appreciated by Western science,
yet Kayap6 knowledge of bees is evidence that significant information about
nature and human-environmental relationships can be gained from analysis
of folk taxonomic systems.


December, 1982

Posey: Bees & Indian Culture 453

En el sistema de clasificaci6n de los Indigenas Kayap6 de la Amazonia
Brasilera se disciernen un total de 56 species tipicas de Apidae; 54 de los
cuales son Meliponidae. Estas species tipicas correspondent a 66 species
cientificamente reconocidas, reflejando un 86 porciento de correlaci6n entire
los sistemas taxon6micos cientificos y tipicos. Un conocimiento indigena
altamente especializado con relaci6n al comportamiento de las abejas ("folk
ethology") existe que permit la semi-domesticaci6n de 9 species tipicas. La
etnologia tipica es un Area muy poco apreciada por la ciencia occidental, adn
asi, el conocimiento Kayap6 de las abejas es evidencia de que una gran
cantidad de informaci6n puede ser aprovechada con relaci6n a la naturaleza
y a las relaciones humans en el medio ambiente a trav6s del anAlisis de los
sistemas tipicos taxon6micos.

Previously I have pointed out the general significance of insects to in-
digenous groups of the American tropics (Posey 1978b, 1980). This paper
deals specifically with indigenous knowledge of behavior and classification
(folk ethology) of stingless bees (Meliponidae) by the Kayap6 Indians of
the Brazilian Amazon.
There are approximately 2,500 G&-speaking Indians in the Kayap6
nation, which is divided into 9 widely dispersed villages in a two-million
hectare reserve indigena in the Brazilian states of ParA and Mato Grosso.
The data used in this paper were collected at Gorotire (7048'S, 54046'W),
the largest village (population ca. 600), during a 14-month study conducted
in 1977-78.
The author was initially attracted to the role of bees in the Kayap6
culture by the elaborate ethnosemantic taxonomy and mythological corpus
collected about social insects (Posey 1981, in press, a). Social communities
of Hymenoptera are thought to mirror Kayap6 communities; indeed, it is
believed that Indians learned how to live as social beings from an ancestral
wise man ("wayanga") who gained his knowledge from the study of bee,
wasp, and ant behavior (Posey 1978a, 1981). This belief serves as a social
charter to the Kayap6 to continue their observations of nature in general
and of Hymenoptera in particular and accounts for their reputation as keen
ethnologists (Posey 1979, 1981).
The Kayap6 have various ways of classifying bees. As is frequently dis-
covered in folk biological studies, several taxonomic systems seem to be
superimposed and a particular classification paradigm is brought to play
depending on functional context (Garner 1976). One "functional" classifica-
tion system is based on the aggressive behavior of the bee when disturbed.
There are 4 major divisions in this system: (1) docile, (2) stinging, (3)
biting, and (4) blister-causing. There are only 2 "stinging" bees, the
European and the hybrid Brazilian bee (both Apis mellifera); the rest of
the "folk species" are stingless Apidae.
It is interesting to note that the hybrid "Brazilian bee" is carefully
studied by the Kayap6. The Indians claim it arrived in Gorotire during the
period of the full moon in February 1966. The Indians admire the aggressive-
ness of the bee and its high productivity of thick honey, but they insist it
invades the nests of native bees. They claim that the availability of native,

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

stingless bee honey has been greatly reduced because of the colonizing suc-
cess of the hybrid, stinging bee over native stingless species.
Another functional taxonomic system is based on the qualities of the
honey: its taste, acidity, quantity found in one nest, time of the year that
the nest can be raided, etc. (Posey, in press, b).
A morphological taxonomic system also exists, but the ability of the
Indians to identify bees out of their ecological niche is generally unreliable.
Out of a village population of ca. 600, I found only 2 male bee "experts" who
are reasonably consistent in identifying folk species from morphological
characteristics alone. Since the collection of honey and wax rests within the
male cultural domain, women know little about bees.
The most elaborate system of bee classification is based on nest structure
and location of the nest. The Kayap6 recognize 8 ecological zones and asso-
ciate certain species of bees with each zone (Posey, in press, b). Nests are
grouped by: (1) nest site (in a tree, in the earth, in vines, in abandoned
termite hills, etc.) ; (2) the height of the nest from the ground; (3) the
shape and size of the entrance tube (length, shape, markings, size, etc.);
and (4) nest size (based on gross size, relative amount of honey per nest,
etc.). These criteria correlate with Willie and Michener's (1973) descriptive
The Kayap6 utilization of bees raises the question of semi-domestication,
or at least species manipulation.
The Kayap6 recognize 6 species (see Table 1) whose nests can be raided
for honey and wax. If the queen and part of the brood chamber are returned
to the nest by the Indians, enough of the dispersed bees will return to re-
establish the colony. Thus by manipulating the bees, the Kayap6 can
seasonally exploit the hive for honey without permanently disrupting the
colony. Trees with such hives are known by, and in a sense owned by, certain
Kayap6 men who systematically raid them for honey and wax.
The Kayap6 also "keep" 3 species in or nearby their houses. Nests of


Kayap6 Name Scientific Name

Nghi-pprE-y' Apis millifera
NgAi-fiy-tyi-ti'1. Melipona seminigra cf. pernigra (Moure
and Kerr)
(mehn-krak-krak-ti) Melipona rufiventris flavolineata (Friese)
Nghi-re' Melipona compressipes cf. fasciculata
(sm.) or afinis Moure Ms.
mykrwht' Frieseomelitta sp.
udjy' 2 Trigona amalthea (Olivier)
kukraire'l2 Trigona dallatorreana Friese
menh6rd-kamrek' Trigona cilipes pellucida (Ckll.)
mehndr&-tyk3 Scaura longula (Lep.)

'These species are systematically raided in subsequent seasons.
2Those species whose nests are taken to the village.
"Those species that are encouraged to build nests in dry posts in the houses.


December, 1982

Posey: Bees & Indian Culture

certain Trigona (T. dallatorreana and other unidentified species) are found
in the forest and brought back to the village on their attached limbs; com-
plete nests are erected from eaves of the houses. Other species (probably
T. amalthea and M. rufiventris) are brought with nests intact in hollow logs
and placed at the margin of the forest near the village or a field clearing.
Other species (T. cilipes and S. longula) tend to prefer building sites in
exposed rafters of houses and are allowed to co-exist with the household
residents. The nests of all these "kept" species are raided at prescribed
times when the honey cache is known to be optimal.
The Kayap6 also encourage the establishment of bee nests in their fields.
To do this, they sometimes dig large holes, or, more usually, utilize existing
armadillo holes. Into these holes are placed dry logs. Several undetermined
Trigona species (including T. fuscipennis Friese) and Trigona fulviventris
guianae Ckll. are attached to the logs and build their nests directly in the
earthen walls of the hole. The presence of bees is associated with crop suc-
cess, although there is no clear notion of pollination per se.
In a collection of bees made in Gorotire, 56 folk species were discerned
by the Kayap6. There were 66 scientifically recognized species found, of
which 11 were unknown or as yet not described (3 of Megachile, 2 each of
Partamona and Centris and one species each of Friescomelitta, Tetragona,
Mesoplia and Tetrapedia).
In a normative comparison between folk and scientific species, there is
approximately an 86-percent correlation. Such high correlative quotients
are not uncommon (Berlin 1973, Hunn 1975). The complete species list is
found in Table 2.
These data point to the importance of bees to the Kayap6 Indians of
Brazil and other indigenous peoples. It can be concluded that Indians are
keen observers of nature, often with high correlations between folk and
scientific taxonomic systems. Folk ethology is a field that is little explored
by Western science; significant and insightful information about principles
of human taxonomic and ecological systems, as well as practical information
about man-environment relationships, however, can be gained from folk
taxonomic studies.


This research was sponsored by 2 grants from the Wenner-Gren Founda-
tion for Anthropological Research, to which I am greatly indebted. I wish to
thank Kwyr6-kA and Iri Kayap6 for their diligent assistance and instruc-
tion. My special thanks to Professor J. M. F. Camargo (Depto. de Biologia,
Universidade Federal do Maranhio, Sfo Luis, Maranhao, Brazil) for his
scientific identification of the Gorotire collection, which is now kept by Pro-
fessor Camargo and Dr. William Overal (Chefe, Repto. de Entomologia,
Museu Goeldi, Bel6m ParA, Brazil) to whom I am also grateful.

BERLIN, B. 1973. Folk systematics in relation to biological classification and
nomenclature. Ann. Rev. Ecology and Systematics 4: 259-71.
GARDNER, P. 1976. Birds, words and a requium for the omniscient informant.
American Ethn. 3: 446-68.


Florida Entomologist 65 (4)


Family, Genus, Species

Xylocopa (Schoenherria) dimidiata Latr.
X. (Schoenherria) lucida Smith
X. (Schoenherria) anthophoroides Smith
X. (Megaxylocopa) frontalis (Oliver)
Centris (Centris) inermis Friese
C. (Centris) flavifrons (Fab.)
C. (Centris) aenia Lep.
C. (Centris) spilopoda Moure
C. (Paremisia) similis (Fab.)
C. (Paremisia) dentata Smith
C. (Trachina) longimana (Fab.)
C. (Heterocentris) bicornuta Mocs.
C. (Centris) sp. 1
C. (Centris) sp. 2
C. (Paremisia) sp.
C. (Hemisiella) sp.
C. (Melanocentris) sp.
Mesoplia sp. (parasite)
Mesonychium asteria (Smith) (parasite)
Tetrapedia sp.
Halictus hesperus (Smith)
Neocorynura sp.
Augochloropsis sp.

Megachile brasiliensis Dallatorre
M. (Austromegachile) sp.
M. (Crysosaurus) sp.
M. giraffa Schrottky
Megachile sp. 1
Megachile sp. 2
Megachile sp. 3

Collection code

442, 479-6
sem no-1
sem no-1
103, 104-2
113, 114-2
119, 120,118-3



Eulaema (Eulaema)

meriana (Olivier)

Apis mellifera (L.)
Melipona rufiventris flavolineata (Friese)
M. tumupasae Schwarz
M. seminigra (pernigra) Moure + Kerr
M. compressipes (fasciculata) or
(afinis Moure Ms.)


331, 541, 332, 325-4


December, 1982


Posey: Bees & Indian Culture


Family, Genus, Species

Paratrigona (Paratrigona) (peltata Spinola)
Oxytrigona tataira (flaveola Friese)
Plebeia (Plebeia) minima (Gribodo)
Scaura (Scaura) longula (Lep.)
Cephalotrigona capitata femorata (Smith)
Trigona (Trigona) spinipes (Fab.)
T. (Trigona) fuscipennis Friese
T. (Trigona) amalthea (Olivier)

T. (Trigona) fulviventris guianae Ckll.
T. (Trigona) chanchamayoensis Schwarz
T. (Trigona) pallida pallens (Latr.)
T. (Trigona) cilipes pellucida (Ckll.)
T. (Trigona) dallatorreana Friese
T. (Trigona) branneri Ckll.
Partamona (Partamona) pseudomusarum
P. (Partamona) cupira (Smith)
P. (Partamona) sp. 1
P. (Partamona) sp. 2
Nannotrigona (Scaptotrigona) nigrohirta
N. (Scaptotrigona) polysticta Moure
Tetragona (Tetragona) quadrangula (Lep.)
T. (Tetragona) goettei Friese 1900
T. (Tetragona) clavipes (Fab.)
T. (Tetragona) dorsalis (Sm.)
T. (Tetragona) sp.
T. (Ptilotrigona) lurida (Sm.)
T. (Tetragonisca) angustula fiebrigi
Frieseomelitta varia (Lep.)
Frieseomelitta sp.
Frieseomelitta modest Moure

Collection code

555, 553-4
sem no-1
557, 89, 71-6
343,504,475, 94,
sem no-1
546, 473-3

334, 356?-2

339, 550-5
432- 512-3
436, 437, 435-9
522, 338-4
536, 327, 506-11

519, 513-3

'The Collection code numbers refer to specimens from the Gorotire collection that are
now in the possession of J. M. F. Camargo, Depto. de Biologia, Universidade Federal do
Maranhao, 65.000 Sao Luis, Maranhao (Brazil).

HUNN, E. 1975. A measure of the degree of correspondence of folk to
scientific biological classification. American Ethn. 2: 309-27.
POSEY, D. 1978a. Ethnoenthomology of 'the Gorotire Kayap6 of Central
Brazil. Ph.D. dissertation (anthropology), University of Georgia,
Athens, Georgia, USA.
.1978b. Ethnoentomological survey of Amerind groups in lowland
Latin America. Fla. Ent. 61(4): 225-29.
1979. Kayap6 control insects com uso adequado do ambiente. Rev.
de Atualidade Indigena 3(14) : 47-58.
--- 1980. Algunas observaciones entomol6gicas sobre grupos amerindos

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

en la America Latina. Rev. de America Indigena 15(1): 105-20.
1981. Wasps, warriors, and fearless men: The cultural ecology of
the Kayap6 Indians of Central Brazil. Ethnobiology 1(1) : 165-74.
1982. Development of the Amazon on an indigenous model. In The
Dilemma of Amazonian Development. Emilio Moran, Ed. Boulder,
Co.: Westview Press.
--. in press, a. Keeping of stingless bees (Apidae) by the Kayap6 Indians
of Brazil. Ethnobiology.
---. in press, b. Folk apiculture of the Kayap6 Indians in Brazil. Bio-
WILLIE, T., AND C. MICHENER. 1973. The nest structure of the stingless bees
with special reference to those of Costa Rica. Rev. de Biologia Trop-
ical 21 (Suplemento 1) : 1-278.


University of Georgia
College of Agriculture Experiment Stations
Georgia Station
Experiment, GA 30212 USA

Laboratory bioassays determined the susceptibility of the two-spotted
spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, to Hirsutella thompsonii thompsonii
Fisher. Direct placement of conidia onto mites which were placed on bean
leaf discs floating on distilled water in covered petri dishes yielded a mean
mortality of 96.5%. Mortality of mites placed on leaf discs cut from bean
plants previously sprayed with a commercial formulation of the bioacari-
cide (Mycar@, Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL) and placed in the
covered dishes ranged from ca. 24 to 99%. No significant response to dose of
Mycar occurred at the rates tested (1.2-9.6 g/liter). Under greenhouse con-
ditions (22-300C; 50-90% RH), the formulated material failed to either
sporulate on sprayed foliage or cause mite mortality. Raising humidity levels
with intermittent misting of foliage increased sporulation of the fungal
inoculum on plant surfaces, but no infections occurred in mites on those

La susceptibilidad de la arafiita roja, Tetranychus urticae Koch, a
Hirsutella thompsonii thompsonii Fisher fu6 determinada por bioensayos.
La colocaci6n direct de conidios sobre los acaros, los cuales fueron colocados
sobre discos cortados de hojas de frijol flotando sobre agua distilada en cajas
de Petri result en una mortalidad promedio de 96.5%. La mortalidad de los
acaros colocados sobre los discos de hojas de frijol rociado previamente con
una formulaci6n commercial de bioacaricida (Mycar@) fue de 29 hast 99%.
No hubo una relaci6n significativa a diferentes dosises de Mycar entire 1.2
hasta 9.6 g/litro. Debajo condiciones del vivero (22-30'C; 50-90% RH) el


December, 1982

Gardner et al.: H. thompsonii vs T. urticae 459

hongo ni esporul6 en el follaje ni caus6 la mortalidad de los Acaros. La
esporulaci6n del inoculo sobre las superficies del follaje se aument6 cuando
periodicamente se echaba agua en forma de una niblina sobre las plants
para aumentar la humedad, pero sin embargo no hubo infecciones de los
Acaros en estas plants.

Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher is an acarine mycopathogen which was
originally described from the citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ash-
mead) (Fisher 1950). It primarily attacks eriophyid mites inhabiting citrus
and other plants throughout the world and is recognized as the most im-
portant natural enemy attacking P. oleivora in Florida (Muma 1955, McCoy
et al. 1976). Currently it is being commercially formulated by Abbott Lab-
oratories (North Chicago, IL) as Mycar for use in suppressing P. oleviora
on citrus in Florida. The carrier in the formulation apparently functions as
a substrate for fungal growth and sporulation on plant surfaces. Optimal
sporulation and infection occur in the presence of high humidity or free
water on treated surfaces (McCoy 1981).
Other mites susceptible to H. thompsonii were listed by McCoy (1979).
His list included 6 tetranychid species, but the two-spotted spider mite,
Tetranychus urticae Koch, was not tested. If susceptible, H. thompsonii
might prove useful as a bioacaricide against T. urticae, especially in en-
vironments (e.g. greenhouses) where conditions are, or could be modified
for, optimal fungal sporulation and host infection. T. urticae is an important
pest of greenhouse crops with a wide range of susceptible hosts. This study
examines the susceptibility of T. urticae to H. thompsonii and the potential
of a commercial formulation of the mycoacaricide in suppressing T. urticae
on plants grown in greenhouse conditions.

The culture of H. thompsonii thompsonii (strain no. HTF 72; CBS Ac-
cession No. 556.77B, Centraal bureau voor Schimmelcultures, Baarn, Nether-
lands) used in the laboratory bioassays was originally obtained from C. W.
McCoy (IFAS, University of Florida, Lake Alfred) and subsequently main-
tained at room temperature on an artificial medium. The commercial formu-
lation (ABG 6065, 3.6 x 10" colony forming units/lb) used in laboratory bio-
assays and greenhouse screening trials was provided by Abbott Laboratories
(North Chicago, IL) and stored at 40C.
APPLICATION OF CONIDIA. Several leaf discs (11 mm diam.) cut from
Irish shamrock, Oxalis acetosella L., were infested with T. urticae by trans-
ferring ca. 30 mites from infested plants to each leaf disc. Individual discs
were then randomly assigned to either a treatment or control group. Single
conidia were removed with microforcepsfrom an agar plate culture of the
fungus and placed on the dorsum of individual mites on the discs in the treat-
ment group. Mites in the control group were touched with clean forceps.
Leaf discs were then floated on distilled water in covered petri dishes to pre-
vent mites from crawling off the discs and to maintain high humidity levels.
One treatment disc and 1 control disc were placed in individual dishes to
represent 1 replicate. Treatments and controls were replicated 4X in a
randomized complete block (RCB) experimental design in 3 tests.

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

Mite deaths occurring within 16 h of treatment were attributed to me-
chanical damage caused by the transfer of mites to the leaf discs. These
cadavers were removed from leaf discs and were not included in the statis-
tical calculations. The initial 30 mites/disc were reduced to means of 29.3 -
0.9 in the check group and 27.9 + 0.6 in the treatment group. Discs were
checked daily and cumulative mite mortality due to the mycosis was as-
sessed 7 days after treatment. The mycosis was confirmed by microscopic
examination of cadavers. Per cent mortality data from the 3 tests were
transformed (arcsin) and analyzed as a split plot in time with time as the
whole plot factor and treatment vs. control as the subplot factors.
BIOASSAY OF ABG 6065. Host plants used in these bioassays were either
Irish shamrock or green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plants were first
sprayed to runoff with a specified rate of the formulation (1.2, 2.4, 4.8, or
9.6 g/liter of distilled water) with a compressed-air sprayer operated at
pressures between 2.1 and 2.5 kg/cm2. The full cone spray was directed at
the foliage at various angles to achieve thorough coverage. Control plants
were not sprayed. Randomly selected leaves were removed from control and
treated plants after the foliage of the sprayed plants was allowed to air dry.
Leaf discs (11 mm diam.) were cut from these excised leaves and floated on
distilled water in petri dishes in the same manner as previously described.
Mites were then transferred from infested bean plants to the discs with the
mean number of mites per disc ranging from 16.8 to 42.2. Dishes were sub-
sequently covered to maintain high humidity levels. One dish represented 1
replicate and contained a leaf disc from the untreated control and each
treatment rate in the respective test. Treatments and controls were repli-
cated 4X in a RCB design in each of the 5 bioassays conducted.
Mites dying within 24 h of transfer were removed and were not included
in statistical calculations. Discs were checked daily with cumulative mor-
tality due to the fungus assessed 7 to 8 days after treatment. The mycosis
was confirmed by microscopic examination of cadavers. Data from the 5 tests
were transformed (arcsin) and initially analyzed as a split plot in time de-
sign with time serving as the whole plot and treatments as the subplots.
However, significant response to the time and the interaction (time by treat-
ment) factors forced separate analyses and presentation of data for the 5
individual bioassays.
In addition, 2 bioassays were conducted in the same manner with the
commercial formulation and the southern red mite, Oligonychus ilicis
(McGregor). However, only a limited number (5-20 mites/rep) of 0. ilicis
were available for these tests. Therefore, no statistical analyses were con-
GREENHOUSE TRIALS. ABG 6065 was evaluated in 10 routine screening
trials with various plants in greenhouse conditions. In each test the
mycoacaricide was sprayed on plant foliage in the same manner as previ-
ously described. Rates applied in the tests' ranged from 0.3 to 9.6 g/liter of
distilled water. Controls were treated with distilled water plus any spray
additives applied with the mycoacaricide.
The initial 6 tests were conducted in greenhouse conditions (65-90% RH)
without any additional environmental modifications to maintain high %
RH. Later tests were conducted in tents of clear plastic with intermittent
mist applications which maintained a constant presence of free water on


December, 1982

Gardner et al.: H. thompsonii vs T. urticae

plant foliage during the tests. Host plants, initial mite density, and spray
additives varied among these tests and are recorded in Table 2.
Each test was arranged on raised greenhouse benches in a RCB design
with 3 to 4 replicates/treatment. Effectiveness of treatments was evaluated
at various intervals after treatment by counting mites within two 2 cm2
areas on 1 randomly selected mature leaf from each plant. Leaves also were
inspected for mites killed by H. thompsonii.
Two additional tests were conducted with plants kept in either lantern
jars or an environmental chamber to maintain high % RH levels during the
tests. Green bean plants were treated and placed in individual lantern jars
covered on the top and bottom with petri dish covers (14.5 cm diam.). The
jars containing the plants were arranged on a raised greenhouse bench in a
RCB design with 3 replicates/treatment. In a 2nd test, Irish shamrock plants
were sprayed and placed in a closed environmental chamber maintained at
250 C on a 14:10 L:D photoperiod. A cool-air vaporizer provided a constant
RH level approaching 100% with free water on the foliage. Treatments
were replicated 4X in a completely random design. Mite counts and disease
incidence in each test were assessed as previously described.

APPLICATION OF CONIDIA. Placement of H. thompsonii conidia directly on
the dorsum of T. urticae mites resulted in a mean mortality of 96.54 +
3.54% due to the mycosis. No deaths in the control groups were due to in-
fection by H. thompsonii. The majority of mite deaths due to the fungus
occurred from 3 to 5 days after exposure to the conidia. After death, fungal
hyphae rapidly penetrated outside the host and completed sporulation.
BIOASSAY OF ABG 6065. The commercial formulation also effectively and
consistently killed T. urticae in laboratory bioassays conducted at room
temperature (25-270C) in covered petri dishes filled with water (Table 1).
Sporulation of the mycelial inoculum sprayed on the plant foliage occurred
12-24 h before initial mite mortality due to the fungus. Most mite mortality
resulting from the mycosis occurred 3 to 4 days after application. Significant
response to dose (1.2-9.6 g/liter) of the mycoacaricide did not occur. Mor-
tality exceeded 75% in 3 of the 5 tests and 90% in 2 of those tests. Plate
counts of serial dilutions of the ABG 6065 on artificial medium indicated a
significant decrease in colony forming unit viability in the materials used
in Tests 2 and 5 (Table 1).
ABG 6065 also killed (73-100% mortality) 0. ilicis mites in 2 laboratory
bioassays. However, no statistical analyses of these data were conducted
because only a limited number of mites (5-20/rep) were available for the
GREENHOUSE TRIALS. No T. urticae mites were killed by ABG 6065 in
the 10 greenhouse trials. The mycelial inoculum sprayed on plants treated
with ABG 6065 sporulated on only a few plants in tests conducted under
polyethylene tents with intermittent mist applications. The mycelial inoculum
also sporulated on the foliage of plants treated with ABG 6065 and sub-
sequently placed in sealed lantern jars to maintain humidity levels at the
saturation point. However, the fungus caused no mite mortality on these
A few deaths (< 5%) which could be confirmed as due to H. thompsonii

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

CIALLY FORMULATED Hirsutella thompsonii (ABG 6065) IN LAB-

Test (wks)'


Number of
Rate Mites/
(g/liter) replicate3

4 90

7 40-45

1 95

2 95

13 50-55

26.2 + 2.3
30.8 + 2.4
24.5 + 1.9
37.5 7.4
42.2 3.0
39.5 5.7
30.0 4.4
41.2 8.5
38.2 4.3
36.5 4.6
36.2 6.8
27.0 1.5
17.2 2.7
16.8 1.5
41.8 7.1
19.2 1.7
21.5 1.0

0.0 + 0.0 a
87.83 5.05 b
90.24 7.67 b
0.0 0.0 a
24.09 3.39 b
29.69 3.60 b
41.40 5.54 b
0.0 + 0.0 a
76.75 7.65 b
78.27 1.52 b
73.39 4.67 b
0.0 0.0 a
99.35 4.61 b
93.96 8.90 b
91.13 6.13 b
0.0 0.0 a
65.25 5.59 b

'Length of time ABG 6065 was stored in our laboratory (40C) prior to use in respective
tests. Two shipments of material were used in these tests.
-Percent viability of CFU's as determined by plating serial dilutions of ABG 6065 on SFM
prior to each test.
3X SE. Means within separate tests followed by the same letter are not significantly
different at the 5% level by Duncan's multiple range test.

occurred on the Irish shamrocks kept in a closed environmental chamber
after treatment. These deaths occurred 2 wks after treatment and several
days after sporulation occurred on plant foliage.
SUMMARY. T. urticae is susceptible to H. thompsonii when environmental
conditions are optimal for fungal development. Conidia and a commercial
formulation of H. thompsonii consistently killed the mites in laboratory bio-
assays conducted at room temperature (25-270C) in covered petri dishes
filled with water. The southern red mite, 0. ilicis, also appears susceptible to
this pathogen under the same environmental conditions. Reports of the
susceptibility of these 2 tetranychid species to H. thompsonii have not been
previously published.
However, the commercial formulation (ABG 6065) failed to kill T.
urticae in either normal or modified greenhouse conditions when sprayed on
plants. Reasons for this lack of control are only speculative. Microclimatic
conditions are responsible for survival, development, and intiation of epi-
zootics by H. thompsonii and epizootics may be quite localized on citrus
(McCoy and Couch 1982). The fungus is quite fastidious in its requirements
for germination, growth, and sporulation (McCoy 1979). Humidity is an



December, 1982

Gardner et al.: H. thompsonii vs T. urticae 463

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Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

December, 1982

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Gardner et al.: H. thompsonii vs T. urticae 465

extremely critical factor (McCoy 1978). Raising humidity to optimal levels
through various environmental modifications (e.g. polyethylene tents, mist
systems, closed environments) did not increase the effectiveness of ABG
6065 against T. urticae in our screening trials. In fact, the ABG 6065
inoculum sporulated on only a few plants in our tests. Growth and sporula-
tion from the fungal residue are essential for control with Mycar (McCoy
and Couch 1982). Therefore, development of methods or techniques to create
microclimatic conditions favorable to H. thompsonii growth and sporulation
and the addition of adjuvants to the commercial formulation which stimulate
growth and sporulation could increase the effectiveness of H. thompsonii
against T. urticae on greenhouse crops.

We thank Mutsuko Smith, Laura Lovell, and Elizabeth Lovell for tech-
nical assistance provided during this study. We also thank Drs. A. L.
Stacey, D. L. Horton, and H. H. Tippins for critically reviewing this manu-
script during its preparation. This study was funded in part by funds pro-
vided by the IR-4 Southern Regional Project.

FISHER, F. E. 1950. Two new species of Hirsutella Patouillard. Mycologia
42: 290-7.
McCoY, C. W. 1978. Entomopathogens in arthropod pest control programs
for citrus. Pages 211-9 In "Microbial Control of Insect Pests: Future
Strategies in Pest Management Systems". G. E. Allen, C. M. Ignoffo,
and R. P. Jacques, eds. NSF-USDA, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.
1979. Studies on the development of Hirsutella thompsonii as a
fungal microbial miticide. Proc. 1st Joint US/USSR Conf. on Produc-
tion, Selection and Standardization of Entomopathogenic Fungi. U. S.
Dept. Commerce, NTIS, PB80-106552. 293 p.
1981. Fungi: Pest control by Hirsutella thompsonii. Pages 499-512
In "Microbial Control of Insects, Mites, and Plant Diseases, Vol. 2".
H. D. Burges, ed. Academic Press, London.
R. F. BROOKS, J. C. ALLEN, AND A. G. SELHIME. 1976. Management
of arthropod pests and plant diseases in citrus agroecosystems. Proc.
Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Ani. Contr. Habit. Man. 6: 1-17.
AND T. L. COUCH. 1982. Microbial control of the citrus rust mite
with the mycoacaricide, Mycar@. Fla. Ent. 65: 116-26.
MUMA, M. H. 1955. Factors contributing to the natural control of citrus in-
sects and mites in Florida. J. Econ. Ent. 48: 432-8.

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)


Research Entomologist
USDA-ARS, U. S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC 29407 USA

Laboratory and field cage studies showed that mating of pickleworm
moths began at the onset of scotophase, peaked toward the middle, and de-
clined toward the end of the interval. When the temperature was favorable,
over 90% of the matings occurred during the first 3 days after emergence.
Either a L:D photoperiod or cyclic thermoperiod synchronized the periodicity
of mating. At constant light and temperature, mating was asynchronous.
Mating had a temperature threshold of ca. 160C.

Estudios en el laboratorio y en jaulas en el campo mostraron que el
apareamiento de las polillas, Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll) empieza al principio
del period obscure, alcanza el maximo durante el medio de este period, y
disminuye hacia el fin del period. Cuando la temperature fue favorable, mas
que 90% de los apareamientos ocurrieron durante los primeros 3 dias despues
de emergencia. La periodicidad de apareamiento fu6 sincronizada por o el
fotoperiodo o un termoperiodo ciclico. Debajo condiciones ocnstantes de luz
y de temperature los apareamientos fueron asincronicos. El umbral de
temperature para el apareamiento fue ca. 160C.

Testing alternative means to control the pickleworm (Diaphania nitidalis
(Stoll), a serious pest of cucurbit vegetables in the S. E. United States,
involved understanding their sex pheromone system. Use of pheromones for
management or monitoring purposes and utilization of such control methods
as sterile male release required greater knowledge of pickleworm reproduc-
tive behavior in general. Therefore, observations of mating periodicity were
made under a variety of photoperiods and temperatures.


ENVIRONMENTAL CHAMBERS STUDIES:-For laboratory observations, fifty
pairs of newly-eclosed moths were placed in 45 cm' collapsible metal screen
cages (Bioquip) and provided with 10% honey solution in a jelly cup
dispenser for food. For each experiment, bne cage of moths was placed in
each of 3 growth chambers at the desired light and temperature settings.
Pupae were held at the anticipated conditions of observation for at least 3
days prior to eclosion. Moths were from a stock colony maintained at
Charleston. Growth chambers used maintained the set temperature 10C.
Preliminary studies indicated that almost all mating occurred at night, so
hourly observations of the number of copulating pairs were made during the


December, 1982

Elsey: Pickleworm Moths

scotophase, which was set at 8 h to conform to the work day. Moths were
observed by opening the chamber and illuminating the cage with a flashlight.
Copulating moths are quiescent and so were not disturbed by this activity.
In an experiment under constant light and temperature, moths were checked
every 4 h during a 24-h day. Studies continued for 4-5 days, 2 days for the
constant light and temperature regimen. Surviving moths were examined for
spermatophores to establish the percentage of mating.
To establish the minimum temperature at which mating occurs, a single
cage of moths was placed in each of 3 growth chambers set at 14, 16, and
18'C respectively. Moths were kept at these conditions for 10 days and
then all remaining female moths were dissected to determine whether they
had mated. The environmental conditions for the growth chamber experi-
ments were:

1 LD 16:8 Photophase temp = 28 C, scotophase temp
= 200C
2 LD 16:8 Constant temp = 250C
3 LD 24:0 16 h thermoperiod of 280C, 8 h thermo-
period of 200C.
4 LD 24:0 Constant temp = 250C.
5 LD 16:8 Constant temp of 14', 160, 180C.

FIELD STUDIES-The incidence of mating among 100 pairs of moths in
field cages (1.7 x 3.4 x 1.7 m, frames constructed from aluminum tubing,
covered with 20 x 24 mes Lumite@ Saran screen) was recorded hourly
through 3 or 4 nights after emergence in 2 separate tests. Observations of
mating took place from 10 May until 14 May 1981 and 10 May until 13
May 1982. In the earlier test, 2 cages were set up 10 May and 2 more on 11
May. In the latter test, all 3 cages were set up 10 May 1982.
Pickleworm moths eclose during the scotophase and are sexually in-
active until the following scotophase; therefore, moths were placed in cages
during the first photophase after emergence and observations were initiated
at the beginning of the following scotophase. Each hour, starting at ca. 1 h
before sunset and continuing until sunrise, the observer entered the cage
and counted the number of copulating pairs of moths with the aid of a
In both the environmental chamber and field studies the mating was ex-
pressed as a % of the total number of copulations observed with separate
cages treated as replications for calculation of standard deviations.

DESCRIPTION OF MATING BEHAVIOR-Both male and female moths engage
in display behavior while at rest by waggling the tips of their abdomen and
exposing 2 sets of modified scales located on epidermal projections on each
side of the 7th abdominal segment. Male moths display during both photo-
phase and scotophase while female moths display more frequently during
photophase. Whether display behavior is a component of mating behavior or
is concerned with another function such as defense is not known. Calling by
females occurs only during scotophase. While calling, the display scales are


468 Florida Entomologist 65 (4) December, 1982

tucked tightly to the body and the genital segments, presumably containing
the sex pheromone gland, are extruded. Prior to copulation, an excited male
will hover over a female and lower onto her back and attempt to join
claspers. If the female is receptive, copulation ensues, and the male will
rotate 1800 and the pair are joined with heads directed opposite. The mean
duration of copulation of 17 pairs observed was 2:21 min. 1:05.
ENVIRONMENTAL CHAMBER STUDIES-In experiments 1 and 2 mating be-
gan shortly after the beginning of scotophase, peaked 3 to 5 h into scoto-
phase and gradually declined until few mating pairs were observed by the
onset of photophase (Fig. la, b). Unlike the European corn borer (Loughner
and Brindley 1971), a temperature drop did not increase mating incidence.
In fact, the percent of mated females (after the test) was higher in experi-
ment 2 (no scotophase temperature drop) than in experiment 1 (8C
scotophase temperature drop) (97.4 vs 76.9%, respectively).
The results from experiment 3 (Fig. Ic) demonstrate that although a
drop in temperature during scotophase is not necessary for copulation, it
can be used as an alternate external synchronizer in place of the scotophase.
Indeed, the curve of copulation frequency during the low thermoperiod was
similar to those during the experiments with a scotophase, although more
mating was observed toward the end of the thermoperiod. Carde' and
Roelofs (1975) found that a low temperature thermophase during continual
photophase stimulated calling in females of the arctiid moth Holomelina
immaculate (Reakirt). In all 3 experiments the incidence of mating was
rather evenly distributed during the first 3 nights with a sharp drop oc-
curring on the 4th night. (Table 1).
The graph for experiment 4 (Fig. Id), in contrast to those curves of the
3 experiments which were pooled over days, gives % of total mated during
each observation over both days of the experiment. Apparently, no external
cue is necessary for mating to occur in pickleworm moths. At constant light
and temperature mating is asynchronous and can occur throughout a 24 h

40 40
LD 16l 8 ot1l 169 LD 24 0 Tot.l I 154

30 .00 .

2LD 16 a -I ol.1 241 LD 24 0 .ato 42

t 3 L 30 24. 1.2S

S 2 4 5 6 7 8 12 4 2 4 8 4 8 12 4
S *0 40

o D

Fig. 1. Mating activity of pickleworm moths in growth chambers at dif-
ferent photoperiod and temperature regimes SD.

Elsey: Pickleworm Moths


% of total mating
Experiment #
Age of moths (days) 1 2 3

1 29.3 37.8 40.8
2 40.0 29.9 34.4
3 24.5 25.0 20.5
4 6.2 7.3 4.3
5 -0 -

period, since copulating pairs were present at every observation period
during the 48 h of the experiment. After 92 hours, 80.0% of the female
moths were mated.
Moths held for 10 days at 14C (LD 16:8) did not mate, a small number
(2.1%) mated at 160C, and normal mating (77.5%) occurred at 180C.
FIELD CAGE STUDIES-Pickleworm mating in the field was greatly in-
fluenced by temperature. Growth chamber experiment #5 indicated that
mating activity ceased at temperatures below 16' and this was borne out
in the results of the field tests. Fig. 2a shows frequency of pickleworm mat-
ing in the test conducted in 1981 May as indicated by counting copulating
pairs hourly through the night averaged over 4 nights. Moths introduced on
10 May mated most frequently on that night, which was relatively warm
(190C at midnight). The moths introduced a day later did little mating
until the 4th night which was warmer than the previous 3, (17C vs 14,
13.5, and 14C at midnight). Mating began about 1 h after sunset, peaked
3 to 4 h after sunset, and then slowly declined until very few moths were
mating during the last several hours of darkness. Low temperatures also
influenced the 1982 test. Temperatures were low the first 3 nights (12.5, 14,
130C at midnight respectively) and mating was limited to 2 pairs observed
on 11 May at 10 pm while the temperature was 16C. By 11 pm the tempera-
ture had dropped to 14.50C and no additional copulating pairs were ob-
served during the rest of the night. The 4th night of observation was much
warmer (190C at midnight), and considerable mating took place. The low
temperature threshold for mating is similar to many other moth species in
which males stop responding to female pheromones at ca. 16C (Roelofs,
et al. 1982). The shape of the mating frequency curve (Fig. 2b) was almost
identical to the test a year earlier as the number of copulating pairs peaked
at 10 pm and then slowly tapered off.
In both laboratory and field tests mating activity of pickleworm moths
began at the onset of scotophase, peaked toward the middle of the period
and tapered off toward the end. The growth chamber experiments showed
that mating activity could be synchronized by photoperiod or temperature
change. Light appeared to act only as a synchronizer and its presence or
absence was not crucial to copulation.
Mention of a commercial product in this paper does not constitute an
endorsement of this product by the USDA.

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

40 1 5/10-14,'81

Total =212

6 T 8 10 12

2 4 6

5/10-13, 82

Total =86

6 A 8
PM |

10 12

2 4 6

Fig. 2. Mating activity SD of
Charleston, SC. Time expressed as EST.

pickleworm moths in field cages at


CARDE', R. T., AND W. L. ROELOFS. 1973. Temperature modification of male
sex pheromone response and factors affecting female calling in
Holomelina immaculate (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can. Ent., 105:




30 _

20 ,

10 .

P- - -


December, 1982


i i A A

Elsey: Pickleworm Moths

LOUGHNER, G. E., AND T. A. BRINDLEY. 1971. Mating success of the Euro-
pean cornborer, Ostrinia nubilalis, as influenced by environmental
factors. Ann. Ent. Soc. America 64: 1091-4.
H. J. HERBERT, AND R. F. SMITH. 1982. Sex pheromone of the winter
moth, a geometrid with unusually low temperature precopulating re-
sponses. Science 217: 657-9.


Research Entomologist
USDA-ARS, U. S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC 29407 USA

Pickleworm, Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll), larvae exposed to -80C sur-
vived much longer within squash fruit than in petri dishes (73.3% survival
vs 0% at 1 h). In contrast, survival of larvae exposed to OOC was similar
whether within petri dishes or in fruit. Interior temperatures of shaded
squash and cucumber fruits were cooler than air temperature on a summer
day, and fruit in direct sunlight were 2-100C hotter. Considerable mortality
(52%) occurred among pickleworm moths exposed to -80C for 55 min.
Survival of moths exposed to 0C for 21 h was 65%, but fecundity was re-
duced to almost 0.

Larvas de Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll) expuestas a temperatures de
-8'C sobrevivieron much mas tiempo dentro de frutos de calabaza que
dentro de cajas de petri (despubs de 1 hora, 73.3% sobrevivieron, comparado
con 0%). En cambio, a 0C, la supervivencia dentro de cajas de petri y
frutos fu6 similar. Las temperatures interiores de frutos sombrados de
calabaza y pepino son mis bajas que la temperature del aire durante de un
dia de verano, y los frutos bajo la luz direct del sol tenian temperatures de
2 a 10C mas altas. La mortalidad de polillas expuestas a -80C por 55
minutes fu6 considerable (52%). La supervivencia de polillas expuestas a
0C por 21 horas fu6 de 65%, pero su fecundidad se redujo a casi 0.

The pickleworm, Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll), an important pest of
cucurbit vegetables, has an overwintering range in the continental U. S.
restricted in most years to southern Florida (Dupree et al. 1955). The life
cycle and biology has been described by Dupree et al. (1955), and Reid and
Cuthbert (1956). Knowledge of the degree of cold tolerance which this pest
possesses would be helpful to population suppression programs such as the
sterile male technique by enabling more accurate forecasts of the range and
density of pickleworm populations.
Also, there is concern in California that the pickleworm may spread to
their vegetable growing regions. Since the climate of many areas in Cali-


Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

fornia is characterized by extreme temperature gradients and maximum
temperatures are often much higher than the Southeastern U. S., knowledge
of the thermal limits of pickleworms, could enable us to estimate the prob-
ability of pickleworm establishment in this important vegetable producing


Low TEMPERATURE TESTS-Survival of larvae exposed to 0C and
-8C for varying lengths of time was compared either in petri dishes or
within squash fruit. Tests were conducted in refrigerators equipped with
Refrigerator Control Units (GCA Precision Scientific). The freezer com-
partment of a refrigerator was used for the -80C tests, and the lower
compartment for the 0C tests. For petri plate tests, 10 early 5th instar
larvae were placed in plastic petri dishes (100 x 15 mm) and 4 such dishes
were put at the appropriate temperature. Larvae were held at 100C for
1/2 h before and after exposure. After exposure larvae were placed on
pinto bean diet in jelly cups (5 larvae/cup), placed at 270C, and held to
pupation. Exposure time for the -80C test were 0, 0.17, 0.27, 0.43 and 1.1
h. Exposure times for 0C were 0, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 15, 24, 31 and 45 h. For tests
of larvae within fruit, a yellow squash fruit was infested with 5 early 5th
instars and allowed to establish for 24 h. At that time 6 infested squash/
exposure time were placed at 0C or -80C. After exposure, the squash were
held for 24 h at 27C and then dissected. Living larvae were placed on diet
and held at 27C to pupation. Exposure times for the -80C test were 0,
0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.3, 2, 2.75, 5.25 and 8.5 h and for the 0C test were 0, 6, 8.5, 12,
16.5 and 23 h.
To monitor the internal fruit temperatures that confront pickleworms,
2 squash fruits were placed at 0C or -8C and their internal temperature
measured with copper-constantin thermocouples attached to a CRS@ digital
recorder (Campbell Scientific, Inc.) until their internal temperature reached
air temperature. The fruit held at 0C weighed 196 g and the one at -8C
weighed 335 g.
Pickleworm adults were also exposed to 0C and -80C for varying
lengths of time. For each exposure time, three 12 x 5 x 8 cm plastic crispers
containing 8 males and 8 females were placed at the appropriate tempera-
ture. Moths were held at 100C for 0.5 h before and after exposure. Survivors
from each crisper were placed in separate oviposition cages (Robinson et al.
1979). Counts of survivors were taken after 24 h in the -80C test and at
24, 48, and 72 h for the 0C test. After 72 h, cucumber seedlings were placed
into the cages of moths exposed to 0C and the eggs deposited counted the
next day. Exposure times for the -8C test were 0, 0.5, 0.92 and 1.5 h. Ex-
posure times for the 0C test were 0, 2, 4, 7, 12 and 21 h. Regression analysis
of the data was performed with the Textronix Plot 50@ Statistics Program
HIGH TEMPERATURE TESTS-Fifth-instar larvae within cucumber fruit
were exposed to various high temperatures (270, 300, 320, 340, 360, and
380C) to determine the threshold temperature at which they would fail to
pupate. Ten larvae were allowed to burrow into a cucumber held in a
covered 19 x 14 x 9 cm plastic crisper. The fruit rested on 2 cm thick pads of

December, 1982

Elsey: Pickleworm & Extreme Temperatures 473

fiberglass insulation which served as a pupation medium. Crispers were
checked daily for dead larvae or pupae.
The internal temperatures of shaded and unshaded squash and cucumber
were recorded during a sunny summer day (VII-1-80) on 2 adjacent plots
of bare ground. Shaded fruits were placed under 24 cm2 tents of aluminum
sheet metal. Temperatures were recorded by thermocouples attached to a
CRS@ temperature recorder. Air temperature was recorded by a thermo-
couple in a weather shelter. Treatment levels were: (1) Cucumber vs.
squash, (2) Shaded vs direct sunlight, (3) Large (> 200 g) fruit vs small
(< 100 g) fruit. Third level treatments were replicated 3 times.

Larvae exposed to 0C in petri dishes had high survival beyond 24 h,
but at -80C few larvae survived to pupate after 0.5 h exposure (Fig. 1).
Survival of larvae within squash at 0C differed little from those unpro-
tected; however, survival of larvae exposed to -8C within squash was
much higher than that of unprotected larvae (Fig. 1). The internal tem-
perature of the squash fruit placed at 0C declined rapidly from room tem-
perature to 0C in ca. 3 h. The temperature of squash placed at -80C also
declined rapidly to 0C, but because of the latent heat given off by the
freezing process, the temperature remained at 0C for 5.5 h. When the fruit
was completely frozen the temperature resumed a rapid drop to --8C.
Thus, even though the air temperature might drop below 0C for several
hours during a cold spell in an overwintering area, pickleworms within fruit
would probably experience only 0C, which they can apparently survive.
Data for the -80C exposures indicate that considerable mortality oc-
curs among moths exposed to this temperature for over an hour (e.g. 52%
were dead after 24 h at 0.92 min exposure and 100% mortality at 90 min
exposure). However, moths could apparently tolerate 0C for several hours
with no adverse effects. Only 4% of the moths were dead after 24 h when
exposed to 0C for 4 h or 7 h. At 21 h, the longest exposure, mortality of the
moths was 35.4%. A linear relationship (r2 =0.96) existed between time ex-
posed to o0C and number of eggs laid, described by Y = 68.3 + (-5.9) X.
The number of eggs laid declined from 55.0 eggs/female at 2 h exposure to
0C to only 0.3 eggs/female at 21 h exposure. Therefore, a severe cold spell
with temperatures near -80C for several hours could decimate a local over-
wintering population of moths. Most moths would survive a less severe cold
spell with temperatures near 0C, but if extended, the egg laying capacity
of the population might be considerably diminished. Elsey (1980) found that
approximately 90% of pickleworm pupae died at 4 h exposure to -7C, and
the results of this study indicate that all moths died after 90 min exposure
to -80C. Therefore, the hardiest overwintering stage would appear to be
large larvae within fruit, since 40% could survive 5.25 h at -80C. During
a visit to Homestead, FL in late Jan 1979 by the author, the only pickle-
worms observed were large larvae in fruit that were laying in post-harvest
Table 1 shows the divergence from air temperature of the internal tem-
peratures of shaded and unshaded squash and cucumber fruits during the
day. Shaded fruits of both squash and cucumber were usually cooler than
air temperature. Fruits exposed to direct sunlight were 2 to 10 degrees

474 Florida Entomologist 65 (4) December, 1982

100- 0O C
0- X w Petri Dish
X Squash Fruit

60 A

2 0 0 o

2 Y-82.2+(-1.7)X 87"55+ (-1.6) X


0 10 20 30 40 50

Hours Exposure

X __ x Petri Dish
Squash Fruit
0 0

60- \ B

SY= -42.6+22.6/X

Y = 0.7+(-8.9)X

20 x

/ -I II"ll I I Ill, 1
.1 .2 .3 .4.5 1.0 2 3 4 5 10

Hours Exposure

Fig. 1. Survival of pickleworm larvae in petri dishes and within squash
fruit at 0C (a) and -80C (b).

Elsey: Pickleworm & Extreme Temperatures

Cc co co t- c00

i C 00 0 t
1| + +++


1-1 r -- I i N I
ri M j c iO

C0 00
r-? N 0 0 0

c00 00 ot
7 i ci LCO cM '

0 COc i O T- 0 i

cL o co "I M

00 0 N It co

I -




Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

hotter than air temperature and 3 to 13 degrees hotter than shaded fruit
during the hottest part of the day. Cucumbers in direct sunlight became
hotter than squash, probably because the darker color of cucumbers enabled
them to absorb more solar radiation.
At constant temperatures above 320C, survival of larvae within cucum-
bers declined drastically (Table 2). A comparison with 2 other tropical-
subtropical lepidopterous pests shows that pickleworm larvae are more
susceptible to high temperatures. When reared through the entire larval
stage, fall armyworm larval survival was 27% at 250C (Barfield et al.
1978) and pink bollworm survival was 33% when reared at 37.70C (Henne-
berry et al. 1977). Under field conditions, adaptive behavior of larvae may
ameliorate the effects of high temperature. I observed that larvae held at
320C in cucumbers tended to leave them in an apparent escape response.
Conversely, the higher ambient temperature of a fruit exposed to the sun
can be of advantage to overwintering larvae during the sunny conditions
usually associated with cold air masses in the southeast U. S.
Elsey (1980) found that temperatures of 32'C or higher decreased
normal pickleworm adult emergence, fecundity, and longevity. Fye (1972)
reported decreased fecundity of 6 lepidopterous pests at temperatures above
300C. It is tempting to conclude that temperatures in excess of 320C may
lead to sterility or reduced fecundity (Elsey, unpublished data) in popula-
tions of pickleworms; however, the behavioral and physiological mechanisms
that may moderate the effects of heat in a complex environment are so little
known that the actual impact of heat on a population of moths can only be
Whether self sustaining populations of pickleworms can develop in Cali-
fornia is difficult to answer, considering the extremely heterogenous climate
and geography of the state. Southern desert areas, such as the Imperial
Valley, are probably too hot and dry in the summer and too cold in the
winter. However, vegetable growing areas such as San Luis Obispo Co. with
mild summers and winters, could support year-round populations of pickle-
worms, assuming other elements of the life system were favorable.

BARFIELD, C. S., E. R. MITCHELL, AND S. L. POE. 1978. A temperature de-
pendent model for fall armyworm development. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer-
ica 71: 70-4.
DUPREE, M., T. L. BISSELL, AND C. H. BECKHAM. 1955. The pickleworm and
its control. Georgia Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. N. S. 5: 1-34.

Temperature OC % surviving to pupate SD

27 82.5 + 14.9
30 81.3 15.5
32 80.0 + 15.1
34 1.3 3.5
36 0

December, 1982


Elsey: Pickleworm & Extreme Temperatures

ELSEY, K. D. 1980. Pickleworm: Effect of temperature on development,
fecundity, and survival. Environ. Ent. 9: 101-3.
FYE, R. E., AND W. C. MCADA. 1972. Laboratory studies on the develop-
ment, longevity, and fecundity of six lepidopterous pests of cotton in
Arizona. USDA Tech. Bull. 1454.
HENNEBERRY, T. J., H. M. FLINT, AND L. A. BARIOLA. 1977. Temperature
effects on mating, sperm transfer, oviposition, and egg viability of
pink bollworm. Environ. Ent. 6: 513-17.
REID, W. J., JR., AND F. P. CUTHBERT, JR. 1956. Biology studies of the pickle-
worm. J. Econ. Ent. 49: 870-3.
ROBINSON, J. F., A. DAY, R. CUTHBERT, AND E. V. WANN. 1979. The pickle-
worm: Laboratory rearing and artificial infestation of cucumbers.
J. Econ. Ent. 72: 305-7.


University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, P. 0. Box 909, Sanford, FL 32771 USA

The effects of a new carbamate (thiodicarb) insecticide, UC-51762 or
Larvin (O-[[N-[N'- (methylthiothylideneiminoxycarbonyl) -N'-methylaminosul-
fenyl]-N-methylcarbamoyl]]-S-methylacetothiohydroximate), on some non-
target aquatic invertebrates in experimental and sewage ponds were studied.
The insecticide at 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 kg AI/ha (i.e. 0.055, 0.11, and 0.22 ppm,
respectively) in experimental ponds affected populations of Rotifera, Cyclops
spp., Daphnia sp., Ostracoda, Chaoborus sp., Baetis sp., coleopteran larvae
and chironomid larvae. In a sewage pond, at 1.0 kg AI/ha (0.085 ppm),
Cyclops sp., Ostracoda, Hyalella azteca (Saussure), and chironomid larvae
were affected. The adverse effects of the carbamate insecticide on the in-
vertebrates in both types of habitats were moderate and generally of a short

Se estudiaron les efectos de un nuevo carbamato, UC-51762, o LarvinR,
sobre unos invertebrados aquiticos, los cuales no son objetos de control
quimico, en charcas experimentales y de aquas negras. El insecticide aplicado
a 0.25, 0.5 y 1.0 Kg. AI/ha (i.e., 0.055, 0.11 y 0.22 ppm., respectivamente) en
las charcas experimentales afecto las poblaciones de Rotifera, Cyclops spp.,
Daphnia sp., Ostracoda, Chaoborus sp. Bdetis sp. y larvas de coleopteros y
de chironomidos. En charcas de aquas negras Cyclops sp., Ostracoda, Hyalella
azteca (Saussure), y larvas de chironomidos fueron afectados por el in-
secticida a 1.0 Kg. AI/ha (0.085 ppm). Los efectos adversos del insecticide
carbamato sobre los invertebrados en ambas classes de habitat fueron
moderados y generalmente de una duraci6n corta.

'Present address: New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Ddpartment of
Entomology, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456.


Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

December, 1982

A new carbamate (thiodicarb) insecticide (UC-51762), in laboratory
and field tests has been shown to have a broad spectrum of activity against
lepidopterous larvae, a major category of insect pests that attack several
economically important field crops including cotton, cabbage, corn, and soy-
bean (Sousa et al. 1977). This insecticide at considerably high dosages (625-
2000 ppm) remained uninjurious to bean, tomato, cotton, and soybean plants
and also had relatively low mammalian toxicity. The acute peroral and
dermal LD5, to rats were 160 and >1600 mg/kg, respectively; the com-
pound was relatively safe to rats by inhalation (Sousa et al. 1977).
At present, information on the toxicity of this insecticide to nontarget
organisms inhabiting aquatic ecosystems is lacking. Therefore, this study
was made to elucidate the effects of the carbamate insecticide on some zoo-
plankton and other aquatic invertebrate biota because there is a good possi-
bility that some UC-51762 applied onto plants could be carried into aquatic


A flowable concentrate (FC) formulation of UC-51762 or Larvin (O-
[[N [N'- (methylthioethylideneiminoxycarbonyl) N'-methylaminosulfenyl] N-
methylcarbamoyl]]-S-methylacetothiohydroximate) was used. The formula-
tion contained 44% of the thiodicarb by weight and 0.5 kg AI/liter. The
material was applied in the summer of 1980 to 6 replicated experimental
ponds and a sewage polishing pond in Sanford, FL.
The experimental ponds were described by Ali and Lord (1980a). Each
of these artificial earthen ponds is 4 X 6 m and 45-50 cm deep with a con-
tinuous water supply from an underground artesian source. The water level
in each pond is maintained constant by a float valve. Three replicated rates
(0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 kg AI/ha or 0.055, 0.11, and 0.22 ppm, respectively) of
the insecticide were employed, and 3 ponds were left untreated as controls.
The experimental design and method of the insecticidal application to the
ponds were the same as in Ali and Lord (1980a).
Immediately prior to and at intervals after treatment, the populations
of benthic chironomid larvae and zooplankton and nektonic invertebrates in
each pond were sampled. A 15 X 15 cm scoop sampler was used to collect 2
random mud samples from each pond. The mud was processed according to
the method of Mulla et al. (1971) for recovering midge larvae. The zoo-
plankton and nektonic invertebrates in the ponds were sampled by employ-
ing a 50 cm long plankton net with 20 cm diameter mouth and 125 [m pore
size, and also by using a 400 ml dipper. The net was mounted on a metal
sled. On each occasion, 2 sled samples and a composite of 5 dips were col-
lected from each pond and preserved in formaldehyde. The sampling methods
were previously described (Ali and Lord 1980b).
For further field testing the insecticide against aquatic invertebrates,
the FC formulation was applied at 1.0 kg AI/ha (0.085 ppm) to one of the 2
sewage polishing ponds managed by the City of Sanford. The treated pond
measured ca. 0.75 ha at the surface with an average water depth of 1.2 m.
The other pond, utilized as a control, was 0.7 ha with 1.1 m deep water. The
method of application of the FC was the same as described by Ali et al.

Ali & Stanley: Larvin

(1978). An 8-liter stainless steel pressurized sprayer was used to disperse
the toxicant from a motor boat as a jet stream in the water disturbed by the
propeller. The can was filled 5 times with the mixture of insecticide and
water and thus several swaths for a uniform distribution of the chemical
in the pond were made.
Ten benthic mud samples from the control and the treated sewage ponds
were randomly collected prior to and at intervals after the treatment by
employing a 15 X 15 cm Ekman dredge. The zooplankton was sampled by
towing the plankton net behind a motor boat. The sampling method was
described by Ali and Lord (1980b).
In the laboratory, the plankton and benthic samples were processed,
identified, and counted; the population reductions due to the treatments
were calculated by using Mulla's formula (Mulla et al. 1971).

Table 1 presents the pre-, and posttreatment data concerning zooplank-
ton in experimental ponds. Rotifera, Cyclops spp., Daphnia spp., Ostracoda,
and Chaoborus sp. larvae were affected by the thiodicarb at all 3 treatment
rates. Reduction of rotifers ranged from 57% at the lowest rate to 82% at
the highest, but they recovered within 1-2 weeks after treatment. Daphnia
spp. were most severely affected and were completely depleted within 3 days
after treatment; however, their populations completely recovered in 10 days
posttreatment. Populations of Cyclops spp., not showing any sensitivity to
the insecticide until after 3 days of treatments were reduced in the 10 and
17 days posttreatment collections. The treatments resulted in moderate
adverse effects on ostracods and also affected larval chaoborids.
The predominant insects, Baetis sp., benthic chironomid midges, and
coleopteran larvae, in the ponds were reduced by the insecticide (Table 2).
The reduction of Baetis sp. was >90% in the first 3 days after treatment,
with >75% reduction maintained at the 2 higher rates for 17 days of the
posttreatment period. Coleopteran larvae were reduced by 47% at the lowest,
and 67% at the highest rate, recovering completely within 1-2 weeks after
treatment. Adult Coleoptera showed no sensitivity to the carbamate insecti-
cide at the rates used in the ponds. Larvae of chironomid midges were elimi-
nated 41-56% at 0.25 kg AI/ha and 56-72% at 1.0 kg AI/ha rates of treat-
In the sewage pond, populations of Cyclops spp., ostracod Cypridopsis sp.,
and amphipod Hyalella azteca (Saussure) were moderately affected by the
treatment (Table 3). Cyclops spp. were reduced 25-72% during the 3 weeks
of observation, while 62% decimation of Cypridopsis sp. occurred after 2
weeks of treatment. The ostracod recovered completely in 3 weeks. H. azteca
was most severely affected for about 17 days. The population of this amphi-
pod was reduced up to 95% in 2 weeks. Chironomid larvae also were affected,
declining by 38-65% during the 21 days of evaluation. Oligochaete worms in
the sewage pond were not affected by the insecticide.
It is evident from this study that the thiodicarb affected zooplankton and
other invertebrate fauna in experimental ponds as well as the sewage pond.
However, these adverse effects were moderate and generally of smaller mag-
nitude and duration when compared with adverse effects of some organo-
phosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides and insect growth regulators (ap-

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

December, 1982

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482 Florida Entomologist 65 (4) December, 1982

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plied at rates much lower than employed in this study) on some nontarget
aquatic invertebrates as reviewed by Mulla et al. (1978). Additionally, the
insecticide is economically effective on the target lepidopterous pests at rates
lower than the highest rate used in this study (Sousa et al. 1977). Thus,
this carbamate insecticide, relatively safe to many aquatic invertebrates
could have minimal environmental impacts on aquatic organisms when it is
used against several field crop pests.
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 3142.

ALI, A., AND J. LORD. 1980a. Experimental insect growth regulators against
some nuisance chironomid midges of central Florida. J. Econ. Ent.
73: 243-9.
.1980b. Impact of experimental insect growth regulators on some
nontarget aquatic invertebrates. Mosq. News 40: 564-71.
-- M. S. MULLA, A. R. PFUNTNER, AND L. L. LUNA. 1978. Pestiferous
midges and their control in a shallow residential-recreational lake in
southern California. Ibid. 38: 528-35.
MULLA, M. S., G. MAJORI, AND A. A. ARATA. 1978. Impact of biological and
chemical mosquito control agents on nontarget biota in aquatic eco-
systems. Residue Rev. 71: 121-73.
KEAN. 1971. Control of chironomid midges in recreational lakes. J.
Econ. Ent. 64: 300-7.
SOUSA, A. A., J. R. FRAZEE, M. H. J. WEIDEN, AND T. D. J. D'SILVA. 1977.
UC-51762, a new carbamate insecticide. Ibid. 70: 803-7.

-- --- *-- -- -e --^- -^ ^-^-


Department of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611 USA

A description is given of the oribatid mite Zygoribatula floridana n. sp.
collected from goat pastures in northcentral Florida. This species carries
Moniezia expansa (Rudolphi) (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) cysticercoids. A
list is given of all species currently classified in Zygoribatula Berlese along
with holotype habitat and locality.

Se describe la nueva especie de acaro oribatido Zygoribatula floridana.
Esta especie proviene de dehesas con cabras en Florida (E.U.A.), Y lleva
quistes de Moniezia expansa (Rudolphi) (Cestoda:Anoplocephalidae). Se
incluye una lista de las species actualmente clasificadas en Zygoribatula
Berlese en conjunto con la localidad Y habitaci6n de los tipos ejemplares.

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

Berlese (1917) established the genus Zygoribatula and distinguished it
from Oribatula Berlese by the presence of a strong translamella. Other
diagnostic characters include the rudimentary pteromorphae, anteriorly
projecting scapulae, true areae porosae, and tridactyl tarsi (Willmann
1931). This paper describes a new species of Zygoribatula collected from
goat pastures in northcentral Florida, and presents a list of all species cour-
rently classified in the genus.
BODY COLOR AND DIMENSIONS: Color medium to dark brown; body ovate
with smooth integument. Mean total length of 10 female specimens 447 pm
(range 420-470 pm); mean notogastral length 359 pm (range 340-370 pm);
mean notogastral width 289 pm (range 260-310 pm). Mean total length of
10 male specimens 411 pm (range 390-450 pm); mean notogastral length
339 pm (range 320-350 Am); mean notogastral width 252 pm (range 240-
270 pm).
PRODORSUM (Fig. 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 2C): Rostrum bluntly rounded with
medial sharp tooth. Rostral (ro), lamellar (la), and interlamellar (in) setae
strongly barbed. The latter equal to lamellar setae in length, insert an-
teriorly to dorsosejugal suture, and posteriorly to faint transverse ridge;
rostral setae 2/3 length lamellar setae and thinner. Lamellae equal in width
to translamellae and lack cusps. Sensillae clavate and beset with short
barbs, but stalks are smooth. Tuberculous cerotegument extends along
lateral edges of dorsosejugal suture, along lateroventral edges of trans-
lamella, and ventrally to insertions of legs I-IV. One pair of areae porosae
mesal to bothridia and along edge of dorsosejugal suture. Tutoria absent.
NOTOGASTER: Anterior margin convex, humeral extensions short (Fig. 1A,
1B, 2B). Four pairs of areae porosae and 14 pairs of distinctly barbed
setae present. Area porosa Aa oval, anterior to seta la; A, long, especially
in males, located lateral to seta 1,; A, and As small and oval in females,
longer in males, especially A, (Fig. 1A, 1B). Some females with area porosa
A, divided into 2 on one or both sides of notogaster. Narrow ridge begins
at mid-anterior end of notogaster and extends laterally just posterior to
seta a,.
VENTRAL REGION: Coxisternal ridges of sejugal apodeme fused to broad
ridge with setae 3a inserted at its midpoint; apodemes I fused with pos-
terior edge of camerostome; apodemes II and III small (Fig. 1A, 1B). All
ventral setae except those on genital plates visibly barbed at 1,000 X mag-
nification. One pair of oval post-anal areae porosae. Genital plates with 4
pairs, anal plates with 2 pairs of setae.
GNATHOSOMA: All setae barbed, and rutellum is lobed. Cheliceral setae cha
and chb present, the latter on the movable digit; area porosa present (Fig.
1C, 2C, 2D). Palpal setal formula is 0-2-1-3-9 (Fig. 1D) (solenidion of
"corne double" not included in formula). 'The palpal tarsus bears 4 eupath-
idia, the two ultimals, the subultimal and the acroculminal; the latter is
associated with the solenidion w, thus forming the "corne double".
LEGS: Leg I more robust than, but subequal in length to leg II; leg IV
longest (Fig. 3). All setae, except prorals strongly barbed. Setal and
solenidial (in brackets) formulae for legs I-IV are 1-5-3-4-19 (0-0-1-2-2),
1-5-2-4-15 (0-0-1-1-2), 2-3-1-3-15 (0-0-1-1-0), and 1-2-2-3-12 (0-0-0-1-0), re-
spectively. The presence (+) or absence (-) of areae porosae on segments


December, 1982

Fritz: Zygoribatula floridana


. . ... ... .
i"". i .^~

f .\ 1;> -'1
-..'Q pif ^ ,, 1
,,~I ^" ^


', :.

Fig. 1. Zygoribatula floridana n.sp.-A) dorsal and ventral aspects of
female; B) dorsal and ventral aspects of male; C) chelicera; D. palp.

of legs I-IV are indicated by the following: -,+,-,+,+ for leg I; -,+,-,
+,+ for leg II; +,+,-,+,+ for leg III; +,+,-,+,+ for leg IV.
MATERIAL EXAMINED: Thosuands of adult specimens were collected from 3
goat pastures in Florida at various dates throughout 1979-1980. Two pas-
tures are in Alachua County, near Newberry, and 1 in Levy County, near
Williston. Most of the mites were dissected for anoplocephalid (Cestoda:
Anoplocephalidae) cysticercoids. Female holotype and 70 paratypes were
collected 3 May 1981 in Florida, Alachua County, near Newberry, stored in


Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

Fig. 2. Zygoribatula floridana n.sp.-A) lateral aspect of prodorsum; B)
dorsal aspect of prodorsum; C) dorsal aspect of rostrum and gnathosoma;
D) ventral aspect of gnathosoma.

alcohol and deposited as follows: holotype and 35 paratypes at the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville,
Florida; 35 paratypes at the British Museum of Natural History, London,
REMARKS: Grandjean's (see Trav6 and Vachon 1975 for references) mor-
phological terminology was used in this description.
Zygoribatula floridana n. sp. most closely resembles Z. meruensis
Mahunka, Z. rostrata Jacot, Z. tadrosi Popp, Z. subantarctica Von Pletzen
and Kok, Z. longiporosa Hammer, and Z. heteroporosa Wallwork. Bhat-
tacharya and Banarjee (1979), however, consider the latter as a synonym of

December, 1982


Fritz: Zygoribatula floridana


0o 4

Fig. 3. Zygoribatula floridana n.sp.-Legs I, II, III, and IV.

Z. longiporosa. Characters shared by all 7 species include barbed notogastral
setae, translamella and lamellae of equal,width, translamella straight, and
the presence of 4 pairs of notogastral areae porosae. Z. floridana differs by
one or a combination of the following characters: position and size of areae
porosae, length and barbing of notogastral setae, lack of integument sculp-
turing or pitting, absence of tutoria, and body dimensions.
This species was one of the most common oribatids collected from 3
pastures in northcentral Florida known to contain goats infected with
Moniezia expansa (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae). Some specimens contained

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

cysticercoids. In vitro tests, in which M. expansa eggs were provided to
cultures of mites, confirmed their capacity to carry this cestode. The only
other cestode intermediate hosts in this genus are Z. magna Ramsay
(Ramsay 1966), Z. longiporosa (Roberts 1953), Z. cognata (Oudemans) and
Z. frisiae (Oudemans) (Frank 1965).


I thank Dr. Bernadette Kamill (British Museum of Natural History) for
her guidance and help in compiling a species list for Zygoribatula; Dr.
Harvey Cromroy for suggestions, facilities, and reviewing; Mr. Harold
Denmark for reviewing; and, Dr. Herbert Levi (Museum of Comparative
Zoology) for providing me with type specimens.


Eremaeus brauni Sellnick
Eremaeus cognatus Oudemans
Eremaeus frisiae Oudemans
Eremaeus hessei Oudemans

Eremaeus propinquus Oudemans
Liacarus capitatus Banks
Notaspis brevisetosa Ewing

Notaspis curviseta Ewing
Notaspis depilis Ewing

Notaspis exilis Nicolet
Notaspis pyrostigmata Ewing

Notaspis pyrostigmata fusca
Oribatula clavata Ewing

Oribatula connexa Berlese
Oribatula pallida Banks
Oribatula venustus Berlese
Scutovertex concolor Banks

Zygoribatula andrianovae
Zygoribatula angulata Berlese

Zygoribatula apletosa Higgins,

Zygoribatula arcuata Hammer

Zygoribatula arcuatissima
Zygoribatula bonaivensis

1908 East Germany, Muhlenbech
1902 Italy, San Remo, leaf litter
1900 Netherlands, Sneek, moss
1902 Republic of the Congo, Banana,
Vesperugo pagenatecheri.
1902 Italy, San Remo, leaf litter
1910 U.S.A., Oklahoma, Stillwater
1909 U.S.A., Illinois, Topeka, black-
walnut tree
1909 U.S.A.
1909 U.S.A., Illinois, Metropolis, exuded
peach sap
1855 France, Vincennes, Meudon Forest
1909 U.S.A., Illinois, Lyons, under soft-
maple tree bark
1909 U.S.A., Wisconsin, Portage, soil
under stone
1917 U.S.A., Illinois, Arcola, under old
1904 Italy, Florence, leaf litter
1906 U.S.A., New Jersey, Fort Lee
1908 Netherlands, Breda
1895 U.S.A., New York, Sea Cliff, dead
1967 U.S.S.R., Volgrograd

1917 Italy, Sicily, near Palermo, plane-
tree bark
1975 U.S.A., Colorado, Hayden, 1/4
mile N.E. of power plant, litter
under serviceberry
1977 N.W. Pakistan, Gahirat between
Drosh and Chitral, brown moss on
1917 Italy, Taranto, intertidal zone

1936 Curacao, Bonaire, Goto, Salinja
Grandi, salt-lake shore


December, 1982


Fritz: Zygoribatula floridana


Zyoia l et t aoh 15

Zygoribatula dentata Balogh
Zygoribatula diverse Mihelci1'

Zygoribatula dubita Coetzer

Zygoribatula elongata Hammer

Zygoribatula exarata Berlese
Zygoribatula excavata Berlese

Zygoribatula frisiae insularis
Zygoribatula gozmanyi Mahunka

Zygoribatula granulata Kunst

Zygoribatula guadarramica

Zygoribatula heterochaeta
Feider, Vasiliu, Cilugir
Zygoribatula heteroporosa

Zygoribatula heterotricha
Zygoribatula incurva Micheli6

Zygoribatula interrupta Willman

Zygoribatula interrupta major

Zygoribatula lata Hammer
Zygoribatula laubieri Trav6

Zygoribatula laubieri
meridionalis Trav6
Zygoribatula lineata Hammer

Zygoribatula lineola Berlese
Zygoribatula longicuspis

Zygoribatula longiporosa
Zygoribatula longiseta
Zygoribatula magna Ramsay

Zygoribatula mariehammerae
Feider, Vasiliu, CAlugir























Angola, soil
Spain, near El Escorial, rocky dry
South Africa, Kwa-Dlangezwa,
Peru, pass between Cuzco and
Pisac, moss
Italy, Sardinia, Asuni, moss
Italy, Genoa, animal nest in cul-
tivated field
Balearic Islands, Mallorca, near
Soller, olive tree
Tunisia, Ferme Shitta, Djebel
Eddyr, 6 km N.E. from El Kef,
grassy soil
Bulgaria, Borovec, wet moss under
Spain, Segovia Province, Balsain,
head of Eresam River, moss on
granite in pine-oak forest
Romania, Constanta, dry litter in
rodent-nest tunnel
U.S.A., California, Joshua Tree
National Monument, Forty-nine
Palms Oasis, litter beneath Equi-
Dominican Republic, Bani, litter

Austria, Karnten, Maria Worth,
moist leaf litter
Poland, Wroclaw, sphagnum by
Austria, Ost Tirol, St. Johann,
litter under Rhododendron in for-
est at 2,000 m.a.s.l.
Spain, Catalan coast, intertidal
France, Perpignan, plane-tree bark

Java, Selecta Park near Alang,
mountain slope at 1,100 m.a.s.l.
Italy, Florence, litter
Chad, N'Djamena, near Champ de
Tire, sparsely overgrown halitic
Australia, Queensland, Yeerong-
pilly, pasture
U.S.S.R., near Ussuriisk, Kuril Is.,
New Zealand, Nelson, Appleby Re-
search Orchard, orchard

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)


Zygoribatula marina Fujikawa
Zygoribatula matvitensis
Zygoribatula meruensis
Zygoribatula microporosa
Zygoribatula niliaca Bayoumi
Zygoribatula novazealandica
Zygoribatula ocean Hammer

Zygoribatula prodorsissima
Feider, Vasiliu, CilugAr
Zygoribatula rostrata Jacot

Zygoribatula ruchljadevi
Zygoribatula rugifrons
Zygoribatula sabulosa Balogh

Zygoribatula salina Balogh

Zygoribatula saxicola Kunst

Zygoribatula sayedi Eldbadry,

Zygoribatula schaunbergi
Zygoribatula setosa Evans

Zygoribatula skryabini
Zygoribatula smirnovi
Zygoribatula socia Berlese
Zygoribatula spinosissima
Zygoribatula striatissima
Zygoribatula subantarctica
Van Pletzen, Kok
Zygoribatula tadrosi Popp

Zygoribatula tameya Eldbadry,
Zygoribatula tenuelamellata
Zygoribatula tenuiseta Hammer

1972 Japan, Hokkaido, Ishikari-Hama
1966 Spain, Casa del Campo, dry clay
1969 Tanzania, Mt. Meru (eastern
slope), dry dung
1967 U.S.S.R., Caucasus to Armenian
S.S.R. and near Teberdi
1980 Egypt, Tanta, apple orchard soil
1967 New Zealand, Keri-Keri, planta-
1972 Tahiti, mountains above Papeete,
moist leaf litter
1970 Romania, Constanta, dry litter in
rodent-nest tunnel
1938 U.S.A., Ohio, Chillicothe, Mt.
Logan, blue-grass sod
1967 U.S.S.R., Dagestan A.S.S.R.

1943 Romania

1966 Chad, Bekao, south from Moundou,
grass on sandy soil
1966 Chad, N'Djamena, near Champ de
Tire, sparsely overgrown halitic
1959 Bulgaria, Maladesko, Strandza
Plain, dry moss on limestone
1974 Egypt, Kanater El-Khaira, El-
Kalyoubia Governorate, tomato
1978 Mauritius, Ile Ronde

1953 Tanzania, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Shira
Plateau, heath formation soil
1960 U.S.S.R., Caucasus, Kirgizia and
1978 U.S.S.R., Don River Basin, soil

1917 Italy, Florence, soil
1956 Spain, Villalba, litter

1962 Chile, Polpaico, meadow of Juncus,
Ranunculus, Triglochin and grass
1971 Prince Edward Is., Marion Is.,
Poa cookii old inflorescence
1960 Egypt, Cairo, Giza, west bank of
Nile, cultivated air-strip of Zea
mays, Linium, and Triticum
1974 Egypt, Tameya, El-Fayoum Gov-
ernorate, wheat field soil
1956 Spain, Valle del Moro, humus

1977 N.W. Pakistan, Chitral Valley,


December, 1982

Fritz: Zygoribatula floridana


Zygoribatula terricola Hammen
Zygoribatula thalassophila
Zygoribatula tortilis Hammer

Zygorihatula transitans
Zygoribatula trichosa
Zygoribatula trigonella
Zygoribatula tritici
Eldbadry, Nasr
Zygoribatula truncatia Aoki
Zygoribatula undulata
Zygoribatula undulata Balogh

Zygoribatula vulgaris
Bulanova Zachvatkina
Zygoribatula zicsii Bayoumi

Lawari Pass, 3,400 m.a.s.l., Pinus
1952 Netherlands, Maasland, meadow
1935 France, Tregastel, intertidal zone

1977 N.W. Pakistan, Bombret Valley
S.W. of Chitral, moss, grass and
1917 U.S.A., Florida, Lake City, moss

1956 Spain, Casa del Campo, litter

1967 U.S.S.R., Turkmenia

1974 Egypt, Tameya, El-Bayoum Gov-
ernorate, wheat field soil
1962 Japan, Yamaguchi-Ken
1917 Italy, Florence, soil

1966 Tanzania, Mt. Kilimanjaro (s.w.
side), moss, lichen and bark under
1967 U.S.S.R., Moldavian S.S.R.

1979 Hungary, Vertes, hornbeam-oak
mixed forest, soil

1Species considered in the literature as nomina dubia.

BERLESE, A. 1917. Centuria terza di acari nuovi. Redia 12: 289-338.
BHATTACHARYA, T., AND R. BANARJEE. 1979. Some cryptostigmatid mites
(Acari. Oribatei) from Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. Indian
J. Acarol. 4: 19-24.
FRANK, F. 1965. A contribution to the knowledge of oribatid mites, vectors
of Moniezia expansa in Bosna and Herzegovina. (Eng. summary).
Godisnjak Biol. Inst. Univ. Sarajevo 18: 129-58.
RAMSAY, G. W. 1966. Two new oribatid mites (Acari) from New Zealand
pasture. New Zealand J. Sci. 9: 416-25.
ROBERTS, F. H. S. 1953. Zygoribatula longiporosa Hammer (Acarina:
Oribatei) and intermediate host of Moniezia benedeni (Moniez)
(Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) in Australia. Australian J. Zool. 1:
TRAVE, J., AND M. VACHON. 1975. Francois Grandjean 1882-1975 (notice
biographique & bibliographique). Acarologia 17: 1-19.
WILLMANN, C. 1931. Moosmilben oder oribatiden (Oribatei), Pages 79-200
In: Freidrich Dahl, Maria Dahl, and Hans Bischoff, Eds. Die Tier-
welt Deutschlands. Gustav Fisher, Jena, East Germany.

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)


University of Florida, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Homestead, Florida 33031 USA and
Section of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology,
University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, 06368 USA, respectively

Oedancala scutellata n.sp. is described from Trinidad. Pachygrontha
saileri Slater is reduced to the status of a subspecies of P. minarum
Lethierry and Severin and previous records of P. saileri for Trinidad,
Guyana and Surinam are referred to the nominate subspecies. P. longiceps
StAl and 0. acuminata Slater are reported for Trinidad and P. longiceps
from Venezuela for the first time and Oedancala meridionalis StAl reported
for the first time from Mexico. Host plant, habitat and distributional data
are given. Host plants of the subfamily Cyminae also are discussed.
A table of host plants for each Trinidad species of Pachygronthinae and
Cyminae is given. It is concluded that the Trinidad fauna of both of these
subfamilies can be separated into specialists and generalists.

Oedancala scutellata se describe como una especie nueva de Trinidad.
Pachygrontha saileri Slater es reducida a una sub-especie de P. minarum
Lethierry y Severin y los registros previous de P. saileri para Trinidad,
Guyana y Surinam son referidos a la sub-especie nominada. P. longiceps
StAl y 0. acuminata son reportados de Trinidad, P. longiceps es tambi6n
reportado por primera vez de Venezuela y Oedancala meridionalis StAl es
reportado por primera vez de Mexico. Se informa sobre las plants
hospedantes, habitat y distribuci6n de las species. Las plants hospedantes
de la sub-familia Cyminae son tambien discutidas.
Una tabla de las plants hospedantes para cada una de las species de
Trinidad de las subfamilias Pachygronthinae y Cyminae es reportada. Este
studio permit separar la fauna de Trinidad de ambas subfamilias con
respect a la especificidad del hospedante en species especializadas y gen-

The Trinidad pachygronthine fauna is restricted to 6 species in the tribe
Pachygronthini, including an endemic species of Oedancala. The other 5
species all occur in mainland South America, although one of these shows
subspecific differentiation in the Lesser Antilles.
Although Trinidad is a "continental" island and although there are sev-
eral pachygronthines found in northern South America that are not known
from the West Indies, only one of these latter species is known from Trin-
idad. With the exception of Oedancala acuminata Slater and the endemic
Oedancala described below, all of the other species occur on the offshore
islands. Thus, surprisingly, the pachygronthine fauna of Trinidad is little


December, 1982

Baranowski & Slater: Pachygronthinae of Trinidad

more "continental" than are other larger "non-continental" islands of the
West Indies.
In the present paper we describe Oedancala scutellata n.sp. Pachy-
grontha saileri Slater is assigned to subspecific status with P. minarum
Lethierry and Severin. Slater's (1975) Trinidad, Surinam and Guyana
records of saileri are referred to the nominate subspecies. We report
Pachygrontha longiceps Stil and Oedancala acuminata Slater from Trin-
idad and P. longiceps from Venezuela for the first time. The biology, general
distribution and immature stages of the various species are discussed.
We have included a discussion and analysis of the host plant associations
of the species of Cyminae known to occur in Trinidad. Since the Cyminae
are sedge feeders the relationship of the members of the 2 subfamilies seems
important as they form a rather unique trophic "guild" within the Lygaeidae.
In the following discussion, distributions follow Slater's (1964) cata-
logue and subsequent publications. Many of the distribution records are
from Slater's (1955) World revision of the subfamily that includes compre-
hensive keys to the fauna of the Western Hemisphere. All measurements
are in mm.

Key to the Pachygronthinae of Trinidad
1. Length of the eye equal to or less than length of preocular
margin (measured to apex of antenniferous tubercle); length
of 3rd antenna segment 1.2 or more times length of 4th .. 2
1'. Length of eye greater than length of preocular margin; length
of 3rd antennal segment never more than 1.1 times length of
4th --......-..- .. .-- -- -- ...--...- .. 4
2(1). Small species, 5 mm or less ._- P. compact
2'. Larger species, 7.5 mm or more ...- .. ...-... ....... .........----------- .- 3
3(2'). Distal 1/2 of 3rd antennal segment pale differentiated from
dark color of proximal 1/2; 3rd antennal segment more than
1.6 times length of 4th; apical margin of corium with 2 black
spots, one at apex, 2nd midway along margin ..--.....-... P. longiceps
3'. Third antennal segment unicolorous; less than 1.5 times length
of 4th; apical margin of corium with only 1 black spot located
midway along margin .. ............. ........ P. minarum
4(1'). Larger species, more than 7.5 mm in length; apical margin of
corium often suffused with dark brown, never with a distinct
black spot ..... .... ... -... .. ...... ... -... ..... .... 0. scutellata
4'. Smaller species, less than 6.5 mm in length; apical corial
margin with or without a dark apical spot -.........--... ........-_. 5
5(4'). Labium elongate, 2nd labial segment exceeding anterior mar-
gin of prosternum by at least 1/2 its length; middle of apical
margin of corium lacking a dark spot ..... ..-- .......__ 0. acuminata
5'. Labium short, 2nd labial segment scarcely, if at all, exceeding
anterior margin of prosternum, middle of the apical margin
of corium with a dark spot present .-.......... .........- 0. bimaculata

Key to 5th instar nymphs

L. Length of eye equal to or less than length of preocular margin


Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

(measured to apex of antenniferous tubercle) ...----- ...-..... 2
1'. Length of eye greater than length of preocular margin ------------------ 4
2(1). Small species, 5 mm or less --- - P. compact
2'. Larger species, 7 m m or m ore --- ..----------------- ----------------------------- 3
3(2'). Third antennal segment uniformly brown; thoracic pleura
without longitudinal stripe above acetabula --.. P. minarum
3'. Distal 1/3 of 3rd antennal segment distinctly paler than re-
mainder of antenna; thoracic pleura with a longitudinal dark
stripe above acetabula ...-................-......-- ......-. P. longiceps
4(1'). Antennal segment uniformly reddish brown -....-.. 0. scutellata
4'. 4th antennal segment darker than preceding segments -. 5
5(4'). Labium elongate, extending caudad to anterior margin of
mesocoxae ...-......- .. .. ---..-.....-.. .. ..-- --- .......... 0. acuminata
5'. Labium shorter, not reaching anterior margin of mesocoxae
..... .0---------- -------- ------ -. bim aculata

Oedancala scutellata Baranowski and Slater, NEW SPECIES
Fig. 1

Form and color similar to meridionalis Stil. General coloration reddish
brown to testaceous. Apical corial margin lacking distinctly differentiated
black spots either at middle or apex. Head and pronotum with a strongly
contrasting pale yellow median longitudinal stripe. Scutellum almost com-
pletely calloused and light yellow, including meson, but with excavated mesal
area at scutellar base contrasting dark red brown. Antennae and a diffuse
area on either side of pale median pronotal stripe, ventral surfaces of fore
femora, distal portion of clavus and apical margin of corium a darker red
brown than adjacent areas.
Head elongate, strongly tapering anteriorly, apex of tylus not extending
anteriorly to middle of 1st antennal segment, head length 1.38, width 1.28,
interocular space 0.78. Pronotum narrowing from posterior to anterior
margin, transverse impression obsolete, lateral margin modestly sinuate;
pronotum length 2.0, width 2.45. Scutellum elevated basally but with a deep
median basal excavation, almost completely pale yellowish white including
midline and elevated "callosites" adjacent to basal excavation, scutellum
length 1.25, width 1.28. Hemelytra with lateral corial margins abruptly
explanate posterior to level of apex of scutellum. Claval commissure length
0.65, distance along midline from apex clavus to apex corium 1.75; distance
along midline from apex corium to apex wing membrane 1.65. Fore femora
very strongly incrassate, armed below with 4 heavy blunt major spines,
lacking a minor spine between 2 proximal major ones. Labium just attain-
ing anterior margin of mesonotum, 1st segment short, remote from eye, ex-
tending posteriorly only to antenniferous tubercle, segment 2 slightly ex-
ceeding base of head. Labial segments length I 0.5, II 0.53, III 0.63, IV 0.65.
Antennae thick, first segment "bent laterally" toward distal end. Antennal
segments length I 1.7, II 1.0, III 0.98, IV 0.88. Total length 8.1.
Holotype: 8 TRINIDAD: Nariva Co., Manzanilla-Mayaro Rd., 46 mi. post,
12-X-78, R. M. Baranowski. (United States National Museum of Natural
History, no. 73803).
Paratypes: TRINIDAD: 49 8, 46 9, same data as holotype; 103 $, 89 9,
Nariva Co. Manzanilla-Mayaro Rd., 46 mi. post, 22-III-1979, M. J. W.

December, 1982

Baranowski & Slater: Pachygronthinae of Trinidad


`i K

V' f, r



N -'


Fig. 1. Oedancala scutellata Baranowski &

Slater, NEW SPECIES, dorsal

Cock; 41 S, 47 9, Nariva Co., Manzanilla-Mayaro Rd., 46 mi. post, 21-IX-
1979, R. M. Baranowski; 3 S, 3 9 same, 5-IX-1981; 8 S, 5 9 St. Patrick
Co. LaBrea, Pitch Lake 9-IX-1981, R. M. Baranowski. All specimens were
collected on Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton. Paratypes are deposited








Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

in U. S. National Museum of Natural History, American Museum of Natural
History, British Museum of Natural History, Commonwealth Institute of
Biological Control, Trinidad, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, and
James A. Slater and Richard M. Baranowski collections.
There is some color variation in the type series. In some individuals the
dorsal body coloration is nearly uniformly testaceous, in others the increased
reddish brown coloration on the clavus along the apical corial margin is
conspicuously differentiated from the remainder of the surface. Not un-
commonly a small "minor spine" is present between the 2 proximal major
spines of the fore femora.
0. scutellata is very closely related to meridionalis Stal. It may be most
readily distinguished from meridionalis (to which it will run in Slater's
(1955) key) by the nearly completely laevigate pale yellow scutellum. In all
specimens of meridonalis that we have examined (from Mexico to Argen-
tina), the scutellum bears a prominent pale laevigate diagonal stripe lat-
erally on each side of the scutellum, but mesally the scutellum invariably
has a complete and broad brown stripe.
In 0. scutellata the males always have much more elongate antennae
than do the females (Table 1). So far as we know, in Oedancala marked
antennal dimorphism has been observed previously in 0. cubana Stil. O.
scutellata can be distinguished from meridionalis by the relatively longer
antennal segments.

Description of scutellata nymphs

5th instar (in alcohol, n = 3)
Shape elongate oval, coloration light brown. Distal end of wing pads,
tarsi, 4th labial segment darker brown. Antennae and tibiae reddish brown.
Head, thorax including wing pads with dark brown punctures. Abdomen pale
yellow with a faint median reddish stripe, this darker and wider around
scent gland openings and a pair of reddish longitudinal bands widest just
under the wing pads extending nearly to a point at the posterior border of
the 8th segment. Ventral surface with same markings. Head length 1.2,
width 1.2, interocular space 0.8. Pronotum length 1.23, width 2.13. Wing
pads length 2.19. Abdomen length 2.8. Labial segments length I 0.44, II 0.52,
III 0.55, IV 0.55. Antennal segments length I 0.52, II 0.36, III 0.36, IV 0.36.
Total body length 5.95.

TABLE 1. ANTENNAL SEGMENT LENGTHS OF O. scutellata AND 0. meridion-
alis (n = 5).

0. scutellata meridionalis
Segment $ 9 S 9

1 1.60-1.72 (1.65) 1.28-1.44 (1.37) 1.16-1.36 (1.29) 1.04-1.32 (1.14)
2 0.92-1.00 (0.97) 0.80-0.84 (0.81) 0.72-0.86 (0.79) 0.64-0.76 (0.71)
3 0.92-1.00 (0.96) 0.80-0.88 (0.83) 0.76-0.90 (0.82) 0.74-0.88 (0.79)
4 0.92-0.96 (0.93) 0.84-0.88 (0.85) 0.84-0.92 (0.87) 0.80-0.88 (0.85)


December, 1982

Baranowski & Slater: Pachygronthinae of Trinidad

4th instar (in alcohol, n = 3)
Similar in shape and color to 5th instar, but darkened area at distal ends
of wing pads not as apparent. Head length 1.04, width 1.01, interocular
space 0.8. Pronotum length 0.81, width 1.61; wing pads length 1.01. Ab-
domen length 2.37. Labial segments length I 0.39, II 0.43, III 0.43, IV 0.40.
Antennal segments length I 0.64, II 0.53, III 0.56, IV 0.65. Total body length

3rd instar (in alcohol, n = 3)

Similar in shape and color to 4th instar, but 4th antennal segment and
legs dark brown. Head length 0.72, width 0.8, interocular space 0.53.
Pronotum length 0.55, width 1.16. Abdomen length 1.28. Labial segments
length I 0.27, II 0.32, III 0.33, IV 0.35. Antennal segments length I 0.39,
II 0.39, III 0.41, IV 0.51. Total body length 2.75.
2nd instar (in alcohol, n = 3)
Similar in shape and color to 3rd, but punctures on head and thorax con-
siderably reduced. Head length 0.59, width 0.62, interocular space 0.45.
Pronotum length 0.33, width 0.79. Abdomen length 1.0. Labial segments
length I 0.23, II 0.25, III 0.26, IV 0.31. Antennal segments length I 0.25, II
0.29, III 0.29, IV 0.42. Total body length 1.95.

1st instar (in alcohol, n = 3)

Head, thorax dark brown, impunctate. Legs dark brown except for
distal end of femur and tibia and basal tarsal segment pale. Antennal seg-
ments I, IV dark brown, II, III pale. Body and appendages with scattered
long hairs. Head length 0.49, width 0.44, interocular space 0.34. Pronotum
length 0.17, width 0.41. Abdomen length 0.81. Labial segments length I 0.20,
II 0.21, III 0.20, IV 0.25. Antennal segments length I 0.17, II 0.19, III 0.21,
IV 0.33. Total body length 1.53.

egg (in alcohol, n = 3)
Cream colored, elongate, tapering to a narrow rounded posterior end and
a narrow truncate anterior end with typically 6 short stubby micropylar
processes. Chorion faintly reticulated. Length 1.52, maximum width 0.37.

Biology of 0. scutellata
The eggs of 0. scutellata are deposited between the "sheath" and seed of
the sedge, Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.). Nymphs and adults are typically
found on the seed heads. All stages were present at the first 3 visits to the
type locality (October 1978, March and September 1979).
The type locality, in Nariva County on the edge of the Nariva swamp at
the 46 mile post on the Manzanilla-Mayaro Road, covered an' area no more
than 100 x 300 m of shallow, partially disturbed swamp. Rhynchospora
corymbosa was not a dominant plant but was present in scattered clumps.
At the first visit, 12-X-1978, it was fairly common, somewhat less so on 21-
IX-1979; only an occasional plant was present on 19-VIII-1980. 0. scutellata
adults and nymphs were numerous in 1978 and 1979; no specimens were

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

found in 1980. On 5-IX-1981, the type locality was again visited. R. corym-
bosa had re-established itself in the immediate area and also at another site
about 200 m away. Adults and nymphs of 0. scutellata were present in low

Oedancala meridionalis StAl

The closely related Oedancala meridionalis StAl, originally described
from Brazil, and subsequently reported by Slater (1955) from Paraguay,
Bolivia and Argentina, does not appear to be distinguishable from a series
collected at several localities in southern Mexico. The range, unless disjunct,
must be more extensive than previously believed. We have examined the
following material: MEXICO: 1 $, 1 9 Rio Lacanja, Carr. Palenque-ocosinso,
21-VII-1978, E. Varrera; 1 9, same, G. Ortega L.; 1 & Chiapas, Bonampak,
2-V-1978, Noct; 1 8 Chiapas, Rio Lacanja, 23-VI-1978, E. Barrera
(H. Brailovsky collection); 2 $, 3 9 Tabasco, Hwy 180, 10 m E. Rio
Tonala, 12-VI-1965, Burke, Meyer, Schaffner; 1 & Veracruz, 4 mi. E.
Coatzocoalcos, 20-VIII-1967, H. R. Burke, at blacklight; 1 9 Veracruz, 4
mi. NE Mitatitlan, 11-VI-1965, Burke, Meyer, Schaffner (J. A. Slater col-
We have also examined several specimens from Mexico and Honduras
that clearly belong to the "meridionalis group", but do not appear to rep-
resent either meridionalis or scutellata and will probably prove to be an
undescribed species.

Oedancala bimaculata (Distant) 1893
General coloration nearly uniformly testaceous over entire body, oc-
casionally darker on head; apical margin of corium with a brown spot mid-
way between apex of corium and mesal angle, apex of corium immaculate;
scutellum either with or without a mesal dark longitudinal stripe; punc-
tures dark brown to black; total length 5.40-6.04.
Distribution: Slater (1955, 1964, 1975), lists it as occurring in Brazil,
Belize, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama,
Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Texas and Trinidad (Aripo Savana).
Material Examined: TRINIDAD: 1 9, D'Abadie, 15-X-1918, A-761, Harold
Morrison; 1 9, 3.25 mi. E Valencia, 7-XII-1975, R. M. Baranowski (J. A.
Slater collection). 1 $, 4 9 St. George Co. 1 mi. S. Valencia, Aripo R., 8-IX-
1978, R. M. Baranowski; 34 S, 52 9 St. George Co. Wallerfield, 9-VII-1978,
R. M. Baranowski; 13 S, 16 9 St. Patrick Co. Parrylands Oil Field, 21-VIII-
1980, R. M. Baranowski; 13 $, 3 9 St. Patrick Co., Trintoc Oil Field S.
Parrylands Rd., 8-IX-1981, R. M. Baranowski, breeding on Fimbristylus
dichotoma (L.) Vahl; 53 32 9, St. George Co., Wallerfield, 15-VIII-1981,
R. M. Baranowski, breeding on Rhynchospora holoschoenoides (L. C. Rich.)
Herter; 4 S, 2 9, same 12-IX-1981; 33 S, 30 9 same, breeding on Rhyncho-
spora setacea (Berg) Boeck; 59 $, 36 9, same 12-IX-1981; 43 $, 22 9,
same 30-VIII-1981; 2 8, 5 9 same breeding on Rhynchospora rugosa
(Vahl) Gale; 7 1 9, same 25-VIII-1981; 29 $, 37 9, same, 30-VIII-1981;
1 8, 4 9, same 25-VIII-1981, breeding on Eleocharis geniculata (L.)
Romer & Schultes; 1 & St. Andrew Co. Brigand Hill, 19-VIII-1981, R. M.
Baranowski, on Fimbristylus dichotoma (L.) Vahl; 2 3, 4 9, St. Andrew


December, 1982

Baranowski & Slater: Pachygronthinae of Trinidad 499

Co. Manzanilla Community Centre, 5-IX-1981, R. M. Baranowski, on Cyperus
surinamensis Rottb; 1 &, 4 9, same breeding on Fimbristylus littoralis G.
1 8, St. George Co. Lalaja Rd., 12-IX-1981, R. M. Baranowski, breeding on
Scleria probably latifolia Swartz.
VENEZUELA: 3 S G U HATO Las Lajas, 24/26-VI-1966, F. Fernandez-Y,
A. D'Ascoli (J. A. Slater collection).

Description of bimaculata nymphs

5th instar (in alcohol, n = 3)

Shape elongate oval, coloration yellowish brown. Fourth labial segment,
4th antennal segment and tarsi dark brown. Head, thorax including wing
pads with dark brown punctures. Distal 1/2 of femora with dark brown
spots. Abdominal terga pale yellow with a narrow median and a wider pair
of lateral longitudinal reddish stripes. Abdominal sterna with a reddish
longitudinal stripe along lateral edge. The reddish stripes on the abdomen
are very faint on some specimens. Labium extending posterior to midpoint
between pro and mesocoxae. Head length 0.93, width 0.96, interocular space
0.59. Pronotum length 0.80 width 1.34. Wing pads length 1.55. Abdomen
length 2.05. Labial segments length I 0.33, II 0.32, III 0.31, IV 0.37. An-
tennal segments length I 0.89, II 0.63, III 0.64, IV 0.64. Total body length

4th instar (in alcohol, n = 3)
Similar in shape and color to 5th instar. Head length 0.72, width 0.82,
interocular space 0.56. Pronotum length 0.56 width 1.07. Wing pads length
0.69. Abdomen length 1.27. Labial segments length I 0.26, II 0.26, III 0.26,
IV 0.33. Antennal segments length I 0.57, II 0.43, III 0.44, IV 0.55; Total
body length 2.80.

3rd instar (in alcohol, n = 3)

Similar in shape and color to 4th instar, but fewer punctures on head,
thorax and wing pads. Head length 0.65, width 0.69, interocular space 0.48.
Pronotum length 0.40, width 0.84. Wing pads length 0.30. Abdomen length
1.20. Labial segments length I 0.25, II 0.22, III 0.22, IV 0.31. Antennal seg-
ments length I 0.41, II 0.35, III 0.36, IV 0.50 Total body length 2.41.

2nd instar (in alcohol, n = 3)
Somewhat more oval than preceding instars, color similar to preceding
except head, thorax, brownish with only an occasional dark brown puncture.
Posterior femora and tibiae brown. Head length 0.53 width 0.55, interocular
space 0.39. Pronotum length 0.28, width 0.63. Abdomen length 0.70. Labial
segments length I 0.20, II 0.18, III 0.18; IV 0.22. Antennal segments length
I 0.26, II 0.24, III 0.25, IV 0.41 Total body length 1.52.

1st instar (in alcohol, n = 3)
Similar in shape to 2nd instar. Head, thorax, 4th antennal segment,
distal 1/2 of terminal tarsal segment, posterior tibiae and central portion
of femora dark brown. Middle femora and tibiae slightly suffused with

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

brown. Dorsal abdominal stripes poorly differentiated, distinct only around
scent gland openings, ventral abdominal strips present. Head length 0.41,
width 0.39, interocular space 0.29. Pronotum length 0.17, width 0.42. Ab-
domen length 0.81. Labial segments length I 0.16, II 0.15, III 0.15, IV 0.21.
Antennal segments length I 0.18, II 0.20, III 0.21, IV 0.37. Total body length

Oedancala acuminata Slater 1956
General coloration pale yellowish, lightly marked with reddish brown on
claval commissure and ventral surface. Head very elongate and tapering,
slightly declivent anteriorly. Labium very elongate, reaching the mesocoxae,
the 1st segment reaching posteriorly to the compound eyes. Apical margin
of corium lacking dark spots. Total length 5.8-6.2.
Originally described from Kaieteur, British Guiana (Slater, 1956) and
not subsequently reported in the literature. Slater (1966) described the 5th
instar nymph from a dried specimen from the type locality.
Material examined: TRINIDAD: 2 S, 1 9, St. George Co. Wallerfield,
9-VII-1978, R. M. Baranowski, breeding on Rhynchospora holoschoenoides
(L. C. Rich.) Herter; 1 3, 5 9, same 15-VIII-1981; 1 8, 6 9, same, 12-IX-
0. acuminata was collected together with considerably larger numbers of
0. bimaculata on R. holoschoenoides. Although the host plant was swept in
several areas in Wallerfield, 0. accuminata was only present at one site.

Pachygrontha compact Distant 1893
General coloration testaceous, shading to light castaneous with a pair of
dark brown to black spots along the apical margin of corium; pronotum and
scutellum with a pale median longitudinal stripe; easily recognized by its
small size; total length 4-4.8.
Slater (1966) reported P. compact on Scirpus sp. and described the
5th-2nd instar nymphs.
Distribution: Recorded by Slater (1964, 1966, 1975) from Texas, Brazil,
Belize, Dominica, Cuba, Grenada, Guatemala, Hispaniola, Honduras, Costa
Rica, Jamaica, Mona Island, Panama and Trinidad.
Material Examined: TRINIDAD: 2 S, 1 ? (abdomen broken off) St.
Augustine, 2-X-1956, R. H. Cobben; 1 $, 4 9, 2 mi. N. Cumuto, 14-VI-73,
Baranowski, O'Rourke, Picchi, Slater; 1 8, Simla, Arima Valley, 6-II-1965,
J. A. Slater, N. T. Davis (J. A. Slater collection). 10 S, 17 9 Mayaro Co.
Trinity Hills, 22-II-1981, M. J. W. Cock, breeding on Cyperus rotundus L.;
11 8, 14 9 St. Patrick Co. Parryland Oil Field, 21-VIII-1980, R. M. Bara-
nowski; 4 11 9 St. George Co. Antigua Rd. 2 mi. N Cumuto, 1-VIII-1978,
R. M. Baranowski; 12 8, 14 9, same 18-VIII-1978; 5 8, 9 9, St. George
Co. 1 mi. S. Valencia, Aripo R., 7-IX-1978, R. M. Baranowski; 1 9, same,
17-VIII-1980; 2 8, 2 9, Nariva Co., Manzanilla-Mayaro Rd. 46 mi. post,
18-VIII-1981, R. M. Baranowski, on Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton;
1 S, 1 9, Nariva Co. Manzanilla-Mayaro Rd. 48.5 mi. post, 5-IX-81, R. M.
Baranowski, on Cyperus polystacyos Rottb. 3 8, 1 9 Nariva Co. Manzanilla-
Mayaro Rd. 51.75 mi. post, 5-IX-1981, R. M. Baranowski, breeding on
Cyperus surinamensis Rottb.; 2 9 Nariva Co. Manzanilla-Mayaro Rd. 45


December, 1982

Baranowski & Slater: Pachygronthinae of Trinidad

mi. post, 19-VIII-1981, R. M. Baranowski, breeding on Cyperus surinamensis
Rottb.; 1 S, 2 9 St. Patrick Co. Trintoc Oil Field, 8-IX-1981, R. M. Bara-
nowski, on Scleria melaleuca Cham. & Schlecht; 7 8, 7 9 St. Patrick Co.
Parryland Oil Field 8-IX-1981, R. M. Baranowski, breeding on Cyperus
ligularis L. 11 $, 17 9, Nariva Co. Manzanilla-Mayaro Rd., 46 mi. post,
19-VIII-1980, R. M. Baranowski.

Pachygrontha longiceps StAl, 1874
General coloration testaceous, shining, a pair of spots on apical margin
of corium, one at apex, second midway between apex and claval commissure;
a large slender elongate species readily recognizable by the spots along the
corial margin and by the pale distal 1/3 of the 3rd antennal segment; total
length 7.6-9.0.
Distribution: Recorded by Slater (1964, 1975) from Belize, Columbia,
Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Jamaica and Panama. We list below the first
records from Trinidad and Venezuela.
Material Examined: TRINIDAD: 1 9, Wallerfield, 5-II-1965, J. A. Slater,
N. T. Davis; 1 9 Arima-Blanchisseuse Rd., 20 mi. post, 20-VIII-1975, R. M.
Baranowski; 1 2 St. George Co., Lalaja Rd. S. 26-X-1978 R. M. Baranow-
ski; 1 9, St. George Co. Maracas Forest Station, 1-IX-1980 R. M. Baranow-
ski, on Scleria melaleuca Cham. & Schlecht; 2 8 St. George Co., Lalaja Rd.
12-IX-1981, R. M. Baranowski, on Scleria probably latifolia Schwartz; 1 &
same, 26-X-1978; 1 9, St. George Co. Arima-Blanchisseuse Rd., 20 mi. post,
16-VIII-1975, R. M. Baranowski; 1 2 St. George Co., Hollis Reservoir, 2-XI-
1978, M. Cock & W. DeVoogd, at pump house lights.
VENEZUELA: 1 ? (abdomen broken off) Haut Apure, Bois de Guasdualito,
1924, M. Crisol; 1 9 Monagas, Jusepin, 24-X-1965, F. Fernandez-Y, C. J.
Rosales (J. A. Slater collection).

Description of longiceps nymph

5th instar nymph (in alcohol, n = 1)

General coloration, including appendages, pale yellow tan. Head, thorax,
scutellum and wing pads covered with numerous strongly contrasting dark
brown punctures, becoming nearly black on thoracic pleura (which have a
longitudinal dark stripe just above acetabula) and at anterior-lateral
corners of dorsal surface of pronotum. Femora, tibiae and 1st 3 antennal
segments covered with numerous brown spots. Abdominal terga nearly white
with 5 longitudinal pink stripes. Terga 7, 8 with a pair of large yellow
heavily sclerotized areas covering all but mesal area, the inner margin
darker brown and crenulate. Sclerotization around dorsal abdominal scent
glands narrow, not extending laterad of, gland opening, that anterior to
gland opening largest. Distal 1/3 of antennal segment 3 distinctly paler than
remainder of antenna. Abdominal sterna with a broad pink stripe on either
side midway between meson and lateral margin. Mesal portion of sterna 6,
7 and 8 with a large quadrate brown sclerotized area. Labrum extending
nearly to middle of mesosternum, remote from mesocoxae. Head length 1.14,
width 1.20, interocular space 0.80. Pronotum length 1.12, width 1.84. Wing
pads length 2.36. Abdomen length 3.0. Antennal segments length I 2.0, II


Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

1.46, III 1.26, IV 0.86. Labial segments length I 0.50, II 0.54, II 0.48, IV
0.58. Total body length 6.24.

Pachgrontha minarum minarum Lethierry and Severin 1894
Coloration nearly uniform yellowish brown; apical margin of corium
with a prominent black spot midway between apex and apex of clavus;
punctures rather densely and uniformly distributed, dark brown and
strongly contrasting with ground color; total length 7.84-9.80.
Slater (1955) described Pachygrontha saileri from Grenada noting its
close relationship to minarum. Slater (1966) reported saileri from Trinidad,
Surinam and Guyana (British Guiana) and later (Slater 1975) from St.
Lucia, St. Vincent and Dominica. Slater (1975) suggested that saileri "may
well prove eventually to represent a subspecies." We can now substantiate
this prediction. In the original description Slater (1955) separated saileri
from minarum primarily on the basis of a minor spine between the 2
proximal major spines on the fore femora and the relatively shorter 2nd
antennal segment (not more than twice as long as the interocular space).
The fore femoral spine character has proven to be unreliable. Specimens
occur with the "minor" spine present on one femur and absent on the other
and many specimens from the mainland have this minor spine present. The
antennal ratio will separate specimens from the Lesser Antilles from all
mainland specimens. These Antillean specimens are also smaller.
Specimens from Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and Grenada are rec-
ognizable as a distinct population. This population is treated here as
Pachygrontha minarum saileri Slater, new status. Slater's earlier records
from Trinidad and northern South America pertain to the nominate sub-
The nominate subspecies has been previously reported by Slater (1964)
from Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay (and as noted above, as saileri from
Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam).
Material Examined: TRINIDAD: D'Abadi, 15-X-1918, A-761, Harold
Morrison; 1 9 Caparo (J. A. Slater collection); 1 9 Arima-Blanchisseuse
Rd., 20 mi. post, 16-VIII-1975, R. M. Baranowski; 20 $, 22 9, St. Patrick
Co. Trintoc Oil Field, S. Parrylands Rd., 8-IX-81, R. M. Baranowski, breed-
ing on Scleria melaleuca Cham. & Schlecht; 3 $, 1 ?, Nariva Co. Mayaro-
Manzanilla Rd. 51.75 mi. post, 5-IX-1981, R. M. Baranowski, breeding on
Scleria sp.; 3 $, 11 9, St. Patrick Co. Southern Main Rd. 66 mi. post, 2-IX-
1980, R. M. Baranowski, breeding on Scleria sp.; 1 9 St. Patrick Co. South-
ern Main Rd., 68 mi. post, 15-IX-1978, R. M. Baranowski.
VENEZUELA: 1 S, 5 9, Barinas Reserva Forestal Capare-Camp
Cachicamos, 100 m 6-14-VIII-1969, J. Salcedo, F. Zambrano (J. A. Slater

Description of minarum nymph
5th instar (in alcohol, n = 3)
Elongate, general coloration tan. Head, thorax, scutellum and wing pads
covered with numerous strongly contrasting dark brown punctures. Femora,
tibiae and 1st 3 antennal segments covered with numerous brown spots.


December, 1982

Baranowski & Slater: Pachygronthinae of Trinidad

Abdominal terga pale yellow with 5 longitudinal reddish-pink stripes.
Sclerotization around dorsal abdominal scent gland openings dark brown,
almost circular, that anterior to gland opening largest. Abdominal sterna
with a faint pink median longitudinal stripe, a faint, (sometimes absent)
longitudinal stripe along the lateral margins and a broad longitudinal red-
dish stripe between the median and lateral stripes. Mesal portion of stern
6, 7, 8 with a quadrate brown sclerotized area. Labium extending nearly to
anterior of mesocoxae. Head length 1.0, width 1.19, interocular space 0.8.
Pronotum length 1.04, width 1.53. Wing pads length 2.54. Abdomen length
3.20. Antennal segments length I 1.69, II 1.27, III 1.15, IV 1.0. Labial seg-
ment length I 0.48, II 0.48, III 0.63, IV 0.68. Total body length 6.13.


Many Lygaeidae that feed and breed on sedges tend to be restricted to
these host plants. Although some species of Rhyparochrominae and Blissinae
are sedge feeders, the most abundant and diversified fauna are species of
Pachygronthinae and Cyminae. In most of these, all Western Hemisphere
species, the nymphs and adults have body shapes and color patterns very
similar to the seed heads of the host plants. All literature records for
Pachygronthini associate them worldwide with sedges only. We now know,
however, of a species of Oedancala that breeds exclusively on grasses in the
Florida keys (Baranowski and Slater, unpub.).
Here we present data from Trinidad that suggests that the Trinidad
pachygronthines and cymines can be segregated into specialists (feeding
and breeding on a single species of sedge) and generalists (feeding and
breeding on more than one species of sedge) (Table 2). Although these cate-
gories may be modified with collections from different seasons and years, we
feel that our data provide a reasonable picture of the insect-host plant
relationships during the summer months. These data from Trinidad agree
with our empirical observations from other islands of the West Indies, and
from Central America.
We attempted to collect lygaeids from 24 sedges. No lygaeids were col-
lected on 6 species, Rhynchospora nervosa (Vahl) Boeck, R. trichodes C.B.
Cl., Xyris caroliniana Walt., Cyperus diffusus Vahl, Fimbristylus spadicea
(L.) Vahl and F. ferruginia (L.) Vahl. Cymines but no pachygronthines
were found on Fuirena uumbellata Rottb, Torulinium odoratum (L.) Hooper,
C. lazulae (L.) Retz, and Scleria bracteata Car. No cymines were found on
R. corymbosa (L.), R. rugosa (Vahl) Gale, C. ligularia L., C. rotundus L.
and S. latifolia Swartz, but pachygronthines were present.
Specialist species:
1. Oedancala scutellata n. sp. occurs only on R. corymbosa and only in
the southern part of Trinidad. It has been taken breeding on this host on
both the east and west coasts. The sedge is more widely distributed however,
and a small "island" of it in the northern part of the island on the O'Meara
Ferry Rd., 2 miles south of Arima (St. George Co.) was swept carefully but
no specimens were taken. 0. scutellata may be restricted to southern Trin-
2. Oedancala acuminata Slater was taken in Trinidad breeding on R.
holoschoenoides (L. C. Rich.) Herter in one small area directly adjacent to
one of the 2 main runways of the Wallerfield airfield. No specimens were

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

December, 1982




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o ~ 3 C^ &^ S S ru ^sSs^^ ^^* s o d

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Baranowski & Slater: Pachygronthinae of Trinidad 505

found at several other localities. Nothing has previously been reported on
the biology of this species.
3. Pachygrontha minarum L. & S. appears to be restricted to Scleria
melaleuca Cham. & Schlecht. Most of our specimens were collected in south-
ern Trinidad; however, it does occur in the northern range where a single
specimen was taken. It was also reported on this host (as P. saileri) on
Dominica by Slater (1975).
4. Pachygrontha longiceps Stil is apparently restricted to Scleria sp.
Our collections on Trinidad were chiefly in or near the northern range.
Slater (1975) reported it breeding on Scleria sp. in Jamaica.
5. Neoninus illustris Distant. Like the 2 pachygronthines discussed above,
may be restricted to S. melaleuca as a breeding host. We found only nymphs
on this host although adults were taken on other sedges (Table 2). Slater,
Baranowski & Harrington (unpub. 1971) also took breeding populations on
S. melaleuca on Dominica.
6. Cymodema breviceps Stal. A breeding population was taken only on
Fuirena umbellata Rottb. The taxonomic situation of this species is not
satisfactory. C. breviceps may actually be a composite of several species.
Specimens from Grenada, St. Vincent, Dominica and Venezuela have a
deeply incised genital capsule. By contrast, Trinidad specimens have a nearly
smoothly sloping posterior face to the genital capsule. A similar condition
is found in material from Florida, Texas, Paraguay and Chile. This problem
will require careful study, and for the present we will refer Trinidad ma-
terial to breviceps.
Generalist species:
1. Oedancala bimaculata (Dist.) is widely distributed in Trinidad, col-
lected in the north and central range and also in southern areas of the
island. It has the greatest host range of any of the Trinidad pachygron-
thines, breeding on Rhynchospora holoschoenoides, R. setacea (Berg) Boeck,
R. rugosa (Vahl) Gale, Eleocharis geniculata (L.) Scleria probably latifolia
Swartz and Fimbristylus littoralis G. Adults were collected on 3 additional
sedges (Table 2).
2. Pachygrontha compact Dist. is also widely distributed. Breeding
populations were taken on Cyperus rotundus L., C. surinamensis Rottb. and
C. ligularis L. suggesting that it may be limited to Cyperus species.
3. Cymoninus notabilis Dist. is a widely distributed species in Trinidad.
Breeding populations were taken on 6 sedges in 5 genera: Rhynchospora
micrantha Vahl, Eleocharis geniculata, Torulinium odoratum (L.), Cyperus
polystachos Rottb., C. surinamensis, and F. littoralis.

We thank Dr. M. J. W. Cock, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Con-
trol, Trinidad, for bringing 0. scutellata to our attention, Dr. F. D. Bennett,
Director, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control for providing as-
sistance and facilities in Trinidad, Dr. C. D. Adams, University of the West
Indies, Miss Yasmin Baksh and Mr. M. Bhorai Kalloo, National Herbarium
of Trinidad & Tobago, Drs. D. & H. Correll, Fairchild Tropical Garden,
Miami, FL for identifying the host plants, Ms. Mary Jane Spring for the
fine illustration of 0. scutellata, and Mrs. Helen Baranowski and Ms. Connie
Stieger for field assistance.

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

December, 1982

This work was supported in part by a grant from the National Science
Foundation. This is No. 3644 of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion Journal Series. The senior author is a Research Associate of the Flor-
ida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, Gainesville.

SLATER, J. A. 1955. A revision of the subfamily Pachygronthinae of the
world (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Philippine J. Sci. 84(1): 1-160, 4 pl.
1956. Neotropical Pachygronthinae in the American Museum of
Natural History (Hemiptera, Lygaeidae). American Mus. Novitates
1769: 1-5.
.1964. A Catalogue of the Lygaeidae of the world. 2 vol. Univ. of
Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut. 1668 p.
1966. A further contribution to our knowledge of the Pachygron-
thinae (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Jour. Ent. Soc. Queensland 5: 51-65.
1975. The Pachygronthinae of the West Indies, with the description
of a new species of Pachygrontha from Cuba (Hemiptera: Lygae-
idae). Florida Ent. 58(2) : 65-74.


Environmental Protection Division,
Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Atlanta, GA 30334, and
Laboratory of Aquatic Entomology, Florida A and M University,
Tallahassee, FL 32307 USA, respectively

The adult male, adult female, pupa, and larva of Hudsonimyia parrishi
n. sp. are described. Characters are given to distinguish H. parrishi from the
other member of the genus, H. karelena Roback. The generic diagnosis for
Hudsonimyia Roback is emended to include the new species. The habitat and
aspects of the ecology of the immature stages are discussed.

Se describe el macho, la hembra, la pupa, y la larva de Hudsonimyia
parrishi sp. n. Se indican los caracteres que distinguen H. parrishi del otro
miembro del g6nero, H. karelena Roback. Se modifica la diagnosis del g6nero
Hudsonimyia Roback para incluir la nueva especie. Se discute el habitat, y
aspects de la ecologia de los estados inmaduros.

The new species described here was present in collections of chironomids
from an urban Georgia stream. All specimens were collected in intense
sampling efforts of an uncommon stream microhabitat. The immature stages
of the new species occupy a wet, mossy, algal, and detrital granite micro-

Caldwell & Soponis: Hudsonimyia parrishi 507

habitat similar to that of Hudsonimyia karelena Roback, but in a 2nd order
stream. Locally known as Millrock Branch, the stream has a relatively un-
disturbed watershed in an urban area.
All specimens were preserved in 70% ethanol prior to mounting in
Canada balsam. The mounting technique was similar to that of Forster as
outlined by Saether (1969). Measurements are usually expressed as a range.
All measurements are given in pm unless otherwise stated. The number of
specimens examined is indicated by (n=). Isolated numerals in parentheses
indicate the number of structures, segments, groups of setae, etc. used to
derive the range or value given. This system is used for clarity due to in-
consistencies in true bilateral symmetry, as well as obscured, missing, or
distorted structures on individual specimens. Terminology generally follows
Saether (1980).

Hudsonimyia parrishi Caldwell & Soponis, NEW SPECIES
MALE (n=2).
Head. Yellowish brown. Dorsal interocular distance 96-116 (2). Orbitals,
outer verticals, and postorbitals merged into irregular, but uniserial row of
about 11-13 (4) setae. Clypeals 17-18 (2). Antennal pedicel with 3 grouped
short setae and one longer seta (4) ; AR 1.17-1.20 (4); flagellomere 15, 58-67
(4) long with preapical seta (Fig. 7) 52 (4) long. Lengths of palpal seg-
ments 2-5, 58-87 (4), 139-174 (4), 133-212 (4), 261-267 (2).
Thorax. Yellowish brown with darker to slightly darker vittae, postnotum,
and anterior anepisternum. Anterior border of scutum with 10-12 (4) small
rounded tubercles in a row; ventrolateral antepronotals 2-5 (4); dorso-
centrals 19-20 (4), irregularly biserial, merging with humerals; acrostichals
biserial, about 20-25 (2); prealars 7 (4), one widely separate from others
anteriorly; supraalars 1-2 (4); scutellars 8-10 (2) in posterior row, 3-5 (2)
in anterior row.
Wings. (Fig. 1). Surface setose, length 1.32-1.45 mm (4), with 4-6 (4)
Legs. Pale yellow. Beard not evident, with tibial spurs as shown in Fig. 2-4.
Longest seta on ta1 about 5X diameter of segment. Lengths and proportions:
fe ti ta, ta2 ta3
P1 592-777(4) 667-835(4) 557-661(3) 296-360(3) 232-273(3)
P, 661-829(4) 737-899(4) 650-777(3) 273-313(3) 191-220(3)
P3 609-702(4) 847-1056(4) 574-737(4) 354-429(4) 261-319(4)
ta, ta, LR
P1 162-182(3) 75-99(3) 0.79-0.81(3)
P2 122-151(3) 75-93(3) 0.85-0.89(3)
P, 168-203(4) 75-93(4) 0.68-0.72(4)
Abdomen. Pale yellowish brown with darker basal band on III-V; VI-IX
darker; T IX with irregular row of 8-10 (2) setae. Hypopygium as shown
in Fig. 5-6, gonocoxite 75-81 (4) long, 59-64 (4) wide, L/W about 1.3,
mediobasally with a field of short bristles; gonostylus 49-54 (4) long, 17 (4)
wide, with a large apical spur; apodemes distinct.
FEMALE (n=3).
Similar to male except for the following differences:

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

3 -F 4


Fig. 1-6. Hudsonimyia parrishi, male: 1) wing; 2-4) tibial spurs of P1
(2), P2 (3), and P, (4); ventral (5) and dorsal (6) views of hypopygium.
Head. Dorsal interocular distance 99 (3). Clypeals 18-23 (3). Scape with
3-6 (6) frontal setae; pedicel with 8-13 (6) setae; flagellomere average
lengths (6), 6, 10, 6, 6, 6.5, 6.5, 7, 7, 8, 8, 8, 20; preapical seta 52-55 (6) long.
Lengths of palpal segments 2-5: 75-81 (6), 157-180 (6), 168-180 (6), 238-
267 (6).
Thorax. Anterior border of scutum with 7-10 (6) small rounded tubercles in
a row; ventrolateral antepronotals 2-3 (5); dorsocentrals 27-41 (6);
prealars 9-12 (6), with 1-3 widely separated from group anteriorly; scutel-
lars 9-12 (3) posteriorly, 6-7 (3) anteriorly.

December, 1982


Caldwell & Soponis: Hudsonimyia parrishi 509


Fig. 7-10. Hudsonimyia parrishi: 7) apex of male antenna; 8) ventral
view of female genitalia; 9) thoracic horn of pupa; 10) T VII-IX of pupa.
V -^/'<.\i^ V^
; V ^^ ^r^ ?

4 ,v^

Fig 7-0. udsnimi arish: 7 apx o mae nten;8 eta
vie offemle denial; ) toraic ornofppa10 VI-Xopp.

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

Wing. Length 1.32-1.38 mm (6); squamals 3-4 (6).
Legs. Lengths and proportions:

fe ti ta, ta2 tag
P1 684-713(5) 737-824(5) 615-644(4) 331-342(4) 226-261(4)
P2 707-818(6) 795-882(6) 708-719(3) 302-313(3) 197-209(3)
P3 632-696(6) 882-1015(6) 684-690(4) 377-389(4) 273-290(4)
ta4 ta5 LR
P, 139-168(4) 75-99(4) 0.76-0.82(4)
P, 116-128(3) 75-81(3) 0.79-0.87(3)
P3 174-186(4) 87-99(4) 0.68-0.72(4)
Abdomen. Genitalia as shown in Fig. 8. Seminal capsules clear.

PUPA (n=5).
Cephalothorax. Light brown. Thoracic horn (Fig. 9) with rugose area near
base; total length 267-325 (9); width of plastron plate 116-157 (9) ; length
of plastron plate 104-180 (8); few scattered spinules present except on
plastron plate. Two dorsocentrals, one precorneal, one supraalar, and one
median antepronotal (5) ; one lateral antepronotal evident in one specimen.
Abdomen. Pale yellow to almost clear. Scar on T I very lightly pigmented.
Tergal shagreen covering most of tergite with no obvious pattern; sternal
shagreen very faint. Segment I with 3 D, 2 L, segments II-VI with 5 D, 2 L,
2 V, segment VII with 6 D, 1 L, 3 short LS, and segment VIII with 5 short
LS setae. L setae on I more anteriorly positioned than on other segments.
Dorsal O setae present on II-VI, none evident ventrally. Prominent central
pair, and single orolateral muscle marks present on T II-VI; central pair
usually very indistinct on VII. Centrally paired sensilla campaniformia (cf.
Roback 1972, fig. 15) present on T II-VII. Anal lobe arms divergent and
bare, or at most with 3 spines near apex; apex of arms with slight creases,
tips strongly hooked (Fig. 10). Male genital sacs extended to base of anal
lobe arms.

LARVA (n= 5, final instar).
Head. Yellowish brown with brown occipital margin; length 449-516 (4);
width 307-319 (5). Antenna (Fig. 11) with RO about 129-140 (9) from
base; AR 3.82-4.11 (5). Details of labral sensilla SI-III and bisensillum not
clear. Maxillary palp (Fig. 12) 43-57 (7) long, 8.6 (7) wide, with RO 17-23
(7) from base. Mandible (Fig. 13) light yellow with brown apex; length
86-97 (10); one specimen with unbranched mesal lateroventral seta present.
Ligula (Fig. 14) 57-69 (4) long with teeth brown. Paraligula unevenly
bifid. M appendage and pseudoradula without lateral projections present.
Two distinct dorsomental teeth with 1-2 smaller, less distinct teeth present.
Pecten hypopharyngis with about 11-13 '(10) teeth, mesal tooth each side
Abdomen. Ventrally with distinct setal pattern as shown for segment V
(Fig. 15); dorsal setae very short, no distinct pattern obvious. Procerci pale
yellowish brown 140-149 (7) long, 23-37 (7) wide, with a small seta basally
and medially; 7 anal setae. Apical seta of XIII up to 510 long. Seta of pos-
terior parapod up to about 200 long. Four anal tubules, cylindrically shaped
with tapered ends present, up to about 1/3 as long as posterior parapods.


December, 1982

Caldwell & Soponis: Hudsonimyia parrishi



Fig. 11-15. Hudsonimyia parrishi,
maxillary palp; 13) mandible; 14)
tern on segment V.

4th larval instar: 11) antenna; 12)
ligula; 15) ventral view of setal pat-

Claws of posterior parapods yellowish brown with serrations present on some
claws, especially longer ones.
ETYMOLOGY. The species is named in honor of Professor Fred K. Parrish,
who allowed and encouraged collections in Millrock Branch at his home.
REMARKS. Although coloration can be quite variable within a species, the
immature and adult stages of H. parrishi should be separable in most cases
from the other member of the genus, H. karelena, solely by this character. A
comparison with larvae of H. karelena from Georgia revealed similar serra-


I i

I fl



Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

tions on the posterior parapod claws, similar ventral and dorsal abdominal
setae, and similar measurements as H. parrishi, but the color difference for
the head capsule, posterior parapod claws, and procerci was striking.
In the larval stage, H. parrishi can be separated from H. karelena by
the lack of brown pigmentation on the caudal half of the head capsule, by
the pale yellowish brown procerci, and by the yellowish brown claws of the
posterior parapods.
In the pupal stage, H. parrishi can be separated from H. karelena by
the expanded respiratory atrium at the base of the plastron plate, the
slightly creased, generally bare apices of the anal lobes, and the hooked tips
of the anal lobes. One pupa of H. karelena from Georgia possessed the
rugose area at the base of the thoracic horn, a character present in H.
parrishi, but not previously recorded for H. karelena. Not all of the pupal
specimens of H. parrishi possessed the small aeropyle-like structures at the
apex of the respiratory atrium. Also, some thoracic and abdominal setae of
H. parrishi may prove to be branched as in H. karelena, if viewed at con-
siderably higher magnification.
In the adult stage, H. parrishi can be separated from H. karelena by the
shorter wings, generally shorter leg segments, lower AR, and details of the
genitalia: female-gonopophysis VIII with smooth margin forming pointed
lobe; male-larger tooth of gonostylus and spine field of gonocoxite, ex-
tended more than half the length of the gonocoxite.
Roback's (1979) diagnosis for Hudsonimyia is emended as follows:
Adult. AR about 1.17-1.30; ta4 of legs 1 and 3 up to twice as long as ta5;
gonocoxite with basal row or with a field of short bristles; about 1.28-1.48
times as long as wide; length of gonocoxite/gonostylus 1.47-1.89.
Pupa. Thoracic comb absent, rugose area usually present near base of
thoracic horn; respiratory atrium slightly narrowed or expanded near base
of plastron plate; membrane of thoracic horn with spines or spinules, present
or absent on plastron plate; abdominal segments coloration almost clear to
brown; D, V, and L setae simple or multibranched; anal lobes smooth with
slight creases apically or with several spines and additional spinules
apically; tips of anal lobes strongly hooked or slightly curved.
Larva. Head coloration variable; L/W 1.28-1.64; antenna 0.53-0.61 head
length; claws of posterior parapods simple or with serrations, yellowish
brown to brown in color.
ECOLOGY. Hudsonimyia parrishi is known only from the type locality, Mill-
rock Branch. This 2nd order Piedmont Province stream originates from 2
small spring fed ponds. The watershed is relatively undeveloped, but eroded
materials enter the stream at a road ford about 10 m upstream of the collec-
tion site. The immature stages have been collected only in one stream micro-
habitat: extremely shallow (about 1 cm) water, slowly flowing over granitic
bedrock covered with moss, algae, and detritus.
Water quality parameters measured at the collection site on 7-VII-79
included a dissolved oxygen concentration of 7.8 mg/l, a water temperature
of 21.5 OC, a pH of 6.8, and a conductivity of 165 pmhos/cm @ 25 'C.
Gut contents of several larvae included pennate diatoms, chitinized
arthropod fragments, and detritus.
Other immature chironomids found in the same microhabitat, but not
necessarily at the same time, include Limnophyes Eat., Parametriocnemus

December, 1982

Caldwell & Soponis: Hudsonimyia parrishi

Goetgh., Paracricotopus Thien. et Harn., Chaetocladius Kieff., Conchapelopia
Fittk., and Natarsia Fittk.
The presence of sensilla campaniformis on pupal tergites of H. parrishi
probably relates to a sensory function for positioning on rock surfaces in
flowing water (cf. Roback 1970, p. 164).
Type Material. Holotype: 8 reared from larva, with exuvia, Millrock
Branch at Haralson Mill Road 830 57' 24" N, 300 45' 41" W), Rockdale
County, Georgia, 5-VII-78, leg. B. A. Caldwell. Allotype: 9 reared from
larva, with exuvia, same data. Paratypes (3) : 8 reared from larva, with
exuvia, same data except 28-VI-78; 9 reared from larva, with exuvia, same
data as for holotype; 9 reared from larva, with exuvia, same data as for
holotype except 28-VI-78.
The holotype and allotype are deposited in the Florida State Collection
of Arthropods (Tallahassee). One reared 9 is in the collection of the U. S.
National Museum, Washington, D.C. Other paratypes are in the collection
of the senior author.

Sincere thanks are expressed to Bill Steiner, U. S. Geological Survey,
Doraville, Georgia, for the loan of a pupa and larval specimens of H.
karelena, and to W. W. Wirth for the loan of the type of Pentaneura
inyoensis Subl. Work of the junior author was supported by a research pro-
gram (FLAX 79009) of SEA/CR, USDA.

ROBACK, SELWYN S. 1970. Podonominae from Ecuador, with notes on the
sense organs and pupal respiratory organs (Diptera: Chironomidae).
J. New York Ent. Soc. 78: 148-69.
S1972. The immature stages of Paramerina smithae (Sublette)
(Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae). Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila-
delphia 124: 11-5.
1979. Hudsonimyia karelena, a new genus and species of Tany-
podinae, Pentaneurini. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 131: 1-8.
SAETHER, OLE A. 1969. Some Nearctic Podonominae, Diamesinae, and
Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae). Bull. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada
170: 1-154.
S1980. Glossary of chironomid morphology terminology (Diptera:
Chironomidae). Ent. Scand. Suppl. 14: 1-51.


Florida Entomologist 65(4)



A corrected list of 148 species of spiders from Florida citrus is presented,
based on the literature and collections made in Seminole, Lake and Orange
counties during 1979-81. Twenty-two families are represented. Fifty of the
species and 3 of the families have not been reported previously from Florida

Se present una lista corregida de 148 species de arafias de citricos en
Florida basada sobre la literature ye unas colecciones hechas durante 1979-81
en los Condados de Seminole, Lake, y Orange. Se representan 22 families.
Cinquenta de las species y 3 de las families no se ha registrado previamente
de citricos en Florida.

Citrus groves in Florida are populated by numerous spiders. Previous
studies of spiders in Florida have been more extensive than for most states,
but the fauna is still not completely known. The present investigation would
have been extremely difficult and would have required many more years of
research had it not been for the earlier work of Muma (1973, 1975), who
reported 99 species (91 not counting confused forms) from Florida citrus.
Although data were collected over a 20 year period he felt that his list was
incomplete. We obtained data on the composition of the spider fauna in
citrus groves in North Central Florida as part of a series of studies on
spiders as predators of pest insects. We found 50 species not previously
recorded from Florida citrus. Thus this fauna is now known to contain a
total of 148 species after corrections (including confused forms). For com-
parison, Nakao and Okuma (1958) reported 53 species of spiders from citrus
near Fukuoka, Japan, and Carroll (1980) reported 61 species from Cali-
fornia citrus groves. In the past, the impact of spiders as predators has been
thought to be minimal, since many of the most important pests in citrus are
sessile Homoptera. With the increased importance of weevil pests, such as
Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), Araecerus fasciculatus (DeGeer), Pantomorus
cervinus (Boheman), and Pachnaeus spp., this situation may be changing.


Three collection methods were used: branch shaking, pitfalls, and in-
cidental collecting. Spiders were collected by the shake method usually bi-
monthly from a mature orange grove in Forest City, Seminole Co., FL,
from December 1979-December 1980. Selected branches of a tree were of
sufficient size and spread to overshadow a 2x1.5 m reinforced plastic ground

'Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya'ar, P.O. Haifa, Israel.
-Dept. of Entomology and Nematology, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
3Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, FL 32602 USA.


December, 1982

Mansour et al.: Spiders of Florida Citrus

cloth. Completely random selection of trees and/or branches was impractical
because of the physical structure of the trees.
Once an appropriate branch was located, it was grasped about midway
between the trunk and foliage and shaken 3-5 times. After each of 10
branches (on separate trees) were shaken, spiders found on the cloth were
captured in 7-dram plastic snap cap vials. At the conclusion of the last daily
replication, most recognizable adult spiders were identified, counted, and
released. Less easily identified and immature spiders were preserved for
taxonomic determination. No attempt was made to keep records on the ratio
of adults to immatures.
Pitfall traps were made from quart size plastic jars containing 3 cm of
ethylene glycol. A plastic funnel was inserted in each jar. Five traps were
placed in the Forest City grove and these checked weekly from October 1979
to June 1980. Incidental capture of spiders was also utilized to obtain species
not easily collected by branch shakes.
Supplementary data were collected in an "organic" (never sprayed with
pesticides) orange grove in Yalaha, Lake Co., FL, as well as in groves near
Apopka and Plymouth, FL. Voucher specimens of the spiders collected in
the current study are deposited in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods
(FSCA), Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services, Gainesville, FL. Most identifications were made
by Dr. G. B. Edwards of the FSCA.


An updated summary list of spiders found in Florida citrus is presented
in Table 1. We have changed some names from Muma's (1973, 1975) lists
to reflect recent revisionary work. Additions made in the current study are
noted. Ten of the most numerous spiders were selected for examination of
relative abundance in shake samples over 1 year of sampling in the Forest
City grove (Table 2). There was a large degree of variation. Dictyna florens,
Theridion flavonotatum, Araneus miniatus, Tetragnatha versicolor, and
Hentzia palmarum appeared to be most numerous during the winter;
Gasteracantha cancriformis was most abundant during the winter and early
spring. Aysha velox, Trachelas similis, and Thiodina sylvana seemed to have
peaks of abundance at various times of the year with little apparent pattern,
although A. velox seemed to show a double peak, in winter and early fall.
Leucauge spp. were most abundant in winter and fall.
Tetragnatha versicolor seemed to be more abundant in these samples than
any other spider. However, Aysha velox was the most numerous in fall.
Hentzia palmarum also reached relatively high numbers (84 in Jan. 16
samples) during part of the year. Sample sizes of similar magnitude for the
latter species also have been collected (D. B. Richman) on black mangrove
during much of the year (1975) in coastal swamps near Cedar Key, Levy
Co., FL.
The organic Yalaha grove had a relatively extensive fauna, based on our
few samples, but this fauna seemed to be no more complex than that at
Forest City, where the usual foliar insecticides and fungicides had been
applied. Winn Grove near Plymouth appeared to have a less diverse fauna
as also has been shown for ants (Tryon and Whitcomb, in press). During
one afternoon of observation only a few spiders were seen on the ground


Florida, Entomologist 65 (4)


Muma Muma Present
1973 1975 Study

Filistata hibernalis Hentz X
Dinopis spinosa Marx X
Hyptiotes cavatus (Hentz) X
Uloborus cinereus 0. P.-Cambridge X
U. glomosus (Walckenaer) X X
Dictynidae X
Dictyna altamira Gertsch & Davis X
D. annulipes (Blackwall) X
D. capens Chamberlin X X
D. coweta Chamberlin & Gertsch X
D. florens Ivie & Barrows X X
D. formidolosa Gertsch & Ivie X
D. manitoba Ivie X
D. roscida (Hentz) X
D. spathula Gertsch & Davis X X
D. volucripes Keyserling X
Metaltella simoni (Keyserling) X
Titanoeca brunnea Emerton X
Scytodes fusca Walckenaer X X
Oonopinus floridanus Chamberlin
& Ivie X X
Opopaea brasima Chickering X X
Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin) X
Theridiidae X
Achaearanea porteri (Banks) X
A. tepidariorum (C. L. Koch) X
Anelosimus studiosus (Hentz) X X
Argyrodes americanus (Taczanowski X
A. elevatus Taczanowski X
A. furcatus (0. P.-Cambridge) X
A. globosus Keyserling X
A. nephilae Taczanowski X
Chrysso albomaculata 0. P.-
Cambridge X


December, 1982

Mansour et al.: Spiders of Florida Citrus 517


Muma Muma Present
1973 1975 Study

C. pulcherrima (Mello-Leitdo)
[-clementinae (Petrunkevitch)] X X
Coleosoma acutiventer (Keyserling) X X
C. floridanum Banks [= Theridion
antonii (Keyserling)] X
Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius) X
Paratheridula perniciosa (Keyserling) X
Steatoda erigoniformis (0. P.-
Cambridge) X X X
S. quadrimaculata (0. P.-
Cambridge) X X
Theridion adamsoni Berland X
T. crispulum Simon X
T. flavonotatum Becker X X
T. glaucescens Becker X
Theridula gonygaster (Simon) X
T. opulenta (Walckenaer) X X
Thymoites marxi (Crosby)
[ = Paradisca marxi (Crosby) ] X X
Tidarren sisyphoides (Walckenaer) X
Mysmenidae [= Symphytognathidae]
Mysmenopsis sp. [= Mysmena sp.] X
Eperigone banksi Ivie &
Barrows X X
E. inornata Ivie & Barrows X X
E. maculata (Banks) X X
E. serrata Ivie & Barrows X X
Erigone autumnalis Emerton X X
Florinda coccinea (Hentz) X X
Grammonota maculata Banks X X X
Meioneta spp. (six, possibly
some new) X X
Prolinyphia marginata (C. L. Koch) X
Tennesseellum formicum (Emerton) X
Walckenaera spiralis (Emerton)
[= W. vigilax (Blackwall) X X
Acacesia hamata (Hentz) X X
Acanthepeira stellata (Marx) X X
Araneus cingulatus (Walckenaer) X
A. miniatus (Walckenaer) X X
A. pegnia (Walckenaer) X
Argiope argentata (Fabricius) X
A. aurantia Lucas X
A. trifasciata (Forskil) X
Cyclosa caroli (Hentz) X
C. sp. prob. turbinata (Walckenaer)
[=C. nr conica (Walckenaer)] X

518 Florida Entomologist 65 (4) December, 1982


Muma Muma Present
1973 1975 Study

Eriophora ravilla (C. L. Koch) X
Eustala anastera (Walckenaer) X X X
Gasteracantha cancriformis
(Linnaeus) X X
Glenognatha foxi (McCook) X
Leucauge argyra (Walckenaer) X
L. venusta (Walckenaer) X
Mastophora archeri Gertsch X
Micrathena sagittata (Walckenaer) X
Neoscona spp. prob. arabesca
(Walckenaer), domiciliorum
(Hentz) and hentzi (Keyserling) X X
Nephila clavipes (Linnaeus) X
Nuctenea cornuta (Clerck) X
Tetragnatha guatemalensis
0. P.-Cambridge [= T. seneca
Seeley] X
T. versicolor Walckenaer [= T.
limnocharis Seeley] X X
Verrucosa arenata (Walckenaer) X
Mimetus interfector Hentz X
M. nelsoni Archer X
M. notius Chamberlin [=M. sp.
undetermined] X
Pisaurina sp. X
Arctosa incerta Bryant
[=Schizocosa incerta Bryant] X X
Arctosa sp. X
Lycosa lenta Hentz X X
L. helluo Walckenaer X
Pardosa georgiae Chamberlin &
Ivie [=P. pauxilla Montgomery] X X X
P. longispinata Tullgren X X
P. milvina (Hentz) X
Pirata appalacheus Gertsch X X X
P. suwaneus Gertsch X X
Schizocosa segregata Gertsch
& Wallace X
Trabea aurantiaca (Emerton) X
Oxyopes salticus Hentz X X
Peucetia viridans (Hentz) X

Callilepis imbecilla (Keyserling) X X

Mansour et al.: Spiders of Florida Citrus 519


Muma Muma Present
1973 1975 Study

Camellina elegans (Bryant) X
Cesonia bilineata (Hentz) X
Drassyllus adocetus Chamberlin X
D. aprilinus (Banks) X
D. prob. eremitus Chamberlin
[= Drassyllus n. sp. (nr
gymnosaphes Chamberlin)] X X
D. seminolus Chamberlin
& Gertsch X X
Micaria laticeps Emerton X
Sergiolus kastoni Platnick &
Shadab [=S. decipiens
Chamberlin] X X X
Zelotes florodes Platnick &
Shadab [=Z. n. sp,] X X
Castianeira crocata (Hentz)
[=C. n. sp. longipalpus group] X X
C. floridana (Banks) X X
C. gertschi Kaston X
Chiracanthium inclusum (Hentz) X
Clubiona abboti L. Koch X
Trachelas deceptus (Banks)
[= Meriola decepta floridana
Chamberlin] X X
T. similis F. O. P.-Cambridge
[= T. laticeps Bryant] X X
T. volutus Gertsch X
Anyphaena sp. X
Aysha gracilis (Hentz) X X
A. velox (Becker) X
Teudis mordax (0. P.-Cambridge) X
Heteropoda venatoria (Linnaeus) X X
Misumenops sp. X
Tmarus sp. X
Xysticus ferox (Hentz) X
X. fraternus Banks X

Admestina tibialis (C. L. Koch) X
Corythalia canosa (Walckenaer) X
Habrocestum bufoides Chamberlin
& Ivie X
Hentzia palmarum (Hentz) [=H.
ambigua (Walckenaer)] X X

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)


Muma Muma Present
1973 1975 Study

Lyssomanes viridis (Walckenaer) X
Metacyrba sp. X
Metaphidippus galathea (Walckenaer) X
Pellenes cf. viridipes (Hentz)
[=P. peregrinus Peckham] X
Phidippus otiosus (Hentz) X
P. regius C. L. Koch X X
P. workmani Peckham & Peckham X
Plexippus paykulli (Audouin) X X
Synemosyna formica (Hentz) X
Thiodina sylvana (Hentz) [= T.
iniquies (Walckenaer)] X X
Tutelina sp. [=Icius sp.] X
Zygoballus rufipes Peckham
& Peckham [=Z. bettini
Peckham] X X

and one orb web was found in a tree. This is apparently a result of the
destruction of many arthropod species through the use of chlorinated hydro-
carbons. Only earwigs seem to be more numerous in Winn Grove than at
other groves.
The existence of the salticid spiders Thiodina sylvana, Corythalia canosa
(Walckenaer) and Lyssomanes viridis (Walckenaer) in citrus indicates at
least some mesic fauna incursion, whereas the salticids Hentzia palmarum,
Phidippus regius C. L. Koch, Phidippus workmani Peckham & Peckham and
others indicates both transitional and xeric faunas. This probably is a result
of the nature of citrus groves, with relatively uniform spacing of canopy,
broken by bare or weed-filled areas between.
Weevils, especially Diaprepes abbreviatus, have become increasingly im-
portant as citrus pests in Florida (Woodruff 1964, 1968; Selhime and
Beavers 1972) and thus their natural enemies have also become important.
While spiders do not appear to be as effective predators of weevils as ants,
they do at times attack various stages of weevils. Two salticids have been
observed to feed on the weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus. Phidippus regius was
collected feeding on adult weevils (T. D. Gowan, and W. H. Whitcomb, per-
sonal observation) and Corythalia canosa has been observed several times
feeding on neonate larvae (Whitcomb, et al. 1982; D. B. Richman personal
observation). Both Aysha velox and Trachelas deceptus (Banks) have been
observed to eat the eggs of Diaprepes (D. B. Richman, personal observa-
tion). Argiope trifasciata (Forskiil) will also take adult weevils (W. H.
Whitcomb, personal observation).
In summary, spiders are numerous and possibly important components
of the predator complex in Florida citrus groves. While to date little definite
data have been obtained indicating a major impact of spiders except in very
specialized situations, they do form a major part of the predatory fauna.
The spider fauna of citrus groves is a mixture of forest, ecotonal, and old-


December, 1982

Mansour et al.: Spiders of Florida Citrus

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Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

field or xeric faunas; this fauna fluctuates greatly in numbers, as in many
other ecosystems.

We would especially like to thank Dr. Martin H. Muma for his sugges-
tions and Anne Trambarulo and David Gowan for their help in collecting
specimens during this study. Dr. Norman I. Platnick identified some of the
This study was partially supported by the United States-Israel BARD
Fund as Research Project No. 1-2-79.
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 3572.

CARROLL, D. P. 1980. Biological notes on the spiders of some citrus groves
in central and southern California. Ent. News 91(5): 147-54.
MUMA, M. H. 1973. Comparison of ground surface spiders in four central
Florida ecosystems. Florida Ent. 56(3) : 173-96.
-- 1975. Spiders in Florida citrus groves. Florida Ent. 58(2) : 83-90.
NAKAO, S., AND C. OKUMA. 1958. On the spiders collected in a citrus orchard
near Fukuoka. Japan. J. Appl. Ent. Zool. 2(3) : 192-7.
SELHIME, A. G., AND J. B. BEAVERS. 1972. A new weevil pest of citrus in
Florida. Citrus Ind. 53: 4-5.
TRYON, E. H., JR., AND W. H. WHITCOMB. 1982. The striped earwig, a
dominant nocturnal soil surface predator in several Florida citrus
groves. Crop Protection (in press).
WHITCOMB, W. H., T. D. GOWAN, AND W. F. BUREN. 1982. Predators of
Diaprepes abbreviatus larvae. Florida Ent. 65(1) : 150-8.
WOODRUFF, R. E. 1964. A Puerto Rican weevil new to the United States
(Coleptera: Curculionidae). Florida Dept. Agr., Div. Plant Ind., Ent.
Circ. 30: 1-2.
WOODRUFF, R. W. 1968. The present status of a West Indian weevil
(Diaprepes abbreviata (L.)) in Florida (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).
Florida Dept. Agr., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. 77: 1-4.


December, 1982

Flowers & Yamamoto: Feeding by Manduca sexta 523


Department of Entomology, Florida A & M University,
Tallahassee, FL 32307 USA
Department of Entomology,
North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC 27650, USA,

Feeding responses of Manduca sexta larvae reared on artificial diet, a
host plant (jimsonweed) and a non-host plant cowpeaa) were tested with
leaves of 4 selected non-host plants and compared. Larvae reared on diet
and the host plant fed equally on collard, dandelion and cowpea while the
diet-reared larvae found mullein more acceptable than did the jimsonweed-
reared larvae. Both groups of larvae found mullein and collard significantly
more acceptable than cowpea or dandelion. Larvae reared on the non-host
plant readily ate all 4 test plants.
Acceptance of non-host plants increased the longer the larvae fed on
cowpea. Larvae were fed initially on cowpea for varying lengths of time and
then transferred to either diet or jimsonweed. Acceptance of the test plants
was not as great and took place more slowly in larvae transferred to jimson-
weed. The possible chemosensory basis of this feeding behavior is discussed.

Las reacciones alimentarias de las larvas de Manduca sexta criadas con
dieta artificial, una plant hospedera (hierba hedionda o Datura stramon-
ium), y una plant que no es hospedera (caupi o Vigna sinensis) se ex-
aminaron con los de cuatro plants seleccionadas que no son hospederas, y
se compararon. Las larvas criadas con dieta y con la plant hospedera se
alimentaron igualmente de la berza comdn (Brassica oleracea), amarg6n
(Taraxacum officinale), y caupi, mientras que las larvas criadas con dieta
aceptaron mejor el gordolobo (Verbascum thapsus) que las larvas criadas
con hierba hedionda. Ambos grupos de larvas aceptaron el gordolobo y la
berza comin much mejor que el caupi o que el amarg6n. Las larvas criadas
con plants que no son hospederas se alimentaron fAcilmente de las cuatro
plants experimentales.
Mientras mfs tiempo las larvas se alimentaron del caupi, mas aument6
la aceptaci6n de plants que no son hospederas. Inicialmente, las larvas
fueron alimentadas con caupi por distintas duraciones de tiempo, y entonces
se transferieron a dieta o hierba hedionda. La aceptaci6n de las plants
experimentales fu6 menor y mis lenta con larvas transferidas a la hierba
hedionda. Se discute la posibilidad de una base quimiosensorial que explique
este comportamiento.

The influence of feeding experience on host plant selection has been
studied in a number of oligophagous insects. Larvae of oligophagous

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

Lepidoptera species can distinguish between species of host plants and often
exhibit a clear preference for the plant on which they have had previous
feeding experience (Hanson 1976, Hovanitz and Chang 1965, Stadler and
Hanson 1976). The effects on feeding behavior of an "abnormal" food-
artificial diet-has also been studied (Stadler and Hanson 1978). Oli-
gophagous insects can sometimes be reared on plants outside their normal
range of hostplants when their chemoreceptors are destroyed (Waldbauer
1964). In this paper we examine the feeding behavior of an oligophagous
insect reared without surgical alteration on a non-host plant.
Although the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Johanssen), is normally
host specific on solanaceous plants, larvae will feed on other plants under
stress of starvation (Yamamoto and Fraenkel 1960, Dethier 1980). They
will also feed on certain non-host plants such as mullein or dandelion when
the maxillae and the chemoreceptors attached to them are extirpated
(Waldbauer and Fraenkel 1961, Waldbauer 1962, Schoonhoven and Dethier
1966). However, it is not necessary to starve or maxillectomize larvae in
order to get them to feed on non-host plants. For example, when reared on
diet the larvae will feed on non-host plants like cabbage and plantain as
though they had lost their specificity (Schoonhoven 1967, 1969; Dethier,
1980). This apparent lack of specificity in diet-reared larvae could be ex-
plained as an inductive change occurring in the 1st instar (Yamamoto 1974).
The evidence indicates that newly hatched larvae are polyphagous and will
feed on many kinds of non-host plants. If they are reared on tomato, a host,
in the 1st instar, they are induced into the oligophagous state in subsequent
instars and they feed specifically on solanaceous plants. If they are reared on
diet, on the other hand, they retain to some extent the polyphagous state of
the 1st instar. Yamamoto (1974) also observed that larvae fed and developed
on cowpea, a non-host plant. The purpose of this study was to compare the
feeding specificity of 5th instars with feeding experience on jimsonweed (a
host plant) to 5th instars with feeding experience on cowpea and artificial
diet. These comparisons can contribute to a better understanding of how
early experience influences the feeding behavior of phytophagous insects.

The larvae used in the experiments were obtained from an inbred culture
maintained in the laboratory at North Carolina State University for over 6
years. The rearing procedure has been described previously (Yamamoto
1969). The host plant used for rearing was jimsonweed (Datura stramonium
L., Solanaceae).
Test plants used in the experiments were collard (Brassica oleracea L.,
Cruciferae), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale L., Asteraceae), mullein
(Verbascum thapsus L., Scrophulariaceae), and cowpea (Vigna sinsensis
L., Fabaceae). Other than dandelions, the plants were grown from seeds.
Dandelions were collected as mature plants in the field and transplanted
into pots. All plants were greenhouse grown.
The acceptability of these test plants to newly hatched larvae was de-
termined by confining the larvae in 9 cm petri dishes with enough leaves to
cover the bottom of each dish. A moistened filter paper lining the bottom
of the dish kept the leaves succulent. Ten larvae were introduced into each
dish and each test was replicated 10 times. After 24 hours, the number of


December, 1982

Flowers & Yamamoto: Feeding by Manduca sexta

larvae feeding on the leaves was counted. Feeding was positive when crops
and guts of the translucent larvae showed green leaf matter. Acceptability
of dandelion was determined on 3 different occasions since the plants were
brought in from the wild.
Larvae in the 5th instar were used to determine the effect of dietary
experience on the acceptability of 4 non-host plants. The larvae were con-
fined individually in petri dishes just prior to their molting to the 5th instar.
After molting had occurred, 4 plant discs, one each of mullein, collard, cow-
pea, and dandelion, which were cut from fresh leaves with an 8 mm cork
borer, were placed in each dish. The dishes were lined with moistened filter
paper. After 24 hours, the area consumed from each disc was visually esti-
mated and recorded on a relative scale of 0 to 1 by increments of 0.25. A
disc completely consumed was rated 1 and a disc untouched was rated O.
Although more precise photometric methods for determining leaf areas con-
sumed are available (Kogan and Goeden 1969), estimates were made be-
cause in most instances the larvae either ate a leaf disc completely or not at
all. A feeding index was calculated for each plant species offered to each
experimental group of larvae by dividing the total rating of the plant by the
number of larvae in the group. Thus the feeding index represents the mean
amount eaten by larvae in an experimental group. For graphic purposes, the
feeding index was multiplied by 100. Larvae reared to 5th instar on cowpea,
jimsonweed and artificial diet were tested in this way.
After the changes in acceptance of the test plants by cowpea-reared
larvae were observed, 3 additional experiments were conducted. In the first,
batches of larvae were reared on cowpea for 1 and 2 instars and then
switched to diet on which they fed until testing in the fifth instar. In the
second experiment, batches of larvae were reared on cowpea for 1, 2 and 3
instars and then switched to jimsonweed and reared until the fifth instar.
The object of these experiments was to see what effect increasing length of
exposure to cowpea had on feeding behavior.
The third experiment consisted of transferring cowpea-reared larvae to
dandelion after each molt and noting the percent that fed. This test was to
measure the acceptability of dandelion to larvae exposed only to cowpea.
The data collected for the feeding tests were analyzed statistically by
means of a split-plot design. The individual larva was considered as a whole
plot and the 4 test plants were considered as sub-plots. Analysis of variance
was calculated for each group of larvae. From these, 95% confidence limits
were calculated for the feeding indices shown in Fig. 1-3.


Feeding responses of 1st instars. The results of the acceptance tests of
1st instar larvae to the 4 non-host plants are given in Table 1. Collard and
mullein were accepted by more than 80% of the larvae and cowpea was ac-
cepted by 57%. Dandelion was accepted by 5% of the larvae in one deter-
mination and by none in 2 other determinations. The acceptance of 3 out of
the 4 non-host plants by more than half the larvae show the polyphagous
nature of the newly hatched larvae. Rejection of dandelion may be due to a
high concentration of deterrents in this plant. These responses of the 1st
instars form the basis for evaluating behavioral changes that are expressed
by the 5th instars.


Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

December, 1982

Reared on Diet
No. of Larvae 50


Fig. 1. Feeding indices of 5th instars of the tobacco hornworm reared on
diet, jimsonweed and cowpea. Plants tested: P, cowpea; D, dandelion; C,
collard; M, mullein. Bottom line gives number of larvae tested in each ex-
periment. Vertical lines at top of bars represent 95% confidence intervals.



a 40-


Reared on Diet I 4

Cowpea I Cowpea I 2

Diet 2 -4

No. of Larvae

Diet 3 4


Fig. 2. Feeding indices of 5th instars of the tobacco hornworm reared
initially on cowpea and then on diet. Numbers following cowpeaa" and "diet"
represent larval instars feeding on each. Other symbols as in Fig. 1.


Flowers & Yamamoto: Feeding by Manduca sexta

Reared on Jimsonweed 1-4 Cowpea I Cowpeo 1-2 Cowpea 1-3
Jimsonweed 2-4 Jimsonweed 3-4 Jimsonweed 4
No. of Larvae 25 21 32 32
Fig. 3. Feeding indices of 5th instars of the tobacco hornworm reared
initially on cowpea and then on jimsonweed. Numbers following cowpeaa"
and "jimsonweed" represent larval instars feeding on each. Other symbols
as in Fig. 1.


No. of Percent Feeding
Plant Larvae on Plant

Cowpea 100 57..0
Dandelion (greenhouse) 100 5.0
Dandelion (greenhouse) 90 0
Dandelion (wild) 90 0
Collard 100 88.0
Mullein 100 83.0

Feeding responses of 5th instars. The feeding indices (Fig. 1) of jimson-
weed-reared larvae and diet-reared larvae were significantly different only
with respect to mullein. Jimsonweed-reared larvae consumed less mullein
than did diet-reared larvae. The indices for cowpea and dandelion for both
groups of larvae, however, were low in comparison to the indices for mullein
and collard. It was expected that, because of induced oligophagy, jimson-
weed-reared larvae would feed less on mullein and collard than would diet-
reared larvae but this expectation was not completely borne out. There was
no difference in the consumption of collard. The feeding indices for dandelion
and cowpea of cowpea-reared larvae were significantly different from those
of diet-reared and jimsonweed-reared larvae. It was expected that cowpea-
reared larvae would consume mullein, collard, and cowpea but the high con-
sumption of dandelion was not expected.
The feeding indices of larvae reared on cowpea before being transferred


Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

to diet are shown in Fig. 2. Larvae reared exclusively on diet served as con-
trols. Larvae which had fed on cowpea for 1 or 2 instars consumed signifi-
cantly more mullein, cowpea and dandelion than did the controls. The feeding
indices of larvae transferred to jimsonweed after feeding for 1, 2 or 3
instars in cowpea are shown in Fig. 3. Control larvae were fed exclusively
on jimsonweed. There was not significant difference in consumption of all 4
test plants between control larvae and larvae reared on cowpea for the 1st
instar and on jimsonweed for the 2nd to 4th instars. However, significantly
more mullein, dandelion, and cowpea were consumed by larvae reared on
cowpea for 2 or 3 instars before being transferred to jimsonweed.
Feeding responses of cowpea-reared larvae when transferred to dande-
lion. The acceptance of dandelion by nearly half the larvae occurred in the
4th instar and by more than half in the 5th instar (Table 2). Third instars
scarcely accepted dandelion.

Oligophagy or hostplant specificity in tobacco hornworm larvae is not
strictly inherited and results in part from their feeding on a hostplant
(Yamamoto 1974). The change to oligophagy occurs in the 1st instar and
the measurable effect of the change is the preference of older larvae for the
species of host plant on which they have been feeding (Hanson 1976, Stadler
and Hanson 1976). Prior to the change, the need for stimulating compounds
is not essential for feeding and newly hatched larvae will feed on many kinds
of non-host plants. Table 1 records their feeding on mullein, cowpea and
collard; but not on dandelion, which may possess deterrents in high con-
centrations. When larvae are reared on diet, they are not induced into
oligophagy on Solanaceae and therefore their acceptance of non-host plants
is expected to be similar to the 1st instars. (However, Stadler and Hanson
(1978) have shown that the hornworm diet that we used is not 'neutral' and
contains chemicals which induce subsequent feeding preferences). On the
other hand, larvae reared on host plants should reject or at most feed feebly
on non-host plants like mullein, collard, or cowpea because these plants pre-
sumably Jack specific token stimulants. The expected difference between diet-
reared and jimsonweed-reared larvae was not borne out completely (Fig. 1).
Both groups ate similar amounts of collard. Jimsonweed-reared larvae ate
less mullein, as expected, than did diet-reared larvae, but they also ate more
dandelion and cowpea. The degree of induced oligophagy, that is to say the
degree to which non-host plants are rejected by 5th instars, depends on the
species of host plant on which they are reared (Yamamoto, 1974). For

No. of Percent Feeding
Instar Larvae on Dandelion

1st (control) 50 0
2nd 15 0
3rd 25 4.0
4th 29 47.5
5th 16 62.4


December, 1982

Flowers & Yamamoto: Feeding by Manduca sexta 529

example, tomato and potato are good inducing plants whereas tobacco and
jimsonweed are weak inducing plants. If larvae had been reared on tomato
instead of jimsonweed their rejection of mullein and collard would probably
have been more obvious than was the case with jimsonweed-reared larvae.
Stadler and Hanson (1976) found that tomato contains water soluble feed-
ing deterrents that are lacking in Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsi-
cum), another host plant of the hornworm. In tomato, at least, effective
induction appears to be related to the presence of deterrents as well as
stimulants. It is of interest that both jimsonweed-reared and diet-reared
larvae found cowpea highly unpalatable. Hence, not only jimsonweed-reared
but diet-reared larvae were subjected to modification of their feeding be-
The test plants, particularly dandelion, became more acceptable to horn-
worm larvae that had fed for at least one instar on cowpea. In fact, 2 in-
stars of feeding on cowpea were necessary to overcome the effects of later
feeding on jimsonweed (Fig. 2 and 3). The observed changes could be due
to the desensitization of deterrent chemoreceptors which are exposed to
presumed deterrents in cowpea. The desensitized chemoreceptors would thus
be insensitive to deterrents in dandelion, assuming that deterrents in both
plants affect the same chemoreceptors. Desensitization of chemoreceptors in
caterpillars has been shown to occur when larvae are reared on diets con-
taining feeding stimulants or deterrents (Ishikawa et. al. 1969, Schoonhoven
1969). For example, when a tobacco hornworm larva was fed diet containing
inositol, a feeding stimulant, the inositol chemoreceptor fired at a lower rate
than did the inositol chemoreceptor of a control larva. When salicin, a
glycoside with deterrent activity, was fed to a larva, less firing was recorded
in the deterrent chemoreceptor when compared to the firing in the deterrent
chemoreceptor of a control larva (Schoonhoven 1969). It was found too,
that larvae reared on tomato and potato were less sensitive to salicin than
larvae reared on diet (Schoonhoven 1969), indicating that host plants may
contain chemicals which desensitize the deterrent chemoreceptors. This may
explain the results shown in Fig. 1. where jimsonweed-reared larvae ate
more of dandelion and cowpea than did diet-reared larvae, although for
practical purposes, these plants are rated unacceptable to both types of
larvae. They are unacceptable to diet-reared larvae because the deterrents
are high but their unacceptability to jimsonweed-reared larvae does not ap-
pear to be the same. We have observed that dandelion, for example, is readily
eaten by jimsonweed-reared larvae if it is soaked in an extract of tomato
but it is still rejected by diet-reared larvae.
High acceptance of dandelion by larvae fed on cowpea in Fig. 2 and 3
cannot be entirely due to the effects of cowpea alone. Table 2 shows that
cowpea-reared larvae do not accept dandelion to any great extent until after
the third instar. Yet larvae reared for only 2 instars on cowpea then fed on
diet of jimsonweed show greater acceptance of dandelion than Table 2 would
indicate. Again, the desensitizing of deterrent receptors by constituents not
only of cowpea but also of diet and jimsonweed could be the explanation.
This study indicates that the naive (uninduced) 1st instar tobacco horn-
worm has the potential for either oligophagy or polyphagy. If it feeds on a
solanaceous plant, it becomes oligophagous because of inductive processes
which lead to its requirement for stimulants and its habituation to deter-

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

rants. If it feeds on a non-solanaceous plant on which it can develop it can
extend its range of food plants because it seems even less sensitive to
deterrents. In nature, it appears that adults oviposit primarily on Solanaceae
and thus hatching larvae become induced to feed on this family of plants. It
would be interesting to investigate whether the acceptance of non-host plants
demonstrated by our laboratory animals occurs or has any practical survival
value in wild populations.

We would like to thank Dr. Frank Slansky, Jr. and Mr. Michael D.
Hubbard for their helpful suggestions. This study was supported in part by
a research grant from the National Science Foundation and by a research
program (FLAX 79009) of CSRS, USDA.

DETHIER, V. G. 1980. Evolution of receptor sensitivity to secondary plant
substances with special reference to deterrents. Ann. Nat. 115: 45-66.
HANSON, F. E. 1976. Comparative studies on induction of food choice pref-
erence in lepidopterous larvae. Symp. Biol. Hungary 16: 71-7.
HOVANITZ, W., AND V. C. S. CHANG. 1965. The alteration of host plant
specificity in larvae of Pieris rapae by induction. J. Res. Lepidoptera.
4: 13-21.
ISHIKAWA, S., T. HIRAO, AND N. ARAI. 1969. Chemosensory basis of host-
plant selection. Ent. Exp. Appl. 12: 544-54.
KOGAN, M., AND R. D. GOEDEN. 1969. A photometric technique for quantita-
tive evaluation of feeding preferences of phytophagous insects. Ann.
Ent. Soc. America 62: 319-22.
SCHOONHOVEN, L. M. 1967. Loss of host plant specificity by Manduca sexta
after rearing on an artificial diet. Ent. Exp. Appl. 10: 270-2.
1969. Sensitivity changes in some insect chemoreceptors and their
effects on food selection behaviour. Proc. Kon. Neerl. Akad. Wetensch.
Ser. C. 72: 491-98.
-- AND V. G. DETHIER. 1966. Sensory aspects of hostplant discrimina-
tion by lepidopterous larvae. Arch. Neerl. Zool. 16: 497-530.
STADLER, E., AND F. E. HANSON. 1976. Influence of induction of host pref-
erence on chemoreception of Manduca sexta: behavioral and electro-
physiological studies. Symp. Biol. Hungary 16: 267-73.
AND --- 1978. Food discrimination and induction of preference
for artificial diets in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Physiol.
Ent. 3: 121-33.
WALDBAUER, G. P. 1962. The growth and reproduction of maxillectomized
tobacco hornworms feeding on normally rejected non-solanaceous
plants. Ent. Exp. Appl. 5: 147-58.
AND G. FRAENKEL. 1961. Feeding on normally rejected plants by
maxillectomized larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Protoparce sexta
Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. America 54: 477-85.
YAMAMOTO, R. T. 1969. Mass rearing of the tobacco hornworm. II. Larval
rearing and pupation. J. Econ. Ent. 62: 1427-31.
1974. Induction of hostplant specificity in the tobacco hornworm,
Manduca sexta. J. Insect Physiol. 20: 641-50.
YAMAMOTO, R. T., AND G. FRAENKEL. 1960. The specificity of the tobacco
hornworm, Protoparce sexta (Johan.) to solanaceous plants. Ann.
Ent. Soc. America 53: 503-7.

December, 1982

Ngo & Beck: Scapteriscus Trap Evaluation


Department of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611 USA

Between 9 April and 22 June 1980, 9347 Scapteriscus acletus Rehn and
Hebard flying to 3 sound traps were captured, marked and released in 3
Bahiagrass pastures at Gainesville, Florida. Of these, 7% were recaptured
at least once. Most recaptures (67%) were at the trapping site where last
released, 25% were recaptured at sites 250 or 420 m away (i.e. in an ad-
jacent pasture) and 8% were recaptured 650 m away (i.e. in a pasture at
the opposite end). Approximately 75% of the recaptures occurred within 5
days of release. Maximum elapsed time between release and recapture was
58 days. Three individuals were captured 4 times, and one individual re-
turned to the same sound trap 3 consecutive nights. The probability of re-
capture was not significantly different for individuals released during the
early, middle and late portions of the study. Males were less likely to be re-
captured than females (2% versus 8%); however, recaptured males were
more likely to be recaptured yet again than were recaptured females (16%
versus 8%). Recaptured individuals never constituted more than 16% of
the weekly catch, suggesting that killing all captured crickets would have
had little effect on subsequent captures-i.e. that mole cricket population-
as judged by sound trapping, are not substantially reduced by sound trap-
ping. A significant peak in recaptures occurred ca. 10 days after release,
corresponding to the cycle of female oviposition.

Desde el 9 de abril hasta el 22 de junio de 1980, 9,347 Scapteriscus acletus
Rehn y Hebard volaron a tr6s trampas de sonido y fueron capturados,
marcados, y soltados en tr6s potreros de past bahia, Paspalum notatum
Flugges en Gainesville, Florida. De estos, 7% fueron recapturados por lo
menos una vez mis. La mayoria de los insects recapturados (67%) se re-
capturaron en el mismo sitio donde se soltaron, 25% a 250 y 420 metros de
distancia (en un past adyacente), y 8% a 650 metros de distancia (en un
past en direcci6n opuesta). Aproximadamente 75% de las recapturas
ocurrieron en los primeros 5 dias despu6s de la liberaci6n. El tiempo maximo
entire liberaci6n y recapture fu6 de 58 dias. Tr6s insects fueron recap-
turados cuatro veces, y un insecto fu6 recapturado en la misma trampa de
sonido 3 noches seguidas. La probabilidad de ser recapturados no cambi6
significativamente durante la primera, media, y Oltima parte del studio.
Los machos tuvieron menos probabilidad que las hembras de estar recap-
turados (2% comparado con 8%); sin embargo, los machos que fueron ya
recapturados fueron recapturados de nuevo mis frecuentemente que las
hembras recapturadas (16% comparado con 8%). Los individuos recap-
turados nunca constituyeron mas de 16% de la capture semanal, sugeriendo
que la exterminaci6n de todos los grills capturados hubiera tenido poco
efecto sobre las recapturas subsecuentes-es decir, las poblaciones de cor-
tones, juzgando por las captures por sonido, no se reduce substancialmente

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

December, 1982

por las trampas de sonido. El ndmero de captures fu6 significativamente
extremado cerca del d6cimo dia despu6s de haber soltado los insects, cor-
respondiente al ciclo de desove de la hembra.

Ulagaraj (1975) studied mole cricket dispersal flights and Forrest (1980,
1981) their phonotactic behavior, but little work has been done on mole
cricket dispersal. This research was done simultaneously with that of
Walker et al. (1982) to ascertain how often and at what intervals acletus
males and females fly and to what extent these flights are local or long
range (>250 m). These aspects of mole cricket flight have important con-
sequences relative to population dynamics and to sound trapping as a control
technique or sampling device.

Three unlighted and non-irrigated rectangular fields of Bahiagrass pas-
ture at the University of Florida's Sandhill Farm, Gainesville were used for
the mole cricket mark-release study (Fig. 1). The mole crickets were at-
tracted by using electronic devices simulating the male's call (Walker 1982),
but louder (ca. 107-113 db at 15 cm). One trap was located in each field (Fig.
1). The mole crickets attracted by the sound were caught in 1.5 m diam.
wading pools half filled with water (Fig. 2). Battery operated timers turned
the devices on at sunset and off 2 hours later, after flights had ceased (For-
rest 1981). The crickets caught were sexed and counted each night and im-



* *e



Fig. 1-3. Methods. Fig. 1. Map of bahiagrass pastures (I, II, III) at
Sandhill Farm, University of Florida, Gainesville, showing locations and
distances of traps. Fig. 2. Sound trap consisting of (a) sound synthesizer
in protective bag, (b) yoke and supporting posts, (c) wading pool partially
filled with water and covered with coarse net. Fig. 3. Pronotum showing 25
positions, each corresponding to a date. Different colors were used for dif-
ferent pastures and different 25-day periods.


Ngo & Beck: Scapteriscus Trap Evaluation

mediately released at the same site, after being marked as follows: Tech-pen
ink applied with a toothpick was used to dot the mole cricket's pronotum
(Fig. 3: 5 columns and 5 rows). Each position corresponded to a date of
capture. Different colors were used in different fields. After 25 days, the
colors used were changed to start a new cycle of 25 days. The experiment
lasted 75 days starting 9 April and ending 22 June 1980. By reading the
marks (dots) in different colors and positions, the captured crickets were
identified as to date(s) and site(s) they had previously been captured and

(1) Implications for use of sound traps in population control. Overall,
only 7% of the 9347 mole crickets marked and released were recaptured at
least once during the course of the experiment (Table 1). If the capture
from each night had been destroyed rather than marked and released,
nightly catches of individuals would have changed little. We concluded that
3 sound traps had little impact on the total population. Control might be
achieved by using large numbers of traps, similar to the approach discussed
by Hartstack et al. (1971) for light traps; however, large numbers of traps
would be expensive to purchase and operate. Furthermore, sound traps in-
crease the local population by attracting individuals that escape capture
(Matheny et al. 1982).
We further classified the data by sex and period of release (Tables 1 and
2). The recapture ratio for females did not change significantly in subse-
quent recaptures, but males were more likely to be recaptured again after
being recaptured once. Overall, females were more likely to be recaptured
than males (8% recapture vs 2%). The probability of recapture changed


Females Males Total ( + 9)

A/Captured only once 6838 1862 8700
B/Recaptured only once 553 38 591
Recapture ratio (B/A) 0.08bd 0.02"' 0.07"
C/Recaptured only twice 47 6 53
Recapture ratio (C/B) 0.08bd 0.16cd 0.09"
D/Recaptured thrice 2 1 3
Recapture ratio (D/C) 0.04bd 0.17"' 0.06a

"Ho = Probability of recapturing males and females combined remains
the same regardless of previous recaptures. X2 = 4.23, P = 0.275
"Ho = Probability of recapturing a female remains the same regardless
of previous recaptures. X2 = 1.06, P = 0.6
'H, = Probability of recapturing a male remains the same regardless of
previous recaptures. X2 = 37.03, P<0.005
dHo = Probability of recapturing males and females is the same (com-
pared over all recaptures). XV = 81.53, P<0.005


Florida Entomologist 65 (4)


Females Males Total

9-30 April

Released' 2387 465 2852
Recapturesh 248 10 258
Ratio 0.104 0.022 0.090"
1-20 May

Released 4206 1328 5534
Recaptures 270 34 304
Ratio 0.055 0.025 0.054'
21 May-22 June

Released 847 114 961
Recaptures 84 1 85
Ratio 0.099 0.099 0.088

"All crickets released during the specified time period.
bRecaptures include all subsequent captures (no restriction as to date or
Ho0 = Probability of recapture is not the same for all seasons. X2 = 45;
df = 5; P<0.01.

300 r



y = 1.65x + 131


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Time (days)
Fig. 4. Average distance traveled by marked mole crickets between re-
lease and recapture as a function of time between release and recapture.
Ho: Slope = 0. Not rejected (P>0.05).

December, 1982

Ngo & Beck: Scapteriscus Trap Evaluation


700 -


S 500 -* daily total capture
S- moving average
R rain a 5 mm
CL C minimum temperature a 10*C
0 400 -

0- oo

300 *


100 \
I e
100 c .

]. 'C

9 15 1 15 1 15 22
Apr Apr May May June June June
Date (1980)
Fig. 5. Total daily captures, s(t), and double 3-day average, m(t), calcu-
lated as follows:
m(t) = s(t-2) + 2s(t-1) + 3 st + 2s(t+l) + s(t+2)
slightly during the season. Minor changes in recapture ratio in various sub-
populations do not change our conclusion regarding control.
(2) Dispersal by flight and other population behavior. Because the traps
were located in 3 places, we were able to obtain measurements on distance
traveled. We calculated average distances traveled between point of release
and point of recapture for all mole crickets recaptured the same number of
days after release. The calculations were repeated over intervals from 1-day
to 15-day recapture times. Mean distance traveled between release and re-
capture does not increase significantly with time (Fig. 4). This is not
characteristic of a mobile population. Pielou (1977, p. 166-80) described a
random walk model in which the variance of distance between individual and
point of release increased linearly with time. Our results indicate that re-
captured individuals had remained in the area (possibly during maturing of
eggs and construction of egg cells). Of course we know nothing about those
individuals that were not recaptured-whether they flew again but stayed
in the area, or whether they permanently left the experimental area.


536 Florida Entomologist 65 (4) December, 1982

A double three-day moving average was used to smooth the graph of
total captures each night (Fig. 5). The moving average eliminates dis-
turbances which occur on a time scale of 0 to 3 or 4 days. Cycles in trap
counts lasting ca. 9 days are evident. Neither rain nor cold weather account
for the cycles (Fig. 5). Other trends are apparent in the sex ratio of cap-
tured crickets (Fig. 6). A sharp drop in the portion of male captures oc-
curred around 20 May, about the time the total catch declined.
A final aspect of behavior is examined in the time to recapture curve
(Fig. 7). The number recaptured versus time (from release to recapture)
can be described by the exponential decay curve:
y = 0.3075 e-.28X
Most (75%) of the recaptures occur within 5 days after release. A signifi-
cant peak occurs in the curve around day 10 (P<0.05 using X' test). Previous
reports (Forrest 1981) indicate an egg laying cycle of 9-12 days. This cor-
responds with the peak on day 10 in Fig. 7, as well as the cycles in flight
activity in Fig. 5.
(3) Implications for sampling. The mark-release experiment was also
studied as a possible survey tool. The results in Fig. 5 suggest that the trap
is a relative indicator of flight activity, but we have no independent method
for verifying that the trap catch is specifically related to the size of the
flying population. The effect of weather (wind speed, temperature) on trap
catch needs to be explored.
As far as indicating absolute densities of mole cricket populations, some
important assumptions of mark-release census are violated. Most important
of these is that the probability of being captured is not the same for all
individuals in the population. We can only capture that part of the popula-

*daily data
moving average




) 20
\) ** \ '

\20 *I
10 -
0 ". "

9 15 1 15 1 15 22
Apr Apr May May June June June
Date (1980)

Fig. 6. Sex ratio of captured mole crickets and as a function of date.
Moving average calculated as in Fig. 5.

Ngo & Beck: Scapteriscus Trap Evaluation 537

.30 -

.25 -

Y =(.3075)e- 28x
0 .20 -

I i

Days Elapsed
0: .0 5 -

1 10 20 30 40 60
Days Elapsed
Fig. 7. Recaptures as a function of time since release.

tion which is flying. We cannot account for movement of individuals in or
out of the area, or for sources of mortality, which must be known to estimate
population densities. Unless sound trap catches can be related to a popula-
tion dynamics model that describes movements, birth, mortality and migra-
tion, there is little hope for obtaining absolute density estimates.


We thank Dr. T. J. Walker for encouraging this research and critically
reviewing the manuscript, T. G. Forrest and J. Sivinski for suggesting im-
provements, Dr. J. E. Lloyd and Dr. D. H. Habeck for encouragement and
editing, Susan Winewriter for drawing illustrations and graphs, and
Barbara Hollien for typing. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Jour-
nal Series No. 3653.


FORREST, T. G. 1980. Phonotaxis in mole crickets: its reproductive signifi-
cance. Florida Ent. 63: 45-53.
1981. Acoustic behavior, phonotaxis and mate choice in two species
of mole crickets (Gryllotalpidae: Scapteriscus). M.S. thesis, Univ. of
Florida, Gainesville. 72 p.
HUNT. 1971. Determination of trap spacings required to control an
insect population. J. Econ. Ent. 64: 1090-100.
MATHENY, E. L., JR., R. L. KEPNER, AND K. M. PORTIER. 1982. Landing dis-
tribution and density of sound attracted mole crickets. Ann. Ent. Soc.
America 75: (in press).

Florida Entomologist 65 (4)

PIELOU, E. C. 1977. Mathematical ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York,
ULAGARAJ, S. M. 1975. Mole crickets: ecology, behavior and dispersal flight
(Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae: Scapteriscus). Envir. Ent. 4: 265-73.
WALKER, T. J., R. C. LITTELL, AND NGO DONG. 1982. Which mole crickets
damage bahiagrass pastures? Florida Ent. 65: 110-16.
WALKER, T. J. 1982. Sound traps for sampling mole cricket flights. Florida
Ent. 65: 105-10.


Cooperating Scientist
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, IIBIII
Agricultural Research Service, USDA
Beltsville, MD 20705 USA

The genus Neophyllaphis Takahashi and its described species (araucariae
Takahashi, brimblecombei Carver, fransseni Hille Ris Lambers, gingerensis
Carver, grobleri Eastop, michelbacheri (Essig), podocarpi Takahashi, rap-
pardi Hille Ris Lambers, totarae Cottier, viridis Ilharco) are reviewed. Keys
are provided to the adults of known morphs. The alate oviparous female of
fransseni and the alate viviparous female of viridis are described for the
first time, and additional descriptive notes are given for 9 previously de-
scribed morphs. N. podocarpi is reported from Hawaii for a new state record.
Annotated citations are given to virtually all of the literature on the genus
and its species.

Se revisan el g6nero Neophyllaphis Takahashi y sus species descritas
(araucariae, brimblecombei, fransseni, gingerensis, grobleri, michelbacheri,
podocarpi, rappardi, totarae, viridis). Se presentan claves para los adults
de formas morfol6gicas conocidas. Se describan por primera vez la hembra
alada ovipara de N. fransseni y la hembra alada vivipara de N. viridis y se
presentan notas descriptivas adicionales para 9 formas previamente de-
scritas. N. podocarpi se registra de Hawaii por primera vez. Se presentan
citaciones anotadas para toda la literature sobre este genero y sus species.

This publication is an assemblage and synthesis of new, and relevant old,
information on the genus Neophyllaphis Takahashi and its 10 known species.
It consists of a characterization of the genus, keys to adults of all known
morphs, first descriptions of two morphs, partial descriptions of several
previously described morphs, illustrations of various structures, discussion
of pertinent subject matter, and a virtually complete, annotated bibliography
of the group.

December, 1982

Russell: Neophyllaphis

The article has resulted from investigations undertaken in 1964 when
N. podocarpi Takahashi was becoming more abundant and widespread in
California and soon after N. araucariae Takahashi was discovered in Flor-
ida. At the time, it was thought that these species might reach pest status.
N. podocarpi has now spread to 5 additional states, but the known distribu-
tion of araucariae in the United States is still restricted to Florida and
Hawaii. These species and N. grobleri Eastop are actually or potentially
The alate oviparous female of fransseni Hille Ris Lambers and the alate
viviparous female of viridis Ilharco are described for the first time. De-
scriptive material of previously described morphs is included when there is
relevant information in addition to that appearing in original or subsequent
descriptions. The collection of podocarpi in Hawaii represents a new state
In the text, apterous and alate viviparous females usually are called
apterae and alatae, but occasionally they are referred to collectively as
viviparae. The morphs that I have not examined are indicated in the keys
by the statement, "keyed from description." Data under Hosts and Distribu-
tion are taken from aphids that I have examined and from the literature
In citations to species, CEIR refers to Cooperative Economic Insect Re-
port and CPPR to Cooperative Plant Pest Report in the References Cited.
Neophyllaphis Takahashi (1920) is an old, primitive genus. Mordvilko
(1930) suggested that it might be "almost of the same antiquity as Podo-
carpus." He (1934) stated further that if it were found "in all those coun-
tries where Podocarpus now occurs it will mean that it has existed from the
jurassic time, at least." Fossil aphids with similarities to Neophyllaphis
have been described by Richards (1966) and Heie (1967). The genus is
known in tropical and temperate regions of Africa, Asia, Australia; and
North, Central, and South America. The species are monophagous, live
exclusively on Coniferae, and are found on Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae,
and Podocarpaceae. The aphids are attacked by an entomogenous fungus
and by coccinelid beetles, but hymenopterous parasites have not been re-
corded from them.
Species of Neophyllaphis exhibit unusual biological and morphological
characteristics. The sexuales of grobleri, michelbacheri (Essig), and
podocarpi appear in the spring, summer, and fall while those of gingerensis
Carver and totarae Cottier appear in the spring. Sexuales of most aphids
develop in the fall. The oviparae of several species of Neophyllaphis are
winged, but those of gingerensis are wingless as are oviparae of most aphids.
And the hind tibiae of alatae of fransseni, gingerensis, grobleri, and podo-
carpi often have pseudosensoria, structures that usually are present only on
the tibiae of oviparae.
These and other peculiarities in development and structure have rendered
the relationships of the genus rather obscure and have led to diverse assign-
ments in classification hierarchy. The groups in which the genus has been
placed are given in the following list, except that the family name Aphididae
is omitted unless it is the only higher category to which the genus was as-
signed by an author. The citations may also refer to statements on relation-
ships and structure.


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