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Title: The INA quarterly
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 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Spring 1997
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00019
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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The INA Quarterly

Volume 24 No. 1 Spring 1997

3 Shipwreck Fall: The 1995 INA/CMS Joint
Expedition to Tantura Lagoon, Israel MEMBERSHIP
Shelley Wachsmann and Yaakov Kahanov Institute of Nautical Archaeology
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On the cover: Members of the 1995 INA/CMS Joint Expedition to Tantura Lagoon record loose timbers and other
organic remains in Trench VII. Photo: S. Wachsmann.

May 1997 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor,
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The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).

Editor: Christine A. Powell

Shipwreck Fall:

The 1995 INA/CMS Joint Expedition to Tantura Lagoon, Israel

by Shelley Wachsmann and Yaakov Kahanov


Tantura is a little harbour which is in the dominion of the Emir Turabey. We had just
arrived, when, because of the stormy weather a big Greek vessel ran ashore on a sandbank.
It was loaded with Cyprian wine and cheese and was on its way to Egypt. As soon as it
struck, it was broken into pieces by the waves...

In fall 1994, we went searching for a shipwreck in Tan-
tura Lagoon, located south of Haifa on Israel's Carmel coast.
What we found was an enigma wrapped in a mystery.
Searching under two meters of sand, an expedition
consisting of faculty, staff and students from INA and the
Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M University,
and from Haifa University's Recanati Center for Maritime
Studies (CMS) and Department of Maritime Civilizations re-
located a "shipwreck" that had originally been found dur-
ing an Israel Department of Antiquities survey in 1983, and
then briefly re-examined in 1985. Atboth times, only a small
portion of the timbers had been revealed. However, they
continued into the sand and were surrounded by large quan-
tities of Byzantine-period (A.D. 324-638) ceramics, giving
the impression of a shipwreck lying under its cargo. That
impression was decidedly misleading.
Opening a large trench, our fourth of the season, in
the sand blanket that covers the cove's floor, we were dis-
appointed to discover that the timbers consisted of only a
few charred hull planks lying upside-down over some

frames. We were a shipwreck excavation without a ship-
wreck to excavate. The team's mood-not to mention its
collective ego-was deflated.
Where was the shipwreck? Serendipitously, we had
some clues. In two previous trenches (I and III), cut while
searching for the 1983 "shipwreck," we had uncovered a
layer of Byzantine-period ceramics "floating" in the sand
to the north of the timbers. This layer seemed to flow in a
north-south direction.
Might the timbers and pottery be the remains of a
ship, and its cargo, that had wrecked on entering the la-
goon? Perhaps its shattered hull and cargo had been
smeared across the cove and then buried under a blanket
of sand by the hand of the strong north-to-south current
that sweeps through the lagoon during storms. The Chev-
alier d'Arvieux, in his eye-witness account of a seven-
teenth-century shipwreck at Tantura, seems to be
describing a similar situation. If this hunch was correct,
then the ship, or at least part of it, might lie somewhere to
the north of Trench IV.

'Wachsrmann and Raveh 1984: 231. Translation from the eighteenth-century Germanby Ms. Marianne Habrichs. See Dahl 1915: 124-126.

INA Quarterly 24.1

We could not, however, continue excavating time-
consuming trenches indiscriminately in hopes of locating
the hull. Therefore, we began a systematic hydraulic probe
survey. The hydraulic probe is a narrow-diameter three-
meter long pipe attached to a fire pump by a flexible hose.
In this method, a moveable base-line is tied at either end
to heavy weights and placed on a defined compass bear-
ing. The probe is then drilled into the sand at short regu-
lar intervals along the base-line. This process is repeated
by moving the base-line in narrow parallel increments. The
pressure of the water moves the sand and other sediments,
permitting the pipe to penetrate down to the virgin clay
substrata beneath the sand. If, during its voyages through
the sand, the pipe hits waterlogged wood, small fragments
of it are broken off and float to the surface, thus indicating
a buried timber anomaly.
This "retrograde technology" works surprisingly well
In the course of searching for the shipwreck, we twice located
timbers that, upon further examination, were revealed to be
lead-filled wooden stocks of wooden anchors. Finding these
stocks-barely twenty centimeters across, and about two
meters in length-under two meters of sand, is the archaeo-
logical equivalent of finding a needle in a haystack.
Then, one day the probe team located two adjacent
wooden anomalies, situated about sixty meters north of
the Trench IV timbers. Enlarging this area (Trench VI), re-
vealed a significant part of a shipwreck (fig. 1; see also
INA Quarterly 22.2, 3 [figs. 1-2], 4 [fig. 3], 10 [fig. 1]).

The hull had been badly damaged-literally ripped
apart-when it sank. Almost the entire northern half of
the hull was missing, as was most of the southwestern
quadrant. Most of the frames (together with the cargo?)
had been ripped out of the surviving planking when the
missing parts of the hull disengaged from them. Some
planking bore evidence of charring, similar to that on the
Trench IV planking. Had the ship sunk due to a fire on
Most perplexing, however, was the consideration
that, despite the fact that we found Byzantine-period ce-
ramics overlying the hull (fig. 2), our preliminary study
did not reveal any evidence for mortise-and-tenon join-
ery. We knew, from the later, seventh-century A.D.
Yassiada shipwreck, that unpegged tenons were still be-
ing used at that time to align some planks. The earliest
documented Mediterranean vessel built entirely without
mortise-and-tenon joinery was the eleventh century A.D.
Serge Limaru hull.
Why did our hull lack mortise-and-tenon joints?
Perhaps, we conjectured, the Byzantine period ceramics
that we found on it had come from a nearby, earlier, ship-
wreck, and had been subsequently washed into the hull
by the current.
Unfortunately, at this point Poseidon decided to
complicate matters even further. Weeks of continuous bad
weather followed, preventing us from diving on the site.
The 1994 season ended with many perplexing questions,

INA Quarterly 24.1

but few answers. Subsequently, a set of
three radiocarbon tests carried out on a
single large splinter removed from an
outer edge of the ship's keel supplied a
date ranging from the mid-fifth through
the mid-sixth centuries A.D. (see INA
Quarterly 22.2,12). Thus, the ceramics and
the radiocarbon tests seemed to indicate -
a Byzantine-period date for the hull, while
the construction techniques appeared to
place it centuries later.
Our second season of exploration
took place in the fall of 1995, from mid-
October to mid-December. We now call
the Trench VI hull the Tantura A ship-
wreck. During the expedition, team mem-
bers logged over 600 diver-hours during
217 recorded field-related tasks. The team
recorded over 250 points on the hull and
associated artifacts, by measuring them
from six fixed points, each known as a
datum. We employed a three-dimension-
al computer program (WEB), specifically
designed for use in nautical archaeology,
to process this information. Additionally,
team members took many direct measure-
ments, and copied some constructional
details, at 1:1 scale underwater, on mylar.
We also generated a black and white pho-
tographic record of all timbers, with fifty
percent overlap, from an average distance
of 30 centimeters (about 12 inches) with a
Nikkor 15 mm lens. Particular emphasis Fig. 2. Byzar
was placed on collecting numerous mac- resin. This is c
robotanical and palynological samples for
The expedition accomplished its main objective:
completing in situ study of Tantura A. Additionally, a hy-
draulic survey in its immediate vicinity revealed remnants
of other hulls.
About twenty-five percent of Tantura A's hull bot-
tom is preserved (fig. 3). The keel is preserved for a length
of 5.2 meters; it has a rectangular cross-section, 11 centi-
meters sided (wide) and 18 centimeters molded (high).
Except for the preserved post, the keel does not have a
rabbet. Bolts had connected the frames to the keel.
Eight frames survived. The longest is 1.31 meters (9
centimeters sided and 9.5 molded). There is evidence for
seventeen additional frames. The situation is eight fram-
ing timbers in seven stations, twenty staining patterns in
seventeen stations, all together twenty-four frame stations.
Tantura A's eight partially preserved strakes are, on
average, 2.5 centimeters thick, and vary in width from 3.8
to 26 centimeters. The southern garboard, which is the

Photo: S. Wachsmann

tine-period sherds were found "glued" to the hull planking with
inclusive archaeological proof of the ship's Byzantine date.

longest surviving strake, is 8.78 meters. Iron nails-driven
from outside the hull-connected butt-scarfed planks and
drop strakes to the frames. Despite a meticulous search,
no mortise-and-tenon joints were found on any of the vis-
ible planking edges, nor on the sides of the keel.
All these timbers, which have a total length of 9.02
meters, suggest that the vessel was originally about twelve
meters long and approximately four meters at its widest
Taking a "forensic pathologist's" view of Tantura
A's demise, one notes that the preserved part of the ship
must have come to rest in its present position before it
broke up entirely. Otherwise, it would be difficult to ex-
plain the near-perfect alignment of the surviving strakes,
despite the fact that almost all the frames holding them
together had been ripped out when the missing sections)
separated from the hull. This event also apparently caused
the dispersion of the ship's cargo.

INA Quarterly 24.1


We also found Byzantine-period sherds glued fast
with resin to the planking amidships, thus confirming that
the pottery does indeed belong to-and date-the hull (fig.
2). Cordage was preserved in several locations near the
post, beneath the hull. Apparently, the ropes belonged to
the ship, which became entangled in them when it sank.
We discovered that the charring on Tantura A con-
tinued beneath the frame stations near the post, indicating
that the bur marks are not the result of a haphazard blaze,
but rather that the planks were charred prior to their at-
tachment to the frames. Furthermore, the charring was lo-
calized to the extremities of the strakes: in the northwest,
where they join the surviving post, and at the southeast
end of the southern garboard. These considerations led
J.R. Steffy to conclude that the bum-marks are the result
of "char-bending," a process in which water-soaked planks
are bent to shape as they are heated over a fire. Thus, the
reason that charring was located specifically at the ends of
the hull was because that is where the strakes receive their
strongest curvature, bending inward to meet the posts. This

is the earliest recorded evidence for this process on
planked-hull ship construction.
Thus, at present this modest little coaster is the ear-
liest recorded Mediterranean hull in which mortise-and-
tenon joinery was no longer employed. As such, it signifies
an important transition point in the gradual evolution of
Mediterranean hull construction, The vessel was built with
the innovative methods that were to evolve more fully and
to become standardized during medieval times. Steffy
notes that this change was likely to have taken place first
on small vessels, like Tantura A, which required lighter
timbers, allowing the shipwrights to do away with the mor-
tise-and-tenon joints that by then were used solely to align
some planking on larger contemporaneous ships, such as
the seventh-century A.D. shipwreck from Yassiada.
Rarely is stratigraphy encountered while excavat-
ing shipwrecks. Tantura Lagoon, however, is so abundant
in antiquities, that we repeatedly found meaningful strati-
graphical configurations. For example, the keel of Tantura
A came to rest on two stone anchoring devices that had

INA Quarterly 24.1

Oc -- ~ .. '"'

0 50

Drawing: P. Sibella

Fig. 4. The stone anchor
stock found beneath Tan-
tura A's keel.

Drawing: P. Sibella

NA Quarterly 24.1

.. t.'
* c .* *.

0 10 2.0
1 I I cm

reached the seabed before it. In the northwest, the
hull landed on an upside-down 52 kilogram stone
anchor stock, used to trip a wooden anchor. The
stock predates the hull by about a millennium (fig.
4; see also, INA Quarterly 22.2, 6, fig. 7). Three
pierced stone anchors were found in the south-
eastern portion of Trench VI (fig. 3). These vary in
shape and material; whether they were deposited
as a group remains unclear. One limestone anchor
is rounded, and partially underlies the keel (fig.
5). A second anchor, made of an as yet unidenti-
fied green stone, weighs 83.5 kilograms and has
an asymmetrical shape generally associated with
Bronze Age (circa 3000-1200 B.C.) anchors: it lay,
however, upon Persian period (586-332 B.C.) pot-
tery (fig. 6). Thus, the anchor cannot predate that
period, and requires us to reconsider the generally
early date assigned to stone anchors of similar
shape and size found on the seabed without ar-
chaeological context.

Photo: S. Wachsmann

Fig. 5 (above). The round stone an-
chor situated partially beneath Tan-
tura A's keel.

Fig. 6 (left). An asymmetrical anchor
rested upon Persian period sherds,
which are partially visible near the
centimeter stick.

INA Quarterly 24.1

The 1995 hydraulic probe survey was carried out in
search of missing sections of the Tantura A hull, in its im-
mediate vicinity. No additional parts of Tantura A were
located. Nevertheless, the results were far from disappoint-
ing. We discovered remnants of at least four, and possibly
five, additional shipwrecks.
Immediately northwest of Tantura A in Trench VII,
the probe revealed a deposit of ten disarticulated frames and
a single plank at a depth of only 1.5 meters beneath sea level
(fig. 7 and cover). This site also contained fragile organic ma-
terials, including long spans of rope, basketry, and even some
dyed cloth. One of the ropes ended in an eye-splice, while
another was knotted. It appears that all these artifacts de-
rive from a single vessel. Radiocarbon testing of one of the
Trench VII timbers assigns this assemblage a relatively re-
cent date, probably to the eighteenth century A.D.

West of Tantura A, in Trench VIII, the team revealed
a large hull, situated along a southeast to northwest axis,
the limits of which were determined on the northwest side,
where the ship had been broken and the keel ripped apart
(fig. 8). In the southeast, however, we did not reach the
full extent of the preserved hull. The vessel has a large
keelson with a rectangular mast-step cut into it. At the
southeastern end of the excavation, a smaller centerline
timber is secured above the keelson.
This hull lacked datable artifacts, but a radiocarbon
test places it circa A.D. 680-850. Its date makes this vessel a
particularly important discovery, as it may fill the gap in
our knowledge of Mediterranean hull construction be-
tween the early seventh-century A.D. Yassiada shipwreck
and the early tenth-century A.D. vessel currently being
excavated at Bozburun, Turkey.

Fig. 7. Plan of Trench VII.

Drawing: P. Sibella

INA Quarterly 24.1

-. -

I .l,


0 50


0 50
=_ cm

Drawing: P. Sibella
Fig. 8. Preliminary plan of the shipwreck in Trench VIII. One plank (A), bears two pegged mortise-and-tenon joints and is associated
with third- orfourth-century A.D. pottery; it suggests the existence of another, earlier shipwreck located near Trench VIII.

A single short plank bearing two pegged mortise-
and-tenon joints was situated at the northwest comer of
the trench (fig. 8: A). Associated with the plank were quan-
tities of third- or fourth-century A.D. Roman-period ce-
ramics, some in mint condition. These artifacts strongly
suggest the existence of yet another, earlier shipwreck and
cargo nearby.
At the very end of the season, another large ship-
wreck was discovered east of Tantura A in Trench IX (figs.
9-10). As this hull was situated in an area often deepened
by the channel that runs through the lagoon, the upper-
most surviving timbers had been badly damaged by teredo.
We uncovered one extremity of the keel. A false keel
continues forward of the keel and is then slotted back into
its end (fig. 11). There are numerous, heavy stringers, most
of which are only roughly finished. A transverse timber
situated above the frames and stringers has a groove along
the length of its upper surface and, therefore, may be the
seat for a removable bulkhead (fig. 12).
Much of the area of this hull that we revealed is covered
by ceiling planking. Between the end of the keel and the trans-
verse timber the planking is laid longitudinally. Beyond the tim-
ber, towards amidships, however, the ceiling planking is placed

perpendicular to the keel Two graffiti were noted-a cross cov-
ered with an arc, and a delta-carved into ceiling planks. Two
large well-cut ashlar stones, clearly still in their original align-
ment, sit upon the ceiling planking.
The Late Byzantine-period pottery found lying
upon, and between, the timbers is undoubtedly associat-
ed with the hull and, therefore, dates it. The date is con-
firmed by a single radiocarbon test result of A.D. 553-645.
This makes the Trench IX hull roughly contemporaneous
with the Yassi Ada seventh-century A.D. shipwreck, al-
though the Tantura vessel appears to be better preserved.
Some areas that we examined beneath the sand cover
of Tantura Lagoon are remarkably homogenous in terms
of the artifacts located in them. In others, items of a wide-
range of dates are found mingled together. This is the case
of a minor sondage, designated Float 2, in which we found
a single frame (fig. 13). Preliminary study suggests that
this frame does not conform to any of the other ships/tim-
bers discovered. This site also contained a potpourri of
pottery of a varying date, all mixed together. Of particular
interest is the upper portion of an Early Iron age (late-elev-
enth to early-tenth centuries B.C.) amphora, the third ex-
ample of this jar-type to be surrendered by the lagoon.

INA Quarterly 24.1


. . .. .. . . .

During the 1995 campaign we returned to study the anchor stock
discovered in 1994 in Trench IA (fig. 14). The oak stock is broken at a
quarter of its 2.10 meter length. It is loaded with four lead weights. Four
square holes are cut on the stock's upper and lower sides opposite the
centers of the weights and its center is recessed for attachment to the
anchor's shank (fig. 15).
This stock is associated with smashed jars of Persian-period (586-
332 B.C.) vintage. The contents of one jar had flowed over-and now
adhere to-part of the upper surface of the stock, indicating that the jars
and stock probably reached the seabed together.
Lead isotope analysis carried out by S. Stos-Gale (Isotrace Labora-
tory, University of Oxford) on lead from the stock indicates that it is
consistent with ores mined in the Troad, specifically from the deposit at
Altinoluk on the Aegean coast. A second possible source is the eastern
Rhodpi Bulgarian deposit of Madjarovo.

Fig. 9 (right). The Trench IX Byzantine-period shipwreck. View towards the

Fig. 10 (below). Plan of Trench IX.

INA Quarterly 24.1

.," i: :.': ," :. '. F~ 5
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Drawing: P. Sibella



Fig. 11 (above). The keel/false keel attachment at the northwest end ofTrench
IX. Note the rabbet at the top of the keel. View facing northeast.

Fig. 12 (right). Trench IX. The grooved transverse timber.

Fig. 13 (below). The frame found with a potpourri of pottery of varying
date at the Float 2 sondage.

Photos: S. Wachsmann

INA Quarterly 24.1

Drawing: P. Sibella

Fig. 14 (above). The Trench 1A lead-filled wood-
en anchor stock in plan (A) and profile (B) views.

Fig. 15 (left). The recessed central part of the
Trench IA anchor-stock's upper surface, where
it attached to the anchor's shank.

Photo: 5. Wachsmann

INA Quarterly 24.1

0 50


A 9D

We can learn much about the Tantura shipwrecks, their
cargoes, and crews, as well as the diet and hygiene-or
lack thereof (!)-through paleoethnobotanical study. Twen-
ty-five kilograms of organic-rich materials-from bilge
mud, resins and other residues-were collected during the
1995 expedition and brought back to Texas A&M Univer-
sity's Paleoethnobotanical Laboratory for study (fig. 16).
These will form the basis for an MA thesis by S. Butler, a
graduate student in the Nautical Archaeology Program.
While Butler's research is still in a preliminary stage, it has
already begun to supply us with an additional dimension
of life aboard the ships that we are excavating.
One sample of bilge mud removed from near the keel
of Tantura A contained a potpourri of fossil pollen from nine-
teen taxa, while other types remain unidentified. Olive (Olea
europaea) is the most common domesticated plant represent-
ed, with cereal pollen second in quantity. Other significant
fossil pollens include grape (Vitis sp.), hazelnut (Corylus),
sumac (Rhus), terebinth (Pistacia sp.), and palm (Areacaea), as
well as several species of umbels, a family that includes many
spices, such as caraway, celery, cumin, and dill.
The sample also contained three hemp (Cannabis
sativa) pollen, which perhaps came from the vessel's cord-
age. The only pollen grain identified from a sample of rope
comes from cordage compressed between the keel and the
anchor stock. The grain is of wild grass.
The most common seed type was wine grape (Vitis

All the shipwrecked remains described above are lo-
cated in a remarkably small area. This concentration of ship-
wrecked remains in the negligible portion of the cove
surveyed to date, when taken spatially, looks like nothing so
much as the underwater equivalent of a massive turnpike
pile-up (figs. 17-18). Taken chronologically, however, these
vessels-or parts thereof-stretch over nearly two millen-
Clearly, Tantura Lagoon is a remarkable ship grave-
yard. And, just as clearly, we have barely begun to reveal
the cove's abundance. Pottery recovered from the lagoon
includes materials dating to some periods for which we know
virtually nothing at all about the ships in use. If these pot-
tery remains are wash-off from shipwrecks still buried un-
der the cove's shifting sands, as in the case of Tantura
A-which seems likely-then they suggest a treasure trove
of archaeologically and historically significant shipwrecks.
As the area adjacent to Tantura Lagoon has been inhabited
for at least four millennia, there are few Mediterranean ports

Fig. 16. Team member Andrew Lacovara collects organic-rich
sediments from Tantura A's bilgefor paleoethnobotanical study.

that are likely to contain within them remains from such a
wide swath of history.
The earliest pottery found in the cove dates to the
Middle Bronze Age ILA (circa 2000-1750 B.C.). Nearby, Dor,
a tel or artificial mound that contains occupation levels fif-
teen meters (nearly fifty feet) thick, was founded at this peri-
od. While other nearby, less-protected coves also may have
served shipping, there can be little doubt that Tantura La-
goon was a primary-if not the primary-reason for the site's
establishment at this location.
In 1075 B.C. Wenamun, an Egyptian priest on a mis-
sion to bring cedar wood from Byblos in the Lebanon for the
barque of the god Amun, visited Dor and was robbed in its
harbor (Tantura Lagoon?). Wenamun reports that in his time
the city was inhabited by the Sekels, one of the groups of Sea
Peoples who had invaded the Levant, bringing an end to the
Bronze age cultures. (In the Bible, the Sea Peoples who even-
Stually settled along this coastal area are known collectively
as the "Philistines," after the largest group of invaders.)

INA Quarterly 24.1

0 50

Fig. 17. Map of the southern portion of Tantura Lagoon. The symbols inside the rectangle represent the locations of shipwrecks
and collections of timbers studied during the 1995 excavation season. For more detailed maps of these, see below, pp. 6-7,fig. 3
and p. 16,fig. 18.

INA Quarterly 24.1

0 5



Drawing: P. Sibella
Fig. 18. " a massive turnpike pileup." Map of shipwrecks in Tantura Lagoon studied in 1995 by the expedition.

During the Persian period (586-332 B.C.) the Phoe-
nicians-considered the quintessential seafaring traders
of antiquity-ruled this coastDor was a Sidonian port city.
Our discovery of a large "flow" of Persian period arti-
facts-ceramics and, perhaps, the anchor stocks as well-
suggests that a ship from that period came to grief inside
the port, possibly quite near the area currently under study.
During the Hellenistic period (332-37 B.C.) Dor was
besieged by land and by sea at least twice-in 219, and
again in 139-138 B.C. This raises the fascinating possibili-
ty of uncovering remains of Hellenistic war ships and their
equipment, similar to the Athlit Ram found nearby.

In the Roman period, Tantura Lagoon could not
compete with Herod the. Great's newly constructed har-
bor-works at Caesarea and, by the mid-third century A.D.,
occupation on Tel Dor had ceased. By the mid-fourth cen-
tury A.D., however, a church was constructed on the skirt
of the tel. It continued in use until the seventh century and
appears to have been a focal point of Christian pilgrimage
during the Byzantine period.
In medieval times, the Arab village of Tantura
sprang up directly opposite the lagoon to which it gave its
name. There are numerous records of visitors to the cove.
None, however, was as illustrious as Napoleon Bonaparte

INA Quarterly 24.1

who visited Tantura during his disastrous retreat from Acre
on May 21st, 1799 (fig. 19). He expected to rendezvous with
his fleet in the lagoon. When they did not arrive, Bonaparte
was forced to jettison into the sea a score of cannon. Two of
these were found by K. Raveh during Israel Department of
Antiquities and Museums underwater surveys.
In the nineteenth century the cove continued to func-
tion as a port, primarily for the trade in watermelons and

charcoal. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in
1948, two Jewish settlements, Nahsholim and Dor, have
continued the long history of habitation of this area. Today
the cove is one of the most popular beaches in Israel, while
also serving as a harbor for local fishermen.
Slowly, this history-rich cove is beginning to reveal
to us her archaeological abundance.

1" "' , .7 -, g ,9 ,t.,. ,
., ., ."'., 7

Fig. 19. Jacotin's map showing the environs of Dor, Tantura and Bonaparte's en-
campment on May 21st, 1799. From M. Jacotin, Carte topographique de l'Egypte
et de plusieurs parties des pays limitrophes, levee pendant l'exp6dition de
l'arm6e franqaise. In: Description de l'gypte, ou recueil des observations et
des recherches qui ont &t6 faites en tgypte pendant l'expedition de l'arm4e
franqaise VIII. 2- id. Publide par C.L.F. Panckoucke. (Paris: 1820-30) pi. 46.

Acknowledgements: The 1995 season of exploration
was made possible by generous grants from the National
Geographic Society, Texas A&M University's (TAMU)
College of Liberal Arts and by the support of the follow-
ing individuals: Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Chais, Mr. and Mrs.
Ted Halpem, Mr. and Mrs. Harry Kahn II, Mrs. Norma
Kershaw, Dr. and Mrs. Leon Riebman, Mr. and Mrs. Peter
Skinner, and Mr. and Mrs. John Stem.
Our special thanks go to J. Richard Steffy for joining
the expedition and helping with the interpretation of the
Tantura A hull, and to Lucien Basch and Sean McGrail for
their valuable comments.

Senior expedition staff consisted of INA and CMS
faculty and staff, as well as independent professionals:
Shelley Wachsmann (Project Director and Principal Inves-
tigator; Underwater Still Photography); Michael Halperr
(Assistant Director); J. Richard Steffy (Advisor on Hull
Reconstruction); Stephen Breitstein (Director of Opera-
tions); Yaakov Kahanov (Hull Reconstructor); Patricia Si-
bella (Ceramicist and Illustrator); Andrew Lacovara
(Hydraulic Probe Coordinator).
Additionally, students from TAMU, and the Uni-
versity of Haifa, as well as local high schools participated
in the excavation, making this expedition a truly international

INA Quarterly 24.1

cooperative educational experience. Some graduate stu- Room); Jaynie Cox (Land Photography); Bella Davidson;
dents were assigned important responsibilities within the Eyal Glick; Daniel Goldstone; Eli Haddad; TaliKan-Tzipor;
framework of the excavation. Participants included the Hadas Mor; Vered Romeo; Mira Roditi; Jeff Royal (Assis-
following: Karim Abu-Moach; Michael Aizenberg; Miriam tant Hull Reconstructor); Nimrod Shay; Maya Shemla;
Belmaker; Sheera Baroz; Joe Breman; Aaron Brody; Steven Claude Tibi (Studio Photographer); and Yishai Wachs-
Butler (Paleoethnobotany; Video Photography; Dark mann.

Suggested Reading

The Summer 1995 issue of the INA Quarterly (22.2) is dedicated in its entirety to the 1994 campaign at Tantura Lagoon.

Dahl, G.
1915 The Materials for the History of Dor. New Haven.
Kahanov, Y. and S. Breitstein
1995 "Tantura Excavation 1994: A Preliminary Report on the Wood." C.M.S. News 22 (August).
Kahanov, Y. and J. G. Royal
1996 "The 1995 INA/CMS Tantura A Byzantine Shipwreck Excavation-Hull Construction Report." C.M.S. News 23
(December): 21-23.
Sibella, P.
1995 "Ceramics from the First Excavation Campaign in Tantura Lagoon at Dor, Israel-Fall 1994." C.M.S. News 22
Stem, E.
1994 Dor: Ruler of the Seas. Jerusalem.
Wachsmann, S.
1995 "Return to Tantura Lagoon." C.M.S. News 22 (August).
Wachsmann, S.
1996 "Technology Before Its Time: A Byzantine Ship from Tantura Lagoon." The Explorers Journal 74/1: 19-23.
Wachsmann, S., and K. Raveh
1984 "A Concise Nautical History of Dor/Tantura," International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 13: 223-241.
Wachsmann, S., and K. Raveh
1984 "In the Footsteps of Napoleon at Tantura, Israel." Archaeology 37: 58-59, 76 and 17.

INA Quarterly 24.1

Tracking Professionalism

in Sixteenth Century Scandinavian Boatbuilding
by Jan Bill

Professionalism is an everyday word and something we expect to be present in many aspects of our lives. However, this was
not always so, and the birth of professionalism in specific trades often marks their entrance into the modern economy. In this article,
Jan Bill, recently visiting scholar at Texas A&Mfrom the Centre for Maritime Archaeology in Denmark, investigates the hidden
secrets of a sixteenth-century cargo vessel from the Western Baltic, and shows it to be the oldest example of a specific type of
professionalism so far found in traditional Scandinavian shipbuilding.

Traditional Scandinavian shipbuilding has its roots
in the rowed longships predating the Viking Age, but many
of its characteristics can still be found in living boat build-
ing all over the Nordic countries. Up to the High Middle
Ages, ships built in this tradition formed the backbone of
any military or civil fleet native to Scandinavian waters,
and the way these ships were built certainly had an im-
pact on shipbuilding all over Northern Europe. The eco-
nomically-rather than militarily-competitive
environment later created by the large towns of the south-
ern Baltic and North Sea coasts placed Scandinavia firmly
in the backwater of European economy. The major devel-
opments in shipping and seafaring from the thirteenth cen-
tury on took place elsewhere. Cogs, and later caravels,
became the large ships of Scandinavia as they did in the
rest of Northern Europe. Native traditions were reduced
to fulfill the needs mostly of local and regional seafaring.
Though unglamorous, this function was still of critical
importance for the economies of the Scandinavian coun-
tries, as they depended on seafaring for internal commu-
nication due to their geography.
For this reason, it is of interest that there is a clear
discrepancy between Continental and Scandinavian prac-
tice in the production of planks. On the Continent, ships
from the thirteenth century onwards tended to be built
from sawn planks. In Scandinavia, planks made from split
logs-a technique employed by the Viking boat builders
and their predecessors-were still dominant in the build-
ing of traditional vessels at least up to the mid-sixteenth
century (fig. 1). With only human power available, the pro-
duction of planks represented a significant part of the to-
tal labor in the construction of a ship. A difference in such
an economically important aspect of shipbuilding is likely
to reflect a more fundamental difference between the soci-
eties than simply a variance in shipbuilding traditions.
Written sources give some clues that shipbuilding
perhaps met different demands in Northern Continental
Europe and in Scandinavia during the High and Late Mid-
dle Ages. The earliest record of a shipbuilders' guild is from
Dordrect in 1365. Before the end of that century, shipbuild-
ing was an established urban trade in the coastal Conti-
nental towns of the North Sea and the Baltic. In
Scandinavia, shipbuilders are not mentioned in towns be-
fore the late 15th century, and no shipbuilders' guilds are
known at all from the Middle Ages. The sixteenth century

Fig. 1. Miniature from the Saint Louis Psalter, produced in
England c. 1200. After being instructed in building the Ark,
Noah himself is shown dressing a plank with a large, T-shaped
broadax. The whole scene, and even more the ax itself, is typ-
ical of North European representations throughout the Mid-
dle Ages of the building of the Ark, while depictions of the
saw in this context are late and rare. Courtesy of Leiden Uni-
versity Library, Ms. BPL 76A,fol. lOv.

saw the development of specialized shipbuilding indus-
tries outside the towns, in Scandinavia as well as on the
Continent-but certainly on very different levels. In the
Netherlands, Zaanstreek shipbuilding became a major

INA Quarterly 24.1

Map: C. A. Powell
Fig. 2.1. Copenhagen; 2. Roskilde; 3. Bredfied on Loland Island.

threat to that of the towns. Shipbuilding along the coasts of
southern Norway and Sweden became more of a headache
for the Danish king, due to his wish to control the sale of
ships and to preserve forest resources for his own use.
A document issued by the Danish king in 1249 illu-
minates the organization of shipbuilding: the king orders
that no one should hinder the peasants
and bailiffs of St. Peter Monastery outside
Naestved in their building of a ship. The
source is quite unique, but a letter from
the Danish archbishop to his bailiff in Elle-
holm in 1460 might illustrate the same
practice: The archbishop is sending his
shipbuilders to Elleholm, and tells the
bailiff to provide timbers, tar, and other
supplies. The church and other large land-
owners had a dominant position in the
Scandinavian economy in the Middle
Ages, and the towns were struggling in a
difficult battle to survive. Consequently,
the two letters may reflect a more wide-
spread practice of the landlords in de-
manding their peasants to labor at
shipbuilding, which was perhaps as much
linked to rural society as to urban com-
merce. Such an explanation would fit well Fig. 3. Overall
with the fact that split planks could be Archaeology, T

produced with tools owned by and familiar to any peasant-ax
and wedges-while a saw was a much more specialized
and unusual tool in those days.
The archaeological and historical sources thus indi-
cate that Scandinavian shipbuilding relied to a great ex-
tent on unspecialized labor directed by shipwrights. In
contrast, Continental shipbuilding saw specialization
through all levels of production, from the sawing of planks
to the directing of the building process. However, another
hypothesis could be drawn up: that peasants produced split
planks for shipbuilding as a private enterprise, and that
the normal-but unrecorded-procedure was simply to
buy them when necessary. In that case, there would be no
major difference between the organization of shipbuild-
ing on the Continent and Scandinavia, except for the rela-
tively insignificant character of the latter and its
consequential absence from the written record. The differ-
ence between the two hypotheses is basically the differ-
ence between a seafaring practice directed by the needs of
a feudal society and one directed by a market economy.
Studies of a small cargo carrier, a skute, excavated at
Bredfed in southern Denmark in 1993, provide some sup-
port for the first hypothesis (fig. 2). The vessel, being orig-
inally c. 13 m long, is dated by dendrochronology to 1600.
It was built entirely from hand-sawn planks, which makes
it the oldest excavated find of its type in Scandinavia. Only
the bottom (including the turn of the bilges) was preserved,
but enough of the clinker-laid strakes were found to allow
for a detailed study of the way the sawn planks had been
used (fig. 3). A remarkable feature was the absolute sym-
metry in the distribution of scarfs throughout the vessel,
making each side of the boat a mirrored version of the oth-
er (fig. 4 a and b). This feature is not known from older

m .

view of the Bredfjed shipwreck. Photo courtesy of Centre for Maritime
he National Danish National Museum.

INA Quarterly 24.1

0 1 2 3m

=log 1


=log 3

U = other

S- log 2 = log 4 D = unknown
Drawings: Centre for Maritime Archaeology, The National Danish National Museum
Fig. 4a (top). The distribution of the lengthwise joints (scarfs) of the planking in the Bredfjed ship. The stem is to the right, and each
scarf is indicated with a square. Within a few decimeters, all the scarfs are placed exactly symmetrical in the preserved portion of the
hull. A similar phenomenon can be observed in older, small cogs, but not in vessels built from split planks.
Fig. 4b (bottom). The distribution of planks from individual logs in the Bredfjed ship. The perfectly symmetrical pattern of the
scarfs is only partially reflected in a symmetrical distribution of planks from the same log. While the scarf pattern was necessary
because of the building method, the parent log pattern reflects only concerns of wood quality and economy; there is no indication
whatsoever that attempts were made to orient the planks according to any specific pattern.

INA Quarterly 24.1


Scandinavian vessels, but it can be found in some smaller
cogs excavated in the Netherlands, two of which have been
published by former students of the Nautical Archaeology
Program at Texas A&M University, Aleydis van der Moor-
tel and Frederick Hocker. Both ships are built from sawn
planks and date probably from the Late Middle Ages. The
same feature also occurs in two Scandinavian boats from
the early seventeenth century, excavated in Kvarteret
Hasten, Stockholm. Those boats, however, were the only
ones referred to in this study that were built from pine
planks. It is not known whether these were sawn or split.
The observation of the scarf symmetry gave a first
indication that sawn-plank vessels might have more in
common than just being built of the same material In order
to investigate the problem further, samples for dendrochro-
nological analyses were taken from most of the planks in
the Bredfjed find, and the cell orientation in each plank
was recorded. The basic question to be answered was:
would the symmetrical scarf pattern be related to the spe-
cific qualities of sawn planks, and thus derive from the
change in material? Alternatively, would both the change
in material and the scarf pattern have their explanation in
another, more professional, way of building ships, as im-
plied by the growing number of references to shipbuilders
in the written records? Radially split planks are normally
superior to sawn ones, as they follow the grain better. Ra-
dially split planks are therefore stronger and less prone to
warping and rot than their sawn counterparts. However,
they are also more time-consuming to produce, and de-
mand logs of a better quality than do sawn planks.
The analyses of the planking showed that the mate-
rial available had been used in a very conscious manner in
regards to quality. Planks cut almost radially from the logs
were used mainly in the bow portion of the ship and along
the turn of the bilge, while the weaker, tangentially-cut

planks were predominant in the stern. The strong planks
also showed up in analyzing the lengths of the planks. The
bow planks are short (less than 3.6 m long), while the bilge
planks are the longest ones in the preserved part of the
hull (more than 5 m long). Obviously the most radially-
cut planks have been selected for the parts of the hull that
demanded the most from the material.
In contrast to the Almere cog, the heartwood side
of the planks was haphazardly put to the inside or the out-
side of the hull in the Bredfjed ship. This practice is due to
the fact that many of the planks had been sawn from very
thick logs, and had consequently been split lengthwise
before use. This observation ruled out the possibility that
the planks were actually placed in the hull according to
their position in the log from which they were sawn-a
configuration that is otherwise suggested by the dendro-
chronological analyses. These ascribe most of the planks
to four different parent logs and show that planks from
each log normally are placed symmetrical to each other.
One log has only provided four planks in the preserved
part of the vessel, but these are the four long almost radi-
ally-cut ones in the bilges. The short high-quality planks
in the bow come from all of the three remaining logs, while
the rather poor planks in the stern come from only two of
the logs.
The analyses thus showed that quality and function
were carefully considered before the position of each plank
was decided upon. No rigid pattern of symmetry was en-
forced, but the scarfs were kept symmetrical to each other,
and the use of the planks, which were often longitudinally
divided into two boards, resulted often in a symmetrical
distribution of planks from the same log in the hull (fig. 5).
The difference in quality between split and sawn planks is
certainly taken care of in the construction of the hull, but
there is no reason to claim the scarf symmetry to be related

Drawing: Centre for Maritime Archaeology, The National Danish National Museum

Fig. 5. An example of the symmetry of the planks. The lowermost, aft plank to the port side is shown in black; the mirrored image of
the facing, starboard plank is grey. Note also the symmetry in cross-sections, indicating that even the beveling of the planks in order
to adjust their angle to the previous strake was copied off. The gain was a speedy construction process and a certain amount of
control over the symmetry of the finished hull.

INA Quarterly 24.1

thereto-nor does the lack of interest in the orientation of
the heartwood side of each plank indicate such a relation-
ship. Instead, a comparison of the actual shape of the planks
in both sides of the hull gave a perfect explanation of the
observed features.
By comparing 1:1 scale drawings made of the indi-
vidual planks in the hull, it was demonstrated that planks
in equal positions in each side of the hull were almost ex-
act copies of each other-in spite of the fact that they were
curved and varied in width in order to accomplish the shap-
ing of the hull. With more than 50% of the preserved planks
compared, the maximum difference in width observed was
15 mm, and the average was much less, about 5 mm. Such
accuracy could hardly be expected unless the planks were
made in pairs, one being a copy of the other. This method
would necessitate symmetry in the positioning of the scarfs,
and with the frequent longitudinal dividing of the planks
in the Bredfed ship, it would also tend to create a pattern
of symmetry in the way planks from each log were dis-
tributed throughout the hull. The method would reduce

the work of temporarily mounting and checking the lines
and beveling of each plank before final assembly. It im-
plies that the symmetry of the hull was controlled rather
by providing symmetry to each pair of planks than by con-
trolling the overall shape of the growing ship. The method
definitely could not have been used in the irregularly-
scarfed Scandinavian vessels of the previous centuries, but
might very well have been used in the Netherlands and
elsewhere. It is likely to indicate the import, not only of a
new concept of plank production, but also of ship build-
ing-one that relied much more on methodology and time-
saving production routines than the previous, more
sculptural, attitude (fig. 6). The difference between the two
attitudes might very well be the difference between a peas-
ant directed to build a ship and a ship carpenter working
for his own living. The reason for the delay in the profes-
sionalization of Scandinavian shipbuilding might be the
difference in an economy directed by the interests of the
feudal aristocracy and that directed by urban commerce.

Fig. 6. The inner surface of a plank from the Bredfjed ship. The two crossing sets of traces from
the saw clearly show that the plank has been sawn by hand. Such interfering sets of traces were
always found near the end of planks, indicating that the major length of all the planks in the log
was sawn from one end, before each plank was released by sawing the last meter of it from the
other end of the log. It is possible that the planks in the Bredfjed ship were sawn in regular pits
rather than on trestles, as each log weighed 3-4 metric tons. Photo courtesy of Centre for
Maritime Archaeology, The National Danish National Museum.

INA Quarterly 24.1

Acknowledgments: The above study is a summary of some of the research I have had the opportunity to carry out as a
visiting scholar at the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. I am grateful to the many members of the INA staff, whose
through discussions have been of tremendous help in getting this far. Also, I am thankful to the Centre for Maritime
Archaeology and the Danish National Research Foundation for providing me with the means and opportunity to go
there. The gradual expansion of the use of sawn planks in shipbuilding in Northern Europe is the topic of an article
presently under preparation by George Indruszewski and me and will, when finished, provide a useful foundation for
further studies into these aspects of the professionalization of North European shipbuilding.

Suggested Reading

Bill, Jan
1994 "Ship Construction: Tools and Techniques." Cogs, caravels and Galleons. The Sailing Whip 1000-1650, ed. Richard
W. Unger: Conway Maritime Press, p. 151-159.

Hocker, Frederick M.
1991 "The Development of a BottomBased Shipbuilding Tradition in Northwestern Europe and the New World."
Dissertation. Texas A&M University.

Unger, Richard W.
1991 The Art of Medieval Technology. Imges of Noah the Shipbuilder. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

van de Moortel, Aleydis
1991 A cog-like vessel from the Netherlands. Flevobericht 331. Rikjsdienst voor de Ijseelmeerpolders.

In the Lab


Two full excavation seasons and two shipwreck surveys later, INA-Egypt researchers expect a busy summer in
the laboratory. A study season at the Alexandria Laboratory for the Conservation of Submerged Antiquities will in-
clude visiting preservation specialists, Supreme Council of Antiquities conservators, and INA-Egypt staff and volun-
teers. They will continue cleaning and documenting more than 3,000 artifacts from the porcelain wreck at Sadana
Island (see INA Quarterly 23.3 and 23.4).
We also look forward to inaugurating a fully equipped darkroom (including a refrigerator for chemicals) this
summer, thanks to the generosity of a recent visitor. The lab ultimately will contain a medical x-ray unit, microscopes,
and other analytical equipment. It is funded by a consortium of Egyptian and international companies and is a join
project of the Supreme Council of Antiquities for Egypt and INA-Egypt.
Meanwhile, preparations for shipwreck surveys and further excavation continue. To visit the Alexandria lab
please contact INA-Egypt headquarters (tel./fax 011-203-546-6872; e-mail

Copies of the INA-Egypt newsletter El Bahri ("of the sea") are available upon request from INA-Egypt, P.O
Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841.

INA Quarterly 24.1


by J. Richard Steffy

Le Maitre-Gabarit, La Tablette et le Trdbuchet,
by Eric Rieth
Paris Cedex 05: CTHS, 1, Rue Descartes, 75231, 1996.
ISBN 2-7355-0337-2, 225 pages, 136 illustrations,
softcover, 250 Francs.

This is an interesting, well-illustrated study of non-
graphic methods of determining hull shapes between the
early middle ages and the present century. The process is
sometimes called "whole molding" in the U. S. It was an
ingenious geometric method of ship architecture, frequently
practiced by builders with very limited formal education,
who nonetheless could produce fine seagoing ships with-
out the use of lines drawings, construction plans, or addi-
tional calculations. It began with the development of the
master mold (maitre-gabarit), or midship shape. By using
a variety of ingenious geometric methods and devices, the
diminishing fore and aft contours of a hull's bottom and
sides could be determined with precision. Eric Rieth has
assembled an impressive array of examples of this form
of shipwrightery, along with references to the literary, ar-
chaeological, and ethnographic sources from which he
gleaned them.
The book is divided into four parts. The first chapter
of part one is an overview of ancient and medieval ship-
building, nearly all of which is supplied by archaeological
contributions but spiced with interesting comments by the
author. Several projects conducted by INA personnel are
represented here, including Kyrenia, Yassi Ada, and Serge
Limani. The second chapter presents terminology and an
overview of shipbuilding technology necessary to absorb
the following chapters. Part two deals with the methodol-
ogy, documentation, and details of shipwrightery inthe
eighteenth century and the shaping of galleys from a slightly
earlier period. Chapters 4 and 6 are most interesting; they
describe the development and various forms of the three
devices in the title, which Rieth calls the constructor's "in-
struments," and numerous ways in which master molds
were used. Much of part three has been published before
in one form or another, including a rewrite of the author's
excellent work on Oliviera's manuscript in Neptunia sev-
eral years ago. But even here he has inserted some fresh
commentary and pointed out interesting facts that were,
at least to me, new revelations about popular sources like
Lavanha and the Venetian constructors. Perhaps the most
interesting feature in this section is the way these methods
of molding hulls apply to a well preserved archaeological
example, Culip IV, which was discovered in Spain in 1987.

Rieth does an excellent job of illustrating how the interpreta-
tion of information derived from hull remains can be taken
all the way back to the mind of the shipwright.
The final part deals with nineteenth- and twentieth-
century methods of whole-molding in the Mediterranean
area, Brazil, and Newfoundland, modem applications di-
rectly descended from some of the methods described pre-
viously. The conclusions that follow are an excellent
summation of the series of processes, and there is a glossary
defining the more complex terminology.
Eric Rieth is a leading authority on this form of ship-
wrightery. Furthermore, he is an outstanding scholar who
has the ability to relay his discoveries in a manner that
makes even the most obscure details interesting and even
exciting. Even if one has difficulty reading French, Rieth's
logical writing style is easily interpreted with a good dic-
tionary or computer interpreter.
This book is a "must" for all those interested in re-
constructing post-medieval hull remains. It should also
benefit historians, technologists, geometricians, model
builders, architects, and people who are simply interested
in the past. And for those Quarterly readers who are seri-
ous ship model builders, I suggest trying some of these
processes as a starting point. The experience will be most

INA Quarterly 24.1

News & Notes

A Rare Representation of a Greek Merchant Ship

In 1995 1 visited the University of Heidlberg to give a lecture at the invitation of Dr. Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier, the
excavator of the Bronze Age levels of Miletus, not far north of INA's headquarters in Bodrum, Turkey. While there, I
was given a tour of the Archaeological Institute's museum by its curator, Dr. Hermann Pflug. I was astonished to see on
display the depiction of a Greek merchant ship on a Black-figure vase of the type common in Greece in the sixth century
B.C. My astonishment was caused by the fact that I knew of only one such representation, frequently published, and by
the fact that I knew of no contemporary representation of a furled sail. Dr. Pflug told me that the vase was published in
the Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, Heidelberg, vol. 4, plate 162, 10.11, which meant that it had simply been overlooked by
all the world's authorities on ancient seafaring.
He quickly made a photocopy of the published depiction, which the next year I shared with a number of col-
leagues, including the dean of Greek ship studies, Professor Emeritus Lionel Casson of New York University. He im-
mediately responded that I had hit the jackpot, and provided so much insight into the piece that I recommended that he
publish it in the appropriate place, the International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, to bring it to the attention of other
students of nautical archaeology. This he is now doing, with good prints provided by Dr. Pflug.
I now look forward to showing Wolf and Barbara Niemeier INA's Bronze Age finds in the Bodrum Museum of
Underwater Archaeology, and to returning the warm hospitality they showed me in Heidelberg. Meanwhile, with still
another print supplied by Dr. Pflug, I thought that readers of the INA Quarterly would like one more example of the
important finds nautical archaeologists can make without getting wet!
George F. Bass

A black-figured vase from the sixth-century B.C. depicting a Greek merchant ship
with afurled sail. Courtesy of the Archaeological Institute Museum, University of

INA Quarterly 24.1

In the Lab

Ser;e Limami Glass Conservation Update
Throughout the summers of 1977 through 1979, over a million shards of broken Islamic glass were recovered as part
of the cargo of the 11th-century shipwreck at Serce Limaru, excavated by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology and Texas
A&M University. In the years following the excavations, these shards were cleaned, identified, sorted according to type,
and inspected for any possible joins. Visitors to the work area in the English Tower within Bodrum Castle were regularly
astonished by the huge amounts of glass, its diversity, and its seemingly nightmarish aspect as a jigsaw puzzle.
Despite the difficulties, however, from 1980 to present more than 300 glass vessels were reconstructed, often with
missing areas replicated in resin. Many new shapes emerged. The Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology exhibits
one of the finest collections of Islamic glass in the world. Although the restored glass now forms a popular part of the Serte
Limaru display, work on the thousands of remaining shards has continued. These have been studied and yet more un-
known shapes, forms, and information about manufacture and trade have been revealed. In some cases, a new vessel may
consist of only two or three paper-thin fragments. Many of these have been reconstructed to enable drawing or photogra-
phy to take place. Notwithstanding the difficulties, several of the more complicated and unusual vessels have been recon-
structed in the past year.
The new pieces include a fine mosque lamp, now fitted with a Plexiglas inside 'former' that supports the heavy rim
and shoulders and enables the lamp to be displayed the correct way up for the first time. Another is the affectionately called
"chip'n'dip dish" consisting of a central bowl surrounded by four smaller bowls. This has been fully restored for display.
The glass jigsaw puzzle is nearing its completion, but continues to present us with extra pieces to add.
Jane Pannell

Jane Pannell puts the final touches to the mosque lamp that has been fitted with a Plexiglas 'former' that
supports the heavy rim and shoulders, enabling the lamp to be displayed the correct way up for the first time
since its discovery. Photo: N. Piercy

INA Quarterly 24.1



James A. Goold, Secretary
Claudia LeDoux, Assistant Secretary
Rebecca H. Holloway,
Assistant Treasurer

William L. Allen
John H. Baird
George F. Bass
Edward 0. Boshell, Jr.,
Vice Chairman and Treasurer
Ray M. Bowen
John A. Brock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Gregory M. Cook, Chairman
Harlan Crow
Frank Darden
John De Lapa

George F Bass, President and
Archaeological Director


Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon
Danielle J. Feeney
Donald G. Geddes Im (Emeritus)
Woodrow Jones, Jr.
Harry C. Kahn II (Emeritus)
Michael L. Katzev
Jack W. Kelley
Sally R. Lancaster
Robert E. Lorton
Frederick R. Mayer

Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cemal M. Pulak, Vice President

William A. McKenzie
Alex G. Nason
L. Francis Rooney
Ayhan Sicimoglu
Ray H. Siegfried II
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew O. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry A. Weber
Martin H. Wilcox
George O. Yamini


George E Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology/ George O. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Kevin J. Crisman, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Frederick R Mayer Faculty Fellow
Frederick M. Hocker, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Faculty Fellow
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Assistant Professor of Biblical Archaeology

Birgil Akbulut
Mustafa Babacik
William H. Charlton, Jr.
Marion Degirmenci
Helen Dewolf
Adel Farouk
Michael A. Fitzgerald, Ph.D.
Sevil G6kmen
Douglas Haldane, M.A.
Maria Jacobsen
Emad Khalil
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Selma Ouz
G6khan Ozagacli, Ph.D.
Giine Ozbay
Jane Pannell
Claire P. Peachey, M.A.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D.
Sema Pulak, M.A.
Patricia M. Sibella, Ph.D.
Gillser Sinaci
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D.
Tufan U. TuranL .
Patricia A. Turner
Howard Wellman

Elizabeth Robinson Baldwin
Jeremy Green
Elizabeth Greene
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Ralph K. Pedersen, iM.A.
Donald Rosencrantz
Peter G. van Alfen, M.A.

Arthur Cohn, J.D.
Cynthia J. Biseman, Ph.D.
John A. Gifford, Ph.D.
Cheryl W. Haldane, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
David C. Switzer, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., M.A.
James A. Goold

Christine A. Powell

Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Cornell University
Corning Museum of Glass
Department de Arqueol6gia Subacuatica de
la I.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas at Austin

Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II
Graduate Fellow: Cemal M. Pulak
Marion M. Cook Graduate Fellows:
Eric Emery and Erika Washburn

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