Group Title: INA quarterly
Title: The INA quarterly
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 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Winter 1992
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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The INA Quarterly

Volume 19, No. 4 Winter. 1992

1992: The Year in Review

3 A Letter from the President t
4 The Shipwreck at Uluburun, Turkey:
1992 Excavation Campaign c
Cemal Pulak

12 The Clydesdale Plantation Vessel Project:
1992 Field Report
Fred Hocker

17 Horse Boat, Canal Boat, and Floating Bridge:
The 1992 Field Season on Lake Champlain
Kevin Crisman

22 Amphora Research Continues in Eastern Europe
and in Bodrum
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr.

24 News and Notes

27 Profile: George O. Yamini NATICAL ARCHAEOLG'Y
Margaret Lynch NAUn AOL Y

On the cover: On the site of the LIae Bronze Age shipwreck at Uluburun, Turkey,
heavily encrusted area. The cement-hard concretion contains a variety of artifacts,
that can be seen In the foreground. Photo: L. Ray

a diver chisels potteryfree from a
including a complete elephant tusk

All arnict and illuratlro~ t in the INA Qunrter.y, with the exception ofthose indicated as excerpu, condttuations, or rtprints raen from copyrighted rources.
may be reprinted In fll or in part without further pennlission d t by tcren ing the INA Quarterly and the author, photographer. or arnis as ihe source,
Alro, copies of the publication should be sent to the uritul of Nautcal Archaeololy.

The INA Quartrty was fornnrly the INA Newletter (vol. 1-1I).

Institute of Nautical Archaeology
PO Drawer HG
College Station, TX 77841-5137

Tear firsthand of our latest discov-
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Editor: Margt l Lynch

A Letter from the President

Dear INA Members,
We should all feel considerable pride in the accomplishments of the projects that are detailed in this issue--from the
discovery of new unique artifacts at Uluburun, Turkey, (see the 'Geographica" section of National Geographic's May
issue) to the successful documentation of vessels in Iake Champlain and South Carolina. You should feel particular pride
in helping to make them possible, so let me thank you for your continued assistance to INA.
And let me urge you to consider helping us in our Challenge for 1993-to raise funds to meet a National Endowment
for the Humanities Challenge Grant. This grant, which gives us $1 for every S3 contributed, will assist INA with the
construction of new headquarters and with staff development. We are seeking funds in gift or pledge form (payable by
July 31, 1995).
As we reach to attain our vision of being a World Center of Archaeology, consistent with our current excellence
in research and education, please join us. With your help, we can continue a partnership that will make our visions reality.
We extend special thanks to our major 1992 contributors, listed below.


These endowments, gilre to Texas
A&M, further the goals of INA
The Oeorge T, and Gladys H. Abell
The Frederick R. Mayer Professorshlp
The Meadows Foundation
The Saa W. and George 0. Yminl
The Georgo O. Yamini Family Chair
The INA Faculty Fellowship
The Nautical Archaeotegy Faculty
The Frederick R. Mayer Faculty
The Mr. and Mrs. J. Brown Cook
Graduate Fellowship
The Mr. and Mn. Ray H. Siegfried
II Graduate Fellowhip

Foundations, etc.
Air Janaica
American Way Magazine
Anderen Consulting
Conservatlon Analytical Lboratory,
Museum Support Center, Smithsonian
The Annn C, and Olivet C. Colburn
The John Brown Cook Foundation
Coming Incorporated
Covington and Burting
Cresil-sub, Italy
Dental Plus
Dive World
General Eectric
The Cecil Howard Charitable Trun
Hunuru Hospital
INA Films
INA Foundation
The Institute for Aegean Prhilstory
Jtamica National Heritage Trust
The Jamaica Tourist Board
Jarruica 500 Committee
Jamaica Defense Pore Coast Guard
Kaiser Aluminum Company

Undbtad'* Speelat Expeditions
Lubrizol, Incorporated
The Meadows Foundation
R.J.R. Nabisco
The Nason Foundation
The National Endownment for the
The National GOcgraphic Society
. Scott and White Clinic
- Shell of Turkey. Ltd.
Texs A&M Development Fund
Taxas A&M Research Foundation
Texra A&M Hyperbario L*b
Texts A&M University
Wyndham Kingston Hotel

Dr. Allan C. Campbell
Mr. Erik Jonaron

Mr. and Mrs. Charles McWhirter
Dr. David W. Pertman
Mr. and Mrs. Richard L. Rosenbe

Mr. and Mrs. Charles B. Collins
Mr. and Mrs. Maurice Dues
Mr. Theodor Halpem
Mr. George W. Lodge
Mr. and Mn. Drew Morris
Mr. and Mrs. John L. Stem
Dr. William C. Culp

Supporting Members
Mr. Walter Badenhausen, Ir.
Mr. Kurt Batyr
Mr. Richard R. Bryan
Mr. John M.C. Camp Ill
Mr. Ken A. Cassavoy
Mr. Lionel Casson
Ms. Marilyn Dcering
Ms. Ruth L. Dugan
Ms. Cynthia 1. Eiseman
Mr. Lawrence Flinn, Jr.
Mr. Hudson D. Fowler, Jr.
Mr. Robert 1, Fraica

Mrs, Marion L. Oilford
Mr. Edmund Hayes, Jr.
Mr. Fred C. Jesop
Mr. Harry C. Kahn EI
Mr. Weldon D. Kruger
Mr. Robert C. Kuzela
Dr. Diana hcrrurier
Mr. Hugh R. Lehman
Mr. Herbert L. Lucas, Jr.
Mr. Tom McCasland. Jr.
Mr. Murray W. Ptgler
Ms. Ann 1. Pierce
Mr. John W. Porter
Mr. Wallace L. Preble
Mr. T.N. Russell
Ms. Btty Schulman
Mr. and Mrs. Ladd Seabcrg
Mr. W.F. Scarle, Jr.
Mr. John Shipley
Mr. Joseph W. Smith
Mr. and Mn. David Steffy
Mr. Robert D. Stuart
Ms. Sylvia E. Thomas
;rg Mr. I.E. Wilson
Mr. Keating V. Zeppa

Contributing Members
Mr. David A. Batchelor
Mr. Walter C. Bonet
Mr. F.Z. Brown
Mr. Mario Cardullo
Mr. Robert S. Carter
Mr. Nicholas I. Colas
Mr. Sicphen Cook
Mr. Jacques Degas
Mr. Harrison Eileljorg
Mr. Peter Engel
Mr. William F. Farr
Mr. Joseph C.V. Ferrusi
Dr. William A. and Mrs.
Barbara Geffen
Mr. Roberi C. Oleason
Mr. Glenn Grieco
Mr. R.I. Halbert
Mr. Robert M. Halpern
Mr. John H. Hermann, Jr.
Mr. Van T. Hunn

Mr. lack Hunter
Mr. Paul F. Johnuton
Mr. Edward W. Jones. Jr.
Mr. D. Kourkounilis
Mi. Barbara M. Knutz
Ms. Mary D. Leonhardi
Ms. C.M, Marquti Maria
Mr. Steven R. Markman
Mr, Iames R. Matthews
Mr. Brian McLaggan
Mr. John O. Nelson
Mr. Steven L. Reff
Mr. John Scranton
Mr. Mitchell A. Siegel
Mr. IJewu E. Vega
Mr. Ronald B. Walsh
Mr. Robert C. Wear
Mr. George West
Mr. Donald A.R. Wilson
Mr. Patrick S. Wilson
Mrs. Margaret H. Womer
Mr. R.L. Womcr

NEll Challenge Grant,
President's CouncU
Mn. Louise W. Bates
Mr. P. S. de Beaumont
Mr. and Mrs, John G. Cassili
Dr. William C. Culp
Mr. Thomas P. Fowler
Mrn. Marion L. Cifford
Mr. and Mrs. Richard
Mr. lohn R. Ilill. Ir.
Ms. lean B. aImes
Mr- and Mr. Jerry Porer
Mr. David S. Reese
Mr. Carrie C. Riedmeycr
Mr. and Mr. T Newton
Ms. Catherine Sease
Ms. Carric Lee Stctler
Mr. Henry H. Timken 11
Mr. Robert Ulrich
Ms. Margaret Zellra


INA's previous excavation seasons on the Late Bronze Age shipwreck found off a rugged
and largely uninhabited stretch of the southern 7Trkish coast have revealed an astoundingly
rich site. The bulk of the ancient ship's cargo is made up of raw materials, especially copper
and tin ingots (the ingredients for bronze), but the contents of the ship also include manufac-
tured goods and personal effects of the crew or passengers. These goods and the raw
materials came from all over the4Mediterranean; even a partial list of them will include an
exotic array from many of the major ancient civilizations of the region: fine Cypriot export
pottery; logs of African ebony; Assyrian, Syrian, and Mycenaean seals; jewelry of Canaanite
and Egyptian design; along with glass ingots, ivory, ostrich eggshells, amphoras filled with
terebinth resin, bronze tools and weapons, and remains of fruits, spices, and grain, have all
survived the millennia under water.
The excavation has been prolonged over the years by the scope and variety of the cargo.
Tiny beads and seeds and fragile pottery have required painstaking excavation techniques,
while the bulk and weight of huge storage jars (pithoi) and the hundreds of metal ingots have
meant hours of heavy labor. The ship's location on a steep slope, its lower, bow end more
than 170feet below the surface of the water, has severely limited excavation time on the sea
floor, as excavators can safely work at such depths for only short periods. The 1992 season
was devoted to raising nearly all of the ingots still left on the site and to finishing or
continuing excavation in areas of the wreck previously explored. Even so, new discoveries
awaited the 1992 team.

The Shipwreck at Ulu Burun,

1992 Excavation Campaign


by Cemal Pulak, Mr. & Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II Graduate Fellow

Between June 1 and September 30, 1992, INA complet-
ed its ninth, and longest, excavation'campaign on the Late
Bronze Age shipwreck at Uluburun (the preferred spelling
for the site) near Kal in southern Turkey. During the
campaign 3,234 dives were made, totaling some 1,058
hours on the wreck. This brings the number of dives on the
site to 18,648, for a total of 6,006 hours of excavation
time. We had hoped that a four-month-long campaign,
perhaps followed by an abbreviated season with a limited
staff in 1993, would be sufficient for fully excavating the
wreck. But, we learned In 1992 that the site Is still richer
and larger than previously realized and that another full
campaign will be needed in 1993 for completion.
Although much of the summer's work was concentrated
in and around the region of remaining copper ingots (see
the site plan on pages six and seven, grid squares N-P17
and 18), the excavation of several other areas only partially

examined during earlier campaigns also was completed.
Artifact spillage down the steep slope led us to even greater
depths and resulted in the recovery of more Cypriot export
wares, including a complete trefoil-mouth pitcher at a depth
of about 60 meters (see site plan, grid square H35).
Ninety more copper oxhide ingots were freed and
brought to the surface during the course of the season,
bringing the total number of ingots raised so far to 342.
With the dozen or so left in place to protect delicate objects
trapped beneath them, the total number of ingots carried
aboard the Uluburun ship was probably about 355, nearly
twice our initial estimate.
Originally stowed in four distinct rows transversing the
ship's hold, the ingots either slipped down the slope after
the ship sank or were displaced as the hull settled under the
tremendous weight of the cargo, though the basic shape of
the rows survived. This scattering of ingots, evident in all

1NA Quarterly 19.4

Figure I. A cross-sectional drawing shows copper oxhide ingots in row two. Note
the herringbone pattern in which they had been placed on the ship. This method of
storage probably was Intended to prevent shifting during transit.

four ingot rows but particularly pronounced on the first
row (the sternmost, highest on the slope) and fourth (the
lowest), makes it impossible to ascertain a displaced ingot's
original position. Those still in place, however, reveal that
within the layers making up each of the four rows the
ingots overlapped one another like roof shingles and
stretched from one side of the hull to the other. The
direction of overlap alternated from layer to layer (with one
exception), apparently to prevent slippage of ingots during
transit (fig. 1). Each row of Ingots is made up of 8 to 11
layers with, on average, 12 Ingots in each layer, the bottom
layers placed on a bed of brushwood (or dunnage, in
nautical terminology) to protect the hull timbers. As we
found in earlier seasons, all the ingots appear to have been
stowed with their smooth "mold side" down; this arrange-
ment might have provided better grip between ingots by
ensuring that no two smooth sides faced each other; it
might also have allowed the ready viewing of ingot marks
(which are always placed on the surface opposite the mold
side) or facilitated handling by providing a natural purchase
for fingers around the ingots' beveled edges.
The recovery of copper Ingots In 1992 was slowed by
the discovery of many fragile artifacts wedged between

Dawing-S M.tthcw,

them and embedded in their sur-

rounding concretion matrix (in
grid squares N-P17 and 18). Slow and cautious chiseling
amongg the ingots was rewarded by the discovery of a
complete tusk from a small elephant (KW 3843; see cover).
The ivory was freed only after two months of delicate
work on the sea floor. The tusk required periodic consoli-
dation with layers of plaster to minimize vibration damage
from chiseling. The diminutive size of the Uluburun tusk
reminds us of the small tusked elephant depicted on a
Syrian tribute scene from the fifteenth-century tomb of
Rekh-mi-re at Thebes in Egypt. Since tusks form only after
elephants reach maturity, one wonders If the Egyptian artist
rationalized the existence of small tusks as those taken from
juvenile elephants. We now know that elephant tusks were
carried aboard the Uluburun ship both whole and in cut
sections (the latter discovered during the 1984 campaign).
Also amid the copper ingots were the body sections of
two duck-shaped ivory cosmetic containers, one larger than
the-other (KW 2818, fig. 2; and KW 2534). The presence
of such containers had been surmised by the discovery
during earlier seasons of two wings of differing styles (see
INA Newsletter 16.4, p. 2, fig. 8; and 17.4, p. 10, fig. 5),
and it seems likely that the wings belong to these contain-
ers. An ivory duck head (lot no. 9014, fig. 3) found nearby

Figure 2. (Lefi) Duck-
shaped cosmetic con-
tainer carved of elephant
Ivory (KW 2818). Ivory
wings, pivoted on pegs
inserted Into holes on the
shoulders, formed the
lid. (14.6x 8.8 cm)
Figure 3. (Right) Ivory
duck head.

PhoBt L-. R"

INA Quarterly 19 4

r---- INA 1992

SI/ 0




-7 K-

in 1992 appears to have come from the smaller of the
boxes. Still preserved in a hole in the duck head were a
rust-colored substance (possibly an adhesive) and part of a
wooden peg that originally held the head to its neck.
Wedged between two other Ingots was a section of an
ivory or bone hinge similar in shape to one found on the
boxwood diptych (writing tablet) raised in the 1986
campaign; a more ornate hinge part had also been discov-
ered here during the 1991 campaign. Whether these new
hinge sections hint at the presence of additional diptychs or
are merely from box hinges cannot be ascertained until
their complementary pieces are recovered.
The most surprising discovery of ivory was that of a
hippopotamus incisor ornately carved in the likeness of a
ram's- or goat's-horn trumpet (KW 3526, fig. 4), called a
shofar in Hebrew. Seven ram's-horn trumpets are blown by
Joshua's priests to topple the walls of Jericho (Josh. 6:20).
Removal of the ingots revealed a number of small
artifacts, including more bronze tools and weapons (among

them a lance lip, knives, daggers, pins, and assorted
blades). The blade width and thickness of a bronze cold
chisel (KW 3577, fig. 5) found between ingots match the
dimensions of some incised copper ingot marks. And a
dozen pan-balance weights of bronze, hematite, and stone--
most in the typical domed or sphendonoid (sling bullet)
shapes--found here and elsewhere on the site bring the total
number of weights from the wreck to more than 110
Great care was taken to collect much of the organic
material exposed when the copper ingots were removed.
This organic sludge mostly comprised thorny burnet (used
for dunnage), but well preserved oak and beech leaves,
blades of grass, twigs, wood chips, bits of matting, and
some seeds also were in evidence. Closer examination of
the thousands of murex-shell opercula separated from the
sludge revealed additional opercula from an as yet unidenti-
fied gastropod species. The new type, which occur at a
frequency of about 1 in 10, may have been more common

i ii . ,ii 10 n i

figure 4. (Left) A truu pe fm de I anIj' n ha / ,'( i',f ..;.M i ,*,.r ', ; ,
3526) was carved to resclible a goa; s hirn C' ,'nrru .o i, rf<-
i W[l nlori-n etnd conceals a carverd decorlaive pa.:t'rn circi iucTib:ng re
,',.h, horn 's outer periphery.

flaoin L. ly

5. (Right) Found on'org the Ingots, t:hs cold
.. might have been used io i.ncise marks found on the
': ces of sonic copper oxhide ingotr (I1 2 x 4.8 cm). '. s:' N
rIKi !. 1:.'

ic site, but have not been found in greater numbers
Sc.use of their generally much smaller size.
A natural ca'.hment area directly underneath the second
r of ingots (grid squares M-015 and 16) yielded nurner-
S"s objects that had rolled or fallen down the steep slope.
"' ndjngs just above this row in 1984 and 1990 revealed
action of the ship's hull, which appeared to continue
w.' t3 he slope under the ingot row. The full excavation of
.:-!s area has been postponed until 1993 due to the quantity
,'' small, delicate finds overlying the deposit. This is where
1 number of large bronze vessels, mostly caldrons, were
a: -ost certainly stored at the time the ship sank. Immedi-
r'ly downslope of the area (grid square N17), in a natural
retension of the catchment just described, hundreds of
tience and glass beads, a fragment of another glass
Mycenaean relief bead or pendant, more ostrich eggshell'
fra-gments, tortoise carapace fragments, another piece of an
S.ory log, still more p:!grim flasks, and more Cypriot
export wares IWhite Shaved juglets being the most com-
:i.on) were found this season.
In 1991 some 30 glass ingots, colored cobalt blue and
inirunqie, were fund as a group just dnwnslope of the
deepcat Oruv, t uIq.tl1C liigola (.Jlid equnai c- 1'Pi iu1 a f
019). The glass might hae been stored in the forward part
of the hold, but because the ingots appeared somewhat
%cattcred and ibc.ause severed had broken upon impact, it
seemed more likely that they had been stored in baskets
and had rolled down the slope from farther astern. This
,belief was reinforced in 1992 by the discovery in the same
arca of an additional 25 glass ingots. While some of these
;'ere in an excellent sta:e of preservation, others had totally
'.;drolyzed into granular masses that crumbled upon
suresue and eventually had to be consolidated with plaster

before removal from the sea floor. Farther down the .lope
in an area considered to be outside the general spilliger f
cargo '(grid square Q23), a single, partly hydrolyzed gls
ingot was found. Closer examination of its better preserved
core revealed it to be a purple glass ingot, the first of -hhe:
color found at Uluburuo. Samples from all the glass w~'i; be
analyzed to determine the coloring materials used.
From the area below the fourth and deepest r;o'i. r f
copper ingots (grid squares M-N19 and 20), six concret'-
stone weight-anchors were chiseled free and raised; six o:h-
ers had been taken from this general area in 1991. Th,s
year we were equipped to weigh the anchors (Fig, 6). Te':
smallest (KW 4001) weighs 121 kg, whereas the heaviest
(KW 4002) weighs 207.9 kg. The remaining four anchors,
from the lightest to the heaviest, weigh 164 (KW 4009),
171 (KW 4010), 181.5 (KW 4012), and 204 (KW 4011'
kg, respectively.
Excavation between and under the anchors--an area that
we believe corresponds to the ship's bow--yiteded more fa
ience and glass beads, ballast stones, a hippopotamus i:.-
sor, three bronze fishhooks, a hematite pan-balance we>g,:t
of sphendonoid thape, tortoise carapace fragments, shell
I u.qj (fg, 7, YW 1500, len; and KW 3774, rlghi), 4n 1
three bronze blades, at least one of which belonging to
dagger. Crushed under one of the anchors were three
Cypriol and one Syrian oil lamps, and two White Shivced
juglets. Under the same anchor were an assorlmer.i .,i
beads and a stone scarab with a baboon associated with tic
god Thoth incised on its base (KW 3699). James We-.n
stein, who is studying all of the Uluburun Eg)p:i..;
artifacts, reads the inscription on the scarab as "Th :c't
Imy) lord;' his preliminary research suggests that th.-
scarab belongs to the fifteenth or fourteenth century BC'

A Ourtar.y 9 4


0 1 2 3

Pbot. L ay
Figure 6. (Left) Patricia Sibella and Cernal Pulad: use a
triple-spring scale jig to weigh stone anchors.

Figure 7. (Above) Searhell beads (KW 3500 and KW
$774) are only one of many types found on the wreck.

Figure 8. (Below) This tin ingot (KW 3935) is shaped like
a stone anchor. The light circular spot at the narrower
end Is a hole plugged by concretion.

A bronze armor scale discovered In the same area is. of
the type found extensively throughout the Near East' (a
single scale was also recovered at Mycenae in Greece),
usually dated to the sixteenth through twelfth centuries BC.
Several hundred such scales would have been laced
together onto a heavy garment to form a corselet, so we
expect that others may be found.
From the same part of the site, a new type of tin ingot
(KW 3935, fig. 8)--rectangular and pierced by a hole, and
somewhat reminiscent of the stone anchors on the site--
recalls the gray ingots (thought to represent lead or tin)
carried by Syrian porters in the fourteenth-century tomb
painting of Amen-em-opet at Thebes, In Egypt. Sand sieved
from this area yielded hundreds of small faiente beads in
assorted shapes and many ostrich-eggshell beads--the first ..
of their kind found on the wreck. -
Just to the north of these finds among a deposit of some ,
300 ballast stones (grid squares 020-21 and P21-22) were
a Syrian oil lamp, a Cypriot oil lamp, two bronze fish-
Phoo 5 P~aru

INA O aerterly 19.4

hooks, a whetstone, glass and
faience beads, an ivory finial, a
bone pomegranate (probably a
*finial for one of the ivory scepters
found during earlier campaigns),
an ebony log, tortoise carapace
fragments, and a faience (or per-
haps sintered quartz) cylinder seal
S (KW..3405, fig. 9). Dominique
Colon, from the British Museum,
compares the seal to a group
which was spread across the Mi-
tannian world (northern Mesopota-
Prho- L.Ry mia,'from Iran in the east to the
Mediterranean coast and Palestine in the west) but which
probably originated in a single unidentified workshop in the
west, possibly near Ugarit, sometime between 1450 and
1350 BC.
Downslope of the ledge (at a depth of 58 meters, in grid
squares J-M29 to J-M32), where in 1991 we had found
spillage of ballast stones and pottery, we found more of the
same. Even farther down the slope (at 60 meters, in grid
squares J-L34, H-J35, and 1-136), below the deepest ledge
that forms the edge for the catchment basin mentioned
above, were yet more sherds from pithol (large storage
jars), a White Shaved juglet, fragments of milk bowls, and
an intact trefoil-mouth pitcher, all of Cypriot types.
Because the seabed here levels out to a flat stretch of sand,
we do not believe that wreck spillage will be encountered
beyond the depths reached in 1992.
Excavation of the southeastern side of
the wreck had been nearly completed in
1991, but scattered Cypriot sherds, amphora
fragments, some wood (presumably part of

Figure 9. (Above) Another cylinder seal
(KW 3405), this one offalence, was found
during the 1992 field season. The seal com-
pares to a group believed to have been made "
in a single Near Eastern workshop between
1450 and 1350 BC (approximate size I x 2.5 2 i

Figures 10 and 11. (Left to right), A statu-
ette (KW 3680) was heavily concreted when
found. Conservation of he figure revealed a
cast-bronze goddess, her face, hands, arms,
and feet clad in gold foil The statuette may
represent the ship's protective divinity. She
stands 16.3 cm high.

the cargo), many more agate beads, and a seashell ring
were located (grid squares E-F22, 23, and 24) this year.
Directly to the north of this area and downslope of the
large, rock outcrop located at the center of the site (grid
square G24) lay one of the more intriguing discoveries of
the season: an encrusted metal figurine with outstretched
arms (KW 3680, fig. 10). After cleaning the figurine in the
conservation laboratory in Bodrum, we were surprised to
find a cast-bronze statuette of a female with an overlay of
gold foil on her head, arms, and feet (fig. II). A narrow
headband and a multi-stranded necklace adorn her head and
shoulders. Shoulder-length plaits of hair, as well as a
braided central lock that terminates in a loop halfway down
her back, resemble those on several bronze statuettes from
Syria-Palestine and on a gold plaque from Lachish. These
features, along with stylistic considerations, may suggest a
like origin for the Uluburun statuette. The archaeological
contexts of such statuettes found on land sites suggest that
the figures were votive in nature, and this may have been
the-purpose of the Uluburun statuette--to protect the ship
and all aboard from peril at sea. Because during the Bronze
Age the cult of the divine couple, which comprised a war
god and a fertility goddess, was widely known along the
Syro-Palestinian coast, it is possible that future excavations
at Uluburun will render a male consort of this unique
statuette, one of the more attractive examples discovered in
the Mediterranean. It may be noteworthy to mention here
that the statuette had rested near the stone object found in
1990 (INA Newsletter 17.4, p. 11, fig.6), which now has
been identified definitively as a ceremonial axe head of a

rnow: i. r"y

INA Quarterly 19.4

,,: i:ud in the Black Sea region. A good parallel for
i.uLi:J'rn:n ae, but of bronze, is found in Rumania.
ir:-ther to the southeast and downslope, at 58
'.is (off the plan, but corresponding to grid squares
,. :S, 29, and 30), we recovered a Cypriot milk bowl
:. a wall bracket that may have tumbled out of one or
: of the pahoi excavated here and higher up the
;x during previous campaigns.
1: trie area beneath an anchor raised the summer
Sr n grid squares K-L13, and 14), we found a
:. tf tive well-rounded stakes, the only nearly fully
;. -,\d example of which was 1.7 meters long (fig.
l. Some 0 12 meters of one of its ends is fashioned
* .hlf the diameter of the main shaft, while the oppo-
. :" ends of all five stakes have been sharpened to
: s .'with four or five strokes of an axe or adze.
r .!:er cxcavation of the area revealed closely-spaced
: i)ing somewhat perpendicular to the stakes.
;.e.; Bppear to be woven into mats but seem indepen-
o.-i of the stak-s. Taken as a whole, the assemblage
c'.e s ihe wickerwork fencing known from Egyptian
S ser:talions of Syrian ships, as well as from the "
i'.',-rv Such fencework is depicted as running from
t, o sierm, probably to keep waves out or cargo in.
;',e : inningg of the longest stake reminds us of the
>,- :--J upper ends of the stanchions depicted in the
' o" lit Kenamun, the mayor of Thebes in Egypt (fig.
13. sec page 21).
Dispersed among these wooden remains were a
r,.:angular gold pendant in a stylized idol shape, a
t .rize spearhead, many agate and faience beads, and
:. amber beads. The general area directly to the
.rh c.stl of the fencing, where hull wood is preserved, b
: .'!eA a cus:er of several dozen lead fish-net sinkers,
..: Syrian oil lamps, a Cypriot milk bowl, a very
-,li stirrup jar, two bronze chisels, a bronze adze
!:'a-, half a dozen pan-balance weights, and an agate
1:ru[.iiid bead
As we have known from previous seasons, the compo-
<.:ln of the cargo suggests that the ship had sailed west-
.ad from a Canaanite port on her last voyage; her home
[I rt and the nationality of her crew remain unknown,
,!:'.-iugh the presence of at least one Mycenaean aboard is
sl'pgestd by some of the personal effects. The diversity of
i!ie ship's contents continues to amaze us, and their
presence together on a single merchant ship offers unique
pp)onunilies to learn more about trade in the Bronze Age
:M 'i'ie rranea n.
Some of the most important artifacts left on the site are
:." remains of the ship itself. We have already found, from
i'.'": of the hull uncovered in earlier seasons, that the ship

7Fgure 12. Gradurc e stuij'. :: Je'rr. l.s o hrsi1n :er vr,:;c! .o-.i
delicate withies rhaot r oy h:-.' e been, fp'nceovork a on( !i? L' .'
urun ship's sile f,/ r Ac;-!.'., ci out and, prC. in -
eeping cargo in

was built in the same manner as Greco-RnroTnn ship ot a
millennium lante tha i, it was built r, ;:e snell-firrt
method of construction. '.h'rcin the sh:lis planks
tdge-joined Mith morise-a:rd-tenon joins held lis: w'it:
wooden pegs Based on the preliminary ea:.:,nation cl
cargo disposition, we es' the Uiuburun h',p to hai:
been about 15 meters l.'-.
We found nothing in :992 to change o'ur daut-g of the
wreck The ierlMitis i),: i/uem or earliest d e, s pro'.J
ed by a gold scarah of Neftert!: (Found on ihe sue ,n i 9R6':.
while th:il of ilie !tem:i,: r .. rf a e q er t!i. .tccs. da!le
suggested primary hy :he preliminary exumir.ation 0!
My cenacin pottery on ht''ird It appears, d:'.pc'i'g on. 'he
chronology uscd, tha: i ,:'- ;'uburun shipr a,'< .". m: e
Corrinuited on p[. e 2!

Poto-w P. Hlckcr
The Clydesdale Plantation vessel as surveyed In February 1992; note the piling stumps In the

As we motored around the bend
SdeI slow, muddy river and up
i:,e Murray Hill Canal, a dozing
i:gator well over 12 feet long was
s:.rtled by the sudden appearance
,r our boat from behind the roots
-i a dead cypress tree. He arched
,s back to turn around; with a
'.:gle slap of his tail be plunged
from the bank into the canal and
was gone, leaving a scar in the
mud and a gurgling eddy in the
brown water. We were used to
seeing alligators, two or three a day,

The Clydesdale




1992 Field Report

by Fred Hocker,
Sara W. & George O. Faculty Fellow

but they usually slid

into the river well ahead of us as we approached the site,
and it had become a game to see If we could spot them
1- fore they were spooked or distinguish the twin bumps
that marked them watching us from the shallows. With this
grand old man of the swamp, there had been no time to
point or yell, "'Gatorl," before he disappeared. It was
difficult to tell who was the more surprised. We saw others
later in the season, some quite large, and a small fellow,
perhaps six feet long, took up residence at the foot of the
bank where we worked, but none reminded us as forcefully
that we were strangers to the landscape.
We were out In the swamp, near Savannah, Georgia,
excavating an eighteenth-century coastal sloop that had
Ncen buried under a river levee. The vessel was one of 19
derelicts discovered in the fall of 1991 during a survey of
the Back River, a secondary channel of the Savannah
-'iver, by Tidewater Atlantic Research, Inc., a contract

archaeology firm directed by [IN,
adjunct professor Gordon Watts.
The remains of numerous nine-
teenth-century wharves and build-
ings, including the boilers from a
steam threshing machine, were also
found. I was contacted in January
of 1992 by the local U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers archaeologist,
Judy Wood, who had commis-
sioned the 1991 survey and is re-
sponsible for the management of
the vessels found. She felt that this

sloop, the oldest vessel yet found in the Savannah River,
was similar to the Brown's Ferry vessel (see INA Newsier-
rer 18.4) in construction and age, and might help explain
some of the ferry's more unusual features. I was immcdi-
ately intrigued, and the few slides she showed me sugg4et-
ed that the vessel might indeed be another flat-bottomed
periauger, a log-based river transport. Kevin Crisman
(from the Nautical Archaeology Program faculty at Texas
A&M University) and I arranged to visit the site later in
the winter and evaluate it as a possible excavation project.
We arrived in Savannah in the middle of February and
traveled the circuitous route to the wreck on a raw, rainy,
windy day, along with Ms. Wood, Rusty Fleetwood, a
local expert oo inland craft, and Larry Shaffield, a local
volunteer. What we found was not at all what we expected,
but much more. Rather than a flat-bottomed riverboat, what
was eroding out of the bank was a sharp, fast coastal or
deepwater vessel built on a heavy keel. The sizes of the

'A Ouarterly 19.4

visible timbers, which Included the sternpost and its knee,
the after ends of the starboard planks, and several frames
under a pile of green stones, suggested a medium-sized
vessel, perhaps as long as 20 meters. The wood used in the
hull, rather than European oak, appeared to be-yellow pine,
cypress, and live oak, all southern American species. If the
suspected colonial date held up, the vessel might be the
oldest American-built seagoing vessel yet discovered.
In addition to the vessel itself, which ran back into the
bank at an angle of about 45 degrees, a line of heavy
pilings, now reduced to worm- and gribble-eaten stumps,
could be seen protruding from the foreshore parallel to the
bank. The mud around the exposed stern and pilings was
littered with eighteenth-century trash (similar to the objects
found in the upper layers at Port Royal, Jamaica), as well
as the occasional crushed Budweiser can, but there was a
curious absence of clearly identifiable nineteenth-century
material. The earlier artifacts Included large numbers of
broken wine bottles, ceramic sherds, and buttons, all
typical domestic trash, suggesting that a house had proba-
bly sat behind the bank and that the pilings were the
remains of a pier or wharf that had served the house
through much of the second half of the eighteenth century
but had fallen out of use around 1800.
Dr. Crisman and I were excited about the possibilities
offered by the site. The vessel offered illumination into the
early history of shipbuilding In the Southeast, an important
but largely overlooked corner of American maritime
history; and further, the pier and burial seemed to date to
shortly after the settlement of the area and the foundation
of the colony of Georgia'ln 1733. Local interest in an
excavation would be high, and the excavation of the bank
itself might shed some light on early labor organization on
the Savannah River. We returned to the site the next day
with representatives of the South Carolina State Archaeolo-

gist's Office and Mr. Bill Saunders, who represented the
hunting club that owned the land surrounding the site,
Discussion among those present was favorable, and I set to
work preparing an excavation while Chris Amer, the state
underwater archaeologist for South Carolina (and a gradu-
ate of the Texas A&M Nautical Archaeology Program)
began the complex paperwork that would allow us to dig a
hole in protected wetlands.
The site posed several logistical problems even though
no diving was involved--we planned to dig during low
tides, when the vessel was exposed. Not the least of our
problems was accessibility. Although the vessel lay high
enough up the bank to be exposed even when the tide was
approaching the high mark, the effective window for
excavation was only about four hours each day since the
only practical approach to the site meant shooting the
Savannah Tidegate, which is only passable either side of
low tide. The tidal range averages 2.5 meters, so it rises
and falls rapidly; we soon learned to judge our departure
time from the site accurately. One day, when the boat
motor failed, we discovered how difficult it was to walk
the mile back to the nearest bridge, through the swamp,
against the rising tide. Accessibility was also limited to
small craft, so heavy equipment could not be brought in to
remove any of the overburden, All excavation had to be by
hand, with spoil stored on top of the bank. Simply moving
around required major effort. The thick clay was only shin-
deep during the February survey, but it softened with
repeated traffic during excavation and recording until we
often stood waist-deep in mud the consistency of pudding
or warm peanut butter.
We began work on the first of June with a crew of
seven: Nautical Archaeology Program graduate students
Tina Erwin, Noreen Doyle, and Betsy Rosenthal, Texas
A&M undergraduates Leslie Brown and Charlie Harris,
Emma Hocker (as field conser-
Svator), and myself. A boat,
pump, and shovels were pro-
Svided by the South Carolina
Institute of Archaeology and
Anthropology (SCIAA), and a
Grant for some operating ex-
penses was kindly provided by
S the Coastal Heritage Society,

T A"TL.1-, OCt
Map of the lower Savannah
S1 River system showing the
location of the vessel, here
designated by its official state
S site number (38JA201).
Map: F. (Hokcr

INA Ouandtatl 19.4

tlMoo: m IOywZ. nxcter
The presence of many eighteenth-century domestic artifacts
al the site. Including this cast stoneware plate fragment,
ca. 1760, suggested that a residence had been situated

as was lumber for work platforms (the lumber had original-
ly been sets from the film Glory).
Work began with the establishment of datum.points (4
x 4 posts driven into the mud) and the collection of surface
artifacts. These lay so thick on the ground that they
hindered access to the site, so we mapped and recovered
them first. In all, over 270 items were eventually recovered
from the foreshore. Most were found during the early
stages of the project, but others appeared later as the mud
was disturbed by our feet. Among the surface artifacts, the
most common objects are nails (most of them from the
vessel), green glass wine bottle fragments, and a mixture
of mid to late eighteenth-century domestic ceramics. We
found fragments of English and Chinese porcelain, cst
stoneware plates made by Josiah Wedgwood, a variety of
English earthenware, some American stoneware, a
respectable assemblage of Colono ware (a yellow pottery
made by slaves in the southeastern colonies), and a few
fragments of German stoneware. None of these was
particularly surprising in itself, but the group as a whole
suggests that someone of reasonably substantial means lived
nearby with his slaves. Research In South Carolina archives
and a map of 1752 showed us that Patrick MacKay, at one
time chief judge of the Senior Court of Georgia, had been
granted much of the land on the north bank of the lower
Savannah River in 1737 and lived in a house directly
behind the site. ,
After a topographic survey to establish the contours of
the bank and foreshore, excavation began. In the course of
three weeks, the seven of us (with regular help from local
volunteer Stanley Lester) removed between 80 and 90 tons

of clay from the hull and piled It on top of the bank.
Artifacts found In the clay, as well as sediment stratigra-
phy, indicated that the bank had been heightened in the
middle of the nineteenth century (probably during extensive
bank Improvements made all along the river in the early
1850s) and that parts of the vessel had protruded from the
old bank. The artifacts found closer to the hull suggested
that the vessel had been buried after Mr. MacKay had been
living on the river for some time. The vessel did not seem
to have been placed as cribbing to support the wharf, as I
had first thought, but was probably used to repair a
blowout in the bank, possibly as late as the end of the
eighteenth century.
The hull itself had been sorely abused by the laborers
who buried it. The sides (especially the port side) had been
partially dismantled and cut down, but the greatest disap-
pointment of the season was encountered on July 2, when
we excavated along the port side. The changing angles of
the frames indicated that we were approaching the bow.
Preservation had been excellent in the bank, and there were
high hopes that much of the stem might survive. Just past
the nineteenth frame, I came upon an angled cut in the port
garboard, the plank next to the'keel. The cut continued into
the keel and keelson, and it soon became apparent that the
entire bow had been cut off in order to fit the vessel into
the hole in the bank it was intended to plug. The backbone
was cut cleanly through with an axe just behind the scarf
that joined the keel to the stem. Much of the starboard
planking continued forward for another meter or more, but
no sign of the stem could be found. Excavation further
forward uncovered the remains of a large fire just off the
starboard bow, and clumps of nails mixed with charcoal
were found in the forward part of the hull. I believe the
stem and its associated timbers were burned for the iron
bolts they contained. Fortunately, enough of the planking
survived to reconstruct the curvature of at least the lower
part of the bow.
Three weeks of excavation were followed by three
weeks of careful recording of the hull. Few artifacts had
been found in the vessel (a rigging block and a sewing
palm were the only nautical items still associated with the
hull), but much of the starboard side was preserved, and
the frames amidships were complete. The stern, despite its
exposure, was also in relatively good condition. By means
of sections, offsets, detailed measured sketches, and
photographs, we made a complete record of the hull
remains. After the ceiling planks were drawn they were
removed to expose the frames, and further measurements
were made.
After recording, the hull was reburied to preserve it
against further decay. The mud which had kept it in such

INA Quarttrly 19.4

good condition could be pressed back into service, but the
lower end of the hull had to be protected from further
erosion. Not only did we have to fill a hole with 80 tons of
mud, but we had to build a hole first. After some discus-
sion with Charlie Harris, who is an engineering rather than
archaeology student, we designed and built a low wall of
recycled plastic railroad ties, held together with steel rod
and a large number of wooden pilings, around the stem.
After the remains were covered, the loose mud was
consolidated with Geofabric" and OcowebT commercial
erosion control products. It is hoped that these will hold the

t Ms -

I I 2 _

0 : f --.
r-v ,N ","' -> a^
,'1" ,'4 r* -- <-
,.C, ,<., _ ..

:NA Cluartorly 19 4

fill in p.acc until next
.pring, v. hen bank
', vegetation will grow
Sbac"k novr te _[e and
.r,-, /~7:~n~n~- ,stabilize it
"All Since Lte summer,
S work in the Ship
o Reconstructio LRabo-
ratory at Texas A&M
has concentrated or.
S ._. c developing a picture of
the ship as huilt. ILa
shape suggests a coi--
Sbination of shallow
Drawinl F Hokttr
draft and sail-carrying
ability, with appreciable deadrise in the sections and mod-
erately soft bilges. The stern is fine and probably carried
a small transom. At the bow, the stem probably displayed
a large amount of rake but easy curvature. All of these
features together present a picture of a bull that appears to
be a coastal version of the fast sloops and schooners tha:
sailed out of American ports in the middle and later
eighteenth century. At just under 14 meters long (about 45
feet), the vessel was not very large and required only a
single mast, set far forward. This sloop rig was common ia
the colonial Carolinas for both smaller coasutl craft and
deepwater merchantmec
sailing to the Caribbean, and
Ssuch craft were often known
for their speed.
The bull's construction
was at first rather perplex-
ing. The keel, a single yel-
low pine timber, is much
heavier than expected, as are
the other components of the
backbone. T'he extra keel
depth offers great strength

Abovt, a cross section of the
site shows the hull remains
at about amidships. Most of
the vessel's port side had
been dismarnled at burial.

4Lef, viewed from the bow,
the hull lies completely reca.
vated and cleaned. 77he
ceiling stra.kes near the keei
were removed when the hull
was reburied


and stiffness to the hull and
contributes to its sailing
qualities. The planks are
made of long, wide lengths
of pine (one of the strakes
appears to be made of a
single piece of wood nearly
15 meters long) and are fas-
tened to the frames with
iron nails and a small num-
ber of haphazardly placed
treenails. The ceiling
planks, which are set care-
fully against each other and
nailed to the frames, are
also made of long, wide
planks. Perhaps the most
remarkable feature of con-
struction is in the frames.
Unlike most other Western
vessels of the post-medieval
period, in which each floor
timber (the central member
of the frame) is associated
with two or more futtocks fastened to or at least set against
the floor timber, the Clydesdale vessel has frames almost
identical to those of an ancient Greek or Roman ship. The
live oak frame components are separate and evenly spaced,
so that floor timbers fastened to the keel alternate with
half-frames that run from the garboard to the deck. Fut-
tocks in line with the floor timbers continue up to the deck
as well. The bulwarks are supported by short, separate top
timbers set between the half-frames and futtocks. None of
these timbers is attached to any other. The only other
vessel in North America framed in a similar manner is th6
Boscawen, a Royal Navy sloop built on Lake Champlain in
1759, although the naval sloop includes several complete
"made" frames used to define the shape of the hull.
Between the Clydesdale Plantation vessel and the
Brown's Ferry vessel, we can now paint detailed pictures
of the design and construction of two of the three major
classes of substantial watercraft in the colonial Southeast.
The Brown's Ferry vessel is most likely a periauger, the
most common form of river transport in the Carolinas; the
Clydesdale vessel is a rare survivor of the coastal sloops
that kept Savannah, Charleston, Georgetown, and other
major ports in contact with each other. In addition% the two
vessels share certain construction details that hint at the
existence of a distinct tradition of construction practiced In
the Carolinas in the eighteenth century. Both vessels are
built of similar woods, used in similar ways. The pine

DR'-inj. F. Hocktr

planks are deliberately weakened with axe cuts in areas of
tight curvature, particularly in the bow, and nails and
softwood treenails are used together to fasten planks to
frames. Further investigation of other wrecks and derelicts
in the Savannah River system should reveal much more
about early shipbuilding and seafaring in the American

I would like to thank the following groups and individu-
als for their contributions of funding, materials, and time
to the Clydesdale Plantation Vessel Project; without their
support, the excavation would not have been possible:
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology; the South
Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology; the
Coastal Heritage Society of Savannah, Georgia; the U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers, Savannah District; the Museum
of the 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized), Fort Stewart,
Georgia; the Mosquito Control Board of Chatham County,
Georgia; Bay Camera; and the Clydesdale Club. Also, Judy
L. Wood, Stanley and Craig Lester, William Haile, Wanda
and David Scott, Mr. and Mrs. William E. Saunders, John
Parrott, Jr., Ernest Quarles, Lynn Harris, Lawrence Babits,
Rusty Fleetwood, Larry Shaffield, Richard Goff, and
David, Heather, and Callum Crampton.
Continued on page 20

INA Quarterly 19.4


Horseboat, Canal Boat,

and Floating Bridge:

The 1992 Field Season

on Lake Champlain

by Kevin Crisman

Lake Champlain, a 118-mile-long body of fresh water
located between Vermont and New York, has been an ideal
laboratory for studying the development of inland water
transportation in North America. Over the past 300 years
the lake's waters have floated an eclectic assortment of ves-
sels, including Native American canoes, the bateaux and
warships of eighteenth-century armies, merchant sailing
craft, sidewheel steamboats, canal boats, ferries, and
modern fiberglass yachts. Storms, battles, collisions, fires,
and decay have sent many of these craft to the bottom,
where the cold, murky depths keep them in an excellent
state of preservation. The 1992 field season in Vermont
focused on three very different sites from the lake's past:
a horse ferry, a sloop-rigged canal boat, and th6 remains of
a Revolutionary War-era shorefront battery and floating
This year saw the fourth, and final season of work on a
particularly exciting find ftom Lake Champlain, the ca.
1830 horse-powered ferryboat sunk In Burlington Bay,
Vermont. The wreck is the only known example of an api-
mal-propelled boat In existence, but archival research on
the history of these craft has shown that they were in fact
very common and served an important role in North
America's inland transportation network during the first
half of the nineteenth century (see INA Newsletter 18.4).
The archaeological investigation of the Burlington Bay
ferry wreck presents an opportunity literally to "write the
book" on a forgotten type of watercraft.
During (he three previous seasons of work on the ferry
the well preserved upperworks and horse mechanism were
recorded in detail, and the forward end of the hull was
excavated to reveal lower hull timbers and finds that
included worn-out horse tack, discarded propulsion machin-
ery, and the boat's entire rudder. The objective for the
1992 season was straightforward: to complete the documen-
tation of the hull by uncovering and measuring the lower
end of the stem and the interior of the vessel's after end.
This data would allow us to complete the analysis of the

0 10


Map: X. Cr6u
Locations of 1992 Lake Champlain projects.

ferry's construction and to draft a complete set of lines and
construction plans. My colleague Arthur Cohn and I direct-
ed the three-week project, and nine graduate and under-
graduate students from Texas A&M and the University of
Vermont served as the field crew.
Aided by favorable working conditions (good visibility
and a moderate 50-foot depth of water), along with a
motivated, skillful field crew, we were able to complete the
removal of overlying sediments and record the timbers that
we sought. We had hoped to find artifacts in the stern that
might identify the ferry or provide specific dates for its
period of service, but the area proved to be nearly devoid
of materials: three scraps of leather horse harness and a
small collection of deteriorated iron nails formed the total
of our catalogued finds.
While the analysis and reconstruction of the horse
ferry's hull have not been completed, a few preliminary
observations can be made. Simplicity was evidently the

INA Qusrterly 19 4


DrngwS: K. Cri-mn

A reconstructed deck plan of the Burlington Bay horse-powered ferry Includes the circular platform where horses would have
walked, rotating the platform and thereby powering the boat's paddle wheels. The feny's double-ended form made for a simple,
streamlined hull, but the boat's shallow draft and limited power (two horses) confined this craft to relatively protected, short
lake crossings.

watchword in the design and construction of this craft. The
ends of the vessel were not precisely identical (it had a
curved stem and a straight sternpost), but the bow and stern
were very similar in their form and assembly. The bull,
nearly 63 feet long, was lightly built, with each square
frame composed of one floor timber and a single pair of
futtocks. The 4-inch molded and sided futtocks were
shaped from straight pieces of white or red oak by sawing
across their width down to the turn of the bilge, steaming
them, and then bending them to fit the desired hull shape.
The employment of this technique, first proposed by a
Royal Navy shipbuilder in 1816, suggests that good,.
naturally-curved "compass" timber was already In short
supply on Lake Champlain by the 1830s.
At the same time that we were recording the horse ferry
part of the field crew was studying a nearby wreck, a
sloop-rigged sailing canal boat measuring approximately 80
feet in length by 14 feet in beam and dating to the middle
decades of the nineteenth century. Joseph Cozzi, a Ph.D.
candidate in the Nautical Archaeology Program #t Texas
A&M University, conducted a preliminary survey of this
wreck in 1991 and turned up some very unusual features,
including frameless, edge-fastened plank construction (INA
Quarterly 19.2). The wreck was obviously worthy of a

closer look, and in 1992 Cozz directed a two-week
examination of the site that included test excavations
around the bull. This year's work yielded a wealth of new
information.and confirmed earlier suspicions that the hold
(about four-fifths of the vessel's overall length) was
constructed as a shell of edge-bolted planks with a conven-
tionally-framed stem and stern attached at the ends.
The second phase of the 1992 Lake Champlain field
season consisted of a two-week waterfront survey at Mount
Independence, Vermont, a Revolutionary War earthwork
fortification situated across the lake from historic Fort
Ticonderoga. Mount Independence was built in 1776 to
serve as the cornerstone of American defenses against a
British invasion from Canada. Its structures included a
central, star-shaped earthwork fort, a series of cannon
batteries to repel British ships, barracks, officers' quarters,
and a military hospital. In early 1777 a 12-foot-wide
floating bridge anchored by 22 log caissons was built to
connect Mount Independence with Ticonderoga. All this
proved of little worth in July of 1777 when an overwhelm-
ingly superior British force under General John Burgoyne
advanced upon the undermanned works, forcing the ragtag
rebel army to abandon the position. (The Americans would
have their revenge in October when Burgoyne surrendered

'!A Quartely 19.4

I: Y 3 Cohn anTd I had briefly examined the waters
t,-Ilw ~ Mount Independence and located the caissons for the
".,- "A c 'Ie arrest of a diver in 1991 for looting artifacts
I; .r:- t:s proectcd histonc site led to our intensive survey
i the Ilake b-roorn in 1992 to determine the nature and -
. lent of archa!-ological remains. Diving here was a very .
t:, ,rx(.t e pcnncrue from working in Burlington Hay T1e -
.'r in die southern end of the lake can be best described
L-. 'i C, aHlilough on exccpttonal days visibility can
S:.r,d up to several inches. Divers bad to depend upon '
: r ser;se of touch, resulting in tactile experiences that .
r tneJ from the feel of cold, sticky, pudding-like mud on
i: ake floor to the strikes of large, unseen fish that
....sionally mistook our extended finger tips for prey.
iire field crew took on a multitude of tasks during the
a:,unt Independence project. Four divers measured and
.enchd one of the bridge caissons in detail and then went
o:n to conduct a brief assessment of the remaining 20
,r..ctures (one of the original 22 caissons could not be
.,Ji A second team employed low-visibtlity search
*.hrt'I;te. to examr ine selected areas of the lake bottom --

Abos e: TL A&.A! graduate s:udncr, Ta Ern
prepares ao Jscoe dra ,ing of an 13-rpound bar shot;. r i
was one of a scatter of ber shot foutd in the vicirn.y of
the "Great Brrdge" budi by ATrerican rebels to corner
Mount Inedepedence :'ith Fort Ticonderoga The shot
were rhro, ,: off te bridge daring the banodoment of
the fo,,r-rdgj ,',i.3 ,n Jul., 1 T 777.

...r left. C, h,!r, ,I> hJj T'., re tes A&Af studer:t, emerged
fom the ,..:cr a':: ; F' e chr:,e ro uker toL w ed -o.;
the br1)-le C: ,p:g the rer-ent of 1777 The eapoa: as
-neart', co"'(ctc, !:g only as rrigger guard

rNao I Ur~acn

around the Vermont shore, while other divers carefully ______
i.M.pped concentrations of artifacts. At the start of the work
waterfront of Mount Independence was surveyed and
t!rtnum point's were established along the shore, allowing the
I..::ttllns of caissons and artifacts to be recorded precisely '
:Ih transits and stadia rods.
The lake in this vicinity revealed something of the panic
.,nd haste that surrounded the American retre*( in 1777. c.

Pight: Iron entrenching spade, French-made musket, 8- and
5 I,;ch mortar bombs recovered from the water at Mount
i.: hrpendence, 4"

I?.4 C "''- C I


Photo: K. Criuta

Tl-o intact glass alcohol bottles found In the vicintry of the
'Great Bridge.' The contents of bottles like these contributed
to the less-than-orderly retreat of the American forces at
Mount Independence In 1777.

Three distinct clusters of abandoned materiel were identi-
fied, including a collection of 19 spades for digging
earthworks; an iron cannon with one trunnion knocked off,
surrounded by 8-inch mortar bombs; and a scatter of bar
shot (cannon shot for destroying a ship's rigging). Numer-
ous isolated finds Included a bro'adax and a complete
musket. Four green glass alcohol bottles lent credence to
contemporary reports that the abandonment of the fortifica-
tions was bungled by soldiers who raided stores of liquor
and became hopelessly intoxicated. The drama of that
perilous moment in American history was amply evident

continued from page 16
Suggested Reading
Flectwood, R.
1982 Tidecraft: An Introductory Look at the Boats of
Lower South Carolina, Georgia, and Northeastern
Florida: 1650-1950. Coastal Heritage Society,

during our two weeks at Mount Independence,
Work on the three sites investigated in 1992 has now
entered the researching, writing, and drafting phase. Plans
and a structural analysis of the horse ferry are taking shape
and, together with a report on the history of animal-
powered machines and watercraft, will be published in a
book on the Burlington Bay ferry wreck. Field reports on
the North Beach Wreck and the Mount Independence
survey are also in preparation; these will be submitted to
the Institute of Nautical Archaeology and the Vermont state
archaeologist. We intend to return to Mount Independence
in 1993 to complete the survey of the bottom and recover
materials for conservation and analysis at the Lake Cham-
plain Maritime Museum.

The 1992 field season on Lake Champlain was spon-
sored by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology, the Lake
Champlain Maritime Museum, Texas A&M University, the
University of Vermont, and the Vermont Division for
Historic Preservation. Thanks to Texas A&M graduate
students John Bratten, Joseph Cozzi, Tina Erwin, Alan
Flanigan, Curtis Hite, Elizabeth Robinson, David Robin-
son, and volunteer Tray Siegfried for their participation in
the 1992 projects.

Suggested Reading
Crisman, Kevin
1986 Of Sailing Ships and Sidewheelers: The History and
Nautical Archaeology of Lake Champlain. Vermont
Division for Historic Preservation, Montpelier,
Crisman, Kevin
1990 The Singular Horse Ferry-Boat: The Burlington Bay
Horse Ferry Wreck. Report submitted to the Ver-
mont Division for Historic Preservation.
Hill, Ralph Nading
1976 Lake Champlain: Key to Liberty. The Countryman
Press, Taftsville, VT.

Steffy, J.R.
1988 "The Thirteen Colonies: English Settlers and
Seafarers." In Ships and Shipwrecks of the Ameri-
cas: A History Based on Underwater Archaeology,
G.F. Bass, ed., pp. 107-128. Thames and Hudson,
London and New York.

'NA Quarerly 19.4

continued from page 11
during the latter part of the fourteenth century BC or,
perhaps, early in the thirteenth century BC.

As in previous years, the project was generously funded
by the INA Board of Directors and by grants from the
National Endowment for the Humanities, the National
Geographic Society, Texas A&M University, and the
Institute for Aegean Prehistory. Most of the fuel needed for
the project was donated by Shell of Turkey, Ltd., while
Cressi-sub of Italy not only gave us significant concessions
for the purchase of theli diving equipment, but also
donated 10 large single tanks for the project.
Under the overall directorship of George F. Bass, the
1992 team comprised Cemal Pulak, co-director; INA staff
Donald A. Frey, Robin C.M. Piercy, Tufan Turanlt, Murat
Tilev; staff archaeologists Sheila Matthews and Gikhan
Ozagaqli; and hyperbaric specialists David Perlman, M.D.,
and Tom Sutton. The excavation would not have been
possible without the enthusiastic and diligent participation
of volunteer archaeologists and art historians Dr. Faith
Hentschel, Michael Halpern, Patricia Sibella, Lillian Ray,
and Heleen van der Molen; and Texas A&M University
graduate students William Charlton, Jr., Jerry Lyon,
Roxani Margariti, Samuel Mark, Brendon McDermott,
Stephen E. Paris, Claire Peachey, Edward Rogers, Mark
Smith, and Caillouet Thorman of Pamona College. Double

thanks go to Claire Calcagno whose contributions during
the previous field season went unacknowledged. Bahadir
Berkaya of the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeolo-
gy represented the General Directorate for Monuments and
Museums of the Turkish Ministry of Culture. Back in
Bodrum, Uluburun finds continued to be conserved under
the guidance of staff conservator Jane Pannell-Yildinm by
Gakhan (zagagcl, OGneq 6zbay, and OQlser Sinact, all of
INA, with student volunteers Nermin Baygin, Barbara van
Meir, and Tuba Tetik assisting. To Dr. Faith Hentschel,
Sheila Matthews, Stephen E. Paris, Patricia Sibella, Cai
Thorman, and Selma Karan and Sema Pulak, both staff
artists, I owe additional thanks for their efforts in process-
Ing and cataloguing the Uluburun finds In the Bodrum
Museum of Underwater Archaeology during the fall
season, and simply for bearing, with good humor, my
demanding requests.
The 1992 field report has benefited greatly from the
notes and observations of all excavation members. A
shorter version of this report was read at the 94th Annual
Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America held in
New Orleans in December 1992.

Figure 13. Syrian ships in a painting from the Egyptian
New Kingdom tomb of Kenamun display lattice-work extend-
ing uninterrupted from the ship's sternpost to the stem.
Withies from the Uluburun ship probably were used in the
same way.

INA Quarterly 19.4

4mphora Research Continues in

Eastern Europe and in Bodrum

ny Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Frederick R. Mayer Professor in Nautical Archaeology

On the 14th of May 1992, my wife B.J. and I set out
from Bodrum (home of INA's Turkish headquarters) by car
;,n a three-week trip to Rumania and back. Our route took
us along the Aegean coast of Turkey, across the Darda-
nelles at (anakkale, through Thrace, and along the coast of
Bulgaria. Our primary purpose was to visit archaeological
museums at some of the major ports along the western
coast of the Black Sea: Sozopol, Burgas, and Varna in
Bulgaria and Constanta in Rumania. At Varna and Con-
stanra, we briefly joined up with a group led by INA's
archaeological director, George Bass, which was making a
similar but longer pilgrimage by ship.
As my wife is fond of saying, the trip was interesting
,ut no vacation. The wait at borders was never brief. After
wailing for four hours to enter Rumania along with several
other cars in a long line of buses, B.J. asked a Rumanian
customs officer why they did not put the buses in one line
and the cars in another. "Why, that's a good idea," he
replied and hurried off to consult with his superior. Very
shortly after, we were on our wayl On the brighter side,
we were amazed at how well Turkish served in both,
Bulgaria and Rumania as a lingua franca when we needed
information or directions or had to deal with people eager
to bargain with us.
Our trip was part of the ongoing program of research on
the eleventh-century shipwreck from Serge Limaru. My
own research had led me to believe that the home port of
the ship might possibly be located somewhere along the
Bulgarian coast of the Black Sea. Findings In the visited
Bulgarian and Rumanian museums of locally-made pottery
comparable in design and fabric to the ship's storage jars
and cooking ware would have lent support to such a belief.
No such pottery was found, and we must continue our
search for the ship's home port elsewhere.
I also had come to believe through a study of the graffiti
on the Byzantine amphoras on the ship that the potters who
made them and the merchants who owned them were from
some commercial center where Byzantines and Bulgarians
lived and worked together. Some conversations about the

graffiti with Bulgarian archaeologists during the trip served
to strengthen this view. While on our way to Bulgaria,
however, I had already abandoned the idea that this com-
mercial center was somewhere along the coast of Bulgaria
when we stopped on the north shore of the Sea of Marmara
near the town of Gazikry at a kiln site presently being
studied by a young Turkish archaeologist, Nergis Giinse-
nin. The kiln had produced amphoras identical to most of
the piriform amphoras on the ship. I had brought along a
small sherd from one of these amphoras and compared the
fabric with that of the kiln amphoras. To the naked eye, the
clays and their inclusions appeared identical in every way.
The results of a detailed comparative analysis of the fabrics
may prove very interesting.
During the trip, I saw a great many amphoras like those
produced at the kiln, not only in Bulgaria and Rumania,
but at Izmir and Canakkate in Turkey as well, and every-
where I found many instances of the carving down of
damaged rims and stumps of broken handles, something
that also occurs frequently in the case of the Serge Limam
piriform amphoras. This carving down of damaged areas
'was done in an attempt to extend the multiple reuse of the
amphora as a transport jar over a longer period of time. It
would appear that such multiple reuse, a rare pratcice prior
to the Byzantine period, had become commonplace by the
eleventh century.
After our return to Bodrum, substantial progress was
made during the summer months on the restudy of the
amphoras from the seventh-century Byzantine shipwreck at
Yassi Ada. Earlier efforts had been devoted almost entirely
to the just under 600 globular amphoras that have been
recovered so far from the wreck site. This year, attention
was finally turned to the some 70 cylindrical, "hour-glass"
amphoras that have also been recovered. Cleaning, mend-
ing, and restoration of the amphoras took well over a
month to complete. The amphoras were then assigned to
different types, and the cataloguing of the types was begun.
Capacity measurements were made of 17 amphoras that
either were complete or could be accurately restored.

'A Quarterly 13.4


Dnwin.: S. KLra
Three of the fourteen types of cylindrical amphoras found on the seventh-century Yassi Ada wreck are similar in
appearance, but subtle differences In their shape and decorative details distinguish them. Even more important, consistent
differences in their capacities divide the amphoras Into three distinct types. Careful study of the seventh-century amphoras
can reveal clues about Byzantine trade and economics.

This work has already yielded some interesting results.
Our study of the globular amphoras had revealed the rather
astonishing fact that they represented some 50 different
types of globular amphoras and some two to three dozen
distinctly different fabrics, had seen earlier use as transport
and storage jars, had been owned by a great number of
different people, and had somehow been collected together
to transport wine on the Yassi Ada ship. The cylindrical
amphoras, also collected to transport this wine, show a
similar diversity. After cleaning and mending them we
found that an earlier count of recognizable, different types
has more than doubled. The cylindrical amphoras now
encompass a total of 14 types, a majority of whigh exhibit
distinctly different fabrics.
Amphoras belonging to three of the types are, however,
very similar In general appearance and fabric and before
cleaning or when only partially preserved are often difficult
to distinguish as to type. Nevertheless, when complete and

new, the amphoras of each of these types would have been
easily- distinguishable, even at some distance, due to
somewhat subtle but clear and consistent differences in
their shape and the pattern of decorative ridging on their
bodies. One might conclude that these differences reflect
nothing more than the making of the amphoras In different
workshops were it not for the fact that while the three types
of amphoras are of similar sizes, they differ distinctly and
consistently in dimensional measurements and capacity.
The capacity of the smallest type was about 6 liters; the
medium-sized type, about 7 liters; and the largest type,
about 7.5 liters. Since somewhat different standards of
capacity were employed for different kinds of goods, it
appears possible that these quite similar amphoras were
made in the same region but for three different kinds of
products. Clearly there is still a great deal to be learned
from the seventh-century Yassi Ada amphoras, both
cylindrical and globular.

INA Quarterly 19.4

The Columbus Caravels Archaeo-
logical Project conducted a third field
season during the summer of 1992 at
St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica, in the contin-
uing search for two caravels left be-
hind by Columbus there. Archaeolo-
gists surveyed and explored more than
20 sites in the bay. A field report on
the project will appear in the next INA

Northwest Friends of INA
A new group of INA members has
developed in the Portland, Oregon
area. Through the efforts of Richard
and Mary Rosenberg and David Perl-
man, a number of people were intro-
duced to the activities of the institute.
Don Frey, INA's vice president,
visited Portland in November 1992
and gave several lectures on ancient
shipwrecks of the Mediterranean. In
January 1993, Archaeological Director
George Bass gave another series of
lectures in Portland, including one for
the Institute of Science, Engineering
and Public Policy.
We welcome all the 76 Northwest
Friends of INA and look forward to
an event with them each year.

Merit Award
Kevin Crisman, assistant professor
in the Nautical Archaeology Program
at Texas A&M University, has re-
ceived an award of merit from the
Society for Historical Archaeology for
"an outstanding record of completed
field projects and timely publications."
The award was presented on 6 Janu-
ary 1993 at the opening evening ses-
sion of the SHA conference in Kansas
City, Missouri.


Dr. Crisman has taught at Texas
A&M fdr nearly three years; he holds
a master's degree from the univer-
sity's Nautical Archaeology Program
and a Ph.D. In American Civilization
from the University of Pennsylvania.
The statement given at the time of
his award reads, in part: ". . Cris-
man, initially as a student, successful-
ly organized, launched, directed and
completed six major research projects
in the nautical archaeology of the
Great Lakes-Champlain region. This
impressive succession of field research
produced an equally unusual output of
timely publications. He has not only
issued over a score of individual
articles but has also authored three
books on his underwater investiga-
tions. The History and Construction of
the United States Schooner Ticonde-
roga and The Eagle: An American
Brig on Lake Champlain During the
War of 1812 are already published and
The Jefferson: the Hstory and Archae-
ology of an American Brig from the
War of 1812 is'in press."

Poto: M. Schumaher
Crisman, right, receiving his award.

Gifford Has
New Appointment
INA adjunct professor John Gifford
has a new appointment as associate
professor at the University of Miami's
Rosenstiel School of Marine and
Atmospheric Science, Division of
Marine Affairs. The division's aca-
demic program offers training in
natural resource economics, marine
anthropology, underwater archaeolo-
gy, and ocean and coastal law and
policy. Beginning in the fall of 1993,
the program will offer a specialized
course in marine cultural resource
management which will introduce stu-
dents to techniques of survey, excava-
tion, mapping, and analysis of under-
water archaeological sites.

Recent and Upcoming
INA faculty have been busy deliv-
ering and scheduling lectures on nauti-
cal archaeology. Archaeological Di-
rector George Bass presented three
talks to the Center for Archaeological
Studies and the Humanities Founda-
tion of Boston University. The lec-
tures, delivered March 15, 16, and
18, were a part of the 1993 Context
and Human Society Lecture Series.
Dr. Bass spoke on the Bronze Age
shipwreck at Uluburun, the eleventh-
century shipwreck at Serge Limani,
and the exploration, excavation, and
conservation of underwater sites.
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows
Assistant Professor of Biblical Archae-
ology in the Nautical Archaeology
Program at Texas A&M University,
participated in the March 1993 Bible
and Archaeology Seminar in Dallas.

'NA Quarterly 19.4

.; ., Ejdwin B.'bDoran, Jr;-,1,.
1918-1993 .. .
S -.:r ', .. ,-' ;. .
,Dr. Edwlh Doran, for many:years a professor atTexA &M "' di '-
March 5, 1993, Ia College Station. Dr. Doran was an ea friend~fINA
after the nstitutimaoved to Texas. "Ed's repuadton asa scho Fi a Iy,
seaaint asone of th rigi alz atlirctions fr TNA's myv TS..
A&M, sya Af AM aceolbgicaI director G.8r64 F.. BsL ..l
cl ass lsPn'n P tac dratEaster safa riag haya b#n ir-.sinc
bis reiremeat.'No on bre m e thn Ed and his wife Gi madus
welcome on .bacampns b'he" we first arrived."'
Dr. Doran retiredfrom teachbig ii 19S1, but-coinue as ans IA
adjurict pb fessor uatfl hisdtro Isdea. .
For much of his long academic career, Dr. Doran focusedd 6r tot
cultural history waterciraf.'e wrote a numbrilf bobi and cles on
his exthensiVe fieldhiudes of boats In tie CaS ribtiiP l1 ielyni tibe;
BabamrnisBrlsirgia Isiands, and Caymanrs *ald In the western&
Pa'ctf'lc7lnSuuTaion, and the cerilral Carol''isIa'I i interest In
boats extended Inlo his nonacademic activities; he sailed all 'tpes-of
Paciflowatercraft, from raftsto outriggers, and In his spai tiine built
and sailed experimental modehi mullihulls. ./~.
, ;

The seminar was sponsored by the
Biblical Archaeology Society. Dr.
Wachsmana's lectures were based on
his research on seafaring in the Bible
and on his 1986 excavation and subse-
quent study of the Galilee Boat, a
vessel believed to data from the turn
of the millennium.
Dr. Wachsmann will continue his
series of lectures in April 1993 during
a trip to the.East Coast; As part of the
Archaeological Institute of America's
program of public lectures, he will
speak at three universities. On April
13 in New Jersey, he will deliver a
talk at Drew University in the Hall of
Sciences at 8:15 p.m. (call Robert
Bull 201/408-3537 for further infor-
mation); on April 14 at 8:00 p.m. Dr.
Wachsmann will appear at Princeton
University's Institute for Advanced
Study (call Susan Rotroff 609/924-
2912 for information); and on April
15, he will speak in Albany at the
State University of New York. That

lecture will be held in Humanities,
Room 354, at about 7:30 p.m. (call
Kim-Lorane Evertson 518/436-7954
for details). The subject of all the
lectures will be the Galilee Boat.
Archaeological Institute of America
lectures are free and open to the pub-
lic, and INA members are invited to
Back in College Station, on March
5, 1993, Mr. JeffTeitelbaum of Trim-
ble Navigation, Ltd., gave a presenta-
tion on Trimble's global positioning
system units and their applications for
nautical archaeology.

Archaeology Theses
Five teses were submitted to the
Nautical Archaeology Program faculty
in 1992:
0 Marianne Franklin. "Wrought Iron
Hand Tools in Port Royal, Jamaica: A
Study Based upon a Collection of the

Tools Recovered from Archaeological
Excavations and on Tools Listed in
the Probate Inventories of Colonial
Port Royal, c. 1692."
* Kenan Heidtke. "Jamaican Red
Clay Tobacco Pipes."
* Lillian Ray. "Venetian Ships and
Seafaring up to the Nautical Revolu-
tion: A Study Based on Artistic Rep-
resentation of Ships and Boats Before
ca. 1450."
* Diana Thornton. "The Probate
Inventories of Port Royal, Jamaica."
* Hawk Tolson. "The Vernacular
Watercraft of Isle Royale: A Western
Lake Superior Boatbuilding Tradi-
For a complete list of nautical
archaeology theses and dissertations,
write to the Librarian, Nautical Ar-
chaeology Program, Texas A&M
University, College Station, TX
77843-4352, or call at 409/845-6398.

INA Scholars
INA awards a number of scholar-
ships each year to students in the
graduate Nautical Archaeology Pro-
gram at Texas A&M University.
Rahilla Abbas, Richard Herron, David
Robinson, and Samuel Turner are the
recipients for the 1992-1993 academic
year. The scholarships are competitive
and awarded on the basis of academic
performance, faculty recommenda-
tions, and a statement of professional
goals written by each student applying
for the scholarships. Congratulations
to this year's INA scholars.

SHA Special Issue
The Society for Historical Archae-
ology has announced the publication
of a special issue of the journal His-
torical Archaeology. Volume 26,
number 4, Advances in Underwater
Archaeology, is edited by J. Barto
Arnold III. The 15 articles in the
special issue cover a range of topics,
including individual shipwreck investi-

INA ,Oi,.rtfrlv 19 4

nations, cultural resource manage-
ment, high technology applications in
underwater archaeology, and the
ethical conflicts of treasure hunting.
Single issues may be ordered from the
Society for Historical Archaeology,
P.O. Box 30446, Tucson, AZ 85751-
0446. The volume costs $12.50; add
$1.75 for postage.

INA Welcomes Keener
INA has a new development offi-
cer. Mr. Ron Keener, president of
Ron Keener and Associates,' a fund-
raising and public relations firm, will
lead the National Endowment for the
Humanities Challenge Grant effort.
Mr. Keener was originally recom-
mended to INA by board member
Robert Walker, vice president for
development at Texas A&M.
Mr. Keener has acted as a fund-
raising and public relations consultant
for a variety of organizations, includ-
ing schools, churches, private busi-
nesses, and non-profit institutions; and
he has had particular success with
grant proposals and with coordinating
responses to challenge grants.

NEH Proposal Deadline
The National Endowment for the
Humanities has set an October 15,
1993, deadline for archaeology pro-
posals submitted to the Interpretive
Research Program. The NEH Division
of Research Programs welcomes ap-
plications for projects in Old World
and New World archaeology. The
Endowment is particularly interested
in projects that focus on preparing the
results of excavations for scholarly
and popular publications. Support is
also available for surveys, excava-
tions, materials analysis, laboratory
research, artifact preservation, and
field reports. Awards usually range
from $10,000 to about $150,000 for
up to three years' duration.. Projects
should begin no earlier than March of
the next year. For application materi-
als and further information write or
call: Archaeology Projects, Interpre-
tive Research, Division of Research
Programs, Room 318, 1100 Pennsyl-
vania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC
20506; 202/606-8210.
INA excavations at Uluburun,
Turkey, are supported by the NEH.

- . C'-. .... . .


Polo shirts in 100 percent cotton with .
our logo are available from INA. .
Banded sleeves. Shirt in white only, "; ',B,
logo in dark blue.
* Unisex sizes Small, Medium, Large,
and XL.arge.
* Each shirt is $25.00 plus shipping
(call for details: 409/845-6694).

INA t-shirts (both long- and short-
sleeved), hats, and patches may also
be ordered. Call Pat Turner at the
number above for further information.

.. ..... ... ...N..
*',.::',:m RIM:::: ,.cYs.4. M N~

continued from page 27
who takes great pride in carrying the
title of Yami!a Professor. Steffy's
successor as head of the ship recon-
struction laboratory, Fred Hocker, is
now supported by the endowment.
The newly established George O.
Yamini Family Chair finances joint
research activities of the Nautical
Archaeology Program and INA.
Both Sara and George Yamini have
traveled to INA's excavation site at
Uluburun, Turkey, where they were
able to see some of the work they so
generously support.
While not engaged with his many
boards and committees, Mr. Yamini
and his wife enjoy their waterfront
retirement home, built nearly three
years ago in Rockport, Texas, at Key
--Margaret Lynch

Donations to INA do not have to
be monetary, and any donations
are tax deductible. INA needs the
equipment listed, new or used, as
it strives to maintain high
standards of excavation, research,
and publication.
Specific brands are listed
where the desired items must be
compatible with existing equip-
Computer (PC) and printer for
data collection and analysis in
2 Global positioning systems
Video player (not VCR)
Nikonos underwater camera
Nikon underwater lens and view
Nikon underwater strobe unit
Laptop computers
Marine band VHF radios, hand-
held with rechargeable batteries and
Call us if you wish to donate or
finance any of these items, at

:'IA Quarterly 19.4


George O. Yamini

The Institute of Nautical Archaeology's association with
i rl!ocked Texas A&M University, an institution tradition-
.1ly known for its agricultural and engineering programs,
i* one that puzzles a great many people. From INA's Doint
,f view the relationship is explained easily. Finding,
cxcavating, researching and then publishing underwater
stes is a demanding proposition, one that requires the vast
rcuurces of a major university. For several years, Texas
A&M has lent extensive access to technology and exper-
tec, to libraries and laboratories, and to broad financial
,rod academic support. On a more individual level, the
university has made what is perhaps its most valued
Ciotr;butiLon by introducing INA to one of its own, Mr.
George O. Yamini.
George Yamirj studied engineering at Texas A&M,
"Acre he made his way by playing with the Aggieland
Dan-e Orchestra and teaching music, and where he was a
m:crr-bcr of the famous Corps of Cadets. After receiving a
s,-or.d lieutenant's commission from the university he
,pent fu:r and a half years in military service during World
ar II lHe was awarded the Army Commendation Medal
anJ subsequently retired as'a major.
After leaving the military, he began building what
would become a highly successful career. Mr. Yamini has
t-.-cn founder and CEO of a number of wholly owed
corporations, all engaged in home.and apartment building,
land development, shopping center construction, or proper-
:y ni.naigement Tie has served as a director for national,
st.',, and local trade associations of the home building
industry, including the National Association of Home
builders, the Texas Association of Builders, and the Home
-a.J Apartment Builders Association of Metropolitan
'.il:ts, as well as for a major Dallas bank and for several
pr-iblcly owned companies, He was an active member, and
i now a retired member, of the Dallas Board of Realtors.
in 1968 he received Dallas's Hugh Prather Trophy as the
miller "doing the most for the betterment of the city."
Ils participation on committees in all of these associa-
'.,nrs and his positions with other civic and governmental
i'r,'ups are too numerous to name, though one of his more
i :. -:gins offices was his six-year term as director of the
''A--il stitel Research Committee (based at Texas A&M), to

IfoWo Couray 0 Y.a-unj

which he was appointed b1 tL:,: governor of Texas. Ie con-
tinues to hold various honorary) and lifetime positions tk.:h
many of the above organizuiiins
In 1983, five years afer Mr Yamini had retired from
business, Dr. Robert Walker:, 'ce president for develop-
meet at Texas A&M and ar INA director, introduced hmr
to the institute, creating v-hat has been, by all accounts, a
happy combination Mr. Yamini soon became an INA
director, and he calls his tire on the board "a delightful
experience." lie is known throughout the institute equally
for his graciousness and generosity. "George Yarnsi
defines the word 'gentleman'; he is the kind of person any
board would be proud to have as a member," says INA's
archaeological director George Bass.
Mr Yamini has brought the wisdom of his experience
to the executive committee. serving on it for three years
and was vice chairman for t'.o years, retinng from t.h:at
position in 1991 lie mr.aitains an active interest in al: of
INA's activities, from exca- anon to research and publ.,.i-
tion, though he is especial' concerned with the
technology of underwater archaeology
Sara Yarnini. his wife of over 50 years, and daughter
Salty, who resides in Dallas, take an equal interest in [NA
In fact, to talk about Mr Yamrrni's coninbuutirns wihou:
including his family would be a serious omrssicn The
Yaminis have created two major endowmenLs of direct
benheit to INA The Sanr \W and George 0 Yarnini
Professorship in Nautical Archaeology was first awarded .t
INA's renowned ship reconstructor, J Richard S-tel".', :.
calls it an especially valua-ile cc ntrihutlon .-,! tie f!1 '.: .i.i
Con'inued 1on pate 26

rI A C ir i ." I ".

r rIP""


George P. Bass Archaeological Director
Donald 0. Oeddes m, Treasurr

John H. Baird
George P. Bass
J.E.R. Chilton
Gregory M. Cook
Harln Crow
Claude Duthult
Danicl Pallon
Danicle J. Peeney
Donald G. Ocddes i
William Graves
Nixon Griffis


Rqbert K. Vincent, Jr., President
Rebecca H. Holloway, Sceretary

Bruce Heafitz
Bengt O. Janason
Harry C. Kahn II
Michael L. Katzyv
Jack W. Kelley
Sally R. Lneacter
David C. L.ngworthy
Samuel 1. LePrak
Robert B. Lorton
Frederick R. Mayer
William A. McKenzie

Donald A. Frey. Vice President,

William H. Mobley
Alex 0. Nston
Ray H. Siegfried II, Chairman
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew 0. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry A. Weber
Martin A. Wilcox
Richard A. Williford
George O. Yamini

George F. Bass, beorge T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology
SKevin J. Crisman, Assistant Profetor
D. L. Hamilton, Associate Professor
Prederick Hocker, Sara W, & George O. Yamlnl Faculty Fellow
I. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George 0. Yamini Professor of Nauticl Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Ir., Frederick R. Mayer Professor in Nautical Archaeology
Shelley Wehamarnn, Meadows Astsiltnt Professot of Biblical Archaeology

CerCnl Pulak, Mr. & Mrs. Ray H.
Siegfried II Graduat Fellow
Elizabeth Robinson, Mr. & Mr. 1.
Brown Cook Graduate Fellow

Selma Krann
Sheila Matthewl, M.A.
James Parrent, Ph.D.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Cemul Pulak. M.A.
Serm Pulak, M.A.
Murat Tilev
Tu fn Turanl
Patricia Turner
Jano Pannell-Ytldinm

COUNSEL James A. Goold

Jeremy Green
Cheryl Haldane, M.A.
Douglas Haldane, M.A.
Margaret B. Leshikar, M.A.
Kathlcen McLaughlin Neyland, M.A.
Robert Neyland. M.A.
Ralph Pederaen, M.A.
Donald Roencrncntz

Cynthia J. Elseman, Ph.D.
John Gifford, Ph.D.
Faith Hentachel, Ph.D.
CarolynKochler, Ph.D.
Dtvid I. Owen. Ph.D.
David C. Switzer, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts. Jr., M.A.

Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown Univerity
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Brkeley
University of Cincinnati
Corncll Unveritly
Corning Museum of Glass
Depanrmento de Arqucologia Subscuatics de
Li [.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Art
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partncn for Livable Places
University Museum, University of
Shell ol Turkey, Ltd.
Texas A&M Recsarch Foundatin
Texas A&M University
University of Texas, Austin


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