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Title: The INA quarterly
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 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Fall/Winter 2002
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00039
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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Fall/Winter 2002

Volume 29 No. 3/4

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I., ~C

1939 2001


The INA Quarterly

Volume 29 No. 3/4 Fall/Winter 2002

3 A Tribute to Michael L, Katzev

9 Remembering Michael L. Katzev MEMBERSHIP
Institute of Nautical Archaeology
16 For Michael P.O. Drawer HG
Susan Womer Katzev College Station, TX 77841-5137

17 Kiten Bay, Bulgaria, 2001 Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
Kroe Batchvarov series in nautical archaeology. Mem-
Kroum Batchvarov bers receive the INA Quarterly and
other benefits.
23 Landsat Bathymetric Analysis of Six-Fathom Shoal,
Lake Superior: The Wreck of Edmund Fitzgerald Researcher (students only).... $25
John S. Janks Seafarer .................... $75
Surveyor .................... $150
28 Ionian Sea Study 2001 Restorer .................. $500
Brett A. Phaneuf, Paolo Ciavola, George Papatheodorou, and curator................. $1,00
George Ferentinos Excavator................ $2,5000
George Ferentinos Navigator ................ $5,000

30 Eighth Tropis Conference in Hydra, Greece Checks inU.S. currency should be made
Athena Trakadas payable to INA. The portion of any do-
nation in excess of $10.00 is a tax-de-
32 Just Released: ductible, charitable contribution.
The Gondola Philadelphia and the Battle of Lake Champlain
John R. Bratten

33 Just Released:
International Handbook of Underwater Archaeology
Edited by Carol V. Rupp6 and Janet F. Barstad

34 From the President

35 Index to Volume 29

On the cover Michael L. Katzev (1939-2001) was not only one of the founders of INA, but also a great friend of both
nautical archaeology and all he encountered. Here he is seen in 1974 sailing a 1:5 fiberglass model of the Kyrenia Ship
in Kyrenia Harbor, Crete. Photo (and all other unattributed images in the tribute article) courtesy of Susan Katzev.
December 2002 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. Al rights reserved.
INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Articles for publication should be submitted in hard copy and on a 3.25
diskette (Macintosh, DOS, or Windows format acceptable) along with all artwork. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor, INA
Quarterly, PO. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (979) 845-6694, fax (979) 847-9260, e-mail or
The Home Page for INA is at http:/ /
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, founded by George F. Bass, Michael Katzev,
and Jack Kelly and incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA has been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where INA faculty teach in the
Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of Anthropology. The opinions expressed in Quarterly articles are those of the authors,
and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Institute.

The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).

Editor: Christine A. Powell

A Tribute to Michael Katzev

Michael Lazare Katzev, a founder of the Institute of
Nautical Archaeology, died of a sudden stroke at his home
in Southport, Maine, on September 8,2001. Millions of New
Yorkers who never knew Michael's name will always re-
member the 14.5-meter Kyrenia Ship replica with Michael
aboard sailing into their harbor in 1986 as the smallest of
the tall ships honoring the centenary of the Statute of Lib-
erty. Every nautical archaeologist (and every other seri-
ous student of antiquity) remembers the original of that
replica, the fourth-century BCE merchant vessel that
Michael raised and preserved. This issue of The INA Quar-
terly is dedicated to his memory, which will last as long as
the discipline of nautical archaeology itself.
Michael was born in Los Angeles, California, in 1939,
the son of a magazine distribution executive. After attend-
ing Los Angeles High School, he graduated Phi Beta Kappa
in economics from Stanford University. Two years later, in
1963, he received a master's degree in art history from the
University of California at Berkeley. His current passion was
ancient bronze sculpture, and he spent a year each at The
American School of Classical Studies in Athens and at Colum-
bia University pursuing that passion. Michael trained in archae-
ological excavation with Charles K Williams II at Nemea, Greece.
However, he soon discovered that the only place that new stat-
ues were likely to be found was under water.
In the early 1960s, the premier program in the world
for scientific shipwreck archaeology was at the University
of Pennsylvania. At Cape Gelidonia, George F. Bass had

become the first "diving archaeologist" with professional
training. In 1961, he had begun work on the several ship-
wrecks at Yassiada, Turkey, assisted by Frederick van
Doorninck and many other "future greats" in nautical ar-
chaeology. Michael joined them in 1964.
He drove his beloved Mercedes sportscar from Ath-
ens to Bodrum. The roads were corrugated dirt and the
fan belt broke south of Izmir. He emerged at the dig house
from that sweltering dusty drive in blue jeans, a five-gal-
lon hat, and an immaculately white tee-shirt. Seated in the
doorway to greet him was Susan Womer, her feet holding
an anchor concretion together while black rubber casting
compound oozed over her hands and feet. Susan recalled, "I
was impressed. Anyone who had driven that road and ar-
rived looking so clean had to be something special. I never
asked his first impression of me!" Notwithstanding the in-
auspicious beginning, they were married two years later.
Michael himself cast most of the iron objects on the
Yassiada Byzantine wreck. These included axes, pickaxes, a
hoe, a shovel, a set of billhooks, a pruning hook, and wood-
working tools such as an adze, hammers, and sacks of nails.
In 1967, the Katzevs returned to Yassiada to work with
Dr. Bass on the Roman wreck. It was then that Michael and
Susan dreamed up the famous "underwater telephone
booth," an underwater refuge that was later copied by sev-
eral marine habitat projects and the U.S. Navy. The two spent
much of their time in Izmir that summer handling the busi-
ness of getting equipment through customs and to the site.

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

Michael down and dirty with a Yassiada iron concretion, Sum-
mer 1964.

Michael and Susan Katzev, with George Bass, inspecting the
first telephone boothfor Yassiada, 1967.

A few years earlier, President Kennedy asked Dr.
Bass to have lunch at the White House with Archbishop
Makarios, the President of Cyprus. The opportunity to
undertake work in that nation was too good to pass up,
and by 1967 the time was ripe. Bass later wrote,
"I had looked forward to the day when stu-
dents trained at Yassiada would branch off
on their own. Michael Katzev was ready. Not
only was he familiar with diving and excava-
tion techniques, but he had versed himself
thoroughly in the less pleasant details of ar-
chaeology, spending winter months helping
me prepare budgets, write proposals, choose
staff, and order and ship equipment. He had
learned foreign antiquities and customs reg-
ulations. At the same time, he was an excel-
lent student with a background that included
excavation on land" (Archaeology Beneath the
Sea, 1975, pp. 166-67).
Shortly after Michael and Susan arrived in Cyprus, sponge
diver Andreas Cariolou took them to a pile of wine jars
less than a mile northeast of the northern coast town of
Kyrenia. "It was the most beautiful thing we had ever
seen," Susan recalls.

The size of the mound of mostly Rhodian ampho-
ras suggested that a typical trading ship of the late fourth
century BCE lay beneath. This site became Michael's life
work. Over fifty persons worked under his direction in
raising and preserving the ship and its artifacts. Those who
worked on the project often remember it as the best part of
their lives. The excavation itself was conducted under
University of Pennsylvania Museum auspices, but the
Museum could not take responsibility for conservation.
Michael was teaching at Oberlin College during this time,
and the College took on this obligation.
Of the 375 amphoras on the ship, 319 came from
Rhodes, suggesting that the ship had called there. Perhaps
it was the ship's home port. Other jars came from Samos
or elsewhere in the Aegean. Another cargo of millstones
had been made on the island of Nisyros, while the ten thou-
sand almonds in the hold probably came from Cyprus it-
self. Since most of the eating utensils were in groups of
four, the captain likely had a crew of three under him. Very
few items of monetary value were found on the Kyrenia
Ship. A possible explanation is found in the spearheads
found concreted to the hull's outer sheathing of lead. Pira-
cy was rife in these waters in the time of Alexander the
Great's successors, and the culprits may have scuttled the
ship to conceal their crime.

I.NA Quarterly 29.3/4

Above. The Kyrenia Ship Reconstruction Team, 1974. Left to right front: Rob-
in Piercy, Susan Katzev, Frances Talbot Vassiliades, Michael Katzev, Direc-
tor, Rear: Dick Steffy, reconstructor, Netia Piercy. Missing: Chip Vincent.

Above left. The search for sites in Cyprus, 1967.

Below left. In the Kyrenia Castle storeroom washing pottery, 1968.

5 INA Quarterly 29.3/4

Above. Archbishop Makarios, President of Cyprus,
visits the Excavation barge off Kyrenia in 1969.

Top Right. Michael and Dick Steffy building a
temporary support scaffold to support the ancient

Middle Right. Michael and Robin Pearcy rejoin-
ing an original ship's frame.

Bottom Right. Michael and Frances Talbot Vas-
siliades clamping the keel.

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

Michael with Robin Peircy in 1974 after the
Kyrenia Ship had been reassembled.

The Kyrenia Ship was the best-preserved Classical vessel discovered up to that time, approximately seventy-five
percent intact. It took nearly five years to raise, preserve, and reassemble the ship in the crusader castle of Kyrenia,
where it is on view today. The Roman Yassiada ship had provided a glimpse of ancient shipbuilding techniques, but
this vessel confirmed modem archaeologist's views. INA's J. Richard Steffy observed, "It told us how the Greeks built
their ships." This was only possible because Michael's careful excavation techniques had preserved the maximum
amount of information from the wreck.
When George Bass left the University of Pennsylvania in 1972, he discussed the idea of an "American Institute of
Nautical Archaeology" with several friends and acquaintances. Jack Kelley was the first to pledge funds and agree to
serve as a Director, but Michael and Susan Katzev were the first to volunteer for its staff. Michael was elected Vice-
President at the first meeting. Thus, Michael Katzev is honored along with Dr. Bass and Mr. Kelley as one of the
founders of what was to become INA after its move to Texas A&M University. The headquarters were originally on
Cyprus, so that the friends and colleagues assembled during the Yassiada and Kyrenia projects could work together.

Kyrenia 11 in the July 4, 986, Parade of Tall
Ships up the Hudson River to commemorate -
the one-hundredth anniversary of the Statue
of Liberty.

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

These plans were disrupted by the war of 1974 that ended
in the partition of the island. Michael will be remembered
by both sides first for his compassion for all the Cypriot
people and then for his fierce determination to protect the
reassembled ship.
Michael oversaw the construction of Kyrenia II, the
replica built in the Psaros yard in Perama, Greece. Not only
the materials, but even the construction methods were as
close to the original as scholarship allowed. The results
were surprising. As Mr. Steffy observed in Wooden Ship
Building and the Interpretation of Shipwrecks (1994, p. 57),
"[The replica has performed extremely well;
it is drier, stronger, faster, and sails upwind
better than expected. During one voyage the
little ship encountered winds in excess of fif-
ty knots without taking on much water and
with insignificant damage to the hull and rig."
The replica served several purposes. It provided practical
experience with ancient methods of shell-first hull construc-
tion, it provided valuable data on how an ancient vessel
might have handled, and it provided excellent publicity
for nautical archaeology.
The Liberty Ships parade into New York Harbor on
July 4, 1986, was one example of the heightened profile
that Michael gave to our discipline. In the film, "With Cap-
tain, Sailors Three," he sought to demonstrate that the of-

Right. Michael with amphoras from the Kyrenia Ship outside the
of the Castle in 1975.

Bottom. Michael in the storeroom cataloguing the ship's pottery that same

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

ten tedious work of recording an excavation is the key to
its success. Articles in journals and magazines (including
National Geographic), lectures, and appearances with BBC
television (such as "The Ancient Mariners") sent the story
of the Kyrenia Ship around the world.
Michael devoted many years to researching the fi-
nal publication of the ship, which will be his finest memo-
rial. Aside from the hull, he personally undertook virtually
every aspect of the study and research that goes into pub-
lishing a major excavation. No one who has not been in-
volved in this aspect of archaeology can appreciate how
much time and effort was involved. The research included
six years in Athens. During this time, he had the opportu-
nity to excavate again with Charles Williams at Corinth.
Later, much further research was conducted at a variety of
times and places. Susan Katzev will now be seeing the pub-
lication through to completion.
The Katzevs returned to the United States in 1982,
residing first in Arlington, Vermont, and later in South-
port. Michael remained a very active Director of INA, as-
sisting generously both in its academic and fund-raising
activities. His contributions are sorely missed. In this is-
sue of The INA Quarterly, several of Michael Katzev's col-
leagues will offer their memories of the man that did so
much to shape the Institute of Nautical Archaeology and
the entire discipline of archaeology. a




1939 2001

Michael aboard Kyrenia I as it entered New York Harbor in the Liberty Ships
procession, July 4, 1986.

It would be difficult to overstate the contribution
Michael made to nautical archaeology and to the for-
mation of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. Michael
took everything he had learned at Yassiada to Cyprus
-and then improved on it. His decision to actually re-
assemble the timbers of the fourth-century B.C. Kyre-
nia wreck for display and research moved shipwreck
archaeology in the Mediterranean to a new plane. It was
followed by his advisory role in the construction of a
full-scale sailing replica that provided much new knowl-
edge of how classical Greek ships actually sailed. Micha-
el was one of those extremely rare people who could
do it all: he obtained permits, raised funds, assembled

staff, started a new museum, made a documentary film,
wrote articles for National Geographic, lectured around
the world, and made the results of his work available
through various preliminary reports which presented
all of the more important finds from the ship. Alas, he
did not live to see the publication of the final report
This is being completed by Susan, who played such an
important role in all their joint ventures. Michael agreed
to serve as INA's first vice-president at a time when nei-
ther of us had any idea where we would find the funds
for our new institute. The headquarters were initially
on Cyprus so the two of us could work together as col-
leagues and, more importantly, as friends.

George F. Bass

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

Michael and Robin Pearcy building a 1:1 section model in Septen

I first met Michael Katzev at the American
Classical Studies at Athens, where we were botl"
during the 1963-64 academic year. On field trips,'
group conversations turned to some matter involi
ical, cultural, or economic history, or even the stock
Michael normally led the discussion. I soon concl
he was among the most erudite people I knew. Iwas.
what dazzled by the 190-SL Mercedes he had brought
from the States. When Michael expressed interest ir
vationof the seventh-century Byzantine shipwreck a'
I told him all I could about the shipwreck and its exa
and I both encouraged him to come to Turkey the
summer, and I wrote a letter to George Bass record
thathe send Michael an invitation to join the staff.
first-and perhaps most momentous-letter of
recommendation I ever wrote.
The next summer, Michael drove his
sports car from Athens to Bodrum to help Lar-
ry Joline and me in replicating the iron objects
from the wreck. Eric Ryan and Susan Womer
joined us in making a replica of one of the iron
anchors. Michael was always finding ways to
make the work easier, more efficient, and less
messy. In response, we began to call him "Never
Sweat," not knowing that we were witnessing
early manifestations of some of the inclinations
and abilities that in a few years were to make
him an outstanding excavation director. Micha-
el played a key role in bringing our replication
work to a successful conclusion and went on to
publish the iron tools from the wreck. He also
joined me in writing an article on our methods
of replication; a lion's share of the writing was
his. Rightly or wrongly, BJ and I have always

proudly claimed that we were the ones who
first introduced Michael to Susan. In any case,
their very memorable engagement party and
subsequent marriage in 1966 left us with a cer-
tain sense of accomplishment.
In early 1968, Michael asked me to join
the staff he was then assembling for the Kyre-
nia shipwreck excavation. Circumstances re-
quired me to turn him down. I have, of course,
very much regretted ever since that I was not
a part of that wonderful project. Under Micha-
el's inspired leadership, most of the staff be-
came a tightly knit family that has ever since
remained remarkably close. In the spring of
1974, I was finally privileged to see the Kyre-
nia staff at work when I spent four months in
Kyrenia with Dick Steffy, finishing wreck
iber 1973. plans and hull-reconstruction drawings for the
final publication of the seventh-century
Yassiada shipwreck. Michael, always a man
of principle, had called me when he decided that he want-
ed Dick Steffy to work on the reassembly of the Kyrenia
hull and told me he would pursue the matter no further if
I did not want Dick diverted from his work on the sev-
enth-century Yassiada ship reconstruction.
I remember particularly well Michael the scholar
and Robin Piercy the craftsman building a full-scale repli-
ca of the midships section of the Kyrenia ship, seeking
answers to questions about the hull's construction as they
went along, and always having great fun despite all the
hard work involved. It was the same Michael Katzev I had
known in Bodrum: doing the job in the best way possible
and enjoying every minute of it.
Fred van Doominck

Michael working on the 1:1 section model in October 1973.

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

It was a bitter cold night and the roads were covered
with ice as my wife and I headed for the monthly meeting of
the local AIA chapter at Franklin and Marshall College in
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, early in 1971. We would never have
left the comfort of our home were the program not about the
excavation of the Kyrenia ship off the coast of Cyprus. We
had read an interesting article about that excavation in Na-
tional Geographic Magazine just a few months before and it
aroused our interest enough to justify our hazardous jour-
ney. After a fantastic lecture, Lucille and I met the project's
director, Michael Katzev, and his wife Susan and we dis-
cussed the project further. When a sleepy janitor asked us to
leave because it was far past time to dose the auditorium,
we continued the discussion at their
motel until the wee hours of the
morning. Michael was that enthu-
siastic about the work he was do-
ing. That wasn't the end of it either.
By June of that year, my interest was
aroused to the point where I took a
leave of absence from my business
to visit the Kyrenia ship project on
the north coast of Cyprus.
What an experience it was to
examine those fascinating hull re-
mains in Kyrenia Castle! It was a
mind-boggling six weeks, and it
seemed to pass in hours. A multi-
tude of questions about the mystery
I had just witnessed were bouncing
through my head. By the time I
headed back to the States it had be-
come clear that I wouldn't rest well
until I returned to Cyprus to study
that ship more thoroughly, even if
it meant getting out of myverycom- \ ,
portable business. That happened a ,
year later, when I accepted Micha-
el's offer to reconstruct the ship.
It wasn't just the fascinat-
inghull timbers that drew me to the Michael and Dick Ste
Kyrenia project, however. Michael, plan of the Kyrenia Shi
himself, was an extremely interest-
ing person. He was an outstanding director and an excellent
fund raiser. His organizational ability and the meticulous
ways in which every item was recorded and handled were
impressive. Conservation, photography, graphics, documen-
tation, and storage were conducted with a thoroughness and
efficiency seldom seen on archaeological projects. And yet,
Michael impressed us most by the ways in which he led but
did not dominate. That Kyrenia crew operated like a well-
oiled machine, each person concentrating on certain areas of
expertise in a most productive manner. He put his faith in
each of us and gave us carte blanche as long as the project


benefited. It was an extremely happy, productive, and close-
knit group-we were more like extended family than crew.
After the project was completed, Michael assembled
a massive collection of information about the contents of the
Kyrenia ship and the world they served. It was an enormous
research effort, conducted for six years in the libraries of Ath-
ens and followed up later at a variety of locations. That informa-
tion is now being processed for publication under the direction
of his wife, Susan, and will be published soon, A restudy and
elaboration of the details of the vessel itself will also be pub-
lished in the near future. Michael later became involved with
excavations at Corinth that were directed by Charles Will-
iams, whom he had worked with years before.
In 1982 Michael and Susan
returned to the United States, re-
siding first in Arlington, Vermont,
and later in Southport, Maine,
where he passed away the age of
62. It was during these later years
that Michael contributed so much
to our Institute. He was one of the
founding fathers back in 1972 and
remained on the board until his
death. He generously contributed
time and money that helped enor-
mously in INA's spectacular
I cannot pay enough re-
spect or gratitude to compensate
for the opportunity and under-
standing provided to me by
Michael Katzev. He was extreme-
ly supportive of all of my efforts,
and I am still amazed that he was
so cooperative and willing to ex-
periment in what must have at
times seemed like harebrained
ideas of mine. I can never be grate-
Sful enough for his faith in my work
and his total confidence and com-
making a half-breadth plete lack of interference in this
in December 1973. previously untested method of re-
construction of a previously unre-
corded type of ship. I am certain, too, that many others feel
as I do. One of Michael's greatest contributions was the peo-
ple who labored and learned under his leadership and then
spread those talents around the globe for the benefit of ar-
chaeology. I will not list them here for fear I will miss some-
one, but they are many in number. They serve--and in some
cases direct-institutions on several continents. In fact, a
number of them are on our own INA staff or have served it
from time to time. Michael left us far too soon, but the fruits
of his labors will benefit us for years to come.
Dick Steffy

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

Michael Katzev first descended from his white Mer-
cedes 190 to the driveway gravel of the American School
of Classical Studies in September, 1963. That fall and win-
ter he immersed himself in the ASCS program of trips and
seminars. In the spring he dug with me at Nemea, using
his vehicle for transport on the week-ends between Nem-
ea and Corinth. Although Michael's entrance upon the ar-
chaeological scene in Athens provided a moment of jazz,
he entered the School as a meticulous scholar, as well-tuned
as his car. It was always well worth sparring with Michael
over dinner about archaeological sites or art-historical facts
and talking about problems and theories of the ancient
world. The conversations were like vintage wine and worth
But to me Michael's most generally important ar-
chaeological contribution was his excavation and presen-
tation of the fourth-century merchant ship at Kyrenia,
Cyprus. I visited Michael and Susan when they were in
full swing excavating the hull, and I visited again once the
hull was exhibited in Kyrenia Castle. It was a remarkable
transition from fragmentary wood, clay, and metal sheath-
ing half buried in an almost inaccessible place to a ship's
hull totally reconstructed and beautifully exhibited in a
long, stone-vaulted gallery where the whole world could
look at it. Michael's genius for organization had trans-

formed a long-abandoned and forgotten wreck into a tan-
gible example of the ancient mariner's life and times, with
all the finds from the ship arranged to give context.
Reinforcing the importance of this integration of ex-
cavation skills, care in restoration, and patience in the ac-
tual reconstruction that brought the old ship back to life
was the sea-worthy, life-sized replica that thereafter sailed
the Mediterranean and Atlantic. To make a forgotten ruin
in the ocean bed into a monument the replica of which
was christened by the then Minister of Culture of Greece,
Melina Merchouri, and presented on television stations
thereafter throughout the world was a feat of persever-
ance, love, and vision. It was a project in itself almost as
big as that of raising the original, but demanding a com-
pletely different set of skills. No one except the excava-
tor's wife or another archaeologist who has organized an
archaeological project knows what efforts and anxieties
over finances, what worries to form the right team, and to
keep it together and producing, exist in undertaking a sci-
entifically integrated and large-scale project. One man who
undertook such a monumental job and vividly presented
the results to the general public in numerous forms is that
man of vision who stepped out of a sparkling white Mer-
cedes in 1963.
Charles Kaufman Williams, n

Right. Michael takes a level in the Corinthian Forum in 1971.

Below. Reading sherds with Charles Williams in Corinth, 1978.

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

I see Michael Katzev now as he looked when I first
saw him in 1968-the same way he appeared to many in
the film of the Kyrenia Ship excavation. In it, he and his
lovely wife Susan greet Andreas Cariolou in Kyrenia Har-
bor and then discuss the discovery of the shipwreck. He is
smiling, relaxed, and enjoying the moment! Michael en-
joyed the moments, big and small, all his life. He was able
to do so because of his quick wit, his natural affection for
people and his masterful ability to organize. He had a sense
of flair tied with his thrill for real life. How else to charac-
terize the trip when he drove his Mercedes convertible
sports car on country, dirt roads in Turkey in the 1960s.
The fine project he directed, The Kyrenia Ship Ex-
pedition, is an example of his superior abilities. He direct-
ed it superbly with all its complications. Only those who
have run projects realize the demands, from tackling mi-
nutiae to dealing with heads of state, that call for an amaz-
ing collection of skills. Michael had these in abundance and
handled himself with such aplomb that he was an example
to all. Consider that he led his team through the survey, ex-
cavation, conservation, and complete display of the Kyrenia
Ship in a very short time period during a particularly turbu-
lent period. He was cool in the face of adversity. He was
dedicated; visitors were welcome at any time and he often
gave freely of his weekends. He delegated because he knew
no one person has all the skills or knows it all.
In assembling and leading his team, he developed
and inspired a family of closely-knit members. As a testi-
mony to his personal qualities, that team has retained some
of the deepest bonds I've ever seen in the over eighty
projects I've been associated with. As everyone continued
with their lives and took other jobs, as marriages and chil-

dren followed, Michael continued to act as a focus for them.
In good times and bad, he maintained a close personal in-
terest in their welfare, offering tremendous encouragement
and support to those who chose the road less well trav-
eled. He literally became a "godfather" to their children, a
role he welcomed with relish and appreciation He was
always available with counsel and provided guidance on
far-ranging issues. Important dates were a cause for cele-
bration such as parties on his birthday or name day at his
favorite restaurant in Corinth or at picnics in the woods
on other people's birthday. He called people around the
world on Christmas or other days so he could hear their
news and wish them well. Michael cared.
Work never stopped for him. He is one of the few
modem scholars to take upon himself virtually all aspects
of the intricacies of study of an excavation, except for the
hull, of the Kyrenia Ship. In his research and writing, as
with everything else, he was a disciplined, methodical per-
fectionist. The corpus of this work will provide the materi-
al for the publication of the project. Somehow he even
found time to assemble wonderful collections of wood-
working tools and heads of walking sticks.
Whether it was to cajole, celebrate, or console, Micha-
el was always there. I recall that I mentioned during a phone
call that I needed some corrective surgery. His immediate re-
sponse was "you must stay with us to recuperate." I gladly ac-
cepted and it was then that I last saw him and now picture him,
by the fire with friends around him near his beloved sea.
His gift to us has been that we have all been fortu-
nate to have known him, to have been cared for by him,
and, in return, to have been able to care for him. You'll
always be with us, mate.
Chip Vincent

Left. Michael preparing tofly a kite on March 8, 1981, in Greece.

Bottom. A small part of the Kyrenia Ship "family" assembled in Athens for
the launching of Kvrenia II, luly 22, 1985.

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

It was clear that Michael would be different from
the rest of us when he appeared at the American School of
Classical Studies in Athens with his Mercedes sports car
and a white linen suit. California play-boy, we thought,
"we" being the members of the "Class of '63-64." Our judg-
ment was, of course, based on thoroughly superficial
grounds, for beneath the polished exterior lay a sharp inci-
sive mind. Over the years these two traits became more
pronounced but also blended to produce a unique person-
One of my Michaels, if I can make such a claim, was
the person who came to Corinth for several summers to
help clean up specific problems that had arisen during the
dig season but had remained unresolved. A perfectionist,
he worked hard, gave the excavations his full attention,
kept meticulous notes, then went off for a weekend of re-
laxation and fun, or regaled us with stories over drinks and
dinners at the dig house. When the water would go off, he
would immediately
jump in with a solu-
tion that would re-
lieve the tension and
make us laugh, like
rigging up a hose to
our reservoir to pro-
vide communal
baths. But what I es-
pecially respected in.
Michael was his ob-
jectivity in address-
ing virtually any
issue, unswayed by
personal feelings. I
felt I could trust his
judgment both in
personal and scholar-
ly matters. His exca- The famous 1960 Mercedes 190-SL sl
vations of the
Kyrenia ship were
carried out, as one
would expect, with precision, responsibility, and excite-
ment. It is regrettable that a later project to excavate a deep-
water wreck near Spetses never materialized. I am sure he
would have come up with new and important methods for
dealing with its problems.
My other Michael was one who organized vacations
in Italy, where every hotel and restaurant were carefully
mapped out for maximum comfort and enjoyment. His abil-
ity to remain cool and cheerful under tight circumstances
is best illustrated by a trip we had taken to central Italy,

our last night spent in Grottaferrata in the Alban Hills out-
side of Rome. We left to make the long drive for the air-
port, late, of course-we were usually late. Half way there
I realized that we hadn't picked up our passports from
the hotel. Somehow we managed to turn back to the hotel,
and while one group picked up the passports, the other
called the airport, only to find that our flight had been can-
celed and we had been put on another flight, leaving al-
most immediately. Although the temptation was strong
to skip the flight and spend another beautiful day in Grot-
taferrata, this was completely dismissed because there was
now a challenge: to reach the airport in time. This was
Michael at his best-fighting the odds and the autostrada
to make the airplane. We did make it, but the final touch,
to show that he was not flurried and in control of the situ-
ation, was when Susan and he strolled off to the duty free
shops. Meanwhile I, the nervous traveler, rushed to the
gate, and then sat for twenty minutes chewing my nails
until they appeared
with time to spare
before the flight was
finally called.
When so
many of us were
weighted down with
what we considered
the serious challeng-
es of our work,
Sp. Michael managed to
meet them with a
laugh and a joke. I es-
pecially will never
forget the summer
the Greek junta fell
and Cyprus was torn
by war, when Micha-
el and Susan, travel-
oriscar in Maine, July 4, 1994. ing in Turkey,
managed to reach
Corinth, helped us at
the excavation by
photographing objects while we listened daily to the news
of potential war, then returned to a divided Cyprus to fin-
ish up the ship work. Typically, they worked hard to fin-
ish the remaining work under depressing and tense
conditions, while smuggling the handiwork of stranded
Greek villagers in the north to markets in the south, to
bring back much-needed supplies of money.
Michael was that rare combination of a good archae-
ologist, a faithful friend, a good husband, and a bon-vi-
vant. He will be missed.
Nancy Bookidis

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

For us, the four thousand inhabitants of the small
township of Kyrenia, Cyprus, in 1968, Michael Lazare
Katzev (Michalis) was the polite, humble and charismatic
personality who led a scientific expedition, the results of
which made our beloved hometown famous worldwide
in the scientific circles of history and archaeology. How-
ever, as the years passed by Michael and his beloved kind
wife Susan managed to take a very prominent and affec-
tionate position in the conscience of the blacksmith, the
fishermen, the carpenters, the custodian, the Municipali-
ty, and most of the Kyrenians. Michael was no longer a
"foreigner." Kyrenians selfishly cherished him as a family
member and a prominent Kyrenian citizen, an integral part
of the great history of the town. With his friendly and warm
approach and his humble and most kind personality and
attitude towards people, irrespective of social status, he
created a great number of friends and "relatives."

The premature loss of our great lover of Kyrenia
found us all far away from home. Our sorrow was fol-
lowed by sweet memories of Michael. Memories of our
joyful life in Kyrenia gave us hope and perseverance to
overcome and to come closer to his most kind wife Sus-
an-with whom we all wish, one day soon, to return to
Kyrenia to pay our respects and honors to the Katzevs over
the ancient ship in the castle,
Expressing the feelings of most Kyrenians, I will say
that no known human ever managed to so affectionately
enslave the warm heart of the town of Kyrenia like Micha-
el Katzev. We know that his spirit will always follow the
destiny of our hometown and we shall always cherish and
honor his memory. We pray to God for his soul and above
all to always protect and give health and happiness to his
most kind wife Susan, who has now so patiently under-
taken to continue his immensely valuable mission.
God bless his soul.
Glafkos Cariolou
On behalf of the Family of Andreas M. Cariolou

Michael and Susan headed for the excavation barge in 1969 with a tozoer of Kyrenia Castle in the background at the
harbor entrance.

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

For Michael

I felt you looking over my shoulder
as I watched the new replica of the Kyrenia
Ship splash into Cyprus waters. Kyrenia Lib-
erty was.launched in Limassol only weeks
ago on November 10, 2002, accompanied by
a hundred-voice chorus of Kyrenians, an
elegant modem dance ballet, and a symbolic
loading of ancient products from each re-
gion of the land. In spring she will carry
copper ingots of the same shape as those
found on the bronze age Cape Gelidonya
and Uluburun ships to Athens as a gift from
Cyprus for making the bronze medals of the
2004 Olympics. Official duties will take her
to St. Petersburg, Russia, in 2003 and Spain
in 2004. Her send-off by the President of Cy-
prus, foreign dignitaries, and a crowd of
several thousand friends was televised live The launch
to thousands more across the island.
It was a day of celebration that would
have made you very proud-not for the cer-
emonies, but because Kyrenia Liberty's true
mission is to promote learning. She is to have an active
sailing life. Four different crews are training to recreate
cargo and equipment of 2,300 years ago and experiment
with sails, steering, and rigging to test her performance.
A lad who worked on the excavation years ago is her
captain and the prime mover in her creation. He is Glaf-
kos Cariolou, son of Andreas, who found the original
wreck site. Glafkos is inquisitive and passionate about
the experiments ahead. He and Dick Steffy are e-mail

Kyrenia Liberty raises her yard to set sail in Limassol Harbor.

ring ceremonyfor Kyrenia Liberty.

buddies, and already that first sail on launch day pro-
duced important discoveries about the way the ship was
After the launch I visited the future home of Kyre-
nia II. This first and most authentic replica, built at the
Psaros yard in Perama, Greece, had a short but very pro-
ductive sailing life, riding out gale force winds with ease
on voyages from Athens to Cyprus and back. Her spon-
sors in Greece, the Hellenic Institute for the Preserva-
tion of Nautical Tradition, have graciously
committed to sending her to Aghia 'Napa,
on the southeast coast of Cyprus. In the
town center, the roof of a new museum will
roll open to receive her as its centerpiece.
Visitors will spiral down from her mast top
to beneath her hull to understand the ship
at every level.
The sail of the new Kyrenia Liberty
bears twenty-five names of the Kyrenians
who tailored it. Onboard at the launch were
the custodian of Kyrenia Castle and a lady
who ran a lace shop in the town. All of them
hugged me and thanked me for you. What
has become to them a symbol of their home-
town and an ambassador for Cyprus, the
Kyrenia Ship, began as our dream the day
we first dived together on the wreck. Dear
Michael, it all came true... far more than
you imagined!
Susan Womer Katzev

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

Kiten Bay, Bulgaria, 2001

Kroum Batchvarov

The results of the first season at Kiten Bay were so
promising that the joint INA-CUA (Center for Underwa-
ter Archaeology, Sozopol) team were granted a ten-year
permit for excavating in the Bay of Kiten and for survey-
ing the entire Southern Bulgarian coast. A small INA team
consisting of Mark Polzer, Troy Nowak, and the author
returned to Bulgaria in the fall of 2001 to continue the ex-
cavation of the shipwreck near Cape Urdoviza (INA Quar-
terly 28.1, 3-9).
The permit was obtained thanks to the formidable
professional reputations and strenuous efforts of Dr. Hristi-
na Angelova (Director of the CUA), Dr. Kalin Porozhanov
(Research Secretary of the Institute of Thracology at the Bul-

Excavation and Hull Remains
While we understand the Ottoman Empire's depen-
dence on shipping well today, we know virtually nothing
about the ships themselves. Their diversity and construc-
tion have not been systematically studied. Since the Black
Sea was closed to foreign shipping for so long, we must
expect that shipbuilding on its shores stagnated. There-
fore, it is likely that some elements of construction typical
for earlier periods elsewhere may be observable in later
vessels here. We hoped to test this hypothesis through ex-
We decided to search for the stempost of the ship in
2001, in order to determine the extent of preservation of

lrnoto: 1. P
Fig. 1. Bulgarian students Anita Dotzeva and Miroslav Todorov
ing DSM in the "dry square."

garian Academy of Sciences), and the evident good will of
the Bulgarian Government. The Institute of Archaeology in
the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences also lent their support
with the high opinion they expressed for our project.
Drs. Porozhanov and Angelova led the Bulgarian
side of the INA-CUA excavation. Without the presence of
Kalin Dimitrov and Captain Petar Petrov, archaeologists
with the Center, little would have been possible. New Bul-
garian University students Stanislav Bonev, Dimitar Vassi-
lev, and Ivelina Petkova, with the valuable addition of
Anita Dotzeva and Miroslav Todorov, also returned for
the second season, Goran Sanev of the Museum of Mace-
donia in Skopje rejoined us, as well.

the hull and establish its surviving length. The scale of the
expanded excavation persuaded us that the INA team
could not do the measuring and recording alone, as was
done in the previous year. This was a field school for the
Bulgarian side, so it was desirable to train the students to
take full advantage of their unquestionable abilities. For
training purposes, we followed Troy Nowak's idea of es-
tablishing a "dry" square for practice ashore (fig. 1). Then
we determined control points, handed the students tape-
measures and showed them all the tricks of the trade that
we have learned at the Nautical Archaeology Program and
on other INA projects. Once they mastered the basics of
Direct Survey Measurement (DSM), I taught some
S of the students local recording of hull structures.
After the techniques were mastered on shore, the
students' trial by fire-or rather, water-began
(fig. 2). Whether the teachers were good, or the
students were uncommonly bright (self-compla-
cency favors the first answer, honesty the second!),
the whole exercise turned out much better than
we ever hoped. The success of the project is large-
ly due to the dedicated and hard, competent work
of the students from New Bulgarian University.
The extensive preservation of the ship made
it impossible to excavate it in its entirety within
two seasons. This year we opened new squares
along the longitudinal axis of the wreck. Two of
them were aft of the bow square from the previ-
ous year, and were handed to student archaeolo-
gists under the guiding hand of Dr. Angelova. The
Jowak last new square was aft of the trench from the 2000
learn- season, where the end of the stern was expected
to be.

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

Fig. 2 (above). Archaeologist Anita Doizeva mapping hull structure.

Fig. 3 (right). The shaft revealed the pattern of the framing.

The two squares aft of the bow more or less cov-
ered the midships area. We expected to find either the
maststep or extensive traces of the rigging. The removal
of the overburden again, as in the previous season, un-
covered large quantities of unconnected, fore-and-aft ori-
ented timbers. It is hard to determine what they are. Some
are clearly planks that were probably part of the deck, but
the large number of timbers roughly square in shape is
harder to explain. All of them survive in short lengths and
so no curvature (camber) and few fastening holes are ob-
servable. Their heavily eroded state is no help in identify-
ing them, either. For these reasons, it is not certain whether
they are remains of deck beams. Nevertheless, the gener-
al shape and quantity of the found timbers suggest that
they belonged to the collapsed deck or port side of the
We attempted to excavate a shaft (following the vis-
ible frames on the starboard side) to search for the turn of
the bilge, the part of the ship at which the bottom becomes
the side. This failed when a storm filled the shaft at the
end of the season. Nevertheless, we reached a depth of
almost two meters without locating the turn of the bilge.
This suggests that the surviving depth of the hull is at least
two-and-a-half to three meters. This tallies rather well with
the common proportions of vessels in the Eastern Medi-
terranean, namely length equals six units; beam equals
two units; and depth in hold equals one unit. While the
shaft may have failed to answer the question it was de-

signed to answer, it nevertheless provided us with very
important data. It showed us that the normal pattern of
framing consisted of overlapping timbers (fig. 3). On av-
erage, every second frame is through-bolted from string-
er to wale. We observed no treenails or ceiling (interior
planking) along the length of the ship. Instead, there were
closely spaced stringers of differing widths and thickness-
es to add longitudinal support on the inside. The lack of
ceiling improved air circulation and helped combat rot.
This was a common characteristic of craft built on the
shores of the Black Sea until governmental enforcement
of building rules derived from Lloyds around the begin-
- ning of the twentieth century.
In the stem, we uncovered two symmetrical, sharp-
ly rising timbers of massive scantlings, similar to the string-
ers in the bow. They may be footwaling that once ended
in an inner sternpost. In the uncovered length of the two
timbers, they are not attached to anything. However, we
recorded a round hole on one of them that may have been
an opening for an iron bolt. Aft of the two stringers we
found a Y-shaped timber. Originally it was identified as a
Y-frame, but later was determined to be a knee or crutch
that tied the sides to the stern (fig. 4). Unfortunately, it
was no longer in situ when found. Down to the depth that
we reached, the inner sterpost was not located, but a small
badly-eroded piece may have been part of it. The excava-
tion showed that the ship was probably a double-ender,
with sharply rising planks in the stern that had preserved

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

Fig. 4. This almost complete (and huge!)
knee probably supported the sternpost.

the shape of the bearding line, although the stempost it-
self is no longer there.
Among the easy to identify timbers were four fut-
tocks, no longer attached to the hull. Three of them were
found in the stem squares. None of the futtocks survives
to its original length. Three of them, however, are well
enough preserved to show the presence of hook scar-
phs. Until now, similar futtock scarphs have only been
found on ships from the Iberian Peninsula. It seems from
the archaeological record that these scarphs fell out of
use there soon after the turn of the seventeenth centu-
ry. Most recorded futtock hook scarphs are of the dove-
tail type while those from Kiten are simple straight
scarphs. The closest parallels reported come from the
sixteenth-century wreck at Yassiada, Turkey, excavat-
ed by INA in the 1980s. The Yassiada wreck has been
identified as an Ottoman military transport and, based
on a coin of Philip II of Spain found on the wreck, was
believed to have been a captured Iberian ship. The fut-
tock scarphs recorded at Kiten, twenty centimeters long
by two deep, are fastened with a treenail and a long
nail. This, so far, is the only certain treenail fastening
observed on this wreck. Neither the treenail nor the nail
is of particularly large size but, together with the notch,
must have provided sufficient strength. Very likely, the
scarph itself had less to do with the search for structur-
al strength than with aligning the timbers of the frame
while setting up on the building stocks.
The implications of the presence of hook scarphs on
the futtocks of this wreck are rather important. First, the
tradition of securing futtocks and floors with this technique
may prove to have been much more widespread than hith-
erto believed. Second, the Yassiada wreck may prove to
have been built within the Ottoman Empire itself, as Ce-

mal Pulak now believes, and not be a captured Spanish
ship. It was double-ended like the Kiten wreck. Third, the
hypothesis that older shipbuilding traditions survived
longer in the Black Sea is likely to prove correct. Most
other examples of futtock hook scarphs date to no later
than the turn of the seventeenth century while the Kiten
wreck is unlikely to be earlier than the second half of
the eighteenth century. Alternatively, if analysis shows
that the ship sank earlier (let us say in the seventeenth
century), the present views on the development of met-
al houseware will have to be revised. The next field sea-
son ought to clarify these uncertainties.

Its shallowness and the two breakwaters that sur-
round it determine the bottom dynamics of the site. The
result is a bottom surge, the strength of which depends
on the waves and wind, but which is generally suffi-
cient to move around small unattached artifacts. Add
to this the long occupation of the bay-from the Early
Bronze Age to the present day-and it becomes quite
hard to determine which finds belong to what site. The
bottom is literally covered by pottery sherds. The vast
majority of them date to the Bronze Age, but there is a
significant presence of Medieval and Postmedieval pot-
tery, as well. The upper fifty centimeters of the bottom
deposits are unreliable for stratigraphic analysis, as the
site has been excavated before to this depth and storms
regularly stir up the bottom. Below this, the excavator
reaches tightly packed mud; any artifacts lodged in it
are likely to belong to this ship. To reach these levels,
we removed all unattached timbers after mapping them.
We redeposited them off-site in a specially excavated

INA Quarterly 29.3/4


Photo: K. Dimitrov

Fig. 5 (above). Copper plate from the galley.

Fig. 6 (right). A copper pan emerges from the sand during the excava-
tion of the galley.

Photo: K. Lhmtrov

Smoking pipes represent the largest group of arti-
facts found on the site. Due to the conditions, it is probable
that not all of them are from this ship. According to our
conservator, Dr. Vessela Inkova, at least two, possibly three,
of the pipes that almost certainly are from this ship were
made in the same mold. They may have been products of
the Varna workshop.
The excavation in the stem of the ship yielded a
numerous and interesting artifact assemblage that unques-
tionably belongs to this ship. Dimitar Vassilev, a stu-
dent from New Bulgarian University, uncovered a large
marble pot with four buttresses that may be a mortar.
Similar mortars are known from Greece and Turkey.
This find marked the beginning of a very exciting week,
which went far beyond the crew's wildest expectations.
As we entered the untouched levels of the wreck, the
flood of sherds of doubtful provenience dried up, and
was replaced with interesting, well preserved objects
that confirmed the importance of the wreck. Mr. Vassi-
lev and I found a sounding lead, three copper plates
(fig. 5), a decorated copper teapot, remains of at least
two jugs, a wooden bowl, a large copper pan (fig. 6),
and a few ceramic plates with green lead glaze (fig. 7).
In addition, two tiles, coming probably from the ship's
hearth, were uncovered. The lack of time prevented us
from finishing the excavation of the square. It is very
likely that more artifacts and the rest of the hearth will
be excavated next season. The artifact assemblage in

the stern area suggests that our crew has found the
ship's galley. It is too soon to make any definite con-
clusions based on the finds, but teapots are not at all
typical for Bulgaria. In fact, very few are known and
all of them are demonstrably imported. The general
shape of the teapot suggests the late seventeenth to
eighteenth centuries and it may come from Armenia or

Photo: T. Nowak
Fig. 7. One of the plates that were recovered from the galley.

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

the Levant (fig. 8). The copper plates are
made of thin metal sheet, characteristic of
late eighteenth-century products.
The exceptional preservation of or-
ganic materials in the waters of the Black
Sea is attested by the large quantities of
rope that have been uncovered. A wood-
en lock plate that sports carved and gild-
ed decoration presents more evidence.
After the hull itself (for me at least!), the
most interesting artifacts are the rigging
elements that may help reconstruct the rig
of the ship. At this stage of research it is
not possible to determine how the vessel
was rigged. Its general shape, size, and
distribution of rigging elements may sug-
gest a two-master. Considering the excep-
tional preservation of the hull, it is likely
that the maststep(s) are still in place. In a
coming season, we may determine the Fig. 8. Excavat
number of masts.
In the 1980s, archaeologists recov-
ered at least eleven blocks and parts of
blocks. A complete block in working order and a large di-
ameter sheave were excavated in 2000. In 2001, we found
parts of six more blocks. The most interesting of these was
a large treble-sheaved block found by archaeologist Anita
Dotzeva of New Bulgarian University. Its size, location,
and type make it possible that it belonged to the jeers (hal-
yard tackle) of a large yard. According to most authorities,
treble blocks are usually associated with the lower square
sails of large ships. Yet we must note that almost all sur-
viving rigging treatises and modern works discuss large
square-riggers of the Western tradition. For this reason,
we should use them very cautiously as comparative mate-
rial. The truth of the matter is that there is no information
published (or probably even surviving) on the rigging de-
tails of Black Sea vessels. Only nautical archaeology can
provide the necessary and sadly missing information on
this important subject.

After two seasons of excavation, I can make some
preliminary conclusions. Based on the partial study of the
ship carried out in the 1980s, Dr. Porozhanov suggested
that the ship must have been about twenty-two meters
length on deck and that some of the timbers are possibly
part of a deck or platform. He predicted that the vessel
may prove to be extensively preserved and of the greatest
importance. Not all agreed with him at the time, especial-
ly on the preservation and deck issues. Our more detailed
recording has proved him right and the doubters wrong.
We have recorded twenty meters extant length of the
wreck. Likely, the original length on deck was indeed about

ion of the teapot.

twenty-two meters, a large vessel for the Black Sea. As we
have not uncovered the port side yet, we can only esti-
mate the beam, but it probably was approximately six to
seven meters with a depth in hold of around three meters.
The heavy scantlings mean that the ship was intend-
ed for rough conditions, which may support a Black Sea
origin. The distribution of rigging elements points to a two-
masted vessel, but this remains to be proven. The use of
large scantling Y-shaped timbers and the dimensions of
the timbers found on the ship imply that the shipwright
did not suffer from material shortages. The general use of
iron for fastenings means that iron was both easily avail-
able and cheap. The presence of foothook scarphs on this
ship would point to a general Mediterranean tradition of
shipbuilding. If the vessel indeed sailed in the second half
of the eighteenth century or even later, the hypothesis that
older shipbuilding techniques survived longer in the re-
gion will be proven. All other reported wrecks with hook
scarphs on the futtocks date to no later than the first years
of the seventeenth century.
Of interest is to note that in this region the typical
location for the galley is in the stem of the ship, as in the
seventh-century Yassiada wreck. The sounding lead and
the high-quality teapot, plates, and pottery suggest that
the skipper shared the stem with the galley and probably
was a fairly wealthy man, perhaps a part-owner of the ves-
sel. On the West Coast of the Black Sea, ships were typical-
ly owned by small consortium of people, each of whose
members owned a stated number of shares, the total num-
ber of which depended on the size of the vessel. Usually
one of the part-owners was also captain and super-cargo

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

of the vessel. As a rule, the captain was chosen from among
the people with the largest number of shares (in addition
to the obvious need to be an experienced mariner). The
ship that sank in Kiten Bay is large for the Black Sea region
of the Ottoman Empire. This, and the fine houseware found
in the stern, imply that the owners were successful and
wealthy merchants. The further excavation of the wreck
will undoubtedly tell us more about the owners, the type
of trade they engaged in, and about life aboard ship in the
Ottoman Empire during the Age of Sail.
The different origins of the artifacts-possibly from
Armenia, or the Levant and Greece-mean that the ship
participated in a broad trade network that connected the
Mediterranean and Black Seas. The wreck in Kiten Bay is

of exceptional interest and may enrich our knowledge of
the Eastern Mediterranean trade network and older ship-
building traditions. No shipbuilding treatises exist for the
vessels in this long-neglected region. Practically no other
documentation and very little iconography exist that can
tell us anything about the ships and their rigs in the Black
Sea during the Ottoman period. Our only hope of filling
this blank page of our seafaring knowledge is nautical ar-
chaeology. Never before has a ship in the waters of the
Black Sea been excavated and recorded. The shipwreck that
LNA and CUA are excavating in Kiten Bay is thus a bench-
mark excavation that will provide a basis for understand-
ing Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea ship construction
and rigging during the Ottoman period.

Acknowledgements: I would like to thank the excellent team that worked in Kiten this year. Troy Nowak is to be
credited with registering artifacts, in spite of being mostly interested in hulls. Mark Polzer, as usual, provided steady
support. AU the Bulgarian students were excellent. I would like to especially recognize the great contribution of Anita
Dotreva, to whom is owed most of the measuring (and all the sketches) of midships and the treble block, my personal
delight. Dimitar Vassilev made the first interesting find with certain provenience. Stanislav Bonev was willing to assist
wherever the Project Director's whimsical fancy sent him. Ivelina Petkova struggled through recording a mass of small
timber pieces that had no meaning for her and meant only marginally more to the Director.
As ever, the CUA staff, Captain Petar Petrov and Kalin Dimitrov, were indispensable. Mr. Roumen Zhelezarov,
a NAUI instructor, was a dream Dive Master. For their infinite patience and great good humor, I shall be eternally
indebted to my colleagues and mentors Dr. Angelova and Dr. Porozhanov. They are no longer merely my co-workers,
but have become close friends.
This project would never have materialized without Dr. Kevin Crisman's encouragement, advice, sponsorship,
support, and friendship. My personal debt to him is beyond measure. I would like to recognize our generous sponsors,
Harry Kahn and INA. Thanks to their generous contribution, we have crossed another frontier of nautical archaeology.
I also owe much to the Bulgarian government for making it a hassle-free pleasure to work in their country, and
to the Archaeological Institute at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences for their trust in us. Finally, I would like to recog-
nize the contribution of the Institute of Thracology to the development of nautical archaeology in Bulgaria and for its
support of our project at Kiten. Its Director, Dr. Kiril Jordanov, could not have been kinder. a

Suggested Readings

Batchvarov, Kroum,
1999 "An Archaeological trip to Bulgaria." INA Quarterly 26.3, 7-11.
2001 "The First Black Sea Shipwreck Excavation: Kiten, Bulgaria." INA Quarterly 28.1, 3-9.

Porozhanov, Kalin, Kalin Dimitrov and Kroum Batchvarov
2001 "The Secrets of a Shipwreck." Newsletter of the Bulgarian Ministry of Culture 9.3, 22-23 (In Bulgarian).

Porozhanov, Kalin
2000 "The Sunken Ship near Urdoviza: Preliminary Notes." Archaeologia Bulgarica, vol. 4.3, 92-95 (In English).

Porozhanov, Kalin, Hristina Angelova, Kalin Dimitrov and Kroum Batchvarov
2000 "Urdoviza 2000-A joint Bulgaro-American Underwater Archaeological Expedition." Archaeological Surveys
and Excavations 1999-2000, Proceedings, of the XL National Archaeological Conference, Sofia, 2001 (In Bulgar-

In addition, for the inundated Stone and Early Bronze Age settlements of the Black Sea excavated by Dr. Porozhanov
and Dr. Angelova see the entire run of Proceedings of the international symposium Thracia Pontica.

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

Landsat Bathymetric Analysis

of Six-Fathom Shoal, Lake Superior:

The Wreck of Edmund Fitzgerald

John S. Janks

Most people have heard of
the wreck of the ore carrier Edmund
Fitzgerald, if only from the Gordon
Lightfoot song on the subject. From
Fitzgerald's launching in 1958 until
1971, it was the largest vessel on the
GreatLakes at 13,632 tons and 729 feet
long. During its seventeen-yearcareer,
the ship carried literally millions of
tons of iron ore from the western end
of Lake Superior through the Soo
Locks to destinations on the other
Great Lakes. At 220 PM on Novem-
ber 9, 1975, Fitzgerald left Superior,
Wisconsin with 26,116 tons of taconite
pellets bound for Detroit. The ship set
sail only minutes before the National
Weather Service began issuing warn-
ings of a major early-winter gale. This
eventually developed into one of the
worst storms of the twentieth cen-
tury, with hurricane-force winds
and waves forty to fifty feet high.
Fitzgerald was traveling about
eight to fifteen miles ahead of anoth-
er large carrier, Arthur M. Anderson.
The two ships changed course about
200 AM to a northerly route intend-
ed to use the Canadian shore as a
wavebreak (fig. 1). About 2:45 PM, the
wind direction shifted to the north-
west, exposing Fitzgerald and Ander-
son to much greater wind fetch and
wave heights. The radio beacon at
Whitefish Point and Fitzgerald's two
radars were knocked outby the storm,
hindering navigation. At 3:15 the cap-
tain and mate of Anderson observed
Fitzgeraldpassing uncomfortably close
to Caribou Island and the associated
Six-Fathom Shoal The ship was deep
in the water (its wintertime load line
had been moved 3.3 feet higher since
it was built) and waves were break-
ing over the decks, adding additional
burden. Although Fitzgerald may also

86000xW eSlO.0"W




Scale 1: 2.000.000

50 0 50

1 I Nau


Kilometers j

tical miles

Fig. 1. A portion of eastern Lake Superior from the Landsat TM scene of April 29, 1984.
The study area is near Caribou Island. Lake ice can be seen in the southwest corner of the
image. The "Northern Route" shipping lane passes between Michipicoten and Caribou

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

have been taking on water through damaged hatches that
had been noticed on October 31, further increasing its draft,
the captain and crew, as well as most others, did not con-
sider that dangerous. At 3:30, fifteen minutes after they
crossed the Shoal, Captain McSorley first reported that
Fitzgerald had suffered topside damage and was listing,
but at 7:10 he stated, "We are holding our own." Never-
theless, the ship and all twenty-nine men aboard disap-
peared from Anderson's radar forever around 7:25.
The sinking has been the subject of controversy ever
since. The U. S. CoastGuard concluded in 1977 that insufficient
hatch closure, which allowed water to flood the ship, created
the disaster. The National Transportation Safety Board arrived
at the same conclusion in 1978. However, Board member Philip
Hogue strongly disagreed, stating his belief that Fitzgemld struck
bottom on Six-Fathom Shoal. The Army Corps of Engineers said
that there was no direct evidence of hitting bottom on either
some underwater pinnacles or Fitzgerald itself. The Great Lakes
Carriers Associationin a sharplyworded dissent expressed their
belief that the cause was most certainly shoaling. Many others,
including the captain of Arthur M. Anderson, also believe that
shoaling was the likely cause. The families of the crewmen dis-
pute any claim that complacency on the part of the crew was
involved. At stake in this debate is the solution to one of the
worst maritime disasters on the Great Lakes in recent history.
Since the time of the sinking, little new evidence has been
added to the discussion. Perhaps satellite remote sensing tech-
nology can be used to generate accurate and detailed bottom
topography maps of Six-Fathom Shoal by correlating water
depth and the satellite sensor response. Such maps could then
be used to create high-probability areas where the ship may
have grounded, and a sampling program begun.

Bathymetry and Shipwreck Investigations Using
Satellite Imagery
Since the advent of the digital satellite sensor, much
has been discovered about the interaction of visible light
and bodies of water. The first digital sensor, the US Land-
sat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), launched in 1972, had a
ground resolution of only seventy-nine meters. However,
the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), launched in 1982, col-
lects three visible and four infrared bands with a ground
resolution of thirty meters, from an altitude of 704 kilome-
ters. Visible blue light (Landsat TM Band 1) can penetrate
as much as one hundred meters of water, depending upon
clarity, sediment load, and bottom conditions. Lake Supe-
rior is known for its clear water.
There have been many remote sensing analyses of
shorelines, estuaries, and shallow marine environments,
but application of the technique to marine archeology is
much less prominent. Some efforts were made to deduce
formulae predicting hydrographic information using the
spectral response of the satellite sensor but these attempts
were useful only for local areas.

This study will use the Band 1 DNs to generate a
bottom topography map of Six-Fathom Shoal. The goal is
to identify areas where the ship may have grounded. As is
well known in forensics, no two bodies can come in con-
tact with each other without leaving a trace of the one on
the other. If Fitzgerald had struck Six-Fathom Shoal there
would be telltale evidence of the ship and her cargo (met-
al, paint, taconite ore) at the point of contact. Six-Fathom
Shoal covers about eight to ten square nautical miles and
sampling all of it would be prohibitive.

Satellite Evaluation of Six-Fathom Shoal
A Landsat TM scene acquired April 29, 1984, was
chosen to determine if a correlation could be made between
the water depth and the strength of the visible blue DN.
This data set was the earliest ice-free scene available after
the sinking of Fitzgerald. In the northeast comer there is a

Fig. 2. Caribou Island and Six-Fathom Shoal on Canadian De-
partment of Fisheries and Oceans Chart 2310. Depths are mea-
sured in fathoms (one fathom is 1.829 meters [sixfeet]).

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

cloudbank over portions of Ontario, and to the southwest
there is some remaining lake ice near the Michigan shore-
line (fig. 1). The larger Michipicoten Island lies almost di-
rectly north of the smaller Caribou Island. The "Northern
Route," taken by Fitzgerald and Anderson on November 10,
1975, passes between these two islands. Six-Fathom Shoal
is an underwater extension of Caribou Island.
To perform the analysis, accurate depths were ob-
tained from the Canadian Department of Fisheries and
Oceans Chart 2310 (fig. 2). This information was digitized
and the TM image georeferenced to it. In that way the data
in the study were set to the same projection and datum, WGS
1984. While Chart 2310 provides accurate depths, it does not
provide the interpreter a visual perspective of the bottom
topography, nor does it provide bottom topography other
than where immediately sampled. Figure 3 is the visible blue
light (Band 1) TM data of Caribou Island and Six-Fathom
Shoal. The shoal appears nearly white (in the shallowest ar-
eas) to dark gray (in the deeper areas). The shoal extends
four to five nautical miles northward before the water is suf-
ficiently deep to absorb all reflectance. The outline of the shoal
from the Landsat sensor correlates closely with its location
on the hydrographic chart. Also shown on figure 3 are two
cross-section lines: A-A' and B-B', indicating the sampling
points where water depth and DN values were compared.
There is a direct correlation between water depth
Fig. 3. Caribou Island and Six-Fathom Shoal as seen using the and Band I DNs along the north-south transect A-A' (fig.
Landsat image of April 29, 1984, visible blue light (Band 2). The 4) and the east-west transect B-B'. Even the North Bank,
lines A-A' and B-B' are cross-sections shown in figs. 4 and 5.

A A' B B'

| -P -I
7- i
---- ~- s------- -nd-T/MB1d-DN

II- /


. . .. B B '
A A' B

Fig. 4. Cross-sections of the study area (see fig. 3) showing the close correlation between water depth in fathoms and the DN values.
Cross-section A-A' runs north to south across Six-Fathom Shoal, while B-B' runs west to east.

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

located along the northern edge of the shoal, can be de-
tected using the DN values. The shoal bottom topography
is uneven, and marked by irregular areas of deeper water
often flanked by abruptly shallower ones. An interpreta-
tive map of the relative depths to bottom is seen in figure
5; deeper areas are shown in black while shallower areas
are shown in white or gray. It is noteworthy that the deep-
er areas of the shoal are expansive, but abrupt shallower
ones often flank them. In any sampling program, most of
the deeper areas could be ignored on the first pass. Shal-
lower areas determined from the sensor data correspond
well with measured depth soundings. However, there are
a number of locations identified from the Landsat data that
do not appear on Chart 2310.

Fig. 5. Interpretative map showing relatively deeper (black) and
shallower (gray) bottom topography on Six-Fathom Shoal. The
shallower areas are potential sites for sampling for evidence of
the possible grounding of Edmund Fitzgerald.

Additionally, the bottom topography contains a
number of linear features that generally trend northwest
to southeast (fig. 6). They are identified by a rather sharp
contrast in DN values, indicating an abrupt change from
deep to shallow water. What these features represent is
not known, but they could be faults, changes in rock type,
former shorelines, etc. There is a faint one at the northern
edge of the shoal trending approximately 140, the azimuth
of the "Northern Route" shipping lane, which is the route
taken by Fitzgerald the night it sank.

Archeology and Forensic Analysis
No one knows the exact route of Edmund Fitzgerald
the night of November 10, since the crews on both Fitzger-

- S
I S.

S Sx-Fathom Shoa

,, \\





Fig. 6. Interpretative map showing a series of linear features of
unknown origin that run NW-SE. The northernmost one trends
approximately 140'. These linear features should be identified
by field sampling and measurements.

INA Quarterly 29.3/4





~-- ---- -~--,
-- -


aid and Arthur M. Anderson were preoccupied with the
storm. As Fitzgerald's radars and the radio beacon at White-
fish Point were knocked out by the storm, there is no accu-
rate idea where (and if) Fitzgerald crossed the shoaling area.
Anderson's captain and First Mate said only that Fitzgerald
was "in too close [to Six-Fathom Shoal]."
The ship itself lies in 535 feet of water northwest of
Whitefish Point, broken in two, with one section upside
down, and the other buried in mud. There is Little possibility
of finding remnants of the shoal on the ship. However, there
is the distinct possibility that material from the ship would
be left on the shoal where it struck. Satellite data alone can-
not determine if and where the ship struck bottom; field sam-
pling will be required to verify the identification of likely
strike zones. The Landsat TM data can also be used as a base-
line to compare newer IKONOS (4-meter) and Quick Bird
(2.5-meter) sensor measurements. Once established inter-
pretations have been developed, older Landsat MSS, space

shuttle, and Corona spy satellite photographic data can be
used as well to refine the interpretations.

This preliminary study using the Landsat TM im-
age acquired April 29, 1984, indicates that satellite sensor
data can be a useful tool to generate bottom profiles and
potential sampling locations. There is a direct correlation
between water depth and Band 1 (visible blue light) re-
sponse on Six-Fathom Shoal, Lake Superior. In some cas-
es, shallower areas were detected using the satellite data
that were not seen on the bathymetric charts. Interpreta-
tive maps showing shallow areas as well as linear under-
water features were generated. This suggests that the use
of finer-grained data from newer, more sophisticated sat-
ellites could help solve the mystery of the Edmund Fitzger-
ald and have other fruitful applications in nautical

Suggested Readings

Hammack, J. C.
1977 "Landsat Goes to Sea." Photogrammetric Engineer-
ing and Remote Sensing, v. 43, pp. 683-691.

Hemming, R. J.
1981 Gales of November: The Sinking of the Edmund
Fitzgerald. Chicago: Contemporary Books.

Holden, T. R.
Fact Sheet: Edmund Fitzgerald. U. S. Army Corps
of Engineers Detroit District, Lake Superior Mari-
time Visitor Center, Duluth, MN.

Kantor, A.
1998 29 Missing: The True and Tragic Story of the Disap-
pearance of the S.S. Edmund Fitzgerald. Ann Ar-
bor, MI: Michigan State University Press.

Lillesand, T. M. and R. W. Kiefer
1994 Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. New York:
John Wiley and Sons.

Mobley, C. D
1994 Light and Water-Radiative Transfer in Natural Wa-
ters. New York: Academic Press.

Nordman, M. E., L. Wood, J. L. Michalek and J. J. Chiraty
1990 "Water Depth Extraction from Landsat5 Imagery."
Proceedings 23" International Symposium on Remote
Sensing of the Environment, pp. 1129-1139. Ann
Arbor, MI: Environmental Research Institute of

Sabins, F. F.
1987 Remote Sensing-Principles and Interpretation, 2nd
Edition. New York: W. H. Freeman and Co.

1997 Remote Sensing. New York: W.H. Freeman and Co.

Specht, M. R., D. Needler, and N. L. Fritz
1973 "New Color Film for Water Penetration Photog-
raphy." Photogrammetric Engineering, v.40, pp. 359-

U. S. National Transportation Safety Board Report
Number NTSB-MAR-78-3, May 4, 1978.

U.S. Department of Transportation Marine Casualty
Report, S. S. Edmund Fitzgerald; Sinking in Lake Superior
on 10 November 1975 with Loss of Life, U. S. Coast Guard
Marine Board of Investigation Report and
Commandant's Action, July 26, 1977.

John S. Janks is a remote sensing scientist living in Houston, Texas. He received a BA from Monmouth College and an MS from
the Univerisity of Illinois at Chicago, both in Geology. He has 13 years experience working with remote sensing in environmen-
tal, legal, and exploration matters. Mr. Janks can be contacted at

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

Ionian Sea Study 2001

Brett A. Phaneuf, Paolo Ciavola,

George Papatheodorou, and George Ferentinos

The United States Navy generously provided the
nuclear research submarine NR1 and its surface support
ship, the SSV Carolyn Chouest, for a brief geological survey
of the north-central Ionian Sea floor in July 2001. The Lab-
oratory of Marine Geology and Physical Oceanography at
the University of Patras (Greece), the University of Fer-
rara (Italy), and the Department of Oceanography at Tex-
as A&M University collaborated in this study
The survey covered approximately thirty square
kilometers in three days, continuously collecting high-res-
olution side-scan sonar data, CTD data, and digital imag-
ery from down-looking, hull-mounted digital video
cameras running parallel transects in an east-west direc-
tion. Depths ranged from approximately 650 to 750 meters.
The search area was directly between the Italian and Greek
peninsulas and was clearly a high-traffic region for ancient

commercial shipping (fig. 1). Virgil described this fabled
path in The Aeneid.
Immediately discovered was an enormous and pre-
viously unknown community of deep-sea coral (lophelia
Petrusa). The lophelia had formed numerous small and
large bioherms, some more than twenty meters in height
and several hundred meters long and wide. Since living
coral was restricted to the tops of the bioherms, it believed
that coral growth was periodically interrupted when the
bioherms were covered with sediment flowing into the
region due to an upslope mass-wasting event (essentially
an underwater landslide).
An ancient shipwreck approximately thirty meters
in length was also located during the course of the survey.
The visible components included a partially exposed sec-
tion of the hull, various concretions, and an anchor. Re-

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

peated imaging with low frequency 150kHz side-scan
sonar revealed the presence of a substantial portion of
the ship preserved beneath the soft sediment of the
ocean floor (fig. 2). Higher frequency imaging (600kHz)
revealed only those objects that were exposed on the
surface of the seafloor, such as the anchor (fig. 3).
Analysis of the shipwreck images, particularly
the anchor, date the site to no later than the fourth cen-
tury CE, so it is probably Roman. A considerable por-
tion of the hull is buried in the soft sediment and quite
possibly well preserved. This argues for a return to in-
vestigate the wreck more fully in the near future. ,

Fig. 2. This scan sonar image was collected at frequency of
150kHz and allowed scientists to detect objects buried just
below the surface of the soft seafloor sediment on the site. A
considerable portion of the shipwreck is buried.

Fig. 3 (above and right). Iron anchor resting on the sea-
floor atop the remains of the hull of an ancient shipwreck.
This sonar image collected at a frequency of 600kHz clearly
defines the extent of the site visible on the seafloor surface,
including an iron anchor and remains of the ships hull and
numerous artifacts.

Brett A. Phaneuf is with the Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University, Paoto Ciavola with the Department of
Geology and Paleontology, University of Ferrara, and George Papatheodorou and George Ferentinos are with the Laboratory of
Marine Geology and Physical Oceanography, Department of Geology, University of Patras. All would like to thank their respec-
tive institutions and the United States Navy for making this study possible.

INA Quarterly 29.3/4


Eighth Tropis Conference

in Hydra, Greece

Athena Trakadas

The mountainous Aegean island of Hydra, off the
east coast of the Peloponnese of Greece, hosted the Eighth
International Symposium on Ship Construction in Antiq-
uity from August 26 to 30, 2002. Also called Tropis (the an-
cient Greek word for "keel"), the conference brings together
in Greece every three years an international group of schol-
ars in the field of nautical archaeology. Focusing upon the
Mediterranean, discussion topics range chronologically
from the Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and ty-
pologically from aspects of ship construction to maritime
iconography. Among the group of scholars that presented
papers this year on their research were several current and
former students, graduates, and faculty of the Nautical Ar-
chaeology Program (NAP) at Texas A&M University.
NAP professor emeritus, and one of the founders of
INA, Dr. George Bass and former NAP student and Pabuc
Buru excavation Assistant Director Elizabeth Greene pre-
sented in absentia, "Discovery and Excavation: The 2001 Sub-
mersible Survey and the 2002 Excavation at Pabuc Bumu,
Turkey" (read by Deborah Carlson). The paper presented
briefly the results of the 2001 survey off the Turkish Ae-
gean coast using the INA two-person submersible Carolyn.
The benefits of this new survey tool were readily apparent
by the fourteen ancient wrecks and ten possible wreck sites
discovered over the course of one month. In addition,
twelve known ancient wrecks sites were also further docu-
mented using Carolyn. One of the sites discovered in the
2001 submersible survey was Pabuc Buru, a sixth-centu-
ry BCE assemblage located near Bodrum. Excavation be-
gan on this site in June 2002, and continued into September.
At the time of the conference, sherds of fineware pottery,
several oinochoai, two large bowls, and a stone anchor 1.8
meters long had been discovered.
Deborah Carlson, a former NAP student and Assis-
tant Director of the TektaS Burnu excavation (1999-2001;
see INA Quarterly 26.4: 3-8; 28:2: 3-8), presented the paper,
"Reconstructing the Fabri Navales." Carlson examined ar-
chaeological and epigraphic evidence in order to provide a
clearer picture of the social and economic history offabri
navales, the shipwrights of the ancient world. In her paper,
Carlson offered the size and location of a temple of afabri
navales guild excavated at Ostia and several inscriptions
made by members of fabri navales guilds as evidence that
shipbuilders contributed more to ancient technology than
just ship construction. By also examining the construction
methods of certain harbor caissons, Carlson suggested that
fabri navales might have participated in a wide range of
projects, such as harbor construction.

Matthew Harpster, a NAP Ph.D. student, present-
ed a paper on his dissertation subject, "Interim Report on
the ninth-century AD Hull Remains found near Bozbu-
run, Turkey." The Bozburun shipwreck excavation (1995-
1998; see INA Quarterly 25.4: 3-13) led to the recovery of
approximately thirty-five percent of the hull of a Byzan-
tine merchant vessel. Working for the past several sum-
mers at the research facilities of [NA in Bodrum, Turkey,
Harpster has now recorded almost ninety percent of the
hull material and presented his preliminary findings in
this paper. His documentation has revealed that the fram-
ing pattern of this vessel resembles that found in the elev-
enth-century SerCe Limani vessel. Certain fastening
patterns on the Bozburun timbers also indicate that por-
tions of the ship were repaired, replaced, or re-assembled
during the vessel's lifetime. Additionally, although Harp-
ster has found no mortise-and-tenon joinery in the edges
of the external planking, he has detected an unexpected
method of edge joinery that incorporates dowels.
Asaf Oran, a NAP graduate and now conservator
at the INA laboratory in Bodrum, Turkey, presented the
topic of his M.A. thesis, "The Athlit Ram: Classical and
Hellenistic Bronze Casting Technology." This paper re-
examined of the bronze warship ram found off Athlit, Is-
rael, which is one of the largest preserved from the ancient
Mediterranean world. Originally, this piece was thought
to have been made as a single unit using the sand-casting
technique, a method not documented prior to the late
medieval period. During his research, Oran utilized cur-
rent analytical techniques to re-examine the ram and also
compare it to other contemporary surviving bronzes. Ar-
chaeological remains of foundries were also examined by
Oran, who concluded that the Athlit ram was cast using
the lost-wax technique, and possibly the bow timbers of
the ship were temporarily used as a core for the model.
Edward Rogers, a NAP graduate and author of a
forthcoming SINA-series book on Egyptian boat construc-
tion depicted in tomb reliefs, presented, "An Analysis of
Toolkits Recovered from Shipwrecks." This was a com-
parative survey of the forms and functions of various ship-
board toolkit finds from the fourteenth century BCE to
the eleventh century CE. Such finds include adzes, axes,
drills, saws, chisels, mallets, needles, fids, wood and met-
al fasteners, caulking, pitch, rolled lead sheathing, and
wood to fabricate new hull elements. From this wide va-
riety of artifacts, Rogers revealed that the composition of
toolkits from ships varied over the centuries and these
collections can certainly indicate the change in shipboard

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

technology or shipbuilding techniques throughout antiq-
Athena Trakadas, a NAP graduate, presented, "At
the Pillars: The Survey of Tangier Bay, Morocco," on the
INA survey of northern Moroccan waters that took place
in 1999 (see INA Quarterly 28.3: 3-15). Under the direction
of Brett Phaneuf, Tangier Bay and some areas of coastline
in the Straits of Gibraltar were surveyed using remote sens-
ing (sonar and magnetometer) and visual diving meth-
ods. Some of the finds included a wreck tentatively
identified as HMS Courageux, a British ship-of-the-line that
wrecked in 1796. Other artifact assemblages recovered in-
clude a possible first-century BCE shipwreck in the Straits
of Gibraltar as well as an ancient anchorage on the north
Atlantic coast of Morocco.
Dr. Shelley Wachsmann, a NAP professor, present-
ed a paper on his recent field survey, "Phoenicians in Por-
tugal." In the summer of 2002, Wachsmann and a small
research team consisting of archaeologist, seismologists,
and geologists, surveyed several sites in southern Portu-
gal that have been identified as Phoenician settlements.
Located along rivers, the presence of these sites reveal that

Model Ship Exhibition

The J. Wayne Stark Galleries in the Memorial Student
Center at Texas A&M University recently hosted "From Ships
to Shore: Antique Maps and Ship Models from the Collec-
tion of Mr. and Mrs. F. Carrington Weems." Mr. Weems is a
Houston real estate developer whose lifelong interest in the
sea has led him to assemble a truly amazing collection of
ship and boat models, maps depicting the development of
the Americas, and marine art. The exhibit also included
models from the Ship Model Shop in the Nautical Archaeol-
ogy Program at A&M, including the model of the seven-
teenth-century La Belle built in 2002 by Glenn Grieco. Portions
of the exhibition and the accompanying booklet were devot-
ed to "Ships of Discovery and Colonization," "Merchant
Ships of the Early Modem Era," "Warships," "Fishing Ves-
sels," "Recreational Vessels," "Passenger Ships," and a gen-
eral discussion of "Ship Models." Among the large modem
models were the battleship USS Texas and the record-break-
ing Cunard liner Mauritania.
Kevin Crisman, Mr. Grieco, Cory Arcak, and Ayfie
Atauz assisted the Stark Galleries with the development of
the exhibition. Several of Dr. Crisman's students assisted with
the text of the colorful eight-page exhibition booklet. In as-
sociation with the exhibit, Dr. Robert Neyland delivered a
lecture on the discovery, recovery, and excavation of the
Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley (INA Quarterly 29.1,14-
24). ,

Phoenician expansion outside the Mediterranean extend-
ed beyond Spanish Iberia, raising the possibility of find-
ing Phoenician ships outside the Straits of Gibraltar. Using
various remote-sensing survey methods, the team searched
lagoons, rice paddies, and alluvial fill in order to try to
locate ancient, buried shipwrecks, shorelines, and possi-
ble harbor facilities associated with the terrestrial Phoeni-
cian sites.
The Hellenic Institute for the Preservation of Nauti-
cal Tradition, which organizes the Tropis conference, this year
honored the recent passing of two major contributors to the
field of nautical archaeology, John Morrison and Michael
Katzev. John Morrison was instrumental in the scholarship
of ancient Greek galleys. Michael Katzev, who passed away
in September of 2001, is remembered elsewhere in this issue.
At the plenary session, Susan Womer Katzev spoke about
her husband, citing his particular fondness and enthusiasm
for scholarly discussions such as those that take place at this
conference gathering. NAP students and faculty have been
part of Tropis since its inception, and their tradition of in-
sightful research will no doubt continue to be part of the
scholarly discussions of future conferences. ,

From Ships t
rAntique Ma.s cd Ship Mdels
fTom the Colectii-n of
Mr. & Mrs. F. Carrngunm 'e. ms

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

Just Released 9

The Gondola Philadelphia and the Battle of Lake Champlain
by John R. Bratten

College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2002
ISBN 1-58544-147-3, 256 pp, 90 b&w photos, 16 line drawings, 6 tables,
3 maps, biblography, index. Cloth. Price: $34.95

Lake Champlain, between New York and Vermont, has had an influ-
ence on North American history far beyond its size. The lake was on the most
practical route between Canada and the Mid-Atlantic coast before the build-
ing of canals, railroads, and highways. Only a few miles north of the Hudson
River, Lakes George and Champlain are drained by the Richelieu and St.
Lawrence Rivers. Just twelve miles of the Richelieu is non-navigable, with an
excellent portage road around these rapids. The Champlain Valley is there-
fore a natural route for commerce or invasion. Forts commanding the lake at
Crown Point and Ticonderoga played important roles in the French and In-
dian Wars, the American Revolution, and the War of 1812. The peace trea-
ty that ended the last-named conflict was motivated in large part by the American naval victory at Plattsburgh Bay on
Lake Champlain. However, there might well not have been a United States to save at Plattsburgh had it not been for an
earlier battle on the lake.
John R. Bratten, who earned his doctorate in the Nautical Archaeology Program (NAP) at Texas A&M Universi-
ty, has written a fascinating book about the almost-forgotten Battle of Valcour Island. The combatants were among the
first naval vessels of the United States. One casualty of the battle-the gondola (gunboat) Philadelphia, raised in 1935
and currently at the National Museum of American History in Washington-is the oldest intact warship on display in
North America. A replica, Philadelphia II, was built by INA Adjunct Professor Art Cohn and his co-workers at the Lake
Champlain Maritime Museum. It can presently be seen at the museum in Basin Harbor, Vermont. Dr. Bra tten combines
an account of the battle with a description of the historic craft.
Philadelphia was built during a Revolutionary War arms race on Lake Champlain. The American rebels had taken
the initiative soon after the outbreak of hostilities at Lexington and Concord in April 1775. Forces under Benedict
Arnold and Ethan Allen had captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point and advanced across the modem Canadian bor-
der by May 18 (cannon from Fort Ticonderoga enabled George Washington to recapture Boston the following year). By
November, the Americans had captured Montreal and blockaded Quebec. The siege lasted until early May 1776, when
the arrival of a British army by sea forced the Americans to retreat. While the Continental Congress debated indepen-
dence in late June, only a "fleet" of four small ships on Lake Champlain was holding the British lion at bay. Both sides
undertook a crash building program for naval mastery of the lake. Philadelphia and its seven sisters were each built in
two weeks or less from fresh-cut green timber. They were not painted or finished out because they were not expected to
serve past the current crisis. The gondolas (commonly spelled "gundalows," and pronounced "gun-lows") had flat
bottoms with no keel. Tests with Philadelphia II show that the gondolas could only sail downwind. They were therefore
dependent on oars and poles much of the time. The gondola was primarily a gun platform. Philadelphia carried three
cannon-one firing directly over the bow and two on trainable carriages amidships. All the guns were old (seventeenth
century) and of Swedish manufacture.
The British won the 1776 arms race because they could bring prefabricated parts and even complete hulls around
the rapids from Canada. The fleet that moved up the lake in November included three sail warships, three large gun-
boats, as many as twenty-four small gunboats, and many additional boats and canoes carrying troops. The American
fleet included just four much smaller warships, three row galleys, and the eight gondolas. Benedict Arnold had the
wisdom to defend an anchored position with his less-manuverable vessels. The Battle of Valcour Island was a tactical
victory for the British, but Arnold accomplished his strategic aim of disrupting any invasion of the United States during
1776. The delay allowed raising and training the troops who won the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777, which inspired
the French intervention that helped win the war.

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

Bratten follows his account of the Battle of Valcour Island, including the sinking of Philadelphia, with a descrip-
tion of the 1935 discovery and recovery of the well-preserved gondola. The wreck looked for a permanent home for
twenty-five years before the Smithsonian Institution accepted it. Unfortunately, proper conservation did not occur
until then, and methods available forty years ago were less than ideal. The vessel has deteriorated somewhat. Fortu-
nately, the Smithsonian recorded the gondola in 1961 and NAP student William A. Bayreuther I studied it in the
1980s. Bratten reports those findings. He also provides a catalog and description of the 767 Philadelphia artifacts and all
the known information about the forty-four members of the crew.
The book meets the usual high production standards for the Studies in Nautical Archaeology series from Texas
A&M Press. Illustrations and tables complement the text nicely. This volume should form a part of any collection
concerned with early American naval history. e

International Handbook of Underwater Archaeology
Edited by Carol V. Ruppe and Janet F. Barstad

Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publicaters, New York, 2002
ISBN: 0-306-46345-8, 894 pages, photos, maps, tables, appendixes, glossary,
notes, bibliography, index, cloth, $175.00

Nautical archaeologists are often asked to recommend a book to pro-
vide a general overview of their discipline. A decade ago, one could easily
point to the 1977 Marilime Archaeology, edited by Keith Mucketroy, The Sea
Remembers (1987), edited by Peter Throckmorton, or particularly Ships and
Shipwrecks of the Americas, edited by George F. Bass in 1988. However, all of
those works are now somewhat dated. International Handbook of Underwater
Archaeology is designed to provide an up-to-date book along much the same
lines. Edited by Carol V. Rupp6 and Janet F. Barstad, this is the latest offering
in the Plenum Series in Underwater Archaeology under the series editorship of
INA's own J. Barto Arnold M. There are forty-eight chapters by a wide range
of authors and researchers in the field. Although the authors provide back-
ground information, these chapters concentrate on developments since the
early 1990s. The editorial work is excellent, but, as is usual in multi-author
compilation, there is a wide range of individual styles, approaches, and
opinions that the editors have made no effort to homogenize away.
The chapters are distributed among three parts and seven sections.
The first part is an introduction, with a general overview by Barstad and a timeline of the history of underwater archaeol-
ogy by John Broadwater (excavator of USS Monitor). The thirty-one chapters and over five hundred pages in Part II are the
heart of the book. They provide a geography of nautical archaeology, with sections on the United States (fourteen chapters),
Latin America and the Caribbean (four), Europe (nine), and most of the rest of the world (four). The editors acknowledge
gaps in coverage for Canada and the former Eastern Bloc. INA members will recognize many of the chapter authors. For
example, Barto Arnold wrote on Texas shipwrecks, Kevin Crisman co-wrote the chapter on Lake Champlain with Arthur
Cohn, and Shelley Wachsman and Dan Davis contributed the chapter on Israel. Part Ill includes fifteen chapters on "Issues
in Underwater Archaeology," including ethics, technology, and the role of government agencies for archaeology in the
United States. Summing up the entire volume is a short Afterword on "Archaeology in the 211 Century" by Dr. Bass.
Every serious library should have a copy of this book, because no other single current volume provides such a broad
overview of the field of nautical archaeology. Obviously, the coverage of individual subjects in an encyclopedic work like
this cannot be as detailed or technical as in the individual original publications. Nevertheless, there is more than enough
information on most subjects to enable the reader to make an informed decision about whether to use the abundant biblio-
graphic information to pursue further research. That makes the book cost-effective for institutions, despite its substantial
price, since it may save having to buy a whole shelf of other research material. Regrettably, the price may keep International
Handbook of Underwater Archaeology out of the hands of individual students and scholars who could profit from it Be that as it
may, nautical archaeologists again have a one-volume introduction to their discipline that they can unequivocally recommend.&

INA Quarterly 29.3/4


The President's Letter gives me the opportunity at this time of year to wish all our members a Happy Holiday Season
and a Happy New Year. It also allows me to look at the past, present and future of INA. This combined issue, Number 3/4
of Volume 29, completes The INA Quarterly for 2002. It is our intention to distribute four issues to the membership each year
and this year we mailed out Numbers 1, 2, 3/4 and a supplement, The George McGhee Amphora Collection at the Alanya
Museum, Turkey. These four issues total about 120 pages, which is larger than most INA Quarterly volumes.
The cover story in this issue is a moving tribute to Michael Katzev, one of the founders of the Institute of
Nautical Archaeology. A true friend and supporter of INA, he contributed significantly in opening the frontiers of
underwater archaeology. He will be sorely missed. Also included in this issue are articles by present or former
students of the Nautical Archaeology Program reporting on a shipwreck excavation in Bulgaria, a survey in the
Ionian Sea, and the Eighth Tropis Conference held in Hydra, Greece. An interesting article by John Janks discusses
the use of Landsat bathymetric data to document bottom conditions around shipwrecks such as the ill-fated Edmund
Fitzgerald in Lake Superior. Finally, the issue describes the newest release of the Texas A&M University Press' Studies
in Nautical Archaeology Series, The Gondola Philadelphia and the Battle of Lake Champlain by John R. Bratten, and The
International Handbook of Underwater Archaeology edited by Carol V. Rupp6 and Janet F. Barstad. Looking back over the
year and our accomplishments reflected in this volume of the Quarterly makes me proud to be the President of [NA.
Now we are starting a New Year and are anxiously looking forward, anticipating new archaeological projects
and the start of a new volume of The INA Quarterly to present our research. January is always one of the busiest
months of the year for archaeology and, with little doubt, the most hectic. We start the year with a much deserved
holiday break. Upcoming Quarterlies will include a review of the papers delivered by Nautical Archeology Program
students and faculty at the Archaeological Institute of America meeting held in New Orleans, January 3-6, 2003 and
at the annual Society for Historical Archaeology Conference held January 14-19, 2003 in Providence, Rhode Island.
These professional meetings are followed by the INA Annual Meeting that is being held in Houston, Texas, on
January 31, followed by a special tour of the nautical archaeology facilities on the campus of Texas A&M University
in College Station on Saturday, February 1.
In and amongst all this confusion, classes start again in mid-January for the Nautical Archaeology Program.
Then we will finalize plans for talks to be delivered at the annual 2003 Ship Weekend to be held on Saturday, April 5
in College Station. Just prior to the summer projects, INA and the Nautical Archaeology Program will co-host-along
with the Department of Oceanography, Texas Sea Grant, and the Marine Technology Society-the second annual
Marine Committee Workshop. Somehow during all of this, the Nautical Archeology faculty will continue to teach
classes, supervise student research, and conduct their own research.
The summers bring no relief. This year we can anticipate an exciting Fifth World Archaeological Congress (WAC-5),
being held on June 21-25, 2003 in Waslington, DC. A number of papers by present and former Nautical Archaeology
Program students and faculty are scheduled. You can see updated information about all forthcoming events on the INA web
page at or the Nautical Archaeology Program page at
Another exciting summer excavation season is being planned, including work in Turkey, Portugal, and Okla-
homa. Dr. George Bass will lead the team to complete the excavation of the Pabuc Burnu shipwreck in Turkey, to be
followed by a survey headed by Dr. Faith Hentschel, Associate Director of INA, to search for new shipwrecks in late
August. Dr. Filipe Castro will be returning to Portugal with students to continue his work at the mouth of the Arade
River. We are especially excited about the upcoming joint excavation with the Oklahoma Historical Commission on
an early steamboat in the Red River. Dr. Kevin Crisman will be offering a field school excavation through Texas A&M
University on this significant early nineteenth-century riverboat. We expect some of our members to wade out
(literally) and observe the excavation.
So, as you can see, we have a very active year and many challenges lying before us. As I review what we did
this past year and what we have to do in the coming year, I again am impressed and amazed at what we continue to
accomplish year after year.
Donny Hamilton

INA Quarterly 29.3/4

Vol. 29 Index

Author Index
Arnold, B., "The Denbigh Doll," 29.1,33
Arnold, B., T. Oertling, and A. Hall, "The
Denbigh Project 2001: Excavation of a
Civil War Blockade-Runner," 29.1, 25-
Atauz, A.D., "Archaeological Survey of the
Maltese Archipelago-2001," 29.2,
Bass, G.F., "Log of the Submersible Survey
2001," 29.2, 3-9
Bass, G.F. et al., "Remembering Michael
Katzev," 29.3/4, 9-15
Batchvarov, K., "Kiten Bay, Bulgaria, 2001,"
Broadwater, J., "Management, Archaeolo-
gy, and Engineering: Preserving the
USS Monitor" 29.1, 3-9
Carlson, D. N., "The 2001 Excavation Sea-
son at Tekta* Burnu, Turkey," 29.2,
Casserley, T., 'Technical Diving on the Mon-
itor," 29.1, 13
Charlton, W.H., Jr., "RPM Nautical Foun-
dation: Thanks for Your Support!"
29.2, 20-21
Charlton, W.H., Jr., "A Recompression
Chamber of INA-Egypt" 29.2,27
Janks, J.S., "Landsat Bathymetric Analysis
of Six-Fathom Shoal, Lake Superior.
The Wreck of Edmund Fitzgerald,"
29.3/4, 23-27
Johnson, J., "Preserving the Monitor's Most
Significant Components," 29.1, 10-12
Katzev, Susan Womer, "For Michael," 29.3/
Neyland, R, "An Interview with Dr. Rob-
ert Neyland," 29.1,17-24
Phaneuf, B., "The 'Mica' Shipwreck Exca-
vation: Deep-water Archaeology in
the Gulf of Mexico," 29.2, 22-23
Phaneuf, B. et al., "Ionian Sea Study 2001,"
29.3/4, 28-29
Powell, C., "H.L. Hunley: The World's First
Sucessful Submarine Warship," 29.1,
Quennoz, M., and B. Arnold, "Bringing Tex-
as Steamboats Alive for Texans," 29.1,
Rodrigues, P., "The Cais do Sodrx Ship,"

Sibella, P., "The George McGhee Amphora
Collection at the Alanya Museum,
Turkey," 29.Supplement, 3-20
Trakadas, A., "Eighth Tropis Conference in
Hydra, Greece," 29.3/4,30-31

Subject Index
AAUS Scientific Divers, 29.2, 20-21
American Revolution, 29.3/4,32-33
Amphoras, 29.Supplement, 3-20
Byzantine, 29.Supplement, 9-18
Greek and Roman, 29.Supplement,
Persian, 29.Supplement, 4-5
Arade (Portugal), 29.1, 35; 29.3/4,34
Athlit Ram, 29.3/4,30
Azores, 29.1, 35
Bass, George F., 29.1, 34; 29.2, 3-9, 30
National Medal of Science, 29.2,30
Bozburun, 29.3/4, 30
Bulgaria, 29.3/4,17-22
Cais do Sodr6 Ship, 29.2, 24-26
Carolyn (INA submersible), 29.2, 3-9
Carolyn Chauest (U.S. Navy support ship),
29.3/4, 28-29
Castro, Felipe, 29.1, 35, 38
Champlain, Lake, 29.3/4,32-33
Coins, Spanish, 29.2, 29
Crisman, Kevin, 29.1,35
Denbigh, 29.1, 25-33,34
Excavation, 29.1, 25-32,34
Doll, 29.1, 33
Directors' Meeting, 29.1, 34-35
Doll, Denbigh, 29.1, 33
Donachie, Madeleine Jean, 29.1,38
Edmund Fitzgerald, 29.3/4, 23-27
Graduates from Nautical Program, 29.1,38
Hall, Jerome, 29.1, 34-35, 39; 29.2, 31
Hamilton, Donny, 29.2,31; 29.3/4, 34
Hunley, CSS, 29.1,14-24
Excavation, 29.1,17-24
History, 29.1, 14-16
In Memorium
Michael Katzev, 29.3/4, 3-16, 31, 34
Ionian Sea Study, 29.3/4, 28-29
Katzev, Michael, 29.3/4,3-16,31,34
Kiten Bay, 29.3/4, 17-22
Krater, 29.2, 10-11
Landsat, 29.3/4, 23-27
Malta, 29.1, 35; 29.2, 15-19

McGhee, George, 29.Supplement, 3
"Mica" Shipwreck, 29.2, 24-26
Monitor, USS, 29.1, 3-13
Conservation, 29.1, 10-12
Diving Methods, 29.1, 13
Engine raised (2001), 29.1, 7-8
Future plans, 29.1, 8
History, 29.1, 3-4
Management, 29.1, 5-7
Propeller raised (1998), 29.1, 7
Normandy Documentary, 29.1, 38
NRI, 29.3/4, 28-29
"Pipe Wreck," 29.1, 34-35
Philadelphia, 29.3/4,32
Phoenician survey, 29.1, 34; 29.3/4,31
Powell, Christine, 29.1, 38
Pubuc Bunu, 29.2,5-6; 29.3/4,30,34
Recompression Chamber, 29.2,27
Red River Wreck, 29.1, 24; 29.3/4, 34
Remote sensing, 29.3/4,23-27
Revolutionary War, 29.3/4, 32-33
RPM Nautical Foundation, 29.2, 20-21
Steamboat Exhibit, 29.1, 24
Submersible Survey, 29.2, 3-11
Tangier Bay Survey, 29.3/4, 31
Tantura Lagoon, 29.1, 34
Tektas Burnu, 29.2, 12-14; 29.3/4,30
Toolkits, 29.3/4, 30
Tropis Conference, 29.3/4,30-31
Turkish Survey (2001), 29.2, 3-11
Turkish Survey (2003), 29.3/4,34
Venice, 29.2, 28
Wachsmann, Shelley, 29.1,34

Reviews and "Just Released"
Bratten, John R, The Gondola Philadelphia and
the Battle of Lake Champlain, 29.3/4,32-
Craig, Alan K., Spanish Colonial Coins in the
Florida Collection, 29.2,29
Martin, Lilian Ray, The Art and Archaeology
of Venetian Ships and Boats, 29.2,28
Rao, S.R., Marine Archaeology in India, 29.1,
Reith, tric, Catherine Carrierre-Desbois,
and Virginie Serna, L',pavede Port Ber-
teau 11, 29.1, 37
Rupp6, Carol V. and Janet F. Barstad, eds.,
The International HandbookofUnderwa-
ler Archaeology, 29.3/4, 33

INA Quarterly 29.3/4


Christine A. Powell
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., President*
Donald A. Frey, Ph.D., Vice President' Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Vice President
James A. Goold, J.D., Secretary & General Counsel* Claudia F. LeDoux, Assistant Secretary & Assistant Treasurer

William L. Alien
Oguz Aydemir*
John H- Baird
Joe Ballew
George E Bass. Ph.D.*
Edward O. Boshel, Jr.,'
Chairman and Treasurer
John A. Brock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Allan Campbell, M.D.

Raynette Boshell
Nicholas Griffis
Robin P. Hartmann
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.

John Cassils Charles Johnson, Ph.D.
Gregory M. Cook Harry C. Kahn II
William C. Culp, M.D. Mustafa Koc
Lucy Darden Francine LeFrak-Friedberg
Thomas F Darden' Robert E- Lorton
John De Lapa Alex G. Nason
Claude Duthuit' George E. Robb, Jr.
Danielle J. Feeney* Lynn Baird Shaw
Robert Gates, Ph.D. Ayhan Sicimoklu*

Susan Katzev Thomas McCasland, Jr.
William C. Klein, M.D. Dana F. McGinnis
George Lodge Michael Plank

J. Richard Steffy
William T. Sturgis
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Ph.D.'
Robert L. Walker, Ph.D.*
Lew 0. Ward, Vice Chairman*
Peter M. Way
Garry A. Weber
George 0. Yamini
Sally M. Yamini
*Executive Committee

Molly Reily
Betsey Boshel Todd
Casidy Ward
William Ward

Filipe Castro, Ph.D., Assistant Professor
Kevin J Crisman, Ph.D., Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology, George 0. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Professor/Director of the Archaeological Preservation Research Laboratory
Shelley Wachsmann, Ph.D., Meadows Associate Professor of Biblical Archaeology

George F. Bass, Ph.D.,
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology, George 0. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts, Distinguished Professor Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Ph.D., Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus

Mr. & Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II Graduate Fellow: Matthew Harpster Marian M. Cook Graduate Fellows: Peter D. Fix and Taras P. Pevny

J. Barto Arnold, M.A., Texas Operations

Aye Atauz
Kroum N. Batchvarov, M.A.
Katie Custer
Dan Davis, M.A.

Arthur Cohn, J.D.
David Gibbins, Ph.D.
Nergis GCinsenin, Ph.D.

Australian Institute of Maritime Archae
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati

Esra Alanarut-G6ksu
Miinevver Baback
Mustala Babacik
Hani Bedeir
Chasity Burns
MicheUe Chmelar
Mehmet Ciftlikl
Marion Feildel

Douglas Haldane, M.A., INA-Egypt

Tufan U.

Donald G. Geddes II Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
Jeremy Green, M.A. Maria del FPlar Luna Erreguerina
Andrew Hall, M.A. John McManamon, Ph.D.
Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D. Thomas J. Oertling, M.A.

Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D. Frederick Hocker, Ph.D
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D. Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
Fredrik T. Hiebert, Ph.D. William M. Murray, Ph.D.
ology Comell University University of
Corning Museum of Glass Partners for I
Departamento de Arqueologia SubacuAtica de University M
la I.N.AH., Mexico Texas A&M I
University of Maryland, Baltimore County Texas A&M I
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts University ol

Tuba Ekmekci Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Adel Farouk Mistie Moore
Zafer Gil Eric Nordgren
Bilge Gfinedogdu AsaJ Oron
Jane Haldane Muammer Ozdemir
Thomas Kahlau Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Gilser Kazancioglu Robin C. M. Piercy
Emad Khalil Sema Pulak, M.A.

Turanb, Turkish Headquarters

Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A-
Brett A. Phaneuf
Donald Rosencrantz
Athena Trakadas

David I. Owen, Ph.D.
Cheryl Ward, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., Ph.D.

North Carolina, Chapel Hill
.ivable Places
museum, University of Pennsylvania
Research Foundation
Texas at Austin

ikran Senyilz
Sherif Shabban
A. Feyyaz Subay
Murat Tilev
Siileyman Tiirel
Giine Yapar

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