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Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Spring 1993
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Volume ID: VID00005
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Volume 20, No. 1Spring 1993
Volume 20, No. I Spring 1993


3 Two Sixteenth-Century Ship
Excavations in the Netherlands:
1992 Field Report
Kathleen McLaughlin-Neyland and
Robert Neyland

8 The Search Continues for
Columbus's Caravels: 1992 Field
James Parrent and Maureen
Brown Parrent

15 Review: Easter Island, Earth Island
Richard D. Herron

16 In the Field

19 News and Notes

On the cover: A day designated for visitors at the site of a sixteenth-century shipwreck in the Dutch polders attracts
observers as archaeologists measure the hull. A calibrated beam designed for measuring cross sections can be seen in
the ship's bow (the view is from the stern). During the summer of 1992, INA research associates Bob Neyland and
Kathleen McLaughlin-Neyland directed excavation of the ship under the aegis of the Dutch Centerfor Ship Archaeology
and participated in the excavation and recording of another sixteenth-century ship.

* 1993 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology
INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Please contact the editor for permission to do so.

The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).

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Editor: Margaret Lynch

Two Sixteenth-Century Ship Excavations in

the Netherlands: 1992 Field Report

by Kathleen McLaughlin-Neyland
and Robert Neyland

Viewed from the stern, shipwreck M-11 as it
appeared after excavation. The port side was
separated from the rest of the hull and was
divided into two parts. This sixteenth-century
merchantman is just one of many wrecks, from
all periods of history, found on land (the pol-
ders) once submerged beneath the Zuider Zee.
Artifacts from the wreck (below) include the
staves of a collapsed barrel (foreground), rope,
and hearth tiles. A copper pot and slipware
bowl found nearby might have been used on
Photo: B. Neyltd board.

Excavating a shipwreck on land may seem like a
contradiction, but in the Netherlands terrestrial excavation
of ships is a common event. More than 400 such sites,
dating from the twelfth through the twentieth centuries,
have been discovered on land reclaimed from the Zuider
Zee, and over a hundred have been excavated or surveyed
so far. Two such shipwrecks, both dating from the six-
teenth century, were our undertaking during the summer of
In the spring of 1992, we were invited by the Dutch
Center for Ship Archaeology (located in the town of
Ketelhaven) to assist in the excavation, recording, and
analysis of a sixteenth-century merchantman found on the
polders. When the invitation was expanded to include two
other Americans, Gordon Watts of East Carolina Universi-
ty endorsed two of his graduate students, Patrick Cole and
Amy Knowles, from the Maritime History Program, thus
completing the core of our excavation team. We were to
help excavate a shipwreck named M-ll, after the agricul-
tural lot on which it was discovered. The site lay near the
city of Biddinghuizen in Eastern Flevoland.
The remains of the vessel measured over 20 meters in
length and 5 meters in breadth. The hull had come to rest
on its bottom. Its port and starboard sides had broken and

splayed outward at the turn of the bilge. On the port side,
the remains were complete up to the gangway. Unlike
many other watercraft found on the polders, and once used
for inland shipping, this ship had a true keel. It was
entirely clinker-built, and its strake overlaps were fastened
with iron rivets. With a mast set far forward, the vessel
was probably well suited for coastal sailing.
Remains inside the hull showed that the vessel's last
main cargo had consisted of numerous barrels of herring
and grain. Several large saucer-shaped lead ingots had also
formed part of the cargo. A '
hearth and galley were evi-
denced by ceramic tiles,
bellows made of wood and
leather, a copper pot, a
slipware bowl, and peat for
fuel. Two wooden shovels
discovered between timbers
were possibly used for
loading grain or fish.
Outstanding among the
artifacts were the lead
heads and ash handles of
three colf sloffen. These Photo: Neyland

INA Quarterly 20.1

Sixteenth-century golf clubs
(drawn here as reconstructed)
were found on the M-11 ship-
wreck. The clubs have han-
dles made from ash and
heads made of lead. Golf was
played in Holland on both
grass and ice during the
medieval period, and was
spread to Scotland by mer-
chants and fishermen. Draw-
ing not to scale. Drawing: J.

were the prototypes of
modern clubs used in
golf, a game dating
back to at least the
fifteenth century in the
north of Holland. The
colf consisted of a
wooden stick made from
hazel or ash which was
fastened to a lead head
or slipper. The early
version of golf was
played on both grass
and ice and was spread
to Scotland about AD
1450 by merchants and
While planning for
the M-11 excavation
was underway, a second
late medieval shipwreck
was found. The site was
uncovered by workers
digging a new drainage
ditch in the northern
province of Friesland.
The wreck lay in the
Workumer Nieuwland
polder, immediately
south of the city of
Workum. Construction
on the dike that created
this polder was complet-
ed in AD 1624, there-
fore, it was apparent
from the beginning that
the wreck predated 1624.
analysis of samples taken
from hull planking re-
vealed that the oaks used
to construct the vessel
were felled between AD
1547 and 1553. Thus,
the wreck represents the
oldest example of Frisian
boatbuilding yet discov-
A preliminary survey
indicated that the site,
designated WN-92, con-

trained a well preserved pram-like craft. Prams were flat-
bottomed boats primarily used on inland waterways for
carrying all sorts of bulk goods. The vessel itself was of a
well known type, but it displayed an unusual method for
securing caulking to bottom planks. Both this unique
construction and the ship's location on a polder that gave
us an approximate date for the hull recommended the
wreck as a significant archaeological site, so when agricul-
tural development threatened its survival immediate
excavation became necessary, even while the M-11 excava-
tion was in progress.
The Frisian wreck was situated in a striking geological
profile, with the hull resting on top of a peat bed. The peat
had been mined prior to the boat's sinking. Distinct shovel
marks were visible in cut faces beneath the bull. Both the
peat and the shipwreck were covered by layers of silt and
clay, probably as a result of the land subsidence and
increased coastal flooding that plagued low-lying areas of
the Netherlands. Such inundation was suggested on the
WN-92 site by thin layers of marine shells. One shell
stratum immediately overlay the hull: shells were piled
against the chine (the turn of the bilge) and mast step inside
the hull, while others were sandwiched between the wreck
and peat bed.
Under our direction, the excavation of WN-92 was
begun June 4, 1992. We had very little time in which to

Sites M-11 and WN-92 are located in the Dutch polders,
northeast of Amsterdam.

INA Quartorly 20.1

Drawing: K. McLtughlin-Neylmd
A geological profile taken at the stern of WN-92 includes the hull at left. A peat
bed (bottom right) still displays cuts where blocks of peat had been removed.

complete the project, as the land's owner was eager to
finish building his drainage ditch. The advantages of a
terrestrial ship excavation over an underwater project
quickly became apparent: within one short summer season
we were able to excavate the site, disassemble the hull, and
completely record the 14-meter-long shipwreck.
Our work was speeded along by some innovative field
techniques. An experimental pantograph made it possible
to prepare a 1:20 scale site plan in just a few days. We
also drew a 1:10 scale site plan using more traditional steel
tapes and a plumb. The new pantograph, developed by Jan
Eric Dilz, however, was to prove as accurate as standard
field techniques, even while it was many times faster.
By June 12 the ceiling planking was completely exposed
and a 1:10 scale architectural site plan of the wreck was
begun. On June 17, Herr Dilz tested the prototype of his
pantograph, which could record in three dimensions
(existing pantographs record in two dimensions). He
prepared a 1:20 scale site plan of the entire hull remains in
about four hours. The plan was refined over the next three
to four excavation days until a satisfactory copy was
produced. On June 18 we began taking cross-sections of
the hull using a measuring beam. This calibrated beam (see
cover photo), designed and built by the staff of the Ketel-
haven Museum, enabled us to take precise and rapid
sectional measurements of the hull.
After the site plans were completed, the ceiling planking
was labeled and removed. It was then possible to record
floor timbers and frames that had been covered. Mud
below the ceiling planking and between the frames was

excavated, placed in labeled buckets,
and later sieved on a 1/16 inch mesh
screen. Each frame was given a
unique identification label and re-
moved after being drawn on the 1:10
scale site plan. The same procedure
was used for the bottom and outer
hull planking. All of the ship timbers
eventually were carried to the State
Museum for Ship Archaeology in
Ketelhaven. Once there, detailed 1:10
scale drawings of each piece from the
hull were made using pantographs,
although a few drawings were made
using a gridded table. All recording
was completed by September 7 and
the hull remains were prepared for
reburial at a location where their
preservation would be insured. The

process from beginning to end lasted
no longer than three months.
The Frisian wreck appeared to have been placed or sunk
intentionally. A line of pine posts extended forward of the
stem; another pine post and an oak beam were placed just
after the sternpost. The oak beam, with one end sharpened
to create a stake, was probably taken from the vessel. Also
immediately after the sternpost (on the port side) two
pieces of pine planking had been driven into the peat a few
centimeters apart. The pieces fit together into one plank
and may represent a fragment of decking from the vessel.
More tellingly, an unplugged drain hole with the plug lying
a short distance away was observed in the stern. Also in
the stern, a short piece of wood had been driven into the
chine, separating the bottom from the port side strake. The
extremely worn and heavily repaired condition of the hull
indicated that the vessel had been at the end of its career
when it came to rest on the peat bed.
A high concentration of wood chips, bark, twigs, and
leaves found amidships may mean that workmen trimmed
the posts placed fore and aft of the vessel from inside the
boat. Wood shavings were produced with an adze. Both
they and most of the posts are pine, and this fact combined
with the size of the wood shavings and tool marks, includ-
ing grooved marks from a nicked adze that enabled us to
match shavings to specific cuts on the timbers, reinforces
the idea that the wood fragments came from the posts,
which in turn further suggests that WN-92 had been placed
deliberately at its present site.
Both hull and posts may have been part of a structure to
combat flooding occurring prior to the 1624 dike. The boat
rests near the mid sixteenth-century ship channel, however,

INA Quarterly 20.1

now: D. n"cya
Jan Eric Dilz records the bow of WN-92 with his innova-
tive pantograph.

and could have been used as a dock or landing place for
loading and unloading cargo.
Few sixteenth-century manufactured artifacts were
uncovered at the site, but traces of medieval cargoes were
found throughout the vessel. Amidships and in the bow a
well preserved layer of hay was present. Aft of midships
the layer thinned out and essentially disappeared. Hay was
an important fodder in the pastoral economy of late
medieval Holland.
Bricks were also once hauled on our vessel. Sediments
between the frames revealed a solid layer of brick dust
between 3.5 and 4.25 meters north of the sternpost. Forty-
one percent of the site's 223 brick fragments (recovered by
screening) came from this area. Brick dust was concentrat-
ed mainly in the chine but extended, in places very lightly,
to cover an area 3.0 to 6.0 meters north of the sternpost.
Three-quarters of all brick fragments recovered from the
site came from this area, which roughly delineates the after
part of the hold, forward of a probable stern cuddy.
Peat also had been transported on the Frisian vessel. In
sediments between the frames, a distinct layer of peat
underlay the brick dust, and peat mixed with clay extended
as far forward as the mast step. Fragments of peat blocks
were found throughout the ship.
The hull's style and shape are certainly suitable for a
bulk carrier of hay, brick, and peat. Its timbers measure
13.2 meters long and 2.8 meters wide. The wreck consists
of five bottom planks, three strakes each on port and star-
board sides, and an inner wale. Side strakes overlap and
are fastened with twice-bent nails. A central plank of oak,
the ends of which are shaped to fit the heels of the stem
and sternpost, runs from bow to stern.

The lower edges of the bottom planks are beveled to
hold moss caulking. The moss is supported by willow
lathes held in place by numerous small wooden tenons
(1.5 cm long x 1 cm wide x 0.05 to .2 cm thick) called
prikken. On both Roman-era and medieval vessels from
northern Europe, caulking and lathe usually were held
in place by iron staples, called sintels. On WN-92,
however, all of the bottom caulking is held in place by
only lathe and prikken.
Side strakes are fastened to the bottom strakes with
wooden pegs and iron nails. The pegs (1.1 cm in
diameter) are much smaller than treenails, and each has
been sharpened to a point. In several places the hull's
bottom had been so worn as to expose the pegs.
Frames consist of L-shaped futtocks that alternate
d with straight floor timbers and top timbers. In the bow
and stern single V-shaped timbers fit atop the stem and
sterpost. Port and starboard futtocks overlap across the
bottom but are not fastened together. Aft of midships
several futtocks display holes angled through their inboard
face. These locations served ropes, which probably secured
cargo and livestock.
The builder and operator of the vessel went to great
lengths to construct and maintain a tight, continuous ceiling
across all of the bottom, except over the last meter in the
stern. Removable ceiling planks line the space between the
futtocks along the chine. These removable pieces overlap
adjacent ceiling planks and are held in place by chocks on
the futtocks. The freedom to remove planks along the chine
would aid in cleaning out the bilges, especially since bilge
water circulated at the chine, around and underneath the
In the bow, the ceiling is thinner, consisting of over-
lapped thin pine boards. The overlapping created a more
watertight structure. Where these boards fit against the
chine, tiny wedges are jammed to insure a very tight fit.
This area was probably the floor of the forward cuddy. It
would have provided a dry place for a few goods or
personal belongings, or it might have been a place where
a person could curl up and sleep. Curiously, a pair of
children's shoes was found here.
Most of the other personal artifacts were also found in
the forward cuddy area. These include a ceramic skillet,
heather brushes, and several leather fragments. The latter,
having been cut for reuse, were tentatively identified as
once belonging to a leather garment, knife sheath, leather
pouch, and adult's shoe.
The excavation and analysis of WN-92 should lead to
new insights into the late medieval watercraft of northern
Europe. Pram construction was a well defined tradition for
centuries, and it exemplifies technological continuity from

INA Quarterly 20.1

AD 1500 to 1900. Evidence from WN-92, along with
previous research by the authors on eighteenth-century
prams and with new evidence from a 1993 excavation of
another pram in the Netherlands, provides the rare opportu-
Snity to study the history and development of one class of
watercraft across the centuries.

Future Projects
The excavation of another pram found in the polders is
planned for the summer of 1993. All excavation expenses
will be provided by the State Museum and Center for Ship
Archaeology at Ketelhaven, the Netherlands, and by the
Dutch State Service for Archaeological Investigations.
Robert Neyland will direct the 1993 excavation. Team
members will include Texas A&M University graduate
students from the Nautical Archaeology Program and
Department of Anthropology: James Coggeshall, Georgia
Fox, and Mason McDaniel. Birgit Schroeder, a participant
in past Uluburun excavations run by INA, will join the
team. As with the excavation of WN-92, the 1993 project
will include complete excavation, disassembly, and record-
ing during a single summer season.
The Center for Ship Archaeology has planned a monu-
mental excavation of the largest merchantman ever found
in the polders. This vessel measures about 40 to 45 meters
long, 7 meters broad, and over 6 meters deep in the
ground. The excavation will be carried out in conjunction
with the Batavia Foundation (which is currently responsible
for reproducing and researching a seventeenth-century East
India merchantman in Lelystad, the Netherlands). The
project should require 5 to 10 years. Dutch archaeologists
plan to build a museum hall over the entire site in order to

Rob Oosting, Head of Research at the Center for Ship
Archaeology, fastens identification labels to the frames of
WN-92 before the wreck is disassembled and moved.

allow the public to observe the excavation in progress.

We would like to thank the Center and the State Muse-
um for Ship Archaeology for the opportunity to participate
in the excavation of M-11 and to conduct the excavation of
WN-92. All costs of the excavation, recording, and
conservation, as well as our living expenses, were paid by
the museum. Royal Dutch Airlines (KLM) generously-
donated one free ticket from Texas to Amsterdam and
discounted another. As always, their service was both
efficient and helpful. The Institute of Nautical Archaeology
cooperated by granting us research associate status and
provided some film and processing expenses.
This work could not have been accomplished without the
help of certain individuals. Dr. Jaap Morel and Rob
Oosting from the Center for Ship Archaeology were
particularly supportive of the 1992 field work, and both
helped make arrangements for the 1993 excavation. Karel
Vlierman contributed his wide knowledge of medieval
cultural materials and archaeology. Lucas van Dijk and
Jentz van der Land patiently conserved artifacts. Many
other museum staff, including Rudy Loos, Harrum Post,
Gert Schreurs, and Hans Schaal, were involved in the
excavation and recording of WN-92. Special appreciation
goes to Herre Wynia, a ship archaeologist from the
Netherlands, who put in many long hours assisting with the
recording of the hull remains. Gordon Watts located at
short notice two students willing to assist with the project.
Special thanks to Tony Pye, accounts executive at KLM,
for his help both in 1992 and 1993 in finding affordable

Suggested Reading
Hocker, Fred
1990 Nautical Archaeology in Northern Europe. INA
Newsletter 17.1:12-17.
McLaughlin, Kathleen
1992 An Analysis of Two Eighteenth-Century Watercraft
from the Netherlands. Unpublished Master's thesis,
Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University.
Neyland, Robert S.
1991 The Preliminary Hull Analysis of Two 18th-century
Dutch Prams. In Underwater Archaeology Proceedings
from the Society for Historical Archaeology Conference,
edited by John D. Broadwater, pp. 111-114.
Reinders, Reinder
1982 Shipwrecks of the Zuiderzee. Flevobericht 197.

INA Quarterly 20.1

The Search Continues for Columbus's

Caravels: 1992 Field Report

by James Parrent and Maureen Brown Parrent

"Another eighteenth-century British ship," seemed to be
a common exclamation among the 1992 field crew as the
Columbus Caravels Archaeological Project (CCAP)
continued the methodical search for Columbus's last two
ships in St. Ann's Bay on the north coast of Jamaica. So
far, six eighteenth-century British ships haye been found in
the bay, all within a small area just west of Reader's Point,
which pushes out from the center of the bay's shoreline.
Finding only British vessels has been frustrating though not
surprising since the British were present in the area much
longer than the Spanish.
Columbus first visited Santa Gloria, as he named
present-day St. Ann's Bay, on his second voyage of
exploration in 1494. He was forced to return during his
fourth voyage when his ships became too unseaworthy to
continue sailing and was marooned for over a year before
being rescued in 1504. Later, in 1510, the Spanish estab-
lished their first settlement in Jamaica near where Colum-
bus had beached his two remaining ships on his last, fateful
voyage. By 1523 the Spaniards were disillusioned with the
area and moved to St. Jago de la Vega, now called Spanish
Town, on the south coast of Jamaica.
The British, soon after capturing Jamaica from the
Spanish in 1656, established several sugar plantations near
St. Ann's Bay. The bay was commercially important to the
British for the rest of the seventeenth century and through-
out the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Sugar cane was
the area's most important crop during this time. In Jamai-
ca, the cane was processed into raw sugar, molasses, and
rum and then exported to England. This period of British
activity, spanning about 240 years, far outlasted the 14
years of Spanish occupation at St. Ann's Bay. Consequent-
ly we expect to continue finding British artifacts and hulls;
but we have not lost hope for our original goal. There is no
doubt that Columbus's ships are lying somewhere beneath
the sediments of the placid bay.
During the 1992 field season, a total of 21 sites (in-
cluding Sites 14, 16 and 23, previously tested in 1991)
were investigated over a three-month period that began on
May 20 and ended on August 20, 1992. The sites investi-
gated were numbered 2 through 10, 12 through 18, 23, and

27 through 30.
With the exception of Sites 27 through 30, all sites had
been targeted by a chirp subbottom profiler in 1990 and
1991 (for a description of these surveys, see INA Newslet-
ters 17.4 and 18.4). Sites 27 through 29 were detected
during a magnetometer survey in 1992. Site 30, which
appeared to be two stone ballast piles, was discovered .
before Hurricane Gilbert in 1988.
Sites 2, 4, 6, 14, 17, and 18 were tested by probing and
coring. Sites 3, 5, and 30 were examined with small test
trenches, while Sites 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 23
were subjected to larger-scale excavations. Sites 27, 28,
and 29 were tested by limited coring.
Of the sites tested in 1992, three turned out to be the
remains of British ships, eight contained cultural debris,
and seven were natural phenomena. Three others have not
been examined fully.
The sites were dated by analyzing associated artifacts.
The artifact assemblage for each site was classified by
material type and date. Only a small portion of each site
was test excavated, so the quantity of artifacts recovered
was small. The diagnostic artifacts, i.e., ceramics, glass,
and pipes, allowed us to establish the probable country of
origin, as well as the date, for each ship site tested.
Our study of Sites 7 and 8 typifies the procedures and
methodology used to test sites that probing and coring
indicated might be ships. The two sites are located near
each other in 10 to 22 feet of water on the southwestern
edge of a bathymetric depression just west of the old
British wharf complex that was constructed around 1670
and reportedly used until the late 1960s.
Sites 7 and 8 were originally detected by the subbottom
profiler in 1991. Site 8 is located under the steeply sloping
edge of the depression, which drops from 5 to 20 feet
below the surface. Site 7 rests at the bottom of the slope in
approximately 22 feet of water.
In 1992 probing of the sites indicated a hard layer that
suggested the presence of wood at 8 to 10 feet below the
sea floor. Coring was difficult due to a hard layer that
could not be penetrated or, when penetrated, held the core
tubes so that they could not be removed. The sites were

INA Quarterly 20.1

St. Ann's Bay is divided into two sections by Reader's Point. Most of the sites investigated during the
1992 field season lie in the western part of the bay.

further tested by excavating a north-to-south, 5 by 15 foot
trench to determine the nature of the hard layer.
Excavation revealed that the first 3 to 5 feet of sediment
was soft silt with concentrations of flakes from Halimeda,
a marine alga. A layer of black stream-worn cobbles was
found near the 5 foot level. A modern plank and several
coconut palm tree segments were located in the upper soft
sediment. Numerous eighteenth-century materials were
found among the cobbles. Silty clay, sand, and small
cobbles continued down to a depth of 8 feet. Charred
barrel staves and badly decomposed boards were encoun-
tered in the southern half of the trench at approximately 7
feet below the sea floor. The amount of cultural material
found decreased significantly at 8 feet, where a dense
concentration of cobbles, large shells, and shell fragments
was encountered. This material was resting on an extreme-
ly hard deposit of clay, shell, and coral fragments. Below
this level, at 10 feet, the strata became increasingly dense
until the clay gave way to a hard calcium carbonate layer.

This material stopped further probing attempts and most
likely accounted for the trapped cores and "wood" layer
sensed by earlier probing.
The two sites most likely represent an accumulation of
debris from river runoff and storm activity. They are
located at the end of a slump in the sea floor that forms a
natural trap for drifting debris. The diagnostic remains
from the area include two pocket knives with etched and
encrusted bone handles. The knives resemble a knife and
fork illustrated on page 182 of A Guide to Artifacts of
Colonial America (1969) by Noel Hume; these are dated
ca. 1750. A late eighteenth-century case bottle neck
fragment and a pipe with a "TB" maker's mark on the
bowl were also found in the area. The diagnostic artifacts
recovered from Sites 7 and 8 suggest a mid to late eigh-
teenth-century date for the material deposits.
Other sites were tested during the 1992 season through
probing, coring, and, in some instances, limited excava-
tion. Site 2, which lacked any associated cultural material,

INA Quarterly 20.1

turned out to be merely a natural hard layer of calcium
carbonate and coral. Site 3 represents a possible ballast
dump. The only artifacts found there were a small concret-
ed fastener and a bone fragment. Both were reburied on the
site. Sites 4 and 5 are the remnants of a partially buried
coral ridge lying in a roughly east-west orientation north of
the old British wharf. They may have been part of a coral
ridge system that once ran along the northern edge of the
bay's deep channel and was subsequently killed and buried
by heavy siltation in historic times. Site 6 is an accumula-
tion of coral debris covering a hard-packed sand layer. No
cultural material was associated with Site 6. Site 9 is a
concentration of cultural debris and stones washed down
from the old British wharf complex. The cultural material
dates to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and is
British in origin. Sites 12 and 13 are areas where littoral
drift has left an accumulation of debris, both from Site 11,
a British ship site, and from material deposited farther up
The anomaly detected at Site 14 was produced by a
gravel layer in the sediment profile. The few cultural
materials found at the site are probably debris. At Site 17
and 18, coring revealed a dense layer of rocks, pea gravel,
and coarse sand. This mixture of materials probably
induced the targets detected by the subbottom profiler.

Site 10
At Site 10 a ship was excavated during the 1992 field
season. The remains are located in a bathymetric depres-
sion west of the old British wharf complex, approximately
50 feet north of a mangrove shoreline, in about 3 feet of
water and under about 6 feet of sediment.
Excavation exposed an area of the hull that includes a
composite mast step, ceiling planking, frames, and outer
hull planking. The first three ceiling planks south of the
mast step appear to be made of oak. Only a few strakes of

cm I

Dnwing: M. Brawn Purct

the outer hull
a were examined.
CM They are made
from a yellow-
ish wood, possi-
S bly pine. The
mast step mea-
sures 4 feet
long, 1 foot 2
S|inches sided,
and 11 inches
Molded and
Appears to be
: made of oak. It
Sis joined to the
keelson with
1: two iron
I through-bolts
running vertical-
a b ly through the
SM. step and keel-
Drawimg: M. Brown Paran
son. The step is
simply a large rectangular timber cut to fit over the
keelson, with its longest dimension running athwartships.
The keelson measures 6 inches molded and 6 inches sided.
According to CCAP staff member Greg Cook, who has
studied the remains, the keelson maintains the same
dimensions under the step.
In general the hull from Site 10 is not heavily construct-
ed. The keelson and mast step mortise are quite small and
do not appear to have been made for a large boat with
extensive sail area. Due to the limited area excavated and
efforts to leave the integrity of the hull intact, it was not
possible to examine the fastenings of the outer hull strakes.
The ceiling planking and frames, however, were notewor-
thy in their scarcity of fasteners, which may further

Sherds, at left, found at Site 10 are British in origin
and date from the mid to late eighteenth century: (a)
"Old Feather Edge" creamware plate sherd, (b) "mo-
chaware" cobalt on brown pearlware rim sherd, (c)(d)
blue transfer pearlware body and rim sherds, (e) tan-
nish stoneware body sherd. Above, an eighteenth-centu-
ry bottle and pewter spoon also came from Site 10. A
maker's mark, "SW & Co," was visible on the back of
the spoon after conservation. The mark may have be-
longed to manufacturers "Whitfield & Scofield, who
were listed in 1793 as pewter spoon makers in Digbeth.
Howard Cottrell includes the mark in Old Pewter Its
Makers and Marks in England, Scotland and Ireland
(1978) on page 335.

INA Quarterly 20.1

b c

d e

indicate that Site 10's vessel was small.
Black plastic covering six of the frames in the center of
the east-west trench indicates that the vessel was previously
excavated. Because of the earlier disturbance, only artifacts
found within the ship's remains can be considered diagnos-
tic of the vessel's age. Ballast was not found in conjunction
with this ship even in the areas not previously excavated.
The diagnostic artifacts discovered among the Site 10
hull remains were all manufactured in England, and they
date from the mid to the late eighteenth century. The area's
ceramic sherds include an "Old Feather Edge" pattern
creamware plate, mocha and transfer-printed pearlware,
stoneware, Jackfieldware, and delftware fragments. An
intact British wine bottle, discovered between the frames
and ceiling and outer hull planking, is similar to examples
(on page 68) dated 1788 to 1798 in Noel Hume's Guide to
Artifacts of Colonial America. A plain pewter spoon
recovered from just above the hull layer is of a type and
pattern in common use from about 1760 until 1800.

The diagnostic artifacts from Site 10 yield a date of
approximately 1790. The ship itself was probably aban-
doned near the British wharf after suffering some kind of
accident that buckled the east end of the vessel.

Site 15
Site 15 was detected by the subbottom profiler in 1991,
and five of ten cores taken there in 1991 contained wood.
Four revealed metal concretions, brick fragments, charcoal,
and burned wood.
The presence of cultural materials at Site 15 prompted
the 1992 CCAP team to excavate two trenches, one
running north to south for 20 feet and the other, to the
north, running 10 feet from east to west. The two trenches
form a T over the site. In the east-west trench, the remains
of a ship's hull were found underneath some ballast.
The hull remains have been identified as a section of the
main wale, probably the lower-most timbers, including the
futtocks, some external planking, and part of the bilge ceil-
ing. The remains are oriented on
an east-west axis, parallel to the
coastline. A total of five frames,
all made of cedar, were uncov-
ered. Only one bilge ceiling
plank was exposed in the test
trench; it appears to be oak. The
outer hull planking also appears
to be oak. Seams between the
outer hull planking are caulked
with oakum, according to Greg
The artifact assemblage for
U Site 15 was concentrated in two
separate areas at approximately
the same depth. A few diagnostic
artifacts were directly associated

Drawing: G. Cook

A plan view of the hull re-
mains contained in Site 10
includes the mast step, ceil-
ing planking, and frames.
The relatively light construc-
tion of the timbers suggests
that the remains are from a
small vessel. Only a small
portion of the ship was un-
covered during the test exca-
vation of Site 10. Associated
artifacts were used to date
the vessel and to determine
its place of origin.

INA Quarterly 20.1

with the ship's hull timbers
located within the east-west
trench, but, unfortunately, the
majority of the artifacts were not
associated with the hull and were
concentrated towards the south
end of the north-south trench.
The diagnostic artifacts that
were associated with the hull
include one agateware and three
delftware sherds manufactured in
England. CCAP staff have dated
the delftware sherds to ca. 1640
to 1800 and the agateware to
about 1745 to 1775. The diag-
nostic ceramics yield a date of
1758 for Site 15.

Site 16
Site 16 was located by the
subbottom profiler in 1991 and
tested by limited excavation the
same year. Results of the excavation indicated a late
eighteenth-century British vessel. The site was reopened
during the 1992 field season to test under the remains of
the ship to assure that, they were not concealing another
site. Excavation exposed an area of the hull extending ap-
proximately 3 feet to the port of the keelson and to the end
of the preserved starboard side, approximately 7 feet from
the keelson.
The hull, especially the framing, is heavily built. The
keelson is small in comparison to the large frames, but this
may be partially explained by the erosion of the keelson
timber compared to the good preservation of the frames. A
scarf found at the forward or eastern end of the keelson
appears to have been the apron-keelson scarf. This join was
strengthened with a through-bolt that originally would have
run through the keelson, apron, and floor. Deadwood is
visible under the keelson-apron scarf, and the edges of
garboards can be seen angling down on either side of the
deadwood. The molded dimension of the keelson at the
scarf is considerably less on the starboard side compared to
the port side, indicating that the scarf was not a simple
horizontal example but a beveled hook scarf.
Aft of the scarf, what may be the beginnings of a com-
posite mast step emerge from the western wall of the
excavation unit. This is indicated by the increased molded
and sided dimensions of the keelson, the presence of sister
keelsons along either side of the main timber, and a
buttress timber extending laterally from the starboard sister
keelson. The sister timbers are joined to the keelson with

-3.' j- .. . )

Dnrawk: 0. Coot
A plan view of hull timbers found at Site 16 includes
the keelson at left.

horizontal through-bolts. Both sisters are heavily eroded
and the starboard one extends approximately 3 feet farther
forward than the port timber. The starboard sister keelson
appears to be composed of two distinct pieces of wood
while the port side is definitely made from a single piece.
A study of the vessel was conducted by Greg Cook.
Analyses of the 1992 diagnostic artifacts complement
the previous year's results. The artifacts, including ceramic
sherds produced in the latter half of the eighteenth century,
suggest that Site 16 is the remains of a British vessel from
the mid or late eighteenth century. One kaolin pipe recov-
ered from Site 16 has a vertical stamped maker's mark on
the bowl reading "IA EATO.. LIVERPOO...." A. Oswald,
in Clay Pipes for the Archaeologist (1975) lists a pipemaker
by the name of James Eaton residing in Liverpool, Eng-
land, in the mid eighteenth century.
The results from the 1991 and 1992 artifact analyses,
when combined, suggest a date ranging from 1765 to 1780
for the Site 16 hull.

Site 23
Site 23 was located in October 1990 when our sub-
bottom profiler detected rock at 6 to 8 feet below the sea
floor. Further probing and coring in 1990 and a small test
excavation verified this finding, and it was determined that

INA Quarterly 20.1

the target was two stone ballast piles resting on a white
sand layer.
During the 1992 field season, investigative probing
revealed a concentration of rock along the eastern edge of
the target area and slightly west of the 1990 test excavation
area. Following additional probing, a 15-foot test trench
was excavated along a north-south axis. At 3.1 feet below
the sea floor a British sugar mold, possibly dating from the
late seventeenth to the early nineteenth century, was
recovered from the northern end of the excavation. Subse-
quently, the trench was enlarged to expose the top layers
of two ballast piles; however, no ship remains were found.
The proximity and similarity of rock types, the lack of
wood, and a scarcity of other artifacts tell us that Site 23
is probably a ballast dump site formed when a ship dis-
charged ballast stones from both sides of the vessel.

This sugar mold was found at Site 23. Jamaica's most
important crop during the early years of British coloni-
zation was sugar cane, which was processed on the
island. Molds like this one were used to drain molasses
from raw brown sugar. The molasses was then sent to a
rum distillery, while the cones of sugar knocked from the
pots were exported.

Scale 1:3

SC10 20
(em) ------
Drawing: R. Holmgren

Site 23 did, however, give us the sugar mold, an artifact
that symbolizes an important part of Jamaica's early
colonial history. The mold, shaped like an inverted cone
with a drip hole at its base (much like a flower pot), was
discovered almost whole. The pot is unglazed, and an outer
paste colored reddish-orange covers an inner gray core. A
B inscribed near the drip hole of the mold may represent a
label for the size of the vessel, a maker's mark, or a
plantation owner's mark. According to Dr. D. L. Hamil-
ton, director of INA's excavations at the sunken eighteenth-
century city of Port Royal, Jamaica, Site 23's sugar mold
is similar to fragmented molds found at Port Royal.
Several sources describe sugar molds and how they
were used. Florence and Robert Lister, in Andalusian
Ceramics in Spain and New Spain (1987), suggest that the
form of molds like the one found at Site 23 was developed
by the Spanish when they began to grow and export sugar
from the New World. Juices squeezed from sugar cane
would be put into the molds and allowed to harden into
crude sugar. Apparently the English adopted the Spanish
sugar mold form.
In Sugar and Slaves (1973), Richard Dunn describes the
process early English planters used to cure sugar after the
cane had been boiled. Muscovado (raw brown sugar) was
packed into earthenware pots and placed in a curing house
on earthenware pans called drips. Even a small planter
would have needed several hundred such pots. The bottom
hole of each pot was plugged for 48 hours to allow molas-
ses to drain from the sugar. When the pots were un-
plugged, the molasses that poured out was collected and
taken to a distillery to make rum. Planters kept their potted
sugar drying and draining in the curing house for about a
month. The sugar finally knocked out of the pots would
have hardened into cone-shaped loaves. The central two-
thirds of the loaf, well drained muscovado, was spread in
the sun, packed into hogsheads, and stored in a warehouse
for shipment to England.
Dunn also suggests that potters who made sugar molds
and drips would have been found on any well run seven-
teenth-century plantation. Thus, it is possble that the mold
discovered at Site 23 was produced locally. A late seven-
teenth-century probate inventory of a Port Royal merchant,
researched by Diana Thornton, a graduate of Texas A&M's
Nautical Archaeology Program, lists two places in Jamaica
that may have produced sugar molds.

Sites 27, 28 and 29
The three anomalies representing Sites 27, 28, and 29
were generated during a 1992 magnetometer survey east of
Reader's Point. The survey was an attempt to relocate a
dipolar magnetic anomaly originally located by Gordon

INA Quarterly 20.1

Watts during an earlier project and referred to as the "sand
bar anomalies." The sites lie slightly more than 300 feet
offshore in a medium energy zone inside a reef in 4 to 6
feet of water. The remnants of a rock wharf are located
south of the search area. The southeasternmost anomaly
found in 1992, Site 29, probably represents the dipolar
anomaly found previously.
Following the magnetometer survey, cores were taken
at the center of each anomaly. An additional four cores,
spaced 10 feet from the center, one each to the north,
south, east, and west, were taken around each anomaly. In
each core, a few feet from the top, fragments of red brick,
wood, coal slag, iron concretions and possibly heat-modi-
fied chert were found, suggesting to us that we might have
found another wreck, but none of the cores was extracted
with its full sample (sample loss ranged between 2 to 8 feet
of the down-core sediments), so we conducted a circular
probe survey and a visual reconnaissance of the bottom.
Cans, wire, pieces of cable, and numerous fish trap and
fish trap anchor fragments were found. Any of these
modern items could have caused the magnetic anomalies,
as could any ferrous objects from the rich cultural layer
encountered a few feet into our cores. Contamination from
the old wharf and its nearby anchorage, as well as from the
Church River, will create problems with any further search
for magnetic anomalies. A subbottom-profiler survey is
planned for the future.

Site 30
Site 30 is located on the west side of St. Ann's Bay just
offshore of an area known locally as Columbus Beach. This
site, thought to be two ballast piles, was first detected
before Hurricane Gilbert hit the coast in 1988. During the
1990 field season, the area was investigated with the
subbottom profiler. Nothing was found. During the 1992
field season, the site was probed, and a test excavation was
conducted, but no concentration of ballast stones was
uncovered. The original sighting might have been a thin
layer of stones that was later dispersed by Hurricane

The surveying methods used by CCAP have allowed
quick coverage of a large section of the bay, and far more
sites have been located than could be excavated during
single field seasons. Thirty sites were identified during
surveys in 1990 and 1991. Six hold the remains of British
ships. Three (27, 28, and 29), located by a magnetometer
survey in 1992, have not been tested fully.
During November and December of 1992, portions of
the east end of St. Ann's Bay and an area to the east of

Reader's Point were surveyed with the chirp subbottom
profiler. Five substantial targets were located near the far
eastern shore, of St. Ann's Bay, and two targets, each
represented by side-by-side anomalies (precisely what we
would expect from Columbus's two beached caravels),
were located close to shore east of Reader's Point. These
seven targets, plus Sites 27, 28, and 29, will be tested
during the next field season.
We have not yet found the caravels, but we have
demonstrated conclusively, by the number of other ships
found in St. Ann's Bay, that we are using the right tech-
niques and methodology in our quest.

Funding for the 1992 season was supplied by the John
Brown Cook Foundation, the JFM Foundation, Cambridge
Seven Associates, American Way Magazine, the National
Geographic Society, the Meadows Foundation, George
Bass, and INA Board Members Don Geddes IIl, Bruce
Heafitz, and Robert Lorton, and INA's Chairman, Ray H.
Siegfried II. Equipment and supplies were donated by
Jonathan Blair; Dr. Karen Arents of Dental Plus in Bryan,
Texas; Scott and White Clinic in Bryan, Texas; Brazos
County Humana Hospital; and Dive World in San Antonio,

Suggested Reading
Cook, Gregory D.
1993 Ship Remains Uncovered During the 1992 Colum-
bus Caravels Archaeological Project, St. Ann's Bay,
Jamaica. Paper presented at the 26th Conference of the
Society for Historical Archaeology, Kansas City.
Dunn, Richard S.
1972 Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in
the English West Indies, 1624-1713. W.W. Norton,
New York.
Lister, Florence C. and Robert H.
1987 Andalusian Ceramics in Spain and New Spain: A
Cultural Register from the Third Century B. C. to 1700.
University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Parrent, Maureen Brown
1993 The Artifact Assemblages from the Remains of
Ships Investigated During 1992 in St. Ann's Bay,
Jamaica. Paper presented at the 26th Conference of the
Society for Historical Archaeology, Kansas City.

INA Quarterly 20.1


by Richard D. Herron

Easter Island, Earth Island.
Paul Bahn and John Flenley
London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1992.
ISBN 0-500-05065-1, 240 pages, illustrations, maps, tables, bibliography, and index. $24.95.

As the authors of Easter Island, Earth Island would
agree, outlandish fantasy and wild speculation have no
place in scientific analysis. Nevertheless, since the first
recorded visits by Europeans, Easter Island has received
more than its share of wild and outlandish interpretations
concerning its history and archaeology. In this century
some highly popularized accounts have come from Erich
Von Diniken and Thor Heyerdahl. In spite of this we now
know far more about the rise and fall of the island's unique
culture; thus, it is surprising that nearly thirty years have
passed since any serious general account of the island's
history and archaeology has appeared in English. To rectify
this, Paul Bahn and John Flenley, academicians in archae-
ology and geography respectively, have recently provided
us with a scholarly yet highly readable narrative concerning
the people of Easter Island--an analysis made all the more
important by its foreboding conclusion. Although the book
mainly discusses the island and its inhabitants, it also
provides a good description of the possible nautical origins
of the Easter Islanders, which should be of interest to
scholars of maritime archaeology and history.
The authors begin by explaining that although Europeans
may have first encountered Easter Island as early as the
sixteenth century, the first official discovery is accredited
to the Dutch commander Jacob Roggeveen on April 5,
1722. Impressed by the massive statues found on the
island, Roggeveen postulated that, because of their size,
they were made of clay. In 1774, under the aegis of
Captain James Cook, investigations revealed that the statues
were made of stone, not clay. How and by whom they
were created and moved into position, however, remained
a mystery. By the 1880s archaeological investigations were
begun and continued into the twentieth century, culminating
in William Mulloy's influential work beginning in 1955--
when he sailed to the island with Heyerdahl's Kon-Tiki
expedition--until his death in 1978.
The mystery behind the statues has led to wide specula-
tion concerning the cultural-geographical roots of the
original Easter Island population. Thor Heyerdahl vehe-

mently believes that the population of Easter Island, as well
as that of the rest of Polynesia, originated in the New
World and migrated westward. Bahn and Flenley strongly
oppose this theory and provide evidence-ranging from the
linguistic to the botanical--which clearly and convincingly
refutes it. Instead, Bahn and Flenley contend that the
ancestors of the Easter Islanders were eastward-migrating
Polynesian colonists intent on finding and settling new
land. A general description is provided of how these
voyagers were able to make such an oceanic passage, and
what these migrants encountered once they arrived on
Easter Island.
Today the island's vegetation is sparse, causing many
observers to wonder how the original inhabitants could
develop and support a population large enough to create the
kind of statuary found there. Evidence indicates that
originally Easter Island was densely covered with vegeta-
tion. The early inhabitants built large ocean-going canoes,
and their land had fertile soil for growing crops. Population
grew and the statue-building culture developed. The various
ways these statues might have been formed and transported
are lucidly and logically presented by Bahn and Flenley.
But, perhaps most salient to the theme of the book, the
authors further explain that it was the large amounts of
materials required for the construction and transportation
of these statues that greatly accelerated the drastic depletion
of the island's vegetation and, subsequently, effected the
profound, and possibly grizzly, destruction of the people's
own culture.
As Bahn and Flenley point out, Easter Island provides
an exhortation for the modern world. Like the early
inhabitants of Easter Island, we today are rapidly depleting
our world's vital resources and, thus, heading for destruc-
tion. Will we heed the warning provided us, or will we
meet a similar, but world-wide, fate as that experienced by
the island's inhabitants? Either way, Easter Island, Earth
Island remains an informative, readable, and possibly
profound description of the island and its people.

INA Quarterly 20.1


A final campaign at the site of the
Late Bronze Age Shipwreck at Ulu-
burun on the southern coast of Turkey
will be conducted by INA during the
summer of 1993. Excavation at Ulu-
burun began in 1984 and has contin-
ued each summer. Plans for the 1993
season include raising all ingots left at
the site (most of the wreck's approxi-
mately 350 ingots were removed in
previous years). Remains of the ship's

During one of the earlier seasons at
Uluburun, a diver removes an
amphora. The 1993 campaign, the
tenth at Uluburun, will be the last
excavation season at the site. Now,
archaeologists turn to completing
conservation, research, and
publication of the Late Bronze Age

roowo: iouneay UnA

hull will be exposed, studied, docu-
mented and raised, and the area under
the hull will be fully excavated. Fur-
ther investigations at the deepest end
of the wreck (at approximately 200
feet) are planned; a few large objects
that had rolled down the site's steep
slope were recovered from the area in
The excavation season will begin on
May 29 and continue into August.
Principal Investigator George F. Bass
and Cemal Pulak, acting as co-direc-
tor, will be joined by veterans from
previous Uluburun campaigns. Don
Frey, Robin Piercy, Murat Tilev,
Tufan Turanli, Sheila Matthews, and
G5khan Ozagagh will travel from
INA's Bodrum headquarters for the
1993 season. Faith Hentschel, INA
adjunct professor, will participate,
along with hyperbaric specialists
David Perlman, M.D., and Tom
Sutton. Volunteer archaeologists Mi-
chael Halpern, Jerry Lyon, Patricia
Sibella, and Heleen van der Molen,
and Texas A&M University graduate
students William Charlton, Michael
Fitzgerald, Roxani Margariti, Samuel
Mark, Brendon McDermott, Claire
Peachey, Edward Rogers, and Mark
Smith, and Cai Thorman of Pamona
College will also return for the last
season at Uluburun.
The National Endowment for the
Humanities, National Geographic
Society, INA, Institute for Aegean
Prehistory, and Texas A&M Universi-
ty will fund the 1993 campaign.
Work on the Late Bronze Age
Shipwreck will continue long after
excavation is completed. Already, a
productive fall season was spent at the
Bodrum Museum of Underwater

Archaeology in 1992 when artifact
cataloguing--the first step toward final
publication--was initiated. During the
fall of 1993, archaeologists will con-
duct a study of Uluburun artifacts and
will take samples from several objects
for laboratory analyses.

1993 Survey
From mid August and continuing
into the fall of 1993, INA plans to
conduct a survey of shipwreck sites
along the Mediterranean coast of
Turkey and along the coast of Syria.
George F. Bass will act as principal
investigator. Don Frey and Cemal
Pulak will co-direct the Turkish sur-
vey. They will be joined by long-time
INA staff members Robin Piercy,
Tufan Turanh, and Murat Tilev and
by a number of graduate students.
Douglas Haldane, INA research asso-
ciate, will join the crew for the Syrian
portion of the survey.
The INA crew will use small boats
and the institute's expedition vessel
Virazon to search for sunken ships.
They will also meet and interview
coastal fishermen, divers, and muse-
um officials. In the past, discussions
with local people familiar with coastal
waters have been invaluable in identi-
fying the locations of known wrecks.
INA Board Director Marty Wilcox
plans to bring a sonar graphics system
and assist in sonar surveys of the sea-

Ottoman Wreck
Cemal Pulak and G6khan Ozagagh
continue to study, record, and con-

INA Quarterly 19.2



INA 's expedition vessel Virazon serves as a diving
boat on the Uluburun site. This year, as in years
past, it will head down the Turkish coast, once
excavation is completed at Uluburun, for the 1993
survey. INA also plans to conduct a survey on the
Syrian coast in 1993.

toto: ourtmy INA

serve the hull timbers and associated
artifacts of a sixteenth-century Otto-
man wreck raised in 1983. Most of
the drawings of wood timbers have
been completed, but a number of
artifacts covered with concretions still
need to be cast and studied. Recent X-
rays of two large complex concretions
have failed to reveal the nature of
objects inside them. The concretions
will now have to be disassembled and
cast before anything can be said about
the various components sealed inside.
Additionally, epoxy casting of the
ship's 5-foot-long pintle and gudgeon
arrangement, executed by Gokhan
Ozagagh, continues in the Bodrum
Museum of Underwater Archaeology.
The somewhat twisted state of the
rudder straps and the fragmented
condition of the large concretion
surrounding the pintle and gudgeon
have lengthened the casting process.
When completed the rudder will rep-
resent the only know archaeologically
excavated and complete example of
rudder hardware for a round-sterned

Lake Champlain
INA staff return to Lake Champlain
during the summer of 1993 to work
on three projects in the lake and to
run a summer field school in underwa-
ter archaeology. Kevin Crisman, INA

faculty member and assistant professor
at Texas A&M University, will co-
direct the season with Arthur Cohn of
the Lake Champlain Maritime Muse-
um. The field school will begin on
June 7 with a week of training, and
the season will end in mid July.
Projects planned for the 1993 field
school include a preliminary survey of
a mid nineteenth-century sidewheel
steamship wrecked in 1875. Approxi-
mately two-thirds of the steamer, the
Champlain, are preserved beneath the
waters of the lake.
The schooner Water Witch will be
the subject of an underwater study.
The 90-foot-long vessel was built as a
steamer in 1832 and converted to a
schooner in 1836; it sank in 85 feet of
water in 1866. The schooner, still
displaying its once beautiful hull,
remains nearly intact under water.
Project staff and students will record
the lines and external appearance of
the schooner and extensively photo-
graph and videotape the site.
If funding is approved by the Ver-
mont State Legislature, a third project
will also be conducted. Archaeologists
hope to continue a 1992 survey of the
waterfront at Mount Independence, a
fortification built on the lake by
American forces in 1776 to counter a
British invasion from Canada. The
fort was abandoned by the Americans
in 1777 after they were overwhelmed

by the British forces.
A 1992 survey indicated that con-
siderable equipment was tossed into
the lake to keep it out of British hands
as the Americans retreated. In 1993,
the project staff hope to recover and
conserve all finds and complete the
waterfront survey.
Texas A&M Nautical Archaeology
Program students Joseph Cozzi, Eliza-
beth Robinson, John Bratten, David
Robinson, Alan Flanigan, Stephen
Paris, Scott McLaughlin, Charles
Coleman, and Peter Hitchcock will
participate along with volunteer Tray
Siegfried and University of Vermont

Monte Cristi
Shipwreck Project
Jerome Lynn Hall, a Ph.D. student
in the Nautical Archaeology Program
at Texas A&M University, will return
to the Dominican Republic for the
summer of 1993 to direct the excava-
tion of seventeenth-century ship re-
mains found just off Isla Cabra (Goat
Island). This year's campaign will be
the third at the Monte Cristi site. The
project has incorporated more than 50
volunteers, the majority of whom
were supplied by Earthwatch, a non-
profit corporation that matches volun-
teers with peer-reviewed field projects
around the world.

INA Quarterly 19,2

In Monte Cristi Bay, on the
coast of the Dominican Repub-
lic, Jemison Beshears and Har-
ry Pecorelli III measure a cast-
iron cannon from a seven-
teenth-century merchant ship.
Archaeologists and volunteers
will excavate the section of the
site where the cannon was
found during the 1993 season.

Photo: Courtay J. Hll

In the last two seasons, Monte
Cristi Shipwreck Project staff and
volunteers have recovered more than
13,000 clay pipe fragments, all of
which appear to be Dutch. Heel
stamps (all maker's marks) on the
pipes have been used to date the ship
to the mid seventeenth century. Den-
drochronological studies of the hull
timbers suggest that the trees used to
build the ship grew in England and
were felled sometime between 1642
and 1643. Spanish silver coins found
on the site, most likely pocket change
belonging to the crew, were from the
Potosi and Santa Fe de Bogota mints
in South America. The coins have
been used to establish a terminus post
quem of 1651 for the vessel's demise.
A set of bested bronze apothecary
weights discovered on the wreck were
found to be from Nuremberg and were
manufactured ca. 1650.
During the 1993 season, archaeolo-
gists and volunteers will excavate an
area immediately southwest of the ship
where a cast-iron cannon was found at
the close of the 1992 season. The
1993 excavation is scheduled for June

1 to July 26; time for registration and
conservation is scheduled for August
1 to August 30.
Principal staff will include Jemison
Beshears, from East Carolina Univer-
sity, as assistant director; Richard
Wells, from Texas A&M University,
as director of field operations; and
Ron Halbert, M.D. Rahila Abbas and
Colin O'Bannon, both students at
Texas A&M's Nautical Archaeology
Program will work as graduate student
assistants. Jillian Nelson will travel
from Hunter College to act as photog-
rapher; Lillian Ray, a graduate of the
Nautical Archaeology Program will
also work as a photographer for the
project. Alexandra Roberts will serve
as registrar and staff artist, and Sam
Giordano will cook for the project's
The 1993 project is funded by
Earthwatch, the Pan-American Insti-
tute of Maritime Archaeology, Conti-
nental Airlines, Igloo Products, Cole-
man Outdoor Products, and INA.
The excavation is scheduled to
continue for two more summer sea-
sons in 1994 and 1995.

INA Quarterly 19.2

INA polo shirts are available in white
with our logo embroidered on in dark
blue. 100% cotton. Available in unisex
sizes (S, M, L, XL). Each shirt $25.00
plus shipping (call Pat Turner at 409-
845-6694 for details). Send checks made
out to the Institute of Nautical Archaeol-
ogy with your order to: INA, P.O.
Drawer HG, CoUege Station, TX

News & Notes

Vincent Lectures
in Urbana
Robert K. Vincent Jr., president of
INA, traveled to Urbana, Illinois, to
deliver a talk at the University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. A
lecture entitled "Diving into the Past:
Modern Techniques and Methodology
in Underwater Archaeology" was
given on April 5, 1993, at the Beck-
man Institute for Advanced Science

and Technology on the university's
campus. The lecture followed a call-in
show on local radio. Vincent also
gave a more informal talk on under-
water methods and recovery of arti-
facts to an anthropology class.

Nautical Archaeology
Five students received graduate
degrees from Texas A&M Univer-

sity's Nautical Archaeology Program
in May 1993. The graduate program
is associated with INA. One student,
Cheryl Haldane, completed a doctoral
dissertation, and four others complet-
ed master's theses. The May 1993
theses and dissertations are listed
* Sheila Clifford:
An Analysis of the Port Royal
Shipwreck and its Role in the
Maritime History of Seventeenth-
Century Port Royal, Jamaica.
Elizabeth Garver:
Byzantine Amphoras of the Ninth
through Thirteenth Centuries in the
Bodrum Museum of Underwater
Cheryl Haldane:
Ancient Egyptian Hull Construc-
Harold J. (Jim) Jobling:
The History and Development of
the English 'Admiralty' Anchor,
ca. 1500-1860.
Jerry D. Lyon:
The Pottery from a Fifth Century
B.C. Shipwreck at Ma'agan Mi-
chael, Israel.
For a complete list of theses and
dissertations produced by graduates of
the Nautical Archaeology Program,
write to:
The Librarian
Nautical Archaeology Program
Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas 77843-4352
Or call 409/845-6398.
Dissertations may be borrowed
through the interlibrary loan system.

INA Quarterly 20.1


International Conference on Fresh Water
and River Archaeology

June 1994 at University College of North Wales, Bangor

Most people associate underwater archaeology with ship wrecks on the sea
bed, but in recent years exciting and important archaeological work has
taken place within the waters of rivers, lakes, wells, and sinkholes, and at
inundated settlements. University College of North Wales and Oxford
University's Maritime Archaeological Research program will hold a
gathering to hear speakers discuss fresh water projects conducted all over
the world. The conference will be held for three days in Bangor, one of
the foremost centers for maritime studies in Europe. Appropriately,
Bangor is situated in an area renowned for the beauty of its lakes,
mountains, rivers, and estuaries. Sessions will cover such subjects as lake
dwellings and crannogs, lake transport, riverside habitation sites, river
transport, estuarine excavations, sink holes, inundated sites, drains, wells,
and cisterns, and boat finds from landfills and drainage areas.

Those wishing to submit papers should write to:
Mensun Bound
Oxford University MARE
4 Butts Road
Horspath, Oxford OX33 1RH



George F. Bass, Archaeological Director
Donald G. Geddes m, Treasurer

John H. Baird
George P. BaR
.LE.R. Chilton
Gregory M. Cook
Harlan Crow
Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon
Danielle J. Feeney
Donald G. Geddes iI
William Graves
Nixon Griffia

Robert K. Vincent, Jr., President
Rebecca H. Holloway, Secretary


Bruce Heafitz
Bengt O. Jansson
Harry C. Kahn II
Michael L. Katzev
Jack W. Kelley
Sally R. Lancaster
David C. Langworthy
Samuel J. LeFrak
Robert E. Lorton
Frederick R. Mayer
William A. McKenzie

Donald A. Frey, Vice President,

William H. Mobley
Alex G. Nason
Ray H. Siegfried II, Chairman
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew O. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry A. Weber
Martin A. Wilcox
Richard A. Williford
George 0. Yamini


George F. Bass, George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology
Kevin I. Crisman, Assistant Professor
D. L. Hamilton, Associate Professor
Frederick Hocker, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Faculty Fellow
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George 0. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Tr-, Frederick R. Mayer Professor in Nautical Archaeology
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Assistant Professor of Biblical Archaeology


Cemal Pulak, Mr. & Mrs. Ray H.
Siegfried II Graduate Fellow
Elizabeth Robinson, Mr. & Mrs. J.
Brown Cook Graduate Fellow

Selma Karan
Sheila Matthews, M.A.
James Parrent, Ph.D.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Cemal Pulak, M.A.
Sema Pulak, M.A.
Murat Tilev
Tufan Turanh
Patricia Turner
Jane Pannell-Yildinm


Margaret Lynch


Jeremy Green
Cheryl Haldane, M.A.
Douglas Haldane, M.A.
Margaret E. Leshikar, M.A.
John Neville
Kathleen McLaughlin-Neyland, M.A.
Robert Neyland, M.A.
Ralph Pedersen, M.A.
Donald Rosencrantz


Cynthia J. Eiseman, Ph.D.
John Gifford, Ph.D.
Faith Hentschel, Ph.D.
Carolyn Koehler, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
David C. Switzer, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., M.A.

COUNSEL James A. Goold


Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Cornell University
Corning Museum of Glass
Department de Arqueologia Subacuatica de
a I.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of
Shell of Turkey, Ltd.
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas, Austin

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