Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00095
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1983
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00095
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text

(ISSN 0015-4040)


(An International Journal for the Americas)

Volume 66, No. 4 December, 1983

67th Annual Meeting-First Announcement & Call for Papers ......----- 373
CoRT s, R.-Tachinid Flies (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Tarapaca and
Antofagasta Provinces, Chile. III. Addendum ..----........ ..--.. 377
BACK, R. C., II-Larva and Pupa of Oxyethira leonensis (Trichoptera:
Hydroptilidae) -------- .--------------------------.. 389
NGUYEN, R., W. GIORDANO, AND C. POUCHER-Suitability of Citrus spp.
and Ardisia solanacea for Laboratory Rearing of the Citrus
Blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi .....------- ................. ............ 393
BELMONT, R. A., AND D. H. HABECK-Parasitoids of Dioryctria spp.
(Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) Coneworms in Slash Pine Seed Pro-
duction Areas of North Florida --.-...... ---............ .-------......... 399
SHELLEY, R. M.-New Records and Species of the Milliped Genus
Caralinda (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae) ----......----------.......... --...... ..... 407
SLATER, J. A., AND R. M. BARANOWSKI-The Genus Ozophora in Florida
(Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) ----............----................................ 416
BARANOWSKI, R. M., AND J. A. SLATER-The Ozophora pallescens Com-
plex in the West Indies with a Description of Four New Species
(Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) .----.---------------------............ 440
HOLZENTHAL, R. W., AND R. W. KELLEY-New Micro-Caddisflies from
the Southeastern United States (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) .... 464
FRANK, J. H.-New Records of Philonthini from the Circum-Caribbean
Region (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) .........---- .....----- -................ 473
TRAGER, J. C.-A New Paratrechina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from
Machu Picchu, Peru .........---...----.....--..... ................ -482
SCHUSTER, J. C.-Acoustical Signals of Passalid Beetles: Compex
Repertoires ............. -------------....................---- 486
REY, J. R., AND E. D. McCoY-Terrestrial Arthropods of Northwest
Florida Salt Marshes: Araneae and Pseudoscorpions (Arach-
nida) ..----...---------......... -............ ........ 497
CHERRY, R. H., AND J. A. DUSKY-Contact Toxicities of Ten Insecti-
cides to the Sugarcane Grub, Ligyrus subtropicus (Coleoptera:
Scarabaeidae) ------. .... .............................. ........ 503
ANDERSON, D. L., AND R. H. CHERRY-Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera:
Noctuidae) Damage to Fifteen Varieties of Sorghum .............. 506
President's Message .......---------------------........... ....... ............. 511
Continued on Back Cover

Published by The Florida Entomological Society



President .............. .... ..
President-Elect ...... ... .. .......
Vice-President .- ..------...-...-. ----.-.-...- ................
S secretary .....--------- ..-- .................... .............. ....
Treasurer -... -. .. ..-..--.......... .

Other Members of the Executive Committee ..-

.--.--.-.. A. C. (Abe) White
......- .... ......- C. W McCoy
....-..----. M. L. Wright, Jr.
...-.-. .......... D. F. W illiams
---........-- .~-... -- A. C. Knapp

J. R. Cassani
J. L. Knapp
D. C. Herzog
K. Lee
C. A. Morris
W. L. Peters
C. A. Musgrave Sutherland


Editor -... -...--......
Associate Editors

Business Manager ........................

........... ..-...._ C. A. Musgrave Sutherland
--.--..-. -- --... D. C. Herzog
F. W. Howard
M. D. Hubbard
J. R. McLaughlin
A. R. Soponis
H. V. Weems, Jr.
..... ..........................-- A. C. Knapp

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, September,
and December. Subscription price to non-members is $15.00 per year in
advance, $5.00 per copy. Membership in the Florida Entomological Society,
including subscription to Florida Entomologist, is $15 per year for regular
membership and $5 per year for students. Inquires regarding membership
and subscriptions should be addressed to the Business Manager, P. O. Box
7326, Winter Haven, FL 33883-7326. Florida Entomologist is entered as
second class matter at the Post Office in DeLeon Springs and Gainesville, FL.
Authors should consult "Instructions to Authors" on the inside cover of
all recent issues while preparing manuscripts or notes. When submitting a
paper or note to the Editor, please send the original manuscript, original
figures and tables, and 3 copies of the entire paper. Include an abstract and
title in Spanish, if possible. Upon receipt, manuscripts and notes are ac-
knowledged by the Editor and assigned to an appropriate Associate Editor
who will make every effort to recruit peer reviewers not employed by the
same agency or institution as the authors(s). Reviews from individuals
working out-of-state or in nearby countries (e.g. Canada, Mexico, and others)
will be obtained where possible.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
C. A. Musgrave Sutherland, 4849 Del Rey Blvd., Las Cruces, NM 88001.
This issue mailed February 24, 1984

SOral Presentation
SProject Exhibit Session
(Formerly Poster Session)
] Student Paper

Return to: James A. Reinert, Program Chairman
Ft. Lauderdale Research &
Education Center
University of Florida
3205 S.W. College Avenue
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314
Deadline for Paper
Submission is 15 May 1984

Author's Name
Title of Paper

Affiliation and Address
of the First
(Presenting) Author

Time Required for Presentation (Max. 10 min.)
Abstract: Must be Provided. Do not use more than 75 words.

Suggestion for Evening Bull Session

1~1~ _~I

L~ __

The Florida Entomological Society will hold its 67th Annual meeting on
24-27 July 1984 at the Holiday Inn, 6515 International Drive, Orlando FL
32809; telephone-1-(305)-351-3500. Room rates will be $58.00, for single,
double, triple, or quadruple.
Questions concerning the local arrangements should be directed to:

Local Arrangements Committee
Florida Entomological Society
Walt Disney World-Epcot Center-The Land
P.O. Box 40
Lake Buena Vista, Florida 32830 USA
Phone: 1-(305)-827-7256

To present a paper, the tear out sheet must be postmarked and sent no
later than 15 MAY 1984, to:

JAMES A. REINERT, Program Chairman
Ft. Lauderdale Research and Education Center
University of Florida
3205 S.W. College Avenue
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33314 USA

Eight minutes will be allotted for presentation of oral papers, with 2
minutes for discussion. In addition, there will be a separate session for
members who may elect to present a Project (or Poster) Exhibit.
The 3 oral student papers judged to be the best on content and delivery
will be awarded monetary prizes during the meeting. Student authors must
be Florida Entomological Society Members and must be registered for the
meeting. Awards will be $125.00, 75.00 and 50.00.

Registration Schedule' for Annual Meeting:

Preregistration Registration On Site

Full & Sustaining Members $35.00 $40.00
Student not in Student Contest 18.00 20.00
Student in Student Contest 13.00 15.00
Each Extra Banquet Ticket 10.00 10.00
'Each fee includes one banquet ticket.

15 May 1984


The following slide policy will govern slide presentations at the Annual
Meetings. Only Kodak Carousel projectors for 2 x 2 slides will be available.
However motion picture projectors will be available by special request to
the Local Arrangements Chairman prior to the date of the meeting.
Authors should keep slides simple, concise, and uncluttered with no more
than 7 lines of type on a rectange 2 units high by 3 units wide. All printed
information should be readable to an audience of 300 persons.
A previewing room will be designated for author's use. A projectionist
will be available in the previewing room at least one hour before each session.
Authors are expected to give the projectionist their slides in the previewing
room prior to each session. Slides will be returned to the authors after each
session in the meeting room.
Authors are expected to organize their slides in proper order in their
personal standard Kodak Carousel slide tray (no substitution, please). Only
a few slide trays will be available in the previewing room from the projec-
tionist for hardship cases. Slides in the tray should be in correct order start-
ing with slot #1 of the tray and positioned correctly (position of slides to go
into tray: 1. upside down, and 2. lettering readable from this position upside
down and from right to left). A piece of masking tape should be placed on
the slide tray by the author and the following information should be written
on the tape: 1. author's name, 2. session date, and 3. presentation time.

Cortes: Tachinids from Chile 377

Graduate Research Professor
Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Chile
Casilla 1004, Santiago, Chile

A consolidated key to 47 genera and a comprehensive list of 70 species of
parasitic Tachinidae (Diptera) from the desert provinces of Tarapaca and
Antofagasta in northern Chile are provided in this paper. Hypsomyia hispida
Cort6s is described as a new genus and species of Eryciini, and Spanipalpus
hiemalis Cort6s as a new species of Cuphocerini. New data on several other
species are also included.

Este trabajo ofrece una clave consolidada para 47 generos y una lista
comprehensive de 70 species de taquinidos parasites (Diptera) de las
provincias des6rticas de Tarapaca y Antofagasta en el extreme norte de
Chile. Hypsomyia hispida Cort6s se describe como nuevo genero y especie de
Eryciini, y Spanipalpus hiemalis Cortes como nueva especie de Cuphocerini.
Se incluye tambien nuevos antecedentes de species ya conocidas.

This is the third addendum to the study of the Tachinidae of Tarapaca
and Antofagasta, two of the desert provinces in northern Chile extending
south from the border with Peru.
The original monograph was published in 1971 (Cortes and Campos),
while two previous addenda (Cort6s and Campos 1974, Cortes and Hichins
1979) augmented the reported species from this dry desert to 42 genera and
64 species, all of them coming from small agricultural valleys and ravines.
The agriculture of this region is represented by corn, alfalfa, beans, and
potatoes, as well as numerous other horticultural crops. Citrus, olives, pears,
peaches, apples, and grapes are the main perennial crops (Cort6s and
Campos 1970). The provinces of Tarapaca and Antofagasta together occupy
an area of 183,378 square kilometers. This territory is a desert plateau where
no rain has been reported for 70 years. In spite of this fact, ground water

Professor Cort6s is a renowned authority on Tachinidae and one of the
senior entomologists in Chile. During his professional career he has been
influential in developing agricultural entomology in Chile and is a former
Director of Agricultural Research. As a professor at both the Universidad de
Chile, Santiago, and the Universidad del Norte, Arica, he has guided many
students who are now outstanding entomologists. Since 1976 Professor Cortes
has been a Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods,
Gainesville. This invitational manuscript was solicited by the Florida En-
tomological Society, Americas Committee, in order to promote communication
between our Society and scientists in Latin America.

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

and late afternoon dew permits pastures and agricultural crops to subsist.
The sandy soils are rich in minerals and devoid of organic matter. The day
and night temperatures may differ as much as 300 C but the average annual
temperature is 16.70 C with little seasonal change. A more detailed descrip-
tion of this superarid desert and its environment may be found in Cortes
and Campos (1971). The distribution of the Tachinidae in Chile is strongly
correlated with the altitude and vegetation of the collecting site. Most of the
typical forms occur at elevations exceeding 1500 m and a few occur even at
2000-4000 m above sea level. In two contiguous valleys of Azapa and Lluta,
Tarapaca Province, the number of genera and species collected was greater
at the latter location. This could only be explained by the persistence of
natural vegetation in Lluta as contrasted to the agricultural exploitation
occurring in Azapa.
The tachinid fauna of Tarapaca and Antofagasta has its faunal affinities
with the western Andean region of Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia, not with
southern Chile and Argentina (Cort6s and Campos 1970).
This paper presents descriptions of a new genus and species in the
Eryciini and a new species in the Cuphocerini. Also included is a key to 47
genera and a checklist of 70 species. Further data on previously known
species, such as Echinomasicera hystrix Townsend, Eucelatoria australis
Townsend, Pyrrhotachina proboscidea Townsend, et al., are provided in the
All the examples mentioned in this paper are deposited either in the
Collection of the Facultad de Agronomia, Santiago (CFA), or that of the
Department of Agriculture, Universidad de TarapacA, Arica (CICA).

Key to Recorded Genera

1. Wing venation incomplete; 4th longitudinal vein evanescent;
transverse apical vein and apical cell lacking or absent
-- ... ----------. --.. --- Camposodes Cortes
1'. Wing venation complete; all veins and cells present and well
formed; apical cell well developed, petiolated or not -...... .. 2
2(1'). Apical cell closed before reaching wing margin and distinctly
petiolated .-....- ..---....--- .. .-- -- ---- ---- -. 3
2'. Apical cell well opened on wing margin, narrowly open on
same margin, or else exactly closed, but in any case without
a distinct petiole ..... .......... .... ....-......-- 6
3(2). Borders of prosternum pilose; arista micro-plumose
(Proseninae-Dexiinae) ..... Myiodexia Cort6s & Campos
3'. Borders of prosternum bare; arista bare or at most micro-
pubescent ... ... ...... ... ...... 4
4(3'). Parafacials with strong row of proclinate bristles; 1st longi-
tudinal vein setulose in all its length (Voriini) .
.-------------------------.--...... .... A teloglutus A ldrich
4'. Parafacial bare or at most with fine hair or tomentum,
never with bristles; 1st longitudinal vein bare ...... ---- 5
5(4'). Mesonotum and abdominal tergites destituted of macro-
setae; anterior femora with ctenidia of short spines on distal
part of postero-ventral border; antennae elongated; apical
scutellars absent ....... .....-- ..-------- --.... Gymnosoma Meigen


December, 1983

Cortes: Tachinids from Chile 379

5'. Mesonotum and abdominal tergites with well developed
strong bristles; femora without row of short spines in any
border; antennae short; apical scutellars strong and well
decusate ...... .... ....... Leucostoma Meigen
6(2'). Ocellar bristles reclinate (Goniini) .... 7
6'. Ocellar bristles proclinate, divaricate, piliform, undiffer-
entiated or absent ....... .. ...-... -- -. 11
7(6). Head in profile dolichocephalic, i.e., at epistoma wider than
at antennal level; proboscis longer than head height
------.......... ...-...--... ..- ------. ... .. Dolichocnephalia Townsend
7'. Head in profile normal, i.e., at epistoma not wider, narrower
or at most of equal width than at antennal level; proboscis
not longer than head height ---....... ......- .. 8
8(7'). Facial ridges with strong bristles in basal half or more; one
pair of median marginals on 1st abdominal tergite (2nd of
Crosskey 1973, and in the works of Mesnil) .... .....--.-
---... ...------.---.-. -.... .. Chaetocraniopsis Townsend
8'. Facial ridges bare, without bristles above vibrissae .... 9
9(8'). Clypeus deeply excavated; frons very wide and prominent
in both sexes; 3rd antennal joint twice or more length of
second .....~..~.~- ... .. ......... .... ... ..- Gonia Meigen
9'. Clypeus normal or moderately excavated; frons 0.50 or less
of head width; 3rd antennal joint at most twice length of
second .... ........ -----------.......-...... .. 10
10(9'). Apical scutellars absent or piliform ...... Araucosimus Aldrich
10'. Apical scutellars strong, spine-like and sub-erect .
------ --Chaetocnephalia Townsend
11(6'). Proboscis twice geniculate and longer than body length
(Siphonini) ... -...... -......... ...- ..----.. -. ---------- Siphona Meigen
11'. Proboscis never more than once geniculate and not longer
than body length .... ......-- ... ....... ....... 12
12(11'). Last section of 5th longitudinal vein half or more length of
preceding section ....-..- .. -. ... ... .............---- 13
12'. Last section of 5th longitudinal vein much shorter or less
than half length of preceding section .------ ..~..--- 15
13(12). Facial ridges with bristles almost up to base of 3rd antennal
joint; intermediate abdominal tergites without discal bris-
tles; 3rd longitudinal vein with a few setulae on basal node
(Exoristini) .... ..... Plagiprospherysa Townsend
13'. Facial ridges bare, except at base; parafacials with strong
proclinate bristles in upper half at least; 3rd longitudinal
vein setulose (Voriini) ....-..... ...... ...---- ---. .... ... 14
14(13'). Eyes bare; 1st longitudinal vein setulose in its entire length;
intermediate abdominal tergites without discal bristles;
lower half of parafacials bare; wings transparent, without
maculae ..........-..-...... Voria Robineau-Desvoidy
14'. Eyes pilose; 1st longitudinal vein with only a few setulae
at base; intermediate abdominal tergites with discal bris-
tles; strong proclinate bristles in the whole length of para-
facials; blackish maculae on transverse veins and on

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

December, 1983

cubitulus of wings ..---------...-.----- Alpinoplagia Townsend
15(12'). Eyes distinctly and often thickly pilose --..--- ..-------. --.. ------- 16
15'. Eyes bare or practically bare .. ---------------- 26
16(15). Posterior tibiae ciliated on postero-dorsal border .-- -- -. 17
16'. Posterior tibiae without row of short ciliae in any border .....----- 20
17(16). Ocellars piliform, hardly differentiated or absent ----- --- 18
17'. Ocellars strong and proclinate ---------------------- 19
18(17). Ocellars absent; intermediate aristal joint short; cheeks
narrow or inconspicuous (Eumasicerini) -...-. Phaenopsis Townsend
18'. Ocellars piliform, though differentiated; intermediate aristal
joint elongate, i.e., much longer than wide; cheeks rounded,
0.40 of eye height (Eryciini) ...-....- Hypsomyia Cortes, new genus
19(17'). Male with proclinate fronto-orbitals; eyes thinly pilose; ab-
dominal tergites with strong erect spines; parafacials bare
below .... ------------------------------------- Echinomasicera Townsend
19'. Male without proclinate fronto-orbitals; eyes thickly pilose;
abdominal tergites only with median marginals; parafacials
tomentosum below ----------------- Winthemia Robineau-Desvoidy
20(16'). Dorsocentrals and acrostichals absent or undifferentiated and
piliform; parafacials thickly pilose; abdominal tergites with
dense sub-erect spines; 2nd tergites (3rd of Crosskey 1973,
and in the works of Mesnil) with marginal and sub-marginal
rows of strong bristles; 5 or 6 laterals on scutellum
.... ----------- Androsoma Cort6s & Campos
20'. Dorsocentrals and acrostichals always present and developed --- 21
21(20'). Head in profile dolichocephalic, i.e., at epistoma wider than
at antennal level; palpi short and filiform Dolichostoma Townsend
21'. Head in profile shorter at epistoma, or at most of equal
length as at antennal level; palpi normal or else papiliform --- 22
22 (21'). Facial ridges with well developed bristles at least on basal half 23
22'. Facial ridges bare, without setae, except at vibrissal angle 25
23(22). Apical scutellars absent; borders of prosternum bare, with-
out hair ---------...--------------..---.. ---.-- Incamyia Townsend
23'. Apical scutellars present and decusate -----.-............. ------- 24
24 (23'). Intermediate abdominal tergites without discal bristles
..---....... ----. ----------...------. Euphorocera Townsend
24'. Intermediate abdominal tergites with discal bristles .----
................-------------------- Ollacheryphe Townsend
25(22'). Palpi normal; both basal joints of arista elongate; infra-
squamal setulae present; parafacials not wider than 3rd
antennal joint ----------------- Trichophoropsis Townsend
25'. Palpi short or papiliform; only the intermediate joint of
arista elongate; infrasquamal setulae absent; parafacials
much wider than 3rd antennal joint Bonnetia Robineau-Desvoidy
26(15'). Ocellars present, proclinate or divaricate ......--- ............. 27
26'. Ocellars entirely absent ---. .....---- -.. ........... ... 43
27(26). Ocellars exactly divaricate, neither proclinate nor reclinate;
1st longitudinal vein setulose in more than basal half
(Germariini) ..------- Chaetodemoticus Brauer & Bergenstamm
27'. Ocellars definitely proclinate --. ----.. .---..-..-..-.. .......... 28


Cortes: Tachinids from Chile 381

28 (27'). Posterior tibiae ciliate on postero-dorsal margin -.... ...-----. 29
28'. Posterior tibiae without ciliae or row of short uniform
setulae in any border --- ----.---....-- -- --..----------_------- 32
29(28). Arista plumose (Dexiinae) --- Sarcoprosena Townsend
29'. Arista bare or micro-pubescent ----- . ----------- 30
30(29'). Facial ridges bare except at base .--- Sturmia Robineau-Desvoidy
30'. Facial ridges strongly setose at least in basal half ... ------ .31
31(30'). Parafacials bare in all its length; intermediate aristal joint
short - -- --- Lespesia Robineau-Desvoidy
31'. Parafacials hairy in its entire length; intermediate aristal
joint elongate --------------- Protogoniops Townsend
32(28'). Parafacials bare, without tomentum or bristles in entire
length -- 33
32' Parafacials with hairs or bristles at least on upper half, or
else with well developed facio-orbitals inferiorly ----- 37
33 (32). Prosternum bare, with no hair in borders; facial ridges bare;
intermediate aristal joint elongate; haustellum longer than
head height; intermediate abdominal tergites without discal
bristles ----- -_ Siphoactia Townsend
33'. Prosternum pilose in borders .----------------------------------------- 34
34(33'). Prosternum with only one long setula on each border; apical
scutellars absent; two pairs of discal bristles on 2nd ab-
dominal tergite (3rd of Crosskey 1973, and in the works of
Mesnil) ..--.--.... ---.-..-..------------- Urodexodes Townsend
34'. Prosternum with hairs in borders ...-----. ------ 35
35(34'). Intermediate aristal joint very elongated; facial ridges bare;
both sexes with proclinate fronto-orbital bristles; inter-
mediate abdominal tergites without discal bristles; 3rd an-
tennal joint in both sexes extraordinarily dilated apically as
to be nearly triangular (Siphonini in the works of Mesnil)
-~.------. ------------- Elfia Robineau-Desvoidy
35'. Intermediate aristal joint short, not longer than wide; facial
ridges setose on basal half -.- ---... ..- ---- ..--------- .. 36
36(35'). Intermediate abdominal tergites with discal bristles; apical
scutellars absent; male tip of abdomen acuminate (Blon-
deliini) ...... - Hemilydella Townsend (cif. Eucelatoria Townsend)
36'. Intermediate abdominal tergites without discal bristles;
apical scutellars present and decusate; male abdomen
rounded apically (Sturmiini) -.. --..- Caltagironea Cortes & Campos
37(32'). Parafacials with row of strong bristles running diagonally
down its entire length; frontal bristles not surpassing level
of antennae; 4th abdominal tergite elongate, longer than
preceding ones (Proseninae) -....----.........__ Prosopochaeta Macquart
37'. Parafacials with only isolated well developed facio-orbitals
inferiorly (Tachininae) .------.. ---------........ ------ ......... 38
38(37'). Palpi present though very short; nasute epistoma of almost
abnormal development, projecting horizontally over clypeal
level; frons very wide in both sexes .- ---------- Ruiziella Cort6s
38'. Palpi absent or minute; epistoma normally warped and pro-
jecting gently between vibrissae --..---. -.. ..-. ... --...... ---39

382 Florida Entomologist 66 (4) December, 1983

39(38'). Intermediate abdominal tergites with discal bristles ---. 40
39'. Intermediate abdominal tergites without discal bristles -- 42
40(39). Proboscis very elongate, haustellum twice head length ---.--
Pyrrhotachina Townsend
40'. Proboscis at most of equal length as head height -...---- - 41
41(40'). Third longitudinal vein setulose up to anterior cross vein
Spanipalpus Townsend
41'. Third longitudinal vein setulose only at basal node ..---...
--- ------------------------- Epalpodes Townsend
42(39'). Third antennal joint in both sexes of same length as 2nd,
in females shorter; species normally with ocellar bristles
----------------------------- ------ Vibrissomyia Townsend
42'. Third antennal joint in females slightly longer than 2nd;
species sometimes without ocellar bristles .....--- ------....
------ ------- ----------.-------- Agicuphocera Townsend
43(26'). Parafacials inferiorly with well developed facio-orbital
bristles; palpi sub-normal, short, or else elongate and fili-
form ..----- ..-------------...--..----------- Peleteria Robineau-Desvoidy
43'. Parafacials bare, at most tomentose, without facio-orbital
bristles; palpi normal or absent .............---------.--------- 44
44(43'). Palpi absent; abdominal tergites covered with thick sagitate
spines -- - -- -- -------- Saundersiops Townsend
44'. Palpi present, normal; tergites of abdomen with usual bris-
tles . ..- ---- --------- .. 5 45
45(44'). Prosternum bare in borders; facial ridges without setulae,
except at vibrissal angle (Tachininae) --..-- Archytas Jaennicke
45'. Prosternum pilose in borders; facial ridges with setulae in
basal half or more (Exoristinae) _-- ..-- - -- ---- 46
46(45'). Abdomen elongate, conic or acuminate at tip, with discal
bristles on intermediate tergites (Blondeliini, cif. couplet 36)
...-.---..--....-....-~~........ ............. Eucelatoria Townsend
46'. Abdomen short and broad with truncate apex; intermediate
tergites without discal bristles (Belvosiini) __- Triachora Townsend

Hypsomyia Cortes, NEW GENUS
(Eryciini, Monotypic)

Frons 0.40 of head width. Frontal profile sloping, little longer than
facial. Ocellars piliform, weakly proclinate. Post-ocellars hair-like. One pair
of parallel inner verticals lightly reclinate. No outer verticals. Eyes thickly
pilose. Frontal row of 6-7 convergent bristles, the 2 lower ones surpassing
antennal level. No reclinate or proclinate fronto-orbitals in upper frontalia,
which is covered by thick long black hair. Profrons little narrower than eye
width. Facial ridges strongly arcuate and grossly setose up to middle of 3rd
antennal joint. Parafacials about half width of eye and covered with regular
longitudinal row-arranged cilia which reach down to cheeks. Clypeus well
excavated; epistoma wide, gently warped above facial ridges, level and
clearly projecting between vibrissae. Vibrissae hard to differentiate among
thick facial and peristomal bristles. Cheeks approximately round, 0.40 of
eye's height, without genal bristles, yet heavily covered with uniform black
setae. Peristomal bristles thickly set, black, long, and uniform. Head in

Cortes: Tachinids from Chile 383

profile at epistoma about same length as at antennal level. Proboscis
normal, palpi normal, yellowish brown, labella developed.
Antennae black, filling clypeus; 2nd joint half length of 3rd, latter thick
and dilated apically. Arista thickened nearly up to tip; intermediate joint
elongate, many times longer than wide.
Thorax blackish, sub-shining, hardly with longitudinal stripes of pollen,
except between acrostichals, and these only in pronotum. Humeri weakly
pollinose. All pleura blackish, without pollen. Scutellum reddish, lightly
pollinose. Post-scutellum developed. Chaetotaxia: humerals 3, straight; post-
humerals 2; pre-sutural 1; notopleurals 2; acrostichals 2-?1; dorsocentrals
3-?1 (both post-sutural acrostichals and dorsocentrals hard to differentiate
and partly damaged by the pin); pre-alar 1; supra-alars 2; intra-alars 3;
post-alars 2; sternopleurals 1-1, of equal length; pteropleural 1, shorter than
both sternopleurals. Hypopleuron thickly pilose. Apical scutellars sub-erect
and parallel; 3 lateral scutellars. Prosternum pilose in borders; propleuron
bare; infra-squamal setulae absent.
Abdomen black, with last 3 segments basally covered by thick cinereous
pollen on the 2nd tergite (3rd of Crosskey 1973, and in the works of Mesnil),
which divides medially as to form 2 lateral defined pollinose spots which do
not reach posterior margin of segment, nor the venter. Third and fourth
tergites (4 and 5 of Crosskey 1973, and in the works of Mesnil) with dense
heavy pollen which is more golden yellow than former and spread in bands
that completely cover dorsum except on narrow posterior margins which are
shining black. Tip of abdomen with truncate Belvosiini slit. Sternites black,
concealed. Second and third tergites each with 1 pair of median marginals
and another of lateral marginals. Fourth well-covered with erect bristles and
complete pre-apical row of setae. No discal bristles on abdomen.
Legs black, normal; tibiae yellowish red. Posterior tibia with row of
regular, separated setulae on postero-ventral border, of which 1 about middle
is the longest. Empodia and pulvilli elongate (male). Wings clear; veins
yellowish. Costal spine absent. Apical cell opened on wing margin well above
tip of wing. Three setulae at basal node of 3rd longitudinal vein, which
duplicate on back side of wing. Squamae white with yellowish rims.
Type of the genus is the following species, H. hispida Cort6s, n. sp.

Hypsomyia hispida Cort6s, NEW SPECIES
(Eryciini, Fig. 1)

MALE: 6.5 mm, black, with dense, bright, silvery pollen on face. Frontal
stripe dark brown. Clypeus and epistoma reddish brown. Tergites of ab-
domen distinctly pollinose as described above. Venter sub-shining black.
Middle tibiae and scutellum dark reddish.
TYPE MATERIAL: Holotype S (figured), Parque Nacional de Lauca, Las
Cuevas (Arica), Chile, about 4,800 m altitude, 22-II-1978, L. Faindez coll.,
on vegetation (CFA).
TYPE LOCALITY: Chile, Prov. TarapacA, Las Cuevas (Arica), Parque
Nacional de Lauca, ca. 4800 m altitude.
FEMALE: Unknown.
HOST: Unknown.

384 Florida Entomologist 66 (4) December, 1983

Fig. 1. Hypsomyia hispida, n. gen. and n. sp. male. Head profile.

Spanipalpus hiemalis Cortes, NEW SPECIES
This new species is extra-limital in Spanipalpus Townsend because of the
presence of well developed discal bristles on intermediate tergites of ab-
domen which normally do not show in Spanipalpus. Yet the examples run

Cortes: Tachinids from Chile 385

undoubtedly to Spanipalpus in Townsend's (1939) key to the Cuphocerini.
J. H. Guimaraes (1963) described very accurately the genus' main char-
acters, although he later (1971) made Spanipalpus (with ocellars) a junior
synonym of Deopalpus Townsend (without ocellars).
FEMALE: General coloration brassy grey metallic with greenish reflec-
tions. Frons yellowish. Face white yellowish with nacreous pollen. Clypeus
and epistoma concolorous. Two proclinate, two reclinate, and two strong
divergent fronto-orbitals on parafrontalia. Ocellars present and proclinate.
Two pairs of verticals of about equal length, inner ones decusate, outer ones
divergent. Row of proclinate bristles extending from base of antennae down
to cheeks with no differentiated facio-orbital bristles in lower section of
parafacials. Cheeks with genal bristles. Vibrissae present and well decusate.
Facial ridges bare.
Antennae black, with basal joints reddish yellow. Second joint little
shorter than 3rd, which is brownish black. Arista with both basal joints
elongate. Proboscis normal, without palpi.
Notum, pleurae and tergites brassy metallic grey, with faint irregular
cinereous pollen, which on notum tends to form longitudinal stripes reaching
base of scutellum. On tergites this pollen appears more dense or concentrated
on sides of segments while along the middle or center runs as a longitudinal
narrow stripe reaching tip of abdomen. Sides of abdomen reddish.
Scutellum as notum, with well decusate apicals and 3 lateral bristles.
One pair of decumbent discals close to apicals. Abdomen with usual bristles
plus 1 pair of well developed discals on intermediate tergites.
Legs normal, tibiae yellowish. Wings clear, costal spine not developed.
Third longitudinal vein setulose almost up to anterior cross vein. Weak dark
spots on anterior cross vein and at cubitulus of apical cell.
TYPE MATERIAL: Holotype 9, Zapahuira, Arica, 19-VIII-1976, N. Hich-
ins coll., on vegetation (CFA). Paratype: 9, Socoroma, Arica, 19-VII-1977,
N. Hichins coll., on Origanum flowers (CFA). The size variation of the 2
examples was 6.5-7.0 mm.
TYPE LOCALITY: Chile, Prov. Tarapacd, Zapahuira (Arica), about 2,500
meters altitude.
MALE: Unknown.
HOST: Unknown.


The species was first attributed to these provinces by Cort6s and Campos
(1971) unless another citation is given.
1. Agicuphocera nigra Townsend 1915, Cuphocerini (Cort6s & Campos
2. Alpinoplagia boliviana Townsend 1931, Voriini
3. Androsoma perhirsutum Cort6s & Campos 1971, Juriniini
4. Araucosimus superbus Cort6s 1945, Goniini
5. Archytas incasanus Townsend 1912, Dejeaniini
This Peruvian species was treated as A. divisus (Walker) 1852
from Brazil, in Guimaraes' 1971 Catalogue.
6. Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) 1915, Dejeaniini
7. Archytas peruanus Curran 1928, Dejeaniini

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

8. Archytas pilifrons (Schiner) 1868, Dejeaniini
9. Archytas platonicus Cort6s & Campos 1971, Dejeaniini
10. Ateloglutus velardei Cortes & Valencia 1972, Voriini (present paper).
5 examples of both sexes, 2 from Lupica (Arica), 20-1-1982, B. H. V.
colls. (CICA), and 3 from Bel6n Alto, Quefiuales (Arica), 29-1-1982,
same collectors (CICA)
11. Bonnetia comta (Fallen) 1810, Linnaemyini
12. Caltagironea scillina Cort6s & Campos 1974, Sturmiini (Cort6s & Campos
13. Caltagironea vera Cortes & Campos 1974, Sturmiini (Cort6s & Campos
14. Camposodes evanescens Cortes 1967, Actiini
15. Chaetocnephalia andina Cort6s & Campos 1971, Goniini
16. Chaetocnephalia innupta Cort6s 1945, Goniini
17. Chaetocraniopsis chilensis Townsend 1915, Goniini
18. Chaetodemoticus chilensis (Schiner) 1868, Germariini
19. Dolichocnephalia puna Townsend 1915, Goniini
20. Dolichostoma arequipae (Townsend) 1912, Cuphocerini
21. Echinomasicera hystrix Townsend 1915, Harrisiini (present paper).
1 9, 12 mm, Socoroma (Arica), 23-VI-1977, G. Diaz (CFA). As the
female of this Peruvian species does not seem to have been described,
these few characters will complete the description. Two pairs of
verticals, inner ones longer and parallel, outer ones shorter, reclinate
and decusate. Two proclinate fronto-orbitals in frontalia. Eyes very
sparsely thinly pilose. Intermediate joint of arista about twice as
long as wide. Cheeks rounded, with genal setae, about 0.25-0.30 of
eye height. Wings and squamae infuscated, latter very dark. Third
longitudinal vein with 2-3 setulae at basal node. Costal spine un-
developed. Posterior tibiae with row of heavy setae on outer border.
Rest of characters as in male.
22. Elfia frontalis (Aldrich) 1934, Actiini (as Lispidea Coq.)
23. Epalpodes malloi Cortes & Campos 1971, Juriniini
24. Eucelatoria australis Townsend 1911, Blondeliini
C. W. Sabrosky (1981) dealt with this New World genus, yet made
no special mention of the widely distributed E. australis from Peru
except under his new E. digitata Sabrosky. Having such a large col-
lection of examples from the Neotropics, it would have been worth-
while to define what Thompson (1968) and Cortes (1971) considered
to be E. australis. Sabrosky considered that both sexes in Eucelatoria
varied widely from having no ocellar bristles to having well developed
ones, with several intergrading possibilities, so this character was not
considered reliable. Eight examples from Azapa (Arica) were named
E. digitata in his paper.
H. Vargas (unpublished), however; has positively proved that there
are 2 host differentiated and genetically different species in Azapa,
1 with and the other without ocellar bristles, that do not inter-breed,
that strictly parasitize very different larval hosts, and that cannot
be easily differentiated. Such being the case, E. australis in the pres-
ent paper is considered as having no ocellars (check key), and the
author prefers to keep Townsend's original name until both australis
Townsend and digitata Sabrosky are Drouerlv senarntpd hinlnarnllhr

December, 1983


Cortes: Tachinids from Chile 387

and morphologically.
25. Euphorocera peruviana Townsend 1912, Exoristini
26. Gonia lineata Macquart 1851, Goniini
27. Gonia pallens Wiedemann 1830, Goniini
28. Gonia sp. 3, Cortes & Campos 1971, Goniini
29. Gonia sp. 4, Cort6s & Campos 1971, Goniini
30. Gonia sp. 5, CortBs & Campos 1971, Goniini
31. Gymnosoma neotropicale Cortes & Campos 1971, Phasiini
32. Hemilydella fasciata Townsend 1927, Blondeliini
33. Hypsomyia hispida Cortes NEW SPECIES, Eryciini (present paper)
34. Incamyia chilensis Aldrich 1928, Blondeliini
35. Incamyia cinerea Cortes & Campos 1971, Blondeliini
36. Incamyia cuzcensis Townsend 1912, Blondeliini
37. Incamyia perezi Cort6s & Campos 1971, Blondeliini
38. Incamyia sandovali Cortes & Campos 1971, Blondeliini
39. Incamyia striata Aldrich 1928, Blondeliini
40. Lespesia leliae Cortes & Campos 1971, Eryciini
41. Lespesia nimia Cort6s & Campos 1971, Eryciini
42. Lespesia robusta (Aldrich) 1934, Eryciini (Cort6s 1980)
43. Leucostoma aterrimum (Villers) 1789, Phasiinae
44. Leucostoma simplex (Fall6n) 1820, Phasiinae
45. Myiodexia deserticola Cort6s & Campos 1971, Proseninae-Dexiinae
46. Ollacheryphe facialis Townsend 1927, Germariini (Cort6s & Hichins
47. Peleteria pygmaea (Macquart) 1850, Tachinini
48. Peleteria robusta (Wiedemann) 1830, Tachinini
49. Phaenopsis arabella Townsend 1912, Eumasicerini
This Peruvian species was made a synonym of Pseudochaeta argenti-
frons Coquillett 1895 by Dr. W. R. Thompson (1964)
50. Plagiprospherysa parvipalpis (Wulp) 1890, Exoristini
51. Prosopochaeta caliginosa Cort6s & Campos, Proseninae-Dexiinae
52. Protogoniops ocellaris Townsend 1912, Goniini (Cort6s & Campos 1974)
53. Pyrrhotachina proboscidea Townsend 1931, Cuphocerini (present paper)
1 8, 10.5 mm, in rather poor condition, Talabre, Antofagasta, 8-24-
11-1969, L. E. Pefia (CFA), which was presented to the author by
Dr. J. H. Guimaraes, Museu de Zoologia, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It runs
quite easily into Pyrrhotachina in Townsend's (1939) key to the
Cuphocerini, except for the palpi which are not discernible in this
example, and 3rd antennal joint ( ) which is twice or more the
length of 2nd. The holotype of Dr. Townsend (1931) is a female
from Mendoza, Repfblica Argentina, and the present male is in poor
condition, yet the species shows unique characteristics, such as length
of haustellum which is about double the head height, 1 facio-orbital
bristle in lower part of each parafacial, both basal joints of arista
elongate, 3rd longitudinal vein with long setulae at basal node, costal
spine absent, etc., which seems sufficient to confirm the identification.
54. Ruiziella luctuosa Cort6s 1951, Juriniini
55. Sarcoprosena luteola Cort6s & Campos 1971, Proseninae-Dexiinae (Cortes
& Campos 1974)
56. Saundersiops cruciatus Townsend 1914, Juriniini (Cort6s & Hichins

388 Florida Entomologist 66 (4) December, 1983

57. Siphoactia peregrina Cortes & Campos 1971, Siphonini
58. Siphona geniculata (DeGeer) 1776, Siphonini
59. Spanipalpus hiemalis Cort6s, NEW SPECIES, Cuphocerini (present
60. Sturmia festival Cortes 1944, Sturmiini (Cortes & Hichins 1979)
61. Sturmia insignis (Wulp) 1882, Sturmiini (Cort6s & Campos 1974)
62. Triachora barbosai Cortes & Campos 1971, Belvosiini
63. Trichophoropsis nitens Townsend 1914, Cuphocerini
64. Trichophoropsis sabroskyi Cortes & Campos 1971, Cuphocerini
65. Urodexodes elongatus Cort6s & Campos 1971, Blondeliini
66. Vibrissomyia lineolata (Bigot) 1888, Cuphocerini
67. Vibrissomyia notata Cortes 1967, Cuphocerini
68. Vibrissomyia pullata Cortes 1951, Cuphocerini
69. Voria ruralis (Fallen) 1810, Voriini
70. Winthemia reliqua Cortes & Campos 1971, Winthemiini

To C. W. Sabrosky, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, U.S. National
Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., for friendly assistance and
advice during the past 30 years concerning these and other species of Chilean
tachinid flies, many of which types of Aldrich, Townsend et al., are deposited
in the museum in Washington. To professor Jos6 Herrera, Department of
Biology, Academia Superior de Ciencias, Santiago, for freely permitting the
author to examine the good collection of tachinids from the treated area
which were collected mostly in Antofagasta and Iquique by him and his
students. To H. V. Weems, Jr. and Robert L. Woodruff, Division of Plant
Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gaines-
ville, R. I. Sailer and Steven Passoa, University of Florida, Gainesville, and
Gary R. Buckingham, USDA-ARS, Gainesville for kindly reviewing the

CORTiS, R. 1980. Neotropical Tachinidae (Diptera). I. Rev. Brasileira Ent.
24(2): 107.
,AND L. CAMPOS. 1971. Taquinidos de Tarapaca & Antofagasta
(Diptera, Tachinidae). Anal. U. del Norte 8: 1-103. (1970).
AND 1974. Taquinidos de Tarapac6 & Antofagasta (Diptera,
Tachinidae), Add. I. Idesia 3: 111-25.
AND N. HICHINS. 1979. Taquinidos de Tarapaca & Antofagasta
(Diptera, Tachinidae), Add. II. Idesia 5: 111-6.
CROSSKEY, R. W. 1973. A conspectus of the Tachinidae (Diptera) of Aus-
tralia, including keys to the supraspecific taxa and taxonomic and host
catalogues. Bull. British Mus. Nat.'Hist. (Ent.) Suppl. 21: 1-121.
GUIMARAES, J. H. 1963. Primeira Contribucao ao conhecimento da Tribu
Cuphoceratini (sic) (Diptera, Tachinidae). Mem. Inst. O. Cruz 61(1):
1971. A catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas south of the
United States, Fasc. 104 Tachinidae. Mus. Zool., Univ. Sao Paulo,
Brazil. 333 p.
SABROSKY, C. W. 1981. A partial revision of the genus Eucelatoria (Diptera,
Tachinidae), including important parasites of Heliothis. U.S. Dept.

Cortes: Tachinids from Chile

Agric. Tech. Bull. 1635: 1-18.
THOMPSON, W. R. 1964. The tachinids of Trinidad, VI. (Diptera, Tachin-
idae). Studia Ent. Rio 7(1-4) : 97-151.
TOWNSEND, C. H. T. 1931. New genera and species of American oestromus-
coid flies. Rev. Ent. Rio 1 (4) : 447-8.
1939. Manual of Myiology. Part 8. C. Townsend and Filhos, Sao
Paulo, Brazil. 405 p.


Dept. of Biological Sciences
Clemson University
Clemson, SC 29631

The first positively associated larva and pupa of Oxyethira leonensis
Kelley are described. Also given are characteristics to distinguish the final
instar larva of 0. leonensis from that of the previously described North
American species, 0. dualis Morton. Oxyethira dualis has middle and hind
legs nearly 3 times as long as the fore leg and a mean length greater than
3.10 mm; 0. leonensis has middle and hind legs nearly 4 times as long as
the fore leg and a mean length of 2-3 mm. Oxyethira leonensis is a piercer-
herbivore known to occur in Florida, South Carolina, and Alabama.

La primera larva y crisilida positivamente asociadas del Oxyethira
leonensis Kelley estdn descritas. Tambi6n dado son los caricteres para
distinguir la larva del O. leonensis de 0. dualis Morton, la especie Norte-
americana descrita previamente. Oxyethira dualis tiene las patas centrales
y traseras casi 3 veces tan largas como la pata delantera y una longitud
promedio mayor de 3.10 mm; 0. leonensis tiene las patas centrales y traseras
casi 4 veces tan largas como la pata delantera y la longitud promedio de
2-3 mm. Oxyethira leonensis es un herbivoro-perforado que se encuentra en
Florida, Carolina del Sur, y Alabama.

The study of Hydroptilidae has historically been hampered by their
small size and lack of adequate characteristics necessary for their separation.
Although Hydroptilidae contains approximately 50 genera and over 600
species, most larvae remain unassociated with identifiable adults. The genus
Oxyethira (Eaton) is certainly no exception. Recent work by Kelley (1981,
1982) on Oxyethira adults, however, facilitates larval association. Previous
work on immature North American Oxyethira species is scant. Sibley (1926)
provided a description of 0. dualis with figures of the larval head and
thorax. Ross (1944) illustrated 0. dualis legs. The purpose of this paper is
to provide a description of the immature stages of 0. leonensis.
Identification and association of larva, pupa and adult were accomplished
by using the "metamorphotype method" (Milne 1938), where the genitalia of


390 Florida Entomologist 66 (4) December, 1983

the mature pupa (pharate adult), and the larval sclerites (retained in the
pupal case) are associated.

Oxyethira leonensis Kelley
Fig. 1-10

EGG: Unknown.
LARVA: Last (5th) instar mean length 2.37 mm (n=6, range 1.93-2.82).
Head light brown, without any distinguishing marks or patterns (Fig. 1).
Frontoclypeal apotome with 2 pairs of setae, and very obvious crenulations
(Fig. 2). Genal area also crenulated (Fig. 2). Positions of other setae and
sensory pits as illustrated (Fig. 1). Setae and pits numbered according to
system of Williams and Wiggins (1982). Each mandible (Fig. 3) with 2
apical (incisor cusps) and 5 subapical (molar cusps) teeth, 2 long setae at
the postero-lateral margin and 4 subapical setae. Thoracic nota also light
brown and fully sclerotized, with setae and sensory pits as shown (Fig.
4a,b,c). Middle and hind legs (Fig. 5b,c) characteristically almost 4 times
as long as fore legs (Fig. 5a), with tarsal claws roughly 1/2 length of tarsi
and extending beyond abdominal segment IV. Fore tibia with medio-distal
projection. Fore tarsus with claw of approximately equal length. Hind
femur curved (Fig. 5c). Abdomen with scattered setae dorso-laterally on
segments V through VIII (Fig. 6). Abdominal segment IX with sclerites
and anal claw as shown (Fig. 7). Larval case typically bottle-shaped,
laterally compressed at the broad end.
PUPA: Pupal mean length male 1.71 mm (n=4, range 1.62-1.76 mm), fe-
male 2.21 mm (n=9, range 2.05-2.43 mm). Head and thorax brown, ab-
domen greenish with 7 apparent segments. Wings dark. Antennae long and
coarse. Fore tibia without apical spurs (Fig. 10), middle tibia with 2 apical
and 1 preapical spur. Full habitus view in case shown with head toward
broad, depressed end (Fig. 9; the longitudinal orientation of the pupa in
its case is opposite that of all known Oxyethira species larvae, and is rotated
90'). Pupal case with attaching anchors at 4 corners (Fig. 8).

Oxyethira leonensis has been previously recorded from Florida (Leon
Co., Tall Timbrs Res. Station, 29 V 1973, Kelley 1981), South Carolina
(Pickens Co., Lake Issaqueena, Kelley, unpub.), and Alabama (Tuscaloosa
Co., Harris, unpub.). I collected 5th instar larvae and pupae attached under
the leaves of emergent vascular hydrophytes at the edge of a deep swamp
(S.C.: Pickens Co., Three-and-twenty Creek at Highway 178). The first
through 4th instars of Oxyethira spp. are free-living (Nielson 1948) and of
short duration, showing simple hypermetamorphosis (Marshall 1979). The
5th instar is the case building stage and is the principle growing stage
(Marshall 1979). Oxyethira feed by sucking fluid out of filamentous algae,
and may also eat solid food (Nielson 1948). Respiration is cutaneous, with
the renewal of oxygen presumably taking place by diffusion into the case
and through its walls, since the larva. exhibits no respiratory undulations
(Nielson 1948). Just prior to pupation, the larva reverses its position in the
case, which is now sealed at both ends (stopped with a plug of debris at the
narrow end, functionally sealed at the broad end) and fastened to the sub-

Back: Oxyethira leonensis




9 8


310 6

Fig. 1-10. Oxyethira leonensis larval and pupal characters. (1) Larval
head, dorsal. (2) Larval head, lateral. (3) Left larval mandible, ventral.
(4) Larval thoracic nota: (4a) pronotum, (4b) mesonotum, (4c) metanotum.
(5) Left larval legs, posterior: (5a) fore, (5b) middle, (5c) hind. (6) Larva,
full habitus, without legs. (7) Larval abdominal segment IX, left lateral.
(8) Pupal case, dorsal. (9) Pupa, full habitus in case, ventral. (10) Pupal
right fore leg, posterior.

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

state with 2 posterior and 2 anterior "cables" of silk thread spread
apically to form attachment discs. Nielson (1948) reported a pre-pupal
stage beginning up to 3 days after the case is closed, and lasting 2 to 6 days,
with a pupal stage lasting 8 to 17 days after that.

Of the North American species of Oxyethira, only the larva of 0. dualis
has been previously described, as stated above. Using these descriptions, the
following characters should be used to separate the 5th instar larva of this
species from 0. leonensis.

1. Middle and hind legs nearly 4 times as long as fore leg; larval
length 2-3 mm ....... .~.~~-... .....--..... Oxyethira leonensis
1'. Middle and hind legs nearly 3 times as long as fore leg; larval
length greater than 3.10 mm ...........-....-....... Oxyethira dualis
MATERIAL EXAMINED: All the material examined was collected by the author
(S.C.: Pickens Co., Three-and-twenty Creek at County Highway 178, 20-X-
1982) and is deposited in the Clemson University Insect Museum.


I would like to express my appreciation to: Dr. R. W. Kelley for his
assistance in the identification of the pharate adult; Ms. Y. I. Cesta for her
aid in the translation of the abstract; Mr. B. T. Cooper for reviewing the
manuscript; especially Mr. R. W. Holzenthal and Mr. S. W. Hamilton for
their assistance, guidance, and endless patience; and finally I am grateful
to Dr. J. C. Morse, without whom none of this would have been possible.

KELLEY, R. W. 1981. New species of Oxyethira (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae)
from the southeastern United States. J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 16: 368-75.
1982. The microcaddis genus Oxyethira (Trichoptera: Hydrop-
tilidae): Morphology, biogeography, evolution, and classification.
Ph.D. Dissertation, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina.
433 p.
MARSHALL, J. E. 1979. A review of the genera of the Hydroptilidae (Tri-
choptera). Bull. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 39: 135-239.
MILNE, M. 1938. The "metamorphotype method" in Trichoptera. J. New
York Ent. Soc. 46: 435-7.
NIELSON, A. 1948. Postembryonic development and biology of the Hy-
droptilidae. Det. Kong. Danske Vidensk. Selscab Biol. Skrift. 5: 1-200,
pl. I-III.
RoSS, H. 1944. The caddisflies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois. Bull. Illinois Nat.
Hist. Surv. 23: 1-326.
SIBLEY, C. K. 1926. Studies on Trichoptera, pp. 185-221, 236-247. In: A
preliminary biological survey of the Lloyd-Cornell Reservation. Bull.
Lloyd Lib. Bot. Pharm. Materia Medica. 247 p.
WILLIAMS, N. E., AND G. B. WIGGINS. 1982. A proposed setal nomenclature
and homology for larval Trichoptera. Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Trichoptera.
Series Entomologica 20: 421-9.


December, 1983

Nguyen et al.: Rearing Aleurocanthus 393


Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Division of Plant Industry
P.O. Box 1269
Gainesville, FL 32602 USA

No citrus blackfly preference was found for rough lemon plants grown
in the laboratory under 16L:8D photophase (artificial light) versus those
grown in the greenhouse (natural light). Of 3 plant species, rough lemon
(Citrus limon [L.] Burm. f. 'Rough'), sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.),
and Ardisia solanacea Roxb., analyzed for their efficacy as citrus blackfly
hosts, rough lemon was found to be the most suitable host plant for mass
production of citrus blackfly and its parasites.

La mosca negra de los citricos no present el tener preferencia por las
plants de lim6n rugoso cultivadas en laboratorio bajo 16L:8D fotofase (luz
artificial) versus aquellas cultivadas en invernadero (luz natural). De 3
species de plants de lim6n rugoso (Citrus limon [L.] Burm. f. 'Rough'),
naranja agria (Citrus aurantium L.), y Ardisia solanacea Roxb. analizadas
por su eficacia como hospederas de la mosca negra de los citricos, el lim6n
rugoso demostr6 ser el hospedero mas apropiado para la producci6n en masa
de la mosca negra de los citricos y sus parasitos.

Citrus blackfly (CBF), Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, a serious pest of
citrus of Asian origin, was first found in the Western Hemisphere in Jamaica
in 1912 (Ashby 1915). Since then it has been established in Mexico, Central
America, and the West Indies (Dietz and Zetek 1920, Quaintance and Baker
1916). It was discovered in Florida in 1939 on Key West from where it was
eradicated after a 3 year effort (Newell and Brown 1939) and again in Fort
Lauderdale in February 1976 (Hart et al. 1978). By the end of 1979, CBF
had infested Broward, Dade, Palm Beach, Lee, Collier, Highlands, Okee-
chobee, Indian River, St. Lucie, and Brevard counties. A laboratory was built
in Fort Lauderdale in 1978 by the Division of Plant Industry and the U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
(USDA-APHIS) to produce parasites of the CBF for the biological control
program in Florida. CBF are highly polyphagous and oviposit on at least
160 plant species belonging to 80 families (Dietz and Zetek 1920, Dowell and
Steinberg 1979). This study was devised to determine suitable host plants
for CBF mass production. The results of rearing CBF on 3 candidate plants,

'Homoptera: Aleyrodidae
2Division of Plant Industry, 3027 Lake Alfred Road, Winter Haven, FL 33880, USA.

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

Ardisia solanacea Roxb., rough lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burn. f. 'Rough'),
and sour orange (C. aurantium L.) under laboratory conditions are re-
ported. These species were selected based on previous works conducted at the
USDA/CBF rearing facilities in Texas and Mexico, field observations by
Howard (1979) and Dowell and Steinberg (1979), and cultural factors in-
volved in propagations.

Host preference and mortality of CBF on rough lemon plants grown in the
greenhouse versus laboratory.
Rough lemon seeds were sown in a bed of Terra-lite vermiculite saturated
with distilled water and placed in a germination chamber at 250C and 100%
RH for 7 days. Germinated seeds were planted, 2-3 seedlings per pot, in 100
white plastic pots (6 cm height x 6 cm diam.) filled with vermiculite satu-
rated with Hoagland's solution (Sanchez et al. 1977) contained in a sterile
plastic tray (86x56x20 cm). One tray of rough lemon seedlings was placed
in the greenhouse which was regulated at an average temperature of 250C.
Another tray of seedlings was kept in the laboratory and maintained on a
16L:8D photophase at an average temperature of 250C and 75% RH. At the
end of a 12-week growth period, plants of equal height grown in the labora-
tory were taken to the greenhouse and arranged, alternately, with those
grown in the greenhouse. These were housed in 4 rearing hydroponic cages
used by Sanchez et al. 1977. Rearing cages (90x44x64 cm) built of plywood
were fitted with windows covered with plexiglas or nylon screen (100 mesh)
to provide adequate light exposure, ventilation, and for observation. Thirty-
five potted plants were fitted into holes drilled through a styrofoam sheet
which floated in a plastic tray (86x56x12 cm) containing 20 litres of Hoag-
land's solution placed inside the cage. This solution was aerated with an air
bubbler and a small fan was kept in the cage to increase air circulation.
A 2-year-old CBF stock colony reared on rough lemon plants in the
greenhouse was used for this study. Donor rough lemon plants, containing
4,000 to 6,000 male and female CBF pupae ready to emerge, were inverted
and sprayed with a mixture of nontoxic black Driad powder paint, agar and
distilled water to minimize the CBF ovipositional stimuli on donor plants.
After 12 days, the donor plants were removed, and the number of emerged
CBF was recorded by counting the characteristic T-shaped opening in the
pupal cases. Ten days later the number of eggs and egg spirals were counted
on the 15 plants located in the center of the cage. Nymphs were allowed to
develop to third and fourth stages (ca. 5 weeks) before they were counted
to compare mortality rates of the CBF developing from egg to last instar
for each host plant. During the final 5-week period, CBF were allowed to
emerge. Mortality rates from egg to emerged adult were then calculated.

Preference and mortality of CBF on rough lemon versus sour orange/Ardisia
solanacea Roxb.
Rough lemon and sour orange seedlings were grown simultaneously in
the laboratory under a 16-h light cycle for a 12-week period. Plants of equal
height were chosen and arranged in an alternate pattern in 3 rearing cages
in the greenhouse for a 2-week period, then inoculated with CBF.


December, 1983

Nguyen et al.: Rearing Aleurocanthus

Rough lemon and A. solanacea Roxb. were grown in the laboratory for
a 12-week period, then transferred to the greenhouse for an additional 3-week
growth period, which was the time required for A. solanacea Roxb. to reach
the same height as the rough lemon. Plants were arranged in 3 rearing
cages as described above.
The same procedures were followed for inoculation of the plants with
CBF, determination of CBF preference for each type of host plant and
calculation of mortality rates as previous experiments.

No significant difference was found in CBF preference or development
on rough lemon plants grown under 16L:8D photophase and natural light.
Survival (no. of eggs/no, of CBF emerged) slightly decreased as the level
of eggs in the cage increased (Table 1). The mass production of CBF can
be obtained with plants cultured either in the greenhouse or in the labora-
tory with comparable results; however, plants in the greenhouse grew faster
and produced more leaves than those in the laboratory.
Of the 2 citrus species studied, rough lemon was a better host than sour
orange with a significant difference (P-0.01) in the oviposition, develop-
ment, and survival of CBF (Table 2). When the rearing cage was infested
with 36,000 to 40,000 CBF eggs, the percentage of CBF emerging as adults
was 50% from rough lemon and 41% from sour orange. In hydroponic solu-
tion, rough lemon always grew faster and formed more leaves than sour
A. solanacea germinated and grew more slowly than rough lemon in
vermiculite. When the 2 spp. of plants were placed together in the hy-
droponic cage (both of the same age), A. solanacea was shorter than rough
lemon; however, this condition was soon reversed as the growth rate of A.
solanacea proceeded more quickly in the hydroponic solution. Three weeks
after the introduction of A. solanacea into hydroponics, CBF were introduced
into the cage. At the end of the experiment, A. solanacea had attained twice
the height of rough lemon and had produced more leaves. However, rough
lemon was the more favored host for CBF. There was a significant difference
at the 1% level in the oviposition, development, and survival of CBF on
rough lemon as compared with A. solanacea (Table 3). Approximately twice
the number of CBF eggs were laid, with half the mortality rate, on rough
lemon than on A. solanacea.
Our studies show that the rough lemon is the best host for mass produc-
tion of CBF in the greenhouse. Dowell et al. (1978) also reported that rough
lemon was the favored host of CBF in the field. Due to the potential problem
of whitefly contamination of greenhouse cultures, A. solanacea could be
considered a good host for production of CBF as it has been found to be
free of citrus whiteflies (Howard 1979). The rearing facility was maintained
for 3 years, producing about 2 million CBF each month in 1981, without any
contamination of whitefly or foot rot caused by Phytophthora spp. Therefore,
rough lemon is still considered the most suitable host of CBF, whether
grown in the greenhouse or laboratory.



Level of
infestation No. egg spirals No. eggs per No. 3rd-4th stage No. CBF emerged
(No. eggs/cage) per plant plant per plant per plant Survival'

12,790 33.4 3.3 443.1 56.9 291.4 49.0 173.2 31.1 0.496 0.059
19,040 32.2 3.9 744.5 86.6 498.7 72.8 278.4 53.9 0.509 0.055
32,790 43.4 7.9 1033.5 158.3 573.2 166.1 243.7 50.0 0.431 0.091
33,510 67.8 + 14.2 1352.2 270.6 911.4 133.7 347.4 108.1 0.412 0.082

'Survival = No. CBF emerged/No. of eggs per plant.


Level of
(No. eggs/cage)





Rough lemon
Sour orange

Rough lemon
Sour orange

Rough lemon
Sour orange

egg spirals
per plant

95.8 7.3
55.8 9.5

101.0 16.1
52.1 4.6

141.8 9.2
51.0 + 5.1

eggs per

1802.4 202.0
1326.6 305.2

1708.7 309.0
1055.7 120.5

2207.5 127.7
860.3 128.3

3rd-4th stage
per plant




CBF emerged
per plant

cS v
Survival2 12

8 150.5 873.1 119.7 0.503 0.031
2 224.2 521.8 175.4 0.335 0.039

5 202.2 843.0 111.1 0.503 0.027
3 62.3 325.7 20.4 0.412 0.030 .

7 103.3 1188.1 92.6 0.481 0.029
7 72.1 424.8 67.1 0.383 0.042

s within an infestation level.


'Means for all parameters are significantly different at P 0.01 by F te3t for each host specie
'Survival = No. CBF emerged/No, of eggs per plant.



Level of No. No. No. No.
infestation Host egg spirals eggs per 3rd-4th stage CBF emerged a
(No. eggs/cage) species per plant plant per plant per plant Survival2
8,700 Rough lemon 16.1 2.3 354.0 46.2 269.2 41.4 251.1 31.4 0.472 0.058 .
A. solanacea 9.2 1.4 210.3 27.7 85.8 12.7 66.8 11.6 0.309 0.048

16,240 Rough lemon 32.8 5.4 761.2 136.8 610.4 119.9 310.1 53.1 0.380 0.041 a
A. solanacea 20.2 4.7 422.0 105.8 160.1 42.1 111.8 29.7 0.219 0.031

60,100 Rough lemon 231.0 54.1 4153.4 944.7 1619.0 296.1 906.8 93.3 0.711 0.027
A. solanacea 80.0 11.3 1171.2 193.0 403.7 43.8 265.8 33.8 0.333 0.032

1Means for all parameters are significantly different at P 0.01 by F test for each host species within an infestation level.
2Survival = No. CBF emerged/No, of eggs per plant.



Nguyen et al.: Rearing Aleurocanthus 399

ASHBY, S. F. 1915. Notes on diseases of cultivated crops in 1913-1914.
Jamaica Dept. Agri. Bull. 2: 321-2.
DIETZ, H. F., AND J. ZETEK. 1920. The blackfly of citrus and other sub-
tropical plants. USDA Bull. 885: 1-55.
DOWELL, R. V., J. A. REINERT, AND G. E. FITZPATRICK. 1978. Development
and survivorship of Aleurocanthus woglumi on six citrus hosts.
Environ. Ent. 7: 524-5.
---, AND B. STEINBERG. 1979. Development and survival of immature
citrus blackfly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on twenty-three plant spe-
cies. Ann. Ent. Soc. America 72: 721-4.
introduction and establishment of parasites of citrus blackfly,
Aleurocanthus woglumi in Florida (Hem.: Aleyrodidae). Ento-
mophaga 23: 361-6.
HOWARD, F. W. 1979. Studies of the host plant suitability of Ardisia
solanacea and Citrus jambhiri for citrus blackfly and citrus white-
fly. Florida Ent. 62: 380-3.
NEWELL, W., AND A. C. BROWN. 1939. Eradication of the citrus blackfly in
Key West, Fla. J. Econ. Ent. 32: 680-2.
QUAINTANCE, A. L., AND A. C. BAKER. 1916. Aleyrodidae or whiteflies at-
tacking the orange, with descriptions of three new species of economic
importance. J. Agri. Res. 6: 459-72.
QUAINTANCE, A. L., AND A. C. BAKER. 1916. Aleyrodidae, or whitefles at-
tacking the orange, with descriptions of three new species of economic
Citrus blackflies: Greenhouse culture on hydroponic citrus plants. J.
Citrus blackflies: Greenhouse culture on hydroponic citrus plants. J.
Econ. Ent. 70: 808-10.

Department of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611, USA

Thirteen species of parasitic Hymenoptera and 2 species of tachinid flies
were found parasitizing Dioryctria spp. coneworms in north Florida slash
pine (Pinus elliottii) seed orchards. Seven new host-parasite associations
were recorded. Hyssopus rhyacioniae Gahan (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)
was the most commonly collected parasite of D. amatella (Hulst), the most
common coneworm attacking north Florida slash pine. Another eulophid
(Pediobius n. sp.) was common and easily propagated in the laboratory on
cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner) pupae. Its value for release is
questionable since it also is a hyperparasite. In limited tests, a new species of
Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitized up to 70%
of the D. ebeli M & M eggs on cones placed in a seed orchard.

400 Florida Entomologist 66 (4) December, 1983

Trece species parasiticas de Hymenoptera y dos species de taquinidos
fueron encontrados parasitando a gusanos del cono, Dioryctria spp., en
semilleros de pino (Pinus elliottii) en el norte de la Florida. Esto incluye en
el registro a siete nuevas asociaciones de hospedero-parasito. Hyssopus
rhyacioniae Gahan (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) fue el parasite mas
comunmente encontrado en D. amatella (Hulst), lo cual es el gusano del
cono mas comdn en pinos (P. elliottii) en el norte de la Florida. Otro
eulophido (Pediobius sp. nov.) fue tambi6n comin y facilmente reproducido
en el laboratorio en pupas del gusano de la col Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner).
Su valor para liberaci6n es dudoso ya que tambi6n es un hiperparAsito. En
unas pruebas limitadas, nueva especie de Trichogramma (Hymenoptera:
Trichogrammatidae) parasitaba hasta un 70% de los huevos de D. ebeli
depositados en conos en un semillero de pinos.

Dioryctria spp. coneworms can potentially destroy about one half of the
annual slash pine seed crop in north Florida if insecticides are not used
(Merkel et al. 1965). No detailed studies of Dioryctria parasitoids in north
Florida have been made but Ebel (1965) listed 10 Hymenoptera and 3
Diptera parasitizing at least one of the 4 Dioryctria spp. attacking slash
pine, Pinus elliottii. Most work on Dioryctria parasitoids has been done in
Arkansas (Yearian and Warren 1964, Brown 1969, Posey 1969) and North
Carolina (Neunzig et al. 1964) on pines other than slash. Our purpose was to
determine the parasitoids present and to investigate some aspects of the
biology of the more abundant species.
Dioryctria-damaged materials from throughout north Florida slash
pine seed orchards and production areas were collected over a 2 year period.
These materials were processed to determine the relative abundance of the
parasite species, their hosts, and percentage of parasitism.
Collections were made largely in seed orchard areas that were never
treated with insecticides, although the systemic insecticide carbofuran
(2,3-Dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate), was commer-
cially applied to the soil in certain seed orchard areas at Yulee, Florida.


Collections of slash pine cones were made infrequently from September,
1977 through 1978, and monthly throughout 1979. The 1978 collections were
made mainly at the U.S.F.S. station in Olustee, Florida. In 1979, collections
continued in Olustee and were also made approximately once each month at
the Rayonier seed orchard, Yulee, Florida. Additional collections were made
in 1979 at the Buckeye Cellulose seed orchard, Perry, Florida and Owen-
Illinois seed orchard, White Springs, Florida. Bulk collections of Dioryctria-
damaged cones harvested from a number 6f locations (usually 100 or more
cones per location) were obtained at the International Forest Seed Company
in Tallahassee, during cone harvests each fall.
Slash pine samples (generally in seed orchards) were collected on every
trip. A few longleaf and loblolly cone samples were collected on several
occasions. Random collections of Dioryctria-damaged plant material were
made from all quadrants of the trees and from all age groups of trees that
were attacked. Samples included vegetative shoots, strobili, conelets, first-

Belmont & Habeck: Parasitoids of Dioryctria Spp. 401

and second-year cones, diseased cones, unharvested second-year cones,
branches, bark, and fusiform rust cankers. Due to weather and differing
field problems each collection varied from 4 or 5 to hundreds of samples.
Each sample was placed separately into a labelled 1-liter ice cream con-
tainer (Fonda type #109) with a small glass vial (12-18 mm interior diam-
eter) in the top or side. Separate samples allowed definite verification of
every host-parasite match since each sample was carefully dissected to
identify the host if a parasite emerged. Small samples which might dry out
were carefully cut open and the Dioryctria larvae placed on fresh slash pine
cones or artificial medium to allow larvae to complete development or para-
sites to emerge. Fresh undamaged cones of any available size were obtained
periodically, dipped in hot parawax, and frozen until needed for Dioryctria
larvae. Dioryctria medium was prepared similarly to the method outlined by
Fatzinger (1970). Fusiform rust galls caused by the fungus, Cronartium
quercuum (Berk.) Miyabe ex. Shirai f. sp. fusiforme, were placed in large
emergence cages made of screen and wood, and kept outside for observation.
Parasitized larvae were transferred into a bioclimatic cabinet (Ashley and
Greany 1978) provided by the U.S.D.A. Forest Service. Humidity was 60
10%, and temeprature was 27 10C with a 16D, 8L photophase.

Eighteen parasites were reared from Dioryctria species coneworms dur-
ing this study (Table 1). Most of the new parasites recorded were larval
parasites. The parasitized larvae were nearly or completely developed when
they died. Identification of coneworm larvae was based on morphological
differences between mandibles of completely developed larvae of each of the
3 most common Dioryctria species in north Florida slash pine seed orchards
(Belmont 1979).
The most important finding during this study was the discovery of a new
species of Trichogramma, identified by Dr. C. Goodpasture, U.S.D.A., Belts-
ville, Maryland. It parasitized 70-80% of D. ebeli eggs. This parasite deserves
additional study, but time and financial limitations prevented us from fol-
lowing up on this species discovered late in the study. Methods and materials
utilized in collecting this wasp were discussed by Belmont (1979).
Detailed information of the life histories of each parasite was difficult
to obtain due to scarcity of the parasites in nature but 2 parasites were
abundant enough to study in depth: Hyssopus rhyacioniae Gahan
(Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and a new species of Pediobius (Hymenoptera:
Ebel (1965) listed 8 species of parasites on D. amatella. Of these all
were recovered in the present study as well as 2 species previously un-
recorded on this host in Florida: a Bracon sp. and Exochus turgidus Hg.
(Table 1). A single Trichionotus sp. (Iohneumonidae) emerged from a
Calhoun County, Florida slash pine cone lot (n = 50), heavily infested by
D. amatella.
Parasitism by Hyssopus rhyacioniae Gahan, the most common and im-
portant larval parasite of D. amatella, ranged from 0-9% per collection. No
single species of parasite or combination of parasites effectively controlled
D. amatella populations, even in one collection area where approximately
27% parasitism occurred due to Phrynofrontina n. sp. Phanerotoma sp.



Highest %1
Major Host stage observed in Dioryctria species
Parasites attack period attacked 1 collection amatella ebeli clarioralis

Agathis sp.
Apanteles sp.
Bracon sp.
Macrocentrus sp.
Macrocentrus dioryctriae Mues.
Phanerotoma sp.
Campoplex conocola Rohwer
Coccygomimus aequalis Prov.
Exeristes comstockii Cresson
Exochus turgidus Holmgr.

Lissonota amatella Tow.
Trichionotus sp.
Hyssopus rhyacioniae
Pediobius n. sp.
Trichogramma n. sp. near
brevicapillus P. & P.
Leskiomima tenera (Wd.)
Phrynofrontina n. sp.
Xanthophyto n. sp.


Late Summer-Fall
Late Summer-Fall
Spring and Fall

Spring and Fall
Emerged in Fall

Spring and Fall












70% Field
80% Lab



(unk.-see Belmont, 1979)
X X2

S(Not entirely cone collections) -see methods and materials.
'Previously unrecorded in Florida in this host.

Belmont & Habeck: Parasitoids of Dioryctria Spp.

(Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was the major larval parasite of D. ebeli and
H. rhyacioniae was the only larval parasite collected on D. clarioralis from
slash pine materials. H. rhyacioniae also attacked larvae of D. ebeli.

Hyssopus rhyacioniae Gahan (Eulophidae)
This gregarious, external larval parasite emerged from coneworm-
damaged pine materials collected each month except November and December.
Adults emerged from various slash pine materials attacked by Dioryctria:
fusiform rust cankers, vegetative shoots, conerust-infected cones (caused by
the fungus, Cronartium strobilinum Hedge. and Hahn) and second-year
cones. Parasites were also reared from longleaf pine vegetative shoots,
second-year cones, and second-year cones which remained throughout the
winter without falling (= third-year cones). The number of H. rhyacioniae
ranged from 2-70 individuals per host larva but averaged about 30 (n = ca.
25). In the laboratory, H. rhyacioniae parasitized and killed healthy 3rd
instar to pupating field-collected D. amatella, and healthy 2nd instar to
pupating lab-reared D. amatella.
Adult H. rhyacioniae were unaffected after short periods of refrigeration
(up to 48 h at 570F). No further studies of parasite refrigeration were
made but Altenkirch (1976) refrigerated H. thymus Girault for mass-
rearing and release in Spain. Mated field-fresh females were stored at 590F
up to 3 weeks without detrimental effects to the offspring, whether fed or
unfed prior to refrigeration.
Egg (24-36 h) : 0.14-0.17 mm long (n = 21), white, simple, ovate, slightly
arched, posterior end slightly saccate, smoothly rounded, unsculptured at
100x, anterior end with a thin, sticky pedicel approximately 0.1 mm long
serving to attach the egg to the host larva.
First instar (24-40 h): 0.16-0.20 mm long (n = 21), white but semi-
transparent, somewhat cylindrical, segmented, tapering posteriorly.
Second instar to fully developed larva (ca. 46 h, 2nd inst. to prepupa):
The second instar is 0.3-0.8 mm long (n = 21) and similar in appearance to
first instar. Body segmentation is less distinct as the midsection begins to
There may be one or possibly more molts before the prepupa is attained,
but instars vary in size as they grow rapidly and look similar. Male larval
growth is greater than female larval growth since male pupae and adults
after just a day or two are always larger than female pupae and adults.
Exuviae of all molting larvae are extremely thin and difficult to detect.
Fully developed larva (first phase, 30-40 h; second-phase, 12-20 h) : Fe-
males 1.1-2.0 mm (n = 7) long, males 1.3-2.7 mm (n = 7) depending mainly
upon host size and number of larvae per host.

A. First phase: Mouth parts attached to host; ejection of meconium oc-
curs during a 3-6 hour period, generally lasting 3.5-4 hours with 20-65
individual liquid "pellets" released into a "mass" or meconium. Ap-
proximately every 3-7 minutes a drop of feces is squeezed out as the
tip of the abdomen bends around to place the drop onto the rest of
the "mass" attached to the larva's body or other nearby substrate.
B. Second phase (prepupal): (Mouthparts disengaged from the host).
The meconium has been discharged completely and the interior of the

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

December, 1983

fully developed larva is completely cream-colored. The exoskeleton
becomes milky and drier or more porous-looking, appears to begin to
dissolve, but then slowly begins to shed. The prepupa, with little
motion, undulates forward very slowly up to 6 or 7 mm until its skin
which has been cast behind it, shrivels into a thread-like remains ca.
0.5 mm long.
Pupa: Immediately following ecdysis, the head, thorax, abdomen, rudi-
mentary wings, antennae, and eyes become visible. The entire pupa initially
is light ivory-yellow to amber and eventually darkens to amber. Later the
head and the outlines of the appendages become dark amber. The head gen-
erally darkens about 40 hours after pupation. As the head darkens, a light
exocuticular pattern of lines separates left and right dorsal regions on the
head and thorax. The cast skin of the prepupa often clings to the end of the
abdomen but may eventually dislodge. The pupal maturation process gen-
erally follows this sequence: (1) No darkening to head or body (totally
straw-colored); slight amber color to highlights and head; outline to com-
pound eyes darkens; eyes tint to pink; eyes darken to red, no punctations in
compound eyes. (Duration ca. 85-95 h) (2) Mandibles and ocelli darken and
may redden; eyes become dark red with punctations; head becomes dark
amber, exocuticular line pattern readily visible on dorsal areas of head and
thorax; wing pads become amber; abdomen becomes striped, ivory to straw
to ivory. (Duration ca. 10-20 h) (3) Eyes, red-brown; wings become solid
dark amber; abdomen becomes striped, brown to straw to brown. (Duration
ca. 30-40 h) (4) Head, eyes, and body turn solid dark brown to completely
black. (Duration ca. 20-40 h) Total pupal period: x = 160 h, range 145-
195 h (n = 30). (5) Adult emerges. Sizes nearly equal those of fully de-
veloped larvae but may be slightly larger.
Adult: Female 1.14-1.35 mm long (n = 50); male 1.35-2.70 mm long
(n = 25); solid black, rarely with lighter abdominal banding, thick femurs.
Adult life span (unfed) : female 10-35 days, male 8-20 days, with ample
moisture in the bioclimatic cabinet.
The female appeared to be arrhenotokous, generally producing numerous
females and apparently less than 20% males when fertile, and producing
only male offspring when unfertilized. These data were based on 26 mated
and 2 unmated females only and should be repeated for more precise data.

Pediobius New Species (Eulophidae)
This eulophid attacked pupae of Dioryctria spp. and of other Lepidoptera
and Diptera. In slash and longleaf pine cones it parasitizes D. amatella
pupae in the fall and winter and emerges as an adult in the spring. This
was verified in the spring of 1979 from cones collected in the fall and winter
of 1978-79. It attacks pupae of the Phrynofrontina n. sp., a tachinid para-
site of D. amatella larvae (mainly in the summer in pine cones), but not
those of the Xanthophyto n. sp., another tachinid coneworm parasite.
Belmont (1979) successfully mass-reared this eulophid on cabbage
looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner), pupae. He also discussed and illustrated
certain morphological differences between this eulophid and H. rhyacioniae.
Egg (ca. 24 h): Approximately 0.18 mm long (n = 10), ovoid, posterior
larger than anterior, white, smooth, unsculptured at 60x, similar in shape to
H. rhyacioniae egg, without pedicel.


Belmont & Habeck: Parasitoids of Dioryctria Spp.

First instar (ca. 20 h) : 0.20-0.30 mm long (n = 20), similar in shape to
H. rhyacioniae except more swollen in mid-section.
Second instar through completely developed larvae (iR = 8.5 days): (n =
100) 0.3 mm (second instar) to 1.80-2.60 mm (completely developed larvae)
(n = 20). It is unknown how many molts occur, since each larval stage
looks so similar and has developed for a slightly different period of time.
Completely developed larvae range from 1.80-2.60 mm (n = 20); although
this size larva may undergo one or more molts, the larval size remains the
same between 6 and 10 days after hatching. The method of meconium
deposition is unknown but occurs in a few hours. Mandibles of this species
are sickle-shaped while those of H. rhyacioniae larvae are straight (Fig. 1).
Pupa: 1.70-2.50 mm long (n = 50), slightly smaller than completely
developed larvae, the pupae are white at first and generally change to straw
to black. The pupal stage lasts 3.5-4 days, about 60% (n = 15) shorter than
the duration for H. rhyacioniae.
Adult: Male-1.35-1.85 mm long (n = 50); female-1.40-2.00 mm long
(n = 50) lab-reared specimens. Life span may be up to a week longer than
H. rhyacioniae.
Color: Both sexes are generally metallic violet-green although heads and
thoraxes are generally metallic green with first 2 to 3 tarsal segments on
all legs cream-colored.
Less detailed data concerning other D. amatella and other Dioryctria sp.
parasites was discussed by Belmont (1979).

Although additional Dioryctria larval parasites probably exist, they are
undoubtedly rare in north Florida slash pine. Three probable Dioryctria spp.
parasites emerged from slash pine material: Trathela sp. (Ichneumonidae),
an unidentified species in the Mesosteninae (Ichneumonidae), and Coccy-
gomimnus aequalis Prov. (Ichneumonidae).
No one parasite species or combination of species had a high enough
percent parasitism during the season to substantially reduce or control
Dioryctria spp. populations.
Refinement of rearing procedures for H. rhyacioniae might allow produc-
tion of large numbers of this parasite for mass-release. This species could
successfully reduce the high numbers of actively feeding Dioryctria spp.
larvae, but by release time, some cones would already be damaged. This is
also true for the new species of Pediobius. This wasp is also hyperparasitic


Fig. 1. Mandibles of fully developed larvae of (a) Pediobius new species
and (b) Hyssopus rhyacioniae Gahan.


Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

on the Phyrnofrontina n. sp. Dioryctria parasite. However, both wasp species
have the possibility of effectively suppressing subsequent Dioryctria spp.
generations through the season by mass releases early in the season.
The greatest hope for effective coneworm control could very well rest
with the perfection of a full-scale mass-release program for the new Tri-
chogramma egg parasite. Which Dioryctria spp. eggs the Trichogramma
n. sp. attacks must be determined. Since this wasp was rapidly reared in the
lab, it offers excellent opportunity for controlling coneworms before any
damage occurs.

Drs. E. E. Grissell, R. Carlson, P. Marsh, C. Goodpasture, C. W. Sabro-
sky, U.S.D.A. Systematic Entomology Lab, Washington, D.C. Drs. C. Yoshi-
moto and 0. Peck, Canadian National Collection, Ottawa, and H. N. Green-
baum, University of Florida, provided determinations. Field collections were
facilitated by Dr. W. Beers, Jr.-Buckeye Cellulose Corporation, Mr.
J. Hickman-Owens-Illinois Corporation, Mrs. S. Kennerly-Georgia Pacific
Corporation, Mr. D. Rye-Container Corporation of America, Mr. C. Wind-
sor-ITT-Rayonier Corporation, and Mr. W. Bell-International Forest
Seed Company. The Southern Forest Disease and Insect Research Council,
Atlanta, Georgia, provided partial funding for this research and Mr. E. P.
Merkel, Drs. E. Clark and T. Miller and others at the Southeastern Forest
Experiment Station in Olustee, Florida provided specimens, a rearing
chamber, field collections, references, and other assistance. We thank every-
one for their contributions to this research. Florida Agric. Expt. Sta. J.
Series No. 3169.

ALTENKIRCH, W. 1976. Experiments on mass rearing and releasing of
Elachertus (Hyssopus) thymus Girault, parasite of the European
pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia bouliana Schiff. J. Plnt. Dis. Prot. 83
(1/2/3) : 1-15.
ASHLEY, T. R., AND P. D. GREANY. 1978. Bioclimatic cabinet for insect rear-
ing and research. Pages 3-5 in N. C. Leppla and T. R. Ashley. Facil-
ities for insect research and production. U.S.D.A. S.E.A. Tech. Bull.
1576. (Washington, D.C.)
BELMONT, R. A. 1979. Parasites of Dioryctria spp. coneworms (Lepidoptera:
Pyralidae) in north Florida slash pine seed orchards. M.S. Thesis,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
BROWN, I. L. 1969. Insects and other arthropods associated with the cone-
shoot complex of loblolly and shortleaf pines in Arkansas. M.S. Thesis,
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 180 p.
EBEL, G. H. 1965. The Dioryctria coneworms of north Florida pines
(Lepidoptera: Phycitidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. America 58(5): 623-30.
FATZINGER, C. W. 1970. Aseptic techniques for rearing Dioryctria abietella
(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, Phycitinae) on artificial medium. Ann. Ent.
Soc. America 63 (6) : 1716-8.
MERKEL, E. P., A. E. SQUILLACE, AND G. W. BENGSTON. 1965. Evidence of
the inherent resistance to Dioryctria infestation in slash pine. Proc.
Eighth South. Forest. Tree Imp. Conf.: 96-9.
NEUNZIG, H. H., E. D. CASHATT, AND G. A. MATUZA. 1964. Observations on
the biology of four species of Dioryctria in North Carolina


December, 1983

Belmont & Habeck: Parasitoids of Dioryctria Spp. 407

(Lepidoptera: Phycitidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. America 57: 317-21.
POSEY, A. F. 1969. Observations on the biology of Dioryctria clarioralis
(Walker) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae). M.S. Thesis. University of
Arkansas. Fayetteville, Arkansas. 37 p.
YEARIAN, W. C., AND L. O. WARREN. 1964. Insects of pine cones in Arkansas.
J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 37: 259-64.


North Carolina State Museum of Natural History
P. O. Box 27647
Raleigh, North Carolina 27611 USA

Caralinda causeyi n. sp. and C. dactylifera n. sp. are described from
Florida and Georgia, bringing the known generic composition to 4 species, 3
of which occur in northern Florida. Two new records of C. pulchritecta
provide knowledge on variation and expand its known range into southeastern
Alabama. A full generic description is now possible for Caralinda along with
a key to species. Diagnostic illustrations are provided for the new species to
aid in determinations.

Se described Caralinda causeyi sp. nov. y C. dactylifera sp. nov. de Florida
y Georgia. Asi la composici6n generic conocida incluye 4 species, con 3 de
estas ocurriendo en el norte de Florida. Dos registros nuevos de C.
pulchritecta aumentan el conocimiento de la variaci6n y extienden la distri-
buci6n de la especie hasta el sureste de Alabama. Ahora es possible describir
en forma complete el genero Caralinda, y constuir una clave para las
species. Se presentan ilustraciones diagnosticas para todas las nuevas
species para ayudar en las identificaciones.

The milliped genus Caralinda is one of the most southern in the
Xystodesmidae. It was proposed by Hoffman (1978) for the new species,
beatrix, collected in Tift County, Georgia, which remains the northernmost
generic locality. In 1979 f described a second species, pulchritecta, from
Jackson County, Florida, and the new congeners diagnosed herein bring the
known Floridian fauna to 3 species. Caraclinda is thus the most diverse
xystodesmid genus in Florida, ahead of Cheiropus Loomis, Dicellarius
Chamberlin, and Pleuroloma Rafinesque, with only two species each.
We have the late Dr. Nell B. Causey to thank for the new material of
Caralinda. This paper is based entirely upon specimens in her collection,
which was transferred to the Florida State Collection of Arthropods upon
her death in 1979. For 20 years she amassed 25 samples and over 75 speci-
mens of what she recognized as a new genus, as evidenced by her identifica-

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

tion labels. She never published a name, however, and Hoffman is thus the
author. Dr. Causey nevertheless knew of Caralinda long before anyone else,
and it seems only proper that a species be named in her honor. She also left
her colleagues a vast collection that is an invaluable archive of the Nearctic
and Neotropical faunas. I in particular have benefited from this material
and am pleased to extend a patronym in recognition of the important con-
tribution to diplopodology that her collection represents.
The new species of Caralinda require modification of Hoffman's generic
diagnosis (1978), and I therefore present a full description of the genus in
addition to the species accounts. Two new locality records of pulchritecta
provide insight into variation as well as slightly extending its range; beatrix,
however, is still known only from the type collection. The 4 known species of
Caralinda are quite different anatomically, yet they occur close together in
an area with little topographical relief. This suggests that distributions are
probably limited; that the species are probably allopatric; and that the north-
couth flowing rivers (for example the Chattahoochee, Appalachicola, Flint,
and Ochlockonee) may serve as range boundaries. Several additional species
probably remain to be discovered, perhaps as far east as the Suwannee River
and as far west as Mobile Bay and the Alabama River, the largest water-
courses in either direction. All but 2 of the existing samples were collected
from November through March, so additional field work should take place
at this time of year. From the material at hand, one can reasonably con-
clude that a sizeable fauna exists and that Caralinda may have the largest
species composition of any rhysodesmine genus in the eastern United States.

Genus Caralinda Hoffman

Caralinda Hoffman, 1978: 365-6; 1979: 158.

TYPE SPECIES: C. beatrix Hoffman, 1978, by original designation.
DESCRIPTION: A genus of small xystodesmids with the following char-
Body composed of head and 20 segments in both sexes; size varying from
around 16-24 mm in length and 3.5-5 mm in width; W/L ratio similarly vary-
ing from about 20-24%. Body essentially parallel-sided in midbody region,
tapering at both ends.
Head of normal appearance, smooth, polished. Epicranial suture distinct
or indistinct, terminating in interantennal region, not apically bifid; inter-
antennal isthmus broad; genae with or without slight central impressions,
not margined laterally, ends broadly rounded and projecting slightly beyond
adjacent cranial margins. Antennae moderately slender, variable in length,
becoming progressively more hirsute distally, with 4 conical sensory cones
on ultimate article, no other sensory structures apparent. Facial setae
variable: epicranial, interantennal, clypeal,, and labral present; subantennal
present or absent; with or without scattered setae in frontoclypeal region;
clypeal and labral series usually merging and continuing for about 1/2
length of genal margins.
Terga smooth, polished, occasionally becoming moderately coriaceous.
Collum broad, ends subequal to those of following tergite. Paranota mod-
erately to strongly depressed but generally continuing slope of dorsum;
scaputoral rim continuing across entire dorsum of body segments.


December, 1983

Shelley: Caralinda 409

Peritremata long and narrow, distinctly elevated above paranotal surface;
ozopores located just caudal to midlength, opening laterad.
Caudal segments normal for family.
Sides of metazonites generally smooth. Pregonopodal sterna of males
modified as follows: that of segment 4 with variable hirsute process between
3rd legs, usually much longer than widths of adjacent coxae; sternum of
segment 5 also with variable hirsute process, divided or undivided apically,
subequal to or longer than widths of adjacent coxae; sternum of segment
6 flat and recessed to accommodate gonopodal telopodites, wider than preced-
ing sterna. Postgonopodal sterna with lowly rounded, variably hirsute lobes
on caudal edges, with variable degrees of pilosity between anterior legs.
Gonapophyses short, apically expanded. Coxae without modifications; pre-
femoral spines straight, acute; tarsal claws slightly bisinuate. Hypoproct
broadly rounded; paraprocts with margins slightly thickened.
Gonopodal aperture broadly avoid, extending beyond lateral margins of
coxae, with or without slight anteriolateral and posteriolateral indentations,
lateral edges level with metazonal surfaces or slightly elevated and flared.
Gonopods in situ with acropodites overlying 6th sternum, tips not over-
lapping, prefemoral processes crossing in midline over aperture. Coxae
moderate in size, unmodified, attached by sclerotized, median sternal
remnant. Prefemur from 1/3 to 1/2 of telopodite length; prefemoral process
variable, either erect and apically flared, or bent strongly subcaudad at
midlength with terminal corners produced into 2 subacute projections di-
rected oppositely. Acropodite demarcated from prefemur by cingulum, either
thin and laminate, or thick and heavily sclerotized; configuration highly
variable, but generally forming shield for solenomerite; with or without
various thickened lobes or folds; margins smooth or highly serrate.
Solenomerite short and acute, usually located around midlength of acropodite,
arising from lobe of acropodite, directed ventrad. Prostatic groove arising
in pit in prefemur, running along medial side of acropodite to terminal
opening on solenomerite.
Cyphopod aperture broad, encircling 2nd legs. Cyphopods in situ vari-
able, with receptacle or valves visible in aperture. Receptacle flat and saddle-
shaped, or cupped around end of valves. Latter subequal and finely granu-
late. Operculum minute, hidden under free end of valves.
DISTRIBUTION: South central Georgia, southeastern Alabama, and north-
ern Florida (Fig. 11). The range limits remain to be determined.
SPECIES: Four are known; others probably occur in this general area.
REMARKS: Hoffman (1978) tentatively placed Caralinda in the tribe
Rhysodesmini as a disjunct member. I agreed with this assessment (Shelley
1980) and stated that the considerable differences between it and other
tribal constituents argued for an extremely remote relationship with them.
Caralinda, like Eurymerodesmus, is a cool weather genus with species
prevalent from November through March. It is therefore poorly known be-
cause most collecting has occurred in the warm seasons of the year when it
is absent from the epigean fauna. Thus, we have only begun to learn about
Caralinda, and winter collecting may produce from 2 to 4 additional species
between the Suwannee and Alabama Rivers, and perhaps inland as far as
the Fall Zone.

410 Florida Entomologist 66 (4) December, 1983

Key to Species of Caralinda (based on adult males)
1. Acropodite thin and laminate; prefemoral process erect,
apically flared; Houston Co., AL, and Jackson Co., FL
-.-.. .. ....... ...................... pulchritecta Shelley
1'. Acropodite thick and heavily sclerotized; prefemoral process
bent strongly subcaudad at midlength, terminal corners pro-
duced into 2 subacute projections ...-. ........ .. 2
2(1'). Solenomerite projecting beyond apex of acropodite; latter with
central dactyliform process at midlength on medial side; Bay,
Walton, and Okaloosa Cos., FL ..........- dactylifera new species
2'. Solenomerite located subterminally, not projecting beyond apex
of acropodite; latter with variable lobes but without dactyli-
form projection .. .. . ......... .. ................. ... 3
3(2'). Apex of acropodite bent strongly submediad, margins finely
serrate; Tift Co., GA -..... --.. -- ...~....... ....... beatrix Hoffman
3'. Apex of acropodite expanded into 4 lobes, directed media,
caudad, anteriad, and ventrad; margins smooth; Thomas,
Grady and Brooks Cos., GA, and Leon and Jefferson Cos., FL
.......---- -- .- ..- --. ------............ causeyi new species

TYPE SPECIMENS: Male holotype and 18 male and 8 female paratypes
collected by Wulf Reiss, 13-29-XI-1973, from Tall Timbers Research Station,
ca. 22 mi. N Tallahassee, Leon Co., FL. Two male and one female paratypes
deposited in North Carolina State Museum collection.
DIAGNOSIS: Prefemoral process bent strongly subcaudad at midlength,
apex variable; solenomerite falcate, subterminal, arising from lobe near
midlength of acropodite; latter expanded distad into 4 variable lobes, di-
rected media, anteriad, caudad, and ventrad.
HOLOTYPE: Length 21.1 mm, width of 3rd segment 4.1 mm, of 6th seg-
ment 4.3 mm, of 10th segment 4.3 mm, of 15th segment 4.1 mm; W/L ratio
Color in life unknown; specimen completely bleached by alcohol with no
evidence of pattern.
Somatic features similar to those of beatrix with following exceptions:
Width across genal apices 2.3 mm, interantennal isthmus 0.8 mm;
epicranial suture distinct. Antennae reaching back to middle of 4th para-
nota, relative lengths of antennomeres 2>3=5>6>4>1>7. Genae with
slight central impression. Facial setae as follows: epicranial 2-2, inter-
antennal 1-1, subantennal 1-1, about 8 scattered setae of varying lengths in
frontoclypeal region, genal 2-2, clypeal about 10-10, labral about 14-14,
merging with clypeal series and continuing to about midlength of genal
margins, about 10 setae on each side.
Terga smooth, polished, highly glossy. Collum broad, not extending be-
yond margins of adjacent tergite. Paranota moderately depressed, con-
tinuing slope of dorsum; caudolateral corners rounded through segment 5,
becoming blunt on segment 6 and progressively more pointed posteriorly.
Sternum of segment 4 with long, ventrally directed process between 3rd
legs, much longer than widths of adjacent coxae, with 2 pairs of para-
median seta at midlength (Fig. 1); of segment 5 with moderately long,
apically hirsute process between 4th legs subsimilar to that of pulchritecta,

Shelley: Caralinda


left gonopod of holotype, medial view. 4) the same, lateral view. 5) telopodite

Fig. 1-5. Caralinda causeyi. 1) process of 4th sternum of holotype,CIES

Fig. 1-5

5th legs set slightly farther apart than 4th; of segment 6 flat and recessed to
accommodate gonopodal telopodites, wider than preceding sterna. Post-
gonopodal sterna with small, rounded lobes between caudal legs, covered with
dense clusters of setae; sparser clumps of setae between anterior legs.
Gonopodal aperture very broad, extending well beyond lateral margins of
coxae, indented slightly anteriolaterad and caudolaterad, sides elevated and
slightly flared. Gonopods in situ (Fig. 2) with coxae protruding ventrad
from aperture, acropodites extending anteriad and overlying 6th sternum,
prefemoral processes crossing in midline. Gonopod structure as follows
(Fig. 3-4): prefemur about 1/3 of acropodite length; prefemoral process
curved strongly caudad at midlength, expanded apically into 2 acute projec-
tions, directed oppositely. Acropodite set off from prefemur by cingulum,
extending sublinearly with lobes as follows: one basally on caudal side, one
at midlength on medial surface with 2 small basal teeth, and 4 distally di-
at midlength on medial surface with 2 small basal teeth, and 4 distally di-

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

rected media, caudad, anteriad, and ventrad; anterior lobe elongate and
apically subacute, ventral lobe produced on anterior side into subacute tip,
other lobes broadly rounded. Solenomerite a short falcate projection arising
apically from lobe at midlength, situated adjacent to medial terminal lobe of
acropodite. Prostatic groove arising in pit in prefemur, curving around base
of prefemoral process, extending along medial face of acropodite onto lobe
at midlength, continuing to terminal opening on solenomerite.
MALE PARATYPES: The male paratypes agree essentially with the holo-
FEMALE PARATYPE: The female paratype agrees closely with the males
in somatic features, except the paranota are more strongly depressed, creat-
ing the appearance of a more highly arched body.
Cyphopods in situ with edges of valves visible in aperture; valves sub-
equal. Receptacle moderate in size, cupped around medial side of valves.
VARIATION: The gonopods of the available material of causeyi are highly
variable for such a short geographic distance. The Grady County, Georgia,
site is only about 16 miles from the type locality, but the gonopods are
strikingly different as shown in Fig. 5. The prefemoral process is apically
expanded, and the margin is scalloped, with the outer teeth slightly larger.
The basal lobe of the acropodite is reduced, and the prostatic groove passes
onto the acropodite along an anteriomedial ridge. The medial lobe at mid-
length is absent, and the solenomerite arises as a separate projection from
the acropodite stem. Apically, the medial lobe is reduced and subtriangular;
the anterior and caudal lobes are subsimilar to those of the type; and the
ventral lobe has two subterminal teeth on the anterior side.
DISTRIBUTION: Southern Georgia and north central Florida (Fig. 11).
The exact limits remain to be determined, but the Appalachicola River
probably forms the western boundary. Specimens were examined as follows:
GEORGIA: Grady Co., 3 mi. W. Cairo, 5 8, 9, 26-1-1965, N. B. Causey.
Thomas Co., Bar M Ranch near Boston, 9, 23-III-1973, Sedgwick. Brooks
Co., Quitman, 3 S, 9, 14-1-1980, G. Collins.
FLORIDA: Leon Co., Tall Timbers Research Station ca. 22 mi. N Talla-
hassee, 4 $, 9, 2-25-1-1971; 8, 29-XI-1971; 17 $, 2 9, 20-27-XII-1971; 2 $,
10-1-1972; and 9, 13-III-1972, all by W. H. Whitcomb; 19 $, 8 9, 13-29-XI-
1973, and 8 8, 4 9, 1-3-XII-1973, W. Reiss. TYPE LOCALITY. Jefferson Co.,
no further data, 9, 18-IV-1968, collector unknown.
Caralinda dactylifera Shelley, NEW SPECIES
Fig. 6-10
TYPE SPECIMENS: Male holotype and 2 male and 1 female paratypes col-
lected by Roy C. Hallman, 23-II-1962, from Panama City, Bay Co., FL. Male
paratype deposited in North Carolina State Museum Collection.
DIAGNOSIS: Prefemoral process bent strongly subcaudad at midlength;
solenomerite broadly curved and relatively large, terminal, arising from
medial dactyliform projection at midlength of acropodite and extending be-
yond apex of latter; acropodite broadly expanded and rounded at midlength,
with several marginal lobes.
HOLOTYPE: Body highly fragmented, unmeasurable.
Color in life unknown.
Somatic features similar to those of beatrix with following exceptions:
Width across genal apices 2.3 mm, interantennal isthmus 0.8 mm;


December, 1983

Shelley: Caralinda

Fig. 6-10. Caralinda dactylifera. 6) Process of 4th sternum of holotype,
caudal view. 7) gonopods in situ, ventral view of paratype. 8) telopodite of
left gonopod of holotype, medial view. 9) the same, subdorsal view. 10) the
same, lateral view. Scale line for Fig. 7 = 1.00 mm; line for other Fig. =
0.80 mm for 6, 1.00 mm for 8-10.

epicranial isthmus distinct. Antennae reaching back to caudal edge of 3rd
paranota, relative lengths of antennomeres 2>3= 4=5=6>1>7. Genae with
slight central impression. Facial setae as follows: epicranial 1-1, inter-
antennal 1-1, frontal 1-1, clypeal 10-10, labral about 12-12, merging with
clypeal series and continuing as dense cluster of setae, 3-4 rows thick, for
1/2 length of genal margins.
Terga smooth, polished. Collum broad, not extending beyond margins of
adjacent tergite. Paranota moderately depressed, continuing slope of dorsum;
caudolateral corners rounded through segment 5, becoming blunt on segment
6 and progressively more acute posteriorly.
Sternum of segment 4 with long process between 3rd legs, much longer
than widths of adjacent coxae, with 2 paramedian setae at base of projec-
tion (Fig. 6); of segment 5 with moderately long, apically hirsute process
between 4th legs, subsimilar to that of pulchritecta, 5th legs set slightly
farther apart than 4th; of segment 6 flat and depressed to accommodate


Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

December, 1983

telopodites, wider than preceding sterna. Postgonopodal sterna with small,
rounded lobes between caudal legs, covered with moderate clusters of setae;
sparser clumps of setae between anterior legs.
Gonopodal aperture very broad, extending well beyond lateral margins of
coxae, indented slightly anteriolaterad and caudolaterad, sides elevated and
slightly flared. Gonopods in situ (Fig. 7) with coxae protruding ventrad
from aperture, acropodites extending anteriad and overlapping 6th sternum,
prefemoral processes crossing in midline. Gonopod structure as follows (Figs.
8-9): Prefemur about 1/3 of telopodite length; prefemoral process curved
strongly caudad at midlength, divided apically into 2 acute projections, di-
rected oppositely. Acropodite set off from prefemur by cingulum, with
anteriolateral ridge basally, broadly expanded and convex at midlength with
prominent, central, dactyliform projection, narrowing slightly distad into
broad apex; with lowly rounded or subpyramidal marginal lobes throughout
length. Solenomerite broadly curved and located distad on acropodite, arising
as continuation of dactyliform projection, medial edge broadly rounded
basally, narrowing rapidly to subacuminate tip, extending beyond apex of
acropodite. Prostatic groove arising in pit in prefemur, running along basal
ridge to anterior surface of acropodite, continuing onto solenomerite and
opening apically.
MALE PARATYPES: The male paratypes agree closely with the holotype in
all particulars.
FEMALE PARATYPE: The female paratype agrees essentially with the
males in somatic features, except the paranota are more strongly depressed,
creating the appearance of a more highly arched body.
Cyphopods in situ with corner of receptacle visible in aperture. Valves
subequal, directed dorsolaterad.
DISTRIBUTION: Florida pan handle (Fig. 11), exact limits remaining to be
determined. Specimens were examined as follows:
FLORIDA: Bay Co., Panama City, 3 9, XII-1959; S, 9, 17-II-1961; $,
XII-1961; 2 8, 26-1-1962; and 2 $, 9, 23-II-1962, all by R. C. Hallman. Type
LOCALITY. Walton Co., 8.5 mi. W DeFuniak Springs, along US hwy. 90,

Fig. 11. Distribution of Caralinda. diamond, beatrix; squares, causeyi;
stars, pulchritecta; dots, dactylifera.


Shelley: Caralinda 415

juv. 9, 22-1-1965, N. B. Causey. Okaloosa Co., no further data, 9, 14-III-
1961, H. A. Denmark.

Caralinda pulchritecta Shelley
Caralinda pulchritecta Shelley, 1979: 184-7, Fig. 1-6.
VARIATION: The new material is very close to the holotype as described
and illustrated by me (Shelley 1979). In the Florida male the apex of the
acropodite is slightly more elongate, whereas it is reduced in the Alabama
males. The acropodite is also less expanded basally in the latter males, and
the whole structure leans subcaudad.
DISTRIBUTION: Southeastern Alabama and the adjacent Florida pan-
handle. The Chattahoochee-Appalachicola River likely forms the eastern
range boundary. New specimens were examined as follows:
ALABAMA: Houston Co., Brannon Stand W of Dothan, 2 $, 3 juvs., 26-I-
1965, N. B. Causey.
FLORIDA: Jackson Co., along FL Hwy. 69 ca. 2.7 mi. N Calhoun Co. line,
8, 24-1-1965, N. B. Causey.

I am indebted to Howard V. Weems, Jr., Curator of the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods, for the opportunity to examine the Causey collec-
tion and describe the new species. I also thank Renaldo G. Kuhler, North
Carolina State Museum scientific illustrator, for preparing fig. 2 and 7. This
research was supported in part by NSF grants numbers DEB 7702596 and
DEB 8200556.

HOFFMAN, R. L. 1978. A new genus and species of rhysodesmine milliped
from southern Georgia (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae). Proc. Biol.
Soc. Washington 91: 365-73.
-- 1979. Classification of the Diplopoda. Museum d'Histoire Naturelle,
Geneva, Switzerland., 237 p.
SHELLEY, R. M. 1979. A new milliped of the genus Caralinda from north
Florida (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae). Florida Ent. 62: 183-7.
1980. Revision of the milliped genus Pleuroloma (Polydesmida:
Xystodesmidae). Canadian J. Zool. 58: 129-68.

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)


Section of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology,
University of Connecticut, Etorrs, CT 06268 USA and
the University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Homestead, FL 33031 USA, respectively

The Florida species of the genus Ozophora are keyed and described;
distribution, food plants and habitats are discussed. Ozophora gilva,
floridana, and caroli from Florida and levis from Florida and the Bahamas
are described as new. Ozophora inornata Barber is synonymized with reperta
Blatchley; divaricata Barber is reported from Florida for the first time; and
concava (Distant) and pallescens (Distant) are removed from the Florida
list. The remaining Florida species are burmeisteri (Guerin), trinotata
Barber, laticephala Slater & O'Donnell and picturata Uhler.

Se described las species de Ozophora de Florida, se present una clave,
y se discuten la distribution de las species, sus plants hospederas, y sus
habitates. Se described como nuevas species Ozophora gilva, 0. floridana, y
0. caroli todos de Florida, y O. levis de Florida y las Islas Bahamas.
Ozophora inornata Barber se consider como un sin6nimo de 0. reperta
Blatchley; se registra 0. divaricata Barber de Florida por primera vez; y se
remueven de la lista para Florida 0. concava (Distant) y 0. pallescens
(Distant). Las restantes species floridanas son: 0. burmeisteri (Guerin),
0. trinotata Barber, 0. laticephala Slater y O'Donnell, y 0. picturata Uhler.

The genus Ozophora is one of the most complex and taxonomically dif-
ficult genera of Western Hemisphere Rhyparochrominae. The distribution is
primarily Neotropical where a bewildering number of species of more or
less similar size and color pattern occur. Many species occur only in the
West Indies where the genus constitutes one of the dominant elements of
the rhyparochromine fauna.
The Florida fauna has not been examined carefully since Blatchley's
(1926) study. In the present paper we describe 4 new species, report
divaricata Barber from North America for the first time, remove concava
(Distant) and pallescens (Distant) from the Florida list, refer Blatchley's
(1926) records of pallescens to gilva new species, and synonymize inornata
Barber with reperta Blatchley.
Ozophora is the only genus of the tribe Ozophorini to occur in Florida.
It may be recognized by the ventral abdominal spiracles, rather porrect head
with longitudinal grooves on the vertex, distinct pronotal collar, calloused
and ridged (but not sharply carinate) lateral pronotal margins, rather
slender fore femora, shining elevated plate-like mesosternum and lack of
abdominal inner latero-tergites. Most species are variegated with yellow and
brown, or yellow and black and have a conspicuous white annulus proximally
on the 4th antennal segment.


December, 1983

Slater & Baranowski: Florida Ozophora

While several species of Ozophora are common in Florida relatively
little is known of their biology. Sweet (1964) has studied picturata in Con-
necticut, but there are only scattered collecting notes for the other species.
Most species are associated with woodland habitats or occur in areas of
relatively dense shade. They are definitely not associated with annuals and
weeds as are so many of the Florida Rhyparochrominae. Only the fortunate
fact that most species of Ozophora come readily to lights makes it possible
to know even the little we do know of the distribution of the Florida fauna.
For example, floridana n. sp. and caroli n. sp. are certainly not rare species
within their proper habitat, and a glance at the paratype series will show
this. Despite their frequent appearance in light traps operated in hammocks
near Homestead, we have been unable to find them in the field.
Adults and nymphs of Ozophora are very active. When disturbed in litter
they run rapidly and adults fly surprisingly readily for geophilous rhy-
The distribution of Florida species, while still imperfectly known, is
very interesting. Three species, floridana n. sp., gilva n. sp. and trinotata
Barb., are endemic. Ozophora caroli n. sp. is known outside of Florida only
from 2 apparently conspecific specimens from Mexico, and levis only from
the Keys, upper Bahamas and Mexico. Thus, for the moment at least, 5 of
the 10 Florida species appear to be of restricted distribution. Two of these,
caroli and floridana n. spp., are confined to extreme southern Florida where
they appear to occur primarily in dense hammock habitats. Ozophora gilva
and trinotata probably occur throughout peninsular Florida and at least the
former even further north.
Of the remaining 5 species, 4 are Neotropical elements. These species are
largely confined to extreme southern Florida (although burmeisteri Guerin
has been reported north to Lake Wales).
Thus, only picturata, which is widespread over most of the eastern and
central United States, is a "northern" element. Its scarcity in Florida also
indicates that it can legitimately be considered a northern species that
reaches the southern limits of its range in peninsular Florida.
Only 2 papers have dealt in depth with Florida Lygaeidae. Barber (1914)
recognized 3 species of Ozophora:burmeisteri, picturata and trinotata. All
are still recognized as members of the fauna. Blatchley (1926) discussed 6
species. The additions are concava, pallescens and reperta, the last as a new
species. His record of concava was based on a listing of "Florida" by Van
Duzee (1917). Neither Blatchley nor the present authors have been able to
discover on what the record was based. Ozophora concava is a very distinc-
tive species and nothing resembling it is present in material we have ex-
amined. It should be eliminated from the Florida list. The Blatchley record
of pallescens is referable to divaricata Barb.
All measurements are given in mm.
The original references and complete synonomy to all previously de-
scribed species can be found in Slater (1964).
The following acronyms are used to designate collections in which ex-
amined material is located: R.M.B.-R. M. Baranowski collection, J.A.S.-
J. A. Slater collection, F.S.C.A.-Florida State Collection of Arthropods,
A.M.N.H.-American Museum of Natural History, U.S.N.M.-United States
National Museum of Natural History, G.G.S.-G. G. S. Scudder collection
and P.D.A.-Peter D. Ashlock collection.

418 Florida Entomologist 66 (4) December, 1983

Key to Florida Species of Ozophora

1. Pronotum and hemelytra with numerous elongate upstanding
hairs present (viewed laterally) .... ....----------------.- --- --. 2
1'. Pronotum and hemelytra nearly glabrous, at most with very
short inconspicuous hairs present ----.. ..---..... -- ----...-.......--. 3
2(1). Posterior femora bearing several rows of very elongate upright
hairs, these as long as or longer than diameter of a femur __ trinotata
2'. Hairs on posterior femora much shorter, not longer than diam-
eter of a femur .--------.. ---------------- burmeisteri
3 (1'). Fore femora armed below with 3 or 4 large spines; body length
usually greater than 4.5 mm ...... ....--------........---....--.... .. 4
3'. Fore femora usually armed below with only 2 larger spines,
or, if 3 "major" spines present then body length not exceeding
4.5 m m .....-- ...---------..-...------. -----------...- -----------...-- -. ... 8
4(3). General coloration of dorsal surface dark chocolate brown,
membrane of fore wing dark throughout, lacking an apical
pale area ....-..... .. ---... .-. ----------......---------------------- levis n. sp.
4'. General coloration brownish, orangish or yellowish, never pre-
dominately dark chocolate brown; apical area of membrane
pale or membrane chiefly pale -..--..-. ...- ----------------....-.--- 5
5 (4'). Lateral portion of apical corial margin usually at least ob-
scurely tinged with crimson, apical dark macula not exten-
sively invading adjacent apical corial margin. ---..........-- picturata
5'. Lateral portion of apical corial margin not tinged with crimson
(if a slight crimson tinge at extreme apex then dark apical
macula extensively invading apical corial margin immediately
before extreme e apex) ...-------.... .... .. .- ....--.....-...---------- -.-. 6
6(5'). Fourth antennal segment either lacking a white proximal
annulus or annulus very narrow, not nearly covering proximal
1/3 of segment; a small post median dark macula present along
each lateral corial margin that at most barely extends mesad
of explanate margin; corium without a well differentiated large
subapical white macula ---.. ----------------... --------..-- gilva n. sp.
6'. Fourth antennal segment with a strongly contrasting large
white proximal annulus occupying at least proximal 1/3 of
segment; each lateral corial margin with a large post median
dark macula that usually extends (although irregularly) com-
pletely across corium; corium with a well differentiated large
white subapical macula ...... --.......-..- ......--- ... ........... 7
7(6'). Posterior pronotal lobe extensively marked with dark red
brown contrasting strongly with pale yellow posterior margin;
anterior 1/3 of corium with an elongate dark patch present
-- -----..-...---.......-------- -- ... carol n. sp.
7'. Posterior pronotal lobe nearly uniformly light yellowish tan
(at most with slightly darker brown stripes), without a
strongly contrasting light posterior margin; anterior 1/3 of
corium lacking an elongate dark patch ----...-.. ---- floridana n. sp.
8 (3'). Third antennal segment longer than width of head across eyes
---------------------..--------.. ...---...----- reperta
8'. Width of head across eyes greater than length of third an-

Slater & Baranowski: Florida Ozophora

tennal segment ..--- .......- .....----- -....-....--. ..... 9
9(8'). Head with apex of tylus bluntly truncate, scarcely if at all
exceeding juga and bent downward at right angle to long axis
of body ...--- ..-.- -. .--....--- ... ....--------- ....-. .. laticephala
9'. Head with apex of tylus subacuminate, tapering, curving
downward but not bluntly truncate, conspicuously exceeding
juga ..------- --- ----------- -----... -.. ...---------.. divaricata


Fortunately nymphs are available for 6 of the 10 Florida species. It is
possible to separate the species into groups based upon whether or not the
abdomen is irrorate (covered with a series of small pale spots) or whether
it is variegated with large patches of color. It is interesting that a parallel
situation is present in Dieuches, a large and complex Eastern Hemisphere
genus of the tribe Rhyparochromini. Whether these irrorate-non irrorate
conditions in Ozophora indicate phylogenetic relationship or parallel de-
velopments in response to habitat similarities must await further study.
All Ozophora nymphs have 3 dorsal abdominal scent gland openings and
a distinct Y-suture present, a combination characteristic of the tribe.

Key to known 5th instar nymphs of Florida Ozophora
1. Abdomen irrorate, thickly speckled with small pale spots .--- 2
1'. Abdomen not irrorate, at most a very few widely scattered pale
spots present ..-.... ......... ..... ....- .... ...--.....- .... .------ 4
2(1). Hind femora with numerous elongate hairs present, many
longer than diameter of femur -.--... ..~.-.....--- --- ------- trinotata
2'. Hind femora either nearly glabrous or with hairs shorter than
diam eter of fem ur . ..... .......-.....- ..- ...... ...... ......- ..... ... 3
3(2'). Fourth antennal segment with a broad white proximal an-
nulus strongly contrasting with dark distal portion of seg-
ment; 3rd antennal segment dusky; ratio of length antennal
segment III/antennal segment IV greater than 0.85 --.. .. picturata
3'. Fourth antennal segment nearly uniformly pale yellow, at most
with a narrow obscure pale proximal annulus; 3rd antennal
segment pale yellow; ratio of length antennal segment III/
antennal segment IV less than 0.80 --..-------------------....-- ----. gilva n. sp.
4(1'). Dorsal surface clothed with numerous conspicuous upstanding
hairs; fore femora each with 4-7 ventral spines present ...-
... ----- -------- -- --- ---- ------ ------- burm eisteri
4'. Dorsal surface glabrous or nearly so; fore femora each with 2
(occasionally 3) ventral spines present ..--..-. ----..-..-...... ---... -- 5
5(4'). Third antennal segment brown except for extreme distal end
---..-- -...--.. -- -----.. -- -...----.----. -...- ..... laticephala
5'. Third antennal segment with only proximal 1/2 brown, the
remainder straw-colored ...---------- divaricata

Ozophora burmeisteri (Guerin)

This species is readily distinguishable from all other species of Florida
Ozophora by the combination of its very dark pronotum and upstanding


420 Florida Entomologist 66 (4) December, 1983

dorsal hairs. Ozophora trinotata also has upstanding dorsal hairs but it is a
larger reddish brown species that can be readily distinguished by the key
characters given above. Adults of burmeisteri have a nearly uniformly
black or dark chocolate brown pronotum. The posterior pronotal lobe has a
yellow streak midway between the meson and margin, or a pair of yellow
spots in the same area. The corium has an apical dark spot and a conspicuous
dark macula along the lateral margin 2/3rds the distance from the base.
The 4th antennal segment has a conspicuous white annulus and the 3rd
segment is slightly swollen distally and dark chocolate brown on the distal
Ozophora burmeisteri is very common in southern Florida and comes to
lights in large numbers. In December, 1974 we took adults and young
nymphs among the fallen seeds of Ficus religosa L. and F. retusa L. on the
grounds of the Agricultural Research and Education Center, Homestead. In
the laboratory the insects survived on water and seeds of Ficus. Eggs are
laid on and in the fruits and adults moved to feed on fresh seeds immediately
when the latter were introduced. It thus seems certain that burmeisteri can
and will breed on seeds of Ficus. In May 1979, very large populations were
observed breeding in fallen seeds beneath the above mentioned trees. At
this time the litter consisted of a large quantity of recently fallen fruit.
However, figs almost certainly are not the only host. We have collected
beneath Ficus trees at many locations on Jamaica. Many species of Ozophora
have been taken feeding on th- seeds of Ficus, yet we never collected
burmeisteri although it ocurs there and is frequently collected at lights.
Blatchley (1926) reports it on the foliage of mangrove (surely a sitting
record) ; Wolcott (1936) on Crotalaria sp. in Puerto Rico.
Ozophora burmeisteri has been reported from many islands in the West
Indies, Texas, Lower California and Mexico as well as from Florida.
Florida records: Reported by Barber (1914) from Everglade and St.
Augustine and by Blatchley (1926) from Chokoloskie, Royal Palm Park and
Lake Wales.
Additional Florida records: Homestead (R.M.B., J.A.S., F.S.C.A.); Port
Sewall (A.M.N.H.); Everglades Nat. Pk.; Loggerhead Key, Dry Tortugas;
Kendall; Orchid Jungle Hammock, Newton Rd., Dade Co.; Flamingo Prairie,
Everglades Nat. Pk., (J.A.S.); Biscayne Bay; Belleair (A.M.N.H.). LaBelle,
Hendry Co. (J.A.S.); Key West; Stock Island, Monroe Co. (R.M.B.).

Fifth instar nymph (in alcohol, Homestead, Florida)
Head and pronotum largely dark chocolate brown. Head behind epicranial
arms paler but with a very broad dark band running behind compound eye.
Pronotum with a pair of yellow streaks on either side of midline on anterior
1/3 and posteriorly with a pair of yellow spots midway between meson and
margin, the posterior one reaching the posterior margin (these spots some-
times coalesce to form a yellow longitudinal bar midway between meson and
margin on posterior lobe). Scutellum marked as in picturata but strongly
infuscated on antero-lateral angles. Mesothoracic wing pads chiefly dark,
distally pale, anteriorly marked as in picturata. Abdomen lacking irrorate
markings, segment 1 dusky on either side of midline, mesal portion of seg-
ment 2 between wing pads dusky gray; this marking continuing over seg-
ment 3 but more broadly, extending in a tapering cone nearly to precon-
nexival margin in middle of segment, posteriorly reaching anterior ab-

Slater & Baranowski: Florida Ozophora 421

dominal scent gland orifice. This gray coloration present on segment 4 as
a large ovoid patch between scent gland orifices and more narrowly so on
segment 5. Gray markings tinged with reddish laterally on segment 3 and
posteriorly on segments 4 and 5. Red markings present along sutures, as in
picturata. Legs in large part pale yellow; posterior femora with a diffuse
but distinct darker annulation distally. Second tarsal segment somewhat
infuscated. Antennae with segments I and II pale yellow; segment III be-
coming reddish brown on distal 1/3; segment IV with a subproximal con-
spicuous white annulus, otherwise dusky. Body clothed with conspicuous
upstanding yellowish hairs over entire dorsal surface.
General form similar to other species of Ozophora. Head length 0.63,
width 0.75, interocular space 0.40. Pronotum length 0.63, width 0.98. Wing
pad length 1.25. Abdomen length 2.60. Fore femora armed below with 5 or 6
dark brown sharp spines. Labial segments length I 0.70, II 0.68, III 0.55,
IV 0.35. Antennal segments length I 0.40, II 0.75, III 0.78, IV 0.75. Total
body length 4.90.

Fourth instar nymph (in alcohol, Bellevue, St. Elizabeth Parish, Jamaica)
Similar in form and color to instar 5, dark markings on abdominal
tergum more reddish brown, covering segment 3 entirely and all of segment
4 except a narrow posterior pale stripe. Reddish markings along sutures of
abdomen very conspicuous. Head length 0.55, width 0.73, interocular space
0.40. Pronotum length 0.48, width 0.88. Wing pad length 0.50. Abdomen
length 1.30. Labial segments length I 0.55, II 0.53, III 0.45, IV 0.30. Antennal
segments length I 0.33, II 0.68, III 0.63, IV 0.85. Total body length 2.90.

Third instar nymph (same as above)
Form and color as in instar 4, but only a single yellow quadrate spot
present on mesothoracic wing pads. Yellow streaks of previous instars mid-
way between meson and margin of pronotum present as small spots near
posterior margin. Head length 0.43, width 0.50, interocular space 0.33.
Pronotum length 0.33, width 0.68. Abdomen length 0.90. Labial segments
length I 0.28, II 0.35, III 0.30, IV 0.25. Antennal segments length I 0.25, II
0.45, III 0.45, IV 0.63. Total body length 2.08.

Second instar nymph (same as above)
Form and color as in instar 3, but abdominal terga 2 and 3 completely
reddish brown. Posterior half of terga 4 and most of 5 also reddish brown
thus forming a transverse pale white band across abdomen at level of second
abdominal scent gland orifice. Fourth antennal segment little differentiated
in color, lacking a strongly conspicuous white annulus. Pale markings absent
on nearly uniformly brown pronotum. Mesonotum with a pale mark on pos-
terior margin adjacent to meson. Head length 0.40, width 0.58; interocular
space 0.30. Pronotum length 0.33, width 0.65. Abdomen length 0.80. Labial
segments length I 0.40, II 0.38, III 0.30, IV 0.25. Antennal segments length
I 0.23, II 0.45, III 0.45, IV 0.58. Total body length 1.75.
First instar (in alcohol, Homestead, Florida)
Head, pronotum, mesonotum and large transversely rectangular patches
on metanotum reddish brown strongly contrasting to pale yellow testaceous
abdomen; latter with a broad red transverse stripe running across segments
4 and 5. Legs nearly uniformly pale. Third and 4th antennal segments
slightly infuscated, the latter lacking a pale subproximal annulus. Head

422 Florida Entomologist 66 (4) December, 1983

length 0.28, width 0.38, interocular space 0.23. Pronotum length 0.15, width
0.35. Abdomen length 0.63. Labial segments length I 0.25, II 0.20, III 0.18,
IV 0.20. Antennal segments length I 0.13, II 0.23, III 0.23, IV 0.35. Total
body length 1.35.
Egg (same as above)
Egg robust, elongately elliptical, thickly clothed with short truncated
hairs over entire surface; 4 short thick micropylar processes present an-
teriorly, grouped closely around meson. Length 1.63, width 0.70.

Ozophora caroli Slater and Baranowski, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 1)
Body elongate, relatively stout. Head, anterior pronotal lobe and broad
rays extending through posterior pronotal lobe dark red brown. Anterior
pronotal collar broadly pale yellow on either side of a median red brown
spot; entire posterior margin of pronotum broadly, sinuately yellow, strongly
contrasting with adjacent reddish brown rays. Scutellum chiefly dark red
brown, but with raised elliptical calloused area yellow shading anteriorly to
reddish brown. Hemelytra chiefly testaceous, clavus suffused distally with
chocolate brown. Corium with an elongate rectangular chocolate brown
macula between radius and medius at level of apex of scutellum and with a
very large white subapical macula that nearly reaches apical corial margin.
Corium dark chocolate brown distad of subapical pale macula and with a
broad, transverse, irregular, mesally widening vitta anterior to white macula.
A large pale, nearly white spot near each inner corial angle. Membrane
largely fumose, apex broadly white, veins pale translucent; a pale spot near
center of membrane at level of middle of apical corial margin. Ventral and
pleural surfaces of head, thorax and abdomen uniformly red brown. Legs
and labium pale testaceous with an obscure subdistal dark band on pos-
terior femora. Antennal coloration much as in floridana; segments I, II and
III pale yellow with distal end of III, proximal end and distal 3/4th of IV
contrasting dark chocolate brown. Body nearly glabrous above, lacking con-
spicuous upstanding hairs.
Head large, strongly convex across vertex; tylus somewhat declivent ex-
tending beyond middle of first antennal segment. Head length 0.78, width
0.95, interocular space 0.48. Pronotum with calli very prominent, shining
and differentiated from adjacent pruinose areas of anterior lobe, widely
separated mesally, transverse impression deep; lateral pronotal margins
strongly sinuate, evenly ridged. Pronotum length 0.95, width 1.48. Scutellum
feebly impressed mesally on basal 1/2; calloused lateral areas not strongly
raised. Scutellum length 0.88, width 0.78. Claval commissure length 0.75.
Corium with lateral margins moderately sinuate, little reflexed. Midline
distance apex clavus-apex corium 1.10; midline distance apex corium-apex
membrane 0.88. Fore femora moderately incrassate armed below with 3
conspicuous sharp spines on distal 1/2. Posterior femora with a single sharp
spine below distally. Labium reaching to but not beyond metacoxae; 1st
segment attaining base of head. Labial segments length I 0.85, II 0.75, III
0.50, IV 0.43. Antennae conventionally terete, slender. Antennal segments
length I 0.55, II 1.23, III 1.0, IV 1.43. Total body length 5.28.
HOLOTYPE: Florida: & Dade County, Ross and Castello Hammock 2-VI-
1970 (R. M. Baranowski) blacklightt trap). In U.S.N.M. No. 73798.

Slater & Baranowski: Florida Ozophora







Fig. 1. Ozophora caroli Slater & Baranowski, NEW SPECIES, dorsal view.

PARATYPES: Florida: 1 ? Dade Co., Kendall 19-II-1951 (A. M. Nader);
1 S, 1 9 Dade Co., Orchid Jungle Hammock, Newton Rd. 12-V-1970 (R. M.
Baranowski) blacklightt trap); 1, 1 9 same 20-V-1970; 2 9 Dade Co.,
26000 S. W. 197 Ave. (R. M. Baranowski) blacklightt trap); 1 3, 10 9
Dade Co., Ross & Castello Hammock 26-III-1970 (R. M. Baranowski) (black-
light trap) ; 2 8, 4 9 same 14-IV-1970; 1S, 4 9 same 2-VI-1970; 1 9 same
3-VI-1970; 4 4 9 same 21-VII-1970; 1 i, 1 9 same 29-III-1976 3 9 same
24-III-1977. In A.M.N.H., F.S.C.A., R.M.B., and J.A.S. collections.


|' -



Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

This species resembles floridana, with which it occurs in the hammocks
of southern Florida, in having a conspicuous white apex to the membrane,
a large white corial macula, a prominent red brown head, an anterior
pronotal lobe with differentiated calli, and 3-spined fore femora. It is, how-
ever, quite a different appearing species than floridana having a more robust
and less elongate appearance. In particular, the head is relatively much
larger and more prominent than in floridana. The strongly differentiated
pale posterior margin of the pronotum and dark chocolate brown markings
on the anterior 1/2 of the hemelytra also will serve readily to differentiate
the 2 species.
Occasionally a small 4th spine is present on the fore femora.
The type series is all from light traps in hammocks in Dade County but
we have examined 2 specimens from Chiapas, Mexico, 9 mi. N. Ocozocoautla,
18 July 1973 (Mastro and Schaffner) (taken at light) that are very closely
related to, if not conspecific with, this species. They differ chiefly in having
darker antennae.

Ozophora divaricata Barber

This is one of the smallest and one of the most brightly marked of the
Florida Ozophora. The posterior pronotal lobe has a series of longitudinal
chocolate brown markings that coalesce posteriorly to give the appearance of
3 loops. The hemelytra are strongly marked with conspicuous dark chocolate
brown patches including an apical corial one. A small dark macula is also
present along the lateral hemelytral margin on the distal 1/3 that does not
extend mesad to the radial vein. The fore femora usually have only 2 ventral
spines. The 4th antennal segment has a pale proximal annulus, but it is
short and often dull yellow rather than white.
Ozophora divaricata is part of a complex group of West Indian species
whose relationships we discuss in detail elsewhere. Ozophora divaricata is
abundant in the Bahamas and occurs throughout the Greater Antilles, but
has not been taken in the Lesser Antilles although several very closely
related species occur there.
We have collected it under Pluchea odorata Cassini in Jamaica and on
North Key Largo, Florida and under Gynoxys incana (SW) Less and
Conyza karuninskianus DC in Jamaica.
It has not previously been reported from Florida.
Florida records: Hendry Co., LaBelle (JAS); Manatee Co., Bradenton,
Perico Is.; Monroe Co., N. Key Largo; Dade Co., Ross & Castello Hammock;
Dade Co., Orchid Jungle Hammock, Dade Co., Homestead; Everglades Nat.
Pk. (RMB).
The Florida specimens from Key Largo and LaBelle are strongly, con-
trastingly dark chocolate brown to blackand light yellow to white. They
closely resemble most specimens from the Bahamas and Greater Antilles.
The long series from Perico Island (Bradenton) on the other hand is pre-
dominately pale tan and has a quite different general appearance. This series
was taken on a tidal flat and thus the pale color may have been selected for
strongly. We have been unable to find meristic or genital differences to
distinguish the Bradenton population from other Florida specimens of

December, 1983


Slater & Baranowski: Florida Ozophora 425

Fifth instar nymph (in alcohol, Irishtown, Jamaica)
Head, pronotum, scutellum and mesothoracic wing pads variegated with
brown and with testaceous pale markings as follows: on head a median line,
a curved spot behind each eye, a small spot anterior to eye and a small nar-
row bar below each eye; on pronotum a median line and an irregular
longitudinal line extending forward from humeral angles almost to anterior
margin; on scutellum midline, an elongate streak on anterior margin mid-
way between meson and lateral margins and an elongate "bar" extending
along but not in contact with lateral margin; on mesothoracic wing pads, a
stripe extending from anterior margin to middle of inner margin at a level
posterior to apex of scutellum, an elongate, slender triangular spot adjacent
to scutellum and an elongate area slightly caudad of middle of lateral margin
of wing pad. Pro-, meso- and metapleura dark brown with an elongate light
bar adjacent to but not touching dorsal margin of metapleuron. Abdomen
brown with irregularly placed pale markings. Legs uniformly straw-colored.
Antennae straw-colored but with proximal 1/2 of segment III darker and
basal 1/3 of segment IV white.
Head length 0.64, width 0.76, interocular space 0.64. Pronotum length
0.52, width 1.0. Mesothoracic wing pads length 1.16. Abdomen length 2.20.
Labial segments length I 0.56, II 0.52, III 0.32, IV 0.24. Antennal segments
length I 0.32, II 0.68, III 0.60, IV 0.80. Total body length 4.40.
Fourth instar nymph (same as above)
Similar in form and color to instar 5; outermost pair of pale lines on
pronotum reduced to pale spots at postero-lateral angle. Third antennal
segment uniformly brown. Head length 0.56, width 0.60, interocular space
0.36. Pronotum length 0.40, width 0.72. Mesothoracic wing pads length 0.52.
Abdomen length 1.68. Labial segments length I 0.40, II 0.40, III 0.24, IV
0.28. Antennal segments length I 0.24, II 0.48, III 0.40, IV 0.60. Total body
length 3.12.
Third instar nymph (same as above)
Specimens faded but with faint irregularly placed pale markings present
on abdomen. Head length 0.38, width 0.44, interocular space 0.32. Pronotum
length 0.22, width 0.88. Abdomen length 0.92. Labial segments length I 0.28,
II 0.28, III 0.20, IV 0.20. Antennal segments I 0.19, II 0.30, III 0.30, IV 0.44.
Total body length 1.76.
Second instar nymph (same as above)
Specimens also faded; head and pronotum appearing to be uniformly
tan. Abdomen yellowish, markings not evident. Head length 0.36, width 0.38,
interocular space 0.24. Pronotum length 0.18, width 0.38. Abdomen length
0.70. Labial segments length I 0.24, II 0.20, III 0.14, IV 0.16. Antennal seg-
ments length I 0.14, II 0.26, III 0.26, IV 0.40. Total body length 1.40.
First instar nymph (same as above)
Similar in form and color to instar 2. Head length 0.26, width 0.32,
interocular space 0.16. Pronotum length 0.18, width 0.34. Abdomen length
0.64. Labial segments length I 0.16, II 0.14, III 0.14, IV 0.14. Antennal seg-
ments length I 0.10, II 0.16, III 0.16, IV 0.30. Total body length 1.20.

Egg (same as above)
Elongate oval with opercular end somewhat flattened. Four microuvlar

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)



Fig. 2. Ozophora floridana Slater & Baranowski, NEW SPECIES, dorsal
processes present. Surface covered with minute spines spiculess). Length
0.94, width 0.36.

Ozophora floridana Slater and Baranowski, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 2) '

Body elongate, nearly parallel sided. Head and anterior pronotal lobe
bright reddish brown. Distal end of tylus, anterior pronotal collar, posterior
pronotal lobe, clavus and anterior half of corium nearly uniformly pale
testaceous, sometimes almost dull orange. Scutellum somewhat darker yellow-
ish tan. Posterior half of corium with a large conspicuous irregular white
macula that nearly reaches apical corial margin. Apex of corium and area


December, 1983



Slater & Baranowski: Florida Ozophora


anterior to white macula dark chocolate brown, this dark coloration extend-
ing between radius and medial veins anteriorly to level of middle of claval
commissure. A pale yellow spot present near inner angle of corium. Apical
corial margin dark chocolate brown for the most part, becoming yellowish
adjacent to white macula and near meson. Membrane chiefly dark fumose
with veins slightly paler and with a broad white apex. Ventral and pleural
surfaces of head, thorax and abdomen nearly uniformly bright red brown
with posterior metapleural lobe dull white. Legs uniformly light yellow,
nearly white, without conspicuous dark distal banding on femora although
hind femora slightly suffused with pale tan. First, 2nd and 3rd antennal
segments light yellow with distal end of antennal segment III, distal 2/3rd
of IV contrasting dark chocolate brown. Fourth antennal segment with a
broad conspicuous white annulus on proximal 1/3 except extreme base. Body
nearly glabrous above, lacking conspicuous elongate hairs.
Head nondeclivent, only slightly convex across vertex; eyes set slightly
away from antero-lateral pronotal margins; tylus reaching at least midway
to distal end of 1st antennal segment. Head length 0.78, width 0.73;
interocular space 0.35. Pronotum with calli large, conspicuous, elliptical,
impunctate; otherwise conventional. Pronotum length 0.93, width 1.40,
length anterior lobe 0.30, length posterior lobe 0.55. Scutellum with divergent
raised calloused areas extending antero-laterally and impunctate but not
strongly contrasting in color, apex narrowly white. Scutellum length 0.78,
width 0.73. Claval commissure length 0.75. Corium with lateral margins
shallowly sinuate and very narrowly explanate, midline distance apex
clavus-apex corium 1.23; midline distance apex corium-apex membrane 0.90.
Fore femora moderately incrassate, armed below on distal 1/2 with 3 sharp
spines, ventral inner face of femora with numerous small brown setae. Hind
femora armed below near distal ends with a single sharp spine. Labium
elongate, exceeding hind coxae and reaching onto abdominal sternum 3;
1st segment attaining or slightly exceeding base of head. Labial segments
length I 0.90, II 0.95, III 0.75, IV 0.40. Antennae slender, terete. Antennal
segments length I 0.53, II 1.48, III 1.23, IV 1.53. Total body length 5.90.
HOLOTYPE: S Florida: Orchid Jungle Hammock, Newton Road, Dade
County 20-V-1970 (R. M. Baranowski) (black light trap). In U.S.N.M., No.
PARATYPES: Florida: 1 8 Dade Co., Ross and Castello Hammock 18-XI-
1968 (R. M. Baranowski) blacklightt trap); 1 8, 2 9 same 5-VI-1969; 1 9
same 2-X-1969; 1 8 same 10-X-1969; 1 9 same 23-III-1970; 1 9 same 2-VI-
1970; 1 8 same 3-VI-1970; 2 8, 7 9 same 18-V-1970; 8 8, 6 9 same 19-V-
1970; 7 8, 6 9 same 4-X-1970; 1 S same 20-X-1975; 2 8 same 24-III-1977;
7 3, 8 9 Dade Co., Castello Hammock 20-X-1969 (R. M. Baranowski)
blacklightt trap); 31 8, 29 9 same 17-X-1969; 1 9 same 9-XI-1972; 1 9
same 17-IX-1976; 16 8, 15 9 same 20-X-1976; 2 8, 13 9 same 28-X-1976;
2 8 same 30-X-1976; 2 ? same 9-XI-1976; 1 8 Dade Co., Homestead 12-V-
1969, (R. M. Baranowski) blacklightt trap); 1 3 same 18-V-1969; 6 4 9
same 22-V-1969; 2 9 same 6-X-1969; 1 9 same 7-X-1969; 1 9 same 10-X-
1969; 1 8 same 11-X-1969; 1 8 same 13-X-1969; 3 9 same 24-X-1969; 2 8
same 27-III-1970; 1 8 same 24-XI-1974 (J. A. Slater); 1 8 same 15-XII-
1974; 6 8, 6 9 Dade Co., Orchid Jungle Hammock, Newton Rd 22-V-1969
(R. M. Baranowski) blacklightt trap); 5 8, 9 9 same 27-V-1969; 4 $
same 5-VI-1969; 1 8, 1 9 same 9-VI-1969; 4 9 same 17-VI-1969; 2 8, 3 9

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

same 21-VI-1969; 1 8, 2 9 same 1-X-1969; 3 9 same 2-X-1969; 1 9 same
9-X-1969; 3 9 same 28-X-1969; 1 6, 1 same 18-III-1970; 1 9 same 23-
III-1970; 2 8, 10 9 same 26-III-1970; 8 8, 8 9 same 2-IV-1970; 3 9 same
3-IV-1970; 14 S, 8 9 same 28-IV-1970; 45 8, 28 9 same 12-V-1970; 3 6,
6 9 same 19-V-1970; 1 8, 1 9 same 20-V-1970; 3 9 same 6-X-1975; 5 8,
2 9 same 20-X-1975; 5 8, 6 9 Dade Co., Agr. Res. & Ed. Ctr., Homestead
14-X-1969 (R. M. Baranowski) blacklightt trap) ; 1 6, 2 9 same 21-X-1976;
3 9 Dade Co. Agr. Res. & Ed. Ctr. Homestead 17-XI-1982 (H. Glenn) on
Schinus terebinthifolius; 26 6, 339 Dade Co., 26000 SW 197 Ave. 6-V-1977
(R. M. Baranowski) blacklightt trap); 40 8, 90 9 same 8-V-1977; 9 $,
17 9 same 9-V-1977; 4 8, 2 9 same 19-V-1977; 10 5, 5 9 same 31-V-1977;
20 $, 21 9 same 23-V-1977; 6 3, 4 9 same 6-VI-1977; 12 8, 16 9 same
24-V-1977; 1 9 same 17-IX-1977; 1 9 same 23-III-1978. In U.S.N.M.,
A.M.N.H., F.S.C., P.D.A., J.A.S. and R.M.B. collections.
This is a member of the quinquemaculata complex and quite distinct
from other Florida species. It may be separated from all other Florida
Ozophora by the nearly uniformly light orange yellow posterior pronotal
lobe, clavus and anterior 1/2 of the corium. In some specimens these areas
are almost orange.
It occurs frequently in light traps with caroli and the 2 have a somewhat
similar appearance by virtue of the white apex to the membrane of the
hemelytra and the large white macula distally on the corium. Ozophora
floridana is however a much more elongate, slender species. The attenuated
head has a much less convex vertex, lacks the dark rays on the posterior
pronotal lobe and has a longer labium.
The most closely related material that we have examined is a single male
from 6 miles southeast of Siguatepeque, Honduras, collected by the O'Brien
party in July 1974. This specimen presumably represents a new species and
differs from floridana in lacking the prominent white apex to the corium,
having the pale macula posteriorly on the corium not extending mesad of the
radial line and in having distinct infuscations or rays on the posterior
pronotal lobe. This Honduran specimen has a rather similar appearance to
reperta but has 3 forefemoral spines and the general body conformation of
Ozophora floridana can usually be recognized by the pale posterior
pronotal lobe. However the typical dark rays found in many species of
Ozophora are sometimes present. Even when these rays are well developed
the uniformly or nearly uniformly pale clavus and anterior part of the
corium are diagnostic.
Ozophora floridana appears to be confined primarily to hammocks and
pine woods in extreme southern Florida. Recently (17-XI-1982) an adult
was taken on Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and 2 adults and several
nymphs were taken in the seed litter under the plants. We have examined
hundreds of specimens of Ozophora from a number of West Indian Islands
but have not seen this species other than from southern Florida and believe
it to be endemic.
Ozophora gilva Slater and Baranowski, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 3)
Head and anterior pronotal lobe light red brown, tylus paler. Posterior
pronotal lobe and hemelytra in large part very pale testaceous, almost


December, 1983

Slater & Baranowski: Florida Ozophora


Fig. 3. Ozophora gilva Slater & Baranowski, NEW SPECIES, dorsal view.


Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

white; the former with characteristic pale tan vitta. Scutellum olive colored
with white apex. Clavus nearly uniformly pale testaceous, very slightly in-
fuscated with tan just posterior to level of apex of scutellum. Corium largely
pale testaceous marked with chocolate brown at apical angle, a very small
spot along costal margin posterior to level of distal end of claval com-
missure, a large quadrangular patch near inner angle of corium which en-
closes a large pale elliptical white spot at its posterior end, and a very
small obscure infuscation between radius and medius at level of apex of
scutellum. Apical corial margin completely pale. Membrane uniformly very
light brown. Ventral and pleural surfaces uniformly reddish brown. Legs,
labium and antennae pale testaceous, nearly white. Middle and hind femora
with an obscure but definite dark brown annulus present subdistally. Apical
segment of labium dark brown. Antennal segments pale testaceous; 4th
segment lacking a distinct white subproximal annulus. Punctation typical
for genus. Dorsal surface of body lacking upstanding hairs, nearly glabrous.
Head short, tylus not extending beyond middle of 1st antennal segment;
vertex moderately convex; head length 0.65, width 0.80, interocular space
0.38. Pronotum with calli prominent, impunctate, not meeting on midline;
transverse impression complete and deep. Pronotum length 0.83, width 1.28.
Scutellum length 0.73, width 0.70. Claval commissure length 0.73. Corium
with lateral margins slightly sinuate and moderately reflexed; midline
distance apex clavus-apex corium 1.08; midline distance apex corium-apex
membrane 0.83. Fore femora moderately incrassate, each armed below with
4 dark brown sharp spines on distal half; each hind femur with a single
sharp spine distally on ventral surface. Labium reaching to but not beyond
hind coxae, 1st segment not exceeding base of head. Labial segment length
I 0.63, II 0.65, III 0.48, IV 0.33. Antennae terete. Antennal segments length
I 0.48, II 1.13, III 0.88, IV 1.10. Total body length 4.80.
HOLOTYPE: S Florida: Edgewater 24-II-1939 (C. A. Frost). In U.S.N.M.
No. 73797.
PARATYPES: Florida: 2 $, 1 9 Edgewater 20-II-1939 (C. A. Frost); 1
no abd. same 24-II-1939; 1 3, 2 9 same 5-III-1939; 2 9 same 6-III-1939;
2 $ same 14-III-1939; 1 9 Dade Co., Orchid Jungle Hammock, Newton Rd
12-V-1970 (R. M. Baranowski) blacklightt trap); 1 & Manatee Co. Braden-
ton 27-IV-1965; 1 9 Citrus Co. Inverness 27-IV-1965; 1 S Hardee Co.
Wauchula 13-IV-1965; 1 9 Pinellas Co., Largo 27-IV-1965; 1 a Coronado
Beach 26-II-1939 (C. A. Frost); 1 9 Leon Co., Tallahassee 10-III-1974
(C. W. O'Brien) (uv trap); 2 9 Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. Sta. 7-8-VI-
1969 (J. Harrington, T. Schuh, J. Slater) (at light); 1 9 Alachua Co. 15-V-
1950 (E. W. Michelson); 1 9 Gainesville 18-VIII-1969 (F. W. Mead)
blacklightt trap); 1 9 Lake Co., 2 mi S. Tavares, Rt 448 25-IV-1967 (R. E.
Woodruff) blacklightt trap); 1 S, 1 9 Polk Co., Pierce 5-XI-1949 (R. F.
Hussey) (taken in Spanish moss); 1 9 Lakeland 9-IV-1948 (R. F. Hussey)
(at light); 1 $, same 5-V-1948; 1 9 sanre 16-III-1948; 1 & same 23-XII-
1947 (taken in Spanish moss); 1 8, 1 9 same 21-XI-1948 (breeding on
Spanish moss); 1 9 Dunedin 10-1-1930 (W. S. Blatchley) ; 2 8 same 6-II-
1926; 1 & same 26-II-1926; 1 $ same 10-III?; 1 9 same 22-III-1926; 2 &
same 23-III-1921. U.S.N.M., F.S.C.A., G.G.S., Purdue Univ. (Blatchley
Coll.), R.M.B. and J.A.S. collections.
This is a very distinctive species by virtue of its extremely pale, nearly
white, appearance. The light coloration of the clavus and corium obliterates

December, 1983


Slater & Baranowski: Florida Ozophora 431

the posterior white macula so that the corium appears completely pale with
the exception of the 3 contrasting dark chocolate brown markings indicated
above. An additional distinctive feature of this pale species is the lack of a
distinctly contrasting white annulus on the 4th antennal segment. In some
specimens an annulus is present but very short and not strongly contrasting
as it is in most species of Ozophora. In the most vividly colored specimens
there are some dark brown spots on the middle and fore femora. The pos-
terior margin of the pronotum is white and the raised calloused divergent
lateral areas of the scutellum may have a white differentiated area toward
their posterior portions. In some specimens there is also a dark chocolate
brown spot on the membrane adjacent to the middle of the apical corial
margin and the apex of the membrane may appear white, as in many other
species of the genus. There is also a slight variation in the spination of the
fore femora. The most proximal spine is always small and sometimes is lost
so that in many specimens 3 spines rather than 4 are present on a fore
This is the species reported as pallescens (Distant) from Dunedin by
Blatchley (1926). Blatchley's specimens were taken from the leaf axils of a
thistle on Hog Island, and by beating Spanish moss and sweeping ferns in
dense hammocks on the mainland.

Fifth instar nymph (dry, Edgewater, Fla.)
General coloration pale testaceous, marked with dark brown as follows:
head, a broad irregular stripe on pronotum on either side of midline adjacent
to narrow pale meson, a broad even stripe midway between meson and
lateral margin and a lateral stripe just within explanate lateral flange, this
latter becoming obsolete posteriorly, broadening anteriorly and coalescing
with next stripe. Scutellum marked with dark brown on either side of mid-
line narrowing posteriorly along prescutellum and metanotum; inner 1/2 of
mesothoracic wing pads (invaded anteriorly by an elongate yellow quadrate
mark) ; posterior 1/2 of wing pads except for a broadly pale apex, the dark
brown area extending anteriorly as a stripe through middle of wing pads
and albng lateral margins within explanate flanges. Abdomen strongly
irrorate, darker anteriorly, 1st segment nearly white dorsally; sclerotized
areas around abdominal scent gland openings narrowly elliptical. Legs,
antennae and labium pale yellow, femora and tibiae obscurely spotted with
darker brown; 2nd tarsal segment and apex of labium infuscated. Antennae
with 4th segment slightly infuscated, very slightly paler at proximal end and
lacking a distinctly differentiated white annulus. Ventral and pleural sur-
faces of head and thorax dark red brown. Abdomen irrorate below becoming
nearly uniformly fumose on segment 2, progressively less so through 3 and 4.
Segment 4 with a white macula near anterior margin on either side of mid-
line. All abdominal segments uniformly pale laterally. Dorsal surface with-
out upstanding hairs.
Head length 0.63, width 0.75, interocular space 0.43. Pronotum length
0.58, width 1.05. Wing pads length 1.18. Abdomen length 1.88. Labial seg-
ments length I 0.58, II 0.55, III 0.40, IV 0.28. Labium extending posteriorly
between metacoxae. Antennal segments length I 0.38, II 0.85, III 0.68, IV
0.88. Fore and hind femora armed as in adults. Total body length 3.84.

Florida Entomologist 66 (





December, 1983



' .5


I I ': '^''''
^ \ Fi. "i:*.,. L ^

Bffc; '1 ;




Ma thy 5t Slfl$S

Fig. 4. Ozophora laticephala Slater & O'Donnell.

Ozophora laticephala Slater & O'Donnell
(Fig. 4)
Slater & O'Donnell 1979, J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 52: 161.
This recently described species is, together with divaricata one of the
smallest of the Florida Ozophora. It is readily recognizable by its relatively




Slater & Baranowski: Florida Ozophora 433

stout body, pale white lateral pronotal margins, lack of a strongly contrast-
ing white annulus proximally on the 4th antennal segment and especially by
the broad head with its short strongly truncate down-turned tylus.
In Jamaica laticephala is often present in large numbers feeding upon
Ficus seeds on the ground. This is the species that Slater (1972) notes as
occurring in a population estimated at over 1/4 million individuals feeding
on fallen seeds of a single tree of Ficus trigonata L. on Jamaica.
In early March, 1982 we collected a large series of adults and nymphs in
seed litter under a large Ficus microcarpa L. (f) growing at the Univ. of
Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center, Homestead. A large
population of Cligenes distinctus (Distant) and a few individuals of
Ozophora burmeisteri were also present. This particular tree had been under
observation for many years. Cligenes distinctus, Ozophora burmeisteri and
Neopamera neotropicalis (Kirkaldy) have been collected in moderate num-
bers but prior to 1982 not a single specimen of Ozophora laticephala had
been taken. It seems entirely possible that in view of the extensive collecting
by the junior author and others, including light trap collecting, that this
West Indian species is a recent introduction in southern Florida. It may well
be restricted to Ficus sp. as a breeding host.
It is primarily a West Indian species that occurs in the Bahamas, is
widespread in the Greater Antilles but not yet known to occur in the
Lesser Antilles.
Slater & O'Donnell (1979) reported laticephala from Florida for the
first time based upon a series taken at Stock Island (Key West). They de-
scribe the nymphs and figure the 5th instar.

Ozophora levis Slater and Baranowski, NEW SPECIES
General coloration predominately dark reddish brown, marked with
contrasting pale yellow as follows: anterior pronotal collar; humeral
pronotal angles; a pair of narrow vittae on posterior pronotal lobe, each
midway between meson and lateral margins; a small macula near middle of
elevated "Y" on scutellum; elevated claval vein; a diffuse area on corium
immediately within lateral explanate flange at level of middle of claval
commissure; legs; antennae and labium. Lateral explanate flange of corium
white, interrupted near apex where only extreme lateral margin is narrowly
yellow. Coxae yellowish brown. Apical 1/2 of 4th labial segment, clavus and
suffuse areas on 1st antennal segment brown. Fourth antennal segment
light brown, somewhat paler basally but lacking a strongly differentiated
white annulus. Dorsal surface lacking conspicuous upstanding hairs. Head
and anterior pronotal lobe nearly impunctate; posterior pronotal lobe,
scutellum and clavus prominently punctate, punctures separated from one
another by a distance greater than diameter of a puncture.
Head elongate, extending anteriorly nearly to middle of 1st antennal
segment, tylus only slightly declivent. Head length 1.0, width 1.0, interocular
space 0.44. Pronotum with well developed anterior collar; lateral margins
obtusely ridged, deeply sinuate; humeri evenly rounded; transverse im-
pression complete; posterior margin shallowly concave before scutellum.
Pronotum length 0.92, width 1.56. Scutellum with prominent Y-shaped
elevation, length 0.90, width 0.82. Hemelytra with lateral corial margins
very shallowly sinuate; length claval commissure 0.80. Midline distance apex

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

clavus-apex corium 1.40. Midline distance apex corium-apex membrane 0.92.
Metathoracic scent gland auricle straight, not curving posteriorly. Fore
femora armed below on distal 1/2 with 4 large dark brown spines and an
additional small spine near distal end. Hind femora with 4 small ventral
spines present on distal 1/2. Labium reaching metacoxae. Labial segments
length I 0.94, II 0.90, III 0.70, IV 0.46. Antennal segments length I 0.64, II
1.68, III 1.36, IV 1.70. Total body length 5.84.
HOLOTYPE: S Florida: Key Largo 25-II-1956 (at light) (R. A. Morse).
In U.S.N.M. No. 100055.
PARATYPES: Florida: 2 6, 4 9 same as holotype. 1 9 Key Largo 25-II-
1956 (H. V. Weems, Jr.). 1 8 Plantation Key 3-V-1957 (at light) F. W.
Mead). 4 8, 1 9 Big Pine Key 26-III-1973 (C. W. & L. B. O'Brien); 2 3,
1? (abdomen missing) Key West 25-IV-1969, (F. A. Buchanan) blacklight
trap. In A.M.N.H., F.S.C.A., R.M.B. and J.A.S. collections.
This species is readily recognizable by its predominately dark reddish
brown (sometimes almost chocolate brown) coloration. The only other very
dark colored species of Ozophora in Florida are burmeisteri and trinotuta
both of which have conspicuous upstanding dorsal pubescence present.
Some specimens of levis have the corium darker colored than does the
holotype described above. In such cases the pale areas are strongly contrast-
ing and appear as distinct yellow maculae laterally at the level of the middle
of the claval commissure, near the inner-apical corial margin, as a large
pale area on the lateral corial margin (at the level of the middle of the
apical corial margin) and at the extreme apex of the corium. Although most
specimens have the 2nd and 3rd antennal segments almost uniformly pale,
occasionally the distal ends of both segments are infuscated. The number of
fore femoral spines appears to be almost constant, but the number of hind
femoral spines varies from 3 to 6.
In addition to the type series there are several additional specimens that
we consider to be conspecific. The most important of these are 3 specimens
from Quintana Roo, Mexico (1 $, 1 9 Allen Point 17-IV-1960 (J. F. G.
Clarke) 1 9 Tukun 20-IV-1960 (J. F. G. Clarke) in the U.S.N.M. These 3
specimens appear to be similar to the type series in all respects.
Two specimens from the Bahamas are perhaps conspecific but do differ
in some respects. Both of these specimens (1 without abdomen from Andros
Island, Fresh Creek 23-IV-1953, the other a male from Great Abaco Isl.,
Marsh Harbour 6-V-1953, both collected by E. V. Hayden & L. Giovannoli
at light during the Van Voast-A.M.N.H. Bahamas Isls. Exped.) differ from
all of the paratypes and the Mexican specimens in having the ridged lateral
pronotal margins pale and strongly contrasting with the anterior pronotal
lobe. The posterior pronotal lobe has the commonly found looped pattern of
alternating dark and light vittae with the dark vittae coalescing posteriorly
to form the so called loop. The 2 specimens are considerably lighter than the
type material and the Andros Island specimen has a distinct well defined
although white annulus on the 4th segment.
The male from Great Abaco Island is remarkable in having bilaterally
symmetrical 3-segmented oligomerous antennae. Oligomery is not uncommon
in Ozophora but bilateral oligomery in Lygaeidae is a very rare phenomenon.
These Bahamian specimens may represent an undescribed species but clarifi-
cation must await additional material.
Ozophora levis is part of a difficult West Indian complex whose clarifica-


December, 1983

Slater & Baranowski: Florida Ozophora

tion is beyond the scope of this paper. From Mayaguana Island in the
Bahamas we have examined an enormous series that is very similar in ex-
ternal appearance to levis. However, levis has 6 coils to the vesica (as does
the male from Great Abaco Island), an evenly curving flange on the basal
attachment area of the paramere and non-flaring sperm reservoir "wings".
Specimens from Mayaguana by contrast have a 10-coiled vesica, a rather
truncated or rectangular basal attachment paramere area and widely flaring
sperm reservoir wings. The latter type of genitalic structures are very
similar to the condition found in material from the Turks and Caicos
Islands, Hispaniola and Jamaica. However, specimens from the Greater
Antilles probably are at least subspecifically distinct from those from the
Bahamas as the latter have quite differently colored hemelytra, a somewhat
more elongate head, a less densely punctate posterior pronotal lobe and a
more elongate prominently white 4th antennal segment annulus. Ozophora
pallidofemora Scudder from the Caymans is also probably a member of this
complex but is readily distinguishable from any of the above populations as
it has a "notched" humeral pronotal area.

Ozophora picturata Uhler
This is a large species with a relatively porrect head and anteriorly
tapering pronotum. The easiest recognition feature for Florida specimens is
the presence of a distinct crimson streak along the posterior portion of each
apical corial margin. In very pale specimens this color is almost lost but still
evident in all specimens we have examined. Ozophora picturata is usually a
vividly marked species with a prominent broad subproximal white annulus
on the 4th antennal segment, and the pale subapical corial macula only a
little differentiated from the pale areas of the anterior half of the corium.
Sweet (1964) has studied the biology of picturata in Connecticut where
it "is strictly an inhabitant of forest floors, ranging from oak-hickory forests
to shrubby consolidation series He found it to be the only seed feeding
lygaeid found in the climax-oak hickory community that covers so much of
the northeastern United States. The habitat in Florida is not known, but it
surely will prove to be a woodland speices.
Ozophora picturata has the most northern distribution of any species of
Ozophora. It is known to occur from New England west at least to Iowa and
south to Texas and Florida. Some Caribbean, Central American and Cali-
fornia records may be correct but need verification.
Florida records: Reported by Barber (1914) from Biscayne Bay and
Kissimmee and by Blatchley (1926) from Dunedin, Lakeland and Royal
Palm Park.
Additional Florida records: Lakeland, Polk Co.; Davis, I.; Hillsborough
(G. G. S.); Tall Timbers Res. Sta., Leon Co., Woodyard Hammock; Talla-
hassee; Wakulla Springs; Spring Creek, Wakulla Co. (J. A. S.); Winter
Park; Lake Placid (A.M.N.H.); Bowling Green; Gainesville; Orchid Jungle
Hammock, Newton Road, Dade Co.; Volusia Co.; Homestead; Monticello
(R. M. B.). Lakeland; Liberty Co.; Camp Terreya; Jackson Co.; Cottondale
(Univ. Mich.).

Fifth instar nymph (in alcohol, Storrs, Connecticut)
General coloration and markings similar to gilva but coloration darker.


Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

Dark stripes on pronotum wider on either side of pale midline but midlateral
stripe much more slender; dark markings on scutellum tapering evenly
posteriorly in rather a cone shaped manner. Abdominal markings quite
different from those of gilva, irrorate spots rather obsolete, absent posterior
to segment 4. Abdomen conspicuously marked with red along sutures, these
red markings splitting laterally to form a "Y". Midway along margin the
anterior arm of the "Y" leaving the suture and extending to the middle of
the segment, that on terga VI extending antero mesad to reach lateral edges
of abdominal scent gland opening between terga 5 and 6; area between the
Y-shaped arms infuscated with dusky gray, becoming paler posteriorly. Legs
nearly uniformly pale, third tarsal segment infuscated. First and 2nd
antennal segments light yellow, 3rd segment dark chocolate brown somewhat
paler toward proximal end, 4th segment with an extremely conspicuous
white annulus occupying entire proximal 1/2 of segment, distal 1/2 of seg-
ment IV dusky brown. A broad reddish brown longitudinal stripe occupying
greater portion of lateral thoracic surface which is ventrally pale yellow.
Abdomen below slightly irrorate, dusky gray with reddish bands along
anterior margins of sutures separating sterna 5, 6, 7 and 8; infuscated with
reddish on lateral portions of segments 2 and 3.
Armed below on fore and hind femora as in adult. Labium elongate
extending well onto 3rd abdominal sternum. Head length 0.78, width 0.88,
interocular space 0.48. Pronotum length 0.73, width 1.20. Mesothoracic wing
pads length 1.48. Abdomen length 2.23. Labial segments length I 0.93, II
0.95, III 0.78, IV 0.43. Antennal segments length I 0.63, II 1.30, III 1.03, IV
1.23. Total body length 4.70.
Fourth instar nymph (same as above)
Similar in form and color to instar 5. Striping on head, pronotum and
scutellum more regular and even. Abdominal segment 2 almost completely
dark gray; segment 3 dark gray anteriorly; this color tapering posteriorly
in middle to reach lateral angles of abdominal scent gland opening between
terga 3 and 4 but with a central yellow transverse macula in this tapered
Head length 0.68, width 0.73, interocular space 0.43. Pronotum length
0.55, width 0.85. Mesothoracic wing pad length 0.63. Abdomen length 1.75.
Labial segments length I 0.73, II 0.70, III 0.53, IV 0.28. Antennal segments
length I 0.50, II 1.00, III 0.85, IV 0.93. Total body length 3.70.

Ozophora reperta Blatchley, NEW SYNONYMY

1954. Ozophora inornata Barber, American Mus. Novit. N. 1682 p. 5-6.
This is a small dull brown species, without a strongly contrasting white
macula present on the distal portion of the corium. It is conspecific with
inornata Barber from the Bahamas. In most of the Bahamian specimens we
have examined the explanate flange of the'lateral edge of the corium is pale
except for the apical dark spot, whereas in all Florida specimens there is a
conspicuous although often small dark chocolate spot 1/3 the distance from
the apex. Florida specimens are also usually more vividly colored on the
posterior pronotal lobe. The fore femora usually have only 2 ventral spines
distally but occasionally 3 are present. The calli are usually conspicuously
elevated above the pronotal surface. The 3rd antennal segment is darkened
at the distal end and the 4th segment has a broad proximal white annulus.


December, 1983

Slater & Baranowski: Florida Ozophora

This is apparently a scarce species as, despite intensive light trap collect-
ing for a number of years at the localities listed below, only 10 specimens
has been taken.
In addition to the southern Florida records, reperta is known only from
the Bahamas and the Dominican Republic. Barber (1954) originally de-
scribed inornata from South Bimini Island and Barber & Ashlock (1960)
listed it from Allans Cay (Abaco Cays), New Providence I., Mayaguana I.
and from a Cay 3.5 miles S.W. of North Caicos I. We have also examined
material from Cat Island and Andros I. It apparently occurs throughout
the Bahamas. We have also examined 5 specimens from the Dominican Re-
public ("Prov. E. Seibo Miches 9-VI-1976 (R. E. Woodruff) blacklight trap.
Florida records: Originally described by Blatchley (1926) from 6 speci-
mens "swept from weeds along the margins of everglades", Royal Palm
Park. Blatchley (1930) designated as type (Lectotype) a 9 from Royal
Palm Park, 4 April 1925. We have examined 3 's (part of the same series)
from the above locality 20-III-1924 and have attached paratype labels.
Additional Florida records: Orchid Jungle Hammock, Newton Rd., Dade
Co. and Naranja (R. M. B.); Homestead (R.M.B., J.A.S.).

Ozophora trinotata Barber
This is a large reddish brown species, recognizable by the upstanding
dorsal pubescence, unusually long hind femoral hairs and completely dusky
hemelytral membrane. The corium has a narrow but conspicuous distally
placed pale macula and a broad chocolate fascia immediately anterior to it,
which extends entirely across the wing. There is no pale spot present near
the inner angle of the corium. As with a number of the darker species of
Ozophora there is considerable variation in color. In very dark specimens
the characteristic longitudinal rays are conspicuously present on the pos-
terior pronotal lobe, whereas in pale reddish brown specimens these rays are
indistinct or absent.
Little is known of the biology. Blatchley (1926) reported it from ferns,
certainly not a host plant. It is commonly taken in blacklight traps in
hammocks in the Homestead area. We have taken breeding populations in
dense vegetation in the Florida Keys and on 4 March 1982 numerous nymphs
and a few adults were taken on Long Key feeding on the fallen seeds of
Conocarpus erecta L. in a relatively damp shaded depression.
Florida records: Originally described by Barber (1914) from Marco;
Everglade: Ft. Myers, Ormond; Biscayne Bay and Belleair. Reported by
Blatchley (1926) from Dunedin and Royal Palm Park and by Torre-Bueno
(1931) from Royal Palm Park as binatata (sic.).
Additional Florida records: Wauchula (R.M.B. & G.G.S.); Cortez
(G.G.S.); Key Biscayne; Ocala Nat. Forest, Zay Prairie, 3 mi. N. Hwy. 40;
Manatee Co.; Gumbo Limbo Trail, Everglades Nat. Pk.; Archbold Biol. Sta.;
Big Pine Key; Silver Springs (J.A.S.); Gainesville (R.M.B. Schuh, J.A.S.);
Boca Grande, Lee Co.; Ozello, Citrus Co.; St. Johns; St. Augustine;
Punta Rassa, Lee Co.; Bradenton, Manatee Co.; Shove Acres, Pinellas Co.;
Largo, Pinellas Co.; Captiva, Lee Co.; South Bch., St. Lucie; Siesta Keys,
Sarasota; Sanibel, Lee Co.; Beruliarand (sp?), Lee Co.; Vero Beach, Indian
River (G.G.S.); St. Pk., Key Largo; Long Key (R.M.B., J.A.S.) Highlands
Hammock St. Pk.; Edgewater; Paradise Key (P.D.A.); Homestead; Orchid


Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

Jungle Hammock, Newton Road, Dade Co.; Key Largo; Hog Bay, Desoto
Co.; Ft. Green; Ross & Castello Hammock, Dade Co.; Flamingo Prairie,
Everglades Nat. Pk.; Naranja, Venice, Manatee Co.; Bowling Green, Stock
Island, Monroe Co.; 9 mi SSW Ocala, Marion Co. (R.M.B.); Lake Placid;
Winter Park; Sebring and Sebastian (A.M.N.H.), Labelle, Hendry Co.
(J.A.S.). Marion Co., Ocala Nat'l. For.; Marion Co. Micanopy; Lake Co.;
Pinellas Co., 2.4 mi E. Tarpon Spr. Putnam Co., 1.7 mi. N. Satsuma (Univ.
Fifth instar nymph (in alcohol Key Largo, Florida)
Body elongate, elliptical, strongly tapering anteriorly from abdomen.
Head reddish brown with darker markings behind eye and laterally on
vertex. Pronotum also dark reddish brown, a pale yellow mark on anterior
collar area midway between meson and margin and an irregular pale spot
on posterior margin midway between meson and margin, this faintly indi-
cated as a stripe anteriorly. Mesothoracic wing pads strongly striped and
variegated with dark brown and pale yellow. Abdomen conspicuously ir-
rorate, segments 2 and 3 marked with gray as in burmeisteri; sutures
usually narrowly margined with pink or red (sometimes abdomen strongly
suffused with red laterally and mesally). Legs uniformly pale yellow, pos-
terior femora lacking a subdistal dark annulus. Antennae pale yellow, 4th
segment with proximal 1/2 to 1/3 white but much less strongly differentiated
from distal coloration than in many species of Ozophora. Thickly clothed
above with upstanding yellow and dark brown hairs. Hairs on posterior
femora elongate, as long as or longer than diameter of femur, as in adult.
Fore femora armed below with 3 conspicuous spines, sometimes a tiny spine
distad of these and with a series of 4 or 5 elongate hairs proximad. Labium
reaching abdomen. Head length 0.80, width 1.0, interocular space 0.50.
Pronotum length 0.78, width 1.35, Mesothoracic wing pad length 1.53. Ab-
domen length 3.40. Labial segments length I 0.80, II 0.85, III 0.70, IV 0.38.
Antennal segments length I 0.53, II 1.35, III 1.20, IV 1.48. Total body length
Fourth instar nymph (in alcohol, Long Key, Florida)
Similar in form and color to instar 5. Darkened area across segments 2
and 3 more strongly suffused with red. Posterior portion of tergum 3 and
anterior portion of tergum 4 white, together forming a distinct pale trans-
verse fascia across center of abdomen interrupted only by dark area around
anterior abdominal scent gland openings. Hind femora with rather elongate
hairs but these not as long as diameter of femur. Head length 0.68, width
0.78; interocular space 0.43. Pronotum length 0.55, width 0.90. Mesothoracic
wing pads length 0.50. Abdomen length 1.48. Labial segments length I 0.63,
II 0.60, III 0.48, IV 0.33. Antennal segments length I 0.40, II 0.95, III 0.93,
IV 1.13. Total body length 3.20.
Third instar nymph (same as above)
Similar in form to instar 4. Abdomen in large part pale yellow, a con-
spicuous transverse red fascia across abdomen covering segment 2 and
anterior portion of segment 3. Abdominal segments 4 through 7 with ir-
regular scattered red markings. These particularly prominent laterad. Broad
white annulus proximally on 4th antennal segment still clearly evident.
Head length 0.50, width 0.60; interocular space 0.33. Pronotum length 0.28,


December, 1983

Slater & Baranowski: Florida Ozophora

width 0.60. Abdomen length 1.65. Labial segments length I 0.33, II 0.35, III
0.30, IV 0.23. Antennal segments length I 0.23, II 0.53, III 0.50, IV 0.68.
Total body length 2.90.

Second instar nymph (same as above)
General coloration similar to instar 3 but red markings on abdomen form-
ing 2 distinctly separated transverse fascia, the anterior one on segments 2
and 3, the posterior one on segments 4 and 5. Posterior to 2nd red fascia
conspicuous red markings present laterally along sutures of segments 6 and
7. Head length 0.30, width 0.38, interocular space 0.23. Pronotum length 0.15,
width 0.37. Abdomen length 0.78. Labial segments length I 0.30, II 0.23, III
0.25, IV 0.23. Antennal segments length I 0.15, II 0.28, III 0.28, IV 0.43.
Total body length 1.50.

First instar (same as above)
Head, pronotum, mesonotum and large transverse areas on metanotum
dull yellow brown, strongly contrasting with nearly white abdomen; latter
with a single transverse broad red fascia running across tergum 5 and ad-
jacent areas of terga 4 and 6. Red fascia continued around body well onto
sternum but not meeting at midline ventrally. Fourth antennal segment uni-
formly pale, nearly white. Head length 0.28, width 0.38; interocular space
0.25. Pronotum length 0.15, width 0.43, Abdomen length 0.58. Labial seg-
ments length I 0.30, II 0.25, III 0.20, IV 0.23. Antennal segments length I
0.15, II 0.25, III 0.25, IV 0.43. Total body length 1.15.

Egg (same as above)
Similar to that of burmeisteri in shape and having the surface thickly
covered with a short coat of truncate hairs. Five short thick micropylar
processes present around anterior pole. Length 1.0, width 0.45.


We thank the following individuals or institutions for the loan of ma-
terial: American Museum of Natural History, Purdue University, Texas
A&M University, United States National Museum of Natural History,
G. G. E. Scudder and P. D. Ashlock. We also thank Dr. Carl Campbell,
University of Florida, AREC, Homestead, for identification of plants; Dr.
Jane Harrington, University of Wisconsin, for field assistance; the National
Science Foundation and the University of Florida Division of Sponsored
Research for financial assistance; Mrs. Kathy Schmidt, American Museum
of Natural History, and Ms. Mary Jane Spring, University of Connecticut,
for preparation of the illustrations.
This is No. 4461 of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal
Series. The junior author is a Research Associate of the Florida State Col-
lection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, Gainesville.

BARBER, H. G. 1914. Insects of Florida II. Hemiptera. Bull. American Mus.
Nat. Hist. 33: 495-535.
.1954. A report on the Hemiptera Heteroptera from the Bimini
Islands, Bahamas, British West Indies. American Mus. Nov. No.


Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

1682: 1-18, fig. 3.
AND P. D. ASHLOCK. 1960. The Lygaeidae of the Van-Voast-
American Museum of Natural History Expedition to the Bahama
Islands, 1953 (Hemiptera-Heteroptera). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington
62. 117-24, Fig. 1-2.
BLATCHLEY, W. S. 1926. Heteroptera or true bugs of eastern North America,
with special reference to the faunas of Indiana and Florida. Indian-
apolis: Nature Publishing Co. 1116 p.
.1930. A list of species and varieties of Heteroptera described by
W. S. Blatchley with citation to original descriptions, of single types
and designation of known synonyms. Blatcheyana: 63-7.
SLATER, J. A. 1964. A Catalogue of the Lygaeidae of the World. 2 vol. 1668
p. U. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.
.1972. Lygaeid bugs as seed predators of figs. (Hemiptera:
Lygaeidae). Biotropica 4: 145-51.
---- AND J. E. O'DONNELL. 1979. An analysis of Ozophora laticephala-
complex with the description of eight new species (Hemiptera:
Lygaeidae). Jour. Kansas Ent. Soc. 52: 154-79.
SWEET, M. H. 1964. The biology and ecology of the Rhyparochrominae of
New England (Heteroptera:Lygaeidae) Part II. Ent. Americana 44:
TORRE-BUENO, J. R. 1931. Heteroptera collected by G. P. Englehardt in the
South and West. II. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 26: 135-9.
VAN DUZEE, E. P. 1917. Catalog of the Hemiptera of America north of
Mexico. Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press. 902 p.
WOLCOTT, G. W. 1936. "Insectae Borinquensis". J. Dept. Agric. Puerto Rico
20: 1: 1-627.


University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Homestead, FL 33031 USA and
Section of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology,
University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06268 USA, respectively

The Ozophora pallescens complex is defined and its distribution and rela-
tionships in the West Indies discussed. Ozophora majas, caribbee, cobbeni
and helenae are described as new. Ozophora divaricata Barber, subimpicta
Barber, miniscula Scudder and pallescens (Distant) are assigned to the
complex. Descriptive discussions, a key and genital capsule figures are in-
cluded for all species. Dorsal view illustrations are included for helenae,
cobbeni, majas and subimpicta. Barber's 1939 records of pallescens from
Puerto Rico are referred to divaricata. Zoogeographic implications suggest-
ing the presence of a Greater Antillean and a Lesser Antillean component
are discussed.

Se define el complejo del g6nero Ozophora y se discute su distribuci6n y


December, 1983

Baranowski & Slater: Ozophora pallescens Complex


sus relaciones en las Antillas. Se described como nuevas species Ozophora,
majas, caribbee, cobbeni y helenae. Se asignan al complejo las species
divaricata Barber, subimpicta Barber, miniscula Scudder y pallescens
(Distant). Se incluyen discusiones descriptivas, una clave y figures de las
genitalias para todas las species. Se incluyen ilustraciones de vistas dorsales
de helenae, cobbeni, majas y subimpicta. Los registros de Barber 1939, de la
especie pallescens de Puerto Rico, se refieren a divaricata. Se discuten las
implicaciones zoogeogrfficas, las cuales sugieren la presencia de las com-
ponentes de las Antillas Mayores y Antillas Menores.

The present paper treats a complex of small species in the genus
Ozophora. These insects are widespread in the West Indies and also occur
in southern Florida, Central and South America. This work is confined
primarily to the West Indies and members of the complex from other areas
are discussed only as necessary to understand the group in the West Indies.
The relationships of these insects are among the most difficult that we
have encountered in the genus Ozophora, itself a notoriously difficult genus.
We have called this the "pallescens complex" from the nominal species
described many years ago by Distant (1893) from Panama. The complex
may be defined as very small to minute species; usually with only 2 (some-
times 3) major spines on the ventral surface of the fore femora; prominent
convex calli; a dark anterior pronotal lobe with concolorus lateral margins;
and, a smooth, sometimes almost "glossy" surface to the posterior pronotal
lobe where the punctures tend to be more widely separated than is the case
with many other species of Ozophora. In addition, there are frequently 3
"looped" dark areas on the posterior pronotal lobe, a strongly variegated
hemelytral color pattern and pale legs. This definition does not completely
exclude a few species that we do not include here. A complete understanding
of monophyletic groups within Ozophora must await a revision of the entire
genus, now underway. We feel reasonably certain that despite some difficulty
in definition we are dealing with a very closely related monophyletic group.
This is evident by the difficulty of distinguishing species in the complex. The
species are very similar, and although with experience it is often possible to
recognize individual species on external features of color, shape and rela-
tive body proportions, there is so much individual variation and so many
minor inter-island differences that few of these external features are actually
diagnostic. Fortunately we have had available for study long series from a
number of the West Indian islands including a considerable proportion that
we have personally collected.
To accurately identify a number of the species in this complex, it is
necessary to examine the configuration and details of the male genital
capsule. One of the most reliable characters we have found is what Schaefer
(1977) calls the cuplike sclerite which is most easily observed when examin-
ing the posterior portion of the genital capsule. In Ozophora this sclerite,
when viewed posteriorly, appears as a pair of large elongate lobes con-
nected dorsally (Fig. 1; and 2a,d,g,j). The configuration and width of the
space between the lobes and the shape of the lobes themselves are diagnostic
for species determination. Other features of the genital capsule useful for
species determination include the shape of the caudo-dorsal edge of the
capsule. This may appear as a narrow, sharply delineated lip (Fig. le,h) or

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

as a relatively broad rolled edge (Fig. 2b). When viewed dorsally the caudo-
dorsal edge may be evenly rounded (Fig. If) or variously produced (Fig.
lc,i,l; 2c,f,i,1).
The dorsal opening of the genital capsule, as in other lygaeids, has an
inward projecting pair of arms. These arms may be either simple (Fig. If;
2c,f,i) or bifid (Fig. lc,i). In some cases the differences are subtle and re-
quire some experience. Comparative material is helpful especially for small
species such as caribbee n.sp., majas n.sp. and divaricata. In caribbee (Fig.
le,f) the posterior margin of the capsule curves in a nearly even arc from
the venter to the dorso-caudal edge. This edge is narrow and terminates in a
definite lip. In divaricata (Fig. 2b,c) the posterior margin of the capsule is
distinctly angulate ventrally rather than forming an even arc and the dorso-
caudad area is strongly produced and thickened into a heavy rolled margin.
The capsule shape of caribbee n.sp. is remarkably constant throughout the
West Indies with no evident variation from island to island. In divaricata
the Florida population has the posterior dorso-caudad margin strongly
produced, but less abruptly angulately so, than specimens from the Bahamas.
Differences in genital capsule shape for the other species are included in
the individual species discussions.
Eventually this group will be an excellent subject for an exhaustive
island by island statistical analysis as was done for the Anolis lizards.
Ozophora pallescens, subsequent to its original description by Distant
(1893) from Panama, has been reported from many islands of the West
Indies, Mexico and Florida (Slater 1964). As noted below most of the West
Indian and all of the Florida records are referable to other species. Other
authors have described species that we consider to be members of the
pallescens complex. Barber (1939) described subimpicta from Puerto Rico
and Hispaniola, and Barber (1954) described divaricata from Bimini. His
determination labels demonstrate that he was aware that this species also
occurred in the Greater Antilles. Scudder (1958) described 0. miniscula
from the Caymans, and while working on material from the Dutch Islands
recognized an undescribed species from Saba, the formal description of
which he has allowed us to include in the present paper.
The opportunity to collect on a number of the West Indian islands has
enabled us to better understand something of the habitats and host plants
of a number of the species. The large amount of material we have amassed
has proven to be essential to an understanding of systematic relationships,
both in assessing the degree of variability of color and meristic features,
and more importantly, in being able to establish the reliability of features of
the genital capsule in this complex.
We recognize 8 species in this complex in the West Indies, one that
reaches Florida, one that reaches Central America and at least one and
probably more that will be found to occur in South America.
The West Indian species may be segregated into 2 groups, the first, con-
sisting of cobbeni n.sp. and majas n.sp., is characterized by the area of the
inner margin of the genital capsule opening possessing bifid arms (Fig.
lc,i). The second subgroup consists of caribbee n.sp., divaricata Barber,
subimpicta Barber, pallescens Distant, miniscula Scudder and helenae n.sp.
In these species the arms consist of a single attenuated rather finger-like
process (Fig. If; 2c,f,i) that may in some species possess a slight enlarge-
ment near the base (Fig. 11, 21).

December, 1983


Baranowski & Slater: Ozophora pallescens Complex


Ozophora cobbeni n.sp. and majas n.sp. are thus far known only from
the Lesser Antilles; cobbeni from Saba south to St. Lucia and majas from
Saba, Montserrat and Dominica.
The other group is more widely distributed in the West Indies being
known from Florida to Central and South America. The West Indian distri-
bution of some of these species is interesting and, while the implications
cannot be fully understood until mainland populations are analyzed, deserves
some comment.
Ozophora caribbee n.sp. probably occurs throughout the West Indies. It
is common on the "wet" islands of the Lesser Antilles (Grenada north to
Guadeloupe) and occurs on all 4 major islands of the Greater Antilles (but
is scarce). It occurs sympatrically with cobbeni n.sp. on Dominica and
Guadeloupe. We have not yet seen material from the intervening islands.
Material from Trinidad differs slightly but will probably prove to be con-
Ozophora subimpicta apparently is confined to the Greater Antilles where
it is abundant and widespread. Ozophora helenae n.sp. is also thus far known
only from the Greater Antilles. Ozophora miniscula remains known only
from the Caymans.
Since a large amount of material has been available for study, these
distributions, while certainly not definitive, do indicate in general the basic
distribution patterns. At least 2 species occur on most islands (4 species are
already known from Jamaica and Dominica) and there is a definite segrega-
tion into a component that is primarily Lesser Antillean and one that is
Greater Antillean. This is a distributional pattern that seems to be present
in other groups of West Indian Ozophora and which will be discussed in
subsequent contributions.
All measurements are given in mm.
The original references and complete synonymy to all previously de-
scribed species can be found in Slater (1964).

Key to Species
1. Total length of antenna greater than 3.75 mm ---- subimpicta
1'. Total length of antenna less than 3.60 mm -...-.....-------- 2
2(1'). Scutellum except for apex, dark chocolate brown -.......... helenae n.sp.
2'. Scutellum not chocolate brown --------..-.. .....---.- ....................... 3
3(2'). Elongate lobes of cuplike sclerite in genital capsule touching
ventrally; space between lobes, narrow, pointed dorsally; (Fig.
la) arms projecting from lateral walls of dorsal opening of
genital capsule bifid (Fig. Ic) ...-- --....--------..-.. _....... majas n.sp.
3'. Elongate lobes of cuplike sclerite not touching ventrally, but
may be close (Fig. Ig, 2a) arms from lateral walls either
bifid or simple ..... ... ... -.. ..---- '_............- .. ......- . ........ 4
4(3'). Caudo-dorsal edge of capsule appearing as a sharply delineated
lip (Fig. le,h, 2h) ----...- -. ----... - --..... -- -----.---- -........-- 5
4'. Caudo-dorsal edge of capsule variously produced but not ap-
pearing as a sharply delineated lip. (Fig. Ib, 2k) -.-....-..--.--- ... 7
5. Arms projecting from lateral walls of dorsal opening of genital
capsule bifid (Fig. li) ....- -....-... ----...---........... cobbeni n.sp.
5'. Arms projecting from lateral walls of dorsal opening of genital

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

capsule simple (Fig. If, 2i) ........... -----------------....- ---- ---~.. ... 6
6(5'). Caudo-dorsal lip of genital capsule restricted to center (Fig.
2i) ..-...... ..------ ---- ......-- .-- ...... ....... m iniscula
6'. Caudo-dorsal lip of genital capsule apparently extending en-
tire width of capsule (Fig. If) ....- ........---------......--.... caribbee n.sp.
7(4'). Caudo-dorsal lip of genital capsule produced into a relatively
broad rolled edge (Fig. 2b); arms projecting from lateral walls
of genital capsule opening simple (Fig. 2c); lobes of cuplike
sclerite rounded at ventral ends (Fig. 2a) .-----------.......--.. ---divaricata
7'. Caudo-dorsal lip of genital capsule without a broad rolled
ridge, only a suggestion of a lip (Fig. 1k); arms projecting
from lateral wall of genital capsule opening simple, but with
a slight enlargement at base (Fig. 11); lobes of cuplike sclerite
truncate at ventral ends (Fig. li) ---...-..---- pallescens

Ozophora majas Baranowski and Slater, NEW SPECIES
Fig. la,b,c; 3
General coloration brownish. Head, anterior pronotal lobe, thorax lat-
erally and ventrally and abdomen dark brown. Pronotal collar, posterior
pronotal lobe except for pale brown vittae that coalesce posteriorly to give
the appearance of 3 "loops", legs and labium yellowish. Antennae yellow-
brown with the basal 1/3 of segment IV pale. Scutellum with basal 1/3 dark
brown, remaining 2/3 yellowish. Clavus and corium pale yellow with brown
punctures. Clavus with a faint brownish spot just posterior to anterior end
of claval commissure. Corium with a wide brown band extending from pos-
terior end of claval commissure and narrowing to lateral margins; a pale
spot present near wide inner end of dark transverse fascia; apical tip of
corium brown. Membrane smoky brown, veins paler.
Head straight, nondeclivent, interocular space slightly convex, tylus al-
most reaching middle of 1st antennal segment. Head length 0.50, width 0.60,
interocular space 0.30. Lateral margins of pronotum sinuate, transverse
impression shallow but extending across pronotum, calli elevated, smooth.
Pronotum length 0.56, width 0.98. Scutellum length 0.46, width 0.48. Claval
commissure length 0.46. Midline distance apex clavus-apex corium 0.80.
Fore femora armed below on distal 1/3 with 3 prominent spines. Middle and
hind femora unarmed. Antennal segments length I 0.30, II 0.70, III 0.56, IV
0.74. Labium reaching but not extending beyond mesocoxae, 1st labial seg-
ment not extending beyond base of head. Labial segments length I 0.36, II
0.40, III 0.28, IV 0.24. Total body length 3.24.
HOLOTYPE: S Montserrat, West Indies: St. Georges Hill, 7-V-1968 (P. C.
Drummond) Blacklight. In United States National Museum of Natural
History No. 73804.
PARATYPES: Montserrat: 1 S same 4ata as holotype; Dominica: 2 9
Pont Casse, 23-VI-1971 (J. A. Slater, R. M. Baranowski, J. E. Harrington);
1 $ June-July (H. W. Foote), Yale Exp. 1913; 1 9 Pont Casse, 1 mi N.,
"April 15, 1965" (D. R. Davis); 1 $ Pont Casse, 23-XI-1964 (P. J. Spang-
ler) ; Saba Island, Netherlands Antilles: 1 5 Mt. Scenary, 800-840 m. "Jan
12-14, 1968" (Borys Malkin). In United States National Museum of Natural
History, R. M. Baranowski and J. A. Slater collections.
This species name is formed from that of Mary Jane Spring, staff artist


December, 1983

Baranowski & Slater: Ozophora pallescens Complex



Fig. 1. Genital capsules, left to right, posterior, lateral and dorsal views;
a, b, c, Ozophora majas; d, e, f caribbee; g, h, i cobbeni; j, k, 1 pallescens.


Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

of the University of Connecticut, who has contributed so much to the quality
of our work on the Hemiptera.
Ozophora majas is extremely similar in general appearance to caribbee,
but differs markedly in the appearance of the genital capsule, for in addi-
tion to having the bifid inner arm of the genital capsule, majas lacks the
narrow dorso-caudal lip (Fig. Ib). From cobbeni with which it shares the
bifid arm, the separation between the lobes of the cuplike sclerite is diag-
nostic (Fig. la,g).

Ozophora caribbee Baranowski and Slater, NEW SPECIES
Fig. ld,e,f
General coloration brownish, head, anterior pronotal lobe, thorax laterally
and ventrally and abdomen dark brown; pronotal collar, irregular spots on
posterior pronotal lobe and posterior lateral angles, legs and labium yellow-
ish; antennae slightly darker with basal 1/3 of segment IV pale; scutellum
with basal portion dark brown, distally becoming lighter with 2 elongate
diagonal yellow spots; clavus and corium pale yellow with brown punctures;
margin of clavus bordering scutellum and claval commissure brown, a
transverse brown band extending from posterior end of claval commissure
to lateral corial margin, a pale spot present in band at inner angle, margin
along membrance and apex of corium brown; membrane smoky brown, veins
Head straight, nondeclivent, interocular space slightly convex, tylus not
reaching middle of 1st antennal segment. Head length 0.55, width 0.63,
interocular space 0.30. Lateral margin of pronotum sinuate, transverse im-
pression shallow, extending across pronotum, calli smooth. Pronotum length
0.60, width 0.88. Scutellum length 0.50, width 0.50. Claval commissure length
0.45. Midline distance apex clavus-apex corium 0.75. Midline distance apex
corium-apex membrane 0.50. Fore femora armed below on distal 1/3 with
2 prominent and 1 smaller spine, middle and hind femora unarmed. Antennae
slender, antennal segments length I 0.35, II 0.73, III 0.60, IV 0.83. Labium
reaching but not extending beyond mesocoxae, 1st segment not extending
beyond base of head. Labial segments length I 0.38, II 0.45, III 0.25, IV 0.20.
Total body length 3.13.
HOLOTYPE: 8 St. Vincent, West Indies: Charolotte Parish, 4 mi NW
Georgetown, Soufriere trail, 2100-2800 ft, 1-VII-1975 (R. M. Baranowski).
In United States National Museum of Natural History, no. 73786.
PARATYPES: St. Vincent: 11 $, 7 9 same data as holotype; 2 3, 5 $
same, 21-VI-1973 (Baranowski, O'Rourke, Picchi, Slater); 1 3, 2 9 Char-
lotte Parish, Montreal, 20-VI-1973 (Baranowski, O'Rourke, Picchi, Slater);
1 & P. R. Uhler collection (no additional data); 1 & P. R. Uhler collection
(H. H. Smith). Dominica: 1 & 0.5 mi N. Bagatette, 1000', 9-III-1965
(J. F. G. & T. M. Clarke) 1 & Pt. Lolo, 0.5 mi W. 25-1-1965, at light (W. W.
Worth); 1 9 Bagatette, 9-III-1965 (J. F. G. & T. M. Clarke) Breddin-
Archbold-Smithsonian Bio. Surv. Dominica). Guadeloupe: 3 S, 3-Riveres,
7-VII-1960 (Piege lx); 1 9 Trois Riveres, La Madeleine, 7-VIII-1960, Lre.
S.A.; 1 9 Duclos, 25-VI-1971, light trap (L. Gruner); Grenada: 17 8, 19 9
St. Andrews Parish, Lake Grand Etang, 17-VI-1973 (Baranowski, O'Rourke,
Picchi; Slater); 1 8, 1 9 Grand Etang, IX-1910 (Allen & Brues) 3 S, 4 9
Balthazar, Windward Side, (H. H. Smith) 2 & Grand Etang, 1900 ft

December., 1983


Baranowski & Slater: Ozophora pallescens Complex 447

(H. H. Smith). Puerto Rico: 5 3, 4 9 Rio Grande Co. 5 mi S. Palmer, 30-
III-5-IV-1969 (T. Schuh); 8 S, 9 9 Maricao fish hatchery, 8-11-VIII-1961
(Flint, Spangler); 2 8, 1 9 Rio Piedras, 24-VIII-1961, at light (Flint,
Spangler); 6 2 9 Maricao, VII-1960 (J. Maldonado C.) 1 S, 1 9 Maya-
guez, XII-1964 (Ricardo Jorge), 1 8, 1 9 Viequez Is. 28-IV-1930 (M. D.
Leonard); 1 3 Puerto Real, Viequez, 10-VII-1930 (M. D. Leonard); 1 a
Mayaguez, 22-V-1969, (M. H. Muma); 1 3 Penon Collao, Selinas, 5-VIII-
1953 (at light) (J. A. Ramos, J. Maldonado); 1 9 Cabo Rojo, 30-XI-1930
(Miguel A. Diaz); 1 9 km 22, Yanco-Lares Rd, 18-VII-1953 (J. A. Ramos,
J. Maldonado) ; 1 9 Luquillo, El Verde, 3-III-1953, blacklight trap (R. E.
Brown); 1 $, 5 9 Luqillo Nat. For. El Junge Rd. Km 20, 5-VII-1977,
blacklight trap (R. E. Woodruff). Cuba: 1 $ Mina Carlota, Trinidad Mts.
VII-39 (Parsons); Dominican Republic: 3 & San Francisco Mts., 28-VIII-
1905 (Aug. Busck); 1 9 same, 29-VIII-(1905?).
In United States National Museum of Natural History, Florida State
Collection of Arthropods, R. M. Baranowski and J. A. Slater collections.
As previously noted this is a very small species, most closely resembling
cobbeni and majas in general appearance but readily separable by the con-
figuration of the genital capsule (Fig. ld,e,f).

Ozophora divaricata Barber
Fig. 2a,b,c
Barber (1954) described divaricata from 2 specimens collected on South
Bimini Island, Bahamas. Barber's original description is very good, but the
pronotal pattern is more variable than described by Barber, some speci-
mens having a yellowish posterior pronotal lobe with the 3 "loops", others
with darker markings (see discussion under helenae). The antennae vary
from being uniformly dark brown to light brown with the distal tip of the
3rd segment dark and the basal 1/3 of the 4th whitish. Measurements of the
holotype are: Head length 0.53, width 0.68, interocular space 0.33; Pronotum
length 0.63, width 1.10, Scutellum length 0.46, width 0.65. Claval commissure
length 0.55. Distance along midline apex clavus-apex corium 0.90. Distance
along midline apex corium-apex membrane 0.63. Labial segments length I
0.55, II 0.53, III 0.40, IV 0.25. Antennal segments length I 0.35, II 0.80, III
0.60, IV missing. Total body length 3.80.
In addition to color variation, considerable inter-island differences occur
in shape and size. For example, the total length of antennal segments I-IV
from 5 specimens selected at random from Mayaguana, Bahamas ranged
from 2.8-3.0; from Anguilla & Peter Island, British West Indies 2.58-2.72,
from the Dominican Republic 2.50-2.68, from Cuba 2.42-2.70, and from
Florida 2.58-2.88.
This minute species has been collected on Key Largo, FL in seed litter
under Pluchea odorata Cassini, a marsh fleabane (Compositae, Asteraceae).
We have also collected it in Jamaica under Gynoxys incana (SW) Less and
Erigeron karvinskianus DC (Compositae, Asteraceae).
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Jamaica: 24 $, 23 9 Parish of St. Andrew,
Irishtown, 6-VII-1971 (J. A. Slater, R. M. Baranowski, J. E. Harrington);
4 8, 5 9 same, blacklight trap; 4 $, 4 9 same, 5-VII-1971; 2 3, 5 9
Parish of St. Andrew, Kingston, Mona, 15-X-1971, blacklight trap (R. M.
Baranowski); 3 9 same, 16-X-1971, 2 3, 3 9 same 17-X-1971; 2 S same,

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)






Fig. 2. Genital capsules, left to right, posterior, lateral and dorsal views;
a, b, c divaricata; d, e, f, helenae g, h, i miniscula; j, k, 1 subimpicta.


December, 1983

Baranowski & Slater: Ozophora pallescens Complex

Fig. 3. Ozophora majas Baranowski and Slater, NEW SPECIES, dorsal view.


Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

December, 1983

18-X-1971; 1 S, 7 9 same, 19-X-1971; 1 $ Parish of St. Andrew, Holywell
For. Camp, 4000', 23-VII-1972 (R. M. Baranowski); 1 a Parish of St.
Andrew, Strawberry Hill nr. Irishtown, 2750', 15-VII-1972 (R. M. Baranow-
ski); 1 $ Parish of St. Andrew, Bamboo Lodge nr. Irishtown, 2500' (R. M.
Baranowski); 1 S, 1 9 same 23-VII-1972, blacklight trap; 14 $, 3 9
Parish of St. Andrew, Holywell For. Camp, 4000', IX-X-1971, blacklight
trap (M. Winegar); 4 9 same, 2-V-1972; 1 3, 2 9 same, 20-VI-1972; 2 9
same, 23-XI-1971; 1 9 same 26-VI-1972; 1 9 same, 29-VII-1971; 1 8, 2 9
same 11-VIII-1971; 2 $ same, 15-II-1972; 1 9 same 10-VII-1972; 1 9 same
4-VIII-1972; 1 $ same, 8-II-1972; 1 S same, 27-1-1972; 1 $, 19 Parish
of St. Andrew, Hardwar Gap, Holywell Cabins, 21-V-1969 (R. E. Woodruff);
1 S same 22-V-1969 (R. E. Woodruff, P. C. Drummond); 2 9 Parish of St.
Andrew, Kingston Dam Rd., 8-V-1969, blacklight trap (R. E. Woodruff);
1 $, 5 9 Parish of St. Thomas, 5.8 mi N. Bath, Beacon Hill Rd., 19-V-1969,
blacklight trap (R. E. Woodruff); 2 $, 2 9 Parish of Manchester, Mande-
ville, 23-VIII-1969, blacklight trap, (J. Howard Frank); 1 $, 2 9 same,
24-VIII-1969 (R. E. Woodruff); 1 9 same, 9-XII-1969. (E. G. Farnworth);
1 8, 1 Parish of Manchester, 3-4 mi. w. Mandeville, 1-VII-1971 (J. A.
Slater, R. M. Baranowski, J. E. Harrington; 1 5, 1 9 Parish of Man-
chester, De Carteret College, Mandeville, 15-V-1969 (R. E. Woodruff);
1 9 same, 20-V-1969; 8 $, 13 9 Parish of Manchester, 3 mi N. Mandeville,
1-VII-1971, (J. A. Slater, R. M. Baranowski, J. E. Harrington); 1 S
Clarendon Parish, Alston, 2000', 9-1-1973, blacklight trap (C. Crickett);
1 3, Parish of St. Catherine, Worthy Park Est. 10-V-1969, blacklight trap
(R. E. Woodruff); 1 9 same 17-V-1969; 1 3, 2 9 same, 10-VI-1975; 3 9
same, 21-XI-1968; 1 9 same, 9-XI-1968; 1 9 same, 11-XI-1968; 1 8, 1 9
same, 2.2 mi. N. on Camperdown Rd., 10-V-1969; 1 9 Parish of St. Catherine,
Linstead, 10-XII-1970 (J. A. Slater, R. M. Baranowski); 1 9 same, 4-VII-
1971, blacklight trap (J. A. Slater, R. M. Baranowski, J. E. Harrington);
3 9 Parish of St. Catherine, Worthy Park Est., 23-V-1970, blacklight trap
(E. G. Farnworth); 8 S, 13 9 Parish of Trelawny, 1.9 mi N. Burnt Hill,
16-V-1969, blacklight trap (R. E. Woodruff); 4 9 Parish of St. Elizabeth,
Bellevue, 30-VI-1971 (J. A. Slater, R. M. Baranowski, J. E. Harrington);
1 $, 1 9 St. Anne's, Runaway Bay, 20-VIII-1973 (S. S. Duffey); 1 9 Parish
of St. Catherine, Caymanas Est., 17-XI-1968, blacklight trap (S. A. Apeji);
2 9 Port Antonio, 16-VII-1952, at light (A. M. Laessle); 3 9 Westmoreland
Parish, 0.5 mi W. Negril, Negrillo Cottages, 200 yds beach, 10-XII-1968, UV
light (E. G. Farnworth) ; 2 9 Parish of Portland, nr Milbank along Rio
Grande R., 18-V-1969, blacklight trap (R. E. Woodruff); 1 $ Kingston, Tip
Top Hotel, 7-V-1969, blacklight trap (R. E. Woodruff); 1 9 St. Thomas
Par., Golden Grove, 26-VII-1960 (C&P Vaurie); 1 9 Parish of Trelawny,
Tyre, 2 mi N Troy, 26-VIII-1969 (R. E. Woodruff) 1 $ Port Antonio (A. E.
Wight); 1 & Mandeville (A. E. Wight); 1 a Whitefield Hall, Blue Mts, nr
4500 ft, 13-20-VIII (Darlington); 1 $ Trelawny, Baron Hill, 16-20-III-1931
(E. L. Bell); 1 9 Trelawny, Baron Hill (L. Perkins). Dominican Republic:
15 8, 16 9 Prov. Attagracia, Nisibon, 9-VI-1976, blacklight trap (R. E.
Woodruff); 1 8, 6 9 same, 8-VI-1976; 2 S, 2 9 Altagracia Prov., Nisibon,
8-10-VI-1976, Malaise trap (R. E. Woodruff, E. E. Grissell); 1 S Santiago
Prov., La Cumbres, 15-VI-1976, blacklight trap 3000' (R. E. Woodruff);
1 9 La Romana Prov. (Higuera); 15-VII-1977, blacklight trap (R. E.
Woodruff, E. Folch); 2 S, 3 9 El Seibo Prov., Pedro Sanchez, Gulf &


Baranowski & Slater: Ozophora pallescens Complex

Western Club, 10-VI-1976, blacklight trap (R. E. Woodruff); 1 $ Pedernales
Prov., 21 km N. Cabo Rojo, 18-VI-1976, blacklight trap (R. E. Woodruff);
1 1 9 same, 19-VI-1976; 1 & Santiago Prov., Pedro Garcia, 23-VIII-1967,
at light (J. C. Schaffner); 1 8 S of Santiago, foothills Cord. Cent. VI-1938
(Darlington) 1 9 Prov. La Romana, La Romana, 29-IX-1976, blacklight
trap (E. Folch). Haiti: 1 8 Port au Prince, Thor, 10-12-X-1970, blacklight
trap (J. E. Porter); 1 9 Le Trov, 1925 (W. A. Hoffman); 1 9 San
Francisco Mts. 14-IX-1905 (Aug. Busck). Anguilla: 3 8, 3 9 Flat Top
Point, 13-IV-1958, at light (J. F. G. Clark). Virgin Islands: 1 9 Peter
Island, Little Bay, 30-III-1958 (J. F. G. Clarke); 1 9 St. Thomas, 29-V-1956
(W. R. Fyre). Barbuda: 2 $ Oyster Pond, 6-IV-1956 (J. F. G. Clarke).
Antigua: English Harbor, 20-IV-1956 (J. F. G. Clarke). Cuba: 7 S, 13 9
Prov. Matanzas, Varadero, 1-5 m. 11-4-1966. Igt. (F. Gregor) (6C); 2 3,
5 9 Habana-Alamar, 27/3-2/4-1965, Igt. (Jar. Prokop); 2 S, 2 9 Prov.
Habana, Habana-Almar-Cojimar, 2-10 m, 10-16/6-1966, Igt. (Jar. Prokop);
1 2 9 same, 1/7-5/7-1966; 1 9 same, 20-25/7-1966; 1 9 same, 4-5/5-1966;
1 9 same 26-31/7-1966; 1 3,1 9 same, 10-24/8-1966; 2 9 Habana-Marinao,
15 m. 20/7-20/8-1966, Igt. (F. Gregor); 2 9 Prov. Matanzas, Arroyo
Bermjeo, 80-100 m. 13-2-1966, Igt. (Jar. Prokop); 1 S San Vicente, P.R.
6-10-VI-1956 (C. & P. Vaurie); 1 8 Prov. Santa Clara Solidad, 3-15-VI-1939
(C. T. Parsons) 1 9 same, 24-30-V-1939; 1 & Soledad, 27-VI-1925 (Geo.
Salt); 1 9 "Cuba, on string beans", New York City, N. Y. 9-IV-1941; 1 $,
1 ? (abdomen broken) P. R. Uhler collection. Bahamas: Mayaguana Is., 2 $,
2 9 1-VII-1963, blacklight trap (C. Murvosh); 38 $, 64 9 same 3-VIII-
1963; 4 2 9 same, 10-VIII-1963; 1 & same, 14-VIII-1963; 1 S, 1 9 same,
19-VIII-1963; 5 a, 7 9 same, 20-VIII-1963; 19 &, 47 9 same, 24-VIII-1963;
27 8, 28 9 same, 25-VIII-1963; 16 3, 35 9 same, 26-VIII-1963; 11 $, 19 9
same 27-VIII-1963; 111 8, 166 9 same, 28-VIII-1963; 16 $, 19 9 same 30-
VIII-1963; 2 3, 6 9 same, 1-IX-1963; 1 3, 1 9 Abaco Cays, Allans Cay,
9-V-1953, at light (E. B. Hayden, G. B. Rabb) Van Voast-A.M.N.H. Bahama
Isls. Exped.; 1 9 New Providence Isl., Nassau, 16-IV-1953 (E. B. Hayden)
Van Voast-A.M.N.H. Bahama Isls. Exped.; 1 9 Rum Cay nr. Port Nelson,
16-III-1953 (E. B. Hayden, L. Giovannoli) Van Voast-A.M.N.H. Bahama
Isls. Exped.; 1 9 Long Island, Stella Maris 7-1-1977 (R. M. Baranowski)
blacklight trap. Puerto Rico: 1 9 (mutilated) Ponce 12-IX-1947 (Cold Well).
Florida: 18 8, 20 9, Manatee Co., Bradenton, Perico Isl. 18-IV-1972, tidal
flat (F. W. Mead); 21 8, 14 9 Monroe Co. N. Key Largo, 18-IV-1977 (R. M.
Baranowski); 2 9 same 15-IV-1977; 4 3, 2 9 same 19-IV-1977; 5 9 same,
6-V-1977; 1 9, Upper Key Largo, 11-XI-1972 (C. W. & L. B. O'Brien); 1 9
Monroe Co. Everglades Nat. Pk., Flamingo Prairie, blacklight trap, 8-IV-
1972 (R. M. Baranowski); 2 8, 2 9 Dade Co. Orchid Jungle Hammock,
Newton Rd. blacklight trap, 26-III-1970 (R. M. Baranowski); 1 9 same
2-X-1969; 1 &, 2 9 Dade Co., Ross & Castellow Hammock, blacklight trap
18-III-1970 (R. M. Baranowski); 1 9 same,2-VI-1970; 2 9 Dade Co. Home-
stead, 11-IV-1969 blacklight trap (R. M. Baranowski); 1 9 same 11-VIII-
1968; 1 9 same 10-X-1969; 2 9 same 18-V-1969; 1 9, same 26-XI-1969;
1 S same 27-III-1970; 2 9 Everglades Nt. Pk. Gumbo Limbo Trail. 27-III-
1973 (night) (C. W. & L. B. O'Brien); 2 9 Dade Co., V-1949.
Barber (1939) listed pallescens from a number of localities in Puerto
Rico including Dorado, 23 May 1930 and Vieques, 28 April 1930. We have
examined 1 specimen from Dorado and 2 from Vieques which represent the

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

Barber material. Although all 3 are 9 's and partially mutilated they appear
to pertain to divaricata and the records are referred here.
It seems unlikely that the true pallescens occurs in Puerto Rico.

Ozophora pallescens (Distant)
Fig. lj,k,l
Redescription of Lectotype: (3, V. de Chiriqui [Panama]. 2-3000 ft.
General coloration pale straw yellow. Head and anterior pronotal lobe
bright reddish brown, apex of tylus yellow. Pronotal collar with a brown
median and two lateral spots, area between light yellow. Posterior pronotal
lobe chiefly pale yellow but with a faint series of longitudinal brown stripes.
Scutellum chiefly red brown, an elongate stripe on either side of midline.
Hemelytra with suffused darker marking on distal third of clavus, a large
pale spot bordered by dark brown near inner angle of corium, the brown
coloration extending anteriorly to level of middle of claval commissure.
Apex of corium except extreme margins also dark brown and a faint dark
brown spot along lateral margin just posterior to level of claval commissure.
Membrane chiefly pale with darker stripes between veins not irrorate. First
3 antennal segments almost uniformly pale yellow, 3rd segment very slightly
infuscated at the extreme distal end, 4th segment absent. Legs nearly uni-
formly pale yellow, a distinct but dull suffused subdistal dark annulation on
hind femur. Tylus extending to or almost to middle of 1st antennal segment.
Head length 0.60, width 0.68, interocular space 0.32. Distance antenniferous
tubercle-apex tylus 0.22; distance anterior margin eye to apex tylus 0.30;
distance posterior margin eye to apex tylus 0.56. Pronotum length 0.74,
width 1.16. Scutellum length 0.62, width 0.58. Claval commissure length 0.62.
Corium length 2.24. Midline distance apex clavus-apex corium 0.98; midline
distance apex corium-apex membrane 0.74. Antennal segments length I 0.46,
II 1.0, III 0.86, IV missing. Labium apparently extending only between
mesocoxae. Labial segment length I 0.48 (others obscured). Total labial
length 1.66. Total body length 4.40.
The specimens from the Lesser Antilles differ from the Panamanian
population in having the arms of the cuplike sclerite more widely separated.
However, externally, and in all other features of the genital capsule, there
do not appear to be significant differences between the West Indian and
mainland specimens. Furthermore, in a specimen from Belize, the distance
between the arms is similar to that of West Indian specimens.
While these differences are recognizable, we feel it is premature to
recognize the island population as a formal subspecies until the study under-
way on mainland neotropical specimens is completed. Nevertheless these
differences do indicate that a degree of genetic isolation has already been
Although apparently common in Central and South America, pallescens
is relatively rare in the West Indies. We have collected it only on Guadeloupe
and additionally have seen 1 specimen from Dominica.
MATERIAL EXAMINED: Dominica: 1 & Clarke Hall, 10-II-1965 (J. F. G. &
Thelma Clarke) Breddin-Archbold-Smithsonian Bio. Survey Dominica;
Guadeloupe: 3 $, 3 9 Duclos, 25-VI-1971 (J. A. Slater, R. M. Baranowski,


December, 1983

Baranowski & Slater: Ozophora pallescens Complex 453

J. E. Harrington); 3 S, 5 9 Duclos, 25-VI-1971 (L. Gruner); 1 8, Crete
Village, 26-VI-1971 (J. A. Slater, R. M. Baranowski, J. E. Harrington).

Ozophora subimpicta Barber
Fig. 2j,k,l; 4

This species was originally described from Puerto Rico and Hispaniola
and has subsequently been reported by Barber (1954) from Cuba.
It is a moderate sized species of Ozophora but the largest species of the
pallescens complex. Ozophora subimpicta may be readily recognized by its
size, by frequently having a prominent reddish apical corial macula, a pale
or irregularly marked posterior pronotal lobe, a predominantly pale corium,
and the scutellum dark brown mesally by diagonal pale yellow lateral vittae
but the meson distally just before the white apex with a dark streak. The
lateral margins of the anterior pronotal lobe are unicolorous with the disc.

;6 h

U .,


I '. ..' ,
S- i ,

i I'

u, .* *- .\

,;* .

Fig. 4. Ozophora subimpicta Barber, dorsal view.

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

Barber's original description is quite good, but there is considerable varia-
tion and some of this appears to be geographically significant.
Puerto Rican specimens are usually pale with the dark macula midway
along the lateral corial margin small and usually confined to the explanate
margin itself. In a random sample from Puerto Rico only 3 of 54 specimens
have the corium irregularly infuscated all, or most of the way across. The
scutellum is usually as described above but especially pale examples lack the
dark sub-distal median streak and sometimes the scutellum is entirely pale.
Antennal segments II and III are almost invariably uniformly pale yellow.
Occasionally the distal end of the 3rd segment (4 of 46 sampled) is some-
what infuscated. The corial apex varies considerably in color. Frequently it
is distinctly reddened. Sometimes the red color is confined to the distal end
of the apical corial margin. The distal portion of the corium may lack the
red color, be pale centrally with brown lateral margins, or rarely be com-
pletely brown. (Possibly the red color may fade with age but not because of
preservation in alcohol. Most of the Jamaican material was so collected and
the apical corial margin is usually red in these specimens). The posterior
pronotal lobe is usually nearly pale yellow (except for the darker punctures)
with a median dark mark near the posterior margin and slight darkened
areas near the humeral angles.
A series of 13 recently collected specimens from 4 localities on Hispanola
differs considerably from Puerto Rican material. All 13 specimens have the
2nd antennal segment uniformly pale and the 3rd segment strongly in-
fuscated (nearly black) on the distal portion. The corial apex is dark brown
in 6 specimens, nearly uniformly pale in one, the outer 1/2 pale and inner
1/2 dark in 2 and conspicuously red in 4. The mid-lateral corial spot is con-
fined to the explanate margin in 10 specimens and continues mesally as an
irregular fascia in 3. These specimens usually have irregular dark markings
on the posterior pronotal lobe and the hemelytra so that the overall ap-
pearance is of a more variegated insect than is true of most Puerto Rican
In the enormous series available for study from Jamaica only a very few
specimens do not have the distal ends of both the 2nd and 3rd antennal seg-
ments conspicuously black or chocolate brown and strongly contrasting with
the pale yellow of the remainder of the segments. The apical corial macula
is usually tinged with red, but most frequently this red color is bordered
both laterally and mesally with a dark brown streak. Often it is present as
an elliptical area completely encircled with chocolate brown. Occasionally
the apical macula is completely dark and sometimes red is replaced with
yellow (faded? but most of the Jamaican material is recently collected).
The midlateral dark corial spot is occasionally restricted to the area of the
explanate margin but more frequently there is a more or less complete
transverse irregular dark fascia across the corium and all degrees of varia-
tion can be observed. These Jamaician specimens also tend to have the
posterior pronotal lobe infuscated. Commonly a well differentiated pale
median longitudinal stripe can be distinguished down the middle of the
posterior pronotal lobe.
In addition to the material cited below it should be noted that 3 of the
paratypes of Ozophora quinquemaculata Barber from Hispaniola (1-Sanchez,
Dominican Republic; 2-San Lorenzo, Dominican Republic) are actually speci-
mens of subimpicta.

December, 1983


Baranowski & Slater: Ozophora pallescens Complex


Thus far subimpicta is known only from the Greater Antilles where it is
a common and widespread species. While it would be possible to recognize
geographic subspecies it does not really seem desirable to do so at the
present time.
General coloration pale yellow to light brown. Head, anterior pronotal
lobe, thorax laterally and ventrally, abdomen and distal 1/2 of 4th antennal
segment usually dark brown. Posterior pronotal lobe, legs and labium pale
yellowish, darker pronotal vittae frequently present. Scutellum yellowish
but median basal area and a small elongate spot near posterior tip brownish.
Clavus sometimes with a faint brown spot just posterior to anterior end of
claval commissure. A brown macula usually present along lateral corial
margin at level of apex of scutellum, Apex of corium brown, reddish or pale
with a dark margin. Membrane brown with pale veins.
Head non-declivent, moderately convex across vertex, tylus not reaching
middle of 1st antennal segment. Head length 0.73, width 0.80; interocular
space 0.33. Lateral margins of pronotum sinuate, slightly explanate an-
teriorly, transverse impression shallow, extending across pronotum, calli
smooth. Pronotum length 0.80, width 1.25. Scutellum length 0.68, width 0.70.
Claval commissure length 0.63. Distance along midline apex clavus-apex
corium 0.80; distance along middle apex corium-apex membrane 0.75. Fore
femora armed below on distal 1/3 with 3 major and 1 minor spine distad of
the major spines. Labium reaching mesocoxae, labial segments length I 0.63,
II 0.65, III 0.53, IV 0.33. Antennae elongate, slender, typical for genus.
Antennal segments length I 0.53, II 1.30, III 1.0, IV 1.28. Total body length
4.40 (Measurements taken from a $ from Los Jazmines, Pinar del Rio
Province, Cuba).
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Cuba: 2 S, 2 9 Prov. Pinar del Rio, Los
Jazmines, 200 m. 9-V-1966, Igt. (F. Gregor) (11); 2 9 same, 26-VII-1976;
1 5 Prov. Las Villas Trinidad, 150 m. 19-VI-1966, Igt. (F. Gregor) (23a);
1 9 Pico Turquino S. side VI-1936, 3000-5000 ft (Darlington); 1 9 San Bias,
Trinidad Mts. 5-V-1932 (S. C. Bruner, A. Atero) ; 1 9 Pico Turquino, 3750
ft, 10-29-VI-1936 (J. Acuna). Puerto Rico: 1 9 Aibonito, 14-17-VII-1914.
PARATYPES: 1 $, 1 9 Mayaquez, 24-29-VII-1914, Paratypes; 1 3, 1 9
Adjuntas, 8-13-VI-1915, Paratype; 1 3, 1 9 Villalba, 1700' 7-V-1940 (W. A.
Hoffman); 1 a Ponce, Camp Maravilla 2-III-1946, at light; 1 9 Ponce, 10-
VII-1946 (L. T.) (J. Maldanado Capriles); 9 S 13 9 Luquillo, Rt 930, 18-
1-1969, blacklight trap (P. C. Drummond); 4 &, 7 9 Luquillo, El Verde,
3-III-1973, blacklight trap (R. E. Brown); 1 S Carite For. Res. Hwy 184,
K21H9, 20-VII-1979 (G. B. Marshall); 18 3, 14 9 Luquillo Nat. For. El
Junque Rd. Km 20, 20-VII-1977, blacklight trap (R. E. Woodruff); 7 $, 7 9
Bosque de Luquillo, along Rt. 930, blacklight trap (T. J. Walker). 5 &, 5 9
Cialitos Cruces 7 kms Ciales 3200 ft. at White light 2-II-12-III-1973 (Walter
Plath Sr); 2 8, 2 9 Luquillo Forest, El Junque Biol. Sta. Molindero Rd.
2100', 2-1-1963 (Paul and Phyllis Spangler), at blacklight; 1 9 same 31-
XII-1962; 3 $, 2 9 Maricao fish hatchery, at light 8-11-VIII-1961 (Flint,
Spangler); 2 $ Carib. N.F. Big Tree Trail 19-VII-1979 (L. B. O'Brien);
3 9 Luquillo Nat. For. El Junque Rd. Km. 20, 5-VII-1977 (R. E. Woodruff),
blacklight trap; 2 9 Luquillo, Rt 930, 17-1-1960 (T. J. Walker, P. C.
Drummond), blacklight trap; 5 9 Dona Juano Cr. Tora Nego For. 14-15-
VIII-1962 (Flint & Spangler); 1 9 El Junque, 24-28-II-? (C. T. Parsons)
10 8, 10 9 Maricao. Lt VII-1940 (J. Maldonado C.) 1 9 Luquillo El Verde

456 Florida Entomologist 66 (4) December, 1983

(Sp. ?) 3-III-1973 (R. C. Brown) blacklight trap; Dominican Republic: 1 &
Sanchez, 13-18-VI-1915 paratype; 1 9 La Vega Prov. 9-VIII-1967, Mts.
(L. H. Rolston); 3 3, 4 9 Santiago Prov. La Cumbres 15-VI-1976 (R. E.
Woodruff), blacklight trap 3000'; 1 9 Ft Hills Cord. Cent. S. of Santiago
VI-1938 (Darlington); 1 $ La Vega 18 km SE Constanza 4-VIII-1979
(C. W. O'Brien) 1 9 S. Frnscso Mts. 14-IX-1905 (Aug. Busck); 2 3, 3 9
1 no abd. R. Devoe 1976 blacklight trap; Jamaica: 39 $, 29 9 Par. Port-
land, Green Hills Inst. Jamaica Cabin. 13-XII-1969 blacklight trap (E. G.
Farnworth); 2 $, 3 9 same 17-VIII-1969 (R. E. Woodruff); 1 9 same 28-
XI-1968; 4 $, 2 9 Portland, Hardwar Gap at Green Hills 11-III-1966 (T. H.
Farr & W. D. Duckworth); 1 9 same 1-XI-1959 (T. H. Farr) 1 8 Par.
St. Catherine, Worthy Park Est. XI-1968, blacklight trap (R. E. Wood-
ruff); 1 9 same, 9-XI-1968; 1 & same 10-XI-1968; 2 9 same 11-XI-1968;
1 3 9 same 16-XI-1968; 13 $, 6 9 1 ? (no abd.) same 21-XI-1968; 3 $,
3 9 same 10-V-1969; 1 9 same 11-V-1969; 1 9 same 13-V-1969; 1 9 same
17-V-1969; 1 9 same 2-VIII-1969; 1 8, 1 9 Par. St. Catherine, Worthy
Park, 2.2 mi N. on Camperdown Rd. 10-V-1969, blacklight trap (R. E.
Woodruff); 2 $, 3 9 Par. St. Catherine, Linstead, 9-XII-1970, blacklight
trap (Slater & Baranowski); 2 $, 3 9 3,4-VII-1971 (Slater, Baranowski,
Harrington); 1 9 Par. Manchester, DeCorteset College, Mandeville 18-V-
1969, blacklight trap (R. E. Woodruff); 1 & same 19-V-1969 (Kent Stan-
ton); 1 & Mandeville 24-VIII-1969, blacklight trap (R. E. Woodruff); 1 $,
1 9 same 9-XII-1969 (E. G. Farnworth); 1 8, 1 9 same 29-VII-1971
(Slater, Baranowski, Harrington); 1 9 Mandeville 15-XI-1919, 2131 ft;
1 9 Par. St. Andrew, 4000', Hollywell Forest Camp 20-X-1971, blacklight
trap (M. Winegar); 1 S, 5 9 same 22-X-1971; 3 a same 30-X-1971; 5 3,
7 9 same 17-XI-1971; 4 S, 2 9 same 25-XI-1971; 4 3, 2 9 same 29-XI-
1971; 1 8 same 9-XII-1971; 13 $, 15 9 same 14-XII-1971; 22 S, 15 9 same
8-II-1972; 8 8, 7 9 same 15-II-1972; 5 8, 6 9 same 2-III-1972; 1 9 same
10-V-1972; 1 $ same 23-V-1972; 2 $, 1 9 same 26-VI-1972; 7 S, 4 9 same
15-VII-1972; 11 $, 13 9, same 29-VII-1972; 2 &, 1 9 same 4-VIII-1972;
1 4 9 same 13-VIII-1972; 1 3, 1 9 16-VIII-1972; 35 $, 24 9 same IX-
X-1971; 1 8 Par. St. Andrew Hardwar Gap Hollywell Cabins 2-V-1969
(R. E. Woodruff); 1 S same 22-V-1969 (R. E. Woodruff & P. C. Drum-
mond); 2 $, 5 9 same 16-VI-1975 (R. E. Woodruff), blacklight trap; 1 $
Hardwar Gap 1-XI-1959 (T. H. Farr); 1 S Morces Gap 15-1-1960 (T. H.
Farr); 2 9 Cinchona Heights 4-IV-1965 (T. H. Farr); 1 8 Kingston,
Mona 16-X-1971 (R. M. Baranowski), blacklight trap; 1 $, 1 9 Par. St.
Thomas 5.8 mi N. Bath, Beacon Hill 19-V-1969 (R. E. Woodruff), blacklight
trap; 1 8 Bath 1.30-31/20 about 250'; 1 9 Rocky Ravine near Abby Green,
4000' (G. R. Proctor); 1 9 Par. Trelawny 1.9 mi N. Burnt Hill 16-V-1969
(R. E. Woodruff), blacklight trap; 1 8, 1 9 Tyre 2 mi N. Troy 9-XII-1969
(E. G. Farnworth); 18 $, 9 9 Par. St. Ann, Runaway Bay 20-VIII-1973
(S. S. Duffey); 1 9 same 28-VI-1970; 1 '9 same 25-VII-10-VIII-1971; 1 6
St. Ann, Mt. Diablo 19-XI-1959 (T. H. Farr); 2 9 New Castle 16-20-II
(E. B. Bryant) ; 1 $, 1 9 Main Range Blue Mts 5-7388 ft. 17-19-VIII-1934
(Darlington); 1 $ Pt. Antonio (A. E. Wight).
Both $ specimens from Prov. del Rio, Cuba exhibit oligomery and in one
the antennae are bilaterally oligomerus. Although oligomery is not un-
common in geophilous Rhyparochrominae, bilateral oligomery is a rare
phenomenon. Leston (1952, 1953) reported and figured a case of bilateral

Baranowski & Slater: Ozophora pallescens Complex


oligomery in Spilostethus pandurus (Scop.) (as Lygaeus) stating that such
a phenomenon apparently had not been previously noted. This is not the
case. Hussey (1950) reported it in a specimen of Ptochiomera nodosa Say
from Lakeland, Florida, and Torre-Bueno (1917) reported it in Scolo-
postethus atlanticus Horvath from White Plains, NY. Indeed, the generic
name, Tritomacera Costa, apparently was based on just such a specimen of
The bilaterally oligomerus specimen of 0. subimpicta is particularly in-
teresting because the oligomery is not strictly bilaterally symmetrical. The
1st antennal segment is similar on both sides. The right 2nd segment is ap-
preciably longer than the left (1.58 vs 1.32) and has a more normal ap-
pearance since the distal end is somewhat thickened; the 2nd segment of the
left antenna is evenly cylindrical throughout its entire length. The right
terminal segment also has a more "normal" shape, being slenderly fusiform
and somewhat curved throughout its length with a narrow white basal
annulus. By contrast, the left terminal antennal segment is nearly straight
and actually somewhat thickened distally before tapering near the extreme
apex. There is a broad white annulus on the basal 1/2 ((but some distance
from the infuscated brown basal area). It is evident that whether or not
the injuries that presumably led to the oligomery occurred at different
periods in the insect's development, the resultant response has been quite
different in the 2 antennae.
We have also observed symmetrically bilateral oligomery in a male of
divaricata from Mayaguana Island in the Bahamas and in a specimen of
Ozophora levis Slater & Baranowski from the Florida Keys.

Ozophora miniscula Scudder
Fig. 2g,h,i
This species was described from a single male from Grand Cayman Island
and remains known only from the holotype which we have reexamined.
Scudder's original description is very complete. This species is of a
richer ferrugineous color than any of the other species and the surface of
the posterior pronotal lobe more irregular and the punctures relatively
larger and coarser.
0. miniscula is closely related to the true pallescens, the genital capsules
of the 2 differing only in the somewhat more produced posterior rim of
pallescens (Fig. 1-k,2-h). The antennal proportions of the lectotype of
pallescens and the holotype of miniscula are identical. Clearly a series of
miniscula is desirable to determine the variability.

Ozophora helenae Baranowski and Slater, NEW SPECIES
Fig. 2d,e,f; 5
General coloration pale yellow and dark chocolate brown. Dark colora-
tion present as follows: entire head, anterior pronotal lobe including lateral
margins and scutellum (extreme apex of latter white); 3 looped areas on
posterior pronotal lobe, the median loop broadly dark, completely lacking any
indication of a light median line; (lateral looped areas invaded with yellow;
humeral angles and a spot along posterior pronotal margins on either side of
midline pale); mesal area of clavus; an elongate slash on corium between

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)


" ;r





Fig. 5. Ozophora helenae Baranowski and Slater, NEW SPECIES, dorsal


December, 1983



Baranowski & Slater: Ozophora pallescens Complex 459

radius and medius at level of apex of scutellum; a complete mesally broaden-
ing transverse fascia (a pale macula near inner corial angle); subapical
corial macula (extreme apex pale yellow); entire lateral corial margin be-
fore apex; greater part of membrane, but latter with apex white and veins
suffused with pale yellow or dull white. Anterior pronotal collar pale yellow,
darkened at midline. Pleural and ventral surfaces dark red brown to
chocolate brown. Distal ends of acetabula, legs, labium and first 3 antennal
segments pale straw yellow. Antennal segments I and III lacking darker
infuscations on distal ends. Segment IV dark brown with a short relatively
obscure dull yellowish annulus. Dorsal surface lacking numerous upstanding
Head non-declivent, tylus extending at least to middle of 1st antennal
segment. Eyes large, almost in contact with antero-lateral pronotal angles.
Head length 0.50, width 0.64; interocular space 0.34. Body shape very sim-
ilar to that of divaricata. Pronotum length 0.58, width 0.98. Scutellum lack-
ing a median elevation. Scutellum length 0.52, width 0.52. Claval commissure
length 0.50. Midline distance apex clavus-apex corium 0.78; midline distance
apex corium-apex membrane 0.56. Metathoracic scent gland auricle short,
straight, not curving posteriorly. Fore femora with 3 short thick dark spines
on distal 1/2 of ventral surface. First labial segment remote from base of
head, labium extending well between mesocoxae. Labial segments length I
0.40, II 0.40, III 0.28, IV 0.22. Antennal segments length I 0.28, II 0.72, III
0.61, IV 0.88. Total body length 3.32.
HOLOTYPE: 8 Dominican Republic: Pedernales Prov., 21 km. N. Cabo
Rojo, 18-VI-1976, blacklight trap (R. E. Woodruff). In United States
National Museum of Natural History, no. 100250.
PARATYPES: Dominican Republic 1 9 same data as holotype; 2 9 same,
19-VI-1976. Jamaica: 2 9 Parish of Trelawny, Tyre, 2 mi N. of Troy, 26-
VIII-1969 (R. E. Woodruff); 1 3 Parish of Manchester, Mandeville, 24-
VIII-1969, blacklight trap (R. E. Woodruff); 1 9 same, 26-VIII-1969; 1 $
same, 29-VII-1971 (J. A. Slater, R. M. Baranowski, J. E. Harrington); 1 9
Parish of St. James, Montego Bay, Albion Crescent, 24-VIII-1969, blacklight
trap (R. E. Woodruff); 1 9 Clarendon Parish, Alston, 2000 ft, 9-1-1973,
blacklight trap (C. Crickett); 1 9 St. Anne's Runaway Bay, 21-VI-1970
(S. S. Duffey); 1 $ Mandeville (A. E. Wight); 2 9 Pt. Antonio (A. E.
Wight). Cuba: 1 9 Sierra Maestra X-1941 (J. Acuna). In United States
Natural Museum, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, R. M. Baranowski
and J. A. Slater Collections.
This species is very similar to divaricata and occurs sympatrically with
it at least on Hispaniola and Jamaica. The definitive difference between the
2 lies in the extremely broad separation between the "arms" of the cuplike
sclerite in helenae n.sp. (Fig. 2d) as contrasted with the close approximation
of these arms in divaricata (Fig. 2a).
Ozophora helenae tends to be a much darker species than is divaricata.
Where the 2 occur together they can readily be distinguished by the complete
dark chocolate brown coloration of the scutellum in helenae. Ozophora
divaricata always has a pair of pale scutellar maculae. In helenae the mesal
area of the posterior pronotal lobe including the midline is always uniformly
dark. In divaricata there is usually a pale median streak present. In fact, on
Jamaica and Hispaniola we have not seen a specimen of divaricata that
lacks this pale pronotal streak. In the Bahamas (where helenae has not been

460 Florida Entomologist 66 (4) December, 1983

taken) females of divaricata occasionally, and males rarely, lack the pale
pronotal streak, but do possess the pale scutellar markings. In most speci-
mens of divaricata the pale subbasal annulus on antennal segment IV is
usually wide, white and conspicuous. In helenae it is always relatively ob-
scure and narrow.
We are pleased to name this species for Mrs. Helen Baranowski in rec-
ognition of her help and encouragement for many years.

Ozophora cobbeni Scudder, NEW SPECIES
Fig. lg,h,i; 6

Subshining, without upstanding hairs.
Head ferruginous; proximal 3 segments of antenna flavo-ochraceous with
distal portion of 3 brownish; 4th antennal segment brown, slightly paler
proximally, but without a distinctly differentiated proximal pale annulation.
Anterior lobe of pronotum ferruginous; collar flavescent with a median
brown mark and shading to brown laterally; posterior lobe of pronotum
flavo-ochraceous with ferruginous punctures, a C-shaped brown mark on
outer 1/3 near humeral angles and an obsolete brown stripe on either side
of pale midline and confluent posteriorly. Scutellum ferruginous with an
oblique lateral flavescent dash on either side of meson, extreme apex
ochraceous. Hemelytra ochraceous with ferruginous punctures; clavus with
a central longitudinal brown streak, this narrowing and fading out well
before base; distal 1/2 of corium brown with a distinct irregular pale sub-
apical spot on lateral margin and a pale round or oval spot near inner
angle; apical margin of corium with a narrow flavescent area in centre;
membrane brownish with veins pale and with a pale spot near apical angle
of corium, apex distinctly pale. Venter ferruginous; posterior margin of
metapleura ochraceous. Legs ochraceous.
Head impunctate; ocelli large and set on a line joining hind margins of
eyes; ocelli removed from eyes by slightly more than the diameter of an
ocellus; when viewed laterally extending to just below antennal tubercles,
head removed from anterior margin of collar by distance equal to diameter
of an ocellus; Head width 0.60, interocular space 0.30; labium attaining
middle coxae; antennal measurements 0.27, 0.50, 0.48, 0.70.
Pronotum distinctly punctate on posterior lobe, but except for center,
anterior lobe impunctate; hind margin of pronotum slightly impressed be-
fore base of scutellum; pronotal width '0.93, pronotal length 0.53; anterior
lobe with a distinct collar and slightly more than 1/2 (0.56) as long as
posterior lobe. Scutellum distinctly punctate, except pale lateral dashes im-
punctate; scutellum width 0.55, length 0.40. Hemelytra reaching just be-
yond end of abdomen; clavus with 3 distinct rows of punctures and about
6 extra punctures between middle row and that nearest scutellum; claval
commissure equal to length of scutellum; lateral margin of corium very
slightly sinuate, but not greatly upturned. Fore femora with 3 subapical
slender spines. Total length 3.0.
FEMALE. Structure and color similar to male. Head width 0.73; antennal
measurements 0.33, 0.63, 0.57, 0.73; pronotal width 1.22. Pronotal length
0.70. Total length 3.60.
HOLOTYPE: $ Saba, Netherlands Antilles. Hellsgate, St. Cruz, 17-XII-

Baranowski & Slater: Ozophora pallescens Complex

Fig. 6. Ozophora cobbeni Scudder, NEW SPECIES, dorsal view.


.-' ":h

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

1956 (R. H. Cobben). In United States National Museum of History, No.
PARATYPES: Saba: 1 S same data as holotype: 2 S, 1 $ Rondez-vous,
25-XII-1956 (R. H. Cobben); 1 2 Y Windward Side, IX-XII-1956 (R. H.
Cobben); 1 Y Windward side, lamp, XII-56 (R. H. Cobben).
In G. G. E. Scudder and Laboratory of Entomology, Agricultural Uni-
versity, Wageningen, Netherlands collections.
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL EXAMINED: Saba: 1 9 Mt. Scenary, 800-840 m
12-14-1-1968 (B. Malkin); 1 8 Windward side, 11-15-1-1968 (B. Malkin).
Guadeloupe: 2 a, 1 9 Rougeole, 25-VI-1971 (Slater. Baranowski, Harring-
ton); 1 ? Vernou, V-1958 (R. L.); 1 9 3-rivers (Piege Lx) 7-VII-1960,
vers 160 pt. Montserrat: 1 4, 3 ? St. Georges Hill, 7-V-1968, blacklight
trap (P. C. Drummond). Martinique: 8 $, 17 ? Sainte-Anne, 20-VI-1971
(Slater, Baranowski, Harrington). Dominica: 2 8, 2 9 Roseau, 23-VI-1971
(Slater, Baranowski, Harrington), blacklight trap; 1 3, 1 9 Melville Hall
Airport, 25-VI-1971 (Slater, Baranowski, Harrington); 3 $ Layou R.
mouth, 20-1-1965 (W. W. Wirth); 1 8 Bagatelle, 9-III-1965 (J. F. G.
Clarke, Thelma M. Clarke); 1 S Springfield Estate, 20-26-VIII-1963 (0. S.
Flint); 1 9 Laudet, 11-VI-1911; 1 ? Trafalgar Falls, 1200', 5-6-IV-1966
(R. J. Gagne); 1 9 Fond Colet, 5-9-X-1964 (P. J. Spangler); 1 9 path to
Cabrits, 2-IV-1966 (R. J. Gagne); 2 & Portsmouth, 1,2-IV-1966 (R. J.
Gagne) at light; 2 9 Freshwater Lake, 21-1-1966 (W. W. Wirth); 1 Y
Pont Casse 23-XI-1964 (P. J. Spangler); 1 ? same, 20-IX-1965 (D. I.
Jackson); 1 9 4.5 mi w. Pont Casse, 27-1-1965 (W. W. Wirth) at light;
1 3, 1 ? Clarke Hall Estate, 27-V-1966 (G. Steyskal); 2 $, 1 9 same 29-
V-1966; 1 Y same 30-V-1966; 1 $, 1 Y same 28-III-1966 (R. J. Gagne),
1 $ same 30-III-1966, 2 Y same, 3-IV-1966; 1 9 same, 6-8-X-1966 (A. B.
Curney); 1 9 same, 11-20-1-1965 (W. W. Wirth) light trap; 1 $ same 1
mi E, 19-VI-1966 (D. R. Davis); 1 8 same 7-1-1965 (J. F. G. Clarke, Thelma
M. Clarke); 1 ? same, 25-II-1964 (Dale F. Bray); 6 8, 3 9 same, 22-VI-
1964 (0. S. Flint, Jr.); 2 9 Clarke Hall 22-V-1964 (0. S. Flint, Jr.). St.
Lucia: 2 8, 1 9 Castries 14-IV-1959 (Fairview); 2 9 2 mi N. Castries 22-
VI-1973 (Baranowski, O'Rourke, Picchi, Slater). Antigua: 1 4 English
Harbor 26-IV-1956 (J. F. G. Clarke).
This species was originally recognized as undescribed by Dr. G. G. E.
Scudder while he was engaged in work on the lygaeid fauna of the Nether-
lands Antilles as part of Dr. Rene Cobben's analysis of the Hemiptera
fauna. This new species is to be credited to G. G. E. Scudder.

We thank Ms. Mary Jane Spring, University of Connecticut, for her
many fine illustrations; Dr. David Smith and Dr. M. C. Burch, Oxford Univ.
for the loan of the holotype of Ozophota miniscula; Dr. W. R. Dolling,
British Museum of Natural History, for allowing the examination of the
lectotype of pallescens; Drs. R. C. Froeschner, United States National
Museum of Natural History, R. T. Schuh, American Museum of Natural
History, P. D. Ashlock, Univ. of Kansas, J. Schaffner, Texas A&M Univ.
for the loan of material; Drs. Lucas Gruner and P. F. Galichet, formerly
with the Station de Recherches de Zoologie Biocenotique Tropicale et Lutte
Biologique, Guadeloupe, W. I., for their assistance while we were collecting

December, 1983


Baranowski & Slater: Ozophora pallescens Complex


on Martinque and Guadeloupe; Dr. G. G. E. Scudder, Univ. of British
Colombia, for the loan of material and allowing us to include the description
and drawing of cobbeni; Dr. J. E. Harrington, Univ. of Wisconsin, Dr.
F. O'Rourke, U. Connecticut, Dr. V. Dougherty (= Picchi) (formerly U.
Connecticut), Mr. M. Winegar (formerly Peace Corps, Jamaica) for as-
sistance in collecting; Drs. C. W. & L. B. O'Brien (FAMU), for a gift of
specimens; and, Dr. C. W. Campbell, University of Florida, A.R.E.C. and
Dr. R. Proctor, Institute of Jamaica, for identification of plants.
This work was supported in part by grants from the National Science
Foundation and the University of Florida Division of Sponsored Research.
This is No. 4486 of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal
Series. The senior author is a Research Associate of the Florida State Col-
lection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, Gainesville.

BARBER, H. G. 1939. Scientific Survey of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands:
Insects of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Hemiptera: Hetero-
ptera (excepting the Miridae and Corixidae). Sci. Survey Puerto
Rico 14(3) : 263-441.
.1954. A report on the Hemiptera Heteroptera from the Bimini
Islands, Bahamas, British West Indies. American Mus. Nov. 1682,
18 p.
DISTANT, W. L. 1893. Insecta. Rhynchota. Hemiptera Heteroptera. Vol. I.
Biologia Centrali Americana: London. Supp.: 378-462.
HUSSEY, R. F. 1950. Bilateral abnormality of the antennae in Ptochiomera
nodosa (Hemiptera :Lygaeidae). Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 45(1): 27.
LESTON, D. 1952. Antennal oligomery in Heteroptera. Nature 169: 890.
-- 1953. A note on oligomery in Lygaeidae (Hem.) Ent. Gazette 4:
SCHAEFER, C. 1977. Genital capsule of the Trichophora male (Hemiptera:
Heteroptera: Geocorisae). Int. Jour. of Morph. and Embryol. 6: 277-
301. Table 1.
SCUDDER, G. G. E. 1958. Results of the Oxford University Cayman Islands
Biological Expedition of 1938. Lygaeidae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera)
Ent. Mo. Mag. 94: 145-50.
SLATER, J. A. 1964. A Catalogue of the Lygaeidae of the World. 2 vol. 1668
p. U. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.
TORRE-BUENO, J. R. 1917. New York Scolopostethi (Family Lygaeidae:
Heter.) Ent. News 28: 65-8.

Florida Entomologist 66 (4)

December, 1983

Department of Entomology, Fisheries, and Wildlife
Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29631 USA

Males of 6 new species of Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) from the south-
eastern United States are described and illustrated: Hydroptila carolae n.sp.
from South Carolina, H. disgalera n.sp. from Alabama and South Carolina,
H. ouachita n.sp. from Louisiana, H. poirrieri n.sp. from Louisiana and
Mississippi, H. tridentata n.sp. from South Carolina, and Oxyethira kingi
n.sp. from Florida.

Se described y se ilustran los machos de seis species nuevas de Hy-
droptilidae (Trichoptera) del sudeste de los Estados Unidos: Hydroptila
carolae sp. nov. de Carolina del Sur, H. disgalera sp. nov. de Alabama y
Carolina del Sur, H. ouachita sp. nov. de Louisiana, H. poirrieri sp. nov. de
Louisiana y Mississippi, H. tridentata sp. nov. de Carolina del Sur, y
Oxyethira kingi sp. nov. de Florida.

The southeastern United States contains a great variety of micro-
caddisflies. More than 90 species in 12 genera are known to occur in this
region and additional collecting will undoubtedly reveal many new species.
Recent regional faunal summaries have reported 16 species of Hydroptilidae
from Arkansas (Unzicker et al. 1970), 35 species from Florida (Blickle
1962; Harris, Lago, and Scheiring 1982), 28 species from Louisiana and
Mississippi (Harris, Lago, and Holzenthal 1982), 49 species from North and
South Carolina (Unzicker et al. 1982), 38 species from Tennessee (Etnier
and Schuster 1979), and 40 species from Virginia (Parker and Voshell
1981). Kelley and Morse (1982) provided distributional information for 23
species of Oxyethira occurring in the Southeast. In this paper we describe
males of 6 new species of Hydroptilidae from the coastal plains of Alabama,
Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and South Carolina.
Terminology for genitalic structures generally follows that of Marshall
(1979) with the following modification. We prefer the term "subgenital
process" over Marshall's "subgenital plate." In the Hydroptila consimilis
group this structure appears to originate laterally from segment IX and is
sclerotized primarily along its margin, with a pair of distal setae. It may be
homologous to the subgenital processes of Oxyethira which may be parallel,
convergent or apically fused (Kelley 1982).
Abbreviations for genitalic structures in Fig. 1-6 apply to the following
terms: ap.: apodeme; b.p.: bilobed process; inf.: inferior appendages; int.:
intermediate appendages; par.: paramere; spb.: subgenital process; s.p.:
sternal process of abdominal segment VII; VII, VIII, IX, X: terminal ab-
dominal segments 7-10, respectively. A, B, and C in Fig. 1-6 are lateral,
dorsal and ventral views respectively. D is a dorsal view of the phallus.


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