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Title: The INA quarterly
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Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Summer 2003
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00042
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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Summer 2003 Volume 30 No. 2

The INA Quarterly

Volume 30 No. 2 Summer 2003

3 Beneath the Red River's Waters:
The Oklahoma Steamboat Project, Part I MEMBERSHIP
Kevin Crisman and William Lees Institute of Nautical Archaeology
P.O. Drawer HG
8 News and Notes College Station, TX 77841-5137

9 International Workshop in Nautical Archaeology, Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
eries in nautical archaeology. Mem-
Bodru 2002 bers receive the INA Quarterly and
George F. Bass other benefits.

12 Maritime Source Material in the United Kingdom and Researcher (students only).... $25
Ireland Diver.................... $40
Lois A. Swanick Seafarer ................... $75
Surveyor ................... $150
16 The Ninth International Conference on Graeco-Oriental Restorer .................. $500
and Afrin S s Curator ................. $1,000
and African Studies Excavator ................ $2,500
George K Livadas Navigator................ $5,000

17 The Horse Ferry Model Checks, in U.S. currency, should be made
Kevin Crisman payable to INA.

18 Just Released:
Archaeological Conservation Using Polymers
C. Wayne Smith
On the cover: Jeremy Green leads a team
19 Just Released: of international archaeologists in mapping
The Plenum Series in Underwater Archaeology a mock wreck during the 2002 Internation-
al Workshop in Nautical Archaeology held
21 In Memoriam: Marilyn H. Lodge in Bodrum, Turkey. Photo: INA.

22 In Memoriam: Harry C. Kahn II

23 In Memoriam: Samuel J. LeFrak

June 2003 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly artides and illustrations. Artides for publication should be submitted in hard copy and on a 3.25
diskette (Macintosh, DOS, or Windows format acceptable) along with all artwork. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor, NA
Quarterly,P.O. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (979) 845-6694, fax (979) 847-9260, e-mail
The Home Page for INA is at
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, founded by George E Bass, Michael Kalzev,
and Jack Kelly and incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA has been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where INA faculty teach in the
Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of Anthropology. The opinions expressed in Quarterly articles are those of the authors,
and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Institute.

The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).

Editor: Christine A. Powell

Beneath the Red River's Waters:

The Oklahoma Steamboat Project, Part I

Kevin Crisman and William Lees

There is a certain cow pasture in the town of Swink,
Oklahoma, that overlooks the cloudy waters of the Red
River. If you should find yourself in this cow pasture, go
stand on the riverbank (but not too close to the edge) and
direct your gaze to the south, toward the state of Texas. If
the water is low enough, you will notice an obstruction
protruding from the middle of the channel. At first glance
it looks like a "snag," the roots and branches of a tree that
washed into the river and ran aground. Look closer, how-
ever, and you will see unusually straight lines and right-
angle protrusions, patterns too regular to be a fallen tree.
What you are seeing is Oklahoma's only known shipwreck,
a vessel that met its end here over 160 years ago (fig. 1). At
that time the newly independent Republic of Texas was to
the south of the Red River and the new western territory
of the Choctaw Nation to the north in what is today Okla-
homa. This wreck also happens to be the earliest and per-
haps the finest example yet discovered of the celebrated
"western river steamboat."

The western steamboat was a marvelous amalgam
of maritime technology, a product of native genius that
profoundly affected the course of history. Prior to steam's
arrival on the Mississippi River and its tributaries in 1811,
the river was essentially a one-way route: the strong cur-
rents floated goods out of the interior, but prevented sail-
ing ships from working their way upriver. Steamboats
changed all that, and quickly evolved in the period from
1811 to 1840, acquiring ever-more-powerful engines and
shallower hulls, while at the same time increasing in num-
bers and capacity. They speeded up the westward move-
ment of the United States, transporting people and their
goods, and transplanting their cultures, into the interior
of the North American continent. Said one observer in the
1830s: "The circulation of steamboats is as necessary to the
West, as that of the blood to the human system."
Western steamboats were a departure from tradi-
tional ideas of naval architecture. "I hardly know what to
liken them to, or how to describe them," a baffled Charles

Fig. 1. Location of the Red River Steamboat Wreck.

fNA Quarterly 30.2

Dickens wrote in 1842, "they have no mast, cordage, tack-
le, rigging, or other such boat-like gear; nor have they any-
thing in their shape at all calculated to remind one of a
boat's head, stem, sides, or keel. Except that they are in
the water, and display a couple of paddle boxes, they might
be intended ... to perform some unknown service, high and
dry, upon a mountain top." The all-important need to
maintain a shallow draft forced shipwrights to build them
lightly and to build them up; these craft would become
known for their wedding-cake stack of decks that rose high
above the main deck. Durability was not their strong suit:
even if they avoided tearing their bottoms out on a snag or
exploding their high-pressure boilers, western steamers
rarely lasted more than about five years.
The Red River proved to be one of the Mississippi's
more intractable tributaries: its lower reaches in Louisiana
were blocked by an impassable 150-mile-long logjam of
snags known as the "Great Raft." Steamer traffic on the
waterway was limited for two decades, until the govern-
ment hired inventor Henry Shreve in 1833 to attack the
raft with his patented snag-pulling boat. Within five years
a channel was cleared, permitting larger steamers to trav-
el far upriver. For many years thereafter flotillas of steam-
boats made the passage when the water was high enough,
generally from November to June. These vessels imported
manufactured goods, exported cotton and other agricul-
tural produce, and closely tied the people and towns of
the Red River Valley (in the present-day states of Louisi-
ana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas) economically and
politically to the rest of the nation. The river would contin-
ue in this way through the nineteenth century, although

by the 1870s the rapid growth of railroads cut into steam-
boat trade and eventually drove them out of business.
Steamboats rightfully serve as icons of nineteenth-
century North American culture, technology, and western
expansion, yet our knowledge of their design, construc-
tion, and propulsion machinery is surprisingly scanty. This
is particularly true of the vessels produced in the early
period of steam navigation, from 1811 to circa 1840. The
shipwrights building them were more artisans than engi-
neers, and in the rush to meet the demand for more boats
the details were generally not recorded. Contemporary
paintings and prints provide some idea of the appearance
of early western river steamboats, but tell us little about
what went into the successful completion and operation
of these highly specialized craft. Nautical archaeology of-
fers our best, and in some cases the only, means of discov-
ering their secrets; but to date there have been few
archaeological studies of western steamers, and those few
have been later-period vessels.
The Oklahoma steamboat wreck entered the twen-
tieth century in 1990, when a flood radically shifted the
river's channel, eroded away the banks of a twenty-foot
bluff on the Oklahoma side, and revealed the wreck's stern
and the eroded spokes of the port sidewheel (fig. 2). The
existence of the wreck was brought to the attention of the
Oklahoma Historical Society (OHS) in 1999. A preliminary
survey showed that the vessel had a center-mounted fly-
wheel on the axle, a feature that passed out of use around
1840 when twin-engined boats became standard. Because
navigation of the upper river by steamers was blocked until
1838 by the "raft" downstream, the likely dates for the

rnro courtesy iea trver rrojecr
Fig. 2. Looking at the site from the Oklahoma bank.

INA Quarterly 30.2



140 130 10 110 100 90 00 70 sO 50 40 30 20 10 5 0

Fig. 3. The 2002 site plan showing the extent of the buried wreck.

steamer's sinking could thus be narrowed to the late
1830s or very early 1840s. A number of steamers were
sunk on the river during this period, most of them the
victim of snags, but information on their locations is
typically vague, making it difficult to attach a name to
the wreck at this time. The OHS has identified one ves-
sel lost in the vicinity of Fort Towson in 1838 that bears
many similarities, but more research is needed to con-
firm that it is the Red River Wreck.
Test excavations of the wreck by the OHS in 2001
revealed that the stern structure of the wreck was com-
plete, although cracked alongside the keel, and contained
artifacts. A number of machinery-related pieces were re-
covered and sent for treatment at Texas A&M Universi-
ty's Conservation Research Lab (CRL). The most
memorable artifact, at least from an olfactory viewpoint,
was an intact barrel of salt pork (several others were dis-
covered but left on the wreck). Disassembled at the CRL,
the barrel was found to contained a congealed (or, more
correctly, "saponified") fragrant white mass of decayed
pork flesh with bones. There were two complete pig
skulls embedded in the shipment, high-bulk, low-meat
parts that suggest this may have been cheap, low-grade
pork, or that the contractor cheated on an order of prime
mess pork. While not a particularly glamorous find, the
pork barrel is a rare example of a basic food group for nine-
teenth-century North Americans, a staple commodity of-
ten mentioned in contemporary accounts of frontier life
(and vilified-probably with justification-by visiting Eu-
ropean tourists).
In 2002 the Institute of Nautical Archaeology (INA)
enthusiastically joined in a cooperative effort with the OHS
to carry out a multi-year study of the Red River Steamboat
Wreck. The goals of this research are to systematically un-

cover the wreck and its contents, to recover artifacts and
hull elements (such as the machinery and rudder) for study
and eventual display, and to reconstruct the form and con-
struction of the steamer's hull. In short, we intend to learn
everything possible about the steamer, its contents, its fi-
nal voyage, its role in the American West of the 1830s, and
its place in the evolution of American steam transporta-
tion. The project will be co-directed by Dr. Kevin Crisman,
INA faculty member, and Dr. William Lees, Director of the
OHS Historic Sites Division, with support provided from
the state of Oklahoma, INA, and Texas A&M University
(TAMU). Nautical Program alumnus Peter Hitchcock, now
a Ph.D. candidate in the TAMU Oceanography Depart-
ment, will serve as assistant director.
One of the first orders of business in the 2002 field
season was to determine the full extent of the buried wreck
(fig. 3). The steamer sank with its bow pointing upriver
and settled in a bow-down attitude, listing slightly to port.
Approximately fifty feet (15.24 m) of the vessel's after end
is semi-exposed, but we wanted to know how much more
lay forward, under the sand, and whether the hull was in-
tact or broken up. We also hoped to see if there were de-
tached pieces of wreckage or steam machinery scattered
around the site. In September of 2002 a side-scan sonar sur-
vey was carried out by INA Research Associates Brett Pha-
neuf and Ayse Atauz, utilizing a Marine Sonic Technology
300khz unit donated to INA by Marty Wilcox. The sonar
produced superb images, in this case showing the overall
layout of the exposed hull elements and the extreme, cur-
rent-sculpted topography of the wreck and surrounding
river bottom.
The second phase of the 2002 reconnaissance, car-
ried out in October, involved recording construction de-
tails and a frame section abaft of the sidewheel axle, to get

INA Quarterly 30.2

K. Crisman

------------------------------------- 's^

-- -..--- ---
- -- -- - ----- -------------------- ------

- - - - -- - - - - -- - - - - ----------~.._._ ~ _~

Fig. 4. Rendering of a section recorded during the October 2002 reconnaissance.

Fig. 5. Reconstruction of the starboard section abaft the side wheels.

INA Quarterly 30.2


a better idea of the hull's form and assembly (fig. 4 and 5).
We also devoted a considerable effort to digging test pits
forward of the sidewheel axle to trace an outline of the
buried hull. The sand that composes the bottom of the Red
River is relatively fine-grained but unconsolidated,
which means that when you dig a hole, the surround-
ing sand promptly flows in. This made test-pitting a
challenge, but project personnel Toby Jones and John
Davis kept at it doggedly, briefly exposing, then buoy-
ing deck beams, planking, and frame tops as they
worked their way forward into ever-greater depths of
sand (fig. 6). Finally, approximately 140 feet (42.67 m)
forward of the sternpost, they ran out of wreck; all ev-
idence indicates that the forward (buried) two-thirds
of the wreck is complete up to the top of the hull, and
includes significant remnants of the main deck's beams
and planking. Clearly, this wreck has much to tell us about
the early years of steamboating on the western rivers.
Every shipwreck has its own unique environment,
a plus-and-minus ratio of conditions that assist or hinder
archaeological work. The Red River is not your typical ship-
wreck site. Like most western rivers, it is a dynamic body
of water, with daily changes in water depth and current
velocity (on some days it is necessary to hang on to some-
thing solid to avoid being swept away). The channel is con-
stantly shifting as the river erodes one bank and deposits
sand on the other (the wreck, eroded from the Oklahoma
bank in 1990, is now in mid-channel as the river has con-

tinued to work its way northward at this location). The
swift-flowing waters are clean, but carry a vast amount of
suspended sediment, reducing visibility on the wreck to a
few inches. The river-bottom material, as we've noted, is a
fine sand that has a tendency to fill in excavated areas.
Branches and whole trees washing downriver collect on
the wreck, creating submerged snags that can obstruct
divers. On the plus side, the water temperature is mod-
erate in the summer and fall, and the maximum water
depth on the wreck is no more than fifteen to twenty
feet (4.5 to 6 m), allowing extended dives of two to three
hours. The river is a relatively protected location (high
waves are not a problem here), and in logistical terms
the steamboat project will be a breeze: we can park our
cars on the bluff top directly overlooking the wreck. In
2002 we established a simple cable ferry between the shore
and the work raft to carry people and equipment back and
Our strategy for excavation calls for a minimum of
three years of excavation and recording, starting with the
aftermost one-third of the wreck in 2003, followed by study
of the midships area and finally the bow. The timetable
will be affected by a number of variables, including the
complexity of the structure we expose and the number of
artifacts that we encounter. Two later-period western riv-
er steamers that have been fully excavated, the Arabia (Lost
in 1856) and the Bertrand (sunk in 1865), both yielded vast
collections of artifacts, including foodstuffs, clothing, tools,

Photo courtesy Red River Project
Fig. 6. Toby Jones and John Davis (background) use a dredge pump to investigate the
extent of the bow. In the foreground, Dr. William Lees records the upper starboard side of
the hull abaft the side wheels,

INA Quarterly 30.2

medicines, building supplies, farming and mining equip-
ment, and personal possessions. We do not know if the
Red River wreck sank before or after off-loading its cargo,
or if any of the contents were salvaged after it went down,
but it is certain that some artifacts will be found. The steam-
er was probably delivering supplies for the U.S. Army gar-
rison at nearby Fort Towson and was possibly carrying
foodstuffs and other materials to Native American groups
such as the Choctaw and Chickasaw who in the 1830s were
dispossessed from their eastern homelands and re-settled
along the Red River.
The stern excavations in 2003 will concentrate on
the removal of sand from buried areas, and the documen-
tation of the hull assembly. There is much to look at here,
including the frames, the well-preserved transom and
stempost, and the surviving elements of the main deck.
During a reconnaissance dive in May of 2003 we discov-
ered a small companionway hatch in the after deck, just
forward of the sternpost, covered by a large iron hasp that
secured its hatch cover. Who knows what may lie beneath
it? Finally, it is clear that most if not all of the rudder has
survived, and we intend to recover and conserve this vital
piece of ship's equipment for study and display. The 2003
project will run in two stages, a five-week Texas A&M
University field school in July and early August, utilizing
a team of fifteen personnel, and a two- to three-week fol-
low-up session in October with a smaller crew that will
wrap up uncompleted excavating and recording, and re-
cover the rudder. The October project will be assisted by
the expertise of archaeologists Arthur Cohn and Adam
Kane of the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum.

The stern is already partially exposed above the river
bottom, so the 2003 excavations will be manageable de-
spite the current, visibility, and loose sediments. The
more deeply-buried forward two-thirds of the wreck is
another story altogether, and it is obvious that some
type of cofferdam will be necessary to effectively dig
and record in this area An engineering firm has been
consulted on the problem, and has prepared plans for
the construction of a sheet-steel "wet" cofferdam that
will surround the wreck. The site will remain under
water, but such an enclosure would effectively block the
river flow and limit the movement of sand into the wreck,
while the lack of current inside the cofferdam should al-
low sediments to settle and thereby improve visibility. We
hope to have some form of cofferdam installed by the 2004
In its quarter-century of existence the Institute of
Nautical Archaeology has dedicated itself to expanding our
knowledge of seafaring and ships throughout time and
around the world. The Red River Steamboat Wreck will be
a worthy addition to INA's record, for it will provide both
scholars and the public with a look at a pivotal era in North
American history when a revolutionary new form of ship
propulsion overcame a seemingly-insurmountable natu-
ral barrier-the powerful flow of the Mississippi and its trib-
utaries-and opened up the interior of a vast continent.
Study of the wreck will allow us to see firsthand how this
technology worked, and provide us with a new apprecia-
tion of the genius and perseverance of the inventors, ship-
wrights, and entrepreneurs who developed the western
river steamboat.

Acknowledgments: The 2002 surveys of the Red River Wreck were greatly assisted by John Davis, Keith Tolman, and
Howard McKinnis of the Oklahoma Historical Society, by graduate students AySe Atauz, Toby Jones, and Erika Laane-
la of the Texas A&M University Anthropology Department's Nautical Archaeology Graduate Program, and by gradu-
ate students Brett Phaneuf and Peter Hitchcock of the Texas A&M Oceanography Department. INA supporter Marty
Wilcox is thanked for his more-than-generous donation of the side-scan sonar unit used to survey the wreck in 2002.
The Texas A&M University Office of the Vice President for Research has provided a "Creative and Scholarly Activi-
ties" grant supporting computer mapping of the wreck in 2003. The project is supported by a generous grant from the
Oklahoma Department of Transportation. &i

News & Notes

Shipwreck Weekend 2003

INA Founder George F. Bass was INA and Texas A&M University
recently elected as an Honorary Director hosted another in their series of Shipwreck
of the Explorers Club, joining Richard Weekends on Saturday, April5. The pro-
Leakey, Robert Ballard, John Glenn, Ed- gram has been a success in bringing nau-
mund Hillary, Donald Johanson, Don tical archaeology to the public. Following
Walsh, and other noted explorers. a three-hour course of illustrated public

lectures by Taras Pevny, Glenn Grieco, Pe-
ter Fix, Carrie Sowden, and Kevin
Crisman, the weekend participants spent
the afternoon touring the INA facilities
and Nautical Archaeology Program
Teaching Laboratories. ,

INA Quarterly 30.2

Bass Honored

International Workshop in Nautical Archaeology,

Bodrum, 2002

George E Bass

When Turkish Minister of Culture Istemihan Talay
visited the INA excavation at Tekta4 Buru in 2001, he asked
if I would organize an international conference on archaeol-
ogy to be held in Bodrum in 2002. As a number of conferenc-
es were already planned for that year, notably the Tropis
conference held every four years in Greece, I suggested that
we hold instead a small workshop for not more than forty
invited participants. Rather than simply presenting and lis-
tening to papers, we would discuss, often with hands-on
experience, the latest techniques of searching for, excavat-
ing, mapping, conserving, and displaying shipwrecks.
The invitation list included a mix of older, prominent
archaeologists and younger, lesser known archaeologists
who can use the experience of the workshop as they become
leaders of the next generation. There are many equally de-
serving people who will hopefully attend future workshops.
All invitees accepted, although at the last moment neither
Jean-Yves Empereur of France nor Jonathan Adams of the
United Kingdom could attend.
With tickets provided by Turkish Airlines (THY), and
accommodations provided by the Turkish Ministry of Culture,
participants arrived on June 1-2 at Bodrum's Mavi Hotel The
workshop officially opened the next morning at a ceremony at
the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology where visi-
tors were welcomed by Minister Talay; Dr. Alpay Pasinli, Direc-
tor or the Department of Museums and Antiquities; Oguz
Alpozen, Director of the Museum; and Ayhan Sicimoglu,
President of INA's sister organization TINA (Turkish Insti-
tute of Nautical Archaeology).
The small number of participants al-
lowed everyone the chance to work at a com-
puter, dive on the Pabuq Bumu wreck, descend
in INA's submersible Carolyn, and spend time
in the Bodrum Museum and its conservation
laboratory, which we toured during the first two
mornings. During those afternoons, in order to
introduce themselves and their work, and to
allow the general public to learn about nautical
archaeology outside Turkey, some participants
gave brief, illustrated lectures:
Gordana Karovic, Institute for Protection
of Cultural Monuments, Serbia, "Underwater
Archaeology in Serbia and Montenegro;" Ner-
gis Ginsenin, Istanbul University, "The Camalti
Bumu Wreck in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey;"
Kroum Batchvarov, of Bulgaria and Texas A&M
University, "The Ottoman Wreck at Kiten, Bul- Gordana
garia;" Johan Ronnby, University College of Serbia, pr

Stockholm, Sweden, "Shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea;" John
Broadwater, Monitor National Marine Sanctuary, United
States, "The Wrecks of the Monitor and the Betsy;" George
Bass, INA, "The TektaS Bumu Excavation and the Submers-
ible Carolyn in Turkey;" Sila Tripati, National Institute of
Oceanography, India, "Underwater Archaeology in India;"
Robin Piercy, of the United Kingdom and INA, "The Santo
Antonib de Tanna in Mombasa, Kenya;" Levent Zorolu, Selguk
University, and Volkan Evrin, Middle East Technical Uni-
versity Subaqua Society, "The Kilikya Survey and the Ke-
lenderis Project in Turkey;" Carlo Beltrame, Universita ca'
Foscari-Venezia, "Nautical Archaeology in Italy;" Robert
Grenier, Parks Canada, "Underwater Archaeology in Cana-
da, Especially Red Bay;" Wendy van Duivenvoorde, of the
Netherlands and Texas A&M University, "Underwater Ar-
chaeology in Sri Lanka;" Fred Hocker, National Museum of
Denmark, "Shipwreck Archaeology in Denmark;" Katerina
Delaporte, Ephor of Underwater Antiquities in Greece, "Un-
derwater Archaeology in Greece;" Filipe Castro, of Portugal
and Texas A&M University, "The Nossa Senhora dos Martires
in Portugal;" Hayat Erkanal and Vasif Saholu, Ankara Uni-
versity, "Underwater Research at Liman Tepe. Turkey;"
Francisco Alves, Centro Nacional de Arqueologia Nautica
& Subaquatica, Portugal, "Nautical Archaeology in Portu-
gal;" Jeremy Green, Western Australian Museum, "Nauti-
cal Archaeology in Australia and the Far East;" Robert
Neyland, the Hunley Project, "The Confederate Submarine
Hunley in Charleston, South Carolina;" and Ivan Negueruela,

(arovic from the Institutefor Protection of Cultural Monuments,
epares for her dive to the PabuV Burnu wrecksite in Carolyn.

INA Quarterly 30.2

MuseoNadonal de Arqueologia Maritima, Spain,
"Phoenician Wrecks in Spain."
Other participants, including INA staff
who helped in the seminars, were Serdar Aker-
dem of the Marmara Island Shipwreck Excava-
tion, Turkey; AySe Atauz of INA, representing
Bilkent University, Turkey; Marc Andre Bernier
of Parks Canada; Anita Dotzeva of the Bulgarian
Black Sea Project; Begumsen Ergenekon of Mid-
die East Technical University, Turkey; YaSar Er-
soy of Bilkent University, Turkey; Dionisios
Evangelistis of the Department of Maritime An-
tiquities, Greece; Donald Frey, USA and INA;
Pedro Goncalvez of the Centro Nacional de Ar-
queologia Nautica, Portugal; Faith Hentschel, Cen-
tral Connecticut State University, USA, and INA;
Dimitris Kourkoumelis of Greece; Berta Lled6 of
Spain and INA; Sheila Matthews, USA and INA; Feyyaz Su
Jonathan Moore, Parks Canada; Asaf Oron, Israel shop part
and INA; Bekir Ozer, Ege University, Turkey; Ce-
mal Puak, INA and Texas A&M University; Co-
rioli Souter, Western Australian Museum; Tufan Turanh, INA,
Turkey; and Mehmet Yildiz, Turkey.
The first day ended with a medieval banquet in the
Castle of St. Peter, which houses the Bodrum Museum, and
the second evening with dinner in the INA garden.
On the third morning the group was transferred by
bus to the Sea Garden resort hotel. It lies outside Bodrum
but is within a short distance of the sixth-century BCE Pabug
Burnu shipwreck, on which over the next three days every-
one dived in Carolyn, and, if they chose, also with SCUBA

bay pilots Carolyn on tours of the Pabuf Burnu wrecksitefor work-

equipment provided by our former colleague Askm
Cambazoglu, who now runs a dive school at Sea Garden; it
was he who reported the wreck to INA in 2001.
The remainder of the workshop schedule allowed ev-
eryone to map with digital cameras a mock wreck that Sheila
Matthews and others had established on the hotel grounds
with replicated amphoras, plate, pitcher, and lamp. Then.
guided by Sheila and by Jeremy Green, the participants
worked with Site Surveyor, Photomodeler, and Rhino com-
puter programs to develop maps of this "wreck."

Left. Marc Andrd Bernier (Parks Canada) and Aye Atauz (INA) have a chat.

Below. Kroum Batchvarov (INA), Anita Dotzeva, and Filipe Castro (INA) at
a break.

INA Quarterly 30.2

Inside the hotel, Berta Lled6 gave a PowerPoint pre-
sentation of the computer programs she designed for record-
keeping on INA excavations and surveys; Fred Hocker
demonstrated how the program Rhino was used on the wreck
of the Sepia in Australia, and later led a discussion of the use
of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs); Corioli Sout-
er gave a presentation of HPASS (High-Precision Acoustic
Survey System) developed by the Centre for Marine Science
and Technology at Curtin University and the Western Aus-
tralian Maritime Museum; and Asaf Oron and Pedro Gon-

calvez talked about the latest methods of on-site and labora-
tory conservation. George Bass and Tufan Turanli led a dis-
cussion of fund raising for nautical archaeology.
Sharing breakfast, lunch, and dinner, as well as vari-
ous coffee and tea breaks, allowed numerous lively discus-
The workshop ended with a dinner hosted by TINA
at Havana, a seaside restaurant not far from Bodrum. Ev-
eryone declared the workshop a great success, with most
agreeing that it should become an annual event. ,

A gathering of workshop participants.

All photographs by Robin Piercy

INA Quarterly 30.2

Maritime Source Material in the United Kingdom and Ireland

Lois A. Swanick

The extensive collections and archives of the Unit-
ed Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (U.K.)
and the Republic of Ireland (Eire) offer a rewarding place to
research maritime topics. Public record offices, maritime
insurance carriers, libraries, museums, institutes, universi-
ties, and archives overflow with material. The best way to
get your hands on these resources is in person, but if a ticket
to London is outside your budget, here is a review of some
of the sources available through the Internet. Most institu-
tions have indexes or catalogs available on line. If you find a
document you need, photocopies or microfilms are avail-
able in many cases, often for a fee, by mail. Many institu-
tions also provide librarians or researchers who, again for a
fee, will review the archive and send you relevant documents
or a bibliography of related sources in their collections.
Most archives organize their index by vessel name,
vessel use (merchant, naval, etc.), departure date, port of
departure or port of arrival. In most cases, the vessel must
be registered, use a port, or be damaged or wrecked with-
in the waters of the U.K. or Eire at least once to be in the
index. If the port of registry is known, information such as
the tonnage, shipmaster, and number of crew can also be
found. Be aware that Port Records often record vessels "the
[Name of Vessel] of Bristol" (for example). However, this
may only refer to the fact that Bristol was the vessel's main
port of call in England, rather than its port of registry. Only
further investigation could reveal if Bristol was actually
the vessel's port of registration.
The actual name of the vessel and any alternative names
that mightbe used are also vital For example, the records might
indicate a vessel called Own's Endeavor. This name can be also
be rendered in the index as Owner's Endeavor, as Owns Endeavor
or Owners Endeavor (with no apostrophe), or as simply Endeav-
or. "Endeavor" can also be spelled "Endeavour," thus creating
ten possible names for the same vessel in the records! The only
way to be certain the record refers to the vessel of interest is to.
compare the names of the ships' masters, if available, or the
regular ports of call
Information sources are divided into two catego-
ries: general sources and specific sources. General sources
include collections such as Lloyd's of London, National
Maritime Museum, Public Record Office, and others. Spe-
cific sources include those focusing particularly on naval
vessels or shipbuilders, for example.

General Information Sources
Lloyd's Marine Collection. Located at Guildhall
Library in London, Lloyd's Marine Collection contains the
records compiled and kept by Lloyd's of London, marine
insurance underwriters since 1760. The records focus on
vessels registered or trading in London, with some infor-
mation on vessels in other English ports and inconsistent

information from abroad. For a complete list of the collec-
tions kept at Guildhall Library see D. A. Barriskill, A Guide
to the Lloyd's Marine Collection and Related Marine Sources at
Guildhall Library.
The two most comprehensive and valuable resourc-
es in the collection are the Register of Ships and Lloyd's List.
In the 1700s, the Register of Ships included the name of the
vessel, previous vessel names (if any), a description of the
rigging, tonnage, load-draught, date of building, place of
building, name of owner, name of master, number of crew,
port of survey, class, and destined voyage. The Register
later expanded to include additional information. Copies
of the Register are available, in whole or in part, world-
wide. Contact your local library for details.
Lloyd's List can be used to reconstruct the overall
history of historic vessels. Published since April 1734, the
oldest surviving issue dates to January 2,1740. Lloyd's List
contains information on shipping arrivals and departures.
Movements are listed geographically, by port, beginning
with Gravesend (London), continuing clockwise around
the British Isles and clockwise around the world. The List
also contains casualty reports, vessel sightings, and inter-
ship visits, as well as reports of damaged, missing, or foun-
dered vessels. From the mid-eighteenth century, Lloyd's
List was expanded to include Board of Trade inquiries,
information on events such as trade disputes, wars affect-
ing commerce, and general commercial news.
Other resources in the collection include Lloyd's Reg-
ister of Casualty Returns, a report of vessels over 100 tons
totally lost, condemned, etc. from 1890-1980, and the Mer-
cantile Navy List (1857-1940 and 1947-1977), a compilation
of the British-registered merchant vessels published for
the Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen. If a vessel
of interest was broken up between 1890 and 1946-rather
than wrecked, sold, or renamed-the Registrar General's
Monthly Returns provides statistics for each month, as well
as lists of vessels added to or removed from Lloyd's Regis-
ter of Ships with explanations. The collection also has an
impressive number of resources that focus on World Wars
I and II. The Lloyd's Marine Collection also contains a
number of archives not listed here.
National Maritime Museum. The National Mari-
time Museum (NMM) in Greenwich, England is a nation-
al repository for maritime history (
The library holds some 100,000 volumes and 20,000 bound
periodicals, as well as historic photographs, models, paint-
ings, prints, drawings, weapons, atlases, historical jour-
nals, and the like. Ship plans are available by mail.
However, the researcher must contact NMM for details.
The NMM does not hold passenger lists.
The NMM keeps records on naval, merchant, fish-
ing, and other vessel types from ancient times to the

INA Quarterly 30.2

present. The manuscript collection has crew lists and offi-
cial logs for the years 1861-1862, 1865-1925 (published ev-
ery ten years), and 1955, as well as application forms and
certificates of competency for masters and officers between
1850 and 1926. The archives also include records of vari-
ous ship owners and builders, including P&O and Denny
of Dumbarton. The NMM website, Collections Online, pro-
vides a database of its available collections. The NMM elec-
tronic publication, Journal of Maritime Research
(, is also highly recommended. This
site provides extensive links and researchers are encour-
aged to review the site personally.
Public Record Office. The Public Record Office (PRO, is the national archive for the government
papers of England and Wales. In general, the shipping records
for the southern U.K have been consolidated in the PRO in Lon-
don. These records span a period from the eleventh century to
the present day. The PRO does not contain public records for
Scotland, Ireland, or Northern Ireland. For Scotland, contact the
General Register Office ( or the Na-
tional Archives of Scotland (; for Eire, contact
the National Archives of Ireland (; and
for Northern Ireland, contact the Public Records Office of North-
ern Ireland (
The PRO publishes leaflets to inform researchers on the
background, condition, and availability of resources
( A selection of leaf-
lets that might be helpful to researching vessel history include:
Admiralty Charts; Births, Deaths and Marriages at Sea; Royal Ma-
rines; Merchant Seamen; Royal Navy; Navy: Log Books and Reports of
Proceedings; Ships Passenger Lists; Ships Wrecked or Sunk; and Ti-
tanic. The PRO has an online catalog, called PROCAT
( The eight million documents cataloged
at this site are organized by creating department, such as the
Board of Trade, the Ministry of Defense, etc. Documents can be
ordered on-line, for a fee, and the site does include documents
archived outside the PRO office in London. The U.K govern-
ment portal ( provides links to locate in-
formation for England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales.
The site is an excellent resource for those trying to find official
documents from less well-known departments.
The British Library. As the national library of the U.K.,
the British Library holds some 150 million items, including one
of the world's finest collections of printed and manuscript maps,
Western and Oriental manuscripts, patent specifications, and
conference proceedings. The British Library online catalog is at
www.bLuk/catalogues/blpchtml. Researchers are encouraged
to review the information at for
further details on accessing materials. While there is some his-
torical and supporting information available at the British Li-
brary, most of the nautical and maritime collections have been
relocated to the National Maritime Museum or the Public
Records Office. For example, the Oriental and India Office Col-
lections at the British Library still contain a series on maritime

officers, as well as nine thousand logs and account books (with
crew lists) of Asian voyages between 1601 and 1833. Also the
Bombay Marine and Indian Navy personnel and history from
1750-1947 remains at the Library, so researchers are encouraged
to review the collection most pertinent to their research.
University Libraries. The Cambridge University
Library ( and the Bodleian Library, locat-
ed at Oxford University (, as well as oth-
er academic libraries in the U.K., contain excellent resource
material. For example, the Cambridge Library has the Temple-
wood Papers, containing the minutes of Adolf Hitler's Fiihrer
conferences onnaval affairs (1939-1945), a sixteenth-century map
of Zeeland, and two of the sketchbooks from HMS Beagle. They
also provide CD ROMs like "Shipfinder," an electronic index to
the Register of Ships. Many of these resources were not forward-
ed to the National Maritime Museum, as they are private collec-
tions on perpetual loan or specifically willed to the University,
so they cannot be transferred. Collections such as these should
not be overlooked as a valuable maritime resource.
Ministry of Defense (Navy) Hydrographic Of-
fice-Wreck Section. The Hydrographic Office of the Min-
istry of Defense (UKHO) keeps a register of wrecks in the
U.K., and many overseas, coastal waters. While the regis-
ter dates mainly to post-1913, it does contain earlier known
wreck sites. If the vessel being researched has a known
wreck location, the best source for information is the nearest
county or shire archives and publications regarding the
wreck. The Hydrographic Office maintains a computer in-
dex of wrecks. For more details, go to
wrecks.html. Researchers are also encouraged to look into
the UKHO Archives ( The
archives contain navigational surveys and charts (dating from
the seventeenth century), printed books and atlases (dating
from 1528), as well as the surveys of James Cook, Philip Park-
er King, Greenvile Collins, William Bligh, Murdoch Mac-
Kenzie, Matthew Flinders, and Francis Beaufort. The office
also has atlases, maps and charts by Speed, Smyth, Jefferies,
Des Barres, Seller, Ortelius, and Waghenaer. The UKHO
assesses charges for research and reproduction.
Society for Nautical Research. The Society for Nau-
tical Research publishes The Mariner's Mirror and a quarter-
ly newsletter. The Society also supports a Maritime History
Virtual Website (
Nautica.html). This "virtual archive" provides links to sites con-
taining maritime bibliographies, ship building and naval archi-
tecture, seamanship, duties and health of officers and men, as
well as maritime and naval history, among others. A researcher
hoping to locate historical information forbackground is encour-
aged to review this archive.
Historical Manuscripts Commission. The Histori-
cal Manuscripts Commission ( provides
information on the existence, location, and nature of
records to study British history. This Commission main-
tains the National Register of Archives and the Manorial

INA Quarterly 30.2

Documents Register. Both of these registers can be access-
ed via ARCHON, an on-line electronic directory. This cat-
alog provides information on all repositories in the U.K.,
as well as all repositories throughout the world contain-
ing manuscripts noted in U.K. indices. The Commission
also develops and publishes guides for researchers inves-
tigating archival material.
Maritime Museums and Museum Ships. In addi-
tion to the National Maritime Museum, the U.K. has over
270 maritime museums and museum ships. An alphabet-
ical listing of these, by region, can be found at Choose the
region you are interested in, then locate the county or shire
(where appropriate) to find the local museum and/or
museum ship. The National Register of Historic Vessels
( keeps three lists of vessels: those
in the "Core Collection," those on the "Designated List,"
and those that are considered "historic." Core Collection
vessels are over 13.7 m and were built in Britain before the
end of 1945. The Designated List contains another 150 ves-
sels considered historically important. The National Reg-
ister now includes 919 vessels, with biographies and some
Science and Technology Museums. The U.K. has
an extensive collection of science museums dedicated to
helping the public understand "the history and contempo-
rary practice of science, medicine, technology and industry."
The National Museum of Science and Technology
( pro-
vides, among other resources, information on marine engi-
neering, marine and industrial equipment, as well as
scientific and technical records. Details on borrowing mate-
rials from the Science Museum Library and/or the Science
& Society Picture Library are contained on the website.

Specific Information Sources
The sources reviewed in this section provide de-
tailed information on certain classes or types of historical
vessels (especially in the nineteenth and twentieth centu-
ries) that can only be retrieved from specific locations. Li-
brarians, archivists, and professional historians are
knowledgeable, helpful, and proud of their collections.
They should not be overlooked as a valuable resource in
recovering specific historical vessel information.
Naval Vessels. If the vessel under investigation be-
longed to the Royal Navy, the Royal Naval Museum
Manuscript Collection (including the Admiralty Library)
and the Imperial War Museum are recommended. Un-
fortunately, these collections are only available for re-
search in person and an appointment must be made with
the curator before access is granted. The Royal Naval
Museum Manuscript Collection focuses on the social and
operational history of the Navy from 1780-2000. More
information is available at

per manent_collections/manuscript_collection/
manuscripts.htm. A guide to the materials is available by
mail. The Admiralty Library focused on exploration and
hydrography from 1809 to the present, including some
manuscripts recently transferred from the UKHO. The col-
lection is being relocated to the Royal Naval Museum in
Portsmouth, and a catalog of materials will soon be avail-
able at the website listed above.
The collections in the Imperial War Museum focus
on the naval history of the two world wars in the twentieth
century. The new online "At Sea" collections may be partic-
ularly useful ( The Col-
lecting Group, located at
provides a wide variety of materials. Directions for access-
ing the various collections are included on the website and
vary based on the curators' preferences. See the website for
further details.
On-line books, such as Ships of the Old Navy, by
Michael Phillips, (
provide a detailed resource for naval vessels. This book gives
an anecdotal history of some naval vessels' voyages, ac-
tions, and people (1780 to 1840). The source also includes
some commercial vessels hired for service as warships.
Local naval research societies, such as the Liverpool
Nautical Research Society (
regularly publish naval documents. This society also publishes
a quarterly bulletin, as well as a variety of manuscripts. They
are also available by e-mail (merseymnaritime@hotmailcom)
to answer questions regarding all aspects of maritime history,
especially naval history.
Arctic Exploration Vessels. The Scott Polar Re-
search Institute (, located at the
University of Cambridge, houses "the world's most
comprehensive polar library and archives." The ar-
chives include documents from the Franklin expeditions
and Captain Scott's Antarctic expeditions. The Thomas
H. Manning Polar Archives contain items of Antarctic
interest, including all parts of the continent and islands,
as well as Arctic regions, specifically the exploration of
northern Canada, Greenland, and Svalbard. The Insti-
tute also holds a collection of artifacts, paintings, draw-
ings, photographs, and other material. These collections
are available for research in person or at The archive provides a
timesaverr" service. If you are planning to visit and have
limited time, you can request this service for seventy-five
U.S. dollars per day. The library will provide you with a
reserved desk, a bibliography of up to one hundred
records, publications brought to your desk, and free
photocopying by staff (up to fifty A4/letter size pages
per day). Additional services can be arranged. If you
are interested in unpublished information, you can con-
tact the SPRI Archivist ( for an
appointment to view documents.

INA Quarterly 30.2

Immigration and Slave Vessels. The National Ar-
chives of Ireland Transportation Records Database
(www- provides information
on convicts transported from Ireland to Australia between 1788
and 1868. Their collections also include records of convicts'
families transported as free settlers. An index is available
on-line. Of particular interest to the maritime researcher
would be the transportation registers, giving some informa-
tion on the vessels used to carry convicts to Australia.
The Merseyside Maritime Museum provides in-
formation on merchant vessels carrying slaves
Liverpool served as homeport for many slave ships and
several of its prominent families were heavily involved
in the slave trade. Today, in addition to an impressive
library, the Merseyside Maritime Museum houses the
Transatlantic Slavery Gallery and hosts a website pro-
viding a tour of sites related to slavery in Liverpool.
Ship Building History. Local museums and archives
provide plans and reports from the ship building yards. For
example, the Merseyside Maritime Museum provides infor-
mation on local merchant shipping, in-shore fishing,wrecks/
archaeological sites, naval actions, shipping companies, ship
building, etc. in their area. Details and ordering instructions
can be found at
time/archives.asp. If the vessel was built in the Newcastle
region, the Tyne and Wear Archives Department
( in Newcastle-upon-
Tyne may have additional information. These archives
contain records as diverse as the North East Coast Institu-
tion of Engineers and Shipbuilders, the North of England
Shipowners Association, South Shields Marine College,
and Sunderland Pilotage Authority. The Tyne and Wear
Archive also holds records from local ship builders and
owners, such as R & W Hawthorn, Leslie & Company Ltd.,
Swan, Hunter Shipbuilders Ltd., Stag Line Ltd., and Hall
Local dockyard societies provide another resource.
The Chatham Dockyard Society possesses the transactions
of the Royal Institute of Naval Architects. For a more com-
plete listing of U.K. maritime museums and dockyard so-
cieties, see
Museums/mmeugb.html. A list of building yards for na-
val vessels is located at
info.htm#build. This site, containing changing place names in
the Adriatic, Greece, and Turkey over the last 150 years, might
also be helpful in local research (
Shipping Company History. Information on ship-
ping companies in the U.K. tends to be held in local archive
repositories, rather than the Public Record Office. In research-
ing a historic vessel, often locating the name of the shipping
companies that built or operated the vessel can provide ex-
cellent background information. The National Register of

Archives directs researchers to the appropriate local ar-
chive for the shipping company of interest.
Registry of Shipping and Seamen. Located in
Cardiff, Wales, this office can be reached by phone (029) 2074-
7333. The collection contains records of ordinary seamen
(1870 onwards), as well as records of officers (1913 onwards),
births and deaths at sea (1891 onwards), crew lists (1979-
1990) and an index to ships' official numbers. Unfortunate-
ly, this resource is not yet available on-line. See for de-
tails on ordering the published resources. If you are inter-
ested in passenger and/or crew lists, it is advisable to review
the following website, organized by time period
pbpassengercrew.pdf). The site includes information on
crew lists (1747-present), merchant seamen lists (1835-
present), births, marriages, and deaths at sea (1854-1964,
with some gaps), and passenger lists (1890-1960).
Online Guides to Maritime Research. Some web-
sites provide helpful advice to researching maritime his-
tory online. For example, Peter McCracken, a Reference
and Instructional Librarian with the University of Wash-
ington Libraries, hosts a site specifically tailored to mari-
time research (
Public entities such as the Public Record Office and the
National Maritime Museum both give helpful advice in
their leaflets sections.
Merchant Marine, Navies, and Mariners. This fas-
cinating website ( provides resourc-
es and information on the Merchant Marine and Navy of
the U.K., the United States, Canada, Norway, Denmark,
Australia, New Zealand, the West Indies, Germany, and Fin-
land. This eclectic resource includes alphabetical listings of
Liberty Ships, as well as merchant vessels in the service of
the East India Company (1601-1832). There are links to
Australian mariner lists and an international list of World
War I shipbuilders. While the site is a gold mine of infor-
mation, the organization is difficult to master.
In conclusion, the resources available in the U.K.
provide a rich collection of maritime information. This
report merely begins to orient the researcher to the exten-
sive collections and information available. Given the
present trend to make these resources available on the In-
ternet, it is likely that future generations will have even
more information available.
Acknowledgments: Thanks to Jim Kemp, Richard Sadler,
Emma Taafe, and Barbara Jones, with Lloyd's of London,
as well as Abi Husainy of the Public Record Office, for
their assistance, as well as Daren Swanick, who assisted
in the research. Finally, I would like to gratefully acknowl-
edge the assistance of countless librarians, historians, re-
searchers, and archivists who generously gave of their time
and expertise. Their work made this paper possible. o

INA Quarterly 30.2

The Ninth International Conference

on Graeco-Oriental and African Studies

The city of Neapolis, Laconia, in southern Greece hosted the Ninth International Conference on Graeco-Oriental
and African Studies, June 26-30,2002. It was organized by the Greek Institute for Graeco-Oriental and African Studies in
collaboration with the Rand Afrikaans University of South Africa, under the auspices of the Greek Ministry of Culture.
Twenty-five papers were presented on the general topic "Navigation and Seaports in the Eastern Mediterranean
(Seventh to Seventeenth Centuries A.D.)." Presenters included scholars from ten countries in Europe, the Near East,
Africa, and North America. These included representatives from Princeton University, the Vienna Academy of Scienc-
es, and the Universities of Sorbonne, St. Petersburg, Cairo, and Rand Africaans.
A number of papers dealt with naval warfare. V. Christides discussed "The Raids of the Arabs in Cyprus accord-
ing to the Fourteenth-Century Egyptian Chronicler Ibn Manqali." The early raids ended with a treaty of neutralization
that made Cyprus a demilitarized zone from the middle of the sixth century to 965 CE. C. Makrypoulias treated "The
Protection of Sea Lanes of Communication in the Aegean (Ninth to Tenth Centuries)."
Other papers thoroughly discussed ancient geography, maritime trade, and particularly the function of ports. C.
E. Bosworth spoke on "Wasit: The Rise and Disappearance of a Great Islamic City," while J. Desanges explained "Trac-
es of Hannon's Periplous in Ptolemy's Geography." Reproduced sheets from an as yet unpublished cosmographic manu-
script by Abu al-Fida were presented at the end of a lecture by O. Frolova oh the passages concerning the Caspian Sea
from that work. R. Gertwagen addressed the question, "Does Naval Activity, Military and Commercial, Need Ports?"
while R. Margariti spoke on the medieval port of Aden and its role as a center of maritime shipping in the Indian trade.
A. Matveev discussed the Italian trading cities' struggle for hegemony in Mediterranean international sea trade.
Ships themselves were not ignored. D. Dimitoukas presented on "The Types of Merchant Ships According to
Documents form the Monastery of Patmos in Greece," and the Congress was followed by an exhibition of medieval
Byzantine and Arab ship models. A team of experts headed by C. Kaniadakis and C. Simonides constructed a replica of
the ninth-century Byzantine warship known as the dromon. This was based on a special study prepared by V. Christides
and A. Tantoulos, which collected iconographic and literary evidence from Byzantine and Arab manuscripts. This demon-
strated that the dromon corresponded to the Arab warship shini. Since the scarcity of representations of the dromon is well-
known, it is of particular interest that pictures, including the replica, will appear in the July 2003 issue of the Greek edition
of National Geographic Magazine. The acts of the Congress will be published in Volumes 9 and 10 of Graeco-Arabica. w
George K. Livadas

Reconstruction of the wooden castle (xylocostron) of the dromon-shini.

INA Quarterly 30.2

The Horse Ferry Model

A Donation to the Institute of Nautical Archaeology

In March of 1991, when INA's study of the Lake Champlain horse-powered sidewheel ferry wreck was still in its
early stages, I received a letter from Mr. Harold H. Patton, a ship model maker from San Rafael, California. "I was
excited about the modeling possibilities of the fascinating Burlington Horse Ferry," Mr. Patton wrote after seeing an
article about the project in Seaways magazine. This proved to be the start of a lengthy correspondence and exchange of
research notes between us. Because the archaeological reconstruction of the ferry was in its early stages, Patton worked
largely from the field measurements and drawings. His model-making provided an important reality check to my
work, in effect testing out various assembly hypotheses to see if they were practical. His frequent letters commenL ,
upon the model's progress forced me to re-think several key features and greatly assisted the archaeological analysis.
Twelve years after the start of our collaboration, Mr. Patton has very generously donated the completed model,
with its attractive display stand, to INA and Texas A&M University. The horse ferry is now exhibited in the New World
Seafaring Research Lab on the first floor of the Anthropology Building, where it forms the centerpiece of a display on
the history and archaeology of these unusual boats. Visitors to INA's College Station headquarters are encouraged to
visit the laboratory and see Mr. Patton's fine model. v
Kevin Crisman

Mr. Harold H. Patton, the ship model maker, at work in San Rafael, California. His beau-
tiful and meticulous model of the Horse Ferry is on display at INA's College Station

INA Quarterly 30.2

Just Released
by Christine Powell

Archaeological Conservation Using Polymers
by C. Wayne Smith

College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2003
ISBN 1-58544-217-8, 192 pp, 85 b&w photos, 49 tables, bibliog-
raphy, index. Price: $39.95 cloth, $19.95 paper.

Dr. Wayne Smith is an INA Fellow, Associate Professor
of Nautical Archaeology, and Director of the Archaeological
Preservation Research Laboratory at Texas A&M University.
His work toward the development of improved methods of ar-
chaeological conservation have led to the first three patents ever
awarded in the Department of Anthropology. In this book, he
describes these revolutionary contributions to the science of con-
servation. Perhaps more importantly, he offers insights on the
art of conservation-the skills that determine how best to ap-
ply the science to a particular artifact.
Conservation is sometimes considered the stepchild of
archaeology. It is considerably less glamorous and publicized
than exploration, excavation, or even museum display. How-
ever, a moment's reflection shows that there is no point in archaeological excavation unless the artifacts that are recov-
ered can be preserved for exhaustive study. Otherwise, excavation is no more than an act of vandalism that irrevocably
destroys a site with all the information it contains. Even treasure hunters do better than that. The disruption of a site
that has been keeping its contents together for centuries or millennia can be justified only if the key items and the
information they embody can be preserved for study. That requires conservation techniques that preserve the maxi-
mum amount of the original information for the maximum time possible. The methods described in this book are a
significant step forward.
The almost unprecedented number of organic artifacts from La Salle's flagship, La Belle, posed a challenge to
traditional conservation methods. They demanded a cost effective means of safely preventing the deterioration or loss
of these irreplaceable items. Dr. Smith had been disappointed with the long-term reliability of the traditional methods,
such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). With the cooperation of Dow Corning Corporation and the Conservation Research
Laboratory at A&M, he developed new, reliable means employing reactive silane cross-linkers and carbonol or silanol
polymers to penetrate the cell walls, followed by the introduction of a catalyst. After a curing period, the organic
material is held together and supported by what amounts to a silicone plastic framework that passivates the artifact by
preventing water from further attacking the material. The results are likely to be substantially more "natural" in ap-
pearance and feel than artifacts conserved with PEG or other traditional techniques.
The bulk of the book is a collection of case studies showing how this technique can best be used in archaeological
conservation. Variables such as the choice of treatment materials and the method of application are explored in an
effort to communicate how a conservator might best approach the preservation of a particular artifact. Dr. Smith de-
votes chapters to wood, leather, cordage and textiles, and ivory and bone. He also explores the applications of passiva-
tion polymer technology to nonorganic materials such as glass and composite artifacts that include metal parts. A final
chapter explores other new tools for the conservation toot kit, such as computerized tomography and the stereolitho-
graphic process.
Throughout the book, Dr. Smith offers a first-hand description of how to apply the passivation polymer tech-
nique to real-world artifacts. The writing is clear but practical, more like a cookbook than a novel, which is an appropri-
ate approach to the subject. The text is elaborately illustrated with pictures and tables. This is a "must have" book for
anyone involved in archaeological conservation. It is not an exaggeration to claim that silicone treatment has the poten-
tial to completely alter the entire practice of the discipline. a

INA Quarterly 30.2

Just Released

by Christine Powell

The Plenum Series in Underwater Archaeology

J. Barto Arnold III, INA's area Director of Texas Operations, is the General Editor of a series of nautical archaeology texts
from Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers of New York. The series is intended to meet the increased interest of the public in our
discipline. It seeks to provide materials for three distinct audiences: the academic student of archaeology, the professional archaeol-
ogist, and the avocational diver who wishes to participate in professional surveys or excavations. Three 2003 publications in the
series cover wide-ranging aspects of nautical archaeology.

The Life and Times of a Merchant Sailor ne Psm STc u ^tcr Acchbe
by Jason M. Burns

On August 7, 1894, the Norwegian full-rigged ship Catherine ran THE LIFE AND
aground on Santa Rosa Island near Pensacola in the Florida Panhandle. TIMES OF A
The history of the ship parallels the changes in its industry during the M CHANT
late nineteenth century. It was built in 1870, at almost the end of the MERCHANT SALOR
golden age of Canadian shipbuilding when the development of iron The Archaeology and History of the
and steel hulls had decimated the demand for wooden ships. Soon there- Norwegian Ship Catharin
after, it was sold in Liverpool and served in the British Merchant Ma-
rine for twenty years. It was a "tramp," travelling around the world
with cargoes of opportunity, rather than following a prescribed route.
Steamers increasingly took over the more valuable trade routes during these
two decades, but it was still profitable to use sail for bulk cargo such as
coal, grain, and fertilizer.
Norway built the third largest merchant fleet in the world, chiefly
by using its experienced seamen to wring the last available profit out of
tramp sailing ships that the rest of the world considered obsolete. It was
not surprising, then, that Catherine ended her days under Norwegian own-
ership from 1890-94. Norway specialized in the timber trade and dominat-
ed shipping from the lumber mills of Pensacola, where the ship was heading
on its last voyage.
Although the shipwreck is close inshore near a major city, it is gen- Jason ML Burns
erally covered in part or entirely by the shifting beach sands. Substantial
remains still exist on the site. A complete 1998 survey thus provided valu-
able information about the construction, repairs, and condition of an elderly tramp sailor in the 1890s. Artifacts were
collected in that season and in the following year that also illuminated the twilight years of the Age of Sail. This book
combines the conclusions of a historical study of Catherine and its context with the archaeological analysis of the hull
and artifact finds. While there are no startling conclusions, this is a solid professional study that will provide valuable
data for anyone who is interested in this period.

2003 ISBN: 0-306-47389-5, 113+xiv pp, 21 b&w illustrations, 3 appendices, references, bibliography, glossary, index.
Price: $75.00 cloth.

Material Culture and Consumer Society
by Mark Staniforth

This book focuses on the interpretation of meaning in the analysis of the material culture of early colonial Aus-
tralia. It argues that the study of material culture remains found at shipwreck sites needs to be placed within a con-

INA Quarterly 30.2

Th Plenum Sef i unde-a Archaeolo sciously self-reflective context of sound theory and reliable historical re-
search. The author feels that archaeology, including maritime archaeolo-
MATERIAL CULTURE gy, needs to move beyond merely describing artifacts and determining
AND CONSUMER their function. It must continue by investigating their meaning for the cul-
ture that used them. Instead of stopping with the answer to, "What was
SOCIETY it?" archaeologists need to be asking "Why did people need them?"
Dependent Colonies in Dr. Staniforth investigates the findings from several colonial ship-
Colonial Austraia wrecks between 1797 and 1853 near Port Jackson (Sydney), Port Phillip
(Melbourne), and the Swan River Colony (Fremantle and Perth). These
reveal that a high priority for the colonists was to maintain continuity
with the life they had left behind. The colonies could produce most of
the basics for everyday life, but not the additional items to make life
worthwhile. Many of the wrecks contained building materials for En-
glish-style homes, domestic ceramics for breakfast, tea, and dinner, al-
coholic beverages, tobacco, toiletries, and even copper plates for
printing calling cards. These items were not necessary for physical sur-
vival in the new land, but may have been essential in providing mean-
ing to sustain the psychological survival of the colonists. The merchants
who selected goods for shipment knew what sorts were "suitable" for peo-
ple like themselves.
S' These material findings reflect the reality that Australia, like British
S: .. North America (Canada), did not regard itself as an independent society
'T during the colonial period. Even after Australia achieved responsible self-
S' government in 1901, it remained culturally dependent on the Mother Coun-
try for decades. Indeed, it is still dependent on world trade for many
important material aspects of the Australian way of life.
The quantity, variety, type, and quality of food, drink, and other consumer goods being imported into Australia
at any one point in time can be compared with other collections to provide an overview of the continuity and develop-
ment of the new consumer society. Because they constitute a sealed assemblage with an exact, determinable deposit
date, shipwrecks provide more focused data than could be discovered in any other way, although historical research,
terrestrial archeology, and museum collections must supplement the limited number of wrecks. All these sources can
provide material for the detailed analysis of material culture and its associated meanings. This book provides a starting
point for this analysis with applications far beyond the local Australian setting.

2003 ISBN: 0-306-47386-0, 185+xv pp, 19 b&w illustrations, references, biblography, index. Price: $75.00 cloth.

Submerged Cultural Resource Management
by James D. Spirek and Della A. Scott-Ireton

This volume is a collection of papers from a January 2000 symposium in Quebec City on "Preserves, Parks, and
Trails: Interpreting our Sunken Maritime Heritage." It explores some of the ways in which archaeologists, preservation-
ists, and resource managers have coordinated their efforts to encourage public access to interpreted resources under-
water or in the intertidal zone. There are several aims for this partnership. First, of course, is public education and the
associated sense of "ownership" that will contribute to the preservation of these irreplaceable resources. However, the
economic development of the host community through tourism is not an insignificant objective, particularly since this
revenue stream helps guarantee continued protection, preservation, and research. In these times of declining state
budgets, such revenues are increasingly desirable if our cultural heritage is not to be lost.
The symposium was organized by Florida's state underwater archaeologist, Dr. Roger C. Smith, a 1981 graduate
of the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M University. INA Adjunct Professor Arthur B. Cohn contributed a

INA Quarterly 30.2

paper on "Lake Champlain's Underwater Historic Preserve Program: Rea-
sonable Access to Appropriate Sites." Other contributors discuss programs
in California, Michigan, Canada, Maryland, North Carolina, Scotland, Flor-
ida, Australia, and South Carolina.
One concludes from reading these papers that there is no single way
to develop a successful program for managing underwater cultural resourc-
es. As Mr. Cohn's title suggests, the key is in determining which sites are
appropriate for public access and what level of access is reasonable for
each separate site. The answers may dictate approaches ranging from al-
most unrestricted sport-diver access to merely providing brochures de-
scribing completely closed sites. The only real limit is the creativity of the
people who develop the program. These papers prove that there are some
very creative persons in this field.
Consequently, the book should probably be required reading for
the officials and agencies around the world that are charged with respon-
sibility for managing the submerged cultural resources of their respective
jurisdictions. It will provide them with a remarkable list of suggestions for
making their own task easier. The book should also provide a valuable
resource for the archaeologists, historians, and preservationists who find
themselves in the position of lobbying their government for appropriate
policies and the funds to carry them out.

2003 ISBN: 0-306-47779-3, 185+xii pp, 55 b&w illustrations, references,
bibliographies, appendix, index. Price: $85.00 cloth, $45.00 paper, .

The Plenum Serie la Uaderwam Ardoloav

Preserving and Interpreting
Our Sunken Maritime Heritage

James D. Spirek and Della A. Scott-reton


Marilyn H. Lodge


Marilyn H. Lodge, sixty-six, the wife of INA
Associate Director George Lodge, died Feb. 15, 2003,
at an Irving, Texas, hospital. She was born in Phila-
delphia and married Lt. George W. Lodge, U.S. Army,
July 23, 1955, in Bad Nauheim, West Germany. Mrs.
Lodge was a homemaker and retired travel consult-
ant. She was a member of Woodhaven Presbyterian
Church, International Association of Travel Agencies,

American Society of Travel Agents, and Cruise Lines In-
ternational Association. In addition to her husband, her
survivors include a daughter, Lynne Anne L. Moore of
Charleston, S.C.; sons and daughters-in-law, Stephen W.
Lodge Sr. and Cathy of Truckee, Calif., Tracy E. Lodge
and Dana of Shady Shores, Texas; daughter and son-in-
law, Sharon and Randy K. Douglas of Redondo Beach,
Calif.; and seven grandchildren. a

INA Quarterly 30.2




Harry C. Kahn II

1915 2003

Longtime Institute of Nautical Archaeology Di-
rector Harry C. Kahn II, eighty-eight, died May 4,2003,
at his home in Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania. Mr.
Kahn, a scuba enthusiast, was a supporter of nautical
archaeology for many years. He contributed to the work
of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archae-
ology and Anthropology, and was present for the first
INA Board Meeting in 1973. Mr. Kahn's generosity as-
sisted many valuable projects, recently including the
INA Headquarters in Bodrum, Turkey, and the Black
Sea Trade Project. His interests also included anthro-
pology and history.
Mr. Kahn served on a regional board of directors
of the Explorers Club and was named the Philadelphia
chapter's 1988 Explorer of the Year. At the age of 80, he
participated in an expedition to Ethiopia's remote Omo
River Valley, where he helped document the early Chris-
tian churches carved into the surrounding mountains.
The Explorer's Club again named him as Explorer of
the Year in 2002.

A graduate of Central High School in Philadel-
phia, Mr. Kahn earned a bachelor's degree in business
from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsyl-
vania in 1934. After several years in the United States
Navy, he joined the family business, a department
store that he transformed into a furniture showroom.
He was a pioneer in the 1950s with the gallery tech-
nique of displaying furniture in single-room settings.
Over the years, he owned and operated a number of
furniture stores and franchises. He also founded a firm
that performed underwater ship repair and environ-
mental cleanup. Mr. Kahn was elected to the Tri-State
Furniture Association's Hall of Fame in 2001. His wife
of thirty-two years, Joan Reidinger Kahn, said he favored
design that was "cutting-edge and fresh, interesting and
Mr. Kahn is survived by his wife, and by sons
Harry mI and Jeffrey; a daughter, Deborah Kalas; and
two grandchildren. Memorial donations may be made
to the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. v

INA Quarterly 30.2


Samuel J. LeFrak

1918 2003

Samuel J. LeFrak, INA Director from 1987 to 1995
and father of current Director Francine LeFrak-Fried-
berg, died at age eighty-five on April 16, 2003, in New
York. He was Chairman of The Lefrak Organization, one
of the largest building and property management com-
panies in the world. It is said
that one out of every sixteen
New Yorkers lived in one of
his buildings, which focused
on quality affordable housing.
The company has built over
200,00 housing units in the
metropolitan area. The firm
was founded by his immi-
grant father, and Mr. LeFrak
started at the bottom as a
waterboy for the workers. He
also founded the LeFrak En-
tertainment Company, which
produces records, plays, mu-
sicals, television productions,
and motionpictures. In thatca-
pacity, he helped to discover
Barbra Streisand and was in-
ducted into the Songwriter's
Hall of Fame as a Patron of
the Arts.
Mr. LeFrak shared his
good fortune with the com-
munity as an extraordinary
philanthropist, contributing
hundreds of millions of dollars to worthy projects. He
assisted many expeditions and organizations besides
INA, helping to discover Titanic and the "Lucy" fossils in
Ethiopia. He served as a trustee or director of the
Guggenheim Museum, Metropolitan Opera, and many
other cultural or educational organizations. He also en-

hanced many museums around the world with the loan
of items from his personal art collection.
He was a graduate of the University of Maryland,
and it was here that Mr. LeFrak met his wife. He had
originally intended to become a dentist, but builthis first
apartment building while
still an undergraduate. He
was eventually awarded
honorary doctorates by his
alma mater and by Pratt In-
stitute, New York Law
School, Colgate University,
Michigan State University,
Queens College, and St.
John's University. He often
lectured at major institu-
tions, including Harvard,
Yale, Princeton, and Oxford.
He founded the Albert Ein-
stein School of Medicine.
Mr. Lefrak served six Presi-
dents, seven Governors, and
eight mayors on a wide
range of local, regional, and
national commissions and
task forces. His fame was in-
ternational, as he also held
six knighthoods awarded by
a variety of sovereigns. In
1994, the United Nations
presented him and his wife,
Ethel Stone LeFrak, with a "Distinguished Citizens of
the World" award.
Mr. LeFrak is survived by his wife, a son, Richard,
three daughters, Denise LeFrak Calicchio,Jacquiline LeFrak
Kosinski, and INA Director Francine LeFrak-Friedberg, five
grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren. v

[NA Quarterly 30.2



Christine A. Powell
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., President'
Donald A. Frey, Ph.D., Vice President' Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Vice President
James A. Goold, J.D., Secretary & General Counsel' Claudia F. LeDoux, Chief Accounting Officer and Assistant Secretary
Michelle Chmelar, Assistant Accounting Officer

William L. Allen
Oguz Aydemir
John H. Baird
Joe Ballew
George F. Bass, Ph.D.'
Edward O. Boshell, Jr., Chairman'
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Allan Campbell, M.D.
John Cassils, M.D.

Raynette Boshell
William C. Culp, M.D.
Nicholas Gnffis
Robin P. Hartmann

Gregory M. Cook Harry C. Kahn II
Lucy Darden Mustafa Ko;
Thomas F. Darden' Francine LeFrak-Friedberg
John De Lapa Robert E. Lorton
Claude Duthuit* Alex G. Nason
Danielle J. Feeney* George E. Robb, Jr.
Robert Gates, Ph.D. Lynn Baird Shaw
James A. Goold, J.D.' Ayhan Sicimoglu
Charles Johnson, Ph.D.' J. Richard Steffy

Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D. George Lodge
Susan Kalzev Thomas McCasland, Jr.
William C. Klein, M.D. Dana F. McGinnis

William T. Sturgis
Frederick H. van Doominck, Jr., Ph,D.*
Robert L. Walker, Ph.D.'
Peter M. Way, Treasurere
Garry A. Weber
George O. Yamini
Sally M. Yamuni

'Executive Committee

Michael Plank
Molly Reily
Betsey Boshell Todd
William Ward

Filipe Castro, Ph.D., Assistant Professor
Kevin J. Crisman, Ph.D., Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology, George O. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Professor/Director of the Archaeological Preservation Research Laboratory
Shelley Wachsmann, Ph.D., Meadows Associate Professor of Biblical Archaeology

George F. Bass, Ph.D.,
George T. & Gladys HL Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology, George O. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts, Distinguished Professor Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doominck, Jr., Ph.D., Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Mr. & Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried [I Graduate Fellow: Matthew Harpster Marian M. Cook Graduate Fellows: Peter D. Fix and Taras P. Pevny

J. Barto Arnold, M.A., Texas Operations

Aye Atauz, M.A.
Kroum N. Batchvarov, M.A.
Katie Custer
Donald G. Geddes m
Jeremy Green, M.A.

Arthur Cohn, J.D.
David Gibbins, Ph.D.
Nergis Ginsenin, Ph.D.

Australian Institute of Maritime Archae
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati

Esra Altbanit-Giksu
Minevver Babacik
Mustafa Babactk
Chasity Burns
Mehmet Ciftlikl
Marion Feildel

Douglas Haldane, M.A., INA-Egypt

Andrew Hall, M.A. Maria del Pilar Luna Erreguerian
Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D. John McManamon, Ph.D.
Justin Leidwanger Thomas J. Oertling, M.A.
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.

Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D. Frederick Hocker, Ph.D
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D. Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
Fredrik T. Hiebert, Ph.D. William M. Murray, Ph.D.
ology Cornell University Un
Coming Museum of Glass Pa
Departamento de Arqueologia Subacuatica de Un
la ILN.A.H., Mexico Te,
University of Maryland, Baltimore County Tex
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts Un

Tuba Ekmeki Glilser Kazancloglu
Adel Farouk Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Zafer Gill Asaf Oron, M.A.
Bilge Giinedogdu Muammer Ozdemir
Jane Haldane Robin C. M. Piercy
Thomas Kahlau Sema Pulak, M.A.

Tufan U. Turanh, Turkish Headquarters

Brett A. Phaneul
Donald Rosencrantz
Jeff Royal, Ph.D.
Athena Trakadas, M.A.

David I. Owen, Ph.D.
Cheryl Ward, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., Ph.D.

diversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
rtners for Livable Places
diversity Museum, University of Pennsylvania
cas A&M Research Foundation
diversity of Texas at Austin

iikran enyuiz
Sheril Shabban
A. Feyyaz Subay
Murat Tilev
Siileyman Tiirel
Giines Yasar

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