Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00045
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1998
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00045
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text

Evans et al.: Tenuipalpidae of Bermuda


1Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

2Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109


Four new host plant records and five new distribution records are reported for ten-
uipalpid mites collected in a survey of the phytophagous mites of Bermuda. A taxo-
nomic key to the five tenuipalpid species and a host plant list are provided.

Key Words: phytophagous mites, tenuipalpid, flat mites, false spider mites, Bermuda,


Se reportan cuatro hospederos nuevos y cinco localidades nuevas para acaros te-
nuipalpidos recolectados en Bermuda. Se incluyen una clave de identificaci6n para las
cinco species de tenuipalpidos y una lista de las plants hospederas.

Bermuda is a small archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean with seven main is-
lands comprising a total land area of 54 km2. The climate is subtropical and frost-free,
but the terrestrial fauna is depauperate due to the extreme isolation of the islands and
their geologically young age. Hillburn & Gordon (1989) provided a review of entomology
in Bermuda and an introduction to the insect survey initiated in 1987. In December,
1989 and May, 1990, Dr. H. L. Cromroy of the University of Florida traveled to Bermuda
to conduct a survey of the phytophagous mites of the island in cooperation with senior
plant quarantine officer K. D. Monkman. Financial support was provided by the De-
partment of Agriculture, Fisheries and Parks, Hamilton, Bermuda to conduct the study.
Collections were made all over the islands from as many different plants as possible in-
cluding ornamentals, cultivated crops and weeds. This survey could then serve as a ba-
sis for the quarantine of specific plant mites which do not occur on the island.
The following is a report of the species of the family Tenuipalpidae, commonly
called false spider mites or flat mites, collected in the survey. No previous records exist
oftenuipalpids collected in Bermuda. Setal nomenclature, sculpture terminology and
species groups follows that used by Baker & Tuttle (1987). The names and abbrevia-
tions used for the various nymphal forms of Breuipalpus phoenicis are given and il-
lustrated in Evans et al. (1993). An asterisk is used to indicate new host and
distribution records. All of the collections of tenuipalpids from Bermuda were made by
H. L. Cromroy and K. Monkman, unless otherwise noted.


1. Dorsosublateral hysterosomal setae present, palpus 5-segmented.
.................................... ......... GenusAegyptobia Sayed

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

One species in genus known to occur in Bermuda having uncinate claws, deeply
emarginated rostral shield, long serrate dorsolateral hysterosomal setae and elon-
gate areolae on the dorsocentral region of the propodosoma and hysterosoma.
......................................... A. nothus Pritchard and Baker
-Dorsosublateral hysterosomal setae absent, palpus 4-segmented
.......... . Genus Breuipalpus 2
2. Hysterosoma with 6 pairs of lateral setae ............................... 3
- Hysterosoma with 7 pairs of lateral setae, 2 solenidia on tarsus II californicuss
Group), one species in this group known to occur in Bermuda having the dorsocen-
tral and dorsomedial regions areolate, intercoxal area smooth, dorsal setae on fem-
ora I and II broad and leaf-like. Nymph with all dorsal idiosomal setae broadly
leaf-like ............................................. B. uiquierae BTA
3. Tarsus II with 1 solenidion (obovatus Group), one species in this group known to
occur in Bermuda with broad dorsum, areolate dorsomedial region and rugose lat-
eral region, propodosomal setae short and sublanceolate, similar in size and form
as the dorsolateral hysterosomal setae ............... B. obovatus Donnadieu
Tarsus II with 2 solenidia (phoenicis Group) ............................. 4
4. Palpfemur seta broad and leaf-like, intercoxal area reticulate
................................................ . B. hondurani Evans
- Palpfemur seta lanceolate, intercoxal area punctate ..... B. phoenicis (Geijskes)

Genus Aegyptobia Sayed
Aegyptobia nothus Pritchard and Baker

Aegyptobia nothus Pritchard and Baker 1958:180.
TYPE: Holotype female, ex. Juniperus sp., Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA,
18.vii.1953, by A.E. Pritchard, in the U. S. National Museum USNM).
HOSTS: Juniperus sp., *Juniperus chinensis, *Platycladus orientalis, Quercus sp.,
Taxodium disticus.
DISTRIBUTION: *Bermuda and USA: Florida, North Carolina, Oklahoma.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Female, ex. Juniperus chinensis, Bermuda, Paget Par-
ish, 1.5 miles SE of Hamilton, Bermuda Botanical Gardens, 11.xii.1989; ex. Platycla-
dus orientalis, Bermuda, Paget Parish, 1.5 miles SE of Hamilton, Bermuda Botanical
Gardens, 11.xii.1989.

Genus Breuipalpus Donnadieu
Brevipalpus hondurani Evans

Breuipalpus hondurani Evans; Evans, Cromroy and Ochoa 1993:141.
TYPE: Holotype female, ex. Heterocentron subtriplinervium, Honduras, Parque La
Tigra, 16.xii.1987, G. A. Evans, in USNM.
HOSTS: Chamaedorea sp., *Eriobotrya japonica, *Eupatorium capillifolium, Het-
erocentron subtriplinervium, Hydrocotyle mexicana, Passiflora bicolor.
DISTRIBUTION: *Bermuda and Honduras.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: ex. Eriobotrya japonica, Bermuda, Lindley, Warwick,
9.v.1990.; ex. Eupatorium capillifolium, Bermuda, Devonshire, 12.xii.1989.
COMMENTS: Fungal spores were observed attached to mites in both of these col-

Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes)

Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) 1939:4

Evans et al.: Tenuipalpidae of Bermuda

TYPE: Holotype female, in the Laboratorium voor Entomologie, Landbouwhooge-
school, Wageningen, Netherlands.
HOSTS: Many hosts including hundreds of ornamental and fruit species.
DISTRIBUTION: *Bermuda, Worldwide.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: ex. Buddleia sp., Bermuda, Warwick, Olive Bank
11.xii.1989 (typical nymph form); ex. Citharexylum spinosum L., 11.xii.1989; and
12.xii.1990, by K. Monkman; ex. Ipomoea sp., Bermuda, Warwick, Olive Bank,
12.xii. 1989; Ipomoea sp. (morningglory), Bermuda, Vassey Street, 9.v. 1990; ex. Myrica
cerifera, Bermuda, Devonshire, Vassey Street, 9.v.1990 (typical nymph form); ex.
Pittosporum sp., Bermuda, Paget Parish, Marsh, 7. v.1990, fungal spores found on
mite; Bermuda, Paget Parish, 1.5 SE Hamilton, Bermuda Botanical Gardens,
11.xii.1989; ex. Quisqualis indica (Rangoon creeper), Bermuda, Paget Parish, 1.5
miles SE Hamilton, Bermuda Botanical Gardens, 15.xii.1989; ex. weed, Bermuda, De-
vonshire, Vassey Street, 12.xii.1989, (ab-type nymph); ex. weed, Bermuda, Devon-
shire, Vassey Street, 9.vi.1990.

Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu

Breuipalpus obovatus Donnadieu 1875:116.
HOSTS: Many hosts including hundreds of ornamental and fruit species.
DISTRIBUTION: *Bermuda, Worldwide.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: ex. Ipomoea batatas, Bermuda, Devonshire, Brighton
Hill, 12.xii.1989.

Brevipalpus viquierae Baker, Tuttle and Abbatiello

Brevipalpus viquierae Baker, Tuttle and Abbatiello 1975:16.
LECTOTYPE: ex. Viquiera sp., Mexico, Los Mochis, Sinaloa, 23.vii. 1970, by Tut-
tle, Abbatiello and Baker.
HOST: Viquiera sp.
DISTRIBUTION: *Bermuda, Honduras and Mexico.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: ex. undetermined plant, Bermuda, Paget Parish,
Marsh, 7.v.1990, nymph with fungal spores attached.


Species of the genus Breuipalpus may play an important role in the dissemination
and development of phytoparasitic and saprophytic fungal spores especially in the
tropics. In our study, we found fungal spores attached to Breuipalpus hondurani and
B. viquierae. Further studies are needed to determine the role these mites play in the
dissemination of various fungi.


Buddleia sp. ........................................ Brevipalpus phoenicis
Citharexylum spinosum L. ............................. Brevipalpus phoenicis
Eriobotryajaponica (Thunb.) .......................... Brevipalpus hondurani
Eupatorium capillifolium ............................. Brevipalpus hondurani
Ipomoea batatas L. ................................... Brevipalpus obovatus
Ipomoea sp. ......................................... Brevipalpus phoenicis
Juniperus chinensis L. ................................... Aegyptobia nothus

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

Myrica cerifera L. ................................... Breipalpus phoenicis
Pittosporum sp. ..................................... Brevipalpus phoenicis
Platycladus orientalis (L.) ............................. Aegyptobia nothus
Quisqualis indica L. ................................. Brevipalpus phoenicis


We thank the Bermuda Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Parks for their
financial support of this research, and K. D. Monkman for assisting in all of the col-
lections. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. R-05333.


BAKER, E. W., AND D. M. TUTTLE. 1987. The False Spider Mites of Mexico. United
States Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin No. 1706, 137 pp.
BAKER, E. W., D. M. TUTTLE, AND M. J. ABBATIELLO. 1975. The false spider mites of
northwestern and northcentral Mexico. Smithsonian Contributions in Zoology
194: 1-23.
DONNADIEU, A. L. 1875. Recherches pour servir a l'histoire de Tetranyques. Tese Fac.
Sci. Lyon, 134 pp. Also Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon (n. ser.) 22:(1876): 29-136.
EVANS, G. A., H. L. CROMROY, AND R. OCHOA. 1993. The Tenuipalpidae of Honduras.
Florida Entomologist 76(1): 126-155.
GEIJSKES, D. C. 1939. Beitrage zur kenntnis der europaischen Spinnmilben, mit be-
sonderer Berucksichtigung der nieder-landischen Arten. Meded. van de Land-
bouwhoogesch te Wageningen (Nederland) 42(4): 1-68.
HILBURN, D. J., AND R. D. GORDON. 1989. Coleoptera of Bermuda. Florida Entomolo-
gist 72: 673-692.
PRITCHARD, A. E., AND E. W. BAKER. 1958. The false spider mites of California (Acar-
ina: Tenuipalpidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 14(3):

Evans & Castillo: Parasites ofAleurotrachelus socialis 171


1Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

2Centro International de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Apartado Aereo 6713
Cali, Colombia


Five parasite species, including two new species, Encarsia bellottii Evans and
Castillo, n. sp. and Amitus macgowni Evans and Castillo, n. sp. were reared from
Aleurotrachelus socialis Bondar on cassava, Manihot esculenta, in Colombia. E. bel-
lottii was also reared from Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) on cassava. The new
species are described and illustrated.

Key Words: Aphelinidae, parasites, biological control, natural enemy, taxonomy, cas-
sava, Manihot, Neotropical


Se reportan cinco species de parasitos, incluyendo dos nuevas species, Encarsia
bellottii Evans y Castillo y Amitus macgowni Evans y Castillo, criados de Aleurotra-
chelus socialis Bondar en plants de yuca, Manihot esculenta, en Colombia. Encarsia
bellottii tambien fu6 criado de Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) en yuca. Se des-
criben y se ilustran estas nuevas species.

Cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, is an important staple food in many countries
throughout the tropics. Population outbreaks of two whitefly species, Aleurotrachelus
socialis Bondar and Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance), sometime occur on cassava
in Colombia, reducing crop yields by 60-80% (Bellotti et al., 1983).A. socialis is, by far,
the more common of the two whitefly species, representing 80% of the whitefly popu-
lation (Gold et al., 1991).
Bondar (1923) describedA. socialis on Cecropia sp. from Brazil. This species is not
known to attack other crops; however, high populations of the whitefly have been ob-
served on wild species of Manihot in Colombia.
Natural enemies play an important role in maintaining the whitefly populations
below economic levels. Vargas and Bellotti (1983) reported an average of 56% parasit-
ism, and Gold et al. (1991) reported 32% parasite emergence fromA. socialis pupae
and attributed an additional 37% mortality to host feeding and/or unsuccessful para-
sitism of whiteflies on cassava in Colombia. However, drift of aerial pesticide applica-
tions on adjacent commercial crops sometimes reduces parasite effectiveness, and
population outbreaks may occur.
Only two parasite species, Amitus aleurodinus Haldeman and Eretmocerus aley-
rodiphaga (Risbec), have been reported fromA. socialis (Gold et al., 1989). Although

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

we have not examined the specimens on which this report was based, we consider the
identifications of both species to be erroneous. All of the specimens belonging to the
genus Amitus reared by the second author from A. socialis on cassava in Colombia
represent a new species,Amitus macgowni Evans and Castillo, described herein.Am-
itus aleurodinus is a Nearctic species, primarily known from Canada, and reported
from as far south as Virginia, U.S.A. (MacGown and Nebeker, 1978). It is readily dis-
tinguishable fromA. macgowni by the round apex and denser ciliation of its fore wing,
and by the short glandular organ on the second flagellar segment of the male antenna.
Eretmocerus aleyrodiphaga (Risbec) was described from an aleyrodid on "Ricin" (Rici-
nus sp.) from Senegal. The original description and illustrations of this species do not
provide sufficient detail to distinguish it from several other species ofEretmocerus.
At least five parasite species were reared fromA. socialis on cassava in Colombia;
four of these, Encarsia hispida De Santis, Encarsia pergandiella Howard, Encarsia
bellottii Evans and Castillo and Amitus macgowni Evans and Castillo, are reported
herein; the fifth, and possibly other species, belong to the genus Eretmocerus and have
been sent to Mike Rose, an expert in the taxonomy of this genus. We are unable, at
this time, to determine the identity and the number of different species of the genus
Eretmocerus that attack A. socialis, and thus will limit our discussion of the genus
Eretmocerus to the generic level.


1. Fore wing lacking marginal and stigmal veins (Fig. 7); pronotum reaching tegula;
body (Fig. 6) entirely black or dark brown, robust and strongly sclerotized; female
antennal flagellum 8-segmented (Fig. 8) with last 3 segments forming large club;
male antennal flagellum 8-segmented (Fig. 9) with sensory process on second seg-
ment, and 1-segmented club ....................... Amitus macgowni n. sp.
-Fore wing with marginal and stigmal veins (Fig. 5); pronotum separate from teg-
ula; body not entirely black or dark brown, less robust and weakly sclerotized; fe-
male antennal flagellum with 3 to 6 segments (Fig. 4), male flagellum with 1 to 6
segm ents ........................................................ 2
2. Female antennal flagellum 3-segmented, namely, 2 funicle segments and one elon-
gate club segment; all tarsi 4-segmented; male antennal flagellum comprised of
one very elongate club segment, body yellow or orange .... Genus Eretmocerus
-Female antennal flagellum 6-segmented; tarsi 5-4-5 or 5-5-5; male flagellum 5 or
6-segmented, body color variable ............................ Encarsia 3
3. Mid tarsi 4-segmented; body completely yellow (mesoscutum, axillae and base of
gaster sometimes lightly infuscate) .............. Encarsia hispida De Santis
All tarsi 5-segmented; body partially brown ............................. 4
4. Fore wing narrow, disc longer than wide with asetose area under stigmal vein,
longest seta of marginal fringe longer than greatest width of fore wing
......................................... Encarsia pergandiella Howard
- Fore wing broad, disc approximately as wide as long with area under stigmal
vein completely setose, longest seta of marginal fringe less than half as long as
greatest width of fore wing ............. Encarsia bellottii Evans and Castillo

Encarsia bellottii Evans and Castillo, n. sp.
(Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae)
(Figs. 1-5)

FEMALE. Body length (8 specimens) Range = 0.65-.80 mm, mean = 0.75. Color -
Body yellow, area surrounding foramen, pronotum, anterior margin of mesoscutum,

Evans & Castillo: Parasites ofAleurotrachelus socialis 173

axillae, metanotum, gastral tergites I, IV, V, VI and valvular III, dark brown; legs and
antennae yellow; fore wing infuscate under the marginal vein. Structure Head: as
wide as mesosoma, mandible (Fig. 2) tridentate; antenna (Fig. 4) composed of radicle
(R), scape (S), pedicel (P), 3 funicular segments (F1-F3) and 3 club segments (F4-F6),
length/width ratio of each segment as follows: R:2.2, S:5.0, P:1.2, Fl: 0.8, F2:1.3,
F3:1.4, F4:1.5, F5:1.7, and F6:2.1; relative length of each segment to Fl as follows:
R:1.4, S:5.0, P:1.8, Fl:1.0, F2:1.8, F3:1.9, F4:2.0, F5:2.2, F6:2.8; F1-F6 with 0,2,2,2,3,3
linear sensilla, respectively. Mesosoma: (Fig. 1) mesoscutum broad, 1.6 times wider
than long with 2 pairs of setae and broad hexagonal sculpturing; each side lobe with
3 setae; each axilla with 1 short seta; scutellum with 2 pairs of setae, anterior pair
(Scl) 0.6 times as long as posterior pair (Sc2); distance between placoid sensillae ap-
proximately 6x as wide as the diameter of one sensillum; endophragma rounded, ex-
tending to apex of gastral tergite I; tarsal formula 5-5-5, tibial spur of leg II (Fig. 3)
as long as corresponding basitarsus; Fore wing: (Fig. 5) disc informally setose, 2
basal setae; longest seta of marginal fringe 0.3x as long as greatest width of fore wing;
costal cell with 5 setae; marginal vein with 2 pterostigmal setae, 5 elongate setae
along its anterior margin and 9 setae along its interior. Gaster: with imbricate sculp-
turing on lateral margins of tergites I-V, tergites VI and VII slightly rugose; tergites
I-VII with 0,1,1,1,3,2,2 pairs of setae, respectively; tergite VII (syntergum) expanded,
somewhat conical; ovipositor arising at level of tergite II, 1.8x as long as tibia of leg
II, valvular III 0.25x as long as ovipositor.
MALE. Not known.
HOSTS. Aleurotrachelus socialis and Trialeurodes variabilis.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED. Holotype female and 4 paratype females reared from
Aleurotrachelus socialis on Manihot esculenta, COLOMBIA, Cauca, Buenos Aires,
1.xi.1994, J. A. Castillo. Specimens deposited as follows: holotype U.S. Museum of
Natural History (USNM), Washington, D.C., USA; 1 paratype Natural History Mu-
seum (NHM), London, England; one paratype Florida State Collection ofArthropods
(FSCA), Gainesville, Florida; and 1 paratype Centro International de Agricultura
Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia. Additional specimens reared from Trialeurodes vari-
abilis on Manihot esculenta, COLOMBIA, Cauca, Caldono, 3.xi. 1994, J. A. Castillo,
deposited in personal collection of G. A. Evans.
DISCUSSION. Encarsia bellottii Evans and Castillo is tentatively placed in the En-
carsia opulenta-species group (Viggiani and Mazzone, 1979), based upon its 5-5-5 tar-
sal formula, short Fl antennal segment and conical-shaped gastral tergite VII. Definite
placement of this species in the opulenta-species group is not possible at this time since
we are unable to determine whether the male of this species possesses the expanded Fl
antennal segment. E. bellottii is most similar in coloration and structure to Encarsia
opulenta (Silvestri) an Oriental species that has been introduced into many New World
countries for control of the citrus .1 i ,.kll ... .. ..I..i. woglumi Ashby. Encarsia bel-
lotti differs from Encarsia opulenta by having only 2 pairs of setae on the mesoscutum
and the first two gastral tergites dark brown; E. opulenta has 5 pairs of setae on the me-
soscutum and the gaster is dark brown except for tergites I and II which are yellow.
ETYMOLOGY. This species is named in honor of Anthony Bellotti for his contri-
bution to entomology in Colombia and other countries.

Encarsia hispida De Santis

Encarsia hispida is the most common parasite reared fromA. socialis in Colombia.
This species is also often reared from the Bemisia tabaci species-complex through-
out the Caribbean and Central and South America. The taxonomic status ofE. hisp-

Florida Entomologist 81(2)


Z, _

FIGS. 1-5. Encarsia bellottii female. 1) habitus dorsum with gaster divided right
side dorsum, left side venter; 2) mandible; 3) tibia and tarsi of leg II; 4) antenna; 5)
fore wing.

ida remains controversial. Viggiani (1989) synonymized this species with Encarsia
meritoria Gahan, but its status was later renewed by Polaszek et al. (1992). Only fe-
males of this species were reared fromA. socialis and Trialeurodes floridensis (Quain-
tance) in this study. A. socialis represents a new host record for this parasite.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED. COLOMBIA, Antioquia, San Carlos, 7.iii.1995, J. A.
Castillo, ex. Trialeurodes variabilis on Manihot esculenta; COLOMBIA, Magdalena,
Pivijay, 21.i.1994, J. A. Castillo, ex. Aleurotrachelus socialis on Manihot esculenta;
same host and collector as previous record Magdalena, La Colorada, 21.i.1994; Boli-
var, Maria La Baja, 24.i.1994; Cordoba, Chinu, 26.i. 1994; Santander, Rio Negro (La
Suiza), 25.viii.1994; Santander, Barrancabermeja, 30.viii.1994; Santander, Rio Negro
(Corpoica), 25.viii.1994; Huila, Guadalupe, 3.x.1994; Tolima, San Luis, 6.x.1994;
Meta, Villaviciencio (La Libertad), 18.i.1995; Meta, Acacias, 19.i.1995; Meta, San

June, 1998

Evans & Castillo: Parasites ofAleurotrachelus socialis 175

Martin, 20.i.1995; Meta, Cumaral, 24.i.1995; Cundinamarca, Medina, 24.i.1995; Cun-
dinamarca, Paratebueno (Europa), 25.i.1995; Casanare, Barranca de Upia, 25.i.1995.

Encarsia pergandiella Howard

One male specimen ofE. pergandiella was reared fromA. socialis. Males ofE. per-
gandiella are hyperparasitic on the female of the same species (adelphoparasitic) or
other primary parasite species that attack whitefly. This species is widespread
throughout the New World and has been introduced into Italy and Israel. It attacks a
wide variety of whitefly species, and is most commonly reared from Bemisia and Tri-
aleurodes species (Polaszek et al., 1992). Males and females of this species are often
reared from Trialeurodes variabilis on cassava in Colombia and other countries.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED. COLOMBIA, Cauca, Cajibio, 3.xi.1994, J. A. Castillo,
ex. Trialeurodes variabilis on Manihot esculenta; same host and collector, Antioquia,
Bolivar, 14.iii.1995; COLOMBIA, Cauca, Buenos Aires, 1.xi.1994, J. A. Castillo, ex.
Aleurotrachelus socialis on Manihot esculenta.

Genus Eretmocerus
(Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae)

Specimens of the genus Eretmocerus were reared fromA. socialis on cassava, and
were sent to Mike Rose at Montana State University, for identification.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED. COLOMBIA, Magdalena, Pivijay, 21.i.1994, J. A.
Castillo, ex. Aleurotrachelus socialis on Manihot esculenta.

Amitus macgowni Evans and Castillo, n. sp.
(Platygasteroidea: Platygasteridae)
(Figs. 6-10)

FEMALE. Body length Range = 0.6- 0.7 mm. Color body black (Fig. 6); coxae and
femora, dark brown; tibiae centrally infuscate; antennae, trochanters, tarsi, and basal
and apical ends of tibiae, light brown; wings hyaline, disc sometimes faintly infuscate.
Structure Head: transverse, twice as wide as long; lateral ocellar line (LOL) 0.7x as
long as ocular ocellar line (OOL) and 0.4 times as long as posterior ocellar line (POL);
lower genae slightly swollen; interantennal flange weak to moderate; antennae (Fig.
8) inserted at level of lower eye margin; composed of radicle (R), scape (S), pedicel (P),
5 funicular (= antennomeres) segments (F1-F5) and 3 club segments (F6-F8); length/
width ratio of each segment as follows: R:1.5, S:4.7, P:2.7, Fl: 2.8, F2:2.4, F3:2.1,
F4:1.6, F5:1.6, club compact (F6-F8): 3.7; relative length of each segment to length of
F1 (= 0.044 mm) as follows: R:0.4, S:3.2, P:1.5, F1:1.0, F2:0.9, F3:0.9, F4:0.8, F5:0.8,
F6-F8:2.9; club 1.1 times as long as F3-F5; Mesosoma: (Fig. 6) mesoscutum reticulate
except smooth posterior area of central plate; internotaular distance at posterior mar-
gin of mesoscutum 3.7 times width of notaulus; central plate with 1 pair of anterior
setae, each lateral plate with 2 pairs of setae; scutellum reticulate with 3 pairs of se-
tae and approximately 12 strong, rounded crenulae; Fore wing: (Fig. 7) elongate, 3.5
times as long as wide, narrowing towards apex; disc setose with large elliptically-
shaped area along the anterior margin of disc, bare, or nearly so; longest seta of mar-
ginal fringe 0.5 times as long as greatest width of fore wing; Gaster: 1.1 times as long
as wide; tergite II 0.6 times as long as wide, and 1.2 times as long as remaining seg-
ments; striations extending distally from anterior margin to slightly past middle of
tergite II.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

FIGS. 6-10.Amitus macgowni. 6) 9 habitus dorsum; 7) 9 fore wing; 8) 9 antenna;
9) 6 antenna with particular of F2 enlarged and rotated; 10) aedeagus.

MALE. Coloration and most characters similar to that of female. Antenna (Fig. 9)
composed of radicle (R), scape (S), pedicel (P), 7 funicular (= antennomeres) segments
(F1-F7) and 1 club segment (F8); length/width ratio of each segment as follows: R:1.0,
S:5.5, P:2.0, Fl: 1.7, F2:2.6, F3:2.5, F4:2.5, F5:2.1, F6: 1.8; F7: 1.8, F8: 3.3; relative
length of each segment to length of F1 (=0.034 mm) as follows: R:0.3, S:3.5, P:1.4,
Fl:1.0, F2:1.5, F3:1.4, F4:1.4, F5:1.4, F6:1.3, F7:1.4, F8:2.4; male sex gland (tyloid)
pointed at apex and extending 0.7 times length of F2. Aedeagus (Fig. 10) with 4 spines
on digiti.
HOSTS. Aleurotrachelus socialis and Trialeurodes variabilis.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED. Holotype female, 4 paratype females, and 27 paratype
males reared from Aleurotrachelus socialis on Manihot esculenta, COLOMBIA,
Cauca, Buenos Aires, 1.xi.1994, J. A. Castillo. Holotype female and 3 paratype males
deposited in the U.S. Museum of Natural History (USNM), Washington, D.C., USA;
one paratype female and 3 paratype males deposited in the Florida State Collection
of Arthropods (FSCA), Gainesville, Florida; and 1 paratype female and 3 paratype
males deposited in the Centro International de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Co-
lombia. Additional specimens reared from Trialeurodes variabilis on Manihot escu-
lenta, COLOMBIA, Cauca, Caldono, 3.xi. 1994, J. A. Castillo, deposited in personal
collection of G. A. Evans.
Two female cotypes and 1 male cotype specimen ofAmitus blanchardi De Santis,
reared fromAleurothrixus floccosus (=A. howardi) on citrus, ARGENTINA, Baradero,
1.1936, by L. De Santis, and two females identified by L. De Santis asAmitus spin-

Evans & Castillo: Parasites ofAleurotrachelus socialis 177

iferus (Brethes) reared fromAleurothrixus floccous, ARGENTINA, La Plata, viii.1941,
Marabona, were examined.
DISCUSSION. Previously, only three, valid species of the genus Amitus were
known from South America. MacGown and Nebeker (1978) described Amitus fusci-
pennis andA. pigeanus, reared from Trialeurodes uaporariorum in Colombia (type se-
ries from Costa Rica), andAleurodicus pigeanus in Chile, respectively.A. macgowni is
easily distinguished from the former species which has distinctly infuscate fore wings;
and from the latter species, which has the distance between the notauli along the pos-
terior margin of the mesoscutum extremely narrow, shorter than the width of one no-
taulus at its base. Amitus spiniferus (Brethes) was described from specimens
supposedly reared from the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagon (Targ.-
Tozz.) in Argentina. The original host record of this species is almost certainly errone-
ous since other species in the genus have only been reared from aleyrodid hosts. This
claim is further supported by the fact that Amitus blanchardi De Santis, which was
synonymized withA. spiniferus by De Santis (1941), was reared from Aleurothrixus
floccosus (Maskell) in Argentina. A. macgowni is very similar to Amitus spiniferus in
the width of the internotaular distance at the posterior base of the mesoscutum, the
relative dimensions of the antennal segments and the shape and size of the glandular
organ on the F2 segment of the male antenna.
The female ofA. macgowni differs from the female ofA. spiniferus by having the
F2 antennal segment cylindrical, the length of F2-F5 longer than the length of the
club, the ciliation of the fore wing sparser, in particular, an area along the anterior
margin bare (or nearly so), and having approximately 12-14 crenulae along the ante-
rior margin of the scutellum. InA. spiniferus, the F2 segment is nearly quadrate, the
length of F2-F5 is approximately equal to the length of the club, the area along the an-
terior margin of the disc is densely ciliated, and there are approximately 18-22 crenu-
lae along the anterior margin of the scutellum. A. macgowni males can be
distinguished fromA. spiniferus males by the differences in fore wing station as pre-
viously mentioned regarding the females, and by the presence of 4 spines on the digiti
of the aedeagus in A. macgowni versus 3 spines on the digiti of the latter species as
reported by Viggiani and Mazzone (1982).
ETYMOLOGY:. This species is named in honor of Dr. Matt MacGown for his work
on the taxonomy of the genus Amitus and assistance with this manuscript.


We thank the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)/Proyecto
Manejo Integrado de Plagas en Cultivos de Cassava for its support of this research; M.
MacGown and F. D. Bennett for their comments, suggestions and review of this manu-
script; M. Macgown for the loan of a specimen ofAmitus aleurodinus; L. De Santis for
the loan of cotypes ofAmitus blanchardi and literature; and D. Smith (USNM) for the
loan of additional specimens ofA. spiniferus used for study. Funding for the senior au-
thor was provided by the USDA/APHIS/National Biological Control Institute Postdoc-
toral Fellowship in Systematics. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal
Series No. R-05332.


BELLOTTI, A. C., O. VARGAS, J. E. PENA, AND B. ARIAS. 1983. Perdidas en rendimiento
en yuca causadas por insects y acaros, pp. 115-127 in: J. A. Reyes (ed.) Yuca:
Control Integrado de las Plagas, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical,
Cali, Colombia.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

BONDAR, G. 1923. Aleirodeos do Brasil. Secr. Agr. Inst. Obras Publ. Estado Bahia, Sec-
cao Pathol. Veg. 183 pp.
BRETHES, J. 1914. Les enemies de la Diaspis pentagon dans la Republique Argen-
tine. Nunquam otiosus, Buenos Aires, 1: 1-16.
DE SANTIS, L. 1937. Una nueva especie de himenoptero del generoAmitus de la Re-
publica Argentina. Revista Argentina de Agronomia 4: 115-118.
DE SANTIS, L. 1941. Lista de himenopteros parasites y predatores de los insects de
la Republica Argentina. Boletim da Sociedade Brasileira de Agronomia 4: 1-66.
DE SANTIS, L. 1948. Adiciones a la fauna Argentina de afelinidos (Hymenoptera, Chal-
cidoidea). Revista del Museo de La Plata (Nueva Serie) 5: 23-280.
GOLD, C. S., M. A. ALTIERI, AND A. C. BELLOTTI. 1989. The effect of intercropping and
mixed varieties of predators and parasites of cassava whiteflies (Hemiptera:
Aleyrodidae) in Colombia. Bulletin of Entomological Research 79: 115-121.
GOLD, C.S., M. A. ALTIERI, AND A. C. BELLOTTI. 1991. Survivorship of the cassava
whiteflies Aleurotrachelus socialis and Trialeurodes variabilis (Homoptera:
Aleyrodidae) under different cropping systems in Colombia. Crop Protection
10: 305-309.
HOWARD, L. 0. 1907. New genera and species of Aphelinidae with a revised table of
genera. United States Department of Agriculture Technical Series 12: 69-88.
MACGOWN, M. W., AND T. E. NEBEKER. 1978. Taxonomic review of Amitus (Hy-
menoptera: Proctotrupoidea, Platygasteridae) of the Western Hemisphere. Ca-
nadian Entomologist 110: 275-283.
MASNER, L., AND L. HUGGERT. 1989. World review and keys to genera of the subfamily
Inostemmatinae with reassignment of the taxa to Platygasterinae and Sce-
liotrachelinae. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 147: 3-214.
POLASZEK, A., G. A. EVANS, AND F. D. BENNETT. 1992. Encarsia parasitoids ofBemisia
tabaci (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): a preliminary
guide to identification. Bulletin of Entomological Research 82: 375-392.
VARGAS, O., AND A. C. BELLOTTI. 1983. Dano economic causado por la mosca blanca
en el cultivo de la yuca pp. 129-144 in: J. A. Reyes (ed.), Control Integrado de
las Plagas (ed. J. A. Reyes), pp. 129-144, Centro Internacional de Agricultura
Tropical, Cali, Colombia.
VIGGIANI, G. 1989. Notes on some Nearctic and Neotropical Encarsia Forster (Hyme-
noptera: Aphelinidae). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia agraria "Fili-
ppo Silvestri" Portici. 46: 207-213.
VIGGIANI, G., AND P. MAZZONE. 1982. Amitus Hald. (Hym. Platygasteridae) of Italy,
with descriptions of three new species. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomolo-
gia agraria "Filippo Silvestri" Portici. 39: 55-69.
VIGGIANI, G., AND P. MAZZONE. 1979. Contributi alla conoscenza morfo-biologica delle
specie del complesso Encarsia Foerster-Prospaltella Ashmead (Hym. Aphelini-
dae). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia agraria "Filippo Silvestri" Por-
tici. 36: 42-50.

Scheffrahn et al.: New Parvitermes


1Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
3205 College Avenue, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314

2Research Associate, National Fund for Scientific, Research, Belgium
University Libre de Bruxelles, CP 160/12
Laboratoire de Biologie Animale et Cellulaire
Avenue F. D. Roosevelt 50, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium


Parvitermes dominicanae n. sp. is described from recent collections of major and
minor soldiers, images, and workers from the Dominican Republic. It is the ninth spe-
cies of this endemic West Indian genus.

Key Words: taxonomy, new species, dimorphic soldiers, Greater Antilles, West Indies


Se describe Parvitermes dominicanae n. sp. de colecciones recientes de soldados
mayores y menores, de images, y de obreros, de la Republica Dominicana. Es la no-
vena especie de este g6nero end6mico de las Indias Occidentales.

A recent taxonomic revision of the small nasute termites of the Greater Antilles es-
tablished two new monotypic genera,Antillitermes and Caribitermes, and transferred
all Antillean species of Velocitermes, Obtusitermes, and Terrenitermes to Parvitermes
Emerson, mainly on the basis of worker characters (Roisin et al. 1996). Except for
Constrictotermes guantanamensis from southern Cuba (Krecek et al. 1996), all small
nasutes from Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and adjacent Bahamas and Virgin Is-
lands are now positioned in three genera all considered endemic to the region (Roisin
et al. 1996).
Table 1 provides the known species distribution by island or island group for en-
demic genera of small nasutes collected in the wake of an exhaustive survey of the ter-
mites of the West Indies (Scheffrahn et al. 1994, Scheffrahn and Roisin 1995, Roisin
et al. 1996, Scheffrahn et al. unpubl.). Included among these findings is a new Parvi-
termes from the Dominican Republic originally designated as Velocitermes n. sp. B
(Scheffrahn et al. 1994). We provide herein the description of the imago, major and mi-
nor soldier, and worker castes of this new species, P. dominicanae.


Measurements of specimens preserved in 85:15 ethanol:water were made with a
calibrated ocular micrometer and follow those defined by Sands (1965) and Roonwal

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998


Species Island(s) Soldiers

Antillitermes subtilis Cuba, Hispaniola Monomorphic
(Scheffrahn & Kfedek)
Caribitermes discolor (Banks) Hispaniola, Puerto Rico Monomorphic
Parvitermes aequalis (Snyder) Cuba Monomorphic
P. antillarum (Banks) Hispaniola Dimorphic"
P. brooks Snyder Bahamas, Cuba Monomorphic
P. collinsae Scheffrahn & Roisin Hispaniola Dimorphicb
P. dominicanae Scheffrahn et al. Hispaniola Dimorphic"
P. flaveolus (Banks) Hispaniola Monomorphic
P. pallidiceps (Banks) Hispaniola Dimorphicb
P. toussainti (Banks) Hispaniola Dimorphic"
P. wolcotti (Snyder) Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands Dimorphicb

Major soldiers common in foraging parties.
bMajor soldiers rare in foraging parties; soldier composition in nest unknown.
Major soldiers only collected from nests; not known from foraging parties.

(1970). Terms used to describe soldier morphology and color follow those of Sands
(1965). Left mandible index of worker/imagos equals the distance between the apical
and first marginal tooth divided by distance between first and third marginals (Em-
erson 1960). In Parvitermes, the second marginal tooth of the left worker/imago man-
dible is reduced to a long, rather straight, cutting edge and the molar plate (right
mandible) is notched. Head height was measured without postmentum to the highest
point of the head capsule. Scanning electron micrographs were taken of specimens de-
hydrated by the method of Nation (1983) which was slightly modified to allow for im-
mersion in HMDS for 1 day.
The digestive tube of large workers was observed after removal of the abdominal
wall and fat tissues under a dissecting microscope. Enteric valves were longitudinally
split with a fine scalpel. Mandibles and split enteric valves were dehydrated and
mounted in toto for microphotography.
The holotype major soldier and morphotypes of the minor soldier, imago, and
worker of P. dominicanae will be deposited in the collection of the National Museum
of Natural History, Washington, D.C. Paratype specimens will be deposited in the
American Museum of Natural History, New York, the Florida State Collection of Ar-
thropods, Fla. Dept. Agric. Cons. Serv., Division of Plant Industries, Gainesville, Flor-
ida, at the institutions of the first and second authors (in Ft. Lauderdale and Brussels,
respectively), and at the Universidad de Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

Parvitermes dominicanae Scheffrahn, Roisin, and Su, new species

Imago (Figs. 1-2, Table 2)

Head capsule and antennae septia brown, labrum yellow brown. Postclypeus,
pronotum and abdominal tergites pale brown. Abdominal sternites and legs very pale
brown. Wing membrane yellow brown with darker veination.

Scheffrahn et al.: New Parvitermes

Figs. 1-2. Scanning electron micrographs of dorsal and lateral views ofParvitermes
dominicanae imago head.
Figs. 3-6. Scanning electron micrographs of dorsal and lateral views of Parvitermes
dominicanae minor (3,4) and major (5,6) soldier heads.

Antennae with 16 articles, relative article length formula 2 > 3 < 4 = 5 < 6. Left
mandible index 0.37-0.38. Ocellus raised prominently below ocellar brow and facing
laterally; from above appearing as ovoid slits; large and ellipsoid laterally. Compound
eyes nearly round, not large.
Head, postclypeus, and labrum covered with dense mat of long (ca. 0.17 mm) setae.
Other sclerotized body parts also very pilous.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998


Measurement in mm (n = 7) Range Mean + SD Morphotype

Head length with labrum
Head length to postclypeus
Head width, maximum at eyes
Eye diameter, maximum
Eye to head base
Eye to ocellus
Ocellus diameter
Pronotum max. length
Pronotum width
Hind tibia length
Total length with wings
Total length without wings
Forewing length to suture
Forewing max. width

Right, apical to 1st marginal
Right, 1st to 2nd marginal
Left, apical to 1st marginal
Left, 1st to 3rd marginal
Queen total length



1.52 + 0.069
0.94 0.043
1.28 + 0.020
0.32 + 0.020
0.089 + 0.015
0.10 + 0.011
0.15 + 0.010
0.71 0.040
1.19 + 0.040
1.58 + 0.036
13.96 + 0.50
7.14 + 0.60
11.64 + 0.85
3.08 + 0.10

0.108 + 0.004
0.143 + 0.011
0.089 0.005
0.237 0.012



Minor soldier (Figs. 3-4, Table 3)

Head capsule, postmentum gulaa), nasus tip and first 3-4 antennal articles yellow
brown, nasus shaft brown; antennal articles 4 and beyond brown; thoracic nota, ab-
dominal tergites and legs very pale brown.
Head capsule in dorsal view slightly constricted near middle, maximum width of
anterior lobe about 85% that of posterior lobe; in lateral view, anterior and posterior
lobes raised equally and rounded in front of and behind constriction. Head capsule
covered with dozens of short and medium long setae tilted at various angles.
Antennae with 12 articles, relative length formula 2 = 3 = 4. Mandibles with dis-
tinct points. Nasus very weakly conical; projecting at a slight upward angle to dorsal
plane of head.

Major soldier (Figs. 5-6, Table 4)

Head capsule, postmentum, nasus tip and first 5-6 antennal articles yellow-brown,
nasus shaft brown; antennal articles 6 and beyond brown; thoracic nota, abdominal
tergites and legs very pale brown.
Head capsule in dorsal view roundly constricted near anterior third, maximum
width of anterior lobe 85% that of posterior lobe; in lateral view, anterior and posterior
lobes raised equally and rounded in front of and behind distinct constriction. Usually

Scheffrahn et al.: New Parvitermes


Measurement in mm (n = 29) Range Mean + SD Morphotype

Head length with nasus 1.12-1.24 1.17 + 0.037 1.14
Head length without nasus 0.68-0.75 0.72 + 0.022 0.70
Head width, anterior lobe 0.44-0.47 0.46 + 0.010 0.45
Head width, posterior lobe 0.52-0.56 0.54 + 0.011 0.53
Nasus width at base 0.14-0.16 0.15 + 0.007 0.15
Nasus width at middle 0.069-0.086 0.076 + 0.004 0.074
Head height, maximum 0.38-0.42 0.40 + 0.010 0.39
Pronotum width 0.33-0.35 0.34 + 0.072 0.36
Pronotum length, maximum 0.14-0.17 0.16 + 0.009 0.17
Hind tibia length 0.75-0.91 0.83 + 0.048 0.82
Total length 2.32-3.26 2.86 + 0.29 2.62

4 long setae on anterior lobe midway between base of nasus and constriction; about 6
long setae on posterior lobe; head capsule covered with dozens of shorter setae.
Antennae usually with 14 articles; relative length formula 2 > 3 < 4 = 5; in a few
specimens, 13 articles when third and fourth are fused. Mandibles with points. Nasus
weakly conical; tilting slightly above dorsal plane of head.

Worker (Figs. 7-9; Table 5)

Head capsule yellow brown except for unpigmented epicranial suture and genae;
nota and tergites very pale brown; antennal articles yellow brown. Hundreds of vari-
able setae covering head and body. Antennae with 15 articles; relative length formula
Mandibles with posterior edge of apical tooth slightly shorter or equal in length to
anterior edge of first marginal tooth, left mandible index about 0.38 (Fig. 7); right mo-


Measurement in mm (n = 14) Range Mean + SD Holotype

Head length with nasus 1.24-1.30 1.27 + 0.026 1.28
Head length without nasus 0.76-0.81 0.79 + 0.019 0.79
Head width, anterior lobe 0.55-0.56 0.55 + 0.007 0.56
Head width, posterior lobe 0.63-0.67 0.65 + 0.014 0.65
Nasus width at base 0.18-0.20 0.19 + 0.007 0.20
Nasus width at middle 0.082-0.098 0.089 + 0.004 0.086
Head height, maximum 0.43-0.47 0.45 + 0.011 0.45
Pronotum width 0.39-0.42 0.41 0.009 0.41
Pronotum length, maximum 0.18-0.21 0.20+ 0.008 0.20
Hind tibia length 0.94-1.02 0.97 + 0.023 1.02
Total length 2.47-3.41 2.82 + 0.29 2.67

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

lar plate abruptly notched near base, 8 ridges total, 5 well-developed ridges distal to
notch (Fig. 8).
Digestive tube, like other Parvitermes (Scheffrahn and Roisin 1995, Roisin et al.
1996), consisting of moderate-sized crop, well-armed gizzard, and mesenteron fol-
lowed by very long mixed segment. Mesenteric part of mixed segment on internal/dor-
sal side, attached to remainder of mesenteron by thin peduncle. Malpighian tubules
inserted on external/ventral side of mesentero-proctodeal junction. P1 extremely
elongated, forming a long loop on ventral side of paunch. Enteric valve (Fig. 9), com-
prising diffuse areas with many small spines, followed by a ring of six spiny swellings,
three major ones bearing 15-20 long, curved spines, alternating with minor ones with
small spines. P3 to rectum without remarkable features.


Parvitermes dominicanae images are very similar to those of P. toussainti with a
few minor exceptions. Parvitermes dominicanae has 16 antennal articles while P.
toussainti has 15 or 16. Pigmentation of the fontanellar spot in P. dominicanae is
faintly lighter than the surrounding vertex; in P. toussainti the spot is hyaline in con-
trast to the dark head capsule. P. dominicanae is slightly lighter in pigmentation
Among all Parvitermes from Hispaniola, the minor soldier of P. dominicanae is
closest to P. toussainti. Parvitermes dominicanae minor soldiers are much lighter in
overall pigmentation than P. toussainti, with the latter having a dark brown head cap-
sule and nearly black nasus shaft. Although pigmentation of P. antillarum minor sol-
diers is also brown, when compared to P. dominicanae and P. toussainti, P. antillarum
minor soldiers have a more nearly cylindrical nasus, a more deeply and medially con-
stricted head capsule, and much longer and thinner legs and antennae. Minor soldiers
of P. collinsae, P. pallidiceps, and P. flaveolus differ from the above three species in
having a predominantly orange tint in their head capsule pigmentation. The thirteen
segmented antennae of P. collinsae minor soldiers is unique among the other above
species which each have twelve segments. The weakly constricted, almost pyriform,
headcapule of soldiers of P. flaveolus is unique among the other, more constricted, mi-
nor soldier head capsules of Hispaniolan Parvitermes.
Major soldiers of P. dominicanae and P. toussainti differ in pigmentation as de-
scribed for their minor soldiers. Pavitermes dominicanae major soldiers have a more
clearly defined head capsule constriction, proportionally slightly broader anterior
lobe, and longer, thinner nasus than P. toussainti. Parvitermes toussainti usually has
13 antennal articles, while P. dominicanae usually has 14. Compared to P. dominica-
nae and P. toussainti, P. antillarum major soldiers have a longer, nearly cylindrical
nasus, a more deeply and medially constricted head capsule, and much longer and
thinner legs and antennae. The head capsule pigmentation of major soldiers of P. col-
linsae and P. pallidiceps contains an orange tint.
Large workers of P. dominicanae and P. toussainti are very similar, however, the
latter is slightly darker in pigmentation and usually has 14 antennal articles. Large
workers of P. antillarum are much larger than P. dominicanae or P. toussainti.

Material Examined

Specimens from one nest series and two small foraging groups of P. dominicanae
n. sp. were measured from two localities in the Dominican Republic. Type series and
HOLOTYPE major soldier and MORPHOTYPES of imago, minor soldier, and large

Scheffrahn et al.: New Parvitermes


Fig. 7. Dorsal view of left and right worker mandibles of P. dominicanae. Scale bar
= 0.1 mm.
Fig. 8. Scanning electron micrographs of Parvitermes dominicanae right molar
Fig. 9. Longitudinal section of enteric valve of P. dominicanae worker, showing two
of three major spine-bearing swellings. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.

: ::
,3;5:;cn~'~i~'~3;rJm~- ~`lA~itt7LdYa~\(

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998


Measurement in mm (n = 16) Range Mean + SD Morphotype

Head width, maximum 1.06-1.14 1.11+ 0.02 1.11
Head length to postclypeus
anteclypeus suture 0.80-0.85 0.82 + 0.013 0.82
Postclypeus width 0.58-0.67 0.63 + 0.029 0.62
Postclypeus length 0.16-0.21 0.19 + 0.012 0.20
Pronotum width 0.52-0.59 0.54 + 0.017 0.52
Pronotum length, maximum 0.28-0.31 0.30 + 0.010 0.31
Hind tibia length 0.98-1.05 1.00 + 0.023 0.98
Total length 3.56-4.36 4.06 + 0.22 4.26

Right, apical to 1st marginal 0.078-0.106 0.088 + 0.011 -
Right, 1st to 2nd marginal 0.114-0.123 0.121 + 0.004 -
Left, apical to 1st marginal 0.065-0.082 0.072 + 0.006 -
Left, 1st to 3rd marginal 0.180-0.196 0.189 + 0.006 -

worker: Distrito Nacional Province, Bomba de Gaunuma (18 37'N, 69 50'W), 16-VI-
1991, J. Chase, J. Mangold, J. de la Rosa Guzman, and R. Scheffrahn; nest series ref-
erence no. DR131-132. Type series major soldier, minor soldier, and large worker:
Hato Mayor Province, Los Haitises National Park (19 04'N, 69 27'W), 10-VI-1992, J.
Chase, J. Mangold, J. de la Rosa Guzman, and R. Scheffrahn; reference nos. DR495
and DR496. Parvitermes toussainti specimens with images were collected from a large
colony under stones: Distrito Nacional Province, Santo Domingo (18 30'N, 69 55'W),
4-V-1992, J. Chase and R. Scheffrahn; reference no. DR380. Many other P. toussainti
samples from the Dominican Republic were also examined. Parvitermes antillarum
major and minor soldiers and workers from "moderately wet brown dirt in ground",
Haiti, 22-VI-1976, V. Spaeth; and from the Dominican Republic, Peravia Province, 2
km E. Canafistol (18 17'N, 70 22'N), 10-XI-1996 (major and minor soldiers and work-
ers DR1529), J. Chase and J. Krecek.

Additional Collections

Parvitermes dominicanae from Monte Plata Province collected by J. Chase and J.
Krecek: 3 km N. Majagual (19 04'N, 69 50'W), 8-XI-1996 (minor soldiers and workers,
DR1495-1497); Batey (19 00'N, 69 52'W) 9-XI-1996 (minor soldiers, workers, nymphs,
DR1503-1504); Batey at Los Guineos (19 01'N, 69 54'W) 9-XI-1996 (minor soldiers,
workers, and nymphs).


This new species is named for the Dominican Republic, its only known range. Until
recently, the Dominican Republic had been poorly collected for termites (8 species
listed by Snyder (1956). A survey of its termite fauna has yielded over 30 species
(Scheffrahn et al. 1994, Scheffrahn et al, unpubl.).

Scheffrahn et al.: New Parvitermes


Part of one whole colony of Parvitermes dominicanae including the queen and all
known castes and immature foragers was collected in nest chambers made of dark
carton material. The nest was uncovered under a large stone in a livestock pasture.
This was our first and only collection ofP. dominicanae images and major soldiers. All
other collections consist of small groups of foraging workers and minor soldiers from
beneath rocks. Parvitermes dominicanae is a relatively rare species in the Dominican
Republic as our samples of this species represent about 3% of all Parvitermes, Antil-
litermes, and Caribitermes samples thus far collected there.


We are indebted to J. A. Chase, J. de la Rosa G., J. Krecek, and J. R. Mangold for
their relentless dedication to collecting termites throughout the West Indies and else-
where; Dian Achor at the University of Florida, Lake Alfred, for assisting with scan-
ning electron microscopy; and J. Krecek and F. W. Howard for critically reviewing and
improving this contribution of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal
Series no. R-05796.


EMERSON, A. E. 1960. New genera of termites related to Subulitermes from the Ori-
ental, Malagasy, and Australian Regions (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermiti-
nae). American Mus. Nov. 1986: 1-28.
KRECEK, J., R. H. SCHEFFRAHN, AND Y. ROISIN. 1996. Greater Antillean Nasutiter-
mitinae (Isoptera: Termitidae): Constrictotermes guantanamensis, a new sub-
terranean termite from eastern Cuba. Florida Entomologist 79: 180-187.
NATION, J. A. 1983. A new method using hexamethyldisilazane for the preparation of
soft insect tissue for scanning electron microscopy. Stain Technol. 55: 347-352.
ROISIN, Y., R. H. SCHEFFRAHN, AND J. KRECEK. 1996. Generic revision of the smaller
nasute termites of the Greater Antilles (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermiti-
nae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 89: 775-787.
ROONWAL, M. L. 1970. Measurements of termites (Isoptera) for taxonomic purposes.
J. Zool. Soc. India 21: 9-66.
SANDS, W. A. 1965. A revision of the termite subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera,
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Bull. British Mus. Nat. Hist., Entomol.
Suppl. 4: 1-172.
SCHEFFRAHN, R. H., AND Y. ROISIN. 1995. Antillean Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera: Ter-
mitidae): Parvitermes collinsae, a new subterranean termite from Hispaniola
and redescription of P. pallidiceps and P. wolcotti. Florida Entomologist 78:
Y. 1994. Termites (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae) of
the West Indies. Sociobiology 24: 213-238.
SNYDER, T. E. 1956. Termites of the West Indies, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. J. Agric.
Univ. Puerto Rico 40: 189-202.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998


1Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
3205 College Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 33314, U.S.A.

2The Terminix International Co. L.P.
1359 Gresham Road, Marietta, Georgia, 30062, U.S.A.


Cryptotermes abruptus n. sp. is described from soldiers and alates collected on Isla
de Cozumel, Mexico, and vicinity. It is the fifteenth neotropical Cryptotermes species
to be described. The overhanging frons in the soldier caste of this species is unique
among all termites worldwide.

Key Words: taxonomy, new species, Neotropics, Yucatan peninsula, Quintana Roo


Cryptotermes abruptus n. sp. es descrito basado en soldados y alados recolectados
en M6xico en la Isla Cozumel y los alrededores. Hasta donde se conoce, 6sta es la de-
cimoquinta especie neotropical de Cryptotermes descrita. El gran desarrollo de la
frente en la casta de los soldados es unico entire las termitas a nivel mundial.

The tropicopolitan genus Cryptotermes Banks consists of nearly 50 living species
(Bacchus 1987, Gay & Watson 1982, Scheffrahn 1993) of which fourteen are known
from the Neotropical Region. Two neotropical species, C. brevis (Walker) and C. cavi-
frons Banks, have ranges that also include the southern Nearctic Region. Only three
Cryptotermes species are known from Mexico, including C. brevis, an introduced pest
with an obscure New World origin, and the native species, C. fatulus (Light) and C.
longicollis Banks (Araujo 1977).
On a recent expedition to Isla de Cozumel, one of us (J. A. C.) took samples from
three colonies of a most unusual new Cryptotermes. A reexamination of older material
collected from Mexico by J. K. yielded a fourth sample of this species from the nearby
Yucatan coast. Herein is provided a description of the imago and soldier of C. abruptus
n. sp.


Morphometrics of specimens preserved in 85:15 ethanol:water were made with a
stereomicroscope fitted with a calibrated ocular micrometer. Measurements and no-
menclature were adopted mainly from those of Krishna (1961), Gay & Watson (1982),
and Bacchus (1987). Structures useful in describing the phragmotic head capsule of
Cryptotermes soldiers include the frontal flange or ridge dividing the vertex and frons;

Scheffrahn et al.: New Cryptotermes 189

and two pairs of protuberances, one dorsal pair in front of the antennal fossae and one
ventral pair projecting forward from the genae called the frontal and genal horns, re-
spectively (Krishna 1961, Gay & Watson 1982). The frontal flange of Cryptotermes
abruptus n. sp. is modified with a projection that we term the frontal peak.
Prints of scanning electron micrographs were scanned at 600 dpi, the digital image
outline traced using photograph-enhancing software (Photo Magic, Micrographx Inc.,
Richardson, Texas), and the background converted to black. Emission of wing mem-
brane iridescence was induced by overlapping folded wings of fresh (ca. 2 month-old)
alates and viewing in 85% ethanol over a black background under reflected light.
The holotype soldier and morphotype imago are deposited in the collection of
American Museum of Natural History, New York. Paratype soldiers and alates are de-
posited in the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian), Washington, D.C.;
the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industries, Gainesville; and in the first author's
collection at the University of Florida Research and Education Center, Ft. Lauder-

Cryptotermes abruptus Scheffrahn and Kfecek, new species

Imago (Table 1)

General color pale yellow to pale orange-yellow except as noted. Darkest pigmen-
tation in forewing scales which form a median chevron pattern. Pale V-shaped area
underlying frontal suture; antennae pale yellow; pronotum outlined by darker or-
ange-yellow; abdominal tergites and sternites yellow-brown; femora pale yellow, tibia
darker. Head subquadrate; cranial suture indistinct to whitish. Pronotum as wide as
head capsule, widest in middle; anterior margin weakly concave; posterior margin
weakly biconvex. Antennae of 16-19 segments, usually 17-18; relative length formula
2 = 3 = 4 = 5, sometimes 2 > 3, 3 < 4, or 4 < 5. Eyes ovoid, flattened on edge near an-
tennal fossae. Ocelli white, ovoid; abutted against eyes. Sclerotized wing venation


Measurement in mm
(n = 7 9, 7 from 2 colonies) Range Mean S.D. Morphotype

Head length with labrum 1.10-1.24 1.17+ 0.036 1.16
Head length to postclypeus 0.82-0.87 0.84 + 0.014 0.85
Head width, maximum at eyes 0.89-0.93 0.91 0.014 0.92
Eye diameter, maximum 0.28-0.31 0.30 + 0.0083 0.30
Eye to head base, minimum 0.14-0.16 0.15 + 0.0092 0.14
Ocellus diameter, maximum 0.11-0.14 0.13 + 0.0084 0.12
Pronotum, maximum length 0.65-0.72 0.69 + 0.019 0.65
Pronotum, maximum width 0.85-0.93 0.88 + 0.026 0.85
Total length with wings 8.09-8.80 8.49+ 0.17 8.38
Total length without wings 3.83-4.90 4.27 + 0.33 3.91
Forewing length from suture 6.25-6.96 6.66 + 0.22 6.67
Forewing, maximum width 1.81-1.98 1.91 0.43 1.86

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

light brown; wing membrane faintly golden-brown; iridescence golden-green or
golden-purple. Subcosta, radius, and radial sector sclerotized; radius joining costal
margin at midwing; radial sector with 4-5 anterior branches, media unsclerotized,
joining radial sector beyond midwing. Arolium present.

Soldier (Fig. 1, Table 2)

Head nearly black in anterior, grading from chestnut brown to orange in posterior
1/5-2/5. Antennae pale, more yellow in proximal articles. Mandibles black, grading to
chestnut brown near bases. Rugosity of head capsule shallow, composed of sinuous,
evenly spaced striations along sides, frontal peak, and occiput. Head, in dorsal view,
much longer than wide with slight to moderate median constriction; vertex extended
on same plane with frontal flange to terminate as bluntly pointed peak forming 120-
130 angle. Frontal peak overhanging mandibles, frons, genal horns, and labial palps
beneath. Frontal flange posterior delineated in dorsal view by a very slight V-shaped
elevation suggesting a median notch behind frontal peak; combination of posterior el-
evation of frontal flange and frontal peak rhomboidal in outline; frontal flange becom-
ing more narrow and elevated lateral to frontal peak. In lateral view, frons sloping
back about 30 beyond vertical and overhanging mouthparts. Plane of frons elevated
along vertical midline from frontal peak to base of postclypeus (Fig. 1C); less rugose
than head capsule. Distinct knob on lateral base of head capsule at insertion of ven-
tral mandibular condyle. Anteclypeus very narrow. Labrum very small; usually cra-
dled in slot formed by crossed mandibles or bent upward and supported on closed
mandibles. Frontal horns shallow, evenly rounded; anterior to, and even with anten-
nal fossae. Genal horns very small, pointed, projecting forward; directly abutting and
behind frontal horns. Mandibles very short and small, blades angled 40-50 from base
in ventral view; little or no basal hump; mandibles angled on their long axis to form
cradle; dentition weak. Eye, when visible, faint, narrow; near lower middle of head
capsule. Antennae with 12-14 articles; relative length formula 2 > 3 > 4 = 5. Pronotum
somewhat wider than long; anterior margin finely serrate and weakly concave.


The imago of C. abruptus is close to C. cavifrons in overall size, coloration, and
shape. Cryptotermes abruptus has more pilous head, pronotum, legs, and wing scales
than C. cavifrons. The golden iridescence of overlapping C. abrutus wing membranes
is absent in C. cavifrons and all other known neotropical congeners.
The soldier of C. abruptus is readily distinguished from all other Cryptotermes spe-
cies and all other termite taxa, by its broadly overhanging frontal peak which eclipses
the dorsal view of all underlying structures including the frontal horns and mouth-
parts, including the mandibles, labrum, and palps (Fig. 1B). In this view, only the ver-
tex and antennae are visible. The nearest soldier is that of C. domesticus (Haviland),
a somewhat variable species, which has a vertical or only slightly overhanging frons
and a notched frontal peak. Unlike C. abruptus, the frontal peak of C. domesticus does
not block the dorsal view of the genal horns and mouthparts. The mandibles and genal
horns of C. domesticus are much more prominent than those of C. abruptus, while the
frontal horns of C. domesticus are smaller than those of C. abruptus.

Type Material

Holotype soldier and 2 paratype soldiers collected in Mexico, Quintana Roo State,
on Isla de Cozumel near El Caracol; other paratype soldiers from Cozumel near La-

Scheffrahn et al.: New Cryptotermes

FIG. 1. Scanning electron micrographs showing lateral (A), dorsal (B), and oblique
(C) views of soldier headcapsule of Cryptotermes abruptus n.sp. Antennae removed for

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998


Measurement in mm
(n=10 from 4 colonies) Range Mean + S.D. Holotype

Head length with frontal flange 1.38-1.75 1.55 + 0.13 1.67
Head length to tip of mandibles 1.38-1.57 1.46 + 0.056 1.47
Head length to frontal horns 1.18-1.32 1.26 + 0.044 1.27
Frontal flange width 0.98-1.13 1.07 + 0.044 1.13
Frontal horns, outside span 0.82-0.92 0.86 + 0.027 0.85
Head width, maximum 1.10-1.21 1.16 + 0.028 1.18
Head height, excluding postmentum 1.03-1.11 1.07 + 0.027 1.06
Pronotum, maximum width 1.08-1.19 1.14 + 0.033 1.19
Pronotum, maximum length 0.75-0.90 0.85 + 0.045 0.88
Left mandible length, 0.52-0.59 0.56 + 0.023 0.59
tip to ventral condyle
Total length 3.96-4.60 4.24 + 0.20 4.26

guna de Columbia and Punta Chiquero by J. A. C. on 7-V-1997, and Quintana Roo
State, Puerto Morelos, by J. K. on 9-VIII-1987. Morphotype winged imago and 11 par-
amorphotype images from the Laguna de Columbia colony and 2 paramorphotype
images from the Puerto Morelos colony.


Abruptus (Latin = steep), in reference to the precipitous inclination of the frontal
peak and frons in the soldier.


Colonies of C. abruptus were encountered in dead, dry limbs of various woody
hosts at the type localities. This habit is unremarkable, being typical of most conge-


We are grateful to Dian Achor at the University of Florida, Lake Alfred C.R.E.C.,
for assisting with scanning electron microscopy, T. Myles (U. of Toronto) for suggesting
the S.E.M. digital enhancements, and F. W. Howard and T. Weissling (U. of Florida) for
critically reviewing this contribution no. R-05831 of the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station Journal Series.


ARAUJO, R. L. 1977. Catalogo dos Isoptera do Novo Mundo. Acad. Brasileira de Cien-
cias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 92 pp.
BACCHUS, S. 1987. A taxonomic and biometric study of the genus Cryptotermes
(Isoptera: Kalotermitidae). Trop. Devel. Res. Inst. Bull. No. 7. 91 pp.

Scheffrahn et al.: New Cryptotermes 193

GAY, F. J., AND J. A. L. WATSON. 1982. The genus Cryptotermes in Australia (Isoptera:
Kalotermitidae). Australian J. Zool., supply. ser. 88: 1-64.
KRISHNA, K. 1961. A generic revision and phylogenetic study of the Family Kaloter-
mitidae (Isoptera). Bull. American Mus. Nat. Hist. 122: 303-408.
SCHEFFRAHN, R. H. 1993. Cryptotermes chasei, a new drywood termite (Isoptera: Kal-
otermitidae) from the Dominican Republic. Florida Entomol. 76: 500-507.


Valles et al.: Temperature-Pesticide Toxicity Effects


'Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology
USDA-ARS, 1600 SW 23rd Drive
Gainesville, Florida 32608

2University of Florida, Department of Entomology, P.O. Box 110620
Gainesville, Florida 36211


Pre- and post-treatment temperature effects on X-cyhalothrin toxicity were deter-
mined in insecticide-susceptible and resistant German cockroach, Blattella german-
ica (L.), strains. Acclimation at 19, 26, or 31 C for 10 days before insecticide treatment
had no effect on X-cyhalothrin toxicity in either strain. No differences were observed
in aldrin epoxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities when "Orlando" (suscep-
tible) cockroaches were incubated for 10 days at 19, 26, and 31C. When temperature
treatment followed insecticide application, a negative temperature coefficient of tox-
icity (greater toxicity at lower temperature) toward X-cyhalothrin was observed for
the Orlando but not the kdr-type resistant "Village Green" cockroaches. Piperonyl bu-
toxide synergized X-cyhalothrin in "Orlando" cockroaches 3 and 5-fold at 26 and 31C,
respectively. Conversely, piperonyl butoxide pre-treatment did not cause a significant
reduction in the LD,, value in the "Village Green" strain regardless of temperature.

Key Words: Blattella germanica, insecticide resistance, synergism


Se determine el efecto de la temperature, antes y despues de la aplicaci6n del in-
secticida, sobre la toxicidad de X-cialotrina en una raza susceptible y otra resistente
de la cucaracha alemana, Blattella germanica (L.). La aclimataci6n a 19, 26, 6 31C
durante 10 dias, antes del tratamiento con X-cialotrina, no tuvo efecto sobre la toxici-
dad en ninguna raza. No se observaron diferencias en las actividades de aldrin epoxi-
dasa y glutati6n-S-transferasa cuando las cucarachas de la raza "Orlando" (raza
susceptible) se incubaron durante 10 dias a 19, 26, y 31 C. Cuando las cucarachas se
mantuvieron a diferentes temperatures despues de la aplicaci6n de X-cialotrina, se
observe un coeficiente de toxicidad negativamente relacionado con la temperature
(mayor toxicidad a menor temperature) en la raza "Orlando", pero no en la raza "Vi-

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

llage Green", que es resistente por kdr. El but6xido de piperonilo sinergiz6 3 y 5 veces
la toxicidad de X-cialotrina en la raza "Orlando" a 26 y 31C, respectivamente. Sin em-
bargo, la aplicaci6n de but6xido de piperonilo no disminuy6 significativamente la DL,,
en la raza "Village Green" en las diferentes temperatures evaluadas.

The relationship between temperature and insecticide toxicity in insects has been
studied widely (Scott 1995). Although this phenomenon has been examined exten-
sively in many insect species, few studies have compared the responses of insecticide-
susceptible with insecticide-resistant strains at different temperatures. Currently,
only one study compares the temperature-toxicity relationship between insecticide-
susceptible and resistant German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.). Scott (1987)
reported a positive temperature coefficient of toxicity for the pyrethroid, cyper-
methrin, in an insecticide-susceptible (CSMA) German cockroach strain. However, an
insecticide-resistant strain (VPIDLS) with a kdr-type mechanism exhibited a nega-
tive temperature coefficient of toxicity for cypermethrin (Scott 1987). Conversely, Wa-
dleigh et al. (1991) reported a negative temperature coefficient of toxicity toward
cypermethrin in an unrelated insecticide-susceptible German cockroach strain, "Or-
lando". These inconsistencies and lack of information warrant further investigation
into the temperature-toxicity relationship, especially among insecticide-resistant
German cockroaches.
The purpose of this research was to compare the effect of different temperature
treatments made before and after insecticide application on X-cyhalothrin toxicity in
insecticide-susceptible and resistant German cockroaches. We also examined the ef-
fect of the synergist piperonyl butoxide on X-cyhalothrin toxicity at different temper-
atures in these strains.


The insecticide-susceptible "Orlando" (Koehler & Patterson 1986) and resistant
"Village Green" strains (Atkinson et al. 1991) were used in all experiments. The "Vil-
lage Green" strain has been reported to exhibit nerve insensitivity (kdr-type) as the
major mechanism of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides (Bull & Patterson 1993).
The cockroaches were reared at 26 C, 55% relative humidity, on a photoperiod of 12:12
(L:D) as described by Koehler & Patterson (1986).
To assess pre-treatment temperature effects on toxicity, four groups of 100 adult
male cockroaches (1-3 weeks old) were removed from a rearing tub and placed into
four-liter glass jars with cardboard harborage, #5001 laboratory rodent diet (Purina,
St. Louis, MO), and two cotton-stoppered 20 ml scintillation vials of water. Each jar of
100 cockroaches was held for 10 days at 19, 26, or 31C in environmental chambers at
80% relative humidity on a 12:12 (L:D) photoperiod (Walker et al. 1993). At the end of
the 10 day incubation period, the cockroaches were removed from the environmental
chamber and placed into 15 by 100 mm Petri dishes (10 cockroaches per Petri dish).
Cockroaches were bioassayed immediately after removal from the environmental
chambers by topical insecticide application in 1 pl of acetone to the first abdominal
sternite as described by Valles & Yu (1996a). Cockroaches were held at 26 C, and mor-
tality was assessed 24 h after insecticide application.
To assess post-treatment temperature effects on insecticide toxicity, adult male
German cockroaches (1-3 weeks old, mean weight of 47 and 51 mg for "Orlando" and
Village Green, respectively) were placed into Petri dishes and treated topically with

Valles et al.: Temperature-Pesticide Toxicity Effects

insecticide as described above. At least 5 insecticide concentrations causing >0% and
<100% mortality were chosen for each bioassay. Immediately after treatment, the
cockroaches were placed into the environmental chambers at 80% relative humidity
on a 12:12 (L:D) photoperiod at 19, 26, or 31 C. Mortality was assessed 24 h after in-
secticide application. Three to five replications containing 10 cockroaches per concen-
tration were conducted. When the synergist bioassay was performed, piperonyl
butoxide (100 ig per cockroach) was applied to the first abdominal segment 1 h before
insecticide treatment.
Pre-treatment temperature effects on detoxification enzymes were assessed by
quantifying cytochrome P450 monooxyenase and glutathione S-transferase activities
using surrogate substrates. All enzyme reactions were conducted within linear ranges
of incubation time and protein concentration determined previously (Valles & Yu
1996a). Three experiments, each with duplicate determinations, were conducted for
all enzymes. "Orlando" cockroaches were maintained with food, water, and harborage
as described above for 10 days at 19, 26, or 31C. Detoxication enzymes were assayed
immediately after the incubation period.
Microsomal epoxidase activity was measured by the epoxidation of aldrin to dield-
rin (Valles & Yu 1996b). Microsomes were prepared by homogenizing 10 decapitated
adult male "Orlando" cockroaches for 30 s in 20 ml of ice-cold 0.1 M sodium phosphate
buffer, pH 7.5, containing 10% glycerol, 0.1 mM dithiothreitol, 1 mM ethylenedi-
aminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, and 1 mM l-phenyl-2-
thiourea using a Potter-Elvehjem teflon pestle and glass mortar. The homogenate was
filtered through 2 layers of cheesecloth, then centrifuged at 10,000gmx for 15 min. The
supernatant was filtered through glass wool and further centrifuged at 105,000gmx for
1 h. The resulting pellet microsomess) was suspended in sodium phosphate buffer, pH
7.5 and used as the enzyme source.
Glutathione S-transferase activity was measured with p-nitrophenyl acetate
(PNPA) as substrate as described by Yu & Nguyen (1992). Enzyme preparation was
performed as described above for the microsome preparation. The 105,000gm super-
natant was used as the enzyme source. Homogenization and centrifugation took place
in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. Protein determinations were made by the
method of Bradford (1976) using bovine serum albumin as the standard.
Insecticide bioassay data were subjected to probit analysis (Finney 1971). Enzyme
activity means were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by Scheffe's multiple
comparison procedure when appropriate.


Table 1 summarizes the bioassay results for pre-treatment temperature effects on
insecticide toxicity. No significant differences in toxicity (based on non-overlapping
95% confidence limits) were observed among the temperatures tested for either strain
of German cockroach. Resistance ratios ranged from 14 to 15 in the "Village Green"
Most studies have revealed that acclimation has no effect on toxicity in insects
(Rai 1967, Fisher & Hansell 1964, Scott 1995). However, acclimation temperature has
been reported to significantly influence insecticide toxicity in cockroaches. For exam-
ple, Munson (1953) and Baldus & Mutchmor (1988) reported a negative temperature
coefficient of toxicity for DDT in American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.),
acclimated at different temperatures for 10 to 14 days. This effect was attributed to
changes in cuticle lipid saturation in response to temperature treatment which af-
fected DDT solubility and mobility toward the target site.


Temperature LD,,(95% CL)
Insecticide Strain (C) (pg/insect) Slope SE x2 df RR"

X-Cyhalothrin Orlando 19 0.0053 (0.0049-0.0057) 6.7 + 0.4 8.2 4
26 0.0047 (0.0045-0.005) 8.4 + 0.5 1.6 4
31 0.0044 (0.0043-0.0046) 10.5 + 0.6 8.9 4 -
Village Green 19 0.073 (0.058-0.092) 2.1 +0.2 9.4 4 14
26 0.067 (0.052-0.086) 2.1 +0.06 0.9 3 14
31 0.066 (0.050-0.085) 1.9 + 0.1 4.6 4 15

aLD,, Village Green/LD,, Orlando




Valles et al.: Temperature-Pesticide Toxicity Effects



* 200

0 100
O 50


19 26 31

Temperature (oC)

FIG. 1. Pretreatment temperature effects on aldrin epoxidase (AE) (pmol/min/mg
protein) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) (nmol/min/mg protein) activities in the
"Orlando" German cockroach strain.

Stressors such as heat often induce the synthesis of proteins that prevent stress-
induced damage and limit further cellular damage from occurring (Hightower 1991).
Cytochromes P450 are the most widely studied group of these proteins (Ryan & High-
tower 1996). However, no significant differences in cytochrome P450-catalyzed aldrin
epoxidation (F = 0.71; df = 12, 3; P = 0.56) or PNPA conjugation (F = 0.08; df = 12, 3;
P = 0.97)at different acclimation temperatures were observed in "Orlando" cock-
roaches (Fig. 1). Apparently, these temperature pretreatments did not influence the
production of these detoxication enzymes.
"Orlando" cockroaches exhibited a negative temperature coefficient of toxicity for
X-cyhalothrin (Table 2). X-Cyhalothrin was nearly 3-fold more toxic at 19 C than at
31 C. Interestingly, "Village Green" cockroach susceptibility to X-cyhalothrin was not
significantly affected by the temperature treatments. As a result, the resistance ratio
increased with decreasing temperature. The resistance ratio was 10-fold at 31 C, 14-
fold at 26 C, and 20-fold at 19 C. This is an unusual observation. Typically, pyrethroid
toxicity is affected by temperature changes. For example, Scott (1987) reported a neg-
ative temperature coefficient of toxicity toward S-bioallethrin in susceptible (CSMA)
and kdr-type resistant (VPIDLS) cockroaches.
Pretreatment with piperonyl butoxide eliminated temperature-dependent X-cyha-
lothrin toxicity differences in "Orlando" cockroaches (Table 3). Piperonyl butoxide
synergized the toxicity of X-cyhalothrin in 26 and 31C treated "Orlando" cockroaches
3 and 5-fold, respectively. However, no synergism was observed at 19 C (Tables 2 and
3). McKinlay (1965) also reported that piperonyl butoxide only synergized insecticide
toxicity at higher temperatures (21 and 32 C) in the migratory grasshopper, Melano-
plus bilituratus (F.). In the "Village Green" strain, no synergism was observed at any
temperature tested, nor were there any differences in X-cyhalothrin toxicity at the dif-
ferent temperatures.
The mechanism responsible for pyrethroid temperature-toxicity relationships re-
mains a mystery. However, Narahashi et al. (1995) have demonstrated recently that
sodium ion flow through tetramethrin-modified sodium channels at low temperatures

s AE



Temperature LD,,(95% CL)
Insecticide Strain (C) (pg/insect) Slope SE x2 df RR"

X-Cyhalothrin Orlando 19 0.0022 (0.0019-0.0026) 3.6 + 0.3 9.8 4
26 0.0046 (0.0043-0.0050) 7.5 + 0.5 2.3 3
31 0.0057 (0.0053-0.0060) 6.1 +0.5 6.1 4 -
Village Green 19 0.044 (0.036-0.054) 2.4 0.2 3.1 3 20
26 0.065 (0.054-0.080) 1.9 + 0.1 3.5 4 14
31 0.058 (0.043-0.075) 1.7 + 0.1 3.5 4 10

LDo, Village Green/LD,, Orlando.


Temperature LD,,(95% CL)
Insecticide Strain (C) (pg/insect) Slope ( SE) x2 df RR'

X-Cyhalothrin Orlando 19 0.0015 (0.0012-0.0020) 2.4 + 0.2 0.6 3
+ PBO 26 0.0016 (0.0011-0.0028) 1.3 + 0.1 4.2 3
31 0.0012 (0.0009-0.0017) 1.6 + 0.1 2.2 5 -
Village Green 19 0.031 (0.023-0.042) 1.5 + 0.1 6.9 5 21
26 0.039 (0.030-0.050) 1.7 + 0.3 14.4 4 24
31 0.032 (0.023-0.52) 1.5 + 0.1 0.5 3 27

LDo Village Green/LD,, Orlando.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

augmented the depolarizing after potential in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Al-
though Narahashi et al. (1995) correlated changes in action potential and sodium ion
currents in the presence of pyrethroid insecticides at different temperatures, the
mechanisms) causing this phenomenon remains unknown. The toxicity of X-cyhalo-
thrin in the "Village Green" strain, which exhibits kdr-type pyrethroid resistance, was
unaffected by temperature treatments in this study. Perhaps the altered target site
(voltage-gated sodium channels) in this insecticide-resistant strain was responsible
for the independence of insecticide treatments with respect to temperature.


We thank C. Geden (USDA-ARS), S. J. Yu, and D. Miller (University of Florida) for
critical reviews of an earlier version of the manuscript. Article published as Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series R-06033.


AHN, Y. J., T. SHONO, AND J. I. FUKAMI. 1987. Effect of temperature on pyrethroid ac-
tion to kdr-type house fly adults. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 28: 301-307.
throid resistance and synergism in a field strain of the German cockroach (Dic-
tyoptera: Blattellidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 84: 1247-1250.
BALDUS, T. J., AND J. A. MUTCHMOR. 1988. The effects of acclimation and post-treat-
ment temperature on the toxicity of allethrin to the American cockroach,
Periplaneta americana. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 89C: 403-407.
BRADFORD, M. M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of micro-
gram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal.
Biochem. 72: 248-254.
BULL, D. L., AND R. S. PATTERSON. 1993. Characterization of pyrethroid resistance in
a strain of the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). J. Econ. Entomol.
86: 20-25.
FINNEY, D. J. 1971. Probit Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
FISHER, R. W., AND R. I. C. HANSELL. 1964. Effect of pre- and post-treatment temper-
atures, age of deposit, and repellency on the toxicity of kelthane to the two-
spotted mite, Tetranychus telarius (L.) (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Canadian En-
tomol. 96: 1307-1312.
HIGHTOWER, L. E. 1991. Heat shock, stress proteins, chaperones, and proteotoxicity.
Cell 66: 191-197.
KOEHLER, P. G., AND R. S. PATTERSON. 1986. A comparison of insecticide susceptibil-
ity in seven nonresistant strains of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica
(Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). J. Med. Entomol. 23: 298-299.
MCKINLAY, K. S. 1965. Note on the effects of temperature and piperonyl butoxide on
the toxicity of carbaryl to adult grasshoppers. Canadian Entomol. 97: 827-829.
MUNSON, S. C. 1953. Some effects of storage at different temperatures on the resis-
tance of the American roach to DDT. J. Econ. Entomol. 46: 754-760.
L. ROY, J. H. SONG, AND H. TATEBAYASHI. 1995. Sodium channels and GABAA
receptor-channel complex as targets of environmental targets. Toxicol. Lett. 82/
83: 239-245.
RAI, B. K. 1967. Temperature coefficient on insect susceptibility to insecticides. Indian
J. Exp. Biol. 5: 151-155.
RYAN, J. A., AND L. E. HIGHTOWER. 1996. Stress proteins as molecular biomarkers for
environmental toxicology, pp. 411-424 in U. Feige, R. I. Morimoto, I. Yahara,
and B. Polla, [eds.] Stress-inducible cellular responses. Birkhauser Verlag
Basel, Switzerland.

Valles et al.: Temperature-Pesticide Toxicity Effects 201

SCOTT, J. G. 1987. Effect of temperature on the toxicity of S-bioallethrin and cyper-
methrin to susceptible and kdr-resistant strains of Blattella germanica (L.)
(Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 77: 431-435.
SCOTT, J. G. 1995. Effects of temperature on insecticide toxicity, pp. 111-135 in R. M.
Roe, and R. J. Kuhr, [eds.] Reviews in pesticide toxicology. North Carolina State
University, Raleigh, NC.
VALLES, S. M., AND S. J. YU. 1996a. Detection and biochemical characterization of in-
secticide resistance in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). J.
Econ. Entomol. 89: 21-26.
VALLES, S. M., AND S. J. YU. 1996b. Tissue localization, induction, and developmental
expression of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in the German cockroach. Pes-
tic. Biochem. Physiol. 54: 31-39.
ERTSON. 1991. Effect of temperature on the toxicities of ten pyrethroids to Ger-
man cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 84: 1433-1436.
WALKER, T. J., J. J. GAFFNEY, A. W. KIDDER, AND A. B. ZIFFER. 1993. Florida reach-
ins: environmental chambers for entomological research. American Entomol.
39: 177-182.
Yu, S. J., AND S. N. NGUYEN. 1992. Detection and biochemical characterization of in-
secticide resistance in the diamondback moth. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 44: 74-


Shapiro et al.: Bt and Surfactant vs. Citrus Leafminers


'USDA, Agricultural Research Service, 2120 Camden Road, Orlando, Florida 32803

2University of Florida IFAS, SWFREC, P.O. Drawer 5127, Immokalee, FL 33934

3Corresponding author; email: jshapiro@asrr.arsusda.gov


Two laboratory bioassays were developed for testing insect pathogens for control
of larval citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, in isolated citrus leaves. An
organosilicone surfactant and several commercial preparations of Bacillus thuring-
iensis (Berliner) (Bt) were tested in these bioassays. One bioassay tested the effect of
direct contact of a test mixture on second or third instars by injecting the mixture into
a leaf mine surrounding the head of a larva. The second bioassay tested the effect of
a test mixture when topically applied to the surface of a leaf mine above a larva. Ef-
fects in this second bioassay were only observed if the mixture or its components first
penetrated through the mine epidermis, and then contacted and affected the insect
within the mine. In both bioassays, blue food coloring was included as a tracer to ob-
serve movement of liquid into mines and through the gut of the larva. An organosili-
cone surfactant, Silwet L-77, enhanced penetration of solutions into mines and killed
larvae when applied topically at adequate concentrations (LC,, = 0.026% in water) or
when injected into mines (LCs, = 0.011%). Three commercial Bt preparations were ac-
tive when applied topically at high concentrations or when injected at lower concen-

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

trations. When L-77 was added at its LC,, (0.01%) to Bt in the topical bioassay, activity
of one of the three Bt preparations, or activity of all three preparations considered to-
gether, was significantly higher than without the L-77. Up to 90% mortality resulted
at 0.01% L-77 and 20% Bt. Mortality positively correlated with dose of all of the Bts
when topically applied with 0.01% L-77. These results suggested that an increased
concentration of surfactant and decreased concentration of Bt at commercial rates
might be effective against citrus leafminers in citrus groves or nurseries. This was
tested on old nursery trees (3 yr after planting) and young grove trees (2 yr after
planting). Application of any of the three Bts plus L-77 in the nursery resulted in re-
duced populations of live larvae and pupae in new foliage, to approximately 50% of the
population in water-treated controls. Bts without L-77 yielded counts that were inter-
mediate to, but not significantly different from, control and combined Bt-L-77 treat-
ments. Bt applied with L-77 in the grove did not significantly reduce percentage
damage to leaves and number of larvae per leaf when assessed at 14 days. However,
when assessed at 21 days, damage and number of larvae were significantly reduced
by treatment with Bt plus L-77 or L-77 alone. Bt and L-77 reduced leaf damage and
larval numbers to a level not significantly different from treatment with Agri-Mek
and spray oil. Assessed at 14 or 21 days, the L-77 treatment resulted in significant re-
duction of larvae.

Key Words: Phyllocnistis citrella, citrus leaf penetration, bioassay, citrus nursery, cit-
rus grove


Se disenaron dos bioensayos para experimentar con el uso de entomopat6genos
para el control de larvas del minador de los citricos, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, en
hojas de citrico aisladas. Un surfactante organo-siliceo, varias preparaciones comer-
ciales de Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), y mezclas de ellos fueron ensayados.
En un ensayo se evalu6 el efecto del contact director de una mezcla de Bt con surfac-
tante en larvas del segundo o tercer estadio, inyectando la mezcla de prueba dentro de
las minas de las hojas rodeando la cabeza de las larvas. En el segundo ensayo se de-
termino el efecto de una mezcla de prueba aplicada directamente en la superficie de
la mina de la hoja, arriba de la larva. En este ensayo s61o se observe efecto alguno si
la mezcla o sus components penetraban la epidermis de la mina y entraban en con-
tacto con el insecto dentro de la mina. En ambos bioensayos, un colorante azul de ali-
mentos fue anadido como trazador para observer el movimiento del liquid dentro de
las minas y a trav6s del sistema digestive de la larva. El surfactante organo-siliceo, Si-
Iwet L-77, increment la penetraci6n de las soluciones dentro de las minas y mat6 lar-
vas cuando se les aplic6 t6picamente en una concentraci6n adecuada (LC0, = 0.026%
en agua) o cuando se inyect6 dentro de las minas (LC,, = 0.011%). Tres preparaciones
comerciales de Bt resultaron ser activas cuando se aplicaron t6picamente en altas
concentraciones o cuando se inyectaron en bajas concentraciones. Cuando se aplica-
ron t6picamente mezclas de L-77 al LC,1 (0.01%) con Bt se observe un aumento en la
actividad de Bt en comparaci6n con la aplicaci6n de Bt sin L-77. Se obtuvo hasta un
90% de mortandad cuando se utilize L-77 al 0.01% yBt al 20%. La mortandad result
estar correlacionada positivamente con todas las dosis de Bt aplicadas t6picamente
junto con L-77 al 0.01%. Estos resultados sugirieron que se podria reducir la concen-
traci6n de Bt, aumentando la concentraci6n del surfactante, y aun mantener su efec-
tividad contra los minadores en plantaciones o en viveros de citricos. Esta hip6tesis se
prob6 en un vivero con arboles viejos (de 3 anos despues de ser sembrados) y en una
plantaci6n con arbolesj6venes (de 2 anos despues de ser sembrados). La aplicaci6n en
el vivero de los tratamientos con cualquiera de tres dosis diferentes de Bt con L-77
ocasion6 una reducci6n de aproximadamente un 50% de la poblaci6n de larvas y pu-
pas vivas en el follaje nuevo en comparaci6n con controls tratatados con agua. Tra-
tamientos con Bt sin L-77 dieron lugar a conteos que fueron intermedios, pero no
significativamente diferentes de resultados del control y de los tratamientos con Bt y

Shapiro et al.: Bt and Surfactant vs. Citrus Leafminers 203

L-77. Tratamientos con Bt y L-77 ensayados en plantaciones no redujeron significati-
vamente el percentage de dano en las hojas y el numero de larvas por hoja cuando eva-
luados a los 14 dias. Sin embargo, en evaluaciones hechas 21 dias despues del
tratamiento, se encontr6 que tanto el dano como el numero de larvas se redujeron sig-
nificativamente en tratamientos con Bt y L-77 y tambien con L-77 solamente. Trata-
miento con Bt y L-77 redujeron el porcentaje de dano en las hojas y el numero de
larvas de Phyllocnistis citrella a un nivel no significativamente diferente al observado
con un tratamiento de Agri-Mek y aceite. Evaluaciones hechas a los 14 o 21 dias des-
pues de la aplicaci6n de L-77 demostraron una reducci6n significativa en el numero de

The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistus citrella Stainton, was first detected in Florida
in May of 1993 (Heppner 1993). Within six months, the tiny moth had spread through-
out the state. Based upon experience in China, Thailand, and Australia, biological
control with parasitoids offered the best chance for effective long term management
(Beattie & Smith 1993). However, effective short term controls that are not disruptive
to natural enemies are required when leafminer populations are too high to be quickly
suppressed by parasitoids, or prior to establishment of parasitoids.
The epidermis of the citrus leaf provides substantial protection for leafminers and
presents a significant barrier to control using chemical or microbial insecticides. To
enter the mine and contact a larval leafminer, a microbial or chemical agent must first
penetrate the epidermal cell layer, either through stomata in the abaxial leaf surface
or between or through epidermal cells. The extremely low surface tension of organo-
silicone surfactants such as Silwet L-77 (L-77) in aqueous solution (Knoche et al.
1991) may greatly increase penetration of a chemical insecticide (Stevens 1993), her-
bicide (Reddy & Singh 1992a, 1992b; Singh & Mack 1993) or a microbial agent (Zidack
et al. 1992). In addition, these compounds may offer some protection themselves, as
seen against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Imai et al. 1994).
In this paper we describe and compare results from two bioassays applied against
leafminers in isolated citrus leaves. A mine injection bioassay tested the lethalities of
L-77 and/or Bt when they were directly applied to leafminers, circumventing the epi-
dermal barrier. A topical bioassay tested the penetrability and resulting lethality of L-
77 and Bt when they were applied to the surface of intact leaf mines, with the epider-
mal barrier intact. These tests demonstrated an enhanced effect of Bt applied with L-
77, and the effect was further tested in field trials in a citrus grove and a nursery.


Chemicals & Bt Preparations

Silwet L-77 (OSI, Tarrytown, NY) and commercial preparations of Bt (Condor, Ec-
ogen, Langhorne, PA; Florbac HPWP and Biobit HPWP, Entotech Company, Davis,
CA) were supplied by manufacturers. Biobit is a strain of HD-1 (Bt kurstaki, with
genes coding for Cryl and Cry2 toxins). Florbac is a Bt aizawa strain HD-11 (with a
gene coding for CrylC). Condor is a proprietary transconjugate. Water used in labora-
tory studies was purified by deionization, reverse osmosis, and finally through a water
purification system (Millipore MilliQ, Bedford, MA). Agri-Mek (Merck & Co., Rahway
NJ), a formulation of abamectin which provides good chemical control against leaf-
miners, was used as a positive control in the grove trial.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

Laboratory Bioassays

Two bioassays were devised to test toxicities of an organosilicone surfactant, Sil-
wet L-77, and various commercial Bt formulations against citrus leafminers in intact
leaves isolated from trees. A mine injection assay directly and immediately subjected
larvae to test mixtures within leaf mines. A topical bioassay directly exposed only the
surface of the mines to test mixtures. Any exposure of larvae in the topical bioassay
occurred only after the test mixture or its ingredients penetrated through the intact
mine epidermis to contact a larva within the mine.
Solutions and suspensions were mixed in 1.5-ml microcentrifuge tubes with blue
food coloring (FD&C Blue dye No. 1, McCormick Company) added to 10% of final vol-
ume to allow microscopic observation of penetration through the mine epidermis, in-
gestion by leafminers, and movement through their guts. The same dye was included
in all checks. A flowable Bt formulation (Condor) was mixed by volume, wettable Bt
powders (Biobit or Florbac) were mixed by weight, and Silwet L-77 was mixed by vol-
ume after serial dilution in water. Solutions were then brought to final volumes with
water and mixed with a vortex mixer prior to application.
Leaves containing leafminer larvae were excised complete with petioles from
grapefruit seedlings ('Marsh' and'Inman' cultivars) that were grown in 5-gal pots out-
doors where newly developing leaves (flush) were infested by leafminers. Only leaves
that contained actively feeding second or third instars were used for bioassays.
In the mine injection bioassay, 4 gl of test solution were applied to the surface of a
mine in a droplet above the head of a leafminer under a stereomicroscope. The test so-
lution was then introduced into the mine by puncturing the mine epidermis with a No.
0.10 minutin pin to allow influx of the solution into the mine surrounding the head of
the larva. For the topical bioassay, 4 pl of solution were placed onto the mine surface
directly above the head of an actively feeding larva without puncturing the mine.
Following injection or topical treatment of mines, the tip of the petiole was
trimmed from each leaf and the leaf was placed into a 2-ml water-filled vial, with its
petiole retained by a wet cotton wick. Vials were maintained in the laboratory at room
temperature (about 23 C) inside a closed plastic box (19 x 13.5 x 10.5-cm). Mortality
was recorded when larvae exhibited a total lack of external or peristaltic movement
when probed, and was assessed daily. Statistics were calculated by personal computer
using POLO-PC (LeOra Software, Berkeley, CA) (Russell & Robertson 1979) for probit
analysis and Statistica (StatSoft, Tulsa, OK) for other statistics.

Nursery Trial

To translate and compare laboratory results to a field situation, a citrus nursery
trial was conducted near Lake Jem in northern Orange County, Florida on a single
row of a 2-year old planting of 'Marsh' grapefruit trees on citrumelo rootstock. Eight
treatments were assigned in a randomized block design with 5 blocks, each including
three trees per treatment. Trees were hedged, fertilized 2 days later, and allowed to
flush and become infested with leafminer larvae. Treatments were applied 16 days af-
ter hedging. Bt preparations were mixed by volume at 0.32% of stock commercial
preparation in water, L-77 at 0.05%. Five days following treatment, 1-3 flushes ap-
peared on each young tree. Each flush consisted of a cluster of young developing
leaves, averaging 12 leaves/tree, with a mean leaf surface area of 201 + 58 cm2/flush.
One flush from the top of each tree was randomly selected and collected, and numbers
of live and dead larvae and pupae were counted in the laboratory under a stereomi-
croscope and recorded. Combined counts of live larvae plus live pupae are reported.
Statistics were calculated by personal computer using Statistica.

Shapiro et al.: Bt and Surfactant vs. Citrus Leafminers 205

Grove Trial

To determine whether treatment with a Bt and L-77 could effect control that ap-
proached the control achieved by an effective insecticide treatment, Biobit and L-77
were tested against Agri-Mek + 435-66 spray oil in a citrus grove trial. The trial was
performed near Immokalee, FL on a two-year-old block of'Valencia' orange budded to
'Swingle' citrumelo rootstock. Ten treatments were assigned to 5-tree plots in a com-
pletely randomized block design, each block as a separate row, with 4 replications.
Treatments were applied during one day by a handheld atomizing spray gun supplied
by a gasoline-powered diaphragm pump, calibrated to deliver 702 l/ha (75 gal/ac) at
2.8 MPa (400 psi). Ten samples of flush per plot were examined in the field. Live lar-
vae per leaf were counted and damage was visually estimated as percentage of total
leaf surface. Statistics were calculated by personal computer using SAS (SAS Insti-
tute, Cary, NC).


At 50-fold magnification, the roof of the mine above active leafminers was seen to
be composed of intact leaf epidermis. Larvae fed on parenchymal tissue below the epi-
dermis with coordinated sweeping semicircular movements of the mandibles. Paren-
chymal tissue, macerated and liquefied by the mandibles, rapidly entered the
pharynx and foregut and continued through the digestive system. When mines were
injected with a solution containing only 10% blue food coloring in water, movements
of head and mandibles ceased within 10 s, but peristalsis of pharynx and gut contin-
ued until liquid was fully ingested and removed from the mine chamber around the
head. Mandibular and head movements and ingestion of parenchymal tissue resumed
once liquid had been cleared. Ingestion and excretion of dyed liquids were easily ob-
served. Fifteen to 20 min elapsed between ingestion and excretion. Ninety to 100% of
larvae in the control (water-fed, including 10% blue food coloring) treatments sur-
vived to pupation.
Silwet L-77 killed larvae when bioassayed by mine injection or topical treatment,
and mortality increased with concentration (Fig. 1). Leafminers were 1.5- to 3-fold
more susceptible to mine injection than to topical treatment of mines with L-77, as
demonstrated by using probit analysis to calculate the injected concentrations lethal
to 10%, 50%, and 90% of larvae (LC,,, LCs,, and LC,,, respectively) (Table 1). The time
required for L-77 to kill larvae was also dependent on concentration. With topical ap-
plication of 0.5% L-77, feeding ceased after 10 min and peristalsis ceased after 16 min;
at 0.1%, cessation of functions took 3 h. Whether mines were injected or topically
treated, larvae did not recover once gut peristalsis ceased.
In initial tests of Condor Bt applied to leaf mines in isolated leaves, a 20% solution
with 10% blue food coloring in water was injected into the mines of five larvae. Within
1-2 h of treatment, four of five larvae stopped feeding, midgut peristalsis halted, and
they died within 22 h. Next, suspensions of three commercial Bt preparations, two
wettable powders (Biobit and Florbac) and a flowable concentrate (Condor), were top-
ically applied to leaf mines in solutions with or without L-77 (Table 2). L-77 was in-
cluded at a concentration (0.01%) equivalent to the LC,1 (Table 1). This concentration
was calculated to cause minimal mortality yet still enhance penetration of food color-
ing, judged by visual observation.
Leaf miners in isolated leaves that were topically treated with one of the three Bt
preparations or with L-77 + Bt sustained significantly higher mortalities than those
treated with L-77 only (Table 2). Treatment with L-77 + Bt resulted in significantly
higher mortality than Bt alone when Biobit was used, or when the grand means from

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

100 "' .....

80 -

o2 40 -

20 LCso

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
L-77 Concentration (%)

FIG. 1. Mortality of citrus leafminer larvae in isolated leaves with increasing con-
centrations of L-77 in water applied topically to leaf mines or injected into them. L-77
was serially diluted to the given concentrations in water containing 10% blue food col-
oring, then applied in the topical or mine injection bioassays.

all three Bt preparations were compared (10.0% mean mortality in combined L-77
treatments, 64.1% with Bt, and 82.5% with L-77 + Bt). Condor and Florbac treat-
ments showed the same progression, but with no significant difference (by Tukey's
HSD test) between Bt and L-77 + Bt treatments.
Mortality of leafminers in isolated leaves increased with Bt concentration when
mines were topically treated with Bt in 0.01% L-77 (Table 3). LC,, values (lower and
upper 90% confidence limits) of Biobit, Condor, and Florbac were calculated by probit
analysis as 0.29% (0.13, 0.63), 0.14% (0.043, 0.36), and 1.74% (0.45, 41.3) concentra-
tions, respectively (v/v of Condor or w/v of Biobit and Florbac). Goodness of fit of the
probit model was significant (g < 0.5) at the 99% confidence level for Biobit and Con-
dor, but only at the 90% confidence level for Florbac.
Field trials with Bt preparations and L-77 were run in a nursery and a grove. In
the dense foliage of a citrus nursery, populations of the citrus leafminer built very rap-


Topical Injected

Dose 95% Conf. Dose 95% Conf.
Lethal concentration (%) Limits (%) Limits

LC,, 0.007 0.005-0.010 0.005 0.003-0.006
LC,, 0.026 0.022-0.032 0.011 0.009-0.013
LC9o 0.091 0.067-0.140 0.026 0.022-0.035

Shapiro et al.: Bt and Surfactant vs. Citrus Leafminers 207

77 + BT.

Percentage Mortality2

Bt Preparation' L-77 Control3 Bt L-77 + Bt

Biobit HPWP 7.5 + 5.0 a 62.5 + 17.1 b 87.5 + 12.6 c
Condor 12.5 + 5.0 a 79.7 + 19.8 b 90.0 + 8.2 b
Florbac HPWP 10.0 + 8.2 a 50.0 + 21.6 b 70.0 + 11.5 b

Total 10.0 + 6.0 a 64.1 + 21.8 b 82.5 + 13.6 c

Bt formulations were diluted to 20% commercial strength in water (w/v for Biobit or Florbac, v/v for Condor).
L-77 was diluted to 0.01% in water or in the Bt-water mixture.
Means + SD of 4 replications, 10 larvae/replicate; means followed by the same letter within a row are not sig-
nificantly different by Tukey's HSD test following a 1-way analysis of variance (ANOV).
All HO-treated controls, including blue food coloring, survived and were not included in the 1-way ANOV.

idly following hedging and subsequent synchronous flushing of nursery trees. This as-
sured adequate leafminer populations for testing. Combined larval and pupal counts
at 5 days following treatment were significantly lower than water controls on flush
treated with L-77 plus any of the Bt preparations (Table 4). Those counts were lower
than counts observed on flush treated with Bt alone, yet not significantly so by
Tukey's HSD test. Neither L-77 alone, nor any of the Bt preparations without L-77,
had a significant effect on counts, compared to the control treatment.
In an immature grove, results from application of Biobit Bt with L-77 did not show
significant reduction in damage after 14 days, although larval populations were sig-
nificantly reduced by L-77 alone (Table 5). Agri-Mek + oil showed significant reduction
of both damage and larvae at 14 days. At 21 days, reductions of damage and larval
populations were significant in flush treated with L-77, Agri-Mek + oil, or Biobit Bt +
L-77. Damage and larval counts with Bt + L-77 treatment did not differ significantly
from treatment with Agri-Mek + oil.


Bt Concentration

Bt Preparation 0%i 0.01% 0.10% 1% 5%

Biobit HPWP2 0 25.0 + 5.8 35.0 + 19.1 60.0 + 8.2 77.5 + 12.6
Condor 0 12.5 + 5.0 62.5 + 22.2 77.5 + 18.9 72.5 + 9.6
Florbac HPWP 0 17.5+ 12.6 35.0 23.8 30.0+ 14.1 67.5 + 22.2

'Results are means + SD from 4 replicates of 10 larvae per replicate.
Percentage w/v for Biobit and Florbac wettable powders and percentage v/v for Condor, all in 0.01% L-77.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998


Rank Treatment Mean Counts/Flush' + SD

1 Water 19.4 + 6.3 a
2 Condor 14.3 + 9.2 ab
3 Florbac 14.1 +7.6 ab
4 L-77 14.0 + 9.5 ab
5 Biobit 13.9 + 7.7 ab
6 Condor + L-77 10.1 + 6.5 b
7 Florbac + L-77 10.1 +5.2 b
8 Biobit + L-77 8.5 + 5.9 b

'Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P < 0.05; Tukey's HSD test; N = 15).

Two complementary in situ bioassays were developed and their utility was dem-
onstrated. An injection bioassay was used to assess direct activities of several biocon-
trol agents against larval citrus leafminers. A topical bioassay tested the ability of
adjuvants and active biocontrol agents to penetrate into leaf mines and demonstrate
activity against leafminers. Using these bioassays, we demonstrated that several
commercial Bt preparations were active against the leafminer, at least at high concen-
trations. Furthermore, Bt clearly penetrated into leaf mines to affect the miners, and
penetration and activity were enhanced by an organosilicone surfactant, L-77.
In laboratory tests, Silwet L-77 diluted in water killed leafminers when applied at
sufficient concentrations. Imai et al. (1994) showed that Silwet L-77 also killed
aphids. A 0.1% concentration of L-77 in water killed 100% of the aphids, a concentra-
tion comparable to the LC0,'s observed against citrus leafminers (0.091% topical,
0.026% by injection).
Field trials permitted scaleup and translation of laboratory methods to the field.
Field application differed from laboratory bioassays in several important respects. In
the bioassays, mine penetration and leafminer mortality were observed after L-77
was topically applied with blue food coloring, and these effects increased with increas-
ing concentrations of L-77. Because L-77 produced high mortality in the bioassays at
moderate to high concentrations, laboratory bioassays to test for L-77 enhancement of
Bt activity included a low L-77 concentration (0.01%) with high concentrations of Bt.
For field application, L-77 was added at 0.05% concentration. This higher L-77 appli-
cation rate should therefore require lower concentrations of Bt, and results in Tables
4 and 5 indicate that Bt did show activity at concentrations close to the recommended
rates. A typical field rate for Bt application is approximately 1-2 kg/Ha (1-2 lbs per ac)
at 935 1/Ha (100 gals per acre); 1.12 kg/Ha (1 lb/ac) translates to 0.12% Bt concentra-
tion in sprays. In lab bioassays, we showed activity over controls (mixed with a low
0.01% L-77 only) at Bt concentrations as low as 0.1%.
Surfactants have long served as effective adjuvants, increasing the uptake, reten-
tion, and persistence of conventional pesticides and other agrichemicals (Stickle
1992). Recently, L-77 has been shown to enhance efficacy through stomatal penetra-
tion of plant pathogens of weeds used as biological control agents (Zidack et al. 1992).
Organosilicone surfactants are particularly effective in increasing the efficacy of in-

Shapiro et al.: Bt and Surfactant vs. Citrus Leafminers 209


14 Days 21 Days

Treatment % Damage Larvae/Leaf % Damage Larvae/Leaf

Untreated 18.9 a2 1.2 a 46.7 a 1.7 a
L-77 13.4 a 0.9 b 9.5 b 0.8 b
Biobit + L-77 15.5 a 1.1 ab 5.5 b 0.5 bc
Agri-Mek + 435-66 Oil 3.1 b 0 c 4.7 b 0.3 c

'Rates of application (alone or in mix; % by vol.): 435-66 oil, 2%; L-77, 0.05%; Biobit, 2.2 kg/ha; Agri-Mek, 586
'Means in the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (Tukey's HSD test, P <

secticides (Adams et al. 1988), herbicides, growth regulators, and foliar nutrients
(Stevens et al. 1992). The exceptional activity of the organosilicones is probably due
to their unique physiochemical properties and high activities as wetting agents (God-
dard & Padmanabhan 1992). The high activity of L-77 clearly enables penetration of
the very hydrophobic stomatal environment by aqueous solutions (Zidack et al. 1992).
Our results demonstrate enhanced activity of topically applied Bt when applied with
a low concentration of L-77, probably due to increased penetration through mine sto-
mata into the mines. Since leafminers preferentially mine the abaxial surface of
leaves, enhanced stomatal infiltration is especially useful against them.
L-77 penetrated leaf mines at concentrations lower than those required to kill
miners, as observed by penetration of blue food coloring. The higher concentrations of
L-77 required to induce mortality are consistent with drowning as a mode of action.
In order to test whether L-77 increased penetrability ofBt, we used a low 0.01% con-
centration of L-77 that was nontoxic to larvae, yet penetrated into leaf mines and was
ingested. At higher concentrations, organosilicone surfactants may further enhance
penetrability of Bt into leaf mines. In addition, these surfactants may enhance the re-
tention and persistence of Bt toxins beneath the leaf epidermis.


We acknowledge the excellent technical assistance of Dorothy Hoppe, Nancy May-
nard, Hunter Smith, and Greg Fulcher. Our thanks to Omelio Sosa, Jos6 Chaparro,
and Martha Ramirez for work on the Resumen. Funds for this project were made
available from the Citrus Production Research Marketing Order by the Division of
Marketing and Development, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Ser-
vices. Mention of a trademark, warranty, proprietary product, or vendor does not con-
stitute a guarantee by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and does not imply its
approval to the exclusion of other products or vendors that may also be suitable.


ADAMS, A. J., J. S. FENLON, AND A. PALMER. 1988. Improving the biological efficacy of
small droplets of permethrin by the addition of silicon-based surfactants. Ann.
Appl. Biol. 112: 19-31.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

BEATTIE, G. A. C., AND D. SMITH. 1993. Citrus leafminer. Agfacts H2.AE.4: 1-6.
GODDARD, E. D., AND K. P. A. Padmanabhan. 1992. A mechanistic study of the wet-
ting, spreading, and solution properties of organosilicone surfactants, pp. 373-
383 in C. L. Foy [ed.] Adjuvants for Agrichemicals. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
HEPPNER, J. B. 1993. Citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera:
Gracillariidae: Phyllocnistinae). Florida Division of Plant Industry Entomol-
ogy Circular 359: 1-2.
IMAI, T., S. TSUCHIYA, K. MORITA, AND T. FUJIMORI. 1994. Surface tension-dependent
surfactant toxicity on the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemi-
ptera: Aphididae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 29: 389-393.
KNOCHE, M., H. TAMURA, AND M. J. BUKOVAC. 1991. Performance and stability of the
organosilicone surfactant L-77: Effect of pH, concentration, and temperature.
J. Agric. Food Chem. 39: 202-206.
REDDY, K.N., AND SINGH, M. 1992a. Organosilicone adjuvant effects on glyphosate ef-
ficacy and rainfastness. Weed Technology 6:361-365.
REDDY, K.N., AND SINGH, M. 1992b. Organosilicone adjuvants increased the efficacy
of glyphosate for control of weeds in citrus (Citrus spp.). Hortscience 27: 1003-
RUSSELL, R. M., AND J. L. ROBERTSON. 1979. Programming probit analysis. Bull. En-
tomol. Soc. America 25: 191.
SINGH, M., AND MACK, R.E. 1993. Effect of organosilicone-based adjuvants on herbi-
cide efficacy Pestic.Sci. 38: 219-225.
STEVENS, P. J. G. 1993. Organosilicone surfactants as adjuvants for agrochemicals.
Pestic. Sci. 38: 103-122.
1992. Spray formulations with Silwet organosilicone surfactants, pp. 399-403
in C. L. Foy [ed.] Adjuvants for Agrichemicals. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
STICKLE, W. E. 1992. The importance of adjuvants to the agricultural chemical indus-
try, pp. 247-249 in C. L. Foy [ed.] Adjuvants for Agrichemicals. CRC Press, Boca
ZIDACK, N. K., P. A. BACKMAN, AND J. J. SHAW. 1992. Promotion of bacterial infection
of leaves by an organosilicone surfactant: implications for biological weed con-
trol. Biol. Control 2: 111-117.

Gould: Cold Torpor Threshold 211


USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture Research Station, Miami, Florida


The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew), is a pest of quarantine sig-
nificance of many subtropical fruits in Florida. Fly free zones which require bait
spraying with malathion when fly populations reach actionable levels, have been de-
veloped. Bait sprays also are used whenever new introductions of fruit fly species oc-
cur. Bait sprays will not be effective if the target population is immobile due to cold.
The purpose of this study was to develop temperature thresholds for laboratory-
reared and wild Anastrepha suspense through controlled laboratory studies. This re-
search determined that the cold torpor threshold for Caribbean fruit fly was 11.4 C,
and the flight threshold for 50% of the population was about 20 C. It also was deter-
mined that the flight threshold of wild flies did not differ significantly from that of lab-
oratory reared flies.
Bait spray experiments and regular treatments could be scheduled to avoid cold
periods when flies are not active.

Key Words: Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense, cold torpor threshold, flight


La mosca de la fruta del Caribe,Anastrepha suspense (Loew), es una plaga de mu-
chas frutas subtropicales en la Florida y es de importancia cuarentenaria. Zonas li-
bres de estas moscas, cuales requieren rocio de carnada con malathion cuando la
poblaci6n de moscas llega a niveles punibles, han sido desarrolladas. Rocios con car-
nada tambi6n son usados cuando ocurren introducciones de otras species de moscas
de frutas. Este tipo de rocio no es efectivo si la poblaci6n de moscas ha sido inmovili-
zada por el frio.
El prop6sito de este studio fu6 el desarrollar umbrales de temperatures para
Anastrepha suspense a trav6s de studios controlados en el laboratorio y confirmaci6n
de los resultados con moscas silvestres. Este studio especificamente determine que el
umbral de inactividad de las moscas de la fruta del Caribe causado por frio fue de
11.4 C, y que el umbral de vuelo para el 50% de la poblaci6n fu6 de 20 C. Tambien fu6
determinado que el umbral de vuelo de moscas silvestres no vari6 significativamente
del obtenido con las moscas criadas en el laboratorio.
Experimentos con rocios de carnada y tratamientos regulars pueden ser progra-
mados para evitar periods de frio cuando las moscas estan inactivas.

The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew), developed into a quarantine
problem for the Florida citrus industry after the fly became established in the mid
1960s. Fly free zones have been developed as a major defense for Florida citrus ex-
ports (Greany and Riherd 1993, Riherd 1993, Riherd et al. 1994). Current protocols
for the fly free zones require bait spraying with malathion whenever trapping detects
fruit fly populations of 2 or more adults within 2.4 km of each other in the zone during
a 30 day period (Riherd et al. 1994). Once fly populations reach actionable levels, bait

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

sprays of Nulure" (Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corp., Hanover PA) and malathion
are used to reduce populations. Bait sprays also are a main line of defense in the erad-
ication of new introductions of fruit flies such as the recent Mediterranean fruit fly
outbreak in the Tampa, FL area (Nguyen et al. 1992, Glickman 1997).
The effectiveness of a bait spray depends on the flies being able to come into con-
tact with and/or consume the bait in sufficient quantity to kill the fly. The following
physiological parameters are important: the temperature in the field at which the
flies are active (torpor threshold), the temperature at which they can fly, and the tem-
perature at which the flies begin normal activities such as feeding, mating and ovipo-
sition. With this information bait spray experiments and regular treatments can then
be scheduled to avoid periods when flies are not active.
Dacus tryoni (Froggatt) is one of the few fruit fly pests for which many of these
temperature thresholds have been determined (Meats 1989). For most other fruit fly
species this information is not available. The purpose of this study was to develop
temperature thresholds for A. suspense through controlled laboratory studies with
colony reared insects and then confirm these results with wild flies. Specifically, this
research determined a cold torpor threshold and a flight threshold for A. suspense.
Studies are in progress to determine an oviposition threshold and a feeding threshold.


Cold torpor threshold: The adult flies used in this experiment were from a colony
reared on artificial media in the laboratory in Miami, FL, and were 5 to 7 days old.
Five flies were placed in a 100 x 15 mm plastic petri dish. Paper with a 2 cm grid was
placed on one side of the petri dish to allow fly movement to be measured. The petri
dish was held vertically by a small c-clamp. A small hole (2 mm in diameter) in one
edge of the petri dish had aj-type thermocouple installed. A tele-thermometer used to
measure the temperature was calibrated with a National Standards Traceable mer-
cury thermometer. The petri dish with flies and thermocouple was placed in an incu-
bator with the temperature initially at about 25-26 C. The incubator was equipped
with fluorescent lights that were positioned directly over the petri dish at a distance
of 10 cm. The flies were allowed to acclimate for 10-20 minutes. After the acclimation
period, the temperature was lowered at a rate of 2-3 C per 10 minutes for the first
hour and 1 C per min after that, until 5-7 C was reached. A Sony" CCD F-70 8mm
video recorder was used to record fly activity during the tests. The recorder was placed
40 cm from the petri dish containing flies and activity was recorded at 2x magnifica-
tion. The video was played back on a television monitor and at 10 minute intervals the
total distance moved by each fly in the petri dish was measured for a one minute pe-
riod by using the 2-cm grid present in the petri dish. Temperature was recorded at the
beginning of each interval. This experiment was repeated 6 times with flies from dif-
ferent rearing batches for both males and females.
Flight threshold: Adult flies used were from the colony mentioned above, and were
5 to 7 days old. The flies were cooled at 1 C for several minutes until they were torpid.
Ten male and 10 female flies were placed into two 400-ml glass beakers. The upper
portion of the inside of each beaker was coated with talc which the flies could not
climb. The beakers with flies were placed in a small cage (30 x 30 x 30 cm) in an incu-
bator at a fixed temperature (12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, or 26 C). After 1 hour the num-
ber of flies that flew out of the glass beaker was recorded. This experiment was
repeated 10 times with different groups of flies. The incubator was equipped with flu-
orescent lighting which was located 10 cm directly above the cage containing flies.
Wild flies were tested against colony flies to determine if they differed significantly in
flight ability. Guavas were purchased from a packing house in Homestead, FL (24 km

Gould: Cold Torpor Threshold

from the USDA facility). Larvae recovered from guavas were held under identical con-
ditions as colony flies until adults emerged. The adult flies were tested when 5 to 7
days old in side by side tests identical to those previously described in the same incu-
bator at 20 C. This temperature was chosen as an intermediate temperature at which
only a portion of the flies would fly. Eight replications of 10 colony males and 10 colony
females were tested at the same time as 10 wild males and 10 wild females.
Statistics: Statistical analysis was performed using linear regression (proc reg)
and t-test (proc ttest) (SAS Institute 1988) and also by fitting non-linear transition
models using TableCurve 2D" (Jandel Scientific 1994).

Cold Torpor Threshold: Fly movement decreases as the temperature is decreased
(Fig. 1). There was no significant difference between males and females. The data dis-
tribution shows higher variation in fly movement at the warmer temperatures. At the
warmest temperatures, some flies moved large distances but others flies did not move.
This variation could influence the slope of a regression and predictions of the temper-
ature threshold for movement. Therefore a number of transformations were performed
on the data. The transformation that gave the best'fit' to a linear regression was log 10
of distance traveled (Fig. 2). The transformed regression gives a cold torpor threshold
(X intercept) ofA. suspense of 11.4 C vs 13.5 C for the non-transformed regression.
The torpor thresholds for Dacus oleae (Gmelin) (2.7 C) andD. tryoni (2 C warm ac-
climated and 7 C cold acclimated) are much lower (Meats 1989). However both of
these flies have ranges that regularly include colder temperatures. The original range
ofA. suspense encompassed only sub-tropical climates where the temperatures sel-
dom dropped this low.
Flight threshold: As with cold torpor threshold of movement, flight increases with
increasing temperatures. The relationship is a sigmoid curve (Fig. 3). The male and fe-


- Y = 2.4X 32.3
0 40 -- = 0.61 m



5 10 15 20 25 30
FIG. 1. Distance (cm) moved by male (circles) and female (squares) Caribbean fruit
fly adults versus temperature.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)


z Y = 0.1X -1.16
1 2r = 0.82


- 0

5 10 15 20

25 30

FIG. 2. Log,, of Distance (cm) moved by male (circles) and female (squares) Carib-
bean fruit fly adults versus temperature.

male flies have similar curves except at temperatures of 22 and 24 C where the confi-
dence limits indicate that the two are significantly different. The flight threshold
value differed widely among individual flies, a few flies can fly at 18 C, but most won't.
The 50% flight threshold, which is the point of inflexion of the sigmoid curve (about
20 C), is probably a better figure for determining when to conduct bait spray tests. Us-



12 14 16 18 20 22

24 26

FIG. 3. Percent of male (filled boxes) and female (open boxes) Caribbean fruit fly
adults flying versus temperature.

June, 1998

Gould: Cold Torpor Threshold 215

ing Tablecurve 2D" to fit to the data set for female flies, several sigmoid transition
curves fitted with r2 > 0.99. The 50% flight threshold (the percentage based on the total
number of flies which flew at the warmest temperature) was about 19.5C for the best
fitting equations. At 22 and 24'C some male flies remained in the beaker and appeared
to display mating behavior (Burk 1983, Sivinski et al. 1984, Sivinski 1989). Again, as
with the cold torpor, some of the flies remain motionless regardless of temperature.
To determine if the thresholds were the same for colony reared vs wild flies, we
reared and compared the two side by side. The proportion of flies flying at 20'C was
0.53 + 0.23 for colony flies and 0.45 + 0.24 for wild flies. This difference was not sig-
nificant (t = 0.98, 30 DF, P = 0.34). Therefore the colony flies differ little if any from
the wild flies in their propensity to fly at the temperature tested.
The flight temperature thresholds for Dacus dorsalis, D. oleae, and D. tryoni are all
14'C (Meats 1989) which is several degrees colder that the flight threshold of 16-18'C,
and 20'C 50% flight threshold for A. suspense. Again, these differences might be due
to A. suspense adaptations to its restricted subtropical range.
Any large scale tests or control programs with baits for A. suspense should be
planned to avoid cold periods when the majority of the daytime temperatures in Flor-
ida fall below the temperature thresholds. In north and central Florida, winter max-
imum temperatures often fall below the flight threshold of the Caribbean fruit fly and
minimum temperatures fall below the torpor threshold (National Climatic Data Cen-
ter 1991).


I thank W. Montgomery of USDA-ARS for his assistance. I thank E. Schnell of
USDA-ARS for translation of the abstract to Spanish. I thank D. Thomas, USDA-ARS,
Weslaco, TX, J. Hansen, USDA-ARS, Yakima, WA, P. Greany and J. Sivinski, USDA-
ARS, Gainesville, FL, for critically reviewing and improving this manuscript.


BURK, T. 1983. Behavioral ecology of mating in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha
suspense (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Florida Entomol. 66: 330-344.
GLICKMAN, D. 1997. Declaration of emergency because of the Mediterranean fruit fly.
Federal Register 62: 34439.
GREANY, P. D., AND C. RIHERD. 1993. Preface: Caribbean fruit fly status, economic im-
portance, and control (Diptera: Tephritidae). Florida Entomol. 76: 209-211.
JANDEL SCIENTIFIC. 1994. TableCurve 2D Windows v2.0 User's Manual. Jandel Scien-
tific, San Rafael, California. 404 pp.
MEATS, A. 1989. Abiotic mortality factors-temperature, pp 229-239 in A. S. Robinson
and G. Hooper [eds.], World crop pests 3B, Fruit flies their biology, natural en-
emies and control. Elsevier, New York, NY. 447 pp.
NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER. 1991. Climatological data, Florida vol 95. Na-
tional Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC.
NGUYEN, R., C. POUCHER, AND J. R. BRAZZEL. 1992. Seasonal occurrence of Anas-
trepha suspense (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Indian River County, Florida, 1984-
1987. J. Econ. Entomol. 85: 813-820.
RIHERD, C. 1993. Citrus production areas maintained free of Caribbean fruit fly for ex-
port certification, pp. 407-413 in M. Aluja and P. Liedo [eds.], Fruit flies: Biology
and management. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY. 492 pp.
RIHERD, C., R. NGUYEN, AND J. R. BRAZZEL. 1994. Pest free areas, pp. 213-223 in J. L.
Sharp & G. J. Hallman [eds.], Quarantine treatments for pests of food plants.
Westview Press, Boulder, CO. 290 pp.

216 Florida Entomologist 81(2) June, 1998

SAS INSTITUTE. 1988. SAS/STAT User's Guide. Release 6.03 Ed. SAS Institute, Cary,
SIVINSKI, J. 1989. Lekking and the small-scale distribution of the sexes in the Carib-
bean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew). J. Insect Behav. 2: 3-13.
SIVINSKI, J., T. BURK, AND J. C. WEBB. 1984. Acoustic courtship signals in the Carib-
bean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew). Anim. Behav. 32: 1011-1016.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998


Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Everglades Research and Education Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 8003
Belle Glade, FL 33430


The rice stink bug, Oebalus ypsilongriseus (DeGeer), was first observed in Florida
rice fields in 1994. An extensive survey was conducted during 1995 and 1996 using
sweep nets to determine the relative abundance and population biology of 0. ypsilon-
griseus in Florida rice fields. It occurred in 100 percent of all fields sampled, and con-
stituted 10.4 percent of all stink bugs collected. Higher numbers of 0. ypsilongriseus
were found as rice fields matured and during the later months of September through
November. Data from this study show 0. ypsilongriseus, a well known rice pest in
South America first reported in the United States in 1983, is now widespread in Flor-
ida rice fields.

Key Words: rice, Pentatomidae, Oebalus ypsilongriseus, stink bug


La chinche del arroz, Oebalus ypsilongriseus (DeGeer), fue notada por primera vez
en Florida en campos de cultivo de arroz en 1994. Durante 1995 y 1996, se llev6 a cabo
una muestrea comprensiva en Florida de 0. ypsilongriseus en campos de arroz, utili-
zando redes de azote, para determinar la abundancia relative y la biologia poblacional
de esta chinche. Se encontr6 la chinche en el 100 por ciento de todos los campos mues-
treados y constituy6 el 10.4 por ciento de todos los pentat6midos recolectados. Canti-
dades mayores de 0. ypsilongriseus se obtuvieron entire mas maduros eran los campos
de arroz y tambi6n durante los meses de septiembre a noviembre. Datos obtenidos con
este studio demuestran que 0. ypsilongriseus, una plaga que se conoce bien en Suda-
merica y que fu6 reportada en los Estados Unidos por primera vez en 1983, esta ex-
tendida ampliamente por los campos de cultivo de arroz en Florida.

Rice (Oryza satiua L.) was reintroduced into the Everglades Agricultural Area
(EAA) of southern Florida in the 1970s after a 20 year absence. Since then rice pro-

Cherry et al.: New Rice Stink Bug Pest

duction has expanded and in 1996 rice was grown on ca. 7,600 ha in the EAA with an
estimated value of $9 million. Little is known about the insect pests of the crop in the
EAA. Although many different insects can be found in rice fields in the EAA, stink
bugs are currently considered the most important pest. Green et al. (1954) reported
finding four species of stink bugs in Florida rice fields, but gave no information on
their relative abundance. More recently, Genung et al. (1979) reported that five spe-
cies of stink bugs could be found in rice in the EAA, but again no information was
given on their relative abundance or seasonal occurrence. Jones & Cherry (1986) first
reported the relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of stink bugs in southern
Florida rice based on extensive surveys. In the latter study, four species were found
with the rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F), the dominant species comprising >95%
of the total stink bug population. The seasonal occurrence of the rice stink bug in the
traditional southern United States rice-growing areas has been previously studied by
Douglas (1939) and Odglen & Warren (1962). Both adult and nymphal stages of the
stink bugs feed on individual grains of rice as the panicle develops (Douglas 1939,
Swanson & Newson 1962, Bowling 1979). Stink bug damage to rice is well docu-
mented (Douglas & Tullis 1950, Swanson & Newsom 1962, Marchetti 1980).
In October, 1994, a previously unrecorded species of stink bug in Florida rice was
observed to be abundant in rice fields on the University of Florida Everglades Re-
search and Education Center at Belle Glade, Florida. Adults of this stink bug were
collected and sent to Dr. Frank Mead at the Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville,
Florida for identification. The adults were identified by Dr. Mead as Oebalus grise-
scens (Sailor). O. grisescens was first recorded in the United States at Homestead,
Florida in 1983 (Mead 1983). Mead ibidd.) also stated that the species had no demon-
strated economic importance. Since many species of Oebalus are known to be rice
pests, a survey for O. grisescens in Florida rice was initiated in 1995. In March, 1996,
Dr. Joe Eger brought the recent publication of Del Vecchio et al. (1994) to the senior
author's attention. Based on laboratory studies, Del Vecchio et al. (1994) concluded
that 0. grisescens was the hibernating morph of Oebalus ypsilongriseus (DeGeer) and
placed Sailor's species in the synonym of 0. ypsilongriseus. 0. ypsilongriseus is a
known pest of rice in Brazil (Del Vecchio and Grazia 1992) and Colombia (Pantoja
1990). Furthermore, Pantoja et al. (1995) conducted a survey for stink bugs in 13 rice
producing countries of Latin America. In their study, Oebalus ornatus (Sailor) and 0.
ypsilongriseus were found in seven Latin American countries and had the widest geo-
graphical range of stink bug species collected during the study.
The objectives of our study were 1) to report the establishment of O. ypsilongriseus,
in Florida rice fields and 2) to report the relative abundance and population biology of
0. ypsilongriseus in Florida rice fields.


Methods used in the study reported here were very similar to the Jones & Cherry
(1986) study in order to allow a direct comparison in stink bug abundance between the
two studies. Eight commercial rice fields in the Everglades Agricultural Area were
sampled each year with sweep nets (38.1 cm diameter) during the 1995 and 1996
growing seasons. Two fields were sampled at each of four locations each year. Fields
were ca. 16 ha and located throughout the EAA to obtain a representative sample of
insect populations in the area. Fields also represented a range of normal planting
dates ranging from March through May in both years. Growers applied insecticides
for stink bug control as they deemed necessary so that application times varied con-
siderably. Of the 16 fields sampled over the two year period, eight were harvested once
(main crop) and eight were harvested twice (ratoon crop).

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

Sampling began six weeks after planting and continued through harvest. Samples
were taken from ca 1000 to 1500 hours (EDT). Each field was sampled weekly; each
sample consisted of 100 consecutive sweeps (180'). Each horizontal stroke with the
net in either direction was one sweep and one sweep was made with each forward
step. Sampling began at least 50 m into the field from the roadside and was centered
between the field levees to avoid possible edge effects (Douglas 1939). After collection,
insects were frozen for later counting.
The relative abundance of all stink bugs found in rice fields during 1995 and 1996
was determined from the total number of nymphs and adults of each species collected
during the two years. Mean number of 0. ypsilongriseus collected at different times
after planting during 1995 and 1996 were analyzed using Tukey's test (SAS 1997).
Mean number ofO. ypsilongriseus collected in different months during 1995 and 1996
were also analyzed using Tukey's test. The relative abundance of 0. ypsilongriseus to
0. pugnax was also examined for possible seasonal trends.


Oebalus ypsilongriseus was found in sweep net samples from all 16 of the rice
fields sampled during 1995 and 1996. These data show that it is well established and
widespread in commercial rice fields in southern Florida. The relative abundance of
stink bugs found in southern Florida rice fields is shown in Table 1. Similar to the
Jones & Cherry (1986) study, the rice stink bug 0. pugnax was again clearly the pre-
dominant species. However, 0. ypsilongriseus was not reported in earlier studies
(Green et al. 1954, Genung et al. 1979, Jones & Cherry ibid.). In this study, 0. ypsi-
longriseus is now clearly the second most abundant stink bug being 10.4% of the total
relative abundance of all stink bugs.
Numbers of 0. ypsilongriseus collected at different times after rice planting are
shown in Table 2. The lowest number of stink bugs was collected six to nine weeks af-
ter planting. This observation is most easily explained by noting that 0. ypsilongri-
seus attacks the rice panicle (Kashino & Alves 1994) and rice cultivars grown in
Florida during 1995-96 all require more than 70 days to 50% heading. The mean num-
ber of 0. ypsilongriseus in sweep samples consistently increased throughout the six to
28 week sampling period. These data show that in Florida, the older the rice field, the
more 0. ypsilongriseus would be expected in the field.
Numbers of 0. ypsilongriseus collected in different months in Florida rice fields are
shown in Table 3. The fewest number of stink bugs were collected during May and

FIELDS IN 1995 AND 1996.


Species Adults Nymphs No. %

Andrallus spinidens (F.) 27 0 27 <1
Nezara viridula (L.) 1 1 2 <1
Oebalus pugnax (F.) 12,878 1,765 14,643 88.7
Oebalus ypsilongriseus (DeGeer) 1,390 328 1,718 10.4
Unknown 104 7 111 <1
Total 14,400 2,101 16,501 100.0

Cherry et al.: New Rice Stink Bug Pest


Weeks after planting x" Nb SE Range

6-9 0.2 a 64 0.1 0-5
10-13 1.8 ab 64 0.5 0-17
14-17 5.8 abc 51 2.1 0-73
18-21 7.7 bc 48 1.6 0-46
22-25 11.0 c 40 2.3 0-61
25-28 25.9 d 17 7.3 0-88

"Adults + nymphs per 100 sweeps. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (alpha =
0.05) using Tukey's test (SAS 1997).
bNumber of 100 sweep samples.

June. This observation is expected since few Florida rice fields reached the heading
stage during these two months. The mean number of 0. ypsilongriseus consistently in-
creased in sweep samples from May to November. The relative abundance of 0. ypsi-
longriseus to 0. pugnax is also shown in Table 3. During May, June, and July, O.
pugnax was 97 to 100% of the stink bugs collected of these two species. However,
throughout May to November, 0. ypsilongriseus generally increased relative to O.
pugnax. This was especially true in the later October-November samples. Interest-
ingly, 0. ypsilongriseus actually outnumbered the important rice pest 0. pugnax in
the November samples. Additional data on 0. pugnax in Florida rice are found in
Cherry & Jones (1986).
Numerous factors have been shown to affect stink bug numbers in rice fields.
These factors include insecticidal spraying, migration (Douglas 1939), rice heading
(Kashino & Alves 1994), and weeds in rice fields (Franqui et al. 1988). Our data show
that more 0. ypsilongriseus are found as rice fields matured and during the later


Meanb stink bugs

Month N' 0. ypsilongriseus" 0. pugnax 0. y./O. p.

May 29 0.0 a 0.6 0.00
June 61 0.5 a 16.4 0.03
July 46 2.2 a 64.8 0.03
Aug. 50 5.4 ab 67.4 0.08
Sept. 50 10.5 bc 124.8 0.08
Oct. 38 14.6 cd 25.6 0.57
Nov. 10 23.8 d 6.8 3.50

aNumber of 100 sweep samples.
bAdults + nymphs per 100 sweep samples.
Means followedby the same letter are not significantly different (alpha = 0.05) using Tukey's test (SAS 1997).

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

months of September through November. Reasons for these population trends are cur-
rently not understood and should be determined in future research.


We thank Drs. Joe Eger, Susan Halbert, and Frank Mead for help in insect identi-
fication. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series Number R-05856.


BOWLING, C. C. 1979. The stylet sheath as an indicator of feeding activity of the rice
stink bug. J. Econ. Entomol. 72: 259-260.
DEL VECCHIO, M. C., AND J. GRAZIA. 1992. Obtencao de posturas de Oebalus ypsilon-
griseus (De Geer, 1773) em laboratorio (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). An. Soc.
Ent. Brasil. 21(3): 367-373.
DEL VECCHIO, M. C., J. GRAZIA, AND G. S. ALBUQUERQUE. 1994. Dimorfismo seasonal
em Oebalus ypsilongriseus (DeGeer, 1773) (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) e uma
nova sinonimia. Revta bras. Ent. 38(1): 101-108.
DOUGLAS, W. A. 1939. Studies of rice stink bug populations with special reference to
local migration. J. Econ. Entomol. 33: 300-303.
DOUGLAS, W. A., AND E. C. TULLIS. 1950. Insects and fungi as causes of pecky rice.
U.S. Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1015.
FRANQUI, R., A. PANTOJA, AND S. MEDINA-GAUD. 1988. Host plants of pentatomids af-
fecting rice fields in Puerto Rico. J. Agric. Univ. PR. Vol. 72(3). 365-369.
GENUNG. W. G., G. H. SNYDER, AND V. E. GREEN JR 1979. Rice field insects in the Ev-
erglades. Belle Glade Res. Rep. EV-1979-7. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.
TULLIS. 1954. Rice investigations. pp. 235-236. In Annual Report of Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.
JONES, D. B., AND R. H. CHERRY. 1986. Species composition and seasonal abundance
of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in southern Florida rice. J. Econ. En-
tomol. 79: 1226-1229.
KASHINO, K., AND R. ALVES. 1994. Ecology of pentatomids that attack the rice culm
and panicle in the Cerrados region. Relatoria technical do projeto nipo-
brasileiro de cooperacao em pesquida agricolo 1987/1992. Planaltina, Brazil.
MARCHETTI, M. A. 1980. Studies of brown spot, stink bugs, pecky rice and their rela-
tionships, pp. 57-58 In Proceedings 18th Rice Technical Working Group, Davis,
MEAD, F. W. 1983. Insect detection: a stink bug, Oebalus grisescens (Sailor). Tri-ology.
22(11): 4.
ODGLEN, G. E., AND L. O. WARREN. 1962. The rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.) in
Arkansas. Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Rep. Ser. No. 107.
PANTOJA, A. 1990. Lista preliminary de plagas del arroz in Colombia. Arroz en las
Americas. 11(2): 9.
PANTOJA, A., E. DAZA, C. GARCIA, O. MEJIA, AND D. RIDER. 1995. Relative abundance
of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in southwestern Colombia rice fields.
J. Entomol. Sci. 30(4): 463-467.
SAS. 1997. SAS System for Windows. Release 6.12. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, N.C.
SWANSON, M. C., AND L. D. NEWSOM. 1962. Effect of infestation by the rice stink bug
Oebalus pugnax, on yield and quality of rice. J. Econ. Entomol. 55: 877-879.

Harris et al.: New Species of Microcaddisflies from Florida 221


1Department of Biology, Clarion University, Clarion, PA 16214

2Laboratory of Aquatic Entomology, Florida A&M University
Tallahassee, FL 32307-4100


Two new species of microcaddisflies, Hydroptila apalachicola and Ochrotrichia
apalachicola, from northern Florida are described and illustrated.

Key Words: Trichoptera, Hydroptilidae, Hydroptila, Ochrotrichia, microcaddisflies


Se de described e ilustran dos species nuevas de microtric6pteros, Hydroptila
apalachicola y Ochrotrichia apalachicola, del norte de Florida.

Northern Florida is notable for the large number of endemic caddisflies, as well as
other fauna and flora. The small, cold, spring-fed streams of the region are one of the
primary habitats of the endemic fauna of northern Florida. In this paper we describe
two new species of microcaddisflies from spring runs within the Nature Conservancy
Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines Preserve in Liberty County. In a recent comprehen-
sive study of the caddisfly fauna of Florida (Pescador et al. 1996), 15 species of the ge-
nus Hydroptila and 3 species of Ochrotrichia were reported in the state. The 2 new
species described herein will increase the number to 16 species for Hydroptila and 4
species for Ochrotrichia. Except for the species 0. tarsalis which occurs in a wide va-
riety of streams and rivers throughout Florida, the other 3 species of Ochrotrichia
have only been collected in cold, spring-fed streams of northern and central Florida.
Terminology for the descriptions follows that of Marshall (1979). Specimen length
was measured from the tip of the head to the end of the wings and is given as a range
when more than one specimen was available. Type specimens are deposited in the Na-
tional Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
(NMNH) and the Florida A & M University, Tallahassee, FL (FAMU).

Hydroptila apalachicola, Harris, Pescador and Rasmussen, new species
(Figs. 1A-1D)

Diagnosis: Hydroptila apalachicola is similar in most respects to H. recurvata
Harris and Kelley, a species endemic to the Black Warrior system in Alabama. Both
species have in common the distinctive inferior appendages of the genitalia which are
folded back distally. The new species is distinguished by the structure of the tenth ter-
gum. In H. recurvata the tenth tergum ends in a pair of large spines which project pos-
teriorly; in H. apalachicola, these spines are small and sharply down-turned.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998



FIG. 1. Hydroptila apalachicola n. sp., male genitalia. A. Lateral view; B. Dorsal
view; C. Ventral view; D. Phallus, dorsal view.

Description: Male. Length 2.9-3.2 mm. 23 antennal segments. Brown in alcohol.
Venter of abdominal segment VII with short apicomesal process. Segment VIII elon-
gate posteroventrally, bearing numerous heavy spines; in ventral view truncate pos-
teriorly with row of heavy spines along margin; reduced to a narrow band dorsally.
Segment IX retracted within segments VII and VIII: in dorsal aspect deeply incised
anteriorly, posteriorly with wide truncate incision mesally, elongate laterally. Tenth
tergum narrow at attachment to IX, widening distally, forked at midlength with each

Harris et al.: New Species of Microcaddisflies from Florida 223

bearing a short spine apically; in lateral view widest at midlength, narrowing distally
to downturned apex. Inferior appendages thin and elongate in lateral view; in dorsal
view, bases widely separated and bearing stout setae, converging mesally and partly
fused, diverging distally; in ventral view apices of inferior appendages bearing a thin,


view; C. Ventral view; D. Phallus, dorsal view.
view; C. Ventral view; D. Phallus, dorsal view.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

elongate process from ventrolateral margin, small spine on lateral margin apically
and subapically. Phallus wide at base, thin paramere encircling shaft near midlength.
Female and larva: Unknown.
Type Material: Holotype, male. FLORIDA, Liberty County, Nature Conservancy
Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines Preserve, Little Sweetwater Creek, 19-V-1994, M. L.
Pescador, A. K. Rasmussen, and S. C. Harris (NMNH). Paratypes, same locality and
date as holotype, 2 males (NMNH, FAMU).
Etymology: Named for the type locality within the Apalachicola Bluffs and Ra-
vines Preserve.

Ochrotrichia apalachicola, Harris, Pescador and Rasmussen, new species
(Figs. 2A-2D)

Diagnosis: The lack of sclerotized processes from the tenth tergum places Ochrot-
richia apalachicola with the species group 0. unio Ross, 0. xena Ross, 0. elongiralla
Harris, and 0. weoka Harris. However, in 0. unio, 0. xena, and 0. elongiralla the in-
ferior appendages of the genitalia are thin and elongate. In both 0. weoka and 0.
apalachicola the inferior appendages are shorter (less than 3x the width), but in O.
weoka these appendages are only slightly longer than wide and are at least twice as
long as wide in 0. apalachicola.
Description: Male. Length 3.4 mm. 37 antennal segments. Brown in alcohol. Ven-
ter of abdominal segment VII with short mesal process. Segment VIII annular. Seg-
ment IX generally square in lateral view; in ventral view rectangular, slightly incised
posterolaterally; in dorsal view incised laterally, fused mesally with segment X. Tenth
tergum ovate, bearing short seta and shallow ridge on lateral margin; in lateral view
rounded posteroventrally, narrowing posterodorsally. Inferior appendages narrow,
widening slightly near midlength, rounded apically; in dorsal and ventral views tri-
angular bearing peglike spines on mesal margin at apex and base. Phallus sinuate,
widening at base and subapically, narrow indentation at apex.
Female and larva: Unknown.
Type material: Holotype, male. FLORIDA, Liberty County, Nature Conservancy
Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines Preserve, Beaver Dam Creek, 19-V-1994, M. L.
Pescador and A. K. Rasmussen, and S. C. Harris (NMNH).
Etymology: Named for the type locality in the Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines


We would like to thank the Nature Conservancy for the access to collect aquatic in-
sects in the Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines Preserve, Liberty County. This study was
supported by a research grant (FLAX 91004) from CSREES-USDA to Florida A&M


MARSHALL, J. E. 1979. A review of the genera Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera). Bull. Brit-
ish Mus. Nat. Hist. (Entomo. Ser.). 39: 135-239.
PESCADOR, M. L., A. K. RASMUSSEN, AND S. C. HARRIS. 1996. Identification manual for
the caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae of Florida. Florida Dept. Environ. Protection,
Tallahassee, Florida. 132 pp.

Adair et al.: D. abbreviatus Oviposition


1The Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture, Vero Beach Research Station
7055 33rd Street, Vero Beach, FL 32966

2University of Florida, IFAS, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, FL 33850

3Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Division of Plant Industry, 3027 Lake Alfred Road, Winter Haven, FL 33881


Female Diaprepes abbreviatus L. were presented with immature citrus leaves, ma-
ture citrus leaves, and doubled strips of various substances as potential oviposition
sites. In both the laboratory and in caged outdoor experiments more egg masses were
deposited between freezer paper strips than between mature leaves. No egg masses
were deposited between immature leaves. Artificial substrates were preferred in the
following order: freezer paper > waxed paper > transparency film. In emergence ex-
periments utilizing freezer paper with the plastic-coated side out as the oviposition
substrate, no neonate larvae escaped from 65% of the egg masses. In contrast, larvae
easily escaped from egg masses laid between strips of the other substrates tested. In
the field, wax paper and freezer paper were preferred as oviposition sites 43:1 and
50:1 over mature leaf pairs, respectively. These data suggest a new prototype moni-
toring trap for this weevil.

Key Words: oviposition trap, insect-plant interaction, root weevil, management prac-


Se presentaron a hembras de Diaprepes abbreviatus L. hojas j6venes y maduras de
citrico y franjas doubles de various tipos de papel como sitios potenciales para oviposi-
ci6n. Tanto en experiments en el laboratorio como dentro dejaulas en el campo, mas
huevos fueron depositados entire las tiras de papel para congelar que entire las hojas
maduras. Ninguna masa de huevos fue depositada entire las hojas j6venes. Los subs-
tratos artificiales fueron preferidos en el orden siguiente: papel para congelar > papel
encerado > papel de transparencias. En experiments de surgimiento utilizando papel
para congelar (con la cubierta plastica hacia el exterior), ninguna larva neonatal se
escape del 65% de las masas de huevos. Por el contrario, las larvas se escaparon facil-
mente de las masas de huevos depositadas entire las tiras de los otros substratos. En
experiments hechos en el campo, el papel encerado y el papel para congelar fueron
preferidos sobre las hojas maduras como sitios de oviposici6n a raz6n de 43:1 y de
50:1, respectivamente. Estos datos sugieren un nuevo prototipo de trampa para el mo-
nitoreo de este picudo.

Diaprepes abbreviatus L. is a pest of citrus, sugarcane, and other economic crops
of subtropical and tropical areas of the United States and several Caribbean island
nations. Adults feed on young foliage, females lay egg clusters between leaves, and the

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

larvae feed on the roots (Fennah 1942, Woodruff 1968). Host plants associated with all
life stages of this pest include about 270 species in 157 genera in 59 plant families.
These associations range from adult and larval feeding to presence of egg masses. Life
cycle hosts (egg to adult development) include Citrus spp., peanut; sorghum, guinea
corn, corn, Surinam-cherry, dragon tree, sweet potato, and sugarcane. More than 40
plant species in 20 families, are associated with larval feeding (Simpson et al. 1996).
Because of inadequate management strategies and a wide range of adult and larval
food plants, D. abbreviatus can be considered a major long-term threat to the survival
of several agronomic crops (Simpson et al. 1996). Tree symptoms do not appear until
the larvae are well established on the tree roots.
A single adult D. abbreviatus L. was discovered in a citrus nursery in Orange
County, Florida in 1964 (Woodruff 1964). Although the nursery was placed under sur-
veillance, no other D. abbreviatus was observed until 1968, when larvae were col-
lected from the same nursery (Woodruff 1968). Several hundred adults and larvae
were subsequently collected in and around Apopka, Florida (Woodruff 1968). By 1975,
this pest was established in 4,300 acres of citrus in Orange, Seminole, and Broward
counties (Griffith 1975). Today D. abbreviatus infests about 50,000 acres of commer-
cial citrus in 17 Florida counties and 94 commercial and ornamental plant nurseries
(Hall 1995).
During their arboreal lifetime of about 4 months (after emergence from the soil),
females oviposit approximately 60 egg masses of 30 to 260 eggs each with an average
lifetime total of about 5,000 eggs (Wolcott 1936). Fennah (1942) found that D. abbre-
viatus preferred to oviposit between paper strips over tin foil strips and mature
leaves, both of which were preferred to young leaves. Wolcott (1933) stated that eggs
were overwhelmingly laid between paper strips compared to leaves in the field and
that larvae were trapped in the egg mass.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the ovipositional preferences ofD. ab-
breviatus for artificial media in the laboratory and in citrus groves.


Fourteen experiments of various types were conducted in this study. One experi-
ment tested for congregational preference based on leaf maturity. Several experi-
ments examined ovipositional preference of D. abbreviatus for various artificial
substrates and for leaf maturity in the laboratory. One type of artificial substrate was
compared to mature leaves of young red grapefruit trees in the laboratory, while two
experiments repeated others done in the laboratory under semi-controlled and field
conditions. A final experiment examined the escape incidence of neonate larvae from
egg masses deposited between various types of artificial substrates.
Adult D. abbreviatus were field collected at the Kerr Center for Sustainable Agri-
culture, Vero Beach, Florida, and maintained on a diet of freshly collected red grape-
fruit leaves (Citrus xparadisi Macfad. cultivar 'Ruby'). Immature leaves were defined
as 75% expanded, but lighter green compared to 100% expanded, dark green, mature
leaves. The experiments in Tables 2 and 3 were performed in 30 x 30 x 30 cm alumi-
num screen cages (BioQuip Inc., Gardena, CA). For the artificial substrates described
in Table 1, a 2.5 cm x 30 cm strip was folded in half over a bent paper clip and then sta-
pled once at the open end. Strips were then hung from the top of the cage by the bent
paper clip. To provide weevil access to the strip, another unbent paper clip was clipped
to the bottom of each strip and inserted into the mouth of an empty 25 ml Erlenmeyer
flask. Leaves were paper clipped or stapled together to form pairs and suspended from
the cage top in a similar fashion. Substrates being compared to one another were hung
in opposite corners of the cage. An empty 25 ml Erlenmeyer flask was placed in a third

Adair et al.: D. abbreviatus Oviposition


Substrate Description Source

Immature leaves 75% expanded Red grapefruit leaves (Citrus x
paradise Macfad. 'Ruby')
Mature leaves 100% expanded Red grapefruit leaves (Citrus x
paradisi Macfad.'Ruby')
Waxed paper Tissue paper with a Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond,
triple coat of paraffin VA 28261. 800-433-2244
Transparency film Polyester film (4 mil) Labelon Inc., Cananadaigua, NY
Freezer paper Polyethylene plastic (0.4 Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond,
mil) on one side of 35 lb VA 28261. 800-433-2244
wet strength craft paper
Parafilm M Sheet of 44% polyolefin/ Amer. National Can., Greenwich,
56% paraffin wax CT 06836. 203-845-6304
Chromatography Cellulose paper; Whatman, Inc., 9 Bridewell Place,
paper Whatman" #4 Clifton, NJ 07014. 800-441-6555
Vegetable Parchmentized pure Sibille Ahlstrom, Inc.
parchment cellulose base paper 1 Corporate Place, 55 Ferncroft Rd,
(2.14 mil) Danvers, MA 01923. 508-777-9888
Flagging ribbon Polyvinyl Chloride United Tape Co., 2545 Ivy Street
(6 mil) East Cumming, GA 30131.

corner of the cage. To provide a food source, 12 cm of terminal growth of immature red
grapefruit leaves were placed in the center of the cage. Adult D. abbreviatus were
placed in the cages at approximately 4:00 pm daily; 16 h later, the number of egg
masses between the layers of each substrate type were counted. Each cage was con-
sidered one replication. Environmental conditions were 27 2'C, and a 8:16 h light-
dark cycle. The experiments in Table 2 and numbers 1 and 2 in Table 3 were conducted
at 50% relative humidity (RH). Experiments 3 through 9 (Table 3) were conducted at
27 + 3'C and a RH of approximately 70% by surrounding cages with containers of wa-
ter and covering them with 3 mil plastic sheeting. Dependent on weevil availability, 3-


Total Adults Mean + SD Preference
Substrate n' Observed on Target Adults/Substrate Ratio

Immature leaves 63 123 1.95 + 1.42 17.7
Mature leaves 63 20 0.32 0.69 2.91
Plain flask 63 7 0.11 + 0.36 1.00

Five males and 5 females per replicate.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998


Experiment Number and Substrate n'

1. Wax paper
Mature leaves
Immature leaves

2. Freezer paper
Mature leaves

3. Freezer paper (on seedlings) 40
Mature leaves (on seedlings) 40

4. Freezer paper
Wax paper
Parafilm M"
Transparency film

5. Freezer paper
Chromatography paper
Wax paper
Transparency film

6. Dry chrom. paper
Moist chrom. paper

7. Freezer paper
Flagging ribbon

8. Freezer paper
Parchment paper

9. 6.25 cm freezer paper
2.5 cm freezer paper

Mean + SD2
Total Egg Egg Masses/ Preference
Masses Substrate Ratio

11 0.52 + 0.60 a 5.5
2 0.10 + 0.30 b 1
0 0 0

115 1.15 + 0.69 a 5.00
23 0.23 + 0.32 b 1.00

50 1.25 + 1.24 a 12.50
26 0.10 + 0.15 b 1.00

86 1.15 + 0.97 a 4.79
34 0.45 + 0.64 b 1.88
34 0.45 + 0.70 b 1.88
18 0.24 + 0.52 b 1.00

89 1.19 + 1.14 a 3.79
69 0.92 + 0.78 a 2.98
36 0.48 + 0.72 b 1.50
24 0.32 + 0.57 b 1.00

38 0.86 + 0.54 a 1.56
24 0.55 + 0.49 b 1.00

23 0.38 + 0.43 a 2.11
11 0.18 + 0.33 a 1.00

34 0.68 + 0.52 a 1.03
33 0.66 + 0.57 a 1.00

98 0.82 + 0.66 a 1.41
69 0.58 + 0.64 b 1.00

'Three males and 3 females per replicate (#1); four males and 4 females per replicate (#4 and #6); one male
and 5 females per replicate (#2, 3, 5 and 7-9).
Means + SD followed by the same letter are not significantly different by Tukey's HSD test at a = 0.05. Com-
parisons were made only within experiments.

5 females were used in each replicate. Generally, only one male weevil was used per
replicate. The number of weevils per replicate is noted in the tables.
Attractants (Table 4) were tested by placing either immature or mature grapefruit
leaf cuttings or a 16 h collection of frass from 30 D. abbreviatus adults (both sexes)
which was extracted with hexane (1:10 frass:hexane weight/volume) between individ-

Adair et al.: D. abbreviatus Oviposition


Total No. of Mean + SD Egg Preference
Substrate n' Egg Masses Masses/Rep Ratio

Control2 35 30 0.86 + 1.06 1.16
Immature grapefruit leaves 35 30 0.86 + 0.88 1.16
Mature grapefruit leaves 35 28 0.80 + 1.02 1.08
Frass extract 35 26 0.74 + 0.81 1.00

Five females and 1 male per replicate.
Freezer paper alone.

ual freezer paper strips. One hundred j1 of the frass extract was placed on a 5 x 8 cm
piece of chromatography paper and inserted between a freezer paper strip. A non-
treated 5 x 8 cm piece of chromatography paper was placed between a fourth freezer
paper strip as a control (Table 4).
Custom made wooden screen cages (34 x 34 x 108 cm) were placed over five con-
tainerized, <90 cm tall red grapefruit trees (Table 3, #3). Oviposition sites were arti-
ficially prepared by twist-tying leaf pairs together. One 6 cm x 45 cm strip of freezer
paper, plastic side out, was folded in half and stapled on the ends and sides and hung
in the tree among the leaves. Five females and one male were placed in each cage. No
food source was provided to the weevils. Each experiment was conducted from 4:30 pm
to 8:30 am (16 h) and was replicated 40 times. Each containerized nursery tree was
used in the laboratory for 5 days and then placed outdoors (15 trees were used in the
The same cages and trees were set outdoors next to a building on a plywood plat-
form (Table 5). This location experiences approximately 5 h of direct sunlight per day.
Each tree had four leaf pairs twist-tied together. One strip of each type of substrate
(freezer paper with the plastic coated side out, wax paper, and transparency film) was
placed in each tree. Strips were 6.25 cm x 30 cm and were stapled twice at the bottom
and twice along the sides. A bent paper clip was stapled to the top of each test material
to act as a hanger. All strips were "weathered" by hanging them outside 3-6 days prior
to being tested. At 4:30 pm, five females and one male were placed at the base of the


Total No. of Mean No. Egg Preference
Substrate n' Egg Masses2 Masses/Rep Ratio

Freezer Paper 30 33 1.10 + 1.06 18.33
Wax Paper 30 23 0.77 + 0.97 12.67
Mature Leaves 30 40 0.33 0.26 5.50
Transparency Film 30 2 0.07 + 0.25 1.00

ZFive females and 1 male per replicate.
One of each artificial substrate type and 4 leaf pairs per replicate.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

trunk and released. The following morning weevils were collected from the cages, and
the strips were removed and examined for egg masses. Strips with egg masses were
labeled, hung on a wire near the cages, and the number of egg masses and their loca-
tion was recorded (Table 5). After 3 weeks, each strip with egg masses was examined
visually for emergence of neonate larvae.
One each of 6.5 x 30 cm strips of freezer paper, wax paper, and transparency film
was placed in 20 randomly selected 'Minneola' tangelo trees (Citrus x tangelo J. In-
gram & H. E. Moore 'Minneola') (Table 6). Each strip was placed approximately 6-8
inches inside the outside edge of the canopy, halfway down vertically, and equidistant
from the other strips in the tree. Ten or more of each type of strip were also placed 50
m distant in a nonexperimental tree so that an extra source of weathered strips would
be available as needed. Oviposition strips and all leaves were examined weekly for the
presence of egg masses over a period of 6 weeks. Number of egg masses and their lo-
cation were recorded. All egg masses found on leaves were removed and destroyed.
Strips with egg masses were removed from the tree and replaced with an equally
weathered strip. The number of leaf pairs suitable for oviposition by D. abbreviatus
was estimated by the following procedure: five of the 20 trees used in the experiment
were randomly chosen, and the number of suitable leaf pairs were counted in one
quadrant of each tree. A leaf pair in this case was defined as two leaves which were
within 1.5 cm of one another and positioned at an angle other than 90 degrees. This
number was then multiplied by 4 (four quadrants), and then divided by 5 to estimate
the mean number of potential leaf pairs suitable as oviposition sites per tree.
The trapping effect of artificial substrates was tested for each of the five media
types by allowing adult female D. abbreuiatus to oviposit between wax paper, trans-
parency film, freezer paper with the plastic coated side out, freezer paper with the
plastic coated side in, and Parafilm M strips (Table 7). Egg masses were collected
daily. Strips containing egg masses were removed from the cage, trimmed with scis-
sors to 2.5 cm on both sides of the egg mass margins, and placed into 4 oz plastic souf-
fle cups (No. PC400, Fabri-Kal Corp., Kalamazoo, MI 49001) with a moist v2 sheet of
KimWipe" (Kimberley-Clark, Roswell, GA 30076) rolled into a loose ball. The collec-
tion dates for each egg mass and substrate type were recorded and each was observed
daily for egg hatch and neonate larval emergence from the egg mass. One neonate
larva per egg mass successfully emerging from the mass was recorded as an escape.
Data were compared with the GLM procedure followed by Tukey's HSD test where ap-
propriate (SAS Institute, Inc. Cary, NC).


For congregation, both sexes of weevils preferred young grapefruit leaves over ma-
ture leaves by a ratio of 6 to 1 (Table 2). In laboratory oviposition preference experi-
ments, D. abbreviatus preferred wax paper over isolated mature leaves 5.5 to 1 and
did not oviposit between immature leaves (Table 3, #1). Abreu-Rodriquez & Escolar
(1983) found wax paper strips were preferred for oviposition over the foliage of several
host plants. Freezer paper was also preferred over isolated mature leaves (5-13 to 1,
Table 3, #2 and 3). When freezer paper was compared to the other types of artificial
media, it was preferred with the exception of chromatography paper (Table 3, #4 and
5). D. abbreviatus exhibited a preference for dry over moist chromatography paper
(Table 3, #6), but no preference for freezer paper over flagging ribbon obtained from
the field (Table 3, #7). Freezer and parchment paper were chosen equally (Table 3, #8).
However, the adhesive deposited by the female during oviposition did not hold the
parchment paper together around the egg mass. Weevils preferred 6 cm wide freezer


n = 120' Mean Egg n = 202 Mean Egg n = 143 Mean Egg
Substrate Total Egg Masses Masses/Rep. Masses/Rep. Masses/Rep. Preference Ratio4

Freezer paper 7 0.06 + 0.30 0.35 + 0.67 0.50 + 0.76 50.0
Wax paper 6 0.05 + 0.25 0.30 + 0.65 0.42 + 0.76 42.8
Mature leaves 29 0.001 + 0.003 0.007 + 0.008 0.01 + 0.008 1.0
Transparency film 0 0 0 0 0

Six weeks x 20 trees.
Twenty trees, data summed across weeks.
Trees with no egg masses not included in means or SDs.
Each tree contained one of each substrate and an estimated 198.4 leaf pairs.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998


Substrate Egg Masses = n' Number Escaped % Trapped

Wax paper 23 21 8.7
Freezer paper (plastic in) 18 18 0
Freezer paper (plastic out) 20 7 65.0
Transparency film 20 20 0
Parafilm M 23 23 0

'Five females and 1 male per replicate.

paper over 2.5 cm wide paper (Table 3, #9). No preference was expressed by females
among the attractants attached to oviposition sites (Table 4).
Comparison of the various oviposition media outdoors under both field and semi-
controlled conditions yielded similar results to those obtained in the laboratory.
Whether tested with caged containerized red grapefruit trees or with planted 3-year-
old 'Minneola' tangelo trees, freezer paper and wax paper were preferred over either
mature leaves or transparency film (Tables 5 & 6). Transparency film was the least
preferred as an oviposition site in both outdoor experiments.
When oviposition preference was examined in the caged, containerized grapefruit
trees outdoors neither wax paper nor plastic side out freezer paper allowed neonate
larvae to escape 21 days post oviposition. When strips were separated for examina-
tion, desiccated neonate larvae were observed. When rates of emergence from artifi-
cial substrates were examined in the laboratory, only plastic side out freezer paper,
could be considered to have trapping ability (65% completely trapped, Table 7). The
other substrates allowed almost a complete escape of neonate larvae (Table 7).


There were no statistical differences in egg masses deposited between media in the
attractant experiment (Table 4). Clear oviposition preferences for mature leaves over
immature and other media over mature leaves are presented in Table 3. The oviposi-
tional preference of D. abbreviatus for mature leaves has been previously reported
(Fennah 1942). This behavior by the weevil in selecting mature leaves for oviposition
may increase its survival rate by avoiding insect feeding sites and leaf expansion.
Fennah (1942) reported a range of 0.25-0.73 egg masses per female per day when
presenting paper strips to 30 females. In experiment 5, we presented a total of 375 fe-
males with an overnight opportunity for oviposition on artificial substrate and col-
lected a mean of 0.58 egg masses/female/day (Table 3) which is comparable to Fennah
(1942). The composition of the paper strips used by Fennah was not described. The ne-
onate trapping ability of freezer paper (plastic out) was 65% and agrees with Fennah
(1942) (Table 7). In the experiment performed outdoors using weathered artificial
substrates (Table 6), egg masses were examined for evidence of larval mortality. Both
wax paper and plastic side out freezer paper restricted neonate emergence from the
egg mass. Wax paper, when weathered for several days, lost its hydrophobic coating
and attained a more fibrous surface which appeared to be similar to freezer paper.
Wolcott (1933) reported that thin, tough wrapping paper (unspecified) was effective in
trapping larvae for three months in the tropics.

Adair et al.: D. abbreviatus Oviposition


Trees with' Trees w/Masses on Trees w/Masses on
Week No Egg Masses (%) Media, Not on Leaves (%) Leaves, Not on Media (%)

1 15 (75) 0 (0) 4 (20)
2 13(65) 1(5) 4(20)
3 14 (70) 2(10) 3(15)
4 17 (85) 0 (0) 3 (15)
5 15(75) 1(5) 4(20)
6 18 (90) 0 (0) 2 (10)

'Six trees had no eggs on media or leaves for the entire 6 weeks.

When freezer paper was presented for oviposition outdoors simultaneously with
other artificial substrate types in young, caged grapefruit trees, it was preferred more
than 3 to 1 over mature leaves (Table 5). However, this preference ratio increased to
50 to 1 in the field evaluation (Table 6). Overall, the field data in Table 6 indicate that
4 freezer paper strips/tree or about 5 wax paper strips/tree should receive the same
number of egg masses as a tree with 198 leaf pairs suitable for oviposition. This is a
calculated estimate, however, and should be tested in the field.
Our field experimental design took into consideration the caged tree data (Table 5)
and logistics. According to the cage data, about 66 strips per tree would have allowed
equal choice by a female in a field test. With an estimate of 198 leaf pairs suitable for
oviposition, festooning a tree with oviposition strips was logistically not possible. Al-
though the order of preference in Table 5 was similar to the field preference (Table 6),
the cage preference for freezer paper was about 3:1, leaf:freezer paper (Table 5).
Table 8 gives weeklyD. abbreviatus oviposition in the field. Over the 6 weeks of the
trial, 65-90% of the trees had no egg masses deposited between either leaves or strips.
Additionally, 10-20% of the trees had eggs masses deposited only between leaves, but
not between the artificial sites in any week. In order to compare leaves and strips as
oviposition sites in the field, it would be ideal if some egg masses were deposited be-
tween leaves and some between strips on the same tree. In only 3 weeks and on 3 trees
did this situation occur.
In conducting the field experiments, about 10 min per tree were required to accu-
rately search for egg masses. Spending ten minutes per tree is unrealistic for a grower
to examine leaves for egg masses. If a monitoring method could be developed based on
oviposition, it might serve as a tool for detection ofD. abbreviatus prior to heavy in-
festation levels. An added benefit of freezer paper strips in this role is neonate larvae
trapping ability. The only monitoring tools available to growers are wire mesh emer-
gence traps and Tedders traps (Tedders & Wood 1994) both of which detect adult D.
abbreviatus emerging from the soil, and visual detection of adults. These methods ap-
parently detect an infestation one or more years after the initial infestation of a citrus
Our data support the further investigation of freezer paper strips as a substrate
for oviposition stimulant, as a monitoring tool, and a prototype oviposition trap for D.
abbreviatus. Host oviposition preferences, oviposition stimulants, and general ovipo-
sition behavior of D. abbreviatus have not been studied. We believe study of these sub-
jects could be beneficial for the management of this weevil in commercial agriculture.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998


We thank Florida Citrus Growers for making money available for this project.
Funds for this project were made available from the Citrus Production Research Mar-
keting Order by the division of Marketing and Development, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Jour-
nal Series No. R-04857.


ABREU-RODRIGUEZ, E., AND M. P. ESCOLAR. 1983. Oviposition preference of Diaprepes
abbreviatus (Coleptera: Curculionidae) on various foliage plants. J. Agric. Univ.
Puerto Rico. 67:117-120.
FENNAH, R. G. 1942. The citrus pest's investigation in the Windward and Leeward Is-
lands, British West Indies 1937-1942. Agr. Advisory Dept., Imp. Coll. Tropical
Agr. Trinidad, British West Indies. pp. 1-67.
GRIFFITH, R. J. 1975. The West Indian sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil in Florida.
Proc. Florida State Hort. Soc. 88: 87-90.
HALL, D. G. 1995. A revision to the bibliography of the sugarcane rootstalk borer wee-
vil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Florida Entomol. 78:
SIMPSON, S. E., H. N. NIGG, N. C. COILE, AND R. C. ADAIR. 1996. Diaprepes abbreviatus
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Host plant associations. Environ. Entomol. 25:
TEDDERS, W. L., AND B. W. WOOD. 1994.A new technique for monitoring pecan weevil
emergence (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 29: 18-30.
WOLCOTT, G. N. 1933. Otiorhynchids oviposit between paper. J. Econ. Entomol. 26:
WOLCOTT, G. N. 1936. The life history of Diaprepes abbreviatus at Rio Piedras, Puerto
Rico. J. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico 20: 883-914.
WOODRUFF, R. E. 1964. A Puerto Rican weevil new to the United States (Coleoptera:
Curculionidae). Florida Dept. Agr., Div. Plant Ind., Entomol. Circ. 30: 1-2.
WOODRUFF, R. E. 1968. The present status of a West Indian weevil Diaprepes abbre-
viatus (L.) in Florida (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Florida Dept. Agr., Div. Plant
Ind., Entomol. Circ. 77: 1-4.

Scientific Notes


University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Tropical Research and Education Center, Homestead, FL 33031

The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew), has been established in
Florida since 1965 (Weems 1965). It has been found in the Bahamas, Cuba, Domini-
can Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico and the United States (Florida) (Hernan-
dez-Ortiz & Aluja 1993). In Florida, it has been recovered from 84 different host fruit
species in 23 families, but is most common in fruits in the family Myrtaceae (Swanson
& Baranowski 1972). In the family Rosaceae, species in the genera Eriobotrya, Malus,
Prunus, Pyrus and Rubus have been recorded as hosts. Chrysobalanus icaco L.
(Chrysobalanaceae, formerly Rosaceae) is also reported as a host (Norrbom & Kim
1988). The most important rosaceous host in Florida is loquat, Eriobotrya japonica
Lindl., because it bears fruits in the winter months when other hosts are not avail-
able. Swanson & Baranowski (1972) found Caribbean fruit fly infesting blackberry
identified as Rubus sp. Here we report that red raspberry, Rubus idaeus L. is also a
host for the Caribbean fruit fly.
Raspberry primocanes of three cultivars, 'Autumn Bliss', 'Heritage' and 'Summit'
were planted in February 1997 in an evaluation trial at the Tropical Research and Ed-
ucation Center in Homestead, Florida. In May 1997, it was noticed that a larva was
feeding inside the fruit. Collections of ripe fruit were made on 29 May, 2 June, 11
June, and 27 June 1997. The fruits were counted and weighed and then placed in plas-
tic boxes with screen tops containing vermiculite and held in the laboratory. For the
first and last collections, all of the fruit picked was used. For the other two collections,
because of the large number of fruits harvested, a subsample of uncrushed berries
was used. After 7-10 days the fruit was removed and the vermiculite was passed
through a sieve to collect the pupae. Pupae were held in separate petri dishes for each
variety. After emergence was complete, the sex of the adults was determined and the
flies counted. Specimens of both sexes were pinned and sent to the Florida State Col-
lection of Arthropods in Gainesville, Florida for species confirmation (accession #
E1997-003269-001). Table 1 shows the number of fruits collected, the number of pu-
pae and the number of male and female Caribbean fruit fly that emerged. A total of
294 pupae from 5552 fruits was recovered. The percent of adult emergence was 82%
for Autumn Bliss', 83% for 'Heritage' and 86% for 'Summit'. Very few males emerged
from Autumn Bliss' fruits (26%) compared to percentages of 44% males in 'Summit'
and 46% males in 'Heritage'. Also, 2 specimens of the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha
longicaudata (Ashmead) (Braconidae) were recovered. This is an introduced species
that was released and established in Florida as a biological control agent for Carib-
bean fruit fly (Baranowski et al. 1993).
The importance of raspberry as a host for Caribbean fruit fly remains to be deter-
mined. The only other species ofAnastrepha reported feeding on Rubus fruits isAnas-
trepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Norrbom & Kim 1988). The other major host trees
that had some fruit during this study were Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) and
guava (Psidium guajava L.). Adult Caribbean fruit flies were active in these hosts as
indicated by captures in McPhail traps baited with torula yeast pellets. Both these
hosts were planted within the dispersal distance of Caribbean fruit fly as reported by
Wolfenbarger et al. (1976). Although relatively few pupae were recovered, this could
be due to a number of causes. Caribbean fruit fly females may not oviposit readily into


'Autumn Bliss' 'Heritage' 'Summit'

Date # Fruit # Pupae # M # F' # Fruit # Pupae # M # F # Fruit # Pupae # M # F

765 16 3 10
256 34 9 21
263 6 0 3
113 0 0 0

1397 56 12 34

1136 18 8 7
150 62 21 29
300 12 4 7
421 14 6 6

2007 106 39 49

1185 48 21 21
270 72 27 37
300 7 2 3
393 5 3 0

2148 132 53 61
________________I -

'M = male, F = female Caribbean fruit fly adults that emerged.

29 May
2 June
11 June
27 June



Scientific Notes

raspberry or the larvae may suffer a high mortality in this host. A confounding factor
in this study was the fact that area-wide aerial insecticide spraying for mosquito con-
trol was being conducted during the collection period. This may have led to a tempo-
rary suppression of adult populations. Few fruits were available after the last
collection date and after mosquito control measures were discontinued.
On a per fruit basis, the infestation levels of all three cultivars is about the same,
0.04, 0.05 and 0.06 larvae/fruit for 'Autumn Bliss', 'Heritage' and 'Summit', respec-
tively. The first raspberry fruits were collected in February 1997 and the plants were
still producing some fruit in August. The peak production appears to be in May (R. K.
unpublished results). This winter and spring production of raspberry fruits could pro-
vide a resource for Caribbean fruit flies during a time of year when there are not many
other hosts available. Even if the susceptibility to attack proves to be low, the presence
of Caribbean fruit fly in raspberries will be a constraint to commercial production and
marketing of this crop in south Florida.


We thank Gary Steck and Lionel Stange, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville,
Florida for confirmations of the identifications ofA. suspense and D. longicaudata, re-
spectively, and Waldemar Klassen, Tropical Research and Education Center, Home-
stead, Florida for bringing the problem to our attention. This is Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station Journal Series No. R-06005.


The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), has
been found on a new host species, red raspberry, Rubus idaeus L. (Rosaceae), in south
Florida. The parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera:
Braconidae) was also recovered.


BARANOWSKI, R., H. GLENN, AND J. SIVINSKI. 1993. Biological control of the Caribbean
fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Florida Entomol. 76: 245-251.
HERNANDEZ-ORTIZ, V., AND M. ALUJA. 1993. Listado de species del g6nero neotropi-
calAnastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) con notas sobre su distribuci6n y plants
h6spederas. Folia Entomol. M6xicana. 88: 89-105.
NORRBOM, A. L., AND K. C. KIM. 1988. A list of the reported host plants of the species
of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). USDA APHIS publication 81-52.
SWANSON, R. W., AND R. M. BARANOWSKI. 1972. Host range and infestation by the
Caribbean fruit fly,Anastrepha suspense (Diptera: Tephritidae), in south Flor-
ida. Proc. Florida State Hortic. Soc. 85: 271-274.
WEEMS, H. V. JR 1965.Anastrepha suspense (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Entomol.
Circ. No. 38. Florida Dept. Agr. Div. Plant Industry. 4 p.
WOLFENBARGER, D. O., H. H. SAMOL, AND D. H. HABECK. 1976. Dispersal distances of
the Caribbean fruit fly, corn planthoppers and Cuban May beetle. Res. Pop.
Ecol. 18: 118-122.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998


'Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 3205 College Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 33314, U.S.A.

2Laboratoire de Biologie animal et cellulaire (CP 160/12)
University Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Avenue F. D. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels, Belgium

3The Terminix International Co. L.P., 1359 Gresham Road
Marietta, Georgia, 30062, U.S.A.

4The Terminix International Co. L.P., 11636 54th Street North
Clearwater, Florida, 33760, U.S.A.

Soldier mandibles are the dominant weapons of most termite species and are the
major defense against ants and other predators (Deligne et al. 1982). Mandibles have
been classified by their mechanical functions which include biting, crushing, slashing,
piercing, and snapping (Prestwich 1984). Termite species in only two subfamilies have
soldiers which lack mandibles used in defense. Soldiers in the Nasutitermitinae (Ter-
mitidae) have evolved frontal projections from which defensive chemicals are ejected,
and soldiers of most genera possess only vestigial mandibles (Emerson 1960). Minor
soldiers of the Rhinotermitinae (Rhinotermitidae), also with highly reduced mandi-
bles, employ a labral brush to dab defensive chemicals during agonistic encounters
(Quennedey & Deligne 1975).
Species in more primitive families including the Kalotermitidae, Hodotermitidae,
Serritermitidae, and Termopsidae have not been shown to be chemically defended
(Prestwich 1984), with the exception of the monotypic Mastotermitidae, in which sol-
diers secrete a quinone-laden buccal fluid (Moore 1968). All species in these families
and most subfamilies of the Termitidae and Rhinotermitidae possess soldiers having
mandibles which project forward beyond the frontal plane of the head capsule. Such
mandibles are used to crush or slice small predators or bite larger ones. In addition to
mandibular defense, some genera of drywood termites (Kalotermitidae) including Bi-
cornitermes Krishna, Calcaritermes Snyder, Ceratokalotermes Krishna, Cryptotermes
Banks, Eucryptotermes Holmgren, C(. !.'-r ..-.. Froggatt, Kalotermes Hagen, and
Tauritermes Krishna, possess phragmotic distensions of the head capsule. Head
phragmosis, thought to mechanically block predators from gaining gallery access, is
considered an advanced condition in the phylogeny of the Kalotermitidae (Krishna
1961). Of these genera, Eucryptotermes, Glyptotermes, Calcaritermes, Bifiditermes,
and Cryptotermes each have at least one species with some degree of reduction in
mandible size and dentition, however, their mandibles remain a prominent and dis-
tinctive morphological feature evolved for frontal defense.
During an ongoing termite survey of the West Indies, a new Cryptotermes species
was collected in Jamaica in 1997. The soldier of this remarkable species is unique
among all taxa with mandibulate soldiers, including all Kalotermitidae, in having ex-

Scientific Notes

FIG. 1. Scanning electron micrographs showing anterior (A), anteroventral (B),
and oblique views (C) of soldier head capsule of Cryptotermes n.sp. from Jamaica. An-
tennae removed for clarity. Specimen in B with labium removed and labrum retracted
to show recessed position of mandibles.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

tremely altered mandibles which do not project beyond the frontogenal boundaries of
the head capsule (Figs. 1A-C). The distal points of the mandibles are situated in a
space formed by the labrum and labium and only the outer bases are visible in the
contracted position (Fig. 1A). The recessed articulation, abbreviated length, and an-
gulation of these mandibles preclude extension and leverage necessary for frontal de-
fense (Fig. 1B). The cylindrical head capsule of this new Cryptotermes forms a
pronounced phragmotic armature which, more than any other termite soldier, resem-
bles a bottle stopper (Fig. 1C). Such a shape is well suited as a closure for termite gal-
leries. We hypothesize that this species evolved a solely phragmotic defense due to
selection pressure from some gallery-invading predator, possibly one or more yet un-
known wood-dwelling ant species.
We are grateful to Diann Achor at the University of Florida, Lake Alfred C.R.E.C.
for assisting with scanning electron microscopy, and R. M. Giblin-Davis and F.W.
Howard for critically reviewing this contribution no. R-05962 of the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station Journal Series.


The soldier caste of a new Cryptotermes species from Jamaica, while lacking for-
ward-projecting mandibles, exhibits extreme head capsule phragmosis. We hypothe-
size that this species relies solely on mechanical defense by phragmosis, a unique trait
among termite soldiers, and that these features constitute an analogy to the derived
loss of functional mandibles in higher taxa that have evolved chemical defenses.


DELIGNE, J., A. QUENNEDEY, AND M. S. BLUM. 1982. The enemies and defense mech-
anisms of termites, pp. 1-76 in Hermann, H. R. (ed.), Social Insects Vol. II, Ac-
ademic Press, New York.
EMERSON, A. E. 1960. Vestigial characters, regressive evolution and recapitulation
among termites, pp. 17-30 in Termites in the humid tropics, Proc. New Delhi
Symp, UNESCO and Zool. Surv. India.
KRISHNA, K. 1961. A generic revision and phylogenetic study of the family Kaloter-
mitidae (Isoptera). Bull. American Mus. Nat. Hist. 122: 303-408.
MOORE, B. P. 1968. Studies on the chemical composition and function of the cephalic
gland secretion in Australian termites. J. Insect Physiol. 14: 33-39.
PRESTWICH, G. D. 1984. Defense mechanisms in termites. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 29:
QUENNEDEY, A., AND J. DELIGNE. 1975. L'arme frontale des soldats de termites. I. Rhi-
notermitidae. Insectes Soc. 22: 243-267.

Scientific Notes


'Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, U.S.A.

2University of Florida North Florida Research and Education Center
Monticello, FL 32344, U.S.A.

3Department of Entomology, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station
Baton Rouge, LA 70803, U.S.A.

The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say), is native to the
southeastern United States. It has existed in southern California since about 1990
(Sorensen & Gill 1996), and has become an economic problem as a vector of the patho-
genic bacteriumXylella sp., that is the cause of leaf scorch disease in oleander. H. co-
agulata also feeds on citrus and many other plants.
In October 1995, the mymarid wasp Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault was reared
from egg clusters of H. coagulata collected on citrus leaves in Santa Paula, California
(Triapitsyn & Phillips 1996). This finding prompted us to conduct a limited survey of
egg parasitoids of H. coagulata in California and also in the southeastern United
States to assess the feasibility of a biological control program against this pest. Prior
to this study, published information concerning natural enemies of H. coagulata was
limited to the work by Turner & Pollard (1959) in Georgia.
Egg masses of H. coagulata are rather conspicuous and thus easy to locate on the
underside of leaves. The female leafhopper covers its eggs with a white, chalky mate-
rial, which may have a bactericidal effect, and spreads this material over the eggs us-
ing the tarsi. Parasitized eggs turn black before parasitoids exit through
characteristic emergence holes. To obtain parasitoids, leaves with H. coagulata egg
masses were collected and held in plastic containers. Upon emergence, parasitoids
were placed directly in 70% ethyl alcohol and later identified by the senior author.
In California (1996-1997), parasitized H. coagulata eggs were collected on various
ornamental plants on the University of California, Riverside campus. Eggs collected
early in spring were not parasitized. During summer, G. ashmeadi was found in all
samples from southern California and in rather large numbers (up to 80% of eggs
were parasitized in Riverside in the July 1997 samples). Three other species of Go-
natocerus-G. capitatus Gahan, G. incomptus Huber and G. novifasciatus Girault-
were collected in very small numbers, and only early in spring in Fillmore by Univer-
sity of California Cooperative Extension (Ventura Co.) researchers. Gonatocerus cap-
itatus and G. novifasciatus have not been previously reared from eggs ofH. coagulata
whereas G. incomptus was a known parasitoid of this sharpshooter species in Georgia
(Huber 1988).
Earlier studies in Monticello, Florida (R. F. M., unpublished data) estimated aver-
age parasitism of H. coagulata eggs there at ca. 80%. During July and August 1997,
we collected egg masses of H. coagulata from crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.)
and citrus trees grown at the University of Florida's North Florida Research and Ed-
ucation Center. In July samples, more than 90% of ca. 300 emerged parasitoids were
G. ashmeadi. One female was identified as G. morrilli (Howard), and the rest belonged
to an undescribed Zagella sp. (Trichogrammatidae). In August samples, however, Za-
gella sp. was by far the dominant parasitoid of H. coagulata eggs. The genus Zagella

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

has never been previously reported from a cicadellid host. The minute size of Zagella
individuals relative to the large size of the egg of their host suggests that this species
may be gregarious.
In urban Baton Rouge, Louisiana, sharpshooter egg parasitoid collecting was con-
ducted during a five week period in April and May 1997. Adult H. coagulata were cap-
tured at a 250 watt mercury vapor light trap set on a white sheet at ground level. They
were held overnight in a container with leaves of host plants and then placed on live
host plants for oviposition. During the first two weeks of screening, sharpshooters
were confined within mesh sleeves around branches of crape myrtle or elderberry
(Sambucus canadensis L.). During the latter three weeks of screening, sharpshooters
were placed in collapsible screen cages containing potted sunflowers (Helianthus sp.).
Sharpshooters confined within mesh sleeves were held for approximately one week
for oviposition. The sleeves were then removed and the egg masses exposed for an ad-
ditional week. Egg masses were then harvested along with adjacent plant tissue, held
individually in covered, one-ounce plastic cups and monitored daily for parasitoid
emergence. Sharpshooters were added continually to the cages containing sunflowers.
When multiple egg masses were visible on a sunflower plant, it was removed and
placed in the yard adjacent to the cage. After one week of exposure, the egg masses
were harvested and held in plastic cups for parasitoid emergence. Parasitization of H.
coagulata eggs in Baton Rouge area was ca. 50%. The samples collected using the
method described above revealed two species of Gonatocerus: G. ashmeadi (ca. 69% of
the parasitoids collected) and G. fasciatus Girault (ca. 31%). The latter species was re-
ported by Turner & Pollard (1959) from eggs of H. coagulata in Georgia but it has not
been known from Louisiana or California (Huber 1988).
Although adult H. coagulata appear to prefer new growth and can feed on many
hosts, females choose to oviposit onto a somewhat narrower range of plants that in-
cludes citrus, crape myrtle, Euonymus spp., okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.]
Moench), passion vine (Passiflora spp.), sunflower, etc. Apparently, oleander is not a
preferred host plant of H. coagulata for oviposition, probably due to different feeding
requirements of the nymphs (Brodbeck at al. 1995). The fact that most of the damage
to oleander is not due to direct feeding but is caused by a plant pathogen makes the
prognosis for complete biological control against H. coagulata in southern California
unlikely. Nevertheless, introduction of several additional species of egg parasitoids
from the southeastern United States may be warranted. The obvious candidates are G.
fasciatus and Zagella sp. If established, these parasitoids may enhance the overall nat-
ural control of H. coagulata in southern California. Partial suppression has already
been achieved there during the summer months by the local species G. ashmeadi.
Material Examined: G. ashmeadi: CALIFORNIA. Riverside Co., Riverside: 18-VI-
1997, J. Bethke, 69 9, 2d d (on Passiflora sp.); 6-VII-1997, M. Gates, 89 9, 86d (on
Passiflora sp.); 18-VII-1997, S. Triapitsyn, numerous 2 9, d (onAnnona cherimola
Miller); 21-VII-1997, S. Triapitsyn, 59 9, 76 (on Cocculus sp.). Ventura Co.: Fill-
more, 2-V-1996, P. Phillips, 49 9 (on citrus); Piru, 17-IX-1997, S. Triapitsyn, 19 (on
citrus). FLORIDA. Jefferson Co., Monticello: 2-VII-1997, S. Triapitsyn, numerous 2 9,
dd (on crape myrtle); 20-30-VIII-1997, R. Mizell, 2d6 (on crape myrtle). LOUISI-
ANA. East Baton Rouge Co., Baton Rouge: J. Bossart: 23-30-IV-1997, 39 9, 16 (on el-
derberry); 1-22-V-1997, 249 5d (on sunflower). G. capitatus: CALIFORNIA.
Fillmore, 4-V-1996, P. Phillips, 19 (on citrus). G. fasciatus: LOUISIANA. Baton
Rouge, J. Bossart: 23-30-IV-1997, 99 9, 16 (on elderberry); 1-22-V-1997, 49 9, 16 (on
sunflower). G. incomptus: CALIFORNIA. Fillmore: 4-V-1996, P. Phillips, 29 9 (on cit-
rus); 13-III-1997, J. Dyckes, 19 (on Macademia sp.); 17-IV-1997, J. Dyckes, 19 (on
Platanus sp.). G. morrilli: FLORIDA. Monticello, 2-VII-1997, S. Triapitsyn, 19 (on

Scientific Notes 243

crape myrtle). G. novifasciatus: CALIFORNIA. Ventura Co., Bardsdale, 17-IV-1997, J.
Dyckes, 2 9 9 (on Fraxinus sp.). Zagella sp.: FLORIDA. Monticello: 2-VII-1997, S. Tri-
apitsyn, numerous 2 9, 6 6 (on crape myrtle); 25-VII-1997, 27-VII-1997, 4-VIII-1997
and 20-30-VIII-1997, R. Mizell, numerous 2 9, 6 6 (on crape myrtle, citrus and Bet-
ula sp.) [all in UCRC]. This is Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series
No. R-06134.


A survey of egg parasitoids of the leafhopper Homalodisca coagulata was con-
ducted in California, Florida and Louisiana. The mymarid wasp Gonatocerus ash-
meadi was found to be the most common natural enemy in all locations sampled; G.
fasciatus and the trichogrammatid Zagella sp. are recognized as potential biological
control agents for introduction into southern California.


BRODBECK, B., P. ANDERSEN, AND R. MIZELL. 1995. Differential utilization of nutri-
ents during development by the xylophagous leafhopper, Homalodisca coagu-
lata. Entomol. Exp. and Appl. 75: 279-289.
HUBER, J. T. 1988. The species groups of Gonatocerus Nees in North America with a
revision of the sulphuripes and ater groups (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Mem.
Entomol. Soc. Canada 141: 1-109.
SORENSEN, J. T., AND R. J. GILL. 1996. A range extension of Homalodisca coagulata
(Say) (Hemiptera: Clypeorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) to southern California. Pan-
Pacific Entomol. 72 (3): 160-161.
TRIAPITSYN, S. V., AND P. A. PHILLIPS. 1996. Egg parasitoid of glassy-winged sharp-
shooter. Citrograph 81 (9): 10.
TURNER, W. F., AND H. N. POLLARD. 1959. Life histories and behavior of five insect vec-
tors of phony peach disease. Tech. Bull. United States Dep. Agric. 1188, 28 pp.

Scientific Notes


1NFREC-Monticello, Rt 4 Box 4092, University of Florida, Monticello, FL 32344

2Louis R. Mizell, Jr. and Co., International Security, 5401Westbard Ave. Suite 1315
Bethesda, MD 20816

The classic cartoon depiction of an entomologist as a rotund male figure dressed in
khaki shirt, shorts and pith helmet chasing bugs with a butterfly net has done little
to foster respect for the discipline of entomology. Yet, neither cartoons stressing eccen-
tricity nor the seemingly peculiar affinity of entomologists for everything creepy and
crawly can deny the important scientific contributions made by entomologists in ag-
riculture, plant, animal and public health. Although the general public may perceive
some insects as beautiful (e.g., butterflies) or beneficial (e.g., lady beetles), the general
public does not perceive insects as important; thus, appreciation is limited (Wiggins
1983). In a survey of urban dwellers, Byrne et al. (1984) reported that 38% of people

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

disliked insects outdoors, 84% disliked them when seen indoors, females disliked in-
sects more than males, but negative views decreased with increasing education.
Public opinion about arthropods in general, and tolerance of urban pests in partic-
ular, are important to entomologists for several reasons. Practically, implementation
of programs advocating tolerance of low numbers of pests such as in urban IPM pro-
grams will be difficult if the public views insects with disgust (Byrne et al. 1984). Pro-
fessionally, the status, recognition and resulting remuneration to entomologists are
directly related to public perception and opinion. Therefore, examining the underly-
ing reasons for current public opinion is of interest to entomologists. Hall & Hall
(1986) posed two questions addressing the underlying causes of the current subopti-
mal status of entomology: "Have we allowed ourselves as entomologists to become ec-
centric?" or "Is the prejudice a result of the small size of insects or the concentrated
minds of the devotees"? Kritsky (1983) discussed the difference between news and
public relations and advocated the latter by entomologists to improve our image with
the public.
While use of electronic media continues to increase, newspapers remain an impor-
tant information source and influence public opinion. We surveyed newspaper articles
to determine the perspectives of entomology that journalists might offer the general
public. Thirty to 50% (132) of the newspaper articles on arthropods found in 50 repu-
table national and international newspapers from 1990-1996 were selected by author
LRM when noticed at random while perusing the newspapers for security-related ar-
ticles. Articles varied in length from a paragraph to several pages and 34% had asso-
ciated graphics. Twenty-four articles were from the New York Times, Los Angeles
Times 16, Washington Post and Chicago Tribune 12, Boston Globe, Philadelphia In-
quirer and Miami Herald 7, Washington Times, Denver Post and Arizona Republic -
6, Columbus Dispatch, Houston Chronicle and Wall Street Journal 5, and the rest
from miscellaneous newspapers. Numbers of articles by year were 1990 = 18,'91 = 11,
'92 = 11,'93 = 14,'94 = 25,'95 = 44, and'96 = 9. Articles were read and categorized ac-
cording to the biased, best judgement by the first and second authors into 5 categories
and 8 subject headings (Table 1). Undoubtedly, other entomologists with different ex-
perience and background would have categorized and rated the articles differently.
We followed our own bias derived from 20+ years of experience in research and exten-
sion in ecology, behavior and IPM of insects and mites associated with forests, or-
chards, nurseries and landscapes.
The category ranking by number of articles (Table 1) was public interest > medical
> ecology/environment > control > evolution. The subject ranking (Table 1) was biol-
ogy/behavior > human health > events > taxonomy/biodiversity > pesticides > biotech-
nology > biological control. Many articles, presented as interesting stories, dealt with
general scientific issues using insects as models or general biology or behavior of
groups of insects such as pests of garden plants. As a result the public interest/biol-
ogy-behavior area had 26 articles. The second highest category/subject area (20 arti-
cles) was medical-human health. Public interest/event which concerned such topics as
the publishing of a book on biodiversity by E. O. Wilson and the receipt of the Nobel
Prize by E. Lewis was the third highest category/subject area (13 articles). All other
category/subject area classifications had less than one third as many articles.
Twenty-five articles concerned insects in general and mentioned more than one
species or group (Table 2). Fruit flies, killer bees and mosquitoes were the subject mat-
ter of 11-14 articles each (Table 2) and made up the majority of the medical-human
health articles. A wide variety of other species or groups of insects, spiders or ticks
were the subjects of the rest of the articles (Table 2). The Science section of the New
York Times accounted for 9 outstanding articles of the 133 surveyed and were written



Biological Human/ Taxonomy/ Biology/
Categories Pesticides Biotechnology Event Control Animal Health Biodiversity Behavior Miscellaneous Total

Ecology/ 2 2 0 2 1 6 7 20
Medical 2 1 1 0 20 0 1 25
Evolution 1 1 0 0 4 6 12
Control 6 3 2 6 0 0 3 20
Public Interest 1 3 13 1 5 3 26 3 55
Total 11 10 17 9 26 13 42 4 132

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998


Arthropod Number of Articles

Insects in general (about >1 species) 25
Fruit fly 14
Mosquito 11
Killer bees 11
Flea 6
Cockroach 6
Spider 6
Bees/wasps 5
Butterfly 4
Ant 4
Honey bees 4
Fire ants 4
Gypsy moth 4
Beetle 4
Caterpillars 3
Lampyridae 2
Termite 2
Black fly (Simuliidae) 2
Wooly adelgid 2
Grasshopper/Katydid 2
Scale 1
Scorpion Fly 1
Aphid 1
Mormon cricket 1
Dung beetle 1
Fly parasitoid 1
Mayfly 1
Tick 1
Syrphid fly 1

by N. Angier or C. K. Yoon. These long, in-depth and highly technical articles accom-
panied by excellent graphics discussed such subjects as dung beetle ecology, fruit fly
pheromone behavior, male katydid choral rivalry, and insect adaptation to single
Many articles (34%) had accompanying graphics that varied from a technical ex-
planation of fruit fly genetic code (Kolata 1993), to Texas entomologist Spider Bob
(Limieux 1994) with tarantula spiders on his face. Many were excellent color photo-
graphs or high quality line drawings.

Scientific Notes

Article titles were often a play on words. Some of the more clever ones were: "Pest
Peeves", "No web of deceit", "Park rangers aflutter over butterfly poachers", "Don't bug
me: Ticking off the pests of summer", and "The itsy bitsy aerobatic architects' aerody-
namic answer".
While we did not survey articles found in less reputable newspapers, we were
pleasantly surprised at the general high quality content of the articles and the excel-
lent graphics. Despite the play on word titles, some negative use of insects for sensa-
tionalism, a few factual errors and the occasional presentation of entomologists as
eccentric (Spider Bob, insects for food), the newspaper articles surveyed were of high
quality and portrayed entomology and science in a reasonably good light. True, the
glass may be viewed as half full or half empty; however, it appears that newspapers
are presenting all sides of entomology to the public and should be used more often by
the profession to communicate with the public.


A survey of 132 articles representing 30-50% of the total in 50 reputable newspa-
pers from 1990-1996 indicated that newspapers are presenting the many faces of en-
tomology to the public, and often with quality and excellence. Human interest stories
on the unusual biology and behavior of arthropods and the impact of arthropods on
human health were the subjects most reported. Newspapers should be used more by
entomologists to improve the perception of their discipline in the eyes of the general


We thank J. H. Frank, J. Capinera and P. Mizell for helpful comments on an earlier
draft of the manuscript. This is University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Journal Series No. R-06047.


ALLEN, F. E. 1991.W. R. Grace going'natural' with bug killer. Wall Street Journal. 1B,
6B. 30 Oct.
AMIRE, R. 1995. Beware of those buzzing creepy-crawlies. Columbus Dispatch. 29
ANGIER, N. 1991. In recycling waste, the noble scarab is peerless. New York Times.
1C., 12C. 10 Dec.
ANGIER, N. 1994. Why birds and bees, too, like good looks. New York Times. 1C, 12C.
8 Feb.
ANGIER, N. 1994. Spiders weave crafty web signs, saying to prey,'open sky'. New York
Times. 1C, 13C. 19 April.
ANGIER, N. 1994. For insects, the buzz is chemical. New York Times. 1C, 10C. 29 Mar.
ANGIER, N. 1995. Sex and the Fruit fly: price of promiscuity is premature death. New
York Times. 1C, 7C. 24 Jan.
ANGIER, N. 1996. For an Australian spider, love really is to die for. New York Times.
11,18.9 Jan.
ANONYMOUS. 1990. Bee attack kills man in Costa Rica. Chicago Tribune. 23. 9 Mar.
ANONYMOUS. 1990. Deadly bugs attack Bangladesh. Chicago tribune, 13 July.
ANONYMOUS. 1990. Pesticide found in honey eaten by bees. Chicago Tribune. 11 Aug.
ANONYMOUS. 1990. More traps set after pregnant mexfly is found. Los Angeles Times.
22 Sept.
ANONYMOUS. 1990. Swarm of'killer' bees dead in Texas. Washington Times. 18 Oct.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

ANONYMOUS. 1990. First 'Killer Bees' From South America arrive in Texas. Los Ange-
les Times. 19 Oct.
ANONYMOUS. 1990. Their new home turns into honey of a nightmare. Chicago Tri-
bune. 7 Nov.
ANONYMOUS. 1990. Africanized bees. Miami Herald. 8 Nov.
ANONYMOUS. 1991. Watch your step at museum in Montreal dedicated to bugs. Chi-
cago Tribune. 19 Sept.
ANONYMOUS. 1992. Researcher turns tables on termites. Chicago Tribune. 2 Mar.
ANONYMOUS. 1992. Dead roaches enrich inventor. Washington Times. 1 April.
ANONYMOUS. 1992. Nectar has overseas bees falling down on job down under. Daily
News. 27 June.
ANONYMOUS. 1992. Asian mosquito carries equine virus and it bites humans. Rich-
mond Times-Dispatch. 12A. 24 July.
ANONYMOUS. 1992. Three medflies found in Pasadena. Los Angeles Times. 11 Oct.
ANONYMOUS. 1993. Killer bees work their way into U.S. Los Angeles Times. 11 Aug.
ANONYMOUS. 1993. Bugs make the place habitable but suffer unfair image problems.
New York Times. 1C, 16C. 21 Dec.
ANONYMOUS. 1994. Bee attack kills 1 in Brazil. Anchorage Daily News. 9 Jan.
ANONYMOUS. 1994. Caterpillars kills woman in Brazil. Boston Globe. 13 Jan.
ANONYMOUS. 1994. Untitled, killer bees. Houston Chronicle. 25 Aug.
ANONYMOUS. 1994. Drug chain recalls cans of roach spray. Houston Chronicle. 13 Nov.
ANONYMOUS. 1995. No cause found for fire at moth research building. Columbus Dis-
patch. 9 Feb.
ANONYMOUS. 1995. Chirps help ants nibble leaves neatly. Denver Post. 17A. 12 Mar.
ANONYMOUS. 1995. Common sense is urged in dealing with 'killer bees'. Arizona Re-
public, 1B, b. 5 May.
ANONYMOUS. 1995. Smuggler of protected insects pleads guilty. Chicago Tribune. 26
ANONYMOUS. 1995. Gene causes homosexual behavior in fruit flies. Columbus Dis-
patch, 5 June.
ANONYMOUS. 1995. Reporter's hair gel a hit with bees. Denver Post. 21 June.
ANONYMOUS. 1995. Caterpillar burgers and grasshopper fries? Washington Post. 5. 18
ANONYMOUS. 1995. Insects top the menu of former exterminator. Columbus Dispatch.
21 Aug.
ANONYMOUS. 1995. Gene links spiders, flies to lobsters. Columbus Dispatch. 24 Nov.
ANONYMOUS. 1995. Delay urged in imposing ban on farm pesticide. Los Angeles
Times. 3A, 21A. 29 Nov.
ANONYMOUS. 1996. British inventor finds a way to ambush fleas. Chicago Tribune. 26
BACA, S. 1995. Butterflies get tropical paradise. Denver Post. 12 June.
BACA, S. 1995. Don't let all those insects bug you. Denver Post. 1B, 9B. 14 July.
BERSON, T. 1995. Entomologist tests for ways to kill pests. Montgomery Journal. 1A,
7A. 11 Dec.
BOOTH, W. 1990. When ants at the office are a sweet discovery. Washington Post. 5A.
16 Oct.
BOUSQUET, S. 1994. Pesticide list riles pest control industry. Miami Herald. 1B, 2B. 31
BOWLES, S. 1995. Still itching to work. Washington Post. 1C, 3C. 13 Nov.
BRODY, J. E. 1994. Mosquitoes' tricks still exceed remedies. New York Times. 1C, 13C.
23 Aug.
BRODY, J. E. 1995. Invader from Asia increases gypsy moth threat. New York Times.
1C, 7C. 30 May.
BROWNE, M. W. 1992. 40-million-year-old extinct bee yields oldest genetic material.
New York Times National. 14A. 25 Sept.
BROWNE, M. W. 1995. Evolving in the dark, over 5.5 million years. New York Times.
1C, 9C. 12 Dec.

Scientific Notes

BYRNE, D. N., E. H. CARPENTER, E. M. THOMS, AND S. T. COTTY. 1984. Public attitudes
toward urban arthropods. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 30:40-44.
CALVILLO, Y. 1994. Insects provide unusual clues for crime investigators. Boston
Globe. 9. 13 Oct.
CANNELL, A. D. 1995. Insect-borne diseases bug officials. Ariz. Republic. 7 Sept.
CHANDRASEKARAN, R. 1994. Harsh winter, dry spring create hungry swarms. Wash-
ington Post. 1B, 5B. 19 Aug.
CHANDRASEKARAN, R. 1995. Bold and bloodthirsty. Washington Post. 1B, 6B. 17 Aug.
DALEY, B. 1995. Poaching case flutters rangers. Boston Globe. 29, 33. 9 Feb.
DAVIS, B. A. 1992. Chasing a pest from one continent to another. Philadelphia In-
quirer. 4C. 22 June.
DAWSON, B. 1994. Scientists tell a cautionary tale of 2 species. Houston Chronicle. 7B.
14 Nov.
DUNN, A. 1990. U.S. faces the year of the locusts. Los Angeles Times.lA, 36A, 37A. 8
DUNN, A. 1991. Medfly fighters still support aerial malathion spraying. Los Angeles
Times. 1B, 3B. 28 Mar.
FEDER, B. J. 1996. Out of the lab, a revolution on the farm. New York Times. 3F, 11F.
3 Mar.
FIELDS, G. 1994. Bees attack'with an attitude'. USA Today. 25 Aug.
FLANIGAN, P. 1995. Bethesda expert loves his bugs. Montgomery Journal. 1A, 8A. 15
FLORIO, G. 1995. Hark, you warm and tasty human: There's danger in the air. 1A,
12A. Philadelphia Inquirer. 31 Aug.
FLYNN, G. 1994. Better get accustomed to those bees. Houston Chronicle. 29A, 32A. 30
GALLOWAY, P. 1990. (E.O. Wilson) Giant of the ant world. Chicago Tribune. 1-2. 16
GERDES, W. 1995. Heat blamed for swarms in Grosse Pointes. Detroit Free Press. 1B,
b. 28 June.
GORMAN, T. 1992. San Diego prepares tactics to battle killer bee swarms. Los Angeles
Times. 1A, 19A. 28 Sept.
HALL, D. G., SR., AND R. D. HALL. 1986. Entomologists, taxonomists, public opinion
and professionalism. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 32: 8-21.
HARKER, V. 1995. Critter food: larvae sold worldwide. Arizona Republic. 1B-2B. 4 Dec.
JAFFE, M. 1993. Bug sucking life out of hemlocks. Philadelphia Inquirer. 1A, 14A. 1
JOHNSON, R. 1992. Warmer weather has Florida roaches moving to Chicago. Wall
Street Journal. 1A, 9A. 23 June.
KELLEY, T. 1992. Can a plant make pests bug off? Philadelphia Inquirer. Al, A10. 27
KELLY, K. 1996. Expect a boom in bugs this year. USA Today. 1D, 2D. 3 April.
KENDALL, P. 1995. Just how does a fruit fly? Chicago Tribune. 1, 11. 8 April
KING, L. 1994. Firm pays $7.85 million to settle business dispute. Philadelphia In-
quirer. B7. 11 Feb.
KING, R. T., Jr. 1995. For some crop-killing critters, this lipstick red is to die for. Wall
Street Journal. 15 Aug.
KLINKENBERG, M. 1990. Pest peeves. Miami Herald. 1D, 6D. 22 June.
KOLATA, G. 1993. From fly to man, cells obey same signal. New York Times. 1C, 10C.
15 Jan.
KOWSKY, K. 1993. Protected status for a fly stirs up a hornet's nest. Los Angeles
Times. 1A, 15A. 6 Oct.
KRITSKY, G. 1983. The media as an entomological tool. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29: 3-4.
LAGANGA, M. L. 1990. Pesticides in grain hamper medfly war. Los Angeles Times. 1D,
5D. 21 June.
LEARY, W. E. 1995. What's new about a spider's web? It takes a computer to know. New
York Times. 4C.17 Jan.

250 Florida Entomologist 81(2) June, 1998

LEARY, W. 1995. Elastic device in insect wing is powerhouse. New York Times. 7 April.
LEHRMAN, S. 1991. Last rites for cockroaches? Washington Times. 5 July.
LEMIEUX, J. 1994. No webs of deceit. Houston Chronicle. 22A. 10 Oct.
LEROUX, C. 1995. Eating bugs, as pilot did, a treat to rest of globe. Honolulu Advisor.
7A. 18 June.
LINE, L. 1995. Swarming Halloween bugs eat aphids, haunt humans. New York
Times. 1C, 9C.
LOPEZ, J. A. 1992. The Sunday brunch at insect museum is not a pretty sight. Wall
Street Journal. 1A, 4A. 24 July.
MARSHALL, T. 1996. Fleeing the flea scene. Metropolitan Times/Washington Times.
8C, 9C. 1 May.
MATAS, A. 1993. Hissing roach alert: Insect makes a poor pet. Miami Herald. 5B. 6
MAUGH, T. H. II. 1995. Lord of the flies. Los Angeles Times. 1B, 8B. 9 Nov.
MILLS, M. 1990. Winged pests leave merchants feeling a trifle antsy. Chicago Tribune.
26 Sept.
MILSTEIN, M. 1996. Flies have Hawaii scientists buzzing. Los Angeles Times. 4 Jan.
MONTGOMERY, M. R. 1995. Don't bug me. Boston Globe. 25,29. 17 June.
MUNROE, T. 1991. Biotech company, DuPont team up against bugs. Washington Times.
1C, 9C. 28 Dec.
NAEDELE, W. F. 1995. Asian tiger mosquito is discovered in N.J. Philadelphia Inquirer.
1B-2B. 28 Aug.
NEALON, P. 1995. The worms have turned. Boston Globe. 33, 38. 9 June.
PUZo, D. P. 1996. Are pesticides in foods really causing harm? Washington Post. 26
REITMAN, V. 1993. Scientists are abuzz over the decline of the gentle firefly. Wall
Street Journal. 1. 2 Sept.
RIECHMANN, D. 1993. Gypsy moths chew the leaves off 68,850 acres of Maryland trees.
Washington Times. 17 Aug.
RIECHMANN, D. 1995. Insect cripples Maryland hemlocks in food chain fiasco. Mont-
gomery Journal. 7A. 22 June.
RoPP, T. 1995. When insects attack. Arizona Republic. 1E, 6E. 22 July.
ROYTE, E. 1990. The ant man. (E. O. Wilson). New York Times Magazine. 17-21, 38,39.
22 July.
ROZSA, L. 1993. Plan to eradicate melaleuca has too few bugs in it. Miami Herald. 8
RUSSELL, G. F. 1993. To kill a cockroach. Boston Globe. 48-49. 22 Sept.
SCALETTA, S. E. 1994. Defensive moves take bite out of mosquito forces. Houston
Chronicle. 22 July.
SIMON, S. 1994. Medfly pessimists say victory impossible. Los Angeles Times. 3A, 14A.
10 Oct.
SIMS, C. 1996. After aggressive spraying, Chiles says medfly is defeated. New York
Times. 6D. 26 Mar.
SIWEK, J. 1994. Insect bites that leave scars. Washington Post. 11. 23 Aug.
SMITH, W. 1995. Kills bug dread. Chicago Tribune. 1, 5. 17 April.
SMITH, S., AND J. DONNELLY. 1990. Nighttime football yields to mosquito-borne dis-
ease. Miami Herald. 1A, 15A. 4 Oct.
STEVENS, W. K. 1994. Pesticides may leave legacy of hormonal chaos. New York Times.
1C, 6C. 823 Aug.
STEVENS, J. E. 1995. Fever in the tropics. Los Angeles Times. 3E, 4E. 23 May.
SUGAWARA, S. 1991. Spreading a bug to kill crop killers. Washington Post. 1E, 2E. 31
SUPLEE, C. 1995. The itsy-bitsy acrobatic architects' aerodynamic answer. Washing-
ton Post. A3. 123 Jan.
SUTHERLAND, P. 1991. The sweet smell of death. The Times, London. 7 Mar.
TEACHEY, L. 1994. Living with the pesky fire ant is no picnic. Houston Chronicle. 10B.
18 April.

Scientific Notes

TOMB, G. 1990. Tracking the trophy roach. Miami Herald. 27 Sept.
TORPY, B. 1993. All you need is bugs: water beetlemania rages in Cherokee. Atlanta
Journal. 23 Aug.
TOTTEN, L. B. 1993. Simple remedies, more bug tolerance can cut heavy use of home
pesticides. Washington Times. 12 Aug.
VERNACI, R. L. 1991. Breeding the killer out of the bee. Washington Times. 26 July.
WADE, N. 1994. True rulers of world show their faces. New York Times. 16 Aug.
WARREN, J. 1990. Thick with crickets. Los Angeles Times. A3, A25. 13 July.
WEBSTER, G. 1995. Back off, killer bees: fire ants chomping to get here. Arizona Re-
public. 1B, 3B. 12 June.
WEISS, R. 1994. Researchers gaze into the (insect) light and gain answers. Washing-
ton Post. A3, 9 Aug.
WEISS, R. 1995. Mutant bugs: genetically altered heroes or spineless menaces? Wash-
ington Post. A3. 18 Dec.
WEISS, R. 1991. A swat to mosquito-borne disease. Los Angeles Times. B3. 11 Mar.
WIGGINS, G. B. 1983. Entomology and society. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29: 27-29.
WILFORD, J. N. 1993. Before flowers, insects evolved ways to use them. New York
Times. 1C, 10C. 3 Aug.
WILKIE, C. 1995. Warm winters spawn billions of insect pests. Boston Globe. 29 May.
WOOD, A. R. 1994. A big annoyance zooms in on little bugs' wings? B1, B2. Philadel-
phia Inquirer. 25 June.
YATES, N. 1996. A life-sapping threat. Los Angeles Times. 19 Mar.
YOON, C. K. 1995. Clever beetles disarm plants spewing toxin. Denver Post. 17A. 12
YOON, C. K. 1991. Potent perfume. New York Times. B3. 25 Nov.
YOON, C. K. 1993. In katydids, male rivalry poses as synchrony. New York Times. 11C.
17 Aug.
YOON, C. K. 1994. Insects adapted to a single twig: specialization in the extreme. New
York Times. 12C. 27 Sept.


Scientific Notes


Entomology Department, North Carolina State University, P.O. Box 7613
Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7613, U.S.A.

The drywood termite Kalotermes approximatus (Snyder) ranges along the Gulf
Coast and Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States, including the southern
parts of Mississippi, Alabama and Louisiana, the Florida panhandle, and central
Florida north along the Atlantic Coast to Cape Henry, in the southeast corner of Vir-
ginia. The northwestern and western limits of its range are not precisely established
(Snyder 1924, Syren & Luykx 1981, Nickle & Collins 1989).Weesner (1970) suggested
that this species may have a much wider range than is generally believed, but is
rarely encountered because it frequents houses less often than some other drywood
termites. A recent collection of the species in the North Carolina Piedmont prompted
a review of the species' distribution and hosts within the state.
There are scattered reports ofK. approximatus collected in North Carolina; I as-
sembled available records from published literature (Weesner 1970, Syren & Luykx

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998

FIG. 1. Kalotermes approximatus damage in living red cedar. Arrow indicates a
frass-filled gallery a few mm beneath the bark. Note centrally located damage and the
high proportion of heartwood.

1981), the records of the North Carolina State University Insect and Disease Clinic,
and specimens housed in the North Carolina State University Insect Collection. The
record ofK. approximatus that instigated this review was from a red cedar (Juniperus
virginia L.) growing in a suburban residential area of Raleigh (Wake Co., 35'46'N,
78'38'W). The tree was approximately 20m in height, estimated to be 60 years old, ap-
peared healthy, and was growing in the impermeable clay subsoil characteristic of the
region. The tree forked into two trunks 1m from the ground; one of the trunks was
overhanging a residence, and on 25 May 1995, was removed. The cut surface of the
trunk revealed a centrally located pipe of termite damage in the heartwood, 10cm in
its widest dimension, and a few frass-filled galleries just under the bark (Fig. 1). Gal-
leries extended approx. 81cm into the removed trunk; it was obvious that the colony
was well established and reproductively active. No alates or nymphs were present,
but a number of larvae were observed. The termites were identified from soldiers as
Kalotermes approximatus by R. H. Scheffrahn (University of Florida, Fort Lauder-
dale). Fecal pellets in the galleries were found in the impressed masses characteristic
of the species (Snyder 1924). Four red cedars on the same property fell during Hurri-
cane Fran in September of 1996; these were milled into lumber and none exhibited
signs of termite infestation.
Including the present report, K. approximatus has been collected in North Caro-
lina at least 12 times since its first record in the State in 1965 (Fig. 2). Two collections
were probably adventive: alates emerging from recently shipped furniture (Burke
Co.), and alates collected from a 3 year-old home (Buncombe Co.). Two other instances
appear to be structural infestations: alates collected from the kitchen and basement
of a home (Wake Co.), and alates found beneath the kitchen sink of a 10-15 year-old
beach house (Brunswick Co.). One additional record (not mapped) was of alates taken

Scientific Notes


= record of collection
o = record from unspecified location
within the county
A = probable adventive collection

FIG. 2. Collections of Kalotermes approximatus in North Carolina. The placement
of lines separating physiographic provinces is from Radford et al. (1968).

from a house in which further details were unavailable. The remaining 7 collections
were taken from trees identified as walnut (Juglans nigra L.; Juglandaceae, Cumber-
land Co.), white oak (Quercus alba L.; Fagaceae, twice in Sampson Co.), elm (Ulmus
sp.; Ulmaceae, Cumberland Co.), and live red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.; Cupres-
saceae, Wake Co.). Except for the latter, there was no indication of whether these trees
were alive or dead. In one of the collections from oak, the infestation was more than
9m above the ground. Records for Beaufort Co. and New Hanover Co. are from Syren
& Luykx (1981), who indicated their collections were from oak, sweetgum, and mag-
In Florida, Hetrick (1961) reported that winged reproductive are most frequently
encountered during autumn, however, Snyder (1925) collected alates in coastal Vir-
ginia during August. In North Carolina, alates have been collected on 21 and 27 July,
15 and 28 September, and 18 and "late" October.
Some of the tree hosts listed here (red cedar, walnut) expand the reported dietary
range of the species (Miller 1949, Syren & Luykx 1981). The collection from J virgin-
iana is of particular interest, as the allelochemicals present in the heartwood gener-
ally render the species resistant to termites (reviewed by Scheffrahn 1991). As a
whole, however, Kalotermitidae are generalist feeders with a broad host range and
not particularly selective on host type (R. Scheffrahn, pers. comm.).
K. approximatus is usually characterized as feeding on dead wood or in the dead
areas of living trees (Snyder 1954, Weesner 1970, Nickle & Collins 1989). Hetrick
(1961), however, found the species in the heartwood of a living cherry (Prunus serotina
Ehrh.), and a living but decadent pear tree (Pyrus communis L.). Syren and Luykx
(1981) report that in the northernmost part of its range, K. approximatus is often
found in the wood of living trees. Because Kalotermes spp. have a higher water re-
quirement than many drywood termites (Collins 1969), it is likely that the moisture
level of living heartwood influences their choice of these hosts. It is also possible that
the surrounding live wood is an effective buffer from the environmental extremes they
may encounter at the limits of their range. Raleigh is the furthest north a natural in-
festation of K. approximatus has been collected inland, approximately 180km from
the moderating effect of the Atlantic Ocean. I thank Rudi Scheffrahn for the termite
identification, Susan Jones for a critical reading of the manuscript, and Dave Stephan
and Mike Waldvogel for help in locating records.

Florida Entomologist 81(2)

June, 1998


Records of the drywood termite Kalotermes approximatus are summarized for
North Carolina. A recent collection from a live red cedar in Raleigh (Wake Co.), ex-
pands both the host and geographic range of the species.


COLLINS, M. S. 1969. Water relations in termites, pp. 433-458 in K. Krishna and F. M.
Weesner [eds], Biology of Termites, Vol. I. Academic Press, N. Y.
HETRICK, L. A. 1961. Kalotermes approximatus Snyder infests Rosaceous trees
(Isoptera: Kalotermitidae. Florida Entomol. 44: 53-54.
MILLER, E. M. 1949. A Handbook on Florida Termites. University of Miami Press,
Coral Gables.
NICKLE, D. A., AND M. S. COLLINS. 1989. Key to the Kalotermitidae of the Eastern
United States with a new Neotermes from Florida. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash-
ington 91: 269-285.
RADFORD, A. E., H. E. AHLES, AND C. R. BELL. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of
the Carolinas. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
SCHEFFRAHN, R. H. 1991. Allelochemical resistance of wood to termites. Sociobiology
SNYDER, T. E. 1924. A non-subterranean termite in Virginia. Proc. Entomol. Soc.
Washington 26: 207-209.
SNYDER, T. E. 1925. Description of winged adult of Kalotermes approximatus Snyder
(Isoptera). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 27: 14.
SNYDER, T. E. 1954. Order Isoptera. The Termites of the United States and Canada.
National Pest Control Association, New York.
SYREN, R. M., AND P. LUYKX. 1981. Geographic variation of sex-linked translocation
heterozygosity in the termite Kalotermes approximatus Snyder (Insecta:
Isoptera). Chromosoma (Berl.) 82: 65-88.
WEESNER, F. M. 1970. Termites of the Nearctic Region, pp. 477-525 in K. Krishna and
F. M. Weesner [eds], Biology of Termites, Vol. II. Academic Press, N.Y.

Florida Entomological Society Initiates AuthorLinks 255


At its September meeting, the FES Executive Committee approved an important
new service.
For the price of publishing one more page (currently $45), an author of an article
in Florida Entomologist can have an "AuthorLink" in the online Florida Entomologist.
The link can be to a file that is submitted by the author and is posted on the same
WWW server as the article, or it can be to any URL that the author designates.
An AuthorLink is indicated by the phrase "More information" beneath the author's
name in the online table of contents. The author can make the link more descriptive
by specifying up to 20 additional words. For example, a link could read "More infor-
mation: color pictures of all species and the complete data matrix."
Authors will be reminded that they can purchase an AuthorLink when proofs are
sent. In addition, an author may at any time purchase an AuthorLink for an article
previously included in the online Florida Entomologist. To do so, the author must fill
out a form and send it, the submitted file (if any), and $45 to Business Manager, Flor-
ida Entomologist, P.O. Box 1007, Lutz, FL 33548-1007. The form and an explanation
of AuthorLinks is available at http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/ (the home page of the on-
line Florida Entomologist).
An AuthorLink will be removed without charge when the Associate Editor for Flor-
ida Entomologist on WWW (presently tjw@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu) receives a written request
from the author. For the cost of a new AuthorLink, an author may substitute a new
Link for an old one.
To see a representative AuthorLink, go online to the article by James E. Lloyd in
the June 1997 issue of Florida Entomologist (http://www.fcla.ufl.edu/FlaEnt/


An "AuthorLink" functions in one of these two ways.

(1) Accesses a file submitted by the author and posted on the same WWW server as the

In most cases the file will be in HTML and contain a collection of links to files on
other servers with brief descriptions of each-in other words, it will be a gateway to
information that the author considers relevant to the published article.
In some cases, the submitted file may not link to other files. In these cases the file
may still be in HTML but more likely it would be a graphic file (e.g., jpeg or gif) or a
data set (e.g., comma-delimited ASCII file).
An author may submit only one file for posting with the article, but there is no
limit on the size of that file. If files are referenced in the submitted file, they must be
posted elsewhere. Most will likely be on the author's server.
Once the submitted file is posted, the author will not be able to change its contents.
Therefore, the author should make sure that the information in the file will not
quickly become out dated. Note, however, that the author may use the submitted file
to link to files under the author's control that can be updated whenever needed.
Preparing a file to be submitted for an AuthorLink is entirely the responsibility of
the author. Before submission, the author should make sure that all links work and
that spelling and grammar meet the author's standards.

256 Florida Entomologist 81(2) June, 1998

(2) Accesses a URL of the author's choosing.

In this case, the author submits a URL rather than a file. In most cases the link
will be to an HTML file under the author's control, and the file will direct the viewer
to other files relevant to the published article.
When an author submits a file, that file is archived along with the electronic version
of the author's article. When an author submits a URL, the file that it links to is un-
likely to remain posted for more than 50 years.
T. J. Walker
Assoc. Editor for
Florida Entomologist on WWW

Florida Entomological Society Initiates AuthorLinks 257


This form may be used to request an AuthorLink for any article that is already in
Florida Entomologist on WWW (http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/fehmpg.htm) or for any
article that has been accepted for publication in Florida Entomologist but is not yet
Send the completed form and $45 to Business Manager, Florida Entomologist, P.O.
Box 1007, Lutz, FL 33548-1007.

Title of article:

Volume and issue of Florida Entomologist:

What type of Link do you want? (check one) F submitted file E URL.

If a URL, what is the URL?

If a file, please submit it on a diskette with this form or e-mail it as an attachment to

How do you want your Link labeled? (check one)

H The default, which is "More information."

O "More information:

[Add as many as 20 words.]

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs