Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00060
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1992
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00060
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text

(ISSN 0015-4040)


(An International Journal for the Americas)

Volume 75, No. 3 September, 1992


Research Reports

MINNO, M. C.-Lepidoptera of the Archbold Biological Station, Highlands
County, Florida ............................................................................. 297
PECK, S. B., T. J. WALKER, AND J. L. CAPINERA-Distributional Review of the
Orthoptera of Florida ...................................................................... 329
WIRTH, W. W., AND G. R. SPINELLI-American Predaceous Midges of the Sub-
genus Eukraiohelea of Stilobezzia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) ............... 342
WIRTH, W. W., AND G. R. SPINELLI-Immature Stages of Forcipomyia seminole
Wirth and a Related New Neotropical Species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) 349
SCHUSTER, J. C.-Passalidae: State of Larval Taxonomy With Description of
New W orld Species ...................................................................... 357
HANSEN, J. D., C. L. EMERSON, AND D. A. SIGNOROTTI-Visual Detection of
Sweetpotato Weevil by Non-Invasive Methods ..................................... 369

Scientific Notes

FRANK, J. H., F. D. BENNETT, AND H. L. CROMROY-Distribution and
Prey Records for Oligota minute (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), A Pre-
dator of M ites ....................................................................... 376
HALL R. A.-New Pathogen on Thrips palmi in Trinidad .................. 380
CHERRY, R. H., AND M. G. KLEIN-Attraction of Adult Euphoria sepul-
chralis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to Aromatic Compounds ......... 383
PORTILLO, H. E., AND H. N. PITRE-Effect of Four Soybean Genotypes
on Development and Fecundity of Heliothis virescens and Pseudo-
plusia includes (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) ................................. 386
VALLES, S. M., AND J. L. CAPINERA-Periodicity of Attraction of Adult
Melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata ............................................ 390


External Morphology of Flea Larvae (Siphonaptera) and Its Significance
in Taxonomy. By R.L.C. Pilgrim. 74(3): 386-395 ...................... 393

Book Reviews

FRANK, J. H.-Insect and Mite Pests in Food. An Illustrated Key ........ 394
FRANK, J. H.-Agricultural Insect Pests of Temperate Regions and Their
C control ................................................................................ 395

List of Sustaining Members ....................................................................... 397

Published by The Florida Entomological Society

President ................................................................................ D F. W illiam s
President-E lect .............................................................................. J. E. Pefia
Vice-President ............................................................................. E. M Thorns
Secretary ....................................................................................... D G. H all
Treasurer ................................................................................... A C. Knapp
Other Members of the Executive Committee
J. L. Knapp L. A. Wood J. A. Hogsette D. P. Wojcik
J. R. McLaughlin O. Liburd D. R. Suiter

J. R. McLaughlin, USDA/ARS, Gainesville, FL ....................................... Editor
Associate Editors
Agricultural, Extension, & Regulatory Entomology
James R. Brown-Disease Vector Ecology & Control Center, NAS, Jacksonville, FL
Richard K. Jansson-Tropical Research & Education Center, Homestead, FL
Michael G. Waldvogel-North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC
Stephen B. Bambara-North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC
Biological Control & Pathology
Ronald M. Weseloh-Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Sta., New Haven, CT
Book Reviews
J. Howard Frank-University of Florida, Gainesville
Chemical Ecology, Physiology, Biochemistry
Louis B. Bjostad--Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO
Ecology & Behavior
Theodore E. Burk-Creighton University, Omaha, NE
John H. Brower-Stored Product Insects Research Laboratory, Savannah, GA
Forum & Symposia
Carl S. Barfield-University of Florida, Gainesville
Genetics & Molecular Biology
Sudhir K. Narang-Bioscience Research Laboratory, Fargo, ND
Medical & Veterinary Entomology
Arshad Ali-Central Florida Research & Education Center, Sanford, FL
J. E. Pefia-Tropical Research & Education Center, Homestead, FL
Systematics, Morphology, and Evolution
Michael D. Hubbard-Florida A&M University, Tallahassee
Howard V. Weems, Jr.-Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville
Willis W. Wirth-Florida State Collection of Arthropods
Business M manager .................................................................... A. C. Knapp
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, September, and De-
cember. Subscription price to non-members is $30 per year in advance, $7.50 per copy;
institutional rate is $30 per year. Membership in the Florida Entomological Society,
including subscription to Florida Entomologist, is $25 per year for regular membership
and $10 per year for students.
Inquiries regarding membership and subscriptions should be addressed to the Busi-
ness Manager, P. O. Box 7326, Winter Haven, FL 83883-7326.
Florida Entomologist is entered as second class matter at the Post Office in DeLeon
Springs and in Winter Haven, FL.
Manuscripts from all areas of the discipline of entomology are accepted for consider-
ation. At least one author must be a member of the Florida Entomological Society.
Please consult "Instructions to Authors" on the inside back cover.
This issue mailed September 30, 1992

Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station


Department of Zoology
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


A total of 1,112 species of Lepidoptera are reported from the Archbold Biological
Station based on literature citations, specimens in collections, and new surveys. Two
families of monotrysian Lepidoptera (Nepticulidae and Incurvariidae) and 41 families of
Ditrysia occur at the station. Over 65% of the Lepidoptera species present at the Ar-
chbold station belong to the Noctuidae, Pyralidae, Geometridae, and Tortricidae.


Se registran un total de 1,112 species de Lepidoptera en la Estaci6n Biol6gica
Archbold, basado sobre citaciones en la literature, ejemplares en colecciones, y recon-
ocimientos nuevos. Dos families del suborden Monotrysia del orden Lepidoptera (Nep-
ticulidae y Incurvariidae) y 41 families del orden Ditrysia ocurren en la estaci6n. Mas
de 65% de las species de Lepidoptera presents en la estaci6n Archbold pertenecen a
Noctuidae, Pyralidae, Geometridae y Tortricidae.

The northern and central parts of the Florida peninsula are marked by several sand
ridges that run parallel to the Atlantic coastline (White 1958, 1970). The Lake Wales
Ridge extends approximately 160 kilometers from southern Highlands County to central
Lake County. The surface of the ridge is irregular, but reaches its highest elevation
(ca. 90 meters) near the city of Lake Wales (White 1958). Deep sandy soils of the ridges,
ancient dunes, and relict shorelines of central Florida support scrub and sandhill vege-
tation. Less well-drained areas give rise to a variety of habitats such as flatwoods, wet
prairies, marshes, swamps, bayheads, ponds, and lakes.
The Archbold Biological Station (ABS) lies at the southern end of the Lake Wales
Ridge and comprises about 2,000 hectares, most of which is scrub, sandhill, and flat-
woods (Abrahamson et al. 1984). Numerous seasonal ponds, a few permanent ponds,
and a small lake also occur on the property. A general map of the station is presented
in Minno (1992) and detailed vegetation maps are available from Archbold Biological
Station (P.O. Box 2057, Lake Placid, Florida, 33852). Most of the land surrounding ABS
is now used as pastureland or orange groves, greatly increasing the station's value as
a preserve of the natural communities of the southern Lake Wales Ridge.
ABS has one of the best-documented insect faunas in Florida due to years of collect-
ing effort by numerous biologists. Frost (1962, 1963, 1964, 1966, 1969, 1973, and 1975)
published lists of insects, including over 850 species of Lepidoptera, that he collected
at ultraviolet light traps on the main grounds of the station. Kimball (1965) cites over
480 species of moths collected at ABS based partly on Frost's early lists and on data
gleaned from collections. Other records of Lepidoptera from ABS are scattered in the
taxonomic literature such as Brown (1984), Burns (1964), Davis (1967), Ferguson (1969,
1982, 1988), Franclemont (1973), Heppner (1982, 1985, 1992), Hodges (1974, 1978, 1986),
Matthews (1989), McElvare (1961), Neunzig (1988, 1990), Obraztsov (1961), and Shaffer


298 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992

(1968). This paper serves to pool these records together, update nomenclatural changes,
and provide a baseline to which new faunal studies may be compared. The history and
ecology of the station are summarized in Minno & Myers (1986). Abrahamson et al.
(1984) describe the topography, soils, climate, and vegetation of ABS in detail.


Literature records of Lepidoptera from ABS were entered into a computer file using
LOTUS 1-2-3 (Lotus Development Corporation software). The names in the file were
then updated according to Hodges et al. (1983). Some of Frost's more unusual records
were loaned by the Frost Entomological Museum (Department of Entomology, Pennsyl-
vania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania) and were rechecked by H. D.
Baggett, T. S. Dickel, H. H. Neunzig, and other experts. Additional sources of data
include records compiled by Lee Adair, Jr. from the Florida State Collection of Ar-
thropods in Gainesville and the United States National Museum, Washington, D.C., the
ABS reference collection, and recent surveys and collections made by Mark Deyrup
(ABS insect ecologist), members of the Southern Lepidopterists' Society at the annual
meeting held 12-14 October 1990 at ABS, and by myself.
I collected Lepidoptera at the station nearly every day from June until mid-August,
1986. Some collecting was also accomplished at the station on a few days in November
1983; September, October, and November 1986; and February, March, and April 1987.
The moths that I collected were mostly taken at ultraviolet and incandescent lights on
the main grounds at night, but some were reared from immatures. Butterflies were
collected at various locations at ABS during the daytime. Most specimens were depo-
sited in the ABS reference collection which currently contains approximately 3,500
specimens representing 35 families and at least 650 species of Lepidoptera.


The lepidopteran community of peninsular Florida is composed of species from sev-
eral different sources. The continental mainland has probably donated the most species
to the community. Certainly, the majority of the species found at ABS are broadly
distributed throughout the eastern or southeastern United States.
In addition, the ABS fauna has a tropical, West Indian affinity. There are no abrupt
divisions between tropical and temperate regions in Florida, but rather the frequency
of tropical species gradually increases to the south and along the coasts. Temperate
species dominate in northern Florida but even here cold-intolerant species of Lepidopt-
era colonize and breed regularly during the warmer seasons.
There is also a little-mentioned western influence in Florida. Xerophilic species such
as Ziziphus celata Judd & Hall (an extremely rare shrub in the Rhamnaceae found on
the Lake Wales Ridge), Pogonomyrmex badius (Latreille) (Florida Harvester Ant,
Formicidae), Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens (Bosc) (Florida Scrub Jay, Cor-
vidae), Gopherus polyphemus (Daudin) (Gopher Tortoise, Testudinidae), and others are
the only eastern representatives of groups centered in western North America (Judd
& Hall 1984, Nickerson 1987, Woolfenden 1978, Auffenberg 1978). This phenomenon
also occurs in some Lepidoptera, such as Megathymus spp. (Hesperiidae).
At present, 1,112 species of Lepidoptera have been reported from ABS. Two subor-
ders are represented. The Monotrysia are a minor faunal element, consisting of six
species of Nepticulidae and two species of yucca moths (Incurvariidae). However, 41
families of ditrysian Lepidoptera occur at ABS. Over 65% of the Lepidoptera at the
station belong to just four ditrysian families, the Noctuidae, Pyralidae, Geometridae,

Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station

and Tortricidae. The phenology, abundance, and ecology of the 70 species of butterflies
that have been found at the station are discussed in another paper (Minno 1992).
Kimball (1965) listed 2,427 species of Lepidoptera from Florida. He also mentioned
204 species that were thought to be erroneously recorded or questionably present in
the state. Many new records have been added to the list since the publication of Kim-
ball's book. H. D. Baggett and J. B. Heppner, who have had considerable experience
collecting Lepidoptera in Florida, estimate that the list will eventually include about
3,000 species of moths and butterflies. Thus, about 37% of the Lepidoptera present in
the state have been found at ABS. Many new species of moths have been described
from specimens collected at the station. Archbold is the type locality for 20 species of
moths (Table 1).
Central Florida is particularly rich in endemic plants and animals (Neill 1957, James
1961). The only moth listed as endemic to Florida scrub by Deyrup (1989) was Nemouria
outina Fgn. (Geometridae), but others are likely. The flora and fauna of ABS are a
complex and constantly changing mixture of temperate, tropical, endemic, and exotic
species. More species of ants have been recorded from ABS than any other site in the
United States (Deyrup & Trager 1986), perhaps due in large part to the interplay
among these four groups. I found 422 species of Lepidoptera at the station, 44 of which
were new records. Since about 10% of my catch was not previously recorded despite
intensive collecting in the same areas, the species composing the lepidopteran commu-
nity at Archbold seem to be slowly changing.








Cosmopterix abdita Hodges 1978
Cosmopterix damnosa Hodges 1978
Cosmopterix ebriola Hodges 1978
Eraba abludo Hodges 1978
Melanocinclis gnoma Hodges 1978
Melanocinclis lineigera Hodges 1978
Melanocinclis vibex Hodges 1978
Siskiwitiafalcata Hodges 1978
Dichomeris aglaia Hodges 1986
Dichomeris ardelia Hodges 1986
Dichomeris kimballi Hodges 1986
Dichomeris sylphe Hodges 1986
Nemoria outina Ferguson 1969
Diploschizia minimella Heppner 1985
Tolype notialis Franclemont 1973
Macrochilo hypocritalis Ferguson 1982
Schiniafulleri McElvare 1961
Callima nathrax Hodges 1974
Salebriaria squamopalpiella Neunzig 1988
Argyrotaenia kimballi Obraztsov 1961


Florida Entomologist 75(3)

In order to better understand which resources are utilized by Lepidoptera at ABS,
I consulted Kimball (1965) and Covell (1984) for host data. The larval hosts of about
60% of the Lepidoptera at ABS are at least partially known. Of these, about 85% are
foliage feeders, 5% eat flowers, fruit, or seeds, 5% are stem borers, and 5% feed on
roots, dead plant parts, lichens, fungi, scale insects, hair, or beeswax. Idia gopheri
(Smith) (Noctuidae: Herminiinae) has one of the more unusual life histories in that the
larvae live in the burrows of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) and feed on
tortoise droppings (Woodruff 1982). Among the foliage feeders, about 43% specialize on
woody plants, 34% on herbs, and 7% on grasses and sedges. The remaining 16% are
generalists that eat the leaves of many kinds of plants.
A surprising number of aquatic and semiaquatic Lepidoptera have been taken at
ABS. Twenty species of nymphuline pyralids plus Ostrinia penitalis (Grt.) (the lotus
borer, Pyralidae), Sameodes albiguttalis (Warr.) (a pyralid recently introduced into
Florida for the control of water hyacinth), Homophoberia cristata Morr. (Noctuidae),
and four species of Bellura (Noctuidae) have been collected on the main grounds. Al-
though about 11% of the station consists of seasonal ponds (Abrahamson et al. 1984),
most of these are vegetated by grasses and emergent herbs that are probably not used
by aquatic Lepidoptera. However, several aquatic macrophytes, such as Nuphar lutea
Sibth. & Sm. (Nymphaceae), Myriophyllum pinnatum (Walt.) BSP. (Haloragaceae),
Utricularia spp. (Lentibulariaceae), and Nymphoides aquatica (J.F. Gmel.) Kuntze
(Gentianaceae), that may serve as host plants grow in Lake Annie (Vander Kloet 1986)
at the northern edge of the property.
The following section lists the names of all known species of Lepidoptera from ABS.
Over 150 species are reported from the station for the first time. Arrangement and
catalog numbers follow Hodges et al. (1983). Species lacking numbers were either over-
looked by Hodges et al. or were described after 1983. Problematic records and identifi-
cations are noted in the text.



43 Ectoedemia platanella (Clem.)
44 Ectoedemia clemensella (Cham.)
45 Ectoedemia similella (Braun)
46 Ectoedemia virgulae (Braun)
53 Ectoedemia obrutella (Zell.)
93 Stigmella ostryaefoliella (Clem.)

198 Tegeticula yuccasella (Riley)
200 Prodoxus quinquepunctella (Cham.)

272 Nemapogon rileyi (Dietz)
305 Mea bipunctella (Dietz)
317 Xylesthia pruniramiella Clem.
319 Kearfottia albifasciella Fern.

September, 1992

Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station

335 Amydria margoriella Dietz
340 Acrolophus arcanella (Clem.)
347 Acrolophus cressoni (Wlsm.)
353 Acrolophus forbesi Hasbrouck
368 Acrolophus panamae Bsk.
371 Acrolophus piger (Dyar)
372 Acrolophus plumifrontella (Clem.)
373 Acrolophus popeanella (Clem.)
374 Acrolophus propinquus (Wlsm.)
383 Acrolophus texanella (Cham.)
Acrolophus heppneri Davis
Acrolophus mycetophagus Davis
Acrolophus spilotus Davis
390 Phereoeca dubitatrix (Meyrick)
400 Tinea mandarinella Dietz
405 Tinea pellionella L.
409 Tinea unomaculella Cham.
428 Setomorpha rutella Zell.

439 Prochalia pygmaea B. & McD.
441 Cryptothelea nigrita B. & McD.
442 Cryptothelea gloverii (Pack.)

454 Oiketicus abbotii Grt.
457 Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haw.)

461 Euprora argentiliniella Bsk.
487 Bucculatrix magnella Cham.
517 Bucculatrix ivella Bsk.
582 Bucculatrix thurberiella Bsk.

835 Cameraria quercivorella (Cham.)

846 Phyllocnistis insignis F. & B.

955 Psilocorsis quercicella Clem.
956 Psilocorsis cryptolechiella (Cham.)
957 Psilocorsis reflexella Clem.

1013 Antaeotricha unipunctella (Clem.)
1014 Antaeotricha leucillana (Zell.)
1024 Antaeotricha vestalis (Zell.)
1026 Setiostoma xanthobasis Zell.

Florida Entomologist 75(3)

1034 Inga sparsiciliella (Clem.)
1035 Inga cretacea (Zell.)
1042 Decantha boreasella (Cham.)
1047 Callima nathrax Hodges

1138 Glyphidocera floridanella Bsk.
1139 Glyphidocera lactiflosella (Cham.)

Blastobasis species [NOTE: Hodges (1978) illustrated this species from ABS.]
1162 Valentinia glandulella (Riley)
1168 Calosima argyrosplendella Dietz
1169 Calosima dianella Dietz
Calocima lucidella Adamski

1405 Batrachedra testor Hodges
1406 Batrachedra busiris Hodges
1415 Batrachedra libator Hodges
1416 Batrachedra decoctor Hodges
1421 Homaledra heptathalama Bsk.
1422 Homaledra sabalella (Cham.)

1429 Mompha bottimeri Bsk.
1443 Mompha eloisella (Clem.)

1467 Euclemensia bassettella (Clem.)

1472 Cosmopterix pulchrimella Cham.
1473 Cosmopterix bendidia Hodges
1474 Cosmopterix attenuatella (Wlk.)
1479 Cosmopterix dapifera Hodges
1480 Cosmopterix delicatella Wlsm.
1481 Cosmopterix dicacula Hodges
1486 Cosmopterix minutellaBeutenmiiller
1487 Cosmopterix abdita Hodges
1490 Cosmopterix gemmiferella Clem.
1491 Cosmopterix bacata Hodges
1492 Cosmopterix damnosa Hodges
1494 Cosmopterix scirpicola Hodges
1495 Cosmopterix ebriola Hodges
1497 Cosmopterix floridanella Beutenmiiller
1502 Eralea abludo Hodges
1503 Melanocinclis lineigera Hodges
1506 Melanocinclis gnoma Hodges
1507 Melanoclinclis vibex Hodges

September, 1992

Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station

1508 Stagmatophora sexnotella (Cham.)
1513 Pyroderces badia (Hodges)
1514 Pyroderces albistrigella (Mosch.)
1527 Triclonella determinatella (Zell.)

1560 Periploca orichalcella (Clem.)
1589 Siskiwitiafalcata Hodges
1597 Stilbosis quadricustatella (Cham.)
1615 Walshia miscecolorella (Cham.)
1623 Perimede erransella Cham.
1632 Perimede falcata Braun

1762 Aristotelia rubidella (Clem.)
Aristotelia corallina Wlsm.
1840 Exoteleia pinifoliella (Cham.)
1926 Deltophora duplicate Sattler
1928 Delptophora sella (Cham.)
1986 Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Riley)
1998 Gnorimoschema saphirinella (Cham.)
2005 Gnorimoschema terracottella Bsk.
2064 Chionodes bicostomaculetta (Cham.)
2079 Chionodes fuscomaculella (Cham.)
Chionodes species [NOTE: R. W. Hodges (pers. comm.) has examined a few
specimens of this and believes that they represent an undescribed species.]
2187 Aroga compositella (Wlk.)
2198 Aroga trialbamaculella (Cham.)
2205 Fascista quinella (Zell.)
2209 Stegasta bosqueella (Cham.)
Stegasta capitella (F.)
2216 Ymeldia janae Hodges

2234 Anacampsis coverdalella Kft.

2265 Brachmia chambersella (Murt.)
2272 Brachyacma palpigera (Wlsm.)
2274 Dichomeris bipunctella (Wlsm.)
2281 Dichomeris ligulella Hbn.
2287 Dichomeris ventrella (Fitch)
Dichomeris achne Hodges
Dichomeris acuminata (Stgr.)
Dichomeris aglaia Hodges
Dichomeris ardelia Hodges
Dichomeris bolize Hodges
Dichomeris fistuca Hodges
Dichomeris kimballi Hodges
Dichomeris nenia Hodges
Dichomeris simulata Hodges

Florida Entomologist 75(3)

Dichomeris sylphe Hodges
Dichomeris xanthoa Hodges
2301 Trichotaphe serrativittella (Zell.)
2305 Trichotaphe trinotella Bsk.

2335 Parochromolopis floridana Gaedike

2336 Abrenthia cuprea Bsk.
2345 Diploschizia lanista (Meyrick)
2346 Diploschizia impigritella (Clem.)
Diploschizia minimella Heppner
Dryomoana blachardi Heppner
Neomachlotica spiraea Heppner

2363 Plutella porrectella (L.)
2366 Plutella xylostella (L.)

2401 Atteva punctella (Cram.)
2404 Lactura basistriga (B. & McD.)
2405 Lactura pupula (Hbn.)
2412 Podiasa chiococcella Bsk.
2415 Urodus parvula (Hy. Edw.)

2530 Vitacea polistiformis (Harr.)

2547 Synanthedon geliformis (Wlk.)
2554 Synanthedon acerni (Clem.)
2557 Synanthedon alleri (Engelh.)
2566 Synanthedon refulgens (Hy. Edw.)
2573 Synanthedon sapygaeformis (Wlk.)
2575 Synanthedon arkansasensis Duckworth & Eichlin
2590 Sannina uroceriformis Wlk.
2614 Carmenta texana (Hy. Edw.)

Phormoestes palmettovora Heppner

2649 Tebenna carduiella (Kft.)

2668 Givira anna (Dyar)
2671 Givira francesca (Dyar)

September, 1992


Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station

2693 Prionoxystus robiniae (Peck)

2701 Episimus argutanus (Clem.)
2703 Episimus tyrius Heinr.
2704 Cacocharis cymotoma (Meyr.)
2706 Bactrafurfurana (Haw.)
2707 Bactra verutana Zell.
2709 Bactra priapeia Heinr.
2711 Endopiza liriodendrana (Kft.)
2738 Endothenia hebesana (Wlk.)
2739 Endothenia daeckeana (Kft.)
2749 Eumarozia malachitana (Zell.)
2750 Zomaria interruptolineana (Fern.)
2751 Zomaria rosaochreana (Kft.)
2752 Zomaria andromedana (B. & McD.)
2772 Phaecasiophora niveiguttana Grt.
2773 Phaecasiophora inspersa Heinr.
2802 Olethreutes hippocastana (Kft.)
2829 Olethreutes osmundana (Fern.)
2857 Olethreutes devotana Kft.
2864 Hedya cyanana (Murt.)
2869 Rhyacionia subtropical Miller
2898 Petrova gemistrigulana (Kft.)
2907 Strepsicrates smithiana (Wlsm.)
3008 Eucosma quinquemaculana (Rob.)
3009 Eucosma robinsonana (Grt.)
3110 Eucosma gomonana Kft.
3170 Pelochrista vandana (Kft.)
3172 Epiblema strenuana (Wlk.)
3174 Epiblema numerosana (Zell.)
3175 Epiblema grossbecki (Heinr.)
3184 Epiblema tripartitana (Zell.)
3186 Epiblema scudderiana (Clem.)
3190 Epiblema desertana (Zell.)
3202 Epiblema otiosana (Clem.)
3218 Sonia constrictana (Zell.)
Sonia paraplesiana Blanchard
3260 Gretchena concubitana Heinr.
3274 Crocidosema plebejana Zell.
Rhopobota species [NOTE: A single specimen in the ABS collection was identi-
fied as belonging to this genus by J. B. Heppner.]
3279 Epinotia lantana (Bsk.)
3333 Epinotia timidella (Clem.)
3375 Ancylis divisana (Wlk.)
3415 Satronia tantilla Heinr.
3423 Larisa subsolana Miller
3424 Ethelgoda texanana (Wlsm.)
Corticivora chica Brown
Corticivora parva Brown

306 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992

3471 Cydia caryana (Fitch)
3488 Cydia anaranjada (Miller)
Cydia species [NOTE: Frost (1975) listed this as Kimball's (1965, p. 263) 7287,1
Laspeyresia (now Cydia) near gallaesaliciana (Riley).]
Cydia species [NOTE: Frost (1975) listed this as Kimball's (1965, p. 263) 7287,2
Laspeyresia (now Cydia) species.]
3494 Cydia latiferreanus (Wlsm.)
3495 Ecdytolopha punctidiscana (Dyar)
3496 Ecdytolopha desotana (Heinr.)
3500 Pseudogalleria inimicella (Zell.)

3597 Argyrotaenia velutinana (Wlk.) ? [NOTE: J. B. Heppner identified a specimen
in the ABS reference collection as probably this species.]
3600 Argyrotaenia kimballi Obr.
3602 Argyrotaenia pinatubana (Kft.)
3603 Argyrotaenia tabulana Free.
3627 Argyrotaenia ivana (Fern.)
3631 Choristoneura obsoletana (Wlk.)
3635 Choristoneura rosaceana (Harr.)
3648 Archips argyrospila (Wlk.)
3653 Archips semiferana (Wlk.)
3656 Archips georgiana (Wlk.)
3688 Ptycholoma peritana (Clem.)
3695 Sparganothis sulfureana (Clem.)
3696 Sparganothis belfrageana (Zell.)
3700 Sparganothis caryae (Rob.)
3702 Sparganothis taracana Kft.
3703 Sparganothis demissana (Wlsm.)
3704 Sparganothis distinct (Wlsm.)
3718 Sparganothis karacana (Kft.)
3732 Platynota flavedana Clem.
3736 Platynota stultana Wlsm.
3743 Platynota exasperatana (Zell.)
3745 Platynota rostrana (Wlk.)
3747 Coelostathma discopunctana Clem.

3751 Thaumatographa jonesi (Brower)

Cochylis caulacatax Razowski
Lorita baccharivora Pogue
Lorita scarificata Meyrick
3782 Carolella sartana (Hbn.)
3783 Carolella bimaculana (Rob.)
3784 Carolella erigeronana (Riley)
3807 Hysterosia angulatana Rob.
3842 Hysterosia oenotherana Riley
3850 Phalonia seriatana Zell.
3862 Phalonia ziscana Kft.
Phalonia subolivacea Wlsm.

Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station 307

3870 Epargyreus clarus clarus (Cram.)
3886 Urbanus proteus proteus (L.)
3889 Urbanus dorantes dorantes (Stoll)
3910 Thorybes pylades (Scudder)
3946 Erynnis brizo somnus (Lint.)
3947 Erynnis juvenalis juvenalis (F.)
3952 Erynnis horatius (Scudder & Burgess)
3956 Erynnis zarucco zarucco (Luc.)
3968 Pyrgus oileus oileus (L.)

3993 Nastra lherminier (Latr.)
3998 Lerema accius (J. E. Smith)
4004 Ancyloxypha numitor (F.)
4010 Copaeodes minimus (Edw.)
4013 Hylephila phyleus (Drury)
4030 Hesperia meskei straton (Edw.)
4041 Polites themistocles (Latr.)
4045 Polites vibex vibex (Gey.)
4046 Wallengrenia otho (J. E. Smith)
4049 Atalopedes campestris huron (Edw.)
4051 Atrytone delaware delaware (Edw.)
4070 Euphyes arpa (Bdv. & Leconte)
4079 Asbolis capucinus (Luc.)
4080 Atrytonopsis hianna loammi (Whitney)
4111 Lerodea eufala (Edw.)
4114 Oligoria maculata (Edw.)
4119 Panoquina ocola ocola (Edw.)

4145 Megathymus yuccae buchholzi H. A. Freeman

4157 Battus philenor philenor (L.)
4158 Battus polydamus lucayas (R. & J.)
4159 Papilio polyxenes asterius Stoll
4170 Papilio cresphontes Cram.
4176 Papilio glaucus australis Maynard
4181 Papilio troilus ilioneus J. E. Smith
4182 Papilio palamedes Drury
4184 Eurytides marcellus floridensis (Holl.)

4193 Pontia protodice (Bdv. & Leconte)
4198 Ascia monuste phileta (F.)

4210 Colias eurytheme Bdv.
4224 Zerene cesonia (Stoll)
4228 Phoebis sennae eubule (L.)

Florida Entomologist 75(3)

4229 Phoebis philea philea (Johansson)
4231 Phoebis agarithe maxima (Neum.)
4237 Eurema lisa lisa Bdv. & Leconte
4242 Eurema nicippe (Cram.)
4243 Eurema daira daira (Godt.)
4248 Nathalis iole Bdv.

4270 Atlides halesus halesus (Cram.)
4282 Satyrium calanus calanus (Hbn.)
4299 Calycopis cecrops (F.)
4331 Euristrymonfavonius (J. E. Smith)
4335 Parrhasius m-album (Bdv. & Leconte)
4336 Stl ........ melinus melinus Hbn.

4356 Leptotes cassius theonus (Luc.)
4359 Hemiargus ceraunus antibubastus Hbn.

4413 Agraulis vanilla nigrior Michener
4418 Heliconius charitonius tucker W. P. Comstock & F. M. Brown

4420 Polygonia interrogationis (F.)
4434 Vanessa virginiensis (Drury)
4437 Vanessa atalanta rubria (Fruhstorfer)
4440 Junonia coenia (Hbn.)
4443 Anartia jatrophae guantanamo Mun.
4447 Euptoieta claudia (Cram.)
4480 Pi..,,-,,.,il.. phaon (Edw.)
4481 Phyciodes tharos tharos (Drury)
4523 Basilarchia archippus floridensis (Stkr.)
4550 Marpesia petreus (Cram.)

4575 Hermeuptychia sosybius (F.)
4576 Neonympha areolata areolata (J. E. Smith)

4614 Danaus plexippus plexippus (L.)
4615 Danaus gilippus berenice (Cram.)

4624 Harrisina americana australis Stretch
4629 Acoloithusfalsarius Clem.

4642 Lagoa pyxidifera (J. E. Smith)
4644 Lagoa crispata (Pack.)
4647 Megalopyge opercularis (J. E. Smith)

September, 1992

Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station 309


4655 Slossonella tenebrosa Dyar
4664 Lithacodes grace Dyar
4667 Apoda y-inversum (Pack.)
4668 Apoda rectilinea (G. & R.)
4671 Prolimacodes badia (Hbn.)
4673 Alarodia slossoniae (Pack.)
4679 Natada nasoni (Grt.)
4689 Monoleuca erectifascia Dyar
4691 Monoleuca semifascia (Wlk.)
4693 Monoleuca subdentosa Dyar
4697 Euclea delphinii (Bdv.)
4697.1 Euclea nanina Dyar
4700 Sibine stimulea (Clem.)

4738 Eudonia strigalis (Dyar)

4740 Undulambia striatalis (Dyar)
4741 Undulambia polystichalis Capps
4743 Neocataclysta magnificalis (Hbn.)
4744 Chrysendeton medicinalis Grt.
4745 C(i',,/,. ,/i i.... kimballi Lange
4746 CI-'n .*... i .... imitabilis (Dyar)
4748 Munroessa icciusalis (Wlk.)
4750 Munroessa nebulosalis (Fern.)
4751 Munroessa gyralis (Hulst)
4754 Synclita tinealis Mun.
4755 Synclita obliteralis (Wlk.)
4758 Langessa nomophilalis (Dyar)
4759 Parapoynx maculalis (Clem.)
4760 Parapoynx obscuralis (Grt.)
4763 Parapoynx seminealis (Wlk.)
4764 Parapoynx allionealis Wlk.
4769 Neargyractis slossonalis (Dyar)
4770 Petrophila drumalis (Dyar)
4785 Eoparargyractis irroratalis (Dyar)
4786 Eoparargyractis floridalis Lange

4796 Microtheoris ophionalis (Wlk.)

4846 Hellula rogatalis (Hulst)
4870 Glaphyria sequistrialis Hbn.
4871 Glaphyria basiflavalis B. & McD.
4873 Glaphyria fulminalis (Led.)
4885 Lipocosma septa Mun.
4888 Lipocosmodes fuliginosalis (Fern.)
4889 Dicymolomia julianalis (Wlk.)

310 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992

4890 Dicymolomia metalophota (Hamp.)
4893 Dicymolomia grisea Mun.
4896 Chalcoela pegasalis (Wlk.)

4898 Evergestis rimosalis (Gn.)
4933 Trischistognatha pyrenealis (Wlk.)

4940 Oenobotys vinotinctalis (Hamp.)
4946 Ostrinia penitalis (Grt.)
4950 Fumibotys fumalis (Gn.)
4953 Phlyctaenia coronata tertialis (Gn.)
Phlyctaenia leuschneri Munroe
4975 Achyra rantalis (Gn.)
4977 Neohelvibotys neohelvialis (Capps)
4979 Neohelvibotys polingi (Capps)
4980 Helvibotys helvialis (Wlk.)
4992 Uresiphita reversalis (Gn.)
5034 Pyrausta signatalis (Wlk.)
5044 Pyrausta insignitalis (Gn.)
5049 Pyrausta phoenicealis (Wlk.)
5069 Pyrausta tyralis (Gn.)
5079 Udea rubigalis (Gn.)
5106 Lineodes fontella Wlsm.
5107 Lineodes integra (Zell.)
5122 Eurrhyparodes lygdamis Druce
5126 Geshna cannalis (Quaintance)
5127 Hydriris ornatalis (Dup.)
5147 Epipagis huronalis (Gn.)
5149 Sameodes albiguttalis (Warr.)
5150 Samea ecclesialis Gn.
5151 Samea multiplicalis (Gn.)
5153 Somatania pellucidalis Mbsch.
5156 Nomophila nearctica Mun.
5157 Pilemia periusalis (Wlk.)
5158 Ategumia ebulealis (Gn.)
5159 Desmiafuneralis (Hbn.)
5160 Desmia maculalis Westwood
5164 Desmia tages (Cram.)
5167 Desmia ploralis (Gn.)
5169 Hymenia perspectalis (Hbn.)
5170 Spoladea recurvalis (F.)
5171 Diasemiopsis leodocusalis (Wlk.)
5172 Diasemiodes janassialis (Wlk.)
5173 Diasemiodes nigralis (Fern.)
5175 Diathrausta harlequinalis lauta Mun.
5176 Anageshna primordialis (Dyar)
5177 Apogeshna stenialis (Gn.)
5182 Blepharomastix ranalis (Gn.)
5187 Blepharomastix magualis (Gn.)
5198 Glyphodes sibillalis Wlk.

Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station 311

5202 Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll)
5204 Diaphania hyalinata (L.)
5205 Diaphania modialis (Dyar)
5207 Diaphania indica (Saund.)
5212 Omiodes indicate (F.)
5215 Condylorrhiza vestigialis (Gn.)
5217 Palpitaflegia (Cram.)
5218 Palpita quadristigmalis (Gn.)
5226 Palpita magniferalis (Wlk.)
5239 Terastia meticulosalis Gn.
5240 Agathodes designalis Gn.
5242 Pleuroptya penumbralis (Grt.)
5243 Pleuroptya silicalis (Gn.)
5253 Diastictis argyralis Hbn.
5257 Diastictis holguinalis Mun.
5267 Asciodes gordialis Gn.
5268 Psara obscuralis (Led.)
5272 Herpetogramma bipunctalis (F.)
5273 Herpetogramma ipomoealis (Capps)
5274 Herpetogramma phaeopteralis (Gn.)
5279 Herpetogramma theseusalis (Wlk.)
5281 Pilocrocis ramentalis Led.
5284 Syngamia florella (Stoll)
5285 Salbia tytiusalis (Wlk.)
5287 Salbia haemorrhoidalis Gn.
5288 Marasmia trapezalis (Gn.)
5289 Marasmia cochrusalis (Wlk.)
5293 Conchylodes concinnalis Hamp.
5295 Daulia magdalena (Fern.)

5300 Patissa xantholeucalis (Gn.)
5301 Patissaflavicostella (Fern.)
5302 Patissa flavifascialis B. & McD.
5305 Patissa sordidalis B. & McD.
5306 Patissa vestaliella (Zell.)
5307 Scirpophaga perstrialis (Hbn.)
5308 Scirpophaga repugnatalis (Wlk.)
5310 Rupela segrega Heinr.
5311 Rupela tinctella (Wlk.)
5312 Rupela sejuncta Heinr.
5313 Donacaula sordidella (Zinck.)
5314 Donacaula unipunctella (Rob.)
5316 Donacaula melinella (Clem.)
5317 Donacaula aquilella (Clem.) [NOTE: Frost (1966) listed this as Donacaula
near clemensellus Rob.]
5321 Donacaula roscidella (Dyar)
5323 Donacaula uxorialis (Dyar)
5324 Donacaula maximella (Fern.)

5331 Mesolia incertella (Zinck.)

Florida Entomologist 75(3)

5333 Prionapteryx nebulifera Steph.
5336 Prionapteryx serpentella Kft.

5364 Crambus multilinellus Fern.
5369 Crambus quinquareatus Zell.
5372 Crambus satrapellus (Zinck.)
5380 Crambus zeellus Fern.
5381 Crambus caliginosellus Clem.
5393 Raphiptera argillaceella minimella (Rob.)
5419 Microcrambus biguttellus (Fbs.)
5420 Microcrambus elegans (Clem.)
5423 Microcrambus discludellus (Mbsch.)
5424 Microcrambus kimballi Klots
5433 Fissicrambus haytiellus (Zinck.)
5435 Fissicrambus mutabilis (Clem.)
Fissicrambus proranellieus (Wlk.) [NOTE: J. B. Heppner identified a speci-
men in the reference collection as this species.]
5450 Parapediasia decorella (Zinck.)
5451 Parapediasia teterrella (Zinck.)
5454 Euchromius ocelleus (Haw.)
5460 Argyria nummulalis Hbn.
5463 Argyria lacteella (F.)
5464 Urola nivalis (Drury)
5465 Vaxi auratella (Clem.)
5466 Vaxi critical (Fbs.)
5467 Vaxi tripsacas (Dyar)
5468 Epina dichromella (Wlk.)
5475 Diatraea saccharalis (F.)
5478 Diatraea evanescens Dyar
5481 Diatraea lisetta (Dyar)
5492 Eoreuma densella (Zell.)
5499 Xubida linearella (Zell.)
5500 Xubida panalope (Dyar)
5501 Xubida relovae Klots
5502 Xubida punctilineella (B. & McD.)

5526 Herculia intermedialis (Wlk.)
5530 Herculia binodulalis (Zell.)
5531 Herculia sordidalis B. & McD.
5533 Herculia olinalis (Gn.)

5538 Parachma ochracealis Wlk.
5550 Lepidomys irrenosa Gn.
5552 Galasa nigrinodis (Zell.)
5554 Tetraschistis leucogramma Hamp.
5555 Penthesilea sacculalis Rag.
5556 Tosale oviplagalis (Wlk.)
Arta species [NOTE: This record is based on a single specimen in the ABS
collection identified by J. B. Heppner.]

September, 1992


Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station

5570 Xantippe uranides Dyar

5577 Epipaschia superatalis Clem.
5579 Epipaschia zelleri (Grt.)
5582 Jocara incrustalis (Hulst)
5592 Tallula watsoni B. & McD.
5595 Tetralopha robustella Zell.
5596 Tetralopha scortealis (Led.)
5597 Tetralopha melanogrammos Zell.
5601 Tetralopha floridella (Hulst)
5602 Tetralopha subcanalis (Wlk.)

5622 Galleria mellonella (L.)
Epimorius testaceellus Rag.
5625 Omphalocera cariosa Led.
5627 Omphalocera munroei Martin
5638 Macrotheca unicoloralis B. & McD.

5651 Acrobasis indigenella (Zell.)
5653 Acrobasis vaccinii Riley
5657 Acrobasis minimella Rag.
5672 Acrobasis exsulella (Zell.)
5684 Acrobasis cirroferella Hulst
5692 Acrobasis myricella B. & McD.
5704 Anabasis ochrodesma (Zell.)
5733 Sarasota plumigerella Hulst
5734 Atheloca subrufella (Hulst)
5742 Caristanius decoloralis (Wlk.)
5744 Etiella zinckenella (Tr.)
5771 Salebriaria turpidella (Rag.)
5775 Salebriaria tenebrosella (Hulst)
Salebriaria atratella Blanchard & Knudson
Salebriaria pumilella (Rag.)
Salebriaria squamopalpiella Neunzig
Salebriaria species [NOTE: Frost (1964) listed this as Salebriaria annulosella
(Rag.) but H. H. Neunzig has examined some of the specimens and states
that they are not S. annulosella, but possibly represent an undescribed
5789 Nephopterix subfuscella (Rag.)
5809 Tulsa finitella (Wlk.)
5853 Dioryctria amatella (Hulst)
5863.1 Dioryctria clarioralis (Wlk.)
Dioryctria ebeli Mutuura & Munroe
5890 Adelphia petrella (Zell.)
5895 Ufa rubedinella (Zell.)
5896 Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zell.)
5914 Ocala dryadella Hulst
5919 Honora mellinella Grt.
5930 Palatka nymphaeella (Hulst)


314 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992

5934 Mescinia estrella B. & McD.
5935 Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst)
5936 Homoeosoma stypticellum Grt. ? [NOTE: Frost (1964) listed one specimen
from ABS, but Kimball (1965, p. 248) doubted that H. stypticellum is the
proper name since this applies to a northern species.]
5949 Laetilia coccidivora (J. H. Comstock)
5964 Welderella parvella (Dyar)
5970 Melitara prodenialis Wlk.
5996 Euzophera magnolialis Capps [NOTE: Frost (1969) misidentified this as
Euzophera ostricolorella Hulst.]
5999 Eulogia ochrifrontella (Zell.)
6001 Ephestiodes infimella Rag.
6005 Moodna ostrinella (Clem.)
Moodna pallidostrinella Neunzig
6020 Anagasta kuehniella (Zell.)
6028 Tampa dimediatella Rag.
6031 Eurythmia hospitella (Zell.)

6049 Peoria roseotinctella (Rag.)
6054 Peoria luteicostella (Rag.)
6068 Homosassa ella (Hulst)

6088 Hyblaea puera (Cram.)

6098 Trichoptilus parvulus B. & L.
6100 Trichoptilus californicus (Wlsm.)
6104 Megalorrhipida defectalis (Wlk.)
6109 Platyptilia carduidactyla (Riley)
6119 Lantanophaga pusillidactyla (Wlk.)
6120 Lioptilodes parvus (Wlsm.)
6121 Stenoptilodes crenulata (B. & McD.)
Marasmarcha pumilio (Zell.)
Mariana taprobanes (Felder)

6154 Pselnophorus belfragei (Fish)
6155 Adaina bipunctata (Mosch.)
6159 Adaina buscki B. & L.
6160 Adaina ambrosiae (Murt.)
6210 Oidaematophorus balanotes (Meyr.)
6212 Oidaematophorus kellicottii (Fish)
6213 Oidaematophorus lacteodactylus (Cham.)
6226 Oidaematophorus unicolor (B. & McD.)
6234 Emmelina monodactyla (L.)

6255 Oreta rosea (Wlk.)

I ___

Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station

6272a Eumacaria latiferrugata brunneata Pack.
6285 Itame inextricata (Wlk.)
6314 Itame varadaria (Wlk.)
6332 Semiothisa punctolineata (Pack.)
6335 Semiothisa aequiferaria (Wlk.)
6336 Semiothisa distribuaria (Hbn.)
6337 Semiothisa sanfordi Rindge
6341 Semiothisa bicolorata (F.)
6405 Semiothisa gnophosaria (Gn.)
6419 Enconista dislocaria (Pack.)
6437 Hypomecis luridula (Hulst)
6439 Hypomecis umbrosaria (Hbn.)
6443 Glenoides texanaria (Hulst)
6450 Glena cognataria (Hbn.)
6485 Tornos cinctarius Hulst
6486a Tornos scolopacinarius spodius Rindge
6487c Tornos abjectarius kimballi Rindge
6580 Anacamptodes pergracilis (Hulst)
6582 Anacamptodes vellivolata (Hulst)
6583 Anacamptodes ephyraria (Wlk.)
6584 Anacamptodes humaria (Gn.)
6586 Anacamptodes defectaria (Gn.)
6590 Anavitrinelia pampinaria (Gn.)
6599 Epimecis hortaria (F.)
6604 Epimecis detexta (Wlk.)
6652 Lycia ypsilon (S. A. Forbes)
6654 Hypagyrtis unipunctata (Haw.)
6711 Thysanopyga intractata (Wlk.)
6713 Episemasia solitaria (Wlk.)
6726 Euchlaena obtusaria (Hbn.)
6731 Euchlaena madusaria (Wlk.)
6732 Euchlaena deplanaria (Wlk.)
6733a Euchlaena amoenaria astylusaria (Wlk.)
6742 Xanthotype rufaria Swett
6745 Cymatophora approximaria Hbn.
6746 Stenaspilatodes antidiscaria (Wlk.)
6752 Pero zalissaria (Wlk.)
6763 Nacophora quernaria (J. E. Smith)
6800 Sphacelodes vulneraria (Hbn.)
6805 Tacparia zalissaria Wlk.
6834 Cepphis decoloraria (Hulst)
6858 Lychnosea intermicata (Wlk.)
6885 Besma quercivoraria (Gn.)
6889 Lambdina pultaria (Gn.)
6933 Eusarca fundaria (Gn.)
6941 Eusarca confusaria Hbn.
6966 Eutrapela clemataria (J. E. Smith)
6967 Oxydia vesulia transponens (Wlk.)
6968 Oxydia cubana (Warr.) [NOTE: H. D. Baggett (pers. comm.) believes that
this is probably 0. vesulia, since 0. cubana is a coastal species. Frost's
(1964) specimen was not located for examination.]


Florida Entomologist 75(3)

Patalene hamulata (Gn.) [NOTE: Kimball (1965) listed this species from ABS,
but H. D. Baggett (pers. comm.) thinks that P. olyzonaria is probably the
correct name. The specimens have not been located.]
6974a Patalene olyzonaria puber (G. & R.)
6982a Prochoerodes transversata incurvata (Gn.)
6986 Nepheloleuca floridata (Grt.)

7028 Nemoria extremaria (Wlk.)
7031 Nemoria catachloa (Hulst)
7032 Nemoria outina Fgn.
7033 Nemoria lixaria (Gn.)
7045 Nemoria bifilata (Wlk.)
7051 Phrudocentra centrifugaria (H.-S.)
7053b Dichorda iridaria remotaria (Wlk.)
7059 Synchlora frondaria frondaria Gn.
7060 Synchlora xysteraria (Hulst)
7061 Synchlora herbaria (F.)
7064 Synchlora cupedinaria (Grt.)
7071 Chlorochlamys chloroleucaria (Gn.)
7075 Chloropteryx tepperaria (Hulst)
7077 Chloropteryx paularia (Mosch.)

7094 Lobocleta ossularia (Gey.)
7097 Lobocleta plemyraria (Gn.)
7100 Lobocleta peralbata (Pack.)
7114 Idaea demissaria (Hbn.)
7115 Idaea eremiata (Hulst)
7118 Idaea hilliata (Hulst)
7120 Idaea violacearia (Wlk.)
7121 Idaea ostentaria (Wlk.)
7122 Idaea tacturata (Wlk.)
7124 Idaea retractaria (Wlk.)
7132 Pleuroprucha insulsaria (Gn.)
7134 Cyclophora culicaria (Gn.)
7137 Cyclophora myrtaria (Gn.)
7138 Cyclophora benjamin (Prout) [NOTE: This maybe a synonym of C. myrtaria
(C. V. Covell, Jr., pers. comm.).]
7149 Scopula lautaria (Hbn.)
7151 Scopula aemulata (Hulst)
7152 Scopula compensate (Wlk.)
7154 Scopula plantagenaria (Hulst)
7156 Scopula umbilicata (F.)
7173 Leptostales pannaria (Gn.)
7174 Leptostales crossii (Hulst)
7175 Leptostales hepaticaria (Gn.)
7177 Leptostales laevitaria (Gey.)
7181 Lophosis labeculata (Hulst)

7196 Eulithis diversilineata (Hbn.)


September, 1992

Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station

7197 Eulithis gracilineata (Gn.)
7314 Hammaptera parinotata (Zell.)
7414 Orthonama obstipata (F.)
7416 Orthonama centrostrigaria (Woll.)
7417 Disclisioprocta stellata (Gn.)
7440 Eubaphe mendica (Wlk.)
7441 Eubaphe meridiana (Slosson)
7474 Eupithecia miserulata Grt.
7486 Eupithecia jejunata McD.
7648 Dyspteris abortivaria (H.-S.)

7662 Cicinnus melsheimeri (Harr.)

7663 Apatelodes torrefacta (J. E. Smith)

7674 Tolype notialis Franc.
7683 Artace cribraria (Ljungh)

7698 Malacosoma disstria Hbn.

7704 Eacles imperialis (Drury)
7706 Citheronia regalis (F.)
7708 Citheronia sepulcralis G. & R.
7715 Dryocampa rubicunda (F.)
7718 Anisota consularisDyar
7723a Anisota pellucida (J. E. Smith) [NOTE: Kimball (1965) referred to this species
as Anisota virginiensis (Drury), but Riotte & Peigler (1980) revised the
group and determined the Florida population to be A. pellucida.]

7730 Hemileuca maia (Drury)
7746 Automeris io lilith (Stkr.)

7757 Antheraea polyphemus (Cram.)
7758 Actias luna (L.)
7766 Callosamia securifera (Maassen)

7771 Agrius cingulata (F.)
7772 Cocytius antaeus (Drury)
7775 Manduca sexta (L.)
7776 Manduca quinquemaculata (Haw.)
7778 Manduca rustica (F.)
7784 Dolba hyloeus (Drury)
7787 Ceratomia undulosa (Wlk.)

318 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992

7789 Ceratomia catalpae (Bdv.)
7793 Paratrea plebeja (F.)
7810 Sphinx gordius Cram.
7816 Lapara coniferarum (J. E. Smith)
7818 Protambulyx strigilis (L.)
7824 Paonias excaecatus (J. E. Smith)
7827 Laothoe juglandis (J. E. Smith)

7830 Pseudosphinx tetrio (L.)
7832 Erinnyis alope (Drury)
7834 Erinnyis ello (L.)
7837 Erinnyis obscura (F.)
7841 Pachyliaficus (L.)
7851 Enyo lugubris (L.)
7853 Hemaris thysbe (F.)
7854 Hemaris gracilis (G. & R.)
7859 Eumorpha pandorus (Hbn.)
7861 Eumorpha achemon (Drury)
7865 Eumorphafasciata (Sulz.)
7866 Eumorpha labruscae (L.)
7871 Deidamia inscripta (Harr.)
7873 Amphion floridensis B. P. Clark
7884 Darapsa versicolor (Harr.)
7885 Darapsa myron (Cram.)
7886 Darapsa pholus (Cram.)
7890 Xylophanes tersa (L.)
7894 Hyles lineata (F.)

7896 Clostera inclusa jocosa (Hy. Edw.)
[NOTE: The taxonomy of the genus Datana is much confused. Six species
have been reported from ABS, but confirmation awaits revision of this
difficult group.]
7902 Datana ministry (Drury)
7905 Datana major G. & R.
7907 Datana integerrima G. & R.
7909 Datana robusta Stkr.
7910 Datana modest Beutenmuiller
7911 Datana ranaeceps (Guer.-MWneville)
7915 Nadata gibbosa (J. E. Smith)
7917 Hyperaeschra georgica (H.-S.)
7920 Peridea angulosa (J. E. Smith)
7942 Cerura scitiscripta Wlk.
7945 Nystalea indiana Grt.
7951 Symmerista albifrons (J. E. Smith)
7957 Dasylophia anguina (J. E. Smith)
7968 Litodonta hydromeli Harv.
7975 Macrurocampa marthesia (Cram.)
7977 Heterocampa astarte Doubleday
7983 Heterocampa obliqua Pack.

Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station 319

7990 Heterocampa umbrata Wlk.
7994 Heterocampa guttivitta (Wlk.)
7995 Heterocampa biundata Wlk.
7998 Lochmaeus manteo Doubleday
8005 Schizura ipomoeae Doubleday
8007 Schizura unicornis (J. E. Smith)
8009 Schizura apicalis (G. & R. )
8010 Schizura concinna (J. E. Smith)
8011 Schizura leptinoides (Grt.)
8017 Oligocentria lignicolor (Wlk.)
8026 Hyparpax perophoroides (Stkr.)

8045 Crambidia lithosioides Dyar
8045.1 Crambidia pallida Pack.
8046 Crambidia uniforms Dyar
Crambidia species [NOTE: Kimball (1965, p. 73) listed this undescribed species
from ABS.]
8068 Cisthene striata Ottol.
8071 Cisthene subject Wlk.
8089 Hypoprepia miniata (Kby.)
8090 Hypoprepia fucosa Hbn.
8098 Clemensia albata Pack.
8099 Pagara simplex Wlk.
8101 Neoplynes eudora (Dyar)
8102 Afrida ydatodes Dyar

8105 Utetheisa ornatrix (L.)
8106 Utetheisa bella (L.)
8114 Holomelina laeta (GuBr.-MWneville)
8121 Holomelina aurantiaca (Hbn.)
8129 Pyrrharctia isabella (J. E. Smith)
8130 Seirarctia echo (J. E. Smith)
8131 Estigmene acrea (Drury)
8134 Spilosoma congrua Wlk.
8136 Spilosoma dubia (Wlk.)
8137 Spilosoma virginica (F.)
8140 Hyphantria cunea (Drury)
8146 Ecpantheria scribonia (Stoll)
8169 Apantesis phalerata (Harr.)
8170 Apantesis vittata (F.)
8191 Apantesis placentia (J. E. Smith)
8198 Apantesis doris (Bdv.)
8199 Apantesis arge (Drury)
8203 Halysidota tessellaris (J. E. Smith)
8217 Leucanopsis longa (Grt.)
8227 Pareuchaetes insulata (Wlk.)
8228 Cycnia inopinatus (Hy. Edw.)
8255 Pygarctia abdominalis Grt.
8257 Eupseudosoma involutum floridum Grt.

Florida Entomologist 75(3)

8266 Dahana atripennis Grt.
8267 Cisseps fulvicollis (Hbn.)
8270 Lymira edwardsii (Grt.)
8271 Eucereon carolina (Hy. Edw.)
8280 Cosmosoma myrodora Dyar
8282 Syntomeida ipomoeae (Harr.)

8292 Dasychira tephra Hbn.
8298 Dasychira meridionalis meridionalis (B. & McD.)
8301 Dasychira leucophaea (J. E. Smith)
8307 Dasychira manto (Stkr.)
8313 Orgyia detrita Guer.
8316 Orgyia leucostigma leucostigma (J. E. Smith)

8322 Idia americalis (Gn.)
8323 Idia aemula Hbn.
8326 Idia rotundalis (Wlk.)
8329 Idia diminuendis (B. & McD.)
8334 Idia lubricalis (Gey.)
8336 Idia gopheri (J. B. Smith)
8347 Zanclognatha obscuripennis (Grt.)
8360 Macrochilo orciferalis (Wlk.)
8361 Macrochilo louisiana (Fbs.)
Macrochilo hypocritalis Ferguson
8366 Tetanolita mynesalis (Wlk.)
8368 Tetanolitafloridana (J. B. Smith)
8370 Bleptina caradrinalis Gn.
8371 Bleptina inferior Grt.
8375 Bleptina hydrillalis Gn.
8376 Hypenula cacuminalis (Wlk.)
8378 Renia salusalis (Wlk.)
8379 Reniafactiosalis (Wlk.)
8380 Renia nemoralis B. & McD.
8381 Renia discoloralis Gn.
8384.1 Renia flavipunctalis (Gey.)
8385 Reniafraternalis J. B. Smith
8386 Renia adspergillus (Bosc)
8387 Renia sobrialis (Wlk.)
Physula albipunctilla Schaus
8393 Lascoria ambigualis Wlk.
8395 Lascoria alucitalis Gn.
8396 Lascoria orneodalis Gn.
8398 Palthis asopialis (Gn.)
8400 Redectis pygmaea (Grt.)
8401 Redectis vitrea (Grt.)

Rivula pusilla Moesch.
8411 Colobochyla interpuncta (Grt.)

September, 1992


Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station

8419 Prosoparia perfuscaria Grt.

Hypenodes species [NOTE: Kimball (1965, p. 144) listed this undescribed
species from ABS.]
8431 Schrankia macula (Druce)
8433 Sigela penumbrata Hulst
8434 Sigela basipunctaria (Wlk.)
8435 Sigela eoides (B. & McD.)
8437 Abablemma brimleyana (Dyar)
8439 Phobolosia anfracta (Hy. Edw.) [NOTE: H. D. Baggett (pers. comm.) be-
lieves that this is probably A. brimleyana, but Frost's (1964) specimens
have not been located for examination.]
8440 Nigetia formosalis Wlk.

8441 Bomolocha manalis (Wlk.)
8442 Bomolocha baltimoralis (Gn.)
8442.1 Bomolocha ramstadtii (Wyatt) ? [NOTE: Kimball (1965, p. 143) listed this as
3699,1 Bomolocha species. Wyatt (1967) presumed that B. ramstadtii
was the same as Kimball's 3699,1, but he did not examine the specimens.]
8456 Ophiuche abjuralis (Wlk.)
8457 Ophiuche minualis (Gn.)
8459 Ophiuche degasalis (Wlk.)
8465 Plathypena scabra (F.)
8467 Hemeroplanis scopulepes (Haw.)
8471 Hemeroplanis habitalis (Wlk.)
8478 Glympis concors (Hbn.)
8480 Phytometra ernestinana (Blanchard)
8481 Phytometra rhodarialis (Wlk.)
8488 Hormoschista latipalpis (Wlk.)
Genus unrecognized, 3638,1 -. sp. [NOTE: Kimball (1965, p. 139) listed this
undetermined taxon from ABS.]

8490 Pangrapta decoralis Hbn.
8491 Ledaea perditalis (Wlk.)
8499 Metalectra discalis (Grt.)
8500 Metalectra quadrisignata (Wlk.)
8502 Metalectra tantillus (Grt.)
8505 Metalectra richardsi Brower
8509 Arugisa latiorella (Wlk.)
8514 Scolecocampa liburna (Gey.)
8522a Gabara subnivosella bipuncta (Morr.)
8523 Gabara distema (Grt.)
8525 Phyprosopus callitrichoides Grt.
8527 Hypsoropha monilis (F.)
8528 Hypsoropha hormos Hbn.
8541 Gonodonta unica Neum.
8545 Anomis erosa Hbn.
8546a Anomis flava fi,,, hriial, (Steph.)
8548 Anomis impasta Gn.

322 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992

8551 Anomis illita Gn.
8554 Alabama argillacea (Hbn.)
8556 Litoprosopus futilis (G. & R.)
8560 Diphthera festival (F.)
8561 Raparna melanospila (Gn.)
8573 Metallata absumens (Wlk.)
8574 Anticarsia gemmatalis Hbn.
8579 Antiblemma concinnula (Wlk.)
8582 Ephyrodes cacata Gn.
Epidromia fergusoni Solis
8586 Massala obvertens (Wlk.)
8587 Panopoda rufimargo (Hbn.)
8588 Panopoda carneicosta Gn.
8589 Panopoda repanda (Wlk.)
8599 Melipotis fasciolaris (Hbn.)
8603 Melipotis januaris (Gn.)
8607 Melipotis jucunda Hbn.
8618 Drasteria graphic Hbn.
8641 Synedoida grandirena (Haw.)
8642 Hypocala andremona (Cram.)
8649 Ascalapha odorata (L.)
8653 Lesmone hinna (Gey.)
8658 Selenisa sueroides (Gn.)
8665 Coenipeta bibitrix (Hbn.)
8666 Metria amella (Gn.)
8683 Pseudanthracia coracias (Gn.)
8687 Zalefictilis (Gn.)
8689 Zale lunata (Drury)
8691 Zale declarans (Wlk.)
8694 Zale aeruginosa (Gn.)
8708 Zale metata (J. B. Smith)
8709 Zale curema (J. B. Smith)
8717 Zale horrida Hbn.
8725 Dysgonia similis (Gn.)
8728 Cutina albopunctella Wlk.
Cutina species [NOTE: There is one specimen belonging to this genus in the
ABS reference collection that appears to be an undescribed species.]
8733 Caenurgia chloropha (Hbn.)
8738 Caenurgina crassiuscula (Haw.) [NOTE: Frost's (1975) specimen could not
be located, but H. D. Baggett (pers. comm.) feels that it is probably a mis-
identified C. chloropha.]
8739 Caenurgina erechtea (Cram.) [NOTE: Frost (1975) listed this species from
ABS, but H. D. Baggett (pers. comm.) believes that it is another misident-
ification. The specimen could not be located.]
8743 Mocis latipes (Gn.)
8744 Mocis marcida (Gn.)
8746 Mocis disseverans (Wlk.)
8747 Celiptera frustulum Gn.
8749 Ptichodis vinculum (Gn.)
8752 Ptichodis pacalis (Wlk.)
8762 Argyrostrotis quadrifilaris (Hbn.)
8765 Doryodes bistrialis (Gey.)

Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station

8767 Doryodes spadaria Gn.
8772 Catocala consors (J. E. Smith)
8774 Catocala muliercula Gn.
8801 Catocala ilia (Cram.)
8847 Catocala gracilis Edw.
8873 Catocala similis Edw.
8878 Catocala amica (Hbn.)
8879 Catocala jair Stkr.
8885 Argyrogramma verruca (F.)
8886 Argyrogramma basigera (Wlk.)
8887 Trichoplusia ni (Hbn.)
8889 Agrapha oxygramma (Gey.)
8890 Pseudoplusia includes (Wlk.)
8895 Rachiplusia on (Gn.)
8907 Autographa biloba (Steph.)

8955 Marathyssa inficita (Wlk.)
8956 Marathyssa basalis Wlk.
8957 Paectes oculatrix (Gn.)
8959 Paectes pygmaea Hbn.
8960 Paectes burserae (Dyar)
8962 Paectes abrostoloides (Gn.)
8965 Paectes nubifera Hamp.
8967 Paectes arcigera (Gn.)

8983 Meganola minuscule phylla (Dyar)
Meganola spodia Franc. [NOTE: This is Kimball's (1965, p. 72) 897,2 Meganola
8991 Nola sorghiella Riley
8997 Nola lagunculariae Dyar

9003 Tripudia quadrifera (Zell.)
9010 Tripudia versuta (Hy. Edw.)
9013 Cobubatha numa (Druce)
9025 Oruza albocostaliata (Pack.)
9033 Ozarba nebula B. & McD.
9035 Hyperstrotia nana (Hbn.)
9044 Thioptera nigrofimbria (Gn.)
9046 Lithacodia bellicula Hbn.
9056 Homophoberia cristata Morr.
9057 Homophoberia apicosa (Haw.)
9070 Amyna octo (Gn.)
9076 Eumicremma minima (Gn.)
9077 Eumestleta cinnamomea (H.-S.)
9078 Eumestleta recta (Gn.)
9081 Araeopteron vilhelmina Dyar
9083 Tarachidia parvula (Wlk.)


Florida Entomologist 75(3)

9085 Tarachidia semiflava (Gn.)
9090 Tarachidia candefacta (Hbn.)
9095 Tarachidia erastrioides (Gn.)
9102 Fruva fasciatella (Grt.)
9122 Spragueia dama (Gn.)
9126 Spragueia onagrus (Gn.)
9131a Spragueia apicalis apicella (Grt.)
9136 Acontia aprica (Hbn.)
9145 Acontia terminimaculata (Grt.)
9168 Bagisara repanda (F.)

9182 Pantheafurcilla (Pack.)
9189 Charadra deridens (Gn.)

9200 Acronicta americana (Harr.)
9211 Acronicta tritona (Hbn.)
9219 Acronicta connect Grt.
9254 Acronicta afflicta Grt.
9255 Acronicta brumosa persuasa (Harv.)
9257 Acronicta impleta Wlk.
9264 Acronicta longa Gn.
9271 Acronicta arioch Stkr.
9272 Acronicta oblinita (J. E. Smith)
Acronicta sinescripta Fgn.
9274 Acronicta lanceolaria (Grt.)
9280 Simyra henrici (Grt.)
9281 Agriopodes fallax (H.-S.)
9285 Polygrammate hebraeicum Hbn.
9286 Harrisimemna trisignata (Wlk.)

9299 Eudryas unio (Hbn.)
9301 Eudryas grata (F.)
9316 Alypia wittfeldii Hy. Edw.

9425 Meropleon cosmion Dyar
9481 Papaipema stenocelis (Dyar)
9482 Papaipema speciosissima (G. & R.)
9520 Achatodes zeae (Harr.)
9522 lodopepla u-album (Gn.)
9523 Bellura gortynoides Wlk.
9524 Bellura brehmei (B. & McD.)
9525c Bellura obliqua anoa (Dyar)
9526 Bellura densa (Wlk.)
9545 Euplexia benesimilis McD.
9561 Dypterygia patina (Harv.)
9592 Properigea tapeta (J. B. Smith)
9618 Phosphila turbulenta Hbn.


September, 1992

Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station 325

9619 Phosphila miselioides (Gn.)
9629 Fagitana littera (Gn.)
9630 Callopistriafloridensis (Gn.)
9631 Callopistria mollissima (Gn.)
9632 Callopistria granitosa (Gn.)
9633 Callopistria cordata (Ljungh)
9635 Phuphena obliqua (J. B. Smith)
9636 Acherdoaferraria Wlk.
9637 Magusa orbifera (Wlk.)
9644 Micrathetis triplex (Wlk.)
9664 Balsa labecula (Grt.)
9665 Spodoptera exigua (Hbn.)
9666 Spodopterafrugiperda (J. E. Smith)
9669 Spodoptera ornithogalli (Gn.)
9670 Spodoptera latifascia (Wlk.)
9671 Spodoptera dolichos (F.)
9672 Spodoptera eridania (Cram.)
9673 Spodoptera sunia (Gn.)
9675 Elaphria fuscimacula (Grt.)
9676 Elaphria nucicolora (Gn.)
9677 Elaphria agrotina (Gn.)
9678 Elaphria versicolor (Grt.)
9679 Elaphria chalcedonia (Hbn.)
9681 Elaphria festivoides (Gn.)
9682 Elaphria exesa (Gn.)
Elaphria deltoides Mosch.
9687 Gonodes liquid (Mosch.)
9688 Galgula partita Gn.
9690 Platysenta videns (Gn.)
9693 Platysenta mobilis (Wlk.)
9696 Platysenta vecors (Gn.)
9698 Platysenta concisa (Wlk.)
9699 Platysenta sutor (Gn.)
9713 Condica cupentia (Cram.)
9714 Condica confederate (Grt.)
9720 Ogdoconta cinereola (Gn.)
9725 Stiriodes obtusa (H.-S.)
9818 Amolitafessa Grt.
9819 Amolita obliqua J. B. Smith
9821 Amolita roseola J. B. Smith

Metaxaglaea species [NOTE: Frost (1964) listed this as Metaxaglaea viatica
(Grt.), but D. F. Schweitzer examined the specimen and thought that it
was probably Metaxaglaea violacea Schweitzer. H. D. Baggett, however,
examined the same individual and believes it to be Metaxaglaea semitaria
9949 Chaetaglaea tremula (Harv.)
10016 Copipanolis styracis (Gn.)
10019 Psaphida resumes Wlk.
10154 Lepipolys perscripta Gn.

326 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992

10264 Trichoclea vindemialis (Gn.)
10278 Polia leomegra carbonifera (Hamp.) [NOTE: Frost (1975) listed several cap-
tures under Polia carbonifera, but the specimens have not been located and
H. D. Baggett (pers. comm.) strongly suspects that they are misidentified.]
10411 Lacinipolia laudabilis (Gn.)
10424 Lacinipolia paruula (H.-S.)
10438 Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haw.)
10439 Leucania extinct Gn.
10454 Leucania latiuscula H.-S.
10455 Leucania scirpicola Gn.
10457 Leucania infatuans Franc.
10463 Leucania pilipalpis (Grt.)
Leucania opalisans (Draudt)
Leucania senescens Mosch.
Leucania subpunctata Harvey
10519 Morrisonia mucens (Hbn.)
10521 Morrisonia confusa (Hbn.)
10563 Protorthodes oviduca (Gn.)
10585 Orthodes crenulata (Butler)
10627a Tricholita signata semitropicae (B. & Benj.)
10633 Tricholita lutina (J. B. Smith)
10640 Xanthopastis timais (Cram.)

10661 Agrotis malefida Gn.
10663 Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.)
10664 Agrotis subterranea (F.)
Agrotis apicalis H.-S. [NOTE: This is Kimball's (1965) 1435,1 Agrotis near
10680 Feltia geniculata G. & R.
10696 Eucoptocnemis dapsilis (Grt.)
10901 Euagrotis lubricans (Gn.)
10903 Euagrotis illapsa (Wlk.)
10911 Anicla infecta (Ochs.)
10915 Peridroma saucia (Hbn.)

11055 Derrima stellata Wlk.
11068 Heliothis zea (Boddie)
11070 Heliothis subflexus Gn.
11071 Heliothis virescens (F.)
11099 Schinia scissoides (Benj.)
11104 Schinia spinosae (Gn.)
11107 Schinia fuller (McElvare)
11112 Schinia sordida J. B. Smith
11115 Schinia siren (Stkr.)
11116 Schinia tuberculum (Hbn.)
11117 Schinia lynx (Gn.)
11135 Schinia rivulosa (Gn.)
11137 Schinia nubila (Stkr.)
11140 Schinia saturata (Grt.)

Minno: Lepidoptera of Archbold Station 327

11149 Schinia trifascia Hbn.
11168 Schinia gaurae (J. E. Smith)
11173 Schinia sanguinea (Gey.)
11177 Schinia nundina (Drury)


I wish to thank James L. Wolfe and the Archbold Biological Station for providing
support for this project. Many thanks also to L. Adair, H. D. Baggett, C. V. Covell,
Jr., M. Deyrup, T. S. Dickel, T. C. Emmel, F. Fee, J. B. Heppner, M. F. Minno, and
H. H. Neunzig who provided data, made identifications, and/or reviewed the manu-
script. Ke Chung Kim kindly loaned specimens from the Frost collection for examina-


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280. 124 pp.
VANDER KLOET, S. P. 1986. Florula Archboldiensis. Being an annotated list of the
vascular plants of the Archbold Biological Station, pp. xi-xii, 1-60, in Plant list
of the Archbold Biological Station, published by the Archbold Biological Station,
Lake Placid, Florida. 80 pp.
WHITE, W. A. 1958. Some geomorphic features of central peninsular Florida. Geolog-
ical Bull. 41, Florida Board of Conservation, Tallahassee, Florida 92 pp.
- 1970. The geomorphology of the Florida peninsula. Geological Bull. 51, Florida
Dept. of Natural Resources, Tallahassee, Florida 164 pp.
WOODRUFF, R. E. 1982. Arthropods of gopher burrows, pp. 24-48 in R. Franz and
R. J. Bryant [eds.], The gopher tortoise and its sandhill habitat. Proc. 3rd Ann.
Meet. Gopher Tortoise Council, 30 Oct. 1982, Tall Timbers Res. Stat., Tallahas-
see, Florida 78 pp.
WOOLFENDEN, G. E. 1978. Florida Scrub Jay, pp. 45-47 in H. W. Kale II [ed.], Rare
and endangered biota of Florida. Birds. Volume 2. xix + 121 pp.
WYATT, A. K. 1967. A new Bomolocha from Florida (Noctuidae). J. Lepidopterists'
Soc. 21: 125-126.


'Department of Biology, Carleton University,
Ottawa K1S 5B6 Canada
'Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611


Two hundred forty-one species of Orthoptera are now known to occur in Florida.
The affinities of most of the species are with the southeastern United States. Forty-one
species are restricted to Florida. The south Florida (tropical) fauna contains 129 species.
Nine species are introduced. Nine species are naturally and exclusively shared between
Florida and the West Indies or mainland Neotropics. The distribution by families is:
Tetrigidae, 13 species; Acrididae, 72 species; Tridactylidae, 2 species; Tettigoniidae, 64
species; Gryllacrididae, 12 species; Gryllidae, 74 species; and Gryllotalpidae, 4 species.


Ya se sabe que 241 species de Orth6ptera ocurren en la Florida. Las afinidades de
la mayoria de las species son con el sureste de los Estados Unidos. Cuarenta y un
species estan restringidas a la Florida. La fauna del sur de la Florida (o sea la fauna
tropical) contiene 129 species. Nueve species son introducidas. Nueve species se
comparten naturalmente y exclusivamente entire la Florida y las Indias Occidentales o
la tierra firme de los Neotr6picos. La distribuci6n por families es: Tetrigidae, 13 es-
pecies; Acrididae, 72 species; Tridactylidae, 2 species; Tettigoniidae, 64 species;
Gryllacrididae, 12 species; Gryllidae, 74 species; y Gryllotalpidae, 4 species.


330 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992

No contemporary published summary of Florida Orthoptera is known to us. Since
it is likely to be a long while before a detailed review is prepared on the Orthoptera of
Florida, this list is offered as a contribution to an understanding of the insect fauna of
Rehn & Hebard (1916) listed 146 orthopteran species from the "Sabalian" life zone
of Florida and neighboring states. This zone is named for the characteristic cabbage
palm, Sabal palmetto, so widespread over most of Florida. Blatchley (1920: 747) indi-
cated that 181 species (and 32 varieties) of Orthoptera were known to him to occur in
Florida, but he gave no list as such. However, in his Florida total he included 24
cockroaches, 7 mantids, 5 phasmids, and 9 earwigs, all of which are now considered to
be in separate orders. This leaves 136 orthopteran species known to Blatchley from
Florida. Now, 241 species are known (including 12 unpublished MS names). This may
be the richest Orthoptera fauna of any state in the United States.
In the following checklist the higher taxonomic categories used here and their se-
quence follow those in Borror et al. (1989). Genera are listed alphabetically within their
family or subfamily. Species are alphabetically arranged in their genus. "F. Walker"
and "T. Walker" are used to differentiate species authorship between these two work-
ers. TJW is used to indicate undescribed species known to the second author of this
Distributional information is given for each species. It was obtained principally from
the cited revisional studies, or from Blatchley (1920) or Helfer (1963) who summarizes
Blatchley (1920), and Rehn & Hebard (1916). Species distributions are divided into
seven categories: (1), Keys: the islands of the Florida Keys; (2), SFL: southern mainland
Florida (south of 26 30'N latitude, or south of Lake Okeechobee, the "tropical" or
"freeze-free" faunal region of Blatchley (1920)); (3), NFL: "north" Florida (north of 260
30'N latitude, or Lake Okeechobee northwards, the "sabalian" faunal region of Blatchley
(1920) and Rehn & Hebard (1916: 102) (which is also equivalent to the southern half of
the Lower Austral life zone in Florida and the coastal plain parts of adjacent states
(Shelford 1963)); (4), SEUS: nearby states in the southeastern US, viz., Alabama, Mis-
sissippi, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia; (5), Near.: Nearctic
Region (other states and the Mexican Plateau); (6), WI: islands of the West Indies
(including the Bahamas, but excluding Bermuda (see Kevan 1980a)); and (7), Neot: the
Neotropical Region (Mexico below the rim of the Mexican plateau, Central America,
and South America). The last column gives a number of a reference in the cited litera-
ture as a source of additional information and references (other than Blatchley (1920)
or Helfer (1963)).
A characterization of the diversity of Florida habitats is in Franz (1982). The most
thorough ecological study of Florida Orthoptera is that of Friauf (1953) on the Welaka
area of northern Florida. Veazey et al. (1976) studied the relationship of seasonality
and sex to wing length in field crickets in northern Florida.
Synonyms are given only when they have been applied to Florida populations in the
last 40 years. Complete synonym lists are in volumes of the Orthopterorum Catalogus,
M. Beier, ed., Junk publ., The Hague, or in the recent revisions indicated as references.
Subspecies names are not used here, even though they may indicate the presence of
geographically differentiated populations. In the following list "X" indicates the pres-
ence of the species in the broadly defined geographic region as discussed above. "C" is
used when a southern "tropical" Florida species occurs in restricted areas northwards
along the coasts of central or northern Florida, or the southeastern United States. TJW
supervised the Tettigoniidae and Gryllidae. JLC supervised the Acrididae.

Peck et al.: Florida Orthoptera Review


Suborder Caelifera
Superfamily Acridoidea
Family Tetrigidae: pygmy grasshoppers and grouse locusts.

N.femoratus (Scudder)
N. proavus Rehn and Hebard
N. cristatus (Scudder)
P. cucullatus (Burmeister)
P. mexicanus (Saussure)
P. rugosus (Scudder)
P. obesa (Scudder)
T. arenosa Burmeister
T. acuta Morse
T. armata Morse
T. empedonepia Hubbell
T. lateralis (Say)
T. prorsa Scudder

x x x x
x x


x x



x x
x x


Family Acrididae: the short-horned grasshoppers.
Subfamily Romaleinae: the lubber grasshoppers.
R. guttata (Houttuyn) X X X
(= Romalea microptera P. de Beauvois, Kevan 1980b)

Subfamily Cyrtacanthacridinae: the spur-throated grasshoppers.

A. aptera Scudder
A. sphenarioides Scudder
E. palustris Morse
E. pusillus Morse
E. signatus Scudder
G. morse Hebard
G. pusillus Scudder
H. floridensis Morse
H. gemmicula Hebard
H. osceola Hebard
H. viridis Scudder
L. marginicollis (Serville)
M. adelogyrus Hubbell
M. appalachicolae Hubbell
M. davisi (Hebard)
M. differentialis Thomas
M.forcipatus Hubbell
M. furcatus Scudder
M. gurneyi Strohecker

x x x x
x x x x





x x x x



Neot. Ref.

X 23

Florida Entomologist 75(3)

M. impudicus Scudder
M. ;I,,,ih Hubbell
M. insignis Hubbell
M. keeleri (Thomas)
M. propinquus Scudder
M. puer (Scudder)
M. punctulatus Scudder
M. pygmaeus Davis
M. quercicola (Hebard)
M. querneus Rehn and Hebard
M. rotundipennis Scudder
M. sanguinipes (F.)
M. scapularis Rehn and Hebard
M. scudderi (Uhler)
M. strumosus Morse
M. symmetricus Morse
M. tequestae Hubbell

Keys SFL NFL SEUS Near. WI Neot. Ref.
X 15
X 15
X X 4
X 24
X 15

0. vitreipennis (Marschall)
(= Stenacris vitreipennis Marschall, Helfer 1963:

P. atlantica Scudder
P. clavuliger (Serville)
S. alutacea (Harris)
S. americana (Drury)
S. ceratiola Hubbell and Walker
S. damnifica (Saussure)
S. obscure (Fabricius)






X X X 6
X X X X X 6
X 6
X X X 6
X X X X 6

Subfamily Gomphocerinae: the stridulating slant-faced grasshoppers.

A. carinatum (F. Walker)
A. mysteca (Saussure)
D. elegans (Morse)
D. viridis (Scudder)
E. obscurus (Scudder)
E. simplex (Scudder)
M. bivittata (Serville)
M. intertexta Scudder
M. picta (F. Walker)
0. pelidna (Burmeister)
S. admirabilis (Uhler)








Subfamily Acridinae: the silent slant-faced grasshoppers.

M. brevicornis (Johannson)


Subfamily Oedipodinae: the band-winged grasshoppers.
A. granulata (Saussure) X X X X

X 21



X 21


September, 1992

Peck et al.: Florida Orthoptera Review

A. sulphurea (Fabr.)
A. xanthoptera (Burmeister)
C. australior
(Rehn and Hebard)
C. viridifasciata DeGeer
D. carolina (L.)
E. subgracilis Caudell
H. ocelote (Saussure)
P. phoenicoptera (Burmeister)
P. fenestralis (Serville)
S. bolli Scudder
S. crepitans (Saussure)
S. cristatum (Scudder)
S. marmorata (Scudder)
T. maritima (Harris)

Keys SFL NFL SEUS Near. WI Neot. Ref.
X X X 22
X X X 22





X 22

x x x x

x x x x x

x x



Superfamily Tridactyloidea
Family Tridactylidae: the pygmy mole crickets.

E. minutus Scudder X
N. apicalis (Say)
(= Tridactylus apicalis Say, Gunther 1975)



Suborder Ensifera
Family Tettigoniidae: the long-horned grasshoppers.
Subfamily Copiphorinae: the cone-headed grasshoppers.

B. davisi Rehn and Hebard
B. micanopy Davis
B. sabalis Davis
B. sleighti Davis
B. subapterus Scudder
B. malivolans (Scudder)
N. affinis (Beauvois)
N. caudellianus (Davis)
N. maxillosus (F.)
N. melanorhinus (Rehn and Hebard)
N. pahayokee Walker and Whitesell
N. palustris (Blatchley)
N. retusus (Scudder)
N. robustus (Scudder)
N. triops (L.)
N. velox Rehn and Hebard
P. uncinata (Harris)

x x


x x x

x x
x x
x x x

x x

x x x

x x

X X 34
X X 34,35
X X 37
X X X X 34


X X X 11

X 10


Florida Entomologist 75(3)

Keys SFL NFL SEUS Near. WI Neot. Ref.
Subfamily Phaneropterinae: the Katydids.

A. sp A ms TJW
A. sp B ms TJW
A. carinata Rehn and Hebard
A. floridana Rehn and Hebard
A. sp G ms TJW
A. sp L ms TJW
A. phalangium (Scudder)
I. strigata (Scudder)
I. walker Hebard
M. retinerve (Burmeister)
M. rhombifolium (Saussure)
M. modest (Brunner)
P. maya Saussure and Pictet
S. cuneata Morse
S. curvicauda (De Geer)
S. furcata Brunner
S. texensis Saussure and Pictet
S. couloniana (Saussure)
T. rostrata (Rehn and Hebard)









Subfamily Pseudophyllinae: the true Katydids.

L. floridensis (Beutenmuller)
P. camellifolia (F.)



Subfamily Tettigoniinae: the pine-tree Katydids.

H. ,arg i tal'nro (Walker)
(= H. praestans Hebard; Helfer 1963: 289)


Subfamily Conocephalinae: the meadow grasshoppers.

C. aigialus Rehn and Hebard
C. brevipennis (Scudder)
C. cinereus (Thunburg)
C.fasciatus (De Geer)
C. gracillimus (Morse)
C. hygrophilus Rehn and Hebard
C. nigropleuroides (Fox)
C. saltans (Scudder)
C. spartinae (Fox)
0. apterum Morse
O. agile (De Geer)





X 19

September, 1992


Peck et al.: Florida Orthoptera Review

0. bradleyi Rehn and Hebard
0. carinatum Walker
0. concinnum Scudder
0. erythrocephalum Davis
0. fidicinium Rehn and Hebard
0. military Rehn and Hebard
0. minor Brunner
0. pulchellum Davis
0. superbum Rehn and Hebard

Keys SFL NFL SEUS Near. WI Neot. Ref.
X X X 19
X X X 19
X X X X 19
X X X X 19
X X X X 19
X X X X X 19
X X X 19
X X X X X 19
X X X 19

Subfamily Decticinae: the shield-backed grasshoppers.

A. americanus (Saussure)
A. calcaratus Rehn and Hebard
A. dorsalis (Burmeister)
A. gibbosus Scudder
A. glaber Rehn and Hebard


Family Gryllacrididae: the wingless long-horned grasshoppers
Subfamily Gryllacridinae: the leaf-rolling grasshoppers.

C. carolinensis (Gerstaecker)

Subfamily Rhaphidophorinae: the camel crickets.

C. armatipes Hubbell
C. gracilipes (Haldeman)
C. latibuli Scudder
C. peninsularis Rehn and Hebard
C. rogersi Hubbell
C. uhleri Scudder
C. umbrosus Hubbell
C. virgatipes Rehn and Hebard
C. walker Hubbell
T. asynamorus Adelung
T. floridanus Hubbell





Family Gryllidae: the crickets.
Subfamily Oecanthinae: the tree crickets

N. bipunctata (De Geer)
0. celerinictus T. Walker
0. exclamationis Davis
0. latipennis Riley
0. niveus (De Geer)
0. pini Beutenmuller
0. quadripunctatus

H. agitator Uhler
H. brevipennis (Saussure)
H. melodies T. Walker



Subfamily Eneopterinae: the bush crickets





Florida Entomologist 75(3)

Keys SFL NFL SEUS Near. WI Neot. Ref.

0. diplastes T. Walker
0. gryllodes (Pallas)
0. luteolira T. Walker
0. nigrifrons T. Walker
O. saltator Uhler
0. tricornis T. Walker
T. lurida F. Walker

A. sp A ms T. Walker
A. delicatula (Scudder)
A. exigua (Say)
A. imitator (Saussure)
A. literena Fulton
A. sp O ms TJW
A. sp R ms TJW
A. scia Hebard
A.8 sp T ms TJW
A. sp N ms TJW
C. columbiana Caudell
C. confusa T. Walker
C. gundlachi Saussure
C. nola T. Walker
F. hebardi Rehn
P. pulchellus Uhler

x x x x

x x

Subfamily Trigonidiinae: the bush crickets.

x x

x x
x x
x x
x x

x x C






x x x x
XSubfamily listia X X X


Subfamily Mogoplistinae: the scaly crickets.

C. americanus (Saussure)
C. ainiktos Love and Walker
C. albocircum
Love and Walker
C. bidens Hebard
C. exsanguis Love and Walker
C. irregularis
Love and Walker
C. kelainopum
Love and Walker
C. pigram Love and Walker
C. slossoni (Scudder)
C. spectabile Strohecker
C. tardum Love and Walker
C. trigonipalpum
(Rehn and Hebard)
C. velox Love and Walker
C. zebra (Rehn and Hebard)
0. prograptus
Rehn and Hebard

X (Miami)






X X X 18



September, 1992

Peck et al.: Florida Orthoptera Review 337

Keys SFL NFL SEUS Near. WI Neot. Ref.

Subfamily Myrmecophilinae: the ant-loving crickets.

M. pergandei Bruner


Subfamily Nemobiinae: the ground crickets.

A. funeralis (Hart)
A. maculatus (Blatchley)
A. socius (Scudder)
A. sparsalus (Fulton)
E. carolinus Scudder
E. melodius
(Thomas and Alexander)
H. alleni (Morse)
N. sp C ms TJW
N. cubensis Saussure
N. palustris (Blatchley)
P. ambitious Scudder
P. arenicola Mays and Gross
P. hubbelli Walker and Mays
P. uliginosus Mays and Gross
G. sigillatus (F. Walker)
G. assimilis (F.)
G. sp B ms.
Alexander and Cade
G. sp C ms TJW
G. firmus Scudder
G. fultoni (Alexander)
G. ovisopis T. Walker
G. rubens Scudder


Xxx x
xx x




ubfamily Gryllinae: the field crickets.










M. saussurei (Scudder) X X X X X
V. micado (Saussure) X X X
(= Scapsipedus micado Saussure, Alexander and Walker 1962)

Subfamily Brachytrupinae: the short-tailed crickets.

A. arboreus T. Walker
A. celerinictus T. Walker

N. hexadactyla (Perty)


Family Gryllotalpidae: the mole crickets.


S. abbreviatus Scudder X X X X
S. borellii Giglio-Tos X X X
(= S. acletus Rehn and Hebard 1916, Nickle and Castner 1984).
S. vicinus Scudder X X X

X X 33

X X 33

Florida Entomologist 75(3)


At present 241 species are known to occur in Florida, including 12 that are yet
undescribed. Some groups remain in need of revision; the Cyrtacanthacridinae
(Melanoplinae of Otte, 1981) is an example of where some names and distributional
records are suspect. Also, some of the rare Melanoplus species may be endangered or
Introductions. Nine species seem to have been introduced into Florida through the
actions of humans. These are:

Conocephalus cinereus (Thunberg) (probably from the West Indies, Gurney
Tachycines asynamorus Adelung (from Eurasia, Rehn 1944)
Cycloptiloides americanus (Saussure) (from Africa, Strohecker 1953)
Gryllodes sigillatus (F. Walker) (cosmotropical)
Gryllus assimilis (F.) (from the West Indies, Alexander and Walker 1962)
Velarifictorus micado (Saussure) (from Japan?, Alexander and Walker 1962)
Scapteriscus abbreviatus Scudder (from South America, Walker and Nickle
Scapteriscus borellii Giglio-Tos (from South America, Walker and Nickle
Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (from South America, Walker and Nickle 1981)

Distributional Patterns. Several distributional patterns are evident. The affinities
of the 232 naturally occurring Orthoptera of Florida are predominantly with the fauna
of the Nearctic Region, especially the southeastern United States. Most of Florida's
native species also occur in the adjacent southeastern states. Only 41 are restricted to
Florida; and, of these, only 17 are restricted to southern mainland Florida (including
coastal "north" Florida) and the Keys. Eleven of these 17 are recently described or
recognized crickets that may well occur in Cuba, in view of the lack of comparable
studies there. Nineteen species occur in "north" Florida and nowhere else. These are
mostly acridids and are largely from the sandy hill country of central Florida (an area
of island refugia during times of Tertiary and/or Pleistocene high sea levels) and from
the region of the Appalachicola River in the Florida panhandle (Deyrup 1989, 1990,
Hubbell 1985). The Keys fauna, with 64 naturally occurring (and 4 introduced) species,
is impoverished when compared with 122 naturally occurring (and 7 introduced) species
in south Florida, which has greater habitat diversity and more standing water (see
Means & Simberloff 1987). The south Florida (tropical) fauna of 122 native species is
impoverished compared to that of 215 naturally occurring species in the much larger
area and more diverse habitats of north (sabalian) Florida.
Only nine species are apparently naturally and exclusively shared between Florida
and the West Indies or Neotropical Realm. These species are:


September, 1992

Peck et al.: Florida Orthoptera Review

Neoconocephalus affinis (Beauvois) (also in West Indies,
Neoconocephalus maxillosus (F.) (also in West Indies,
Phrixa maya Saussure and Pictet (also in Yucatan)
Orocharis gryllodes (Pallas) (also in West Indies)
Tafalisca lurida (F. Walker) (also in West Indies)
Anaxipha imitator (Saussure) (also in Cuba)
Crytoxipha gundlachi (Saussure) (also in Cuba)
Hygronemobius alleni (Morse) (also in West Indies)
Anurogryllus celerinictus T. Walker (also in Jamaica)

Central, and South

Central and South

Thus, the Florida Orthoptera fauna is mostly derived from the Nearctic Region to
the north. About 17.6% of the naturally occurring species have probably originated
(evolved) in Florida. A small number (3.9%) probably arrived naturally from the south
by overwater dispersal from the West Indies, Mexico, Central America or South


The work was partly supported by an operating grant to SBP from the Natural
Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. TJW was supported by NSF
grant DEB-8211975 and he and JLC by the University of Florida, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences. Published as Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal
Series No. R-01782.


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tomol. Mus. Res. Lab. (Macdonald Coll., McGill Univ.) Mem. 8.
KEVAN, D. K. McE. 1980b. Romalea guttata (Houttuyn), name change for well-
known "Eastern lubber grasshopper" (Orthoptera: Romaleidae). Entomol. News
91: 139-140.
"LOVE, R. E., AND T. J. WALKER. 1979. Systematics and accoustic behavior of scaly
crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae, Mogoplistinae) of the eastern United States.
Trans. American Entomol. Soc. 105: 1-66.
MEANS, D. B., AND D. SIMBERLOFF. 1987. The peninsula effect: habitat-correlated
species decline in Florida's herpetofauna. J. Biogeog. 14: 551-568.

Peck et al.: Florida Orthoptera Review

1'MORRIS, G. K., AND T. J. WALKER. 1976. Calling songs of Orchelimum meadow
katydids (Tettigoniidae). I. Mechanism, terminology, and geographic distribu-
tion. Canadian Entomol. 108: 785-800.
NICKLE, D. A., AND J. L. CASTNER. 1984. Introduced species of mole cricket in the
USA, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (West Indies), Orthoptera: Gryllotal-
pidae. Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 77: 450-465.
20NICKLE, D. A., AND T. J. WALKER. 1974. A morphological key to field crickets of
southeastern United States (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Gryllus). Florida Entomol.
57: 8-12.
2"OTTE, D. 1981. The North American Grasshoppers. Vol. 1. Acrididae; Gom-
phocerinae and Acridinae. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA. 275 pp.
=OTTE, D. 1984. The North American Grasshoppers. Vol. 2. Acrididae; Oedipodinae.
Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA. 366 pp.
REHN, J.A.G. 1944. The rhaphidiophorid Tachycines asynamorus Adelung in America
(Orthoptera, Gryllacrididae, Rhaphidiophorinae). Entomol. News 55: 36-39.
"2REHN, J.A.G., AND H. J. GRANT, JR. 1961. A monograph of the Orthoptera of
North America (north of Mexico). Vol. 1. Monog. Acad. Natur. Sci. Philadelphia
12: 1-257.
REHN, J.A.G., AND M. HEBARD. 1916. Studies in the Dermaptera and Orthoptera of
the Costal Plain and Piedmont region of the southeastern United States. Proc.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 68: 87-314.
SHELFORD, V. E. 1963. The ecology of North America. Univ. Illinois Press, Urbana.
610 pp.
24STROHECKER, H. F. 1939. Distributional and taxonomic notes on southeastern Der-
maptera and Orthoptera, and a new species of Cycloptilum (Gryllidae). Canadian
Entomol. 71: 169-175.
STROHECKER, H. F. 1953. The Gryllacrididae and Gryllidae of the Bahama Islands,
British West Indies (Orthoptera). American Mus. Novitates. 1618. 11 pp.
VEAZEY, J. N., C.A.R. KAY, T. J. WALKER, AND W. H. WHITCOMB. 1976. Seasonal
abundance, sex ratio, and macroptery of field crickets in northern Florida. Ann.
Entomol. Soc. America 69: 374-380.
25WALKER, T. J. 1962. The taxonomy and calling songs of United States tree crickets
(Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Oecanthinae) I. The genus Neoxabea and the niveus and
varicornis groups of the genus Oecanthus. Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 55: 303-
"WALKER, T. J. 1963. The taxonomy and calling songs of United States tree crickets
(Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Oecanthinae) II. The nigricornis group of the genus
Oecanthus. Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 56: 772-789.
2"WALKER, T. J. 1969a. Systematics and acoustic behavior of the United States cric-
kets of the genus Orocharis (Orthoptera:Gryllidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. America
62: 752-762.
2WALKER, T. J. 1969b. Systematics and acoustic behavior of the United States cric-
kets of the genus Cyrtoxipha (Orthoptera:Gryllidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc.
America 62: 945-952.
"WALKER, T. J. 1973. Systematics and acoustic behavior of United States and Carib-
bean short-tailed crickets (Orthoptera:Gryllidae:Anurogryllus). Ann. Entomol.
Soc. America 66: 1269-1277.
30WALKER, T. J. 1974. Gryllus ovisopis n. sp.: a taciturn cricket with a life cycle
suggesting allochronic speciation. Florida Entomol. 57: 13-22.
"'WALKER, T. J. 1977. Hapithus melodius and H. brevipennis: musical and mute sister
species in Florida (Orthoptera:Gryllidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 70: 249-
32WALKER, T. J. 1982. Order Orthoptera, in Franz, R. (ed.). P.C.M. Pritchard (section
ed.). Rare and endangered biota of Florida 6: 46-48. Univ. Presses of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.
"WALKER, T. J., AND D. A. NICKLE. 1981. Introduction and spread of pest mole
crickets: Scapteriscus vicinus and S. acletus reexamined. Ann. Entomol. Soc.
America 74: 158-163.

Florida Entomologist 75(3)

"WALKER, T. J., AND M. D. GREENFIELD. 1983. Songs and systematics of Caribbean
Neoconocephalus (Orthoptera:Tettigoniidae). Trans. American Entomol. Soc.
109: 357-389.
:WALKER, T. J., AND J. J. WHITESELL. 1978a. Neoconocephalus maxillosus: a
Caribbean conehead in south Florida (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Florida En-
tomol. 61: 1-3.
'"WALKER, T. J., AND J. J. WHITESELL. 1978b. New species of conehead from
Florida Everglades (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Neoconocophalus). Entomol.
News 89: 27-32.
"WALKER, T. J., J. J. WHITESELL, AND R. D. ALEXANDER. 1973. The robust cone-
head: two widespread sibling species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Neocono-
cephalus robustuss") Ohio J. Sci. 73: 321-330.


'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods
1304 NW 94th St., Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.
2Instituto de Limnologia "Dr. Raul A. Ringuelet"
Casilla de Correo 712, 1900 La Plata, Argentina


A key is presented to distinguish the four species of the subgenus Eukraiohelea
Ingram & Macfie of the genus Stilobezzia Kieffer that occur in the Western Hemisphere.
Stilobezzia elegantula (Johannsen) and S. amnigena Macfie are redescribed and illus-
trated; the latter species is a new U.S. record. Males of S. amnigena were previously
misidentified as S. elegantula in North America. S. maculitibia Lane & Forattini is a
junior synonym of S. elegantula (New Synonymy).


Se present una clave para distinguir a las cuatro species del subgenero Euk-
raiohelea Ingram & Macfie, del genero Stilobezzia Kieffer, que se hallan en el hemisferio
Occidental. Se redescribo e illustra a Stilobezzia elegantula (Johannsen) y S. amnigena
Macfie, representando esta ultima una nueva cita para los Estados Unidos. Los machos
de S. amnigena de America del Norte fueron previamente identificados en forma er-
ronea, como S. elegantula. S. maculitibia Lane & Forattini es reconocida como sinonimo
de S. elegantula (Nuevo Sinonimo).

Predaceous midges of the genus Stilobezzia Kieffer are common inhabitants of aqua-
tic environments but are often overlooked because of their small size (1-3 mm). Larvae
are found in a wide variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats such as stream, lake,
and pond margins, puddles, swamps, rice fields, rock pools, mosses, and wet tree
cavities. Adult females are predaceous on other small soft-bodied insects, especially
midges of the family Chironomidae.


September, 1992

Wirth & Spinelli: American Eukraiohelea

Eighteen species of Stilobezzia were recorded from North America by Wirth (1965)
and Wilkening et al. (1985), and one new species was recently added by Wirth & Grogan
(1981). There was previously only one recorded species of the subgenus Eukraiohelea
Ingram & Macfie from North America, S. elegantula (Johannsen), which has been
recorded from Kansas and Louisiana to Maryland and Florida, and also from French
Guiana. While studying a long series of Eukraiohelea from Florida we found that two
species were represented, and that these had been confused in publications by Wirth
(1953) and Wirth & Grogan (1981). In addition, it appears that the species described by
Lane & Forattini (1956) as Stilobezzia maculitibia from Panama is the same as S.
elegantula (Johannsen 1907). We identified the second Florida species as S. amnigena
Macfie (1935), which was originally described from Brazil.
Two additional Neotropical species, known only from the original descriptions, were
listed in the subgenus Eukraiohelea by Lane & Forattini (1961). We give the diagnostic
characters of S. dorsofasciata (Lutz)(1914) from Brazil and S. subsessilis Kieffer (1917)
from Paraguay. The latter is very similar to S. elegantula but was insufficiently de-
scribed, and we consider it a species inquirenda. We take this opportunity to redescribe
and figure amnigena and elegantula, and to give a key for the separation of the four
species recognized here.
Wirth (1953) published a revision of the North American species, Wirth & Grogan
(1981) presented a useful review of most of the species from eastern North America,
and Wilkening et al. (1985) gave an annotated check list of the species found in Florida.
Lane & Forattini (1961) published the most recent key to the Neotropical species.
Terminology of taxonomic characters used here follows that of Downes & Wirth (1981)
and Wirth & Grogan (1988).

Key to the American Species of Stilobezzia (Eukraiohelea)

1. Veins R2+3 and r-m nearly perpendicular, r-m crossvein slightly shorter than stem
of vein M; costal ratio 0.64; 5th tarsomeres with 1 pair of batonnets on all legs
.................................. ........ .............................. dorsofasciata (Lutz)
Veins R2+3 and r-m oblique; r-m crossvein longer than stem of vein M; costal ratio
0.76-0.80; 5th tarsomeres of fore and midlegs with 2 pairs of batonnets ........... 2
2. Halter brownish; larger species, wing length about 2.0 mm; costal ratio 0.80
.......................................... ........... ........................... am nigena M acfie
Halter pale, base of knob contrasting blackish; smaller species, wing length 1.40-1.50
mm ; costal ratio 0.75 .................................................. ....................... 3
3. Thorax yellowish, with 2 anterior dark brown marks on scutum; fore and mid tibiae,
narrow apices of hind femur, and basal 2/5 of hind tibia blackish; fore femur with 2-3
spines ...................................................................... elegantula (Johannsen)
Thorax entirely reddish, pleura grayish pruinose; posterior knees and end of hind
tibia blackish; fore femur with 4 spines .............................. subsessilis Kieffer

Stilobezzia (Eukraiohelea) elegantula (Johannsen)
(Figs. 1-7)

Bezzia elegantula Johannsen, 1907: 109 (female; Kansas).
Probezzia elegantula (Johannsen); Malloch, 1914: 137 (combination).
Parabezzia elegantula (Johannsen); Malloch, 1915: 359 (combination).
Parabezzia (Eukraiohelea) elegantula (Johannsen); Johannsen, 1934: 345 (notes;
Eukraiohelea elegantula (Johannsen); Johannsen, 1943: 781 (combination).


Florida Entomologist 75(3)


5 6

Figs. 1-7. Stilobezzia (Eukraiohelea) elegantula: 1-5, female; 6-7, male: 1, antenna;
2, palpus; 3, fore and mid (left) and hind (right) tarsal claws; 4, radial field of wing; 5,
spermathecae; 6, genitalia, parameres omitted; 7, parameres.

Stilobezzia (Eukraiohelea) elegantula (Johannsen), in part, female; Wirth, 1953: 62
(combination; redescribed; figs.; distribution); Wirth, 1974: 43 (Neotropical
catalog); Wirth & Grogan, 1981: 78 (redescribed; figs.; Potomac Valley records);
Wilkening et al., 1985: 525 (Florida records).
Stilobezzia (Eukraiohelea) maculitibia Lane & Forattini, 1956: 207 (female, male;
Panama; fig. wing, male genitalia); Lane & Forattini, 1961: 84 (in key); Wirth,
1974: 43 (catalog ref.). New Synonymy.
FEMALE. Wing length 1.40 (1.36-1.46, n = 5) mm; breadth 0.58 (0.56-0.61, n = 5)
Head: Yellowish. Eyes bare, narrowly separated. Antenna (Fig. 1) with yellow
scape and pedicel; first 8 flagellomeres pale on proximal portions, apices brown; distal
5 brown except narrow bases pale; lengths of flagellomeres in proportion of 20-11-12-12-
13-13-13-15-30-30-30-28-50; antennal ratio 1.48 (1.45-1.54, n = 5). Palpus (Fig. 2) dark


September, 1992

Wirth & Spinelli: American Eukraiohelea

brown; lengths of segments in proportion of 9-16-25-15-22; 3rd segment with subapical
round sensory pit; palpal ratio 3.40 (2.80-3.60, n = 5). Mandible with 7 teeth.
Thorax: Scutum yellowish, with 2 anterolateral dark brown marks; 4 prealar setae,
1 postalar; scutellum yellowish. Legs yellowish, fore and mid knees slightly darkish;
narrow apices of hind femur and of all tibiae dark brown, as well as basal 2/5 of hind
tibia; fore femur with 2-3 short ventral spines; hind tibia with 3-4 large dorsal setae in
midportion and 3-5 short dorsal setae distally; hind tibial comb with 5 bristles; hind
tarsal ratio 3.00 (n = 5); basitarsi with a basal spine; ventral palisade setae in one row
on tarsomeres 1-2 of fore and mid legs and tarsomere 2 of hind leg, in two rows on hind
basitarsus; 4th tarsomeres cordiform; 5th tarsomeres of fore and mid legs with 2 pairs
of basal batonnets, one pair on hind leg; claws unequal (Fig. 3), talon lengths in the
following proportions (fore, mid and hind): 3:1, 3:1, 3:0.75. Wing (Fig. 4) hyaline, an-
terior veins yellowish; r-m crossvein oblique, somewhat faint in midportion, slightly
longer than stem of vein M; costal ratio 0.76 (0.75-0.78, n = 5). Halter pale, base of
knob contrasting blackish.
Abdomen: Yellowish, terga with lateral L-shaped brown markings, smaller on an-
terior segments. Spermathecae (Fig. 5) small, ovoid with short necks; subequal, measur-
ing 0.046 x 0.041 mm; a globose vestigial 3rd spermatheca present.

MALE. Wing length 1.25 mm; breadth 0.42 mm; costal ratio 0.71. Similar to female
with usual sexual differences. Claws large, unequal; tips bifid, a small external tooth
present on mid and hind legs.
Genitalia (Fig. 6): Sternite 9 broad, with rounded caudomedial extension; tergite 9
rounded distally, cerci elongated; sternite 10 rounded, spiculate. Gonocoxite stout,
mediangular process poorly developed, blunt; gonostylus nearly straight, slightly shor-
ter than gonocoxite, tip pointed and curved. Aedeagus represented by 2 slightly arched
sclerites, distomedial tips pointed and crossing on the midline; hyaline extension broad
(not illustrated). Parameres (Fig. 7) with well-developed basal apodemes fused to distal
portions; distal portions slender, serrate on the internal margin subapically, tips re-
curved ventrally.
DISTRIBUTION. U.S.A. (Kansas and Louisiana to Maryland and Florida); Panama;
? Puerto Rico.
TYPES. Bezzia elegantula: Types not designated. Females "collected in July at
electric light on bridge across Kansas river at Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas, by
E. S. Tucker." (in Snow Museum, University of Kansas, Lawrence).
Stilobezzia maculitibia: Holotype, female, Mandinga, Panama, ix.1952, F. S. Blan-
ton; allotype, male, Tocumen, Panama, x.1952, F. S. Blanton (in USNM). Paratypes,
10 females, 4 males, from Aguadulce, Almirante, Patino Point, and Tocumen, Panama.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED. Florida. Alachua Co., Gainesville, 3.v.1967, F. S.
Blanton, 3 females. Alachua Co., Hawthorne, 27.iv.1968 (FSB), 1 male; Gainesville,
20.iv.1967, W. W. Wirth, 1 male; West Gainesville, many dates, Blanton & Fletcher,
10 females, 3 males; Chantilly Acres, many dates (FSB), 118 females, 117 males. Orange
Co., Rock Springs, 21.iv.1970 (WWW), 3 females, 9 males. Putnam Co., Lons Lake,
vi.1971 (FSB), 3 females, 1 male. Sarasota Co., Myakka River St. Park, 21.v.1973
(WWW), 2 females. Maryland. Prince Georges Co., Patuxent Wildlife Refuge,
17.vii.1979, J. Edmiston, 1 female.
DISCUSSION. The synonymy of Stilobezzia maculitibia with S. elegantula is made
on the basis of comparison of the original descriptions, which unfortunately apply only
to the female sex, but nevertheless they mention several of the diagnostic characters
given in the above key.
We were misled for a period of time by the figure of the male genitalia of S.
maculitibia given by Lane & Forattini (1956), which shows the parameres very short
and broad, the aedeagal sclerites displaced and crossing, but we have concluded that


346 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992

this figure was drawn diagrammatically from a severely flattened slide preparation.
Such preparations often give distorted appearances similar to this, in which cylindrical
structures are compressed until they appear unnaturally broad.

Stilobezzia (Eukraiohelea) amnigena (Macfie)
(Figs. 8-9)
Eukraiohelea amnigena Macfie, 1935: 56 (female; Brazil).
Stilobezzia (Eukraiohelea) amnigena Macfie; Lane & Forattini, 1958: 203 (combination;
Jamaica); Lane & Forattini, 1961: 84 (in key).
Stilobezzia (Eukraiohelea) elegantula (Johannsen), in part, misident.; Wirth, 1953: 62
(male descr.; figs.); Wirth & Grogan, 1981: 78 (male descr.; figs.).

DIAGNOSIS (female). A darkish species very similar to S. elegantula, from which
it can be distinguished by its darker general coloration, 5 prealar setae, extra dark ring
subbasally on mid tibia, claw talon proportions 3:1, 3:1, 3:1, and halter knob dark brown.
Male Genitalia (Fig. 8): Sternite 9 with broad, shallow, caudomedian excavation;
tergite 9 very hairy distally, with a pair of slender, closely approximated, apicolateral
processes, each with an apical long and short seta; cerci small; sternite 10 somewhat
elongated, spiculate. Gonocoxite stout, mediangular process poorly developed, pointed;
gonostylus stout, swollen in midportion, tip curved and pointed. Aedeagus represented
by 2 arched sclerites, distomedian tips pointed and crossing on the midline; hyaline
extension broad (not illustrated). Parameres (Fig. 9) with basal apodemes short, sepa-
rate from distal portions; distal portions long, very slender, apex slightly swollen,
palplike and bent ventrolaterad 90.
DISTRIBUTION. Brazil; ? Jamaica, ? Puerto Rico, U.S.A. (Florida, South
TYPE. Holotype female, Tutoia, near Parnahyba, Est. Piaui, Brazil, iv-v.1934, E.
M. Lourie (in British Museum (Nat. Hist.), London). The locality was erroneously
stated to be on the River Amazon, but Macfie later (Stylops 4: 89) made the correction.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED. Florida. Alachua Co., Gainesville, 20.iv.1967, W. W.
Wirth, 1 female, 3 males; Chantilly Acres, 19.iv.1967, F. S. Blanton, 1 female. Dade
Co., Homestead, 9.ix.1968, R. M. Baranowski, UVLT, 1 female. Jefferson Co., Mon-
ticello, ix.1969, W. H. Whitcomb, UVLT, 1 female. Leon Co., 3 mi N Tallahassee,
v.1970 (FSB), 8 female, 7 males; Tall Timbers Res. Sta., 28.v.1973 (WWW), 2 females.
Putnam Co., Lons Lake, vi.1971 (FSB), 4 females, 1 male. Santa Rosa Co., Blackwater
A&M Biol. Sta., 21.v.1971, G. B. Fairchild, UVLT, 1 female. Wakulla Co., Ochlockonee
River St. Park, 20.iv.1970 (WWW), 1 female. South Carolina. Georgetown Co., Hob-
caw House, viii.1972, Mrs. L. Henry, light trap, 1 female.
DISCUSSION. Wirth (1953) and Wirth & Grogan (1981) recorded males of this
species from Florida as Stilobezzia elegantula. The male figured by Wirth (1953, fig.
llg) was from Panama City Beach, Bay County, Florida, 2.vi.1950, McElvey, light
trap. The male figured by Wirth & Grogan (1981, fig. 32b,d,k,n-o) was from Gainesville,
Florida, 20.iv.1967, W. W. Wirth, light trap, taken at the same time and place as the
female that they correctly identified, and described and figured as S. elegantula.
Although the females of S. amnigena are very similar to the females of S. elegantula,
the males of the two species differ in many genital characters, such as sternite 9 with
caudomedian excavation in amnigena (with caudal extension in elegantula); tergite 9
with slender apicolateral process in amnigena (absent in elegantula); cerci short in
amnigena (stout in elegantula); gonostylus swollen in middle in amnigena (nearly
straight in elegantula); and parameres with shorter apodemes and much elongated and
slender main portion in amnigena.

Wirth & Spinelli: American Eukraiohelea

Figs. 8-9. Stilobezzia (Eukraiohelea) amnigena, male: 8, genitalia, parameres
omitted; 9, parameres.

Stilobezzia (Eukraiohelea) dorsofasciata (Lutz)

Palpomyia dorsofasciata Lutz, 1914: 18 (female; Brazil; fig. wing, abdomen).
Eukraiohelea dorsofasciata Lutz; Macfie, 1935: 56 (combination).
Stilobezzia (Eukraiohelea) dorsofasciata (Lutz); Lane & Forattini, 1961: 84 (combina-
tion; in key); Wirth, 1974: 48 (catalog reference).

DIAGNOSIS (from original description). Length about 2 mm. Head brown. Scape
and pedicel reddish-brown; flagellum pale, proximal 8 segments pyriform, distal 5 very
elongated. Palpus reddish brown. Thorax pale brown, with lateral and posterior brown
marks. Legs pale, knees brownish; narrow base and apex of hind tibia infuscated; (fore
femoral spines not mentioned); tarsomeres with short apical spines; 5th tarsomeres with
1 pair of batonnets on all legs; claws unequal. Spines on fore femur not mentioned. Wing
pale; R2+3 and r-m crossvein nearly perpendicular; r-m slightly shorter than stem of
vein M; costal ratio 0.64. Halter pedicel and base of knob pale, distal portion of knob
dark. Abdomen whitish; dorsum with 6 brown marks with pale areas included (pale
areas larger in the 3 posterior marks).
TYPE. Holotype female, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, at light, A. Lutz (in
Institute Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro).
DISCUSSION. The short costa (CR 0.64), nearly perpendicular r-m crossvein, long
stem of the media, and presence of only 1 pair of batonnets on the 5th tarsomeres,
readily distinguish S. dorsofasciata from its American relatives of the subgenus Euk-

Florida Entomologist 75(3)

Stilobezzias (Eukraiohelea) subsessilis Kieffer

Stilobezzia subsessilis Kieffer, 1917: 311 (female; Paraguay).
Stilobezzia (Eukraiohelea) Kieffer; Lane & Forattini, 1961: 84 (combination; in key);
Wirth, 1974: 48 (catalog reference).

DIAGNOSIS (from original description). Length 1.5 mm. Dull red. Antenna pale,
scape reddish yellow, 5 distal segments brownish black; long and slender, segments 4-10
subcylindrical, at least 3 times as long as wide, weakly swollen on distal extremity;
10-14 filiform, together little longer than 3-10 combined, each as long as 8-10 combined.
Palpus brownish black. Thorax very convex, higher than long, dorsally with long,
sparse, black setae; shoulders pale, pleura somewhat grayish pruinose. Halter pale,
knob brown. Wing subhyaline, without macrotrichia; vein R4+5 nearly reaching distal
1/4 of wing (CR 0.75), parallel to costa, to which it joins abruptly; first radial cell absent;
r-m crossvein and distal part of radius oblique; stem of media very short, not as long
as r-m crossvein. Legs yellow, posterior knees, end of hind tibia, joints and 5th tarso-
meres of all tarsi blackish; fore femur with 4 black spines; 5th tarsomeres each with 2
pairs of black batonnets. Abdomen depressed, scarcely longer than rest of body, brown-
ish dorsally, posterior border of tergites pale.
TYPE. Female, "Paraguay (Fiebrig)." (in Mus. Nat. Hungarici, Budapest; de-
stroyed by fire).
DISCUSSION. Stilobezzia subsessilis is known only from the original description
as the type is lost. The species is very similar to S. elegantula, differing in minor
characters as given in the key. The wide gap in distribution from that of elegantula
precludes our suggesting a synonymy. We regard this species as a species inquirenda.


DOWNES, J. A., AND W. W. WIRTH. 1981. Ceratopogonidae, pp. 393-421 in McAlpine,
J. F., et al. [eds.]. Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Vol. 1. Agriculture Canada
Monograph No. 27, 674 pp.
JOHANNSEN, 0. A. 1907. Some new species of Kansas Chironomidae. Kansas Univ.
Sci. Bull. 4: 109-112.
JOHANNSEN, O. A. 1934. New species of North American Ceratopogonidae and
Chironomidae. J. New York Entomol. Soc. 42: 343-352.
JOHANNSEN, 0. A. 1943. A generic synopsis of the Ceratopogonidae (Heleidae) of the
Americas, a bibliography, and a list of the North American species. Ann. En-
tomol. Soc. America 36: 763-791.
KIEFFER, J. J. 1917. Chironomides d'Amerique conserves au Musee National Hon-
grois de Budapest. Budapest Magyar Nemzeti Muz., Ann. Hist. Nat. 15: 292-
LANE, J., AND O. P. FORATTINI. 1956. Neotropical Stilobezzia Kieffer, 1911 I. Nine
new Panamanian species (Diptera, Nematocera, Ceratopogonidae). Revta.
Brasileira Malariol. 8: 207-226.
LANE, J., AND 0. P. FORATTINI. 1958. Neotropical Stilobezzia II. Fourteen new
species, chiefly from Panama (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Revta. Brasil. En-
tomol. 8: 203-224.
LANE, J., AND 0. P. FORATTINI. 1961. Neotropical Stilobezzia Kieffer, 1911 III. Key
for the adults of this genus and description of one new species (Diptera,
Ceratopogonidae). Revta. Brasil. Entomol. 10: 83-94.
LUTZ, A. 1914. Contribuicao para o conhecimento das Ceratopogoninas do Brazil. Ter-
ceira memorial. Aditamento terceiro e descricao de species que nao sugam san-
gue. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 6(2): 81-99, 2 plates.


September, 1992

Wirth & Spinelli: Forcipomyia seminole

MACFIE, J. W. S. 1935. Ceratopogonidae (Dipt.) from the River Amazon. Stylops
4: 56.
MALLOCH, J. R. 1914. Synopsis of the genus Probezzia, with description of a new
species. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 137-140.
MALLOCH, J. R. 1915. The Chironomidae, or midges, of Illinois, with particular refer-
ence to the species occurring in the Illinois River. Bull. Illinois St. Lab. Nat.
Hist. 10: 275-543, 23 plates.
WILKENING, A. J., D. L. KLINE, AND W. W. WIRTH. 1985. An annotated checklist
of the Ceratopogonidae (Diptera) of Florida with a new synonymy. Florida En-
tomol. 68: 511-537.
WIRTH, W. W. 1953. Biting midges of the heleid genus Stilobezzia in North America.
Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 103: 57-85.
WIRTH, W. W. 1965. Family Ceratopogonidae (Heleidae), pp. 121-142 in Stone, A., et
al. [eds.]. A catalog of the Diptera of America north of Mexico. U.S. Dept. Agric.
Agric. Handb. 276: 1-1696.
WIRTH, W. W. 1974. A catalog of the Diptera of the Americas south of the United
States. 14. Ceratopogonidae. Mus. Zool. Univ. Sao Paulo 14: 1-89.
WIRTH, W. W., AND W. L. GROGAN, JR. 1981. Natural History of Plummers Island,
Maryland XXV. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). 3. The species of the
tribe Stilobezziini. Bull. Biol. Soc. Washington no. 5: 1-102.
WIRTH, W. W., AND W. L. GROGAN, JR. 1988. The predaceous midges of the world
(Diptera: Ceratopogonidae; Tribe Ceratopogonini). Flora & Fauna Handbook no.,
4: 1-160. E. J. Brill, Leiden.


'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods
1304 NW 94th St., Gainesville, Florida 32606, U.S.A.
"Instituto de Limnologia "Dr. Raul A. Ringuelet"
Casilla de Correo 712, 1900 La Plata, Argentina


Three species of the genus Forcipomyia subgenus Lepidohelea of the Forcipomyia
bicolor group are distinguished in a taxonomic key and assigned to a new Forcipomyia
seminole subgroup. They are F. beckae Wirth from Florida, F. seminole Wirth, with
new records from Florida to Brazil, and F. luteigenua Wirth & Spinelli, New Species,
which is widely distributed from Florida and Mexico to Brazil and Colombia. Immature
stages are described for F. seminole and F. luteigenua, the first descriptions of imma-
tures of any Western Hemisphere species of the subgenus Lepidohelea.


Tres species del genero Forcipomyia, subgenero Lepidohelea, del grupo For-
cipomyia bicolor se reconocen en una clave taxonomica, y se las incluye en el subgrupo
Forcipomuyia seminole (nuevo subgrupo). Ellas son: F. beckae Wirth, de Florida, F.


Florida Entomologist 75(3)

seminole Wirth, con nuevas citas & desde Florida hasta Brasil, y F. luteigenua Wirth
& Spinelli, Especie Novum, especie ampliamente distribuida, desde Florida y Mexico
hasta Brasil y Colombia. Se describe los estados immaduros de F. seminole y de F.
luteigenua, siendo estas las primeras descripciones de primagos de species del subgen-
ero Lepidohelea del Hemisferio Occidental.

In 1976 Wirth described two prettily-marked Florida species of Forcipomyia (F.
beckae Wirth and F. seminole Wirth) with small dark spots on their legs, and compared
them with a Neotropical species, F. pictoni Macfie (1938), with similar but more exten-
sive leg spots. He also described the immature stages of F. pictoni. Wirth (1976) placed
all three species in his "Forcipomyia cinctipes group," which he characterized "by the
presence of some flattened, striated, appressed scales in addition to the usual setae and
macrochaetae of the body, wings often with a conspicuous color pattern of large pale
areas or variegated areas, and legs usually with prominent pale or dark bands."
Debenham (1987a) reviewed the Australasian species of the subgenera Forcipomyia
and Lepidohelea of the genus Forcipomyia, and presented a set of characters that for
the first time satisfactorily distinguished similarly marked species of the two subgenera.
Wirth (1990) redescribed Forcipomyia cinctipes (Coquillett) and re-assigned the species
to the subgenus Schizoforcipomyia Chan & LeRoux (1971). In 1991 Wirth placed F.
beckae and F. seminole in the subgenus Lepidohelea, F. bicolor group, which he re-
named for some of the American species that he formerly had placed in the "cinctipes
group." He gave a key by which species of the F. bicolor group could be distinguished
from those of the Old World F. chrysolopha group, and a newly formed F. annulatipes
group, which he proposed for banded-legged American species with 4 palpal segments,
a single spermatheca, and male dististyle more or less expanded distally. Of the 3
species that Wirth treated in 1976, only F. pictoni remains a valid member of the
subgenus Forcipomyia as characterized by Debenham (1987a). On the basis of leg col-
oration, we are treating F. beckae, seminole, and luteigenua n. sp. as a subgroup of
the F. bicolor group, which we here name the "F. seminole subgroup," where they
would key out in couplet 5a in the key by Wirth (1991: 509).
The immature stages of members of the F. bicolor group have not previously been
described. We take this opportunity to describe the larva and pupa of F. seminole that
occur in the leaf axils of epiphytic bromeliads and of Pandanus, and to describe all
stages of a new species that has been reared from rotting plant materials such as cacao
pods and banana pseudostems in terrestrial habitats.
Debenham (1987b) pointed out that the larva of F. (Schizoforcipomyia) borbonica
Clastrier (described as F. petersoni Chan & LeRoux) resembled the larva of known
species of F. (Lepidohelea) in the basal swelling of the a setae of the body, but that
Lepidohelea larvae could be distinguished by the presence of a halfmoon-shaped chitin-
ous plate on the last body segment, from which arise 4 b-like setae (2 b setae and 2
modified a setae; well illustrated by de Meillon (1931) for F. (L.) randensis (de Meillon).
This plate is absent in Schizoforcipomyia. This crescent-shaped plate (Fig. 1) is well
developed in our species of the F. bicolor group, and in addition the larva of one of our
species (F. luteigenua n. sp.) has a remarkable vesicle-like development of the a seta
of the prothorax (Fig. 2).
Explanation of the taxonomic characters used in this paper can be found in the
general papers on Ceratopogonidae by Wirth et al. (1977) and Downes & Wirth (1981),
and the revision of the North American Forcipomyia (Euprojoannisia) by Bystrak &
Wirth (1978).


September, 1992

Wirth & Spinelli: Forcipomyia seminole

Key to the Species of the seminole Subgroup

1. Hind femur pale with a narrow dark band at midlength (Fig. 18)(seminole Sub-
group) ...... ........................ ........... ... ... ................ .................... 2
- Hind femur dark, at least on distal half ............................... bicolor Subgroup
2. Fore and mid femora each with broad median dark band; tibiae with complete
subbasal and median dark bands (Fig. 18) ............................ luteigenua n. sp.
- Fore and mid femora entirely pale; tibiae with incomplete dark rings or several
isolated dark spots ........................................................... ... ....... 3
3. Female wing dark with 2 large creamy pale areas on anterior margin past tip of
costa; mesonotum dark on disc; male dististyle nearly straight with slender
tip ......................... ..................................... ................ beckae W irth
- Female wing pale with 2 small black spots on anterior margin and indistinct pale
areas at wing margin at tips of veins M1, M2, M3+4, and Cul; mesonotum yellowish
on disc; male dististyle gradually curved, with tip bent and slightly expanded
..................................... ............ ....... .............. ..... sem inole W irth

Forcipomyia (Lepidohelea) seminole Wirth
(Figs. 4, 6-7)

Forcipomyia seminole Wirth, 1976: 81 (male, female; Florida; figs.).
Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia) seminole Wirth; Wilkening, et al., 1985: 516 (in list; Florida
Forcipomyia (Lepidohelea) seminole Wirth; Wirth, 1991: 509 (new status; in key).

Female: Wing length 0.97 mm. A brown species, mesonotum yellowish on disc. Legs
pale creamy yellowish, hind femur with narrow subapical brown ring, tibiae each with
2 incomplete narrow pale rings, one near base and other just past midlength; tarsi with
inconspicuous segmental bands of narrow dark scales in midportions. Wing creamy
whitish, with small areas of dark macrotrichia forming distinct spots over 2nd radial
cell and on posterior margin halfway between end of costa and wing tip, and suffuse
dark areas along apices of veins Ml, M2, M3+4 and Cul. Palpal pit especially small and
shallow, round with pore same size as pit.
Male Genitalia: Ninth segment brownish. Basistyle brownish; dististyle pale, with
abruptly bent tip, quite slender for most of length, bent tip very slightly expanded.
Aedeagus with acutely pointed tip, basal arch well developed. Parameres broadly sepa-
rated at bases, distal filiform portion rather short, not twisted.
Larva: Length 3.6 mm. Color whitish with pronounced black basal tubercles to the
body setae; head strongly testaceous to black around mouth. Chaetotaxy (Fig. 4): p and
q setae of head simple, black, swollen slightly at base; a setae of body large, dark,
narrowly lanceolate, chitinous with minute spicules on surface; b setae very large, long,
sinuous, swollen basally, black; d setae small, straight, arising from a common tubercle
with b; c longer than d, straight. Dorsal setae of last abdominal segment swollen basally,
not lanceolate.
Pupa (Fig. 6): Length 2.4 mm. Color of exuviae pale, almost colorless, tinged fuscous
on thorax. Operculum with a spine on both the median and lateral triangles.
Cephalothorax with a most unusual number of spines, there being in all 10 pairs disposed
as in figure. The most remarkable of all are the two lateral pairs upon the site of the
normal conical or ridged projections covering the wing bases of the imago. Posterior
median projection of cephalothorax short, not reaching posterior margin of 1st abdom-

Florida Entomologist 75(3)

C p

4 5






Figs. 1-3, 5, 8-9, Forcipomyia luteigenua; 4, 6, 7, F. seminole: 1, dorsal sclerite of
last segment of larva, with a and b setae; 2, vesicle-like a seta of larval prothorax; 3,
larval antenna; 4, 5, head and body setae of larva, as lettered; 6, 9, pupa, dorsal view;
7, 8, prothoracic respiratory horn of pupa.

inal segment. Abdominal segments 2-5 each with 2 dorsal and 2 lateral pairs of spines;
6 with lateral pairs only. Prothoracic respiratory horn (Fig. 7) most unusual; knob small
and irregular on end of a long, curving, slender stem; spiracular openings about 11,
arranged roughly like pegs radiating from a semicircle, with a small external respiratory
DISTRIBUTION. Florida, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guyana, Jamaica, Puerto Rico.

September, 1992

Wirth & Spinelli: Forcipomyia seminole 353

TYPES. Described from holotype female, allotype, and 31 male and 543 paratypes,
Vero Beach, Indian River Co., Florida, vii.1958 to iv.1959, Ent. Res. Center, light trap
(deposited in USNM).
NEW RECORDS. Florida: Broward Co., Fort Lauderdale, 5.viii.1951, W. W.
Wirth, ex bromeliad, 1 male, 2 larvae, 1 pupa. Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, 31.vii.1923, L.
G. Saunders (B63), ex epiphytic bromeliad, 1 female, 1 larva, 1 pupa. Costa Rica:
Siquirres, Hacienda Theobroma, 2.vi.1956, L. G. Saunders (CR12), reared from epiphy-
tic bromeliad, 1 male, 1 female, 2 larvae, 2 pupae. Guyana: Georgetown, 20.vi.1953, L.
G. Saunders (Cb47), ex bromeliad, 2 larvae, 4 pupae. Jamaica: Clarendon Parish, Milk
River Bath, 19.xi.1968, R. E. Woodruff, light trap, 2 males. Puerto Rico: "Hills",
6.ii.1953, L. G. Saunders (PR18), ex Pandanus leaf axils, 3 males, 2 females, 8 pupal
NOTE. The late Professor L. G. Saunders of the University of Saskatchewan shortly
before his death in 1968 generously donated to the Smithsonian Institution his extensive
worldwide collection of Forcipomyia midges, mostly reared from immature stages,
along with his manuscript notes and drawings. Among these were specimens, notes,
and drawings of a species that he collected and reared in Brazil in 1923 and designated
as "B-63." During the present study it was determined that "B-63" was the same species
that Wirth described in 1976 as Forcipomyia seminole Wirth from Florida. Saunders
subsequently reared this species from epiphytic bromeliads in Guyana and Costa Rica
and from Pandanus leaf axils in Puerto Rico. The species has twice been reared from
bromeliads in southern Florida. The above descriptions of the larva and pupa were
adapted from Saunders' manuscript notes and the figures were redrawn from his
sketches of the larva and pupa.

Forcipomyia (Lepidohelea) beckae Wirth, New Status

Forcipomuyia beckae Wirth, 1976: 82 (male, female; Florida; figs.).
Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia) beckae Wirth; Wilkening, et al., 1985: 516 (in list; Florida

Female: Wing length 1.15 mm. As in Forcipomyia seminole Wirth, but mesonotum
dark brown on disc; wing darker, with 2 larger blackish anterior spots, and 2 large
anterior creamy pale areas in Cell R5 past tip of costa.
Male Genitalia: As in F. seminole, but dististyle straight with slender tip, and
aedeagus with a much shorter basal arch.
Immature Stages: Unknown.

Forcipomyia (Lepidohelea) luteigenua Wirth & Spinelli, New Species
(Figs. 1-3, 5, 8-18)

Female Holotype. Wing length 1.00 mm; breadth 0.36 mm; costal ratio 0.47.
Head: Brown; antenna and palpus pale brown. Antenna (Fig. 10) with lengths of
flagellar segments (in microns) 54-47-47-50-50-54-54-54-58-58-58-58-83; antennal ratio
0.76; all segments moderately long and tapering, last segment with terminal papilla.
Palpus (Fig. 11) with lengths of segments (in microns) 25-29-58-32-29; third segment
moderately swollen on proximal 0.6, palpal ratio 1.60; a small, shallow, sensory pit at
midlength. Mandible without teeth.
Thorax: Brown, mesonotum with abundant golden setae. Legs pale yellow with
brown bands as in Fig. 18; femora with moderately broad median brown band, paler on

354 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992


,, ,, i 12 j I

SV 16
(134- 14 1

-), 17

Figs. 10-17, Forcipomyia luteigenua: 10-15, 18, female; 16- 17, male; 10, antenna;
11, palpus; 12, wing; 13, spermathecae; 14, genital sclerotization; 15, tibial spur and
comb of hind leg; 16, aedeagus; 17, genitalia, aedeagus omitted; 18, color pattern of (top
to bottom), fore, mid, and hind legs.

fore and mid legs; tibiae with narrow sub-basal and moderately broad median brown
bands, paler on fore and mid legs; tarsi brown with narrowly pale joints. Hind tibial
comb (Fig. 15) with 6 slender spines, spur slender, nearly straight, and pale yellowish
in color; hind tarsal ratio 1.00. Wing (Fig. 12) appearing shaggy due to numerous coarse,
long, 1- striated macrotrichia; those over radial cells broader and clumped, forming a
small blackish stigma; those in large areas in apices of cells R5, M1, and M2, and
irregularly on disc of wing, slender and pale, forming conspicuous pale mottling as
figured. Halter pale.
Abdomen: Brown with numerous golden setae, and long, semi- appressed, brownish,
1- and 2-striated, scalelike setae; cerci yellowish. Genital sclerotization (Fig. 14) a slen-
der transverse ribbon, broader on ends with a few short spines on posterior margin of
ends. Spermathecae (Fig. 13) 2, oval with very short, slender necks; slightly unequal,
91 by 67 microns and 87 by 62 microns.
Male Allotype. Wing length 1.14 mm; breadth 0.32 mm; costal ratio 0.43. Similar to
female with usual sexual differences. Genitalia (Fig. 17): Ninth sternum without
caudomedian excavation; pale mesally, brownish on sides. Basistyle stout, with broad
infuscation at midlength; dististyle whitish, nearly straight, tip infuscated, slightly
curved. Aedeagus (Fig. 16) rather narrow, with pointed tip and short basal arch. Para-
meres broadly separated at bases, distal filiform portion rather short, not twisted.
Larva. Length 2.95 mm. Color yellowish, with pronounced black basal tubercles to
the body setae. Antenna (Fig. 3) pale, rather short with blunt tip. Chaetotaxy (Fig. 5):
p and q setae of head pale, simple, the first one with filiform tip, the second one smaller,
stouter. Seta a of prothorax (Fig. 2) stout, short with broad base, vesicle-shaped; a
setae of remaining body segments pale, narrowly lanceolate and microscopically spicu-

Wirth & Spinelli: Forcipomyia seminole 355

late distally (ending in 5-6 sharp spinules in a more narrowly lanceolate or somewhat
truncated tip in some specimens); b setae very large, pale, nearly straight, swollen
basally; d setae small, straight, arising from a common tubercle with b seta; c twice as
long as d, slightly curved. Last body segment with prominent crescent-shaped dorsal
sclerite (Fig. 1) from which arise 4 setae shaped as in a setae of preceding body seg-
Pupa (Fig. 9). Length 2.45 mm. Color of exuviae dark brown, well-sclerotized with
prominent integumental spinules and micro-tubercles. Operculum with 3 pairs of
spinulose processes. Cephalothorax with 8 pairs of processes as figured; posteromedian
projection reaching posterior margin of 1st abdominal segment. First abdominal seg-
ment with 2 dorsal and 2 lateral pairs of spines; remaining segments with an additional
pair of dorsal spines arising from the same tubercle as the large median pair. Respirat-
ory horn (Fig. 8) stout, stem short, with 10-11 spiracular openings located around rim
at tip of horn.
DISTRIBUTION. Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Mexico, Puerto Rico,
U.S.A. (Florida).
TYPES. Holotype female, allotype male, Costa Rica, Limon Prov., Siquirres,
Hacienda Theobroma, 6.vi.1956, L. G. Saunders (CR22), reared from cacao pods (depo-
sited in USNM). Paratypes, 14 males, 10 females, 21 larvae, 20 pupae, as follows: Costa
Rica: Same data as holotype, 9 males, 6 females, 11 larvae, 10 pupae. Heredia Prov.,
near La Virgen, Finca La Tigra, 84 70' N, 100 24' W, A. M. Young, reared from rotting
cacao pods, dates as follows, 12,17.xi.1981, 30.vii.1982, 8.viii.1983, 5 males, 4 females,
8 larvae, 10 pupae. Limon Prov., Finca La Lola, 13.viii.1984, A. M. Young, ex rotting
cacao pods, 2 larvae.
OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED (not paratypes). Brazil: Bahia, Itabuna, 1970,
J. A. Winder, 2 males; Ilheus, CEPEC, v.1977, S. Soria, cacao plantation, 1 female.
Colombia: Antioquia, Tamesis, 1150 m, iv.1990, J. Furtado, reared from decomposing
banana pseudostem, 6 males, 2 females. Dominica: Clarke Hall, 10.ii.1965, W. W.
Wirth (65W43), reared from under bark on ground under cacao trees, 1 female. Mexico:
Guerrero, Ixtapa, 23.x.1975, D. J. Pletsch, light trap, 1 male. Puerto Rico: Maricao
Fish Hatchery, 23.xii.1962, P. & P. Spangler, light trap, 2 females. "Hills," 6.ii.1953,
L. G. Saunders, leaf carpet, 1 larva, 1 pupa, 1 female. U.S.A. Florida: Dade Co.,
Homestead, 9.ix.1968, R. M. Baranowski, UV light trap, 2 males; Orchid Jungle, v-
vi.1969, Baranowski, UV light trap, 16 males, 10 females; Ross and Costello Hammock,
21.x.1969, Baranowski, UV light trap, 5 males, 10 females. Highlands Co., Archbold
Biol. Sta., 13-19.iv.1989, 1.iv.1990, W. W. Wirth, UV light trap, 6 females. Indian
River Co., Vero Beach, iii.1959, Ent. Res. tr., light trap, 10 males, 16 females. Polk
Co., Lake Alfred, 8.viii.1952, M. H. Muma, 1 female. Virgin Islands: St. John, ix-
xi.1961, R. W. Williams, light trap, 4 males, 5 females.
ETYMOLOGY. The trivial name luteigenua is from the Latin "luteus" (yellow) and
"genu" (knee), referring to the pale distal portions of the femora.
DISCUSSION. Of the described species of the Forcipomyia bicolor group except
F. seminole and F. beckae, F. luteigenua differs in having the hind femur pale except
for a brown band at or near midportion. These 3 species are designated, for convenience,
the Forcipomyia seminole subgroup. Fr,,i .i...5Iii seminole and F. beckae are readily
distinguished from F. luteigenua by their entirely pale fore and mid femora, the dark
band on the hind femur is well past midlength, on the distal 1/4 of the femur, and by
the reduction of the dark bands on the tibiae to very narrow, faint, often incomplete
rings. The wing of F. luteigenua is much shaggier, appearing mottled with irregular
pale and dark markings, while the wing markings of F. seminole and F. beckae are
more regular, with the dark markings dominant in F. beckae and the pale markings
dominant in F. seminole. The male genitalia of F. beckae and F. seminole are much
darker, and the ninth sternum and basistyle are nearly entirely brownish.

356 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992


We acknowledge with thanks the assistance of Molly K. Ryan of the Smithsonian
Institution with illustrations of the adults of F. luteigenua. Financial support for this
publication by Mars Incorporated, Effem Services Ind., Information Services Interna-
tional Division, Mt. Olive, New Jersey, is gratefully acknowledged.


BYSTRAK, P. G., AND W. W. WIRTH. 1978. The North American species of For-
cipomyia, subgenus Euprojoannisia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). U.S. Dept.
Agric. Tech. Bull. 159: 1-51.
CHAN, K. L., AND E. J. LEROUX. 1971. A new subgenus and species of midge (Dipt-
era: Ceratopogonidae) from Singapore. Canadian Entomol. 103: 271-276.
DEBENHAM, M. L. 1987a. The biting midge genus Forcipomyia (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae) in the Australasian Region (exclusive of New Zealand) III.
The subgenera Forcipomyia s. s., and Lepidohelea. Invertebr. Taxon. 1: 269-
DEBENHAM, M. L. 1987b. The biting midge genus Forcipomyia (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae) in the Australasian Region (exclusive of New Zealand) IV. The
subgenera allied to Forcipomyia s. s. and Lepidohelea, and the interrelationsips
and biogeography of the subgenera of Forcipomyia. Invertebr. Taxon. 1: 631-
DOWNES, J. A., AND W. W. WIRTH. 1981. Ceratopogonidae, pp. 393-421, in J. F.
McAlpine, et al. [eds.]. Manual of Nearctic Diptera, Vol. 1. Agric. Canada
Monogr. No. 27: 674 pp.
MACFIE, J. W. S. 1938. Notes on Ceratopogonidae (Dipt.). Proc. R. Entomol. Soc.
London (B) 7: 157-166.
MEILLON, B. DE. 1931. A new species of Forcipomyia (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae)
from the Transvaal, with a description of its early stages. Trans. Entomol. Soc.
London 79: 335-340.
WIRTH, W. W. 1976. Forcipomyia pictoni Macfie and descriptions of two new related
species from Florida (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Florida Entomol. 59: 77-84.
WIRTH, W. W. 1990. Biting midges of the subgenus Schizoforcipomyia of For-
cipomyia in North America (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Florida Entomol.
73: 649-655.
WIRTH, W. W. 1991. Forcipomyia bicolor and related species of the subgenus
Lepidohelea in Brazil (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Florida Entomol. 74: 506-517.
ral History of Plummers Island, Maryland XXII. Biting midges (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae). 1. Introduction and key to genera. Proc. Biol. Soc.
Washington 90: 615-647.

Schuster: Passalid Larval Taxonomy 357


Institute de Investigaciones
Universidad del Valle de Guatemala
Apartado 82
Guatemala, GUATEMALA


Larvae of 12 New World species of Passalidae are described and 7 species rede-
scribed, bringing the total number of species described to 134 worldwide. A key is
provided for all New World genera. Basic setal pattern differences differentiate New
World Passalini from Proculini, with the latter tribe showing 2 basic groups of genera.
Some exceptions to these basic patterns suggest possible nomenclatural changes.


Se described larvas de 12 species de Passalidae del Nuevo Mundo y se redescriben
7 mis, dando un total de 134 species descritas mundialmente. Se present una clave
para todos los generos del Nuevo Mundo. Diferencias bAsicas en el patron de setas
diferencian Passalini del Nuevo Mundo y Proculini, con la ultima tribu mostrando 2
grupos principles de generos. Algunas excepciones a estos patrons basicos sugieren
posibles cambios nomenclatoriales.

Passalid larvae have been described for 123 species, summarized in Schuster &
Reyes-Castillo (1990), with additional species in Castillo et al. (1988) and Schuster
(1991). Recent works treating previously described species include those of Costa et al.
(1988) and da Fonseca (1990). The majority of these are New World species. Schuster
& Reyes-Castillo (1981) presented a key to genera and provided nomenclature for pri-
mary setae and setal diagrams, which are the basic characters for separating many
In this work I describe 12 more New World species, redescribe 7 species and discuss
the state of passalid larval taxonomy.


Collecting methods and larval characters are the same as those described in Schuster
& Reyes-Castillo (1981), except where noted. Setal nomenclature is given in Fig. 1 and,
more completely, in Schuster & Reyes-Castillo (1981). The numbers following the collec-
tor's name in the descriptions refer to the number of individuals collected, instar (roman
numeral) and head width or range of head widths in mm. Sometimes a collection number
will follow this.



Petrejoides laticornis Truqui. MEXICO, Veracruz, Pto. del Aire 2400 m alt. 17 VII 80,
C. Castillo, 1 III 4.1

358 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992

S* * PSL

S ****** ** *
2 o o ...0.... rSM2. -.
S/- *TM3,


3I o C dI.**o** o 4 4

So o *
S V9 ...* * *

/0 /0---.AR /7-3f 22 z2 /

Fig. 1. Various third instar dorsal primary setal patterns in Passalidae. A, Popilius
lenzi; B, basic Oileus pattern; C, Verres furcilabris; D, Xylopassaloides schusteri; E,
Pseudoarrox karreni (= basic "Chondrocephalus" group pattern); F, basic "Neleus"
pattern. Black dots represent setae almost always present, open circles are setae that
are sometimes present. AV9 = ventral abdominal setae on sternite 9, PD = dorsal
pronotal setae, MSD = dorsal metanotal setae, PSL = lateral pronotal shield setae,
MSL = lateral mesonotal setae, MTL = lateral mesonotal setae, TM = medial tergal
setae, TL = lateral tergal setae, TSM = submedial tergal setae, AR = anal ring setae.
Numbers refer to thoracic (I-III) and abdominal (1-10) segments.

This species conforms to the genus description of Schuster & Reyes-Castillo (1981).
The dorsal setal pattern is typical of the genus, except for the lack of TM-8 setae; 6 of
the 8 species for which larvae are known possess this basic pattern. The 2 exceptional
species (P. orizabae Kuwert and P. recticornis (Burmeister)) lack TL setae on most
segments. The anal ring has 14 setae, thus differing from all other except P. guatemalae
Reyes-Castillo & Schuster (1983) and P. panamae Schuster (in press). The head width
is smaller than that of P. guatemalae (4.4-4.9 mm) and it possesses 2-3 internal coxal
setae, as opposed to >5 in P. panamae. One or 2 HPA hairs extend beyond the antenna
tip. Prosternal hairs are few, 2 or 3 to 0.3 mm. The raster has setae; most of the ventral
abdomen is bare. The metathoracic leg has 4 subapical teeth.

Pseudoarrox karreni Reyes-Castillo. COSTA RICA, Cartago, E. of Empalme, La
Chonta (TOPOTYPE) 2310 m 16 I 88, JCS, 4 III 3.8-4.2, 2 II 2.9-3.0
This is the only New World genus lacking larval description. It is monotypic, keying
directly to Chondrocephalus in Schuster & Reyes-Castillo (1981). It differs from most
Chondrocephalus in having 6-8 internal coxal setae. This is similar to Ch. granuliefons

Schuster: Passalid Larval Taxonomy

(Bates); however, the head width of the latter is larger (4.2-4.7 mm). Also, the proster-
num bears very long hairs between the prothoracic legs (to 0.8 mm). Of 5 specimens,
3 had a single long (0.2-0.4 mm) seta in the middle of the frons. The metathoracic leg
has 4 subapical teeth; the raster has hairs. The dorsal primary setae form a perfect
"Chondrocephalus" group pattern (Fig. le), suggesting a close relationship to that
evolutionary line, which includes Chondrocephalus, Petrejoides, Coniger, Popilius, and
Spurius (see Schuster & Reyes-Castillo 1981).

Popilius lenzi Kuwert. COSTA RICA, Cocos Is., Wafer Bay 17-22 IV 75, C. L. Hogue,
1 II 2.9, 1 I 2.1
Popilius is a large genus in need of revision. We recognize 2 basic larval types: those
with 1 pair of TM setae per segment and those with more than 1 pair per segment
(Schuster & Reyes-Castillo 1981). This species falls in the former category (Fig. la). It
differs from all other Proculini in instar II having only 10 AR setae instarr I has 11).
The raster has setae, coxae have 2 internal setae, HPA setae are longer than the
antennae, and the prosternal hairs reach 0.5 mm in length.

Oileus Kaup
Quintero and Reyes-Castillo (1983) described larvae of all species of Oileus, except
for a new species from Mexico. They provided a key and setal maps. On examining some
of the same specimens they used, I noticed certain discrepancies with their descriptions.
For this reason, and to add characters not previously mentioned, I here redescribe 2
species. The basic larval setal pattern for the genus is given in Fig. lb. The species
may be separated with the following key:

1 Internal coxae with >8 setae; abdominal sternites 2-8 with transverse bands
of hairs (0.3-0.6 mm long); only 1 pair of TM setae per segment; raster com-
pletely covered with setae; anal ring with 18-22 setae; third instar head width
6.5-7.1 m m .......................................................................... O heros
1' Internal coxae with 8 or less setae; abdominal sternites 2-8 bare or with few
short setae (0.2 mm); >1 pair of TM setae per segment; raster usually with
setae except for a bare central area 1-3 mm wide; anal ring with 20-34 setae;
third instar head width 4.6-6.8 mm ................................................... 2
2(1') Internal coxae with 1-4 setae, AV9 with 3-4 pairs of setae, prosternum with
0-4 hairs <0.8 mm long; anal ring with 20-26 setae, third instar head width
4.6-5.1 m m ............................................................................. 0 sargi
2' Internal coxae with 4-8 setae, AV9 with 3 pairs of setae, prosternal hairs
variable, anal ring with 22-34 setae, third instar head width >5.8 mm ...... 3
3(2') Prosternum with many hairs >0.5 mm, third instar head width >6.4 mm .. 4
3' Prosternum with at most 1 hair longer than 0.1 mm, third instar head width
5.8-6.1 m m ..................................................................... rim ator
4(3) AV1 bare; bare area of raster approximately 0.1 mm wide, anal ring with
approximately 34 setae ................................................... 0. nonstriatus
4' AV1 with several long (to 1.0 mm) hairs, bare area of raster >3 mm wide, anal
ring with 23-24 setae ........................................................... 0. bifidus

0. nonstriatus (Dibb). MEXICO, Hidalgo, rd. to Xochicoatlan 18 III 79, M. A. Mor6n,
A. Mor6n, F. Cervantes, 1 II 5.6
Characteristics not mentioned in the key above include: metathoracic leg with 4
subapical teeth; many HPA setae not reaching antennal tip, to 0.6 mm long; many
prosternal hairs to 0.6 mm; TM setae are strong only on abdominal tergites 2-6, which
have 3-5 pairs. I suspect that some of the differences between our descriptions reflect
the fact that at least one of their larvae is a third instar.


Florida Entomologist 75(3)

0. bifidus (Zang) MEXICO, Oaxaca, 4 km from La Esperanza 1800 m 17 V 80, G.
Quintero, M. L. & C. Castillo, E. Rivera, 2 III 6.5-6.8
Characteristics not mentioned in the key include: metathoracic leg with 2-5 subapical
teeth, many HPA setae not reaching antennal tip, to 0.7 mm long; prosternum with
30-40 hairs to 1.2 mm; abdominal sternites 2-8 bare or with few short (0.2 mm) setae,
longer laterally; frons with many hairs to 0.7 mm; TM setae strong on abdominal tergites
1-7 which have 2-4 pairs.

Publius granulipennis (Zang) nov. comb. MEXICO, Chiapas, Km 59.5 rd. to Villa Her-
mosa, 1515 m alt., 9 VII 83, JCS, 1 III 5.5 #QB-1-6
This species conforms well to the description of the genus given in Schuster &
Reyes-Castillo (1981). It differs from other Publius in having 18 AR setae and the
prosternum lacking any setae. Two pairs of HPA setae extend past the antennae. It
has an almost complete "Chondrocephalus" dorsal primary setal pattern, lacking only 1
pair of MSL & MTL setae, as well as having >12 AR setae.
This species was originally described by Zang (1905) as Proculejoides, a genus that
Reyes-Castillo (1970) synonimized with Ogyges. Nevertheless, in a recent study of this
genus (Schuster and Reyes-Castillo, in press), we excluded granulipennis from it with-
out assigning it a definite nomenclatorial position. According to the description of the
larvae and examination of the adult, we assigned this species to the genus Publius.

Publius n. sp. (sp. A of Schuster & Reyes-Castillo, 1981). PANAMA, Chiriqui, Respingo
2400 m alt., 7 XII 85, JCS, 1 II 4.9, 7 III 3.3-3.5 #PAN-2d
Schuster & Reyes-Castillo (1981) described the third instar larva. First and second
instars have essentially the same setal pattern, differing only in number of AR setae:
instar II with 23, instar I with 22-24 versus 20-21 in instar III. Prosternal hairs are
lacking in instars I and II; raster hairs are lacking in instar I. All instars have 4
subapical teeth on the metathoracic leg and 2 internal coxal setae.

Verres Kaup
The following 2 species conform to the genus description given in Schuster & Reyes-
Castillo (1981). The genus is characterized by a fine golden hair pile over the whole body.

V. furcilabris (Eschscholtz). TOBAGO, Forest Preserve, Bloody Bay Rd., 4.4 km from
eastern terminus, 470 m alt., 11 XII 82, JCS, 6 I 2.7-3.0 palm log #TT82-2.5; 13 XII
81, JCS, 1 II 4.1 #TT-13.5; TRINIDAD, Arima Valley, 580 m alt., 19 XII 81 JCS 1 I
2.7 #TT-17c
The anal ring has approximately 22 setae in instars I and II; instar III has 6 pairs
above raster, others blend into raster setae. The coxae have 2-3 internal setae. The
metathoracic leg has 4 subapical teeth. Instar I has 2 or more HPA setae longer than
antenna when extended forward; these setae do not pass the antenna in later instars.
Instar I has secondary setae longer than 1 mm on the frons. The raster has long setae.
Only instars II and III have hair pile on body. The basic setal pattern is the same for
all instars (Fig. Ic). A brown egg measured 4.6 x 3.1 mm. In the tunnel with the instar
III were a general adult, a mature adult, and 11 red, brown, and green eggs in a nest
4.5 cm diameter.
The setal pattern may distinguish Verres furcilabris from other Verres spp. (Schus-
ter & Reyes-Castillo 1981). It is most similar to that of V. hageni, but has 3TM setae
on most abdominal segments.

V. corticicola (Truqui). COSTA RICA, Cartago Prov., Turrialba, CATIE 600 m alt., 8 X
84, JCS, 1 III 4.7
The previous description of this species was based on instars I and II only. This
third instar lacks the extra pair of TM8-9 setae of earlier instars and has only 1 pair of


September,, 1992

Schuster: Passalid Larval Taxonomy 361

AV9 setae. The dorsal primary setal pattern is identical to that of the basic "Chon-
drocephalus" group type, with 18AR setae.

Proculus Kaup
The following 2 species conform to the description of the genus given in Schuster &
Reyes-Castillo (1981).

P. burmeisteri Kuwert. HONDURAS, Ocotepeque Dept., El Portillo Mtn. 1900 m alt.,
13-14 IV 81, JCS, 8 III 10.3-11.7, 1 I 5.0 #NJ
Instar III has 28-36 AR setae, instar I has 23. The metathoracic leg has 6 subapical
teeth. The coxa has 2-5 internal setae; the prosternum between the legs has few hairs,
to 0.3 mm. Center frons has many hairs to 0.6 mm. As in P. goryi (Melly) and P.
mniszechi Kaup, the dorsal surface totally lacks primary setae. It differs from P. goryi
in having many long (to 0.6 mm) hairs on the central frons (versus 3-5 in P. goryi) and
lacking many long hairs below spiracle line on each abdominal segment. It differs from
all other described Proculus in having the T9 without any long hairs. Both instars have
a band of hairs crossing the pronotum.
The first instar differs in having 3-4 TM setae on tergites 1-6 as well as the whole
dorsal surface of the body covered by a hair pile 0.2-0.3 mm thick. This reminds one of
Verres, yet the ventral surface is totally bare, except for raster setae. Metanotal bars
are lacking, a rare occurrence for a first instar.

P. mniszechi Kaup. GUATEMALA, Baja Verapaz, approximately 3 km E. of Chilasco
1930 m alt., 12-15 IX 81, JCS, 1 II 6.4, 1 I 4.4 egg: 6.3 x 7.0 mm.
Anal ring has 24-26 setae. The metathoracic leg has 4-5 subapical teeth. The coxae
have 1-3 internal setae; the prosternum is bare. The center frons has many hairs to 0.6
mm. No hair pile is present on either instar, but a distinct row of long hairs crosses the
pronotum. T9 also has many long hairs (to 0.3 mm) and, in instar I, 8 pairs of primary
setae decreasing in size mesally. No other dorsal setae are present. Both instars show
metanotal bars. It differs from P. goryi in having many central frons hairs and lacking
many long (to 0.5 mm) hairs below the spiracle line on each abdominal segment.

Ogyges Kaup
This genus has been revised recently (Schuster & Reyes-Castillo, in press). Schuster
& Reyes-Castillo (1981) described larvae of 2 species, 0. laevior (Kaup) and 0. laevis-
simus (Kaup). They included, however, members of a new species in their description
of 0. laevior. In reality, only the specimen cited from Baja Verapaz is 0. laevior; the
others belong to 0. cakchiqueli Schuster & Reyes-Castillo.
Ogyges is difficult to separate from Vindex and Xylopassaloides. With known
species, it can be done on instar III head width, but it remains to be seen how the
unknown larvae of smaller species of Ogyges will compare. All species conform to the
basic "Vindex" setal pattern.

O. furcillatus Schuster & Reyes-Castillo. GUATEMALA, El Progreso Dept., Cerro Pina-
16n above Los Albores 2700 m alt., 1 VII 89, JCS, 3 III 5.0-5.2, 1 II 3.3, #WGi-3-6;
2710 m alt., 2 III 4.9-5.0, #WGh
This species, on the basis of both adults and larvae, seems to be related to 0. laevior
and 0. cakchiqueli. It has 16-18AR setae, a bare raster, 2 internal coxal setae, 2 pairs
of AV9 setae, 4 subapical teeth on the metathoracic leg, many prosternal hairs to 0.8
mm long, and no long hairs on the center of T8. Though usually bare, each abdominal
sternite may have up to 4 hairs to 0.8 mm long. Many HPA hairs are present, though
1-4 may be thicker and longer (to 1.0 mm). Central frons has many hairs (to 0.4 mm).
Above the spiracle line on abdominal tergites 4-6 are many hairs (to 0.6 mm).

362 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992

0. hondurensis Schuster & Reyes-Castillo. HONDURAS, Ocotepeque Dept., Cerro el
Portillo 1900 m, 13 IV 81, JCS, 7 III 5.7-6.6, #NJ
This species, on the basis of both adults and larvae, is closely related to 0. laevis-
simus. The anal ring has 22-28 setae. The raster is bare. The coxae have 2-3 internal
setae. There are 2-3 pairs of AV9 setae (usually 2), 4-5 subapical teeth on the
metathoracic leg, many prosternal hairs (to 0.5 mm), many HPA hairs (to 1.0 mm),
many central frons hairs (to 0.5 mm), and many hairs (to 0.8 mm) above spiracle line
on T4-6. It differs from other species of Ogyges in having 10-18 long (to 0.6 mm) hairs
on each side of each abdominal sternite and having long hairs (to 0.7 mm) in the center
of T8.

0. laevior (Kaup). GUATEMALA, Alta Verapaz, approximately 16 km N. of San Cris-
tobal 1570 m alt., 14 IV 79, JCS, 2 III 4.9-5.0, #KJ-1,2
The anal ring has 16 setae. The raster is bare, the coxae have 2 internal setae. There
are 2 pairs of AV9 setae, 4-5 subapical teeth on the metathoracic leg, >20 prosternal
hairs (to 0.8 mm), and the center of T8 is bare or with at most 2 long (to 0.4 mm) hairs.
Abdominal sternites have 1-7 long (to 1.0 mm) hairs each, the number increasing an-
teriorly. The HPA area has many long hairs, 1 or 2 of which are thicker and longer (to
1.0 mm) than the others. The frons has many hairs (to 0.6 mm) and there are many long
hairs (0.6 mm) above the spiracle line on T4-6. This is the only species of Ogyges
examined in which the majority of T1-6 show only 2 pairs of setae, though 0. furcillatus
approaches this condition. 0. furcillatus is also very similar to 0. laevior in all other
characteristics mentioned. I suspect these species have a fairly recent common ancestor,
0. furcillatus evolving from 0. laevior, since 0. laevior is distributed from Chiapas to
the Sierra de las Minas of Guatemala, whereas 0. furcillatus apparently occurs only in
the Sierra de las Minas. In the Sierra de las Minas, 0. laevior occurs from 1640 m to
2420 m; 0. furcillatus occurs from 2140 m to 2710 m. They were found sympatric only
at 2140 m above San Lorenzo, Zacapa, and apparently don't overlap above los Albores,
El Progreso, where 0. laevior reaches 2420 m and 0. furcillatus starts at 2475 m. Both
are cloud forest species. I suspect a similar relationship between 0. laevior and 0.
cakchiqueli in the Cuchumatan Mtns. of western Guatemala. J. Campbell has brought
me a specimen of 0. laevior from 1300 m near Barillas; I have collected 0. cakchiqueli
above 2800 m where it is endemic to the Cuchumatan Mtns.

Xylopassaloides Reyes-Castillo et al.
Reyes-Castillo et al. (1987) describe adults and larvae of 2 species in this genus: X.
pterocavis and X. pereirai. These descriptions, though quite detailed for instar I of X.
pterocavis, are not sufficient to separate them from other larvae of the "Vindex" species
group, since some key characters were not mentioned. Actually, it may be difficult to
separate the 2 species from each other on the basis of the descriptions, since they only
include instar I for X. pterocavis, and instar III for X. pereirai. The only differences
mentioned were: 8 to 9 pairs of AR setae and the lack of primary thoracic setae as well
as inconspicuous primary setae on tergite 7. All except the first character mentioned
are typical differences between instars!
The adult of a third species, X. schusteri, was also described. The larva of this
species was originally described in Schuster & Reyes-Castillo (1981) as Vindex sp. A.
It may be separated from Vindex by the presence of only 1 short (0.2 mm) prosternal
hair between the legs (versus 5 or more greater than 0.4 mm) and the lack of long (>0.2
mm) hairs in the center of tergite 8. It, as well as the other described Xylopassaloides
(Reyes-Castillo et al. 1987), lack transverse notal bands of long hairs, except near the
anterior border of the pronotum (Fig. ld). Complete or partial bands are found in all
described Vindex species, similar to those of Oileus (Fig. lb). It differs from other

Schuster: Passalid Larval Taxonomy

Xylopassaloides in possessing 22 AR setae. The raster is bare and the metathoracic leg
has 4-5 subapical teeth.

Spasalus robustus (Percheron). TOBAGO, Forest Preserve, Bloody Bay Rd., 470 m alt.,
13 XII 81, JCS, 1 III 2.7, #TT-12
This larva keys to the couplet with Spasalus in Schuster & Reyes-Castillo (1981).
It is still impossible to differentiate between larvae of Spasalus, Passalus (Pertinax)
and (Mitrorhinus). S. robustus differs from most larvae in these groups by having 2
pairs of PSL setae. The dorsal primary setal pattern (Fig. le) is the same as that of P.
(Pertinax) incertus Perch. and basically the same as that of Popilius lenzi (fig. la) with
the addition of TM setae on all abdominal segments. The extremely short HPA setae
(0.03 mm) differ from those of P. incertus (0.2 mm). It has 5 subapical teeth on the
metathoracic leg.
This species is described in Costa & da Fonseca (1986). Differences in size and setal
pattern suggest that 1 of us is dealing with a different species.

Passalus (Pertinax) latifrons Perch. TOBAGO, Forest Preserve, Bloody Bay Rd., 470
m alt., 13 XII 81, JCS, 1 III 4.9, 1 I 2.5
Da Fonseca (1990) recently published a study of head widths for specimens of this
species collected in Brazil. His data, in the notation style used here, are: 2012.07-2.69,
17II2.84-3.85, 21III4.15-4.54. My third instar from Tobago is larger than his Brazilian
specimens; however, my first instar falls within his range.
This species is unusual for Passalus (Pertinax) in that it has TL setae on each
abdominal segment. These are quite marked in instar I, but only remnants in instar
III. Instar III TM8 & 9 setae are also only remnants and it has lost all thoracic dorsal
primary setae. The instar I pattern is quite similar to the basic Proculini pattern of the
"Chondrocephalus" group, suggesting that this or a similar pattern might be the ancest-
ral pattern of New World passalids.
HPA setae are few, to 0.15 mm; raster setae are few, to 0.1 mm; prosternum is bare;
coxae have 2 internal setae; metathoracic leg has 4 subapical teeth.
Costa & da Fonseca (1986) describe P. latifrons. Though they do not mention which
instar they describe, the length they mention suggests instar III. Their description,
apparently confusing TSM with TM setae, coincides with our instar I with addition of
a pair of PSL, MSL and MTL setae. This confusion occurs easily. Schuster & Reyes-Cas-
tillo (1981) do not precisely define TSM setae. Basically, TM setae are at least twice as
far from the spiracles as from the dorsal midline. TL setae are twice as far from the
dorsal midline as from the spiracles. TSM setae are any that fall between these points.
Thus, whereas Schuster & Reyes-Castillo (1981) mention 2 pair of TM setae as carac-
terizing the general "Neleus" setal pattern, in reality the outer setae are TSM setae
(Fig. If).

Passalus (Pertinax) spiniger Bates. GUATEMALA, Izabal, E. of Morales 370 m, 6 VI
85, JCS, 2 III 4.0, #SW 1-4
Larvae have the typical "Pertinax" pattern, abdominal tergites 2-6 with a pair of
TM setae each, 10 AR and 2 AV setae. The raster is bare. Coxae each have 1-2 internal
setae. Metathoracic leg has 5 subapical teeth. Prosternum is bare anteriorly, with a few
hairs to 0.2 mm long posteriorly.

Passalus (Passalus) section "Neleus" unicornis Lepeletier & Serville. TRINIDAD,
Arima Valley 580 m alt., 19 XII 81, JCS, 1 III 6.3, #TT-18; GUADELOUPE, Saint Anne,
Grands Fond 40 m alt., 4 XII 82, JCS, 1 II 4.1
The third instar shows the complete basic "Neleus" setal pattern (Fig. If). The
instar II lacks TSM 6-9 setae. HPA setae are few, to 0.15 mm. Only 1 internal coxal

364 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992

seta is present. The uncus of lacinia is entire. Metathoracic leg has 4-5 subapical teeth
(on same individual in Trinidad larva). Eleven red, brown, and green eggs measured
3.8-4.3 x 2.8-3.3 mm.
On the basis of these and other (e.g. Costa & da Fonseca 1986) recent descriptions,
the key given by Schuster & Reyes-Castillo (1981) needs to be revised in the following


1 Maxilla with uncus of lacinia entire (except Passalus interruptus & occasionally
P. punctiger); ninth abdominal sternite with 0-1 pair of primary setae, if more,
then primary setae also on other sternites; anal ring with 8-18 setae; post-anten-
nal setae usually short (0.1-0.5 mm), never reaching antennal tip when extended
forward; pronotum usually without PSL setae or hair ............ PASSALINI 2
1' Maxilla with uncus of lacinia bifid; ninth abdominal sternite with 0-5 pairs of
primary setae; anal ring with 12-34 setae; post-antennal setae variable in size,
often passing antennal tip when extended forward; pronotum usually with PSL
setae or abundant hair (see table 1) ................................... PROCULINI 7
2(1) Pronotum with 3 or more pairs of long primary setae as well as many long
hairs; mandibles with dorsal terminal tooth subapical; anal ring of 14-18 setae
............................................................ Ptichopus & Passalus inops
2' Pronotum without setae or at most with 2 pairs; if 3 pairs, then no long pronotal
hairs present; mandibles with dorsal terminal tooth apical ...................... 3
3(2') Fine hair pile on body, anal ring with 10-18 setae ................................ 4
3' Fine hair pile absent, anal ring with 8-12 setae .................................... 5
4(3) Tergites 1-6 mostly with 2-4 setae each; anal ring with 10-12 setae .............
..................... ............................. ....... Passalus (P.) sec. "Petrejus"
4' Tergites 1-6 mostly with either 6-12 setae each or 2 setae each; anal ring with
10 or 14-18 setae .................................... Passalus (P.) sec. "Phoroneus"
5(3') Tergites 1-6 mostly with 1 pair each of TM & TSM setae ...........................
.................................................. ..... Passalus (P.) sec. "Neleus"
5' Tergites 1-6 mostly with only 1 pair of setae well developed (usually TM,
except in P. latifrons is TL) ........................................................... 6
6(5') Sternal hairs between prothoracic legs mostly 0.05 mm long or absent, if longer
then head width greater than 4.2 mm; raster bare or with hairs; third instar
head width exceeds 4.2 mm in some species .........................................
................................... Spasalus, Passalus (Pertinax & Mitrorhinus)
6' Sternal hairs between prothoracic legs mostly 0.1 mm long; raster with scat-
tered short (0.05-0.15 mm hairs; third instar head width less than 4.2 mm
..................................................................................... P axillus*
7(1') Pronotum with many long hairs no primary setae; raster with or without hair
or setae; anal ring of 15-28 setae ...................................... ............ 8
7' Pronotum bare or usually with long primary setae, if with long hairs and no
setae then primary tergal setae absent or indistinct and third instar head width
approximately 5.0 mm, or anal ring with only 12 setae; raster has hair or setae;
anal ring of 12-33 long setae ......................................... .......... .. 15
8(7) Mid-ventral tenth abdominal segment entirely bare, without hairs or setae
except anal ring ............................................................................ 9

*Costa and da Fonseca (1986) describe Paxillus anguliferoides with 2 pairs of PSL setae as well as TL, TM and
TSM setae. This description, however, is not in accordance with their drawing of the same species, which appears
as a normal Paxillus larva.

Schuster: Passalid Larval Taxonomy

8' Mid-ventral tenth abdominal segment with hair or setae other than anal ring,
maximum extent of bare area being a narrow band well within the raster
area .... ... ................................................ .......... ............. .... .......... 13
9(8) Ventral abdomen with numerous hairs or setae crossing in transverse bands in
middle of each segment; ninth abdominal sternite with 2-5 primary setae
... ........................... .............. .................................... U ndu lifer
9' Ventral abdomen bare, or with a few setae (2-10) on each side of each segment,
just lateral to mid-venter; ninth abdominal sternite with 1-2 pairs of primary
setae ................ .... ................................... ......... 10
10(9') Tergites 4-6 with few (less than 5) or no hairs longer than 0.3 mm above the
spiracle level; central frons with many long (0.4 mm) hairs; anal ring with 16-22
setae; primary post-antennal setae absent; ninth abdominal sternite with 2
pairs of primary setae .................................................. Pseudacanthus
10' Tergites 4-6 with many long (0.3-0.6 mm) hairs above the spiracle level, if few
long hairs above the spiracle level, then a single primary seta present among
post-antennal hairs; central frons with or without long hairs; anal ring with
16-28 setae; ninth abdominal sternite with 1-2 pairs of primary setae ....... 11
11(10') Center frons usually with few hairs, most less than 0.33 mm long; if with many
long (0.4 mm) hairs, then a single primary post-antennal seta present; third
instar head width greater than 5.5 mm; anal ring with 16-24 setae; ninth abdom-
inal sternite with 2 pairs of primary setae; third instar head width >4.9 mm,
from south of Isthmus of Tehuantepec ....................................... Ogyges
11' Center frons with many hairs longer than 0.3 mm, if with few hairs all less
than 0.1 mm then anal ring with 28 setae; third instar head width less than 5.3
mm; anal ring with 16-28 setae; ninth abdominal sternite with 1-2 pairs of
primary setae; third instar head width <4.3 mm, if 5.0 mm then from north of
the Isthmus of Tehuantepec ........................................................... 12
12(11') Prosternum with only 1 short (0.2 mm) hair between legs, long (>0.2 mm) hairs
absent in center of abdominal tergite 8, meso- and metanota Xylopassaloides
12' Prosternum with 5 or more hairs >0.4 mm between legs, long hairs present in
center of abdominal tergite 8, meso- and metanota ....................... Vindex
13(8') Raster with many long (approx. 0.5 mm), stout setae; mid-ventral abdomen
with many short (0.1 mm) stout setae ...................................... Proculus
13' Raster with short (0.3 mm or less) setae or bare; mid-ventral abdomen with
hair or bare .................................................................................. 14
14(13') Abdominal sternites 1-8 bare, if hair present then tergites each with only 1
pair of medial setae; ninth abdominal sternite usually with 3 or more pairs of
prim ary setae .......................................................................... Oileus
14' Abdominal sternites 1-8 with hairs; tergites each with 3 or more pairs of medial
setae; ninth abdominal sternite with at most 2 pairs of primary setae ..........
................................................. ........... Proculejus
15(7') Anal ring with 16 or more setae, if 14 then prosternum with few hairs, all 0.1
mm or shorter, or coxae each with 5 or more internal setae and pronotum with
4-8 prim ary setae ......................................................... .. ....... 16
15' Anal ring with 12-14 setae, if 16 then tergites 1-5 with 3 pairs of medial
setae ............................................. ...... ........ ....... .... ....... ... 20
16(15) Body with uniform pile of short golden hairs; anal ring with 16-26 setae ... 17
16' Body with bare areas and hair patches or tiny stout setae, if whole body co-
vered with hairs then they are notably longer on head than on rest of body;
anal ring with 14-20 setae .............................................................. 18
17(16) Longest post-antennal seta usually can be extended past antennal tip; head
with 2-6 pairs of primary post-antennal setae; anal ring with 16-20 setae
.................... ................................................................. V eturius

Florida Entomologist 75(3)

17' Longest post-antennal seta cannot be extended as far as antennal tip; head
with 2-3 post-antennal setae, if more then post-antennal setae are only twice
the length of hair pile; anal ring with 16-26 setae ........................... Verres
18(16') Coxae each with 2-3 long internal setae; ventral labial palpigers with 1-4 setae
each; anal ring of 16-20 (rarely 14) setae; head width 4.6-6.9 mm ..... Publius
18' Coxae each with more than 4 long internal setae or many long hairs, if less
then post-antennal setae do not reach antennal tip when extended forward and
from eastern United States; ventral labial palpigers with 4 or more setae each;
anal ring of 14-18 setae; third instar head width 3.8-6.0 mm .................. 19
19(18') Ninth abdominal sternite with only 1 pair of long primary setae; coxae each
with 5 or more long internal setae; post-antennal setae pass the antennal tip
when extended forward; third instar head width less than 5.0 mm* Heliscus
19' Ninth abdominal sternite with 2 or more pairs of primary setae, the inner ones
1/2 or more the length of the outer ones; coxae each with 2 or more long internal
setae; post-antennal setae do not reach, or just barely reach, antennal tip when
extended forward third instar head width 3.1-6.0 mm ......... Odontotaenius
20(15') Prothoracic spiracle with more than 50 striations; ninth tergite with medial
setae, if absent then coxae with more than 5 internal setae and pronotum with
primary setae; anal ring of 12-16 setae ............................................... 21
20' Prothoracic spiracle with less than 50 striations, if more, then sternites with
many hairs or ninth tergite with medial setae and coxae each with 5 or more
internal setae; anal ring of 12-14 setae .............................................. 23
21(20) Metanotum either lacking long primary setae or more than 6 pairs of long thin
setae present; anal ring with 12-16 setae .................................. Popilius
21' Metanotum with 1-3 pairs of long lateral setae, if none then tergites 1-6 with
only 1 pair of setae and coxae each with more than 5 internal setae; anal ring
usually with 12 setae, if 14 then ninth abdominal sternite without primary setae
..................................................................................... ... 22
22(21') Third instar head width 4.6 mm; lateral tergal setae 1-7 absent; anal ring with
12 setae ..................................................... Pseudacanthus mexicanus
22' Third instar head width less than 4.3 mm, if wider (4.4-4.9 mm), then most
lateral tergal setae present and anal ring often with 14 setae ..... Petrejoides
23(20') Ninth tergite either without setae or with 2 pairs of medial setae; tergites 1-6
without lateral setae, if present, then tergites 7-9 each with 2 pairs of medial
setae ........................................ .... .... ........... .. Spurius
23' Ninth tergite with dorsal setae; tergites 1-6 with or without lateral setae 24
24(23') Seventh and eighth tergites with medial and/or lateral setae; coxae each with
2 to m ore than 15 internal setae ....................................................... 25
24' Seventh and eighth tergites without medial and lateral setae; coxae each with
more than 10 internal setae ..................................................... Coniger
25(24) Coxae with 6-8 internal setae, third instar head width 3.8-4.2 mm, ninth ventral
abdominal sternite with a pair of primary setae .................... Pseudoarrox
25' Coxae with 2-15 internal setae, if 6-8, then head width 4.2-4.7 mm and ninth
ventral abdominal sternite without primary setae ........... Clhordroceplhaiiis


Costa & da Fonseca (1986) suggested that it is premature to provide diagnostic
characters to separate passalid larvae at tribal level. I agree that the couplet in our key

*Odototaenius zodiacus falls on this side of the couplet, but its body is covered with many long hairs, primary
tergal setae are indistinct or absent, and the third instar head width is approximately 5.0 mm.


September, 1992

Schuster: Passalid Larval Taxonomy

separating tribes (Schuster & Reyes-Castillo 1981) is quite artificial and extensive, in
order to cover all contingencies. We do mention basic Proculini and Passalini setal
patterns, but as a basis from which other patterns have evolved within each tribe-not
as patterns to distinguish each tribe. Yet, there do appear to be some basic differences
between larvae of both tribes. According to Costa & da Fonseca (1986) "When setal
patterns are compared (Table 1) the distinction between Proculini & Passalini becomes
very difficult." On the contrary, their Table 1, instead of emphasizing similarities be-
tween tribes, shows some obvious differences (e.g., number of AR, HPA, and PSL
setae). Their table, however, lists only 3 species of Proculini in 1 genus (Veturius)
versus 18 species of Passalini. Do these differences really exist? I compare all 23 New
World passalid genera (including 19 genera of Proculini) in my Table 1 (having seen
over 100 spp.), using only those setal characters which are least variable and emphasize
differences. One can see that most Passalini differ from most Proculini in the lack of
PSL setae or hairs. (MSL and MTL setae are lacking as well; however, I suspect that
they may be controlled by the same genes that control PSL setae, being expressed
metamerically. Usually, there are fewer MSL and MTL setae than PSL setae.) Many



P. inops
P. (Pertinax)
P. (Mitro.)
P. [Petrejus]
P. [Phoroneus]
P. [Neleus]


3+ 1
few many many












368 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992

Passalini have only 10 AR setae; no Proculini possess only 10 AR setae in the third
instar, having 12 or more. All Passalini HPA setae cannot be extended beyond the
antennal tip; most are short (0.05-0.5 mm). Proculini hairs or setae are usually longer,
in many cases extending beyond the antennal tip. Usually only 1 pair of AV9 setae are
present in Passalini; Proculini may have 1 or 2 pairs. The basic exceptions to these
characteristics are in Ptichopus and Passalus inops, where setal patterns are radically
different from those of all other New World species (Schuster & Reyes-Castillo 1981).
Perhaps this is due to unique environmental factors; both are known to live in detritus
chambers of Atta leaf-cutter ants (Schuster & Reyes-Castillo 1981, Hendrichs & Reyes-
Castillo 1963, Schuster 1984). Much redefining of genera needs to be done in this tribe.
The Proculini can be divided into 2 major groups: those usually with PSL, MSL and
MTL setae, the "Chondrocephalus" group, versus those with abundant hairs at these
locations, the "Vindex" group. In most cases, the former group has HPA setae which
can be extended past the antennae, 1 pair of TM and 1 pair of AV9 setae and usually
12-14 AR setae. The latter group has usually 2 or more pairs of TM and AV9 setae, 15
or more AR setae and HPA setae which, though long, don't reach the antennal tip.
SOn the bases of the larvae, it is obvious that Pseudacanthus mexicanus belongs in
the "Chondrocephalus" group, whereas the other 2 species belong in the "Vindex"
group. This suggests further study to determine the correct classification changes here.
Odontotaenius, at present, is an enigma, with species characteristic of each group
and even intraspecific differences. It probably belongs in the "Chondrocephalus" group.
Verres is exceptional with respect to HPA & AR setae (table 1), but appears to be
closely related to Veturius. Proculus differs from most other Proculini in lacking PSL,
MSL and MTL setae. Its exceptionally large size may account for the greater number
of AV9 and AR setae.
Despite the exceptions mentioned, a clear pattern emerges separating the New
World Passalini from the Proculini and distinguishing 2 basic lineages within the Procu-
lini. Much work needs to be done, however, in defining taxa below tribal level, especially
in the Passalini.


Special thanks to Pedro Reyes-Castillo for providing specimens and for identifying
associated adults. Thanks to C. L. Hogue for providing specimens of P. lenzi. P. Reyes-
Castillo and Charles MacVean kindly suggested important revisions for the manuscript.
I greatly appreciate the careful editing of the manuscript by Willis Wirth. R. P. Ber-
keley, L. B. Schuster (Trinidad and Tobago), F. Chalumeau (Guadeloupe), J. Saunders,
CATIE (Costa Rica), C. MacVean (Chiapas), M. Rojas (Panama), C. Mendez, F. As-
turias, M. Rey-Rosa, Defensores de la Naturaleza, J. Cabrera, CONAMA, and the
Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, (all in Guatemala) graciously provided logistical
support in the field.


sobre los Passalidae (Coleoptera: Lamellicornia) de la Sierra de Manantlan,
Jalisco. Acta Zool. Mexicana 30: 1-20.
COSTA, C., AND C. R. V. DA FONSECA. 1986. Larvae of Neotropical Coleoptera.
XIII. Passalidae, Passalinae. Revta. Bras. Ent. 30(1): 57-78.
COSTA, C., S. A. VANIN, AND S. A. CASARI-CHEN. 1988. Larvas de Coleoptera do
Brasil. Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. V +
282 pp.

Hansen et al.: Visual Detection of Sweetpotato Weevil

FONSECA, C. R. V. DA. 1990. Imaturos de Passalus convexus Dalman, 1817 e P.
latifrons Percheron, 1841 (Coleoptera, Passalidae): aspects bion6micos. Revta.
bras. Ent. 34(3): 595-600.
HENDRICHS, J., AND P. REYES-CASTILLO. 1963. Asociaci6n entire cole6pteros de la
familiar Passalidae y hormigas. Ciencia Mexicana 22(4): 101-104.
QUINTERO, G., AND P. REYES-CASTILLO. 1983. Monografia del g6nero Oileus Kaup
(Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Passalidae). Folia Entomol. Mexicana 57: 1-50.
REYES-CASTILLO, P. 1970. Coleoptera: Passalidae: morfologia y division en grandes
grupos; g6neros americanos. Folia Entomol. Mexicana 20-22: 1-240.
de un nuevo g6nero mesoamericano de Passalidae (Coleoptera: Lamellicornia).
Folia Entomol. Mexicana 73: 47-67.
REYES-CASTILLO, P., AND J. SCHUSTER. 1983. Notes on some Mesoamerican Pas-
salidae (Coleoptera): Petrejoides and Pseudacanthus. Coleopt. Bull. 37(1): 49-54.
SCHUSTER, J. 1984. Passalid beetle (Coleoptera: Passalidae) inhabitants of leaf-cutter
ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) detritus. Florida Entomol. 67(1): 175-176.
SCHUSTER, J. 1991. Petrejoides (Col.: Passalidae): Four new species from
Mesoamerica and Mexico with a key to the genus. Florida Entomol. 74(3): 422-
SCHUSTER, J., AND P. REYES-CASTILLO. 1981. New World genera of Passalidae
(Coleoptera): a revision of larvae. An. Esc. nac. Cienc. bio., Mexico. 25: 79-116.
SCHUSTER, J., AND P. REYES-CASTILLO. 1990. Passalidae: New larval descriptions
from Taiwan, Philippine Islands, Brunei and Ivory Coast. Florida Entomol.
73(2): 267-273.
SCHUSTER, J., AND P. REYES-CASTILLO. in press. Coleoptera, Passalidae: Ogyges
Kaup, Revisi6n de un genero mesoamericano de Montana. Acta Zool6gica
ZANG, R. 1905. Dreizehn neue Passaliden. Deut. Ent. Zeit. 2: 225-245.


'Subtropical Horticulture Research Station, USDA-ARS,
13601 Old Cutler Road, Miami, FL 33158

2Division of Veterinary Resources, University of Miami,
P. 0. Box 016960, Miami, FL 33101

"Department of Radiology, Baptist Hospital of Miami,
8900 N. Kendall Dr., Miami, FL 33176


Sweet potatoes, Ipomoea batatas (L.), infested with the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas
formicarius elegantulus (Summers), were examined by radiography and ultrasound.
No weevil life stage was clearly detected by radiographic methods. However, uninfested
sweet potatoes and feeding tunnels in infested tuberous roots were clearly distinguish-
able. Thus, radiography could assist in the development of quarantine treatments. Ul-
trasound could not penetrate the root surface and did not produce an image.

Florida Entomologist 75(3)


Batatas, Ipomoea batatas (L.), que han sido infestadas con el gorgojo de la batata,
Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers), fueron examinadas por radiografia y ul-
trasonido. Ningun estado de desarrollo del gorgojo fue detectado claramente por
metodos de radiografia, no obstante la sensibilidad de la pelicula. Sin embargo, batatas
no infestadas y tuneles de alimentaci6n en batatas infestadas fueron reconocidos
claramente. Asi, la radiografia pudo asistir en el desarrollo de tratamientos cuarenten-
riosa. El ultrasonido no pudo penetrar la superficie de la batata y no present una

The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) (Coleoptera:
Curculionidae) is the most important pest of the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.)
Lam. (Convolvulaceae), in the southern United States and throughout the tropics and
subtropics (Talekar 1982, Sutherland 1986). This weevil damages the tuberous roots
and vines of the sweet potato and other Ipomoea spp. To prevent the weevil from
spreading, quarantine regulations prohibit the importation of any untreated commodity
that may have this pest. The treatment (APHIS 1985, Fiskaali 1989) is limited because
it involves methyl bromide fumigation that may cause phytotoxicity, is restricted to
only cured sweet potatoes, and has temperature, time and facility constraints.
The development of improved treatments is hampered because the immature life
stages of the weevil are unobservable. Eggs (0.7 x 0.4 mm) are laid in cavities just
below the skin of the root (Sutherland 1986). The larvae are vermiform and the number
of instars ranges from 3 to 5 (Sutherland 1986). Typically, the early instars feed near
the surface, but burrow into the interior as they mature; the larval stadium varies
according to temperature (Mullen 1981, Sutherland 1986). After pupation (4 to 15 days)
within the larval chamber, the adult remains within the root for 1 to 9 days, then exits
by tunneling to the surface (Mullen 1981, Sutherland 1986). The life cycle takes from
30 to 85 days depending on temperature (Sutherland 1986).
Radiography may be a promising method for detecting weevils in the root. Radio-
graphs have been used to detect insects in solid media such as bark (Berryman 1964,
Wickman 1966), wood slabs (Johnson & Molatore 1961), and grain (Mills & Wilber 1967)
without causing apparent injury. Furthermore, radiographs have been precise enough
to identify the endoparasite Mesopolobus verditer (Norton) (Hymenoptera:
Pteromalidae) in the larch casebearer, Coleophora laricella (Hiibner) (Lepidoptera:
Coleophoridae), (Hansen 1981) and the ectoparasite Choetospila elegans Westwood
(Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamaize (L.) (Coleopt-
era: Curculionidae) (Sharifi 1972).
Another technique, the use of ultrasound, differs from the previous method in that
it is suitable for soft tissue. Hence, it is used extensively by the medical services to
detect tumors and to observe fetal development. Yet, the application of ultrasound to
identify pests in infested commodities has been poorly understood.
Here we report on the value of these technologies in identifying the presence of the
sweetpotato weevil and the damage it causes to its host.



Radiographs were produced using a Philips Super 80 CP Digital Radiography
Machine on a Diagnostic 92 Remote Control Table. The exposures were at 40-70 KVP


September, 1992

Hansen et al.: Visual Detection of Sweetpotato Weevil

and 55-60 MAS. Radiographs were produced either digitally or directly on radiographic
In the digital method, the radiographic image was shown on a cathode-ray-tube
(CRT) monitor. Because each radiograph was electronically stored, the contrast and
brightness was adjustable on a monitor as well as the choice of a positive or negative
image. The final image was fixed on Kodak Ektascan Radiographic Film using a Kodak
M-6 Processer and a Kodak Ektascan Laserprinter.
In the direct method, the image was exposed directly on Kodak T-Mat-G TMG-1
Radiographic Film (10 in x 12 in) and developed using either a Kodak Multiloader M-8
Processor or a Kodak RP X-Omat Processor. The film was held in a Kodak X- Omatic
cassette with a Kodak Lanex screen. No adjustment was possible to the image before
development and only the negative was produced. The grain size of the negative was
controlled by using either a fast or fine screen.
Uninfested sweet potatoes served as controls. Others were infested in the laboratory
by being placed in cages containing 100-300 adult weevils. All weevil life stages were
obtained by dissecting sweet potatoes which were infested for different time periods.
Individuals were located, life stage identified, and marked with metal insect pins. Sweet
potatoes containing late instars, pupae, and adults had many feeding tunnels filled with
frass. The tunnels of the early instars were intensified by injecting into them a radio-
graphic opaque iodine-base liquid (Conray-43, meglumine, Mallinckrodt Inc., St. Louis,
MO 63134). Tubers were dissected and life stages of the weevil were identified, then
compared to the radiographs.


Uninfested and weevil-infested sweet potatoes were examined by using a Diagnostic
Ultrasound Machine, Model Classic Concept 2000 (Classic Medical Supply, Inc., Jupiter,
Florida) with sector scanners in real time mode. The sweet potatoes were submerged
in water and examined by sonography using 5.0 and 7.5 MHz transducers. The transduc-
ers were covered with a latex layer to protect them from water damage. Images were
on a monitor where contrast and brightness were adjustable. No audiographs were
produced although the equipment allowed for this.



Most of the radiographic investigations were done using the digital method because
a minimum amount of film was needed to produce a high quality final image. Radio-
graphs of uninfested potatoes were indistinguishable from those with eggs. The interior
was uniform with the only variation in shading due to differences in root depth (Fig.
1). There were no apparent markings or other aberrations. Sweet potatoes heavily
covered with feeding and oviposition sites showed no distinguishing marks. This tech-
nique could not discern surface disruptions or even the eggs embedded below the skin.
The early instars were also undetectable (Fig. 2). However, the radio-opaque mate-
rial injected into the feeding tunnels clearly showed the irregular branching from a
common source just below the surface. These branches were not caused by several
larvae dispersing from a single point because eggs were laid singly and only one larva
was located by dissection. Perhaps the opaque material entered several feeding tunnels.
The remaining life stages were unrecognizable (Fig. 1 & 3). Sclerotized parts, such
as larval head capsules and the adult exoskeleton, were not dense enough to deflect X
rays. However, without using the radio-opaque material, feeding tunnels of late instars

Florida Entomologist 75(3)

Fig. 1. Positive radiograph of sweet potato infested with the sweetpotato weevil;
pins (3.8 cm length) indicate location of late instars and arrow points to uninfested area.

September, 1992


Hansen et al.: Visual Detection of Sweetpotato Weevil

Fig. 2. Negative radiograph of sweet potato infested with the sweetpotato weevil;
pins (3.8 cm length) indicate location of early instars and arrow point to feeding canal
made evident by injection of radio-opaque material.

Florida Entomologist 75(3)

Fig. 3. Positive radiograph of sweet potato infested with the sweetpotato weevil;
thick pin indicates location of pupa and thin pins (3.8 cm length) point to adults; mottled
areas denote overlaying feeding canals.

appeared as mottled areas throughout the root. In Fig. 1, the root area with normal
tissue has even shading, while that with feeding damage extends into the center of the
root. Hence, radiography may be useful for determining commodity quality and detect-
ing feeding.
The direct film method provided better resolution because the image was not based
on monitor "pixels" (i.e., picture elements). However, the magnified image using the
fast screen was too grainy to recognize detail. Magnification of the film with the fine
screen also produced poor detail. The image was further confounded by superimposition
of the surrounding feeding damage in the depth of view plane.
In summary, radiography is useful in determining the internal condition of the sweet
potato. Efficacy in quarantine treatments can be evaluated by radiographing sweet
potatoes before and a period of time after treatment, depending on the treated life


September, 1992


Hansen et al.: Visual Detection of Sweetpotato Weevil

stage. The effect of feeding can be observed, providing indirect evidence of survival
and failure of a particular treatment. Hence, treatment development can be improved
by eliminating the unsuccessful treatments identified by radiographs. Individual insects
are undetectable by radiography because the surrounding tissue of the sweet potato is
very dense compared to the weevils.


The internal structure of the sweet potato was unobservable at the frequencies used
because the ultrasound could not penetrate the root surface. The only images were that
of the skin and its reflection (echo). Eggs and feeding sites were too small to be shown
on the monitor screen. Hence, vegetable materials with thick skin or dense tissues are
not appropriate for ultrasound detection of internal insects.


We thank Baptist Hospital of Miami for providing the radiography machine with
film and producing the photographs, and John Steffy of Classic Medical Supply, Inc.,
Tequesta, Florida, for conducting the ultrasound.
Reference to brand or firm name does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Dept.
of Agriculture or by the Univ. of Miami.


APHIS. 1985. Section VI, T-104-Schedules for fruit, nuts, and vegetables. Animal
and Plant Health Inspection Serv. U.S. Dept. Agr. p. 17-18.
BERRYMAN, A. A. 1964. Identification of insect inclusions in X-rays of ponderosa pine
bark infested by western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte. Cana-
dian Entomol. 96: 883-888.
FISKAALI, D. A. 1989. The state of California commodity treatment manual, Vol. 1-
Treatment. State of California Dept. Food & Agric. p. 33.
HANSEN, J. D. 1981. Radiographic detection of pupal parasites of the larch casebearer,
Coleophora laricella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae). J. Entomol. Soc. British Col-
umbia 78: 34-38.
JOHNSON, N. E., AND H. D. MOLATORE. 1961. X-ray detection of Douglas-fir beetles
reared in slabs. Canadian Entomol. 93: 928-931.
MILLS, R. B., AND D. A. WILBUR. 1967. Radiographic studies of Angoumois grain
moth development in wheat, corn, and sorghum kernels. J. Econ. Entomol. 60:
MULLEN, M. A. 1981. Sweetpotato weevil, Cylasformicarius elegantulus (Summers):
development, fecundity, and longevity. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 74: 478-481.
SHARIFI, S. 1972. Radiographic studies of the parasite Choetospila elegans on the
maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamaize. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 65: 852-856.
SUTHERLAND, J. A. 1986. A review of the biology and control of the sweetpotato
weevil Cylas formicarius (Fab). Trop. Pest Manage. 32: 304-315.
TALEKAR, N. S. 1982. Effects of a sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
infestation on sweet potato root yields. J. Econ. Entomol. 75: 1042-1044.
WICKMAN, B. E. 1966. Use of radiography to detect mortality of California flatheaded
borers in pine bark. J. Econ. Entomol. 59: 1028-1030.


Florida Entomologist 75(3)



Entomology & Nematology Department
University of Florida
P.O. Box 110620
Gainesville, FL 32611-0620, USA

In July 1991, specimens of Oligota minute Cameron were collected in northern
Florida. Specimens had been found in southern Florida in previous years, but the pres-
ence of the species in the United States had not been recorded in the literature. This
prompted assembly of unpublished collection records from several neotropical countries,
giving a much more complete picture of the distribution than had been available.
The type locality of 0. minute is Trinidad (Trinidad & Tobago), and it is known also
from Cuba and Jamaica (Frank 1972). Records from Antigua, Bahamas, Brazil, Colom-
bia, Guyana, St. Christopher (St. Christopher Nevis, St. Croix (US Virgin Is.),
Surinam, Tobago (Trinidad & Tobago,) and Florida (USA) (Table 1) are new to the
taxonomic literature. Identifications of 0. minute specimens (Table 1) were made by
J. H. Frank, mainly at the request of A. Bellotti, F. D. Bennett, M. J. Samways and
M. Yaseen in the 1970s. The name 0. minute thus made its way into the biological
control literature (e.g., Anon. 1977, Yaseen 1984, 1986, Yaseen & Bennett 1977, Yaseen
et al. 1982) concerning this insect as a predator of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar),
the cassava green mite, at least in Colombia.
Oligota minute adults (Fig. 1) and larvae have been found as predators of various
tetranychid mites on various plants. Its predation on M. tanajoa (Anon. 1977, Yaseen
1984 1986, Yaseen & Bennett 1977, Yaseen et al. 1982) led to its introduction into
tropical Africa where this mite was causing severe problems on cassava. Shipments of
0. minute were sent from Trinidad to Kenya and Zaire, but the predator did not
become established (Markham et al. 1987, Murphy 1984, Yaninek & Herren 1988).
Two congeners of 0. minute have achieved recognition as predators of mites in the
New World. They are 0. pygmaea (Solier) [of which 0. centralis Sharp is a synonym
(Frank 1980)] and 0. oviformis (Casey). The former was described from Chile and is
stated to be a predator of Bryobia arborea Morgan & Anderson, Tetranychus urticae
Koch [= T. bimaculatus (Harvey)], Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor), and Panonychus
ulmi (Koch) (all Tetranychidae) and Agistemus fleschneri Summers (Stigmaeidae) on
apple foliage (Gonzalez 1961). The latter was described from California (USA) and is
stated to be a predator of several mites of economic importance, including Panonychus
citri (McGregor) on citrus foliage (Quayle 1912, Badgley & Fleschner 1956); of Eotet-
ranychus sexmaculatus (Riley) and Oligonychus punicae (Hirst) on avocado foliage
(Fleschner 1958); of Tetranychus urticae Koch on strawberry foliage (Oatman et al.
1981); and, in the state of Mexico (Mexico), of Oligonychus mexicanus McGregor &
Ortega on maize foliage (Quifiones et al. 1987).
Oligota pygmaea is known from Chile, Peru, Colombia, Guatemala, and southern
Mexico (Frank 1980). Oligota oviformis is reported in the taxonomic literature only
from California (USA), but also from Mexico (MEXICO) by Quifiones et al. (1987).
These two species seem not to have been compared morphologically or behaviorally
with one another. A thorough comparative study of taxonomy, behavior, and distribu-

September, 1992

Scientific Notes


ANTIGUA, XI-1973, preying on tetranychid mites on maize (corn), F.D. Bennett (4);
St. Peter Parish, Parrys, 17-IV-1978, with mites on cassava, M. Yaseen (8).
BAHAMAS, Andros Is., Nicolls Town, 10-IX-1974, on cassava with tetranychids (1),
San Andros, 3-III-1975, on sugar cane, F.D. Bennett (1), San Andros, 23-VI-
1976, preying on mites on cassava, F.D. Bennett (2), San Andros, 17-VIII-1977,
preying on mites on maize, J.W. Smith and F.D. Bennett (18); New Providence
Is., near Nassau, 12-IX-1974, on maize with tetranychids, F.D. Bennett (1).
BRAZIL, Minas Gerais, Felexandia, VIII-1978, with tetranychids on cassava, A. Bel-
lotti (22), Veragros, VIII-1978, with tetranychids on cassava, M. Yaseen (10),
Lavras, 10-XI-1978, with mites on cassava, M.J. Samways (3).
COLOMBIA, Valle del Cauca, Cali, C.I.A.T., 1977, on cassava (12), 12-14-XI-1977,
with Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) on cassava, F.D. Bennett (5), 14-1-1987,
on cassava, J.I. Lewis (8), Palmira, 5-IV-1975, with mites on cassava, F.D.
Bennett (11), IX-1977, on cassava, J.M. Guerrero (33).
CUBA, Las Villas, Sancti Spiritus, 3-XII-1977, with mites on Hibiscus elatus Sw.,
F.D. Bennett (6).
GUYANA, East Berbice, New Amsterdam, 13-XI-1977, with mites on cassava, M.
Yaseen (7), Rosehall Estate, XI-1979, on sugar cane, M. Yaseen (2); Essequibo,
Better Success, XI-1977, with mites on cassava, M. Yaseen (6), Charity, 7-XI-
1977, with mites on cassava, M. Yaseen (10).
JAMAICA, St. Andrew Parish, Clydesdale, 17-IV-1974, on sugar cane, F.D. Bennett
(1), Kingston, 25-VI-1976, on cassava, F.D. Bennett (4).
MONTSERRAT, XI-1973, with Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) on cassava,
F.D. Bennett (1).
ST. CHRISTOPHER NEVIS, St. Christopher, Belle Vue, 18-IV-1978, with mites
on cassava, M. Yaseen (3).
SURINAM, Suriname, Morganstond, XI-1977, with mites on cassava, M. Yaseen (5),
Zorgvleit, XI-1977, with mites on cassava, M. Yaseen (1); Commewijne, Kat-
wijk, 15-XI-1977, with mites on cassava, M. Yaseen (7), Tamaredja, 17-XI-1977,
with mites on cassava, M. Yaseen (2), Hulp, XI-1977, with mites on cassava, M.
Yaseen (1), Clavia, XI-1977, with mites on cassava, M. Yaseen (1); Marowijne,
Zoelen, XI-1977, with mites on cassava, M. Yaseen (5).
TRINIDAD & TOBAGO, Trinidad, St. George Parish, Curepe, VI-1973, preying on
mites on cassava, F.D. Bennett (4), XII-1973, preying on mites on cassava, F.D.
Bennett (5), 22-IV-1974, with tetranychid mites on Clerodendron, F.D. Bennett
(2), 21-V-1975, on grape, F.D. Bennett (3), Debe, IV-1974, with tetranychids on
cassava, F.D. Bennett (2), Blanchisseuse Road, 11-VI-1978, with Tetranychus
urticae Koch on Datura, W. de Voogd (6); Tobago, St. George Parish, Mason
Hall, 12-X-1978, with tetranychids on cassava, M. Yaseen (8), St. Andrew Parish,
Patience Hill, 12-X-1978, with tetranychids on cassava, M. Yaseen (1).
USA, Florida, Dade Co., Homestead, 19-III-1981, on Persea americana Miller, W.E.
Wyles (2), Miami, 22-III-1992, with tetranychids on Ricinus communis L., F.D.
Bennett (3), with tetranychids on Solanum sp., F.D. Bennett (1); Alachua Co.,
Gainesville, 7-VII-1991, with tetranychids on Wisteria sinensis (Sims) Sweet
(Chinese wisteria), F.D. Bennett (8, and 3 larvae).
US VIRGIN ISLANDS, St. Croix, Sprat Hall, 23-VI-1991, u.v. light trap, J.H. Frank (1).

tion of all three species should be seen as prerequisite to further employment of any
one of them as a biocontrol agent for export to other areas. They are part of the Oligota
subgenus Holobus Solier, which has other representatives in both the New and Old
Worlds [including Africa (Williams 1979)], and seems to be distinguished behaviorally
by microhabitat. Adults and immature stages of other Oligota subgenera are observed
seldom because they remain in concealed habitats (e.g., among decaying plant materials


Florida Entomologist 75(3)

Fig. 1. Scanning electron micrograph of dorsal view of Oligota minute Cameron.
Length is about 1 mm.

on the ground, or under bark of fallen trees) especially among concentrations of mites.
In contrast, members of Holobus, or at least these members of Holobus, are most easily
found on leaf surfaces among concentrations of mites. The epithets minute and pygmaea
are apt, because length of adult Oligota (and Holobus is no exception) is on average
only a little over 1 mm.


September, 1992

Scientific Notes

The mites with which 0. minute specimens were found on wisteria in Gainesville
belong to a new species which is being described.
We thank J. E. Lloyd and M. C. Thomas for reviewing a draft of this manuscript.
This is University of Florida, Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences, journal series
no. R-02419.


ANON. 1977. Pest management a new concept in cassava crop protection. Noti-CIAT
AE-5: 1-4.
BADGLEY, M. A., AND C. A. FLESCHNER. 1956. Biology of Oligota oviformis Casey
(Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. America 44: 501-502.
FLESCHNER, C. A. 1958. Natural enemies of tetranychid mites on citrus and avocado
in southern California. Proc. 10th Int. Congr. Ent. (Montreal, 1956) 4: 627-631.
FRANK, J. H. 1972. The genus Oligota Mannerheim in the Caribbean region (Coleopt-
era: Staphylinidae). Coleopts Bull. 26: 125-146.
FRANK, J. H. 1980. Neotropical Oligota Mannerheim (Col., Staphylinidae) described
by David Sharp. Ent. Mon. Mag. 115: 251-254.
GONZALEZ R., R. H. 1961. Contribuci6n al conocimiento de los acaros del manzano en
Chile central. Univ. Chile, Fac. Agr., Estac. Exp. Agron., Bol. Teen. 11: 1-38.
MARKHAM, R. H., I. A. D. ROBERTSON, AND R. A. KIRKBY. 1987. Cassava green
mite in East Africa: A regional approach to research and control. Insect Sci.
Appl. 8: 909-914.
MURPHY, S. T. 1984. Biological control of the green cassava mite (Mononychellus
spp.) in East Africa, p. 55-61 in A. H. Greathead, R. H. Markham, R. J. Murphy
and I. A. D. Robertson [eds.] Integrated pest management of cassava green
mite. Proceedings of a Regional Training Workshop in East Africa, 30 April 4
May 1984. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Control. 126 p.
OATMAN, E. A., J. A. WYMAN, H. W. BROWNING, AND V. VOTH. 1981. Effects of
releases and varying infestation levels of the twospotted spider mite on straw-
berry yield in southern California. J. Econ. Ent. 74: 112-115.
QUAYLE, H. J. 1912. Red spiders and mites of citrus trees. Univ. California Agr. Exp.
Stn. Bull. 244: 483-530.
querimentos t6rmicos para el desarollo de Oligota oviformis Casey (Coleoptera:
Staphylinidae) y su presa Oligonychus mexicanus McGregor y Ortega
(Acariformes: Tetranychidae). Agrociencia 67: 125-136.
WILLIAMS, S. A. 1979. The genus Oligota Mannerheim (Col., Staphylinidae) in the
Ethiopian region. Ent. Mon. Mag. 114: 177-190.
YANINEK, J. S., AND H. R. HERREN. 1988. Introduction and spread of the cassava
green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) (Acari: Tetranychidae), an exotic
pest in Africa and the search for appropriate control methods. Bull. Ent. Res.
78: 1-13.
YASEEN, M. 1984. Observations on the biology and ecology of Oligota minute Cam.
(Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) a predator of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar)
(Acari: Tetranychidae) in the neotropics. Proc. 6th Symp. Int. Soc. Trop. Root
Crops (Lima, 1983): 357-361.
YASEEN, M. 1986. Explorations for natural enemies of Phenacoccus manihoti and
Mononychellus tanajoa: The challenge, the achievements, p. 81-102 in H. R.
Herren, R. N. Hennessey and R. Bitterli [eds.], Biological control and host plant
resistance to control the cassava mealybug and green mite in Africa. Proceedings
of an International Workshop (Ibadan, 1982), IFAD, OAU/STRC, IITA; Ibadan,
Nigeria, 154 p.
YASEEN, M., AND F. D. BENNETT. 1977. Distribution, biology, and population
dynamics of the green cassava mite in the neotropics. Proc. 4th Symp. Int. Soc.
Trop. Root Crops (Cali, 1976): 197-202.


Florida Entomologist 75(3)

YASEEN, M., F. D. BENNETT, AND W. R. INGRAM. 1982. Investigations on the cas-
sava mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) and its natural enemies in the neo-
tropics and East Africa, 1979-1982. CIBC Final Rept., Center File 3-P-75-2600,
14+5+2+2+1 p.


NIHERST (National Institute of Higher Education, Research Science and Technology),
Victoria Avenue, Port of Spain
Trinidad and Tobago

Thrips palmi Karny is an Asian species considered native to the Malaysian-Indone-
sian region. It is now found throughout Asia, Africa, and the Americas. It was first
recorded in the Western hemisphere in Hawaii in 1984, and appeared in the Caribbean
in 1985. The pest attacks more than 50 plants, many of these important food crops.
Chemical control of T. palmi has proven difficult and resistance is a major problem.
It is now perceived as perhaps the most serious agricultural pest in the Caribbean. Crop
losses range from 50-90% in Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico and Trinidad (Anonymous 1989,
Franqui et al. in press, Cooper in press). In Trinidad, the author has witnessed total
failure of chemicals in vegetable fields abandoned by farmers. When a field is aban-
doned, spraying of course ceases, providing the opportunity to study natural enemies
of pests. The purpose of this note is to report the discovery of an entomopathogenic
fungus within the genus Hirsutella Patouillard infecting T. palmi in one such abandoned
An aubergine crop which had been abandoned for three weeks was randomly sam-
pled on five occasions in May, 1990, just prior to the onset of the wet season. Leaves
were removed and examined the same day in the laboratory. These samples revealed
a heavy infestation by Thrips palmi.
Except on young leaves, approximately 80% of the pest population was infected with
a fungus of the genus Hirsutella. No diseased thrips were found among populations on
adjacent aubergine fields treated with chemicals. Thrips bodies were brown and shrivel-
led in appearance, all nymphal and adult stages being attacked.
Fungal development on the cadavers was not luxuriant but sporulating hyphae
travelled for up to 2cm away from cadavers. On the younger aubergine leaves, live
specimens exhibiting abnormal, sluggish movement had no external symptoms of dis-
ease but when stained and examined microscopically, these thrips contained hyphal
bodies which had formed rounded and almost detached chlamydospore-like structures
similar to bodies found in eriophyid mites killed by Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher
(McCoy 1981). Such moribund thrips, when left on leaves overnight in Petri dishes
(100% RH), were dead the next morning and after 48 hours, Hirsutella was observed
sporulating on the cadavers.
The Hirsutella sp. was isolated from T. palmi and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose
agar (SDA) supplemented with 1% yeast extract (SDAY). Because the fungus grew
very slowly, isolation was extremely difficult. Surface-sterilising cadavers or using a
dilution technique was not successful. Isolation in pure culture was finally achieved by
transferring single spores or short lengths of sporulating hyphae from cadavers with a


September, 1992


Scientific Notes

3. Orn

Fig. 1. Hirsutella sp. from T. palmi: phialides.

sterile micro-needle to SDAY and subsequent removal again of these spores or frag-
ments away from contaminants daily.
During the first subculture from cadavers, colonies developed very slowly (2mm/
month, 27C). Colonies were at first echinate with a slimy texture. After one month,
colonies became floccose, at first lilac, later becoming white as colonial growth con-
tinued. Sporulation on SDA was virtually nil and only sparse on potato dextrose agar
or SDA enriched with 10% V8 juice. On nutritionally-deficient media such as potato-car-
rot or corn meal agars, sporulation improved though it was never abundant. Phialides
and spores formed in culture were identical to those on thrips cadavers (Fig. 1 & 2).
Beneath the centres of colonies, hard black sclerotium-like structures formed. Hyphae
in this region resembled the chlamydospore-like bodies observed in moribund thrips.

Florida Entomologist 75(3)


Fig. 2. Hirsutella sp. from T. palmi: conidia.

This fungus appears to be the first deuteromycetous pathogen to be found on T.
palmi and successfully isolated in pure culture. There is one report of an en-
tomophthoralean attacking T.palmi (Saito et al. 1989). Guyot (1988) reported that of
70,000 specimens of T. palmi collected in Guadeloupe, just two individuals exhibited
symptoms of fungal disease though no species names are provided.
Hirsutella species grow slowly on solid media but can develop rapidly in liquid
culture (Hall & Lewis 1982). Mycelium of H. thompsonii produced in submerged culture
can be fragmented, formulated and sprayed to control arthropod pests (McCoy 1981).
Given this precedent, and that the epizootic in the present study was observed in the
dry season, there is a reasonable possibility that the new fungus can be used as a
biocontrol agent against this serious pest. Work in Trinidad is proceeding towards this
The author thanks the Commonwealth Secretariat for supporting this study and Ms
Dorothy Peterkin for confirming the identification of the thrips and for doing the line
drawings. This work was conducted at the International Institute for Biological Control
(CAB International), Gordon Street, Carepe, Trinidad and Tobago.


ANONYMOUS. 1989. Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Bulletin OEPP/
EPPO Bulletin, 19(175): 717-720.
COOPER, B. (in press). Status of thrips, Thrips palmi (Karny) (Thysanoptera:
Thripidae) in Trinidad. In 25th Caribbean Food Crops Society Annual Meeting,
Guadaloupe, 2-8 July 1989.
Advances in the control of Thrips palmi (Karny) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in
Puerto Rico. In 25th Caribbean Food Crops Society Annual Meeting,
Guadeloupe, 2-8 July, 1989.
GUYOT, J. 1988. Revue bibliographique et premiers observations en Guadeloupe sur
Thrips palmi Karny. Agronomie 8: 565-575.

September, 1992

Scientific Notes 383

HALL, R. A., AND G. C. LEWIS. 1982. The pathogenicity of new Hirsutella species
for the eriophyid mite vector of ryegrass mosaic virus. In Programme and
Abstracts 3rd International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology, September,
1982. University of Sussex, Brighton, UK. p. 102.
McCoY, C. W. 1981. Pest control by the fungus, Hirsutella thompsonii, pp. 499-512
in H. D. Burges [ed.], Microbial control of pests and plant diseases, 1970-1980.
Academic Press.
SAITO, T., S. KUBOTA, AND M. SHIMAZU. 1989. A first record of the en-
tomopathogenic fungus, Neozygites parvispora (MacLeod and Carl) Rem. &
Kell., on Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Japan. Applied En-
tomology and Zoology, 24: 233-235.


'Everglades Research and Education Center
P. O. Box 8003
Belle Glade, Florida 33430

2Agricultural Research Service
Application Technology Research Unit
USDA Horticultural Insects Research Laboratory
Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center
Wooster, Ohio 44691

Aromatic lures are used throughout the United States for survey and suppression
of adult Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica Newman). Adults of other scarab species
have also been shown to be attracted to aromatic substances. Metzger & Sim (1933),
Hamilton et al. (1971), Regniere et al. (1981), and Williams et al. (1990) found many
U.S. scarab adults were captured in Japanese beetle traps baited with various aromatic
lures. Scarab adults have also been attracted to aromatic compounds in South Africa
(Donaldson et al. (1986, 1990), Okinawa (Klein & Edwards 1989), Korea (Reed et al.
1991) and Australia (Allsopp & Cherry 1991). Landolt (1990) reported that adults of two
scarab species, the green June beetle, Cotinus nitida (L.), and Euphoria sepulchralis
Fab. were attracted to isopropanol. We report here the attraction of E. sepulchralis
adults to various aromatic compounds.
Tests were conducted adjacent to sugarcane fields near Belle Glade, Florida during
May since previous observations (Cherry, unpublished data) indicated adults of E.
sepulchralis were present at that time and place. Eleven traps were set in a row
adjacent to each of five fields. Catch-can Japanese Beetle traps and lure holders (Trece,
Salinas, California) described by Klein & Edwards (1989) were used to capture E.
sepulchralis adults. Traps along each field were set 20 m apart on metal rods with
capture funnels 1 m above ground. Each trap was baited by adding 5 ml to a lure
dispenser. Chemicals known to be attractive to Cetoniinae adults (Donaldson et al.
1990) or mixtures of Standard Japanese Beetle lures (Ladd & McGovern 1980) plus an
unbaited control were tested at each field. Traps in the five fields were baited and adults
collected three days later. This procedure was repeated four times during May, 1991.

Florida Entomologist 75(3)

After collection, adults were frozen and later dissected to determine sex. Data for the
five fields and four test periods were pooled to determine the mean adults/trap/3 days
during May for each treatment. These means were tested for significant differences
using Scheffe's Test (SAS 1985). Beall (1942) pointed out that variance instability (de-
pendence on the mean) might cause misleading analyses of variance. Our data showed
variances dependent on means and the transformation log (y + 1) thus was used to
stabilize the variance.
Geraniol and eugenol alone and in mixtures were the most attractive lures for E.
sepulchralis adults (Table 1). Both sexes were caught in traps baited with these lures.
Other studies (Muma 1944, Fleming 1969, Klein & Edwards 1989) on other scarab
species have also found both sexes caught in Japanese Beetle traps baited with various
lures. Adult catches using geraniol, eugenol + geraniol (7:3), and pheneythyl propionate
+ eugenol + geraniol (3:7:3)(= PEG), and eugenol were significantly greater than con-
trol catches. Isopropanol also appeared attractive to the adults, although catches were
not statistically significantly different from controls. Landolt (1990) has shown isop-
ropanol to be attractive to E. sepulchralis adults in bucket and vane traps. Other
chemicals in Table 1 showed no attraction for the adults.
Adults of E. sepulchralis have been reported as injuring ears of corn and feeding
on flower and ripe fruit (Ritcher 1966). More recently, E. sepulchralis adults have been
responsible for damage to rose plants in Mississippi (Spencer & Jarratt 1989). Our data
show that several different chemicals could be used in traps to survey, sample, or collect
E. sepulchralis adults. These attractive chemicals include PEG (Ladd & McGovern
1980) which is the current standard floral lure found in commercial Japanese beetle
lures. In addition, we also found that the Japanese beetle sex attractant, Japonilure (R,
Z) -5- (1 decenyl) dihydro -2 (3H) furanone (Tumlinson et al. 1977), does not affect
captures of E. sepulchralis adults when used in conjunction with PEG (unpublished
data). Hence, traps baited with PEG and Japonilure would also be expected to attract
E. sepulchralis adults.
Use or mention of a product does not mean endorsement of that product by the
authors or their employers. Florida Agricultural Journal Series No. R-01992.


Adults/trap/3 days
Total Trap
Lure Captures % Female X2 SD Range

Geraniol 60 80 3.0 2.1 0- 8
Eugenol + geraniol (7:3) 46 71 2.3 2.3 0-12
Pheneythyl propionate +
eugenol + geraniol (3:7:3) 41 76 2.1 2.5 0-11
Eugenol 38 61 1.9 1.7 0- 6
Isopropanol 16 69 0.8 1.2 0- 4
Estragole 5 40 0.3 0.4 0- 1
Isosafrole 3 67 0.2 0.4 0- 1
Cinnamyl alcohol 2 50 0.1 0.3 0- 1
Control (unbaited) 2 50 0.1 0.3 0- 1
4 (P-methoxyphenyl)
2 butanone 2 50 0.1 0.3 0- 1
Beta ionone 1 100 0.1 0.2 0- 1

'Each bait was tested in five traps for 3 day periods. This procedure was repeated four times during May, 1991.
2Top four means are only means significantly different (P = 0.05) from control mean using Scheffe's Test (SAS
1985) using the log (y + 1) transformation. Untransformed data are presented in Table 1.

September, 1992

Scientific Notes 385


ALLSOPP, P. G., AND R. H. CHERRY. 1991. Attraction of adult Phyllotocus
navicularis Blanchard and Eupoecila australasiae (Donovan) (Coleoptera:
Scarabaeidae) to volatile compounds. Australian Entomol. Magazine 18(3): 115-
BEALL, G. 1942. The transformation of count data from entomological field experi-
ments so that the analysis of variance becomes applicable. Biometrika 32: 243-
DONALDSON, J. M., T. P. MCGOVERN, AND T. L. LADD, JR. 1986. Trapping tech-
niques and attractants for Cetoniinae and Rutelinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).
J. Econ. Entomol. 79: 374-377.
DONALDSON, J. M., T. P. MCGOVERN, AND T. L. LADD, JR. 1990. Floral attractants
for Cetoniinae and Rutelinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). J. Econ. Entomol.
83: 1298-1305.
FLEMING, W. E. 1969. Attractants for the Japanese Beetle. USDA Tech. Bull. 1399.
Traps to reduce an isolated infestation of Japanese beetle. J. Econ. Entomol.
64: 150-153.
KLEIN, M. G., AND D. C. EDWARDS. 1989. Captures of Popillia lewisi (Coleoptera:
Scarabaeidae) and other scarabs on Okinawa with Japanese beetle lures. J. Econ.
Entomol. 82: 101-103.
LADD, T. L., AND T. P. MCGOVERN. 1980, Japanese beetle: a superior attractant,
phenethyl propionate + eugenol + geraniol, 3:7:3. J. Econ. Entomol. 73: 689-691.
LANDOLT, P. L. 1990. Trapping the green June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) with
isopropanol. Florida Entomol. 73: 328-330.
METZGER, F. W., AND R. L. SIM. 1933. Coleoptera captured in Japanese beetle traps.
J. Econ. Entomol. 26: 296-297.
MUMA, M. H. 1944. Attraction of Cotinus nitida by caproic acid. J. Econ. Entomol.
37: 855-856.
REED, D. K., M. H. LEE, S. H. KIM, AND M. G. KLEIN. 1991. Attraction of scarab
beetle populations (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to Japanese beetle lures in the
Republic of Korea. Agric. Eco. and Environ. 36: 163-174.
REGNIERE, J., R. L. RABB, AND R. E. STINNER. 1981. Popillia japonica: seasonal
history and associated Scarabaeidae in Eastern North Carolina. Environ. En-
tomol. 10: 297-300.
RICHTER, P. O. 1966. White grubs and their allies. Oregon State University Press,
Corvallis, Oregon.
SAS. 1985. Users Guide. SAS Institute Incorporated, Cary, North Carolina.
SPENCER, J. A., AND J. H. JARRATT. 1989. Euphoria sepulchralis (Coleoptera:
Scarabaeidae) damage to rose (Rosa) flowers in Mississippi. J. Entomol. Sci.
24: 8.
AUX. 1977. Identification of the female Japanese beetle sex pheromone: inhibi-
tion of male response by enantiomer. Science 197: 789-792.
chafer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): improved attractants for adults. J. Econ. En-
tomol. 83: 111-116.

386 Florida Entomologist 75(3) September, 1992


Department of Entomology
Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State, MS 39762

Host plant resistance has been emphasized as an alternative to the use of chemicals
for control of insect pests. Many genotypes of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., have
been evaluated for insect resistance. The choice of soybean variety can influence the
developmental rate and relative fitness of an insect species. Hatchett et al. (1976) and
Beland & Hatchett (1976) reported antibiosis resistance to Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and
Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) larvae in some soybean cultivars expressed as high mor-
tality, additional molts, reduced weight, and longer developmental period. Beach et al.
(1985) reported different levels of antibiosis to Pseudoplusia includes (Walker) in four
soybean genotypes. They observed reduced larval feeding, high larval mortality, low
pupal weight, and fewer eggs laid. The genotype with the highest level of antibiosis
was GATIR 81-327, but low-to-intermediate levels of resistance were observed in
GATIR 81-306, GATIR 81-26 and PI 423968.
In this study, three soybean genotypes, selected on the basis of observations of low
insect infestations in production fields, and a local, commercial variety were fed to
larvae of H. virescens and P. includes in the laboratory. Survivorship, larval develop-
mental times, larval and pupal weights, and adult female fecundity and longevity were
recorded and compared.
The three experimental soybean genotypes tested were T83-5408 (Texas resistant
donor parent plant introduction PI 171451), G81-296 (= GATIR 81-296) (Georgia resis-
tant parent PI 229358), and N85-214 (North Carolina resistant parent PI 229358). The
PI 229358 has been reported to have some resistance to several foliage feeding insects
(Clark et al. 1972). The commercial variety 'Braxton' served as a standard for compari-
son. These genotypes were selected by members in the Southern Regional Research
Project S-219 (of which the junior author is a member) because they showed evidence
of resistance to lepidopterous larvae.
Newly emerged neonatee) H. virescens and P. includes larvae from laboratory
colonies (Southern Insect Management Laboratory, Stoneville, MS) were placed in 29.6
cc. plastic cups containing agar (2 cc) in the bottom (to maintain moisture) and soybean
tissue of one genotype. H. virescens larvae were reared five per cup when fed young
trifoliolate leaves plus blooms (R2 stage) for the first three days and then larvae were
transferred to one per cup and fed leaves, young pods, and pods with beans in succesive
stages of maturity (R4-R6) until pupation. P. includes was reared as above but fed
leaf material only (R2-R6). The plant material offered to the larvae was selected based
on age of the larvae to simulate the respective insect feeding activities on soybean
plants in nature (Nadgauda & Pitre 1983). This was an effort to consider the nutritional
value of different plant structures in contribution to the development of these
phytophagous insects (House 1966). The plant material was washed with a 0.0525%
sodium hypochlorite solution for five minutes to kill bacterial or fungal inoculum and
rinsed three times with sterile water (P. P. Sikorowski, Mississippi State University,
personal communication). This treatment did not affect insect feeding on the plant

Scientific Notes

material. Fresh food was placed in the cups every other day so that each larva had
sufficient food available at all times. The cups with agar were changed every week or
as needed.
The trays with cups were arranged in a completely randomized design and held at
27 0.70C and 60 2.5% RH with a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D). Larval weights for
both species were recorded 13 days after initiation of the study. Larval mortality due
to handling and/or diseases was separated from that considered to be due to antibiosis.
Duration of the larval stage neonatee to pupa) and pupal weights (2d after pupation)
were recorded.
To determine the influence of soybean genotypes on fecundity of moths, females of
each species fed the soybean genotypes were placed individually in paper bags (13 x 8
x 27.3 cm) containing males from the same treatments and a plastic cup containing a
cotton ball soaked in 30% honey-water solution. Depending on the availability of males
at the time of female emergence, two males and one female or one male and one female
were placed in each bag; the bags were arranged in a completely randomized design
and held at 25 0.4C and 60 2.5% RH with a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D). The females
were paired for two nights, then placed alone in bags arranged as above. Eggs laid
inside the bag and/or on the plastic cup were counted every two days, at which time
the female was provided with a new bag and source of food. Longevity of the moths
was also recorded.
Larval weights and developmental times, and pupal weights were analyzed using
analysis of variance and means were separated by Tukey's (HSD) test (Steel & Torrie
1980, SAS Institute 1985). Mortality data (%) were analyzed using Chi-Square test of
homogeneity of proportions using the different causes of larval mortality and the
number of live insects as rows and the genotypes as columns (Marascuilo & McSweeney
1977), and oviposition data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis one way analysis of
variance by ranks (Daniel 1990), and means were separated using Dunn's multiple com-
parison test (Dunn 1964).
H. virescens fed 'Braxton' survived better than those fed on G81-296 (Table 1). The
high level of larval mortality attributed to nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) in a prelim-
inary study, was reduced to an average of 12% for H. virescens, but increased to 19%
for P. includes on day 23. These measurements were taken before the first pupae
were observed. The soybean leaf material from the field was apparently heavily con-
taminated with NPV. Survival of P. includes larvae was affected little by soybean
genotype in this study. Our results are consistent with those reported by Smith (1985)
only in that P. includes larvae fed young soybean leaves showed no differences in
mortality between susceptible and resistant soybean genotypes. However, significantly
longer developmental times were observed when P. includes larvae were fed G81-296
(Table 1).
H. virescens development was delayed about two to five days when fed T83-5408,
N85-214, and G81-296 compared with those fed 'Braxton' (Table 1). The longer develop-
mental times for insects feeding on some soybean genotypes might enhance the effec-
tiveness of natural control agents; immature stages of the pest are exposed for longer
periods to natural enemies (Beland & Hatchett 1976).
Significant differences in larval weights for insects fed the different soybean
genotypes were observed for both H. virescens and P. includes (Table 1). The weights
of H. virescens larvae fed 'Braxton' soybean were greater (p=0.05) than those fed
T83-5408 and G81-296, but were not different from those fed N85-214. P. includes
larvae fed 'Braxton', T83-5804, and G81-296 had lower weights than larvae fed N85-214.
The lower larval weights suggest that either the larvae did not find the soybean tissues
acceptable or some compounds) in the soybean tissues affected larval development once
eaten. The effects of resistant soybean genotypes on H. zea larval weights have been

Florida Entomologist 75(3)

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Scientific Notes 389

reported previously (Powell & Lambert 1984). A benefit to pest management in plant
resistance exhibited in reduced larval weight is that small H. zea larvae are more
susceptible to insecticides (Kea et al. 1978).
Both H. virescens and P. includes pupal weights were affected by larval diet
(Table 1). H. virescens larvae fed 'Braxton', N85-214, and G81-296 had significantly
higher pupal weights than those fed T83-5408. P. includes larvae fed T83-5408 had
the lowest pupal weight, and no differences were observed among the other genotypes.
Although longevity of H. virescens female moths was longer when larvae were fed
the experimental genotypes as compared to 'Braxton' (mean days standard deviation:
N85-214 = 14 3.9; T83-5408 = 18+ 5; G81-296 = 18- 4; 'Braxton' = 11 5.6 days), no
significant differences were observed. Longevity of P. includes females was similar
when fed all four genotypes. However, H. virescens moths reared from larvae fed
'Braxton' and N85-214 laid significantly more eggs per day (71 + 22 and 75 + 31, respec-
tively) than those fed T83-5408 (35 15). Although not significant, fewer eggs per day
were laid by P. includes moths reared from the genotypes T83-5408 (25 + 22 eggs) and
G81-296 (29 22) than by moths reared from 'Braxton' (35 23) and N85-214 (43 47).
The results presented here suggest that some levels of antibiosis resistance to H.
virescens and P. includes might be present in the soybean genotypes T83-5408, G81-
296, and N85-214. Further studies are warranted to determine the levels of antibiosis
resistance exhibited by these and related experimental soybean genotypes. They appear
to have the potential to be used further in breeding programs for development of com-
mercial soybean varieties with acceptable levels of resistance to an individual insect
pest or a complex of insect pests.
Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station. Pub. No.J-7805. We
thank Dr. P. P. Sikorowski for the identification of diseases in larvae.


BEACH, R. M., J. W. TODD, AND S. H. BAKER. 1985. Antibiosis of four insect resis-
tant soybean genotypes to the soybean looper (Lepidoptera Noctuidae). Environ.
Entomol. 14: 531-534.
BELAND, G. L., AND J. H. HATCHETT. 1976. Expression of antibiosis to bollworm in
two soybean genotypes. J. Econ. Entomol. 69: 557-560.
CLARK, W. J., F. A. HARRIS, F. G. MAXELL, AND E. E. HARTWIG. 1972. Resistance
of certain soybean cultivars to the bean leaf beetle, striped blister beetle, and
bollworm. J. Econ. Entomol. 65: 1669-1672.
DANIEL, W. W. 1990. Applied nonparametric statistics. 2nd ed. PWS-KENT Publish-
ing Company, Boston. 635 pp.
DUNN, 0. J. 1964. Multiple comparisons using rank sums. Technometrics, 6: 241-252.
HATCHETT, J. H., G. L. BELAND, AND E. E. HARTWIG. 1976. Leaf-feeding resist-
ance to bollworm and tobacco budworm in three plant introductions. Crop Sci.
16: 277-280.
HOUSE, H. L. 1966. Effect of temperature on the nutritional requirements of an insect,
Pseudosarcophaga affinis Auit.nec Fallen (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and its prob-
able ecological significance. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 59: 1263-1267.
KEA, C. W., S. G. TURNIPSEED, AND G. R. CARNER. 1978. Influence of resistant
soybeans on the susceptibility of lepidopterous pests to insecticides. J. Econ.
Entomol. 71: 58-60.
MARASCUILO, L. A., AND M. MCSWEENEY. 1977. Nonparametric and distribution-
free methods for the social sciences. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, Mon-
terey, Calif. 556 pp.
NADGAUDA, D., AND H. N. PITRE. 1983. Development, fecundity, and longevity of
the tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed soybean, cotton, and artificial
diet at three temperatures. Environ. Entomol. 12: 582-586.

Florida Entomologist 75(3)

POWELL, J. E., AND L. LAMBERT. 1984. Effects of three resistant genotypes on
development of Microplitis croceiopes and leaf consumption by its Heliothis spp.
hosts. J. Agric. Entomol. 1: 169-176.
SAS INSTITUTE. 1985. SAS User's Guide. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina.
SMITH, C. M. 1985. Expression, mechanisms and chemistry of resistance in soybean,
Glycine max L. (Merr.), to the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includes
(Walker). Insect Sci. Appl. 6: 243-248.
STEEL, R. G. D., AND J. H. TORRIE. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics.
2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. 633 pp.


Department of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611-0740

The melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a serious
pest of Cucurbitaceae throughout the southeastern United States (Fulton 1947, Dupree
et al. 1955). This insect is unable to overwinter north of approximately latitude 260 N
and therefore annually infests crops in the Atlantic coastal states from resident popula-
tions in southern Florida (Reid & Cuthbert 1956). The melonworm is a defoliator that
remains hidden and quiescent on the underside of stalks and leaves during the photoph-
ase while actively feeding on these same plant parts during scotophase. As the popula-
tion increases, larvae become less discriminate and feed on the entire host, including
fruit, leaves, stalks, and vines.
Reproductive isolation from the pickleworm, Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll), is partially
accomplished by differences in sex pheromone chemistry (Raina et al. 1986, Klun et al.
1986). Although these two species share five pheromonal components, Klun et al. (1986)
reported that the addition of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal (a pheromonal component
unique to melonworm) to the pickleworm synthetic pheromone blend prevented the
elicitation of normal behavioral responses from males of the pickleworm. Indeed, sym-
patric congeneric species often accomplish reproductive isolation by sex pheromone
manipulation (e.g., producing different pheromonal components, differing permutations
or ratios of the same components, or the production of similar blends at unique well
defined periods during the diel cycle (Roelofs & Carde 1974, Teal et al. 1978, Teal &
Byers 1980, Klun et al. 1982)).
The majority of the research conducted to date on Diaphania sp. has been directed
toward the pickleworm. Ecological data on the melonworm is limited. The objective of
this study was to determine the diel periodicity of melonworm mating activity.
Melonworm adults used for the study were obtained from a laboratory-reared colony
initiated in January, 1990 from pupae obtained from K. D. Elsey at the U.S. Vegetable
Laboratory, USDA, Charleston S.C., and fed an artificial pinto bean diet. Males and
females were separated as pupae. At 1900 hours, four 2- to 4-day-old adult unmated
melonworm females were placed into a cylindrical wire screen cage (10 by 8 cm diameter;
18 mesh) suspended vertically 30 cm above the ground in the center of an outdoor field
cage (3.4 m tall, 4.9 m wide, and 12.2 m long positioned in an east-west direction) located


September, 1992

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