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Title: The INA quarterly
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 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Fall 1992
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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Volume 19, No. 3 Fall 1992


3 Building a Model of the
Kinneret Boat
William H. Charlton, Jr.

8 Boat Reliefs from the Tomb of Ti
and Mastaba of Mereruka
Edward M. Rogers

12 Review: Archaeology Underwater:
The NAS Guide to Principles and
Fred Hocker

14 News and Notes

On the cover: A relief from the tomb of 71, a Fifth Dynasty court official, delineates the process of shipbuilding in
ancient Egypt. Such reliefs provide nautical archaeologists with information about vessel construction from an era that
has leftfew physical remains of ships and boats. (From Le Tombeau de Ti, Fascile II, plate 129.) Reprinted courtesy
of I'lnstitut Frangais d'Archdologie Orientale (1FAO), Cairo.

All arices ad illustraons in the INA Quaterly, wi those mndicatedas xcerpts, condnations, or reprins taken from copyrightedsoures,
may be reprinted in full or in part widhour further peri on dw by crediting the INA Quarterly and the audrar, phorogrpher, or arnif at the source.
Also, copies of the publication dwhld be ment to the hsiaae of Nautical Archaeology.
lustnratons in this issue marked cowuresy ofwhe IFAO. Oriental Instaue, IAA. or TAMU may not be reprinted withoulfwherperm iionfrom their respective

The INA Quarterly was formerly the IM Newsleaer (vols. 1-18).

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Building a Model of the Kinneret Boat

by William H. Charlton, Jr.

When Shelley Wachsmann arrived at Texas A&M
University in the fall of 1990 to join the Nautical Archaeol-
ogy Program faculty as the Meadows Visiting Assistant
Professor of Biblical Archaeology, he brought with him the
idea of having a scale model of the Kinneret Boat to
display alongside the remains of the 2000-year-old hull. In
1986 Dr. Wachsmann (then underwater inspector for the
Israel Antiquities Authority) had directed the excavation of
the nearly 9-meter-long boat from the shores of the Sea of
Galilee (Yam Kinneret in Hebrew). After excavation, the
boat was moved to the Yigal Allon Museum at nearby
Kibbutz Ginosar where the long process of conservation in
polyethylene glycol (PEG) continues, possibly into 1996.
This fantastic discovery, the only ancient boat ever
excavated from the Sea of Galilee, attracts great interest by
native Israelis and visiting tourists alike, but there is little
to see of its ancient timbers while they are immersed in
dark brown PEG. Thus, Dr. Wachsmann proposed a model
that would show museum visitors what the ancient boat
would have looked like as it sailed the Kinneret some 2000
years ago.
When Dr. Wachsmann and I met, we found that we

shared similar interests and experiences, and he soon asked
me to build the model of the Kinneret boat for him. Now,
I had not done any modeling in wood since making model
airplanes out of balsa wood nearly forty years ago (and I
almost cut a finger off doing that), and this certainly looked
like a long, detailed, and much more difficult project;
however, the experience I would gain in the techniques of
the ancient boatwright far outweighed any apprehensions I
might have had. The job was given to me as a half-time
graduate assistantship late in the fall of 1990. Funding for
the project, to include my assistantship and all materials for
the model, was provided by the Meadows Visiting Profes-
sor of Biblical Archaeology Endowment.
In mid-January 1991, as the new semester began, I spent
a few weeks in detailed study of the original set of prelimi-
nary lines drawings made by Professor J. Richard Steffy,
along with the field sketches, some photomosaics of the
boat, and the final excavation report. Then I made a new
set of drawings specifically for the model.
The model was to be in 1:10 scale, each piece being
shaped and sized as close to the original as the scale would
allow, and its design was to be based on Professor Steffy's

Left: Bill Charlton compares the shape of a strake to
its original counterpart on the field sketch plan.
Below: Parts of the Kinneret Boat that did not survive
were derived from other sources. The model's stem
post, shown with a railcap, was based on a boat mosa-
ic dating from the same period as the excavated hull.

Phot. R. Padens

INA Quarterly 19.3

suggested lines. His hull lines were based on measurements
of the original boat remains, while a high incurving stern
post and cutwater prow were based on a mosaic depicting
a boat, and dating to the same period as our site, found at
the nearby town of Migdal. The stem and stern posts had
been removed from the original boat. (See the fall 1991
INA Newsletter for a field sketch of the hull and Professor
Steffy's lines drawings.)
My next consideration was the type of wood to use.
Always a concern in wooden modeling is the "scale effect."
Wide-grained woods appear to be out of scale and detract
from the appearance of the model, so a close-grained wood
would be required. Further, since the climatic conditions
under which the model would be displayed in the museum
were uncertain, a dimensionally stable wood, one that
would not shrink or swell to any great degree with changes
in relative humidity, would be required. Fred Hocker,
successor to Professor Steffy as head of the Ship Recon-
struction Laboratory at Texas A&M, suggested European
pear wood (Pyrus communis), a species that fit both
requirements exceptionally well.
Finding pear wood proved a little more difficult than
buying pine shelving boards at the local hardware store.
After a few days of researching hardwood suppliers and
many phone calls, I found a source. Jim Heussinger of

Berea Hardwoods in Berea, Ohio, was enthused with the
project; he would ship our pear wood immediately.
Before I could start cutting wood for the model I had to
decide how I was going to join the planks to one another.
The original boat's planks were joined edge-to-edge with
mortise-and-tenon joints, but this method would be difficult
at 1:10 scale using 3.5mm-thick (about 1/8 inch) planks. If
the project had been a research model rather than one for
display it would have been necessary to cut mortise-and-
tenon joints; instead, I would be gluing the planks' edges
together. But how could I hold them in place while the glue
dried? I knew that woodworkers used three-way edge
clamps, but none were available in the small size I would
need, so I designed an appropriately sized clamp, and Dr.
Hocker and I milled fourteen of them out of aluminum
stock, using materials and machinery generously donated
by Vilas Motor Works, a local machine shop.
It was now time to start cutting wood. I began with the
stem and stern posts, rough-cutting them on the band saw
and then planing them to the correct thickness. Next came
the two pieces that made up the keel. All of these were
fairly easy to shape, and I thought I was moving along
well. But when I began trying to join the two keel pieces
and the stern post with their hook scarfs (copied from the
original hull remains), I discovered how easy it was to

INA Quarterly 19.3

Far left: In 1986, the Kinneret Boat was placed in a
conservation tank immediately after excavation, where it
will remain for the nex few years.

Left: Following the ancient method in shipbuilding, the
model's frames are placed inside the shell of the vessel
already built of edge-joined planks. The model's planks
were glued together edge-to-edge since the traditional
mortise-and-tenon joinery would have been difficult at
1:10 scale.

Right and below: A hemostat was used to hold each iron
nail as it was gently tapped into place. Iron nails on the
original hull were well preserved, displaying rounded
heads-faithfully reproduced on the model with miniature
railroad tie spikes (see below). 7To scarfs are just visible
(to the left) in the photo below, along with the nails, rail
cap, and a thole pin for one of the two oars copied from
the Migdal boat mosaic.

break the notched ends. The scarfs on the original boat
would have been fairly sturdy, but at 1:10 scale were quite
fragile. I ended up recutting the stern once and the forward
keel twice because of broken scarfs. After quite a bit of
shaping and trimming, the posts were attached and the keel
was laid.
For the planking I rough-cut a stack of 20mm-wide
(25/32 in) strips to 5 or 6mm (12/64 to 15/64 in) thickness,
and then planed them down to 4mm (5/32 in) thickness,
which would allow for scraping and smoothing the exterior
of the hull while still maintaining a plank thickness of 3 to
3.5mm, or one-tenth of the original planks. Individual
planks were then cut from the prepared stock. Planking
widths throughout the model averaged 12mm (about 1/2
My first attempts at planking were, of course, the
garboards, the planks adjoining each side of the keel. I had
to learn to bend the pieces to their required shapes. I began
by wetting each plank and then curved each over a heating
iron. This method sufficed for the garboards, which only
required a slight bend, but would soon prove altogether
unsatisfactory, especially for the more radical bends
required to fit planks into the stern. But I would have to
wait until the fall to learn this; it was time to depart for my
second season on the Bronze Age Shipwreck excavation at
Ulu Burun, Turkey.
After the summer in Turkey, work began in earnest on
the model, and I quickly learned how frustrating it is to
have a strake almost bent to shape only to have it snap in
my hands. The bends required to fit the planking into the
stern post are radical, and nearly a dozen pieces broke be-

reoC: K. raeerom

fore the problem was solved. It will be interesting to learn
how the Kinneret Boat's shipwright shaped his stern plank-
ing, a lesson that will have to wait until the ancient boat
emerges from conservation.
The trick I learned for shaping the planks, and the
method I would use for the remainder of the planking on
the model, was to cut each piece roughly to shape and then
soak it in water for at least twenty-four hours. I would then
gently massage in the required curves and bends, clamp the

raLto: Bwecram

INA Quarterly 19.3

pieces into place on the model, and allow it to dry over-
night and take the desired shape. It was then relatively easy
to trim each plank to its final shape and glue it in place.
Once I got past the turn of the bilge, shaping and
installing the planks proceeded much faster, and I was able
to begin work on the framing. Each frame member was
hand-carved in the general shape of the original and install-
ed as the originals were-
fastened to the inside of the
planking by nails driven
from the outside of the hull.
While the remains of the
boat consisted only of the
keel, exterior hull planking,
and internal frame mem-
bers, certain bits of evi-
dence from the excavated
remains indicated particular
features of the original
boat. Four nail holes in the
top of the keel, just forward
of midships, indicated the
presence of a mast step,
thus indicating that the boat
had possessed a mast and
sail. In consideration of the
single square rig depicted
on the contemporaneous
Migdal mosaic, and since
there is no evidence for a
lateen rig as early as the
turn of the millennium, I
designed a square rig for
the model. The sail was
woven out of linen by Kay P<
McWilliams, a local weav-
er, and the rope was hand- The completed model is fui
laid from fibers of the Tor- rigging. The Kinneret Boat
rey yucca (Yucca torreyi) by evidence for such detail, ot)
Pat Turner, a secretary at Migdal mosaic (at far right,
INA. The Migdal mosaic the boat may have looked
also shows two oars and a
quarter rudder on each side of the boat; examples of these
were included on the model.
The curious placement of certain frame members in the
boat's bow and stern, noticed by Professor Steffy during
excavation, indicated to him the presence of decks in both
areas. Since we have no evidence of how the decks would
have been constructed in this type of boat, I designed them
as simple flat-board structures, each occupying approxi-
mately one-quarter of the length of the hull.

Now a few words about the finished model. We refer to
it as "the Kinneret Boat model," but technically this is a
misnomer. Because some parts of the original boat did not
survive, and because only the most preliminary research
was possible before the hull went into conservation, our
knowledge of the hull was so incomplete that in order to
present a finished model I had to go to other sources for

wished with a square sail and
's remains did not provide
her sources, such as the
), were used to suggest what
ke when it was in use.

shape the next plank or what

ideas. The model should
more correctly be referred
to as a generic turn-of-the-
millennium Sea of Galilee
fishing boat, that likely
would also have been used
for all manner of other
tasks, including ferrying
people and cargo.
The project required
eighteen months of work,
and I thank Shelley Wachs-
mann for allowing me to
take it on. My thanks also
to Professor Steffy for the
model's basic design and
for a number of meaningful
suggestions at crucial times;
to Fred Hocker for being a
sounding board for all my
ideas, both good and bad,
and for telling me the dif-
ference between the two;
and to Claire Peachey for
getting me started (she built
a research model of the
Kinneret Boat shortly after
its excavation that pointed
out some of the problems in
the preliminary lines). Ulti-
mately, though, I learned
that just sitting back and
staring at the model, some-
times for long periods of
time, would tell me how to
my next move was to be.

The model will be delivered to Israel and displayed
alongside the original hull in the Yigal Allon Museum at
Kibbutz Ginosar in November of 1992.

Suggested Reading
Wachsmann, Shelley
1988 The Galilee Boat--2,000-Year-Old Hull Recovered
Intact. Biblical Archaeology Review 14.5:18-33.

INA Quarterly 19.3


Natural Fiber Rope-Making
by Patricia Turner

The techniques used on the Kin-
neret Boat model's ropes have
been employed since ancient times
in Egypt and continue to be used
to he present day in many Third
World countries. Basically, fibers
are anchored at. one end and then
twisted together: from. the other
end, either by' band or with a
simple machine tgiiaues a crank
to twist attached strands.
Fibers for rope-making can be
gathered from a variety of sources,
including vines, tal -grasses, fi-
brous roots, inner bait of trees,
and fibrous leaves. A"good ope-
making material must possess fodr
qualities: reasonably long fibers,
strength, pliability, and holding, or
"bite," which allows the fibers to
grip one another.
The material I used for the mod-
el's rope was Torrey yucca (YUcca
torrey) from the Laacee, a
family of plants indigeos to the
southwestern United States and
Mexico. Thoglh yucca probably
would not have been available to,
them, rope-makers in the Kinneet
would also have chosen an indige-
nous plant, perhaps a reed or
Following the traditional method,
I spilt the 2.5.: .foot yucca
leaves twice and 'scraped off a
waxy cuticle and outer layer with
a.kifelo expose the fibers. Next,
as the leaf dried, I loosened the
remaining pulp from the fibers by
rubbing them between my hands
and by gently hammeisg them.
Then I patiently separated out
single fibers and cleaned each with
my fingernails.
continued on page 15

A Sail for the Kinneret Boat Model

The 1:10 scale of the Kinneret Boat model demanded that its sail be
woven from a very fine thread. We used half a pound of linen, ordered from
Frederick J. Fawcett, Inc., of Petaluma, California (originally a company
that supplied fine threads to makers of ships built in bottles). Linen was
chosen over cotton as a sail material because linen probably was in use in
the Mediterranean world at the turn of the millennium when the Kinneret
Boat was built. Cotton was not introduced to Egypt as a fiber crop until
much later, and most likely it was not produced in the area surrounding the
Sea of Galilee before it came to Egypt. On the other hand, linen fabric has
been found wrapping Egyptian mummies, which date to several centuries
before and after the turn of the millennium, so we know it was being used in
cloth production at the time when the Kinneret Boat sailed.
Linen fiber is produced from the flax plant (Linum usitatissimun),
specifically from the structures that carry water in the stems. Therefore, it is
very strong when wet, and even when dry it is stronger than cotton. It has
long been used for sails because of its strength under damp conditions. It is
also more resistant to sunlight than cotton, and while it is subject to mildew
damage, it is resistant to insects.
The primary stems of the flax plant produce very long fibers that can be
spun when wet into a very fine, strong thread, referred to as "line" linen.
The line linen we used for the model's sail was as fine as baby's hair. It was
spun very tightly to give it extra strength--but which caused it to twist back
on itself or on any other threads in the vicinity when not under tension. The
sail was woven in three sections, each 10 inches wide, then seamed with the
same thread used in the cloth to create the appearance of an ancient rectan-
gular sail. Each section consisted of 630 threads, each 3 yards long.
Dressing the loom, which with less easily tangled thread would have
required about two hours, took fourteen hours. Each of 630 strands had to
be threaded through slots in the reed (which keeps the threads separated in
the loom); then each had to be inserted into individual heddles, which help
form the weaving pattern. A plain weave was chosen for the sail. Finally the
weaving could be started, taking only Phow; cony AA
two hours to complete. To help pre-
vent breakage, the warp was sprayed
with a fine water mist during the
weaving process.
Before a woven product can be
considered cloth, it must be "finish-
ed." For linen, finishing consists of
washing in very hot water and strong
detergent. The damp fabric is then
beetledd," which means that the cloth
is pounded with a wooden mallet to
flatten the fibers and help even out
the weaving. Sails dating to the peri-
od of the Kinneret Boat were also
probably "sized," or coated with
boiled flax seed, to create a less po-
rous cloth. --Kay McWilliams

INA Quarterly 19.3

Boat Reliefs in the Tomb of Ti and Mastaba of Mereruka

Ships and boats from the Bronze Age Mediterranean are
represented by only a handful of known shipwrecks and
boat burials. Fortunately for nautical archaeologists some
of the great Bronze Age civilizations made written and
pictographic records of their maritime cultures. The ancient
Egyptians in particular left detailed information about their
vessels in the form of papyrus documents, boat models,
and tomb reliefs. These valuable sources of information can
be used to complement what we know about Bronze Age
vessel construction. It should be noted, however, that tomb
reliefs were made by artisans, not shipwrights. Although
detailed, they are not blueprints to Egyptian boatbuilding.
More than fifteen examples of reliefs with boat construc-
tion scenes survive from Dynastic Period Egyptian tombs.
The most detailed of these reliefs is from the tomb of a
Fifth Dynasty court official named Ti at Saqqara. Ti served
under three different pharaohs circa 2500 BC. The relief is
but a small part of his tomb, a portrayal of only one of the
daily activities on his estate. Such day to day events were
recorded in the hope that they would magically reoccur in
Ti's afterlife. The relief consists of three registers and
portrays the construction of five boat bulls, and it includes
accurate depictions of Egyptian tools, tool usage, and
wooden boats.

I originally studied the relief for a paper in J. Richard
Steffy's History of Shipbuilding Technology class at Texas
A&M University. The exceptional diversity of information
present in the relief provided an excellent opportunity to
study the methodology and technology of ancient Egyptian
boat construction. During the past ten years, there has been
a vast increase in knowledge about ancient shipbuilding in
the Mediterranean. I wanted to apply this information to
my analysis and to clear up some misconceptions about
what was being portrayed. I also hoped to relate the relief
to what we know about the evolution of wooden ship
construction in the ancient Mediterranean.
The Ti relief depicts the greatest diversity of tools
associated with Egyptian vessel construction. Adzes, axes,
chisels, mallets, pounders, staves, and a plumb bob are
represented. Variations in tool types which are not seen in
many other boat construction reliefs are also portrayed.
Perhaps the most important contribution of this relief is its
depiction of the methods in which these common tools were
used in boat construction. Adzes appear more frequently
than any other tool and this high percentage reflects their
importance in shaping and finishing crudely sawn boards
into planks. The adzes are shown in a variety of sizes and
are attached to two different types of handles. The size of

INA Quarterly 19.3

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-3 ^ -^* _J fE~ a
l^llW~i''iC^ f" ^rS^^^


Bcpriftd coulmy of IPAO, Caio

by Edward M. Rogers

the blade and the type of handle to which each is hafted
seem to indicate where on the boat the adze will be used.
(See drawing above, and cover.)
One of the most informative areas of the relief portrays
mortise-and-tenon joinery in a highly detailed and accurate
rendition of the attachment and seating of a plank using this
ancient technique. Mortise-and-tenon construction was the
predominant method used for joining hull planks in the
eastern Mediterranean from the Early Bronze Age well into
the medieval period. In this particular construction process,
mortises, or slots, are cut into the edges of planks. Tenons,
rectangular "tongues" of hardwood, are inserted into the
mortises of one plank and matching mortises are cut into
the edge of the next plank, which is then lowered over the
top of the tenons. It is very likely that this method of
construction originated in Egypt. Since all known examples
of Egyptian vessels use mortise-and-tenon joints, the part
of the relief portraying the process is vital to our under-
standing of Egyptian boatbuilding techniques.
The procedure as depicted is labor-intensive and requires
teams of men working in unison while using five different
types of tools. The initial attachment of a strake to another
already joined to the hull involves four workers who are
supervised by an overseer (see drawing above). Close

examination of the area between the two strakes being
joined reveals three vertical pieces which are tenons (not to
be confused with the lines representing the workers' legs).
One of the workers holds a stick in between the center of
the strakes while another grasps the end of the upper plank
with a piece of rope. This technique helped to keep the
seams of the strakes parallel, allowing the upper plank to
seat evenly over the tenons without binding in the mortises.
The fit was very precise and permitted no error in the join.
Two other workers strike the plank with stone hammers to
force it down over the tenons. In a continuation of the
procedure (see next page) the plank is set into its final posi-
tion. Two of the workers use large hourglass-shaped
pounders of wood to achieve the final placement. The size
of the mallets and the workers' extended height indicates
they are using great exertion in their work. The worker at
the center of the hull bends down to check the remaining
amount of space between the planks. He uses the narrow
blade of a chisel to maintain an even setting of the planks
in the remaining space. This depiction of the attachment .of
the strake tells us that the fit of the mortise-and-tenon joints
was very tight and that the hull was rigid and strong: the
integrity of these hulls depended in large part on the
strength of their mortise-and-tenon joints as no metal

INA Quartedy 19.3

Reliefs from the tomb of Ti (circa
2500 BC) include a portrayal of
the shipbuilding process. Such
murals were carved in bas-relief in
\ limestone and then painted, leaving
highly detailed accounts of every-
day activities in ancient Egypt.
Here, workers use mortise-and-
tenon joinery to attach two planks,
while other workers use adzes to
shape planks. (From Le Tombeau
de Ti, Fascile I, plate 129.)

fasteners, and probably no
frames, were added.
The relief contains a consid-
erable amount of information
and raises far more questions
than I am able to answer at pres-
ent, but one detail of the relief is
especially intriguing. A ship-
wright (right) holds a plumb
bob, line, and staff in his hand.
While the fact that be holds them
together in one hand suggests that
they would be used together, the
exact function of the tools in this
scene is not known. The plumb
bob in ancient Egypt is usually
only associated with terrestrial
architecture. It has been suggested
by scholars of ancient shipbuilding
that the plumb bob may have been
used with the staff to ensure that
the shape of the hull was fair and
even. I wondered whether its
inclusion in the relief represented
some form of construction meth-
odology. Did the Egyptians use a
type of measurement in building
their vessels? There is evidence of
this from the mortise-and-tenon
joints of the Dashur Boats (circa
1850 BC), where it is believed that
the hulls' Egyptian builders used

An Egyptian shipwright (below), standing be-
tween the hulls of two boats under construction,
holds a plumb bob, line, and staff TAe appear-
ance of these tools in the tomb of 7T relief sug-
gests that the ancient Egyptians used some form
of control in hull construction. (From Le Tom-
beau de Ti, Fascile II, plate 129.)


Reprinted courtesy of IPAO. Cairo

cubits (a standard unit of mea-
sure in ancient Egypt), palms (a
royal standard unit based on
hand width), and digits (based
on finger width).
A visit to Egypt in the fall of
1991 led to more information on
this question of construction
methodology. I traveled to
Egypt to use the excellent refer-
ence collections at the American
University, American Research
Center, and the Oriental Institute
and to see the tomb of Ti. It was
thrilling to view the relief in the
context of the entire tomb complex
rather than isolated in books or
photographs. The relief had faded
in places but I observed several
details that I had not noticed from
studying photographs and draw-
I was also interested in exam-
ining all other Old Kingdom tomb
reliefs depicting boat construction.
Two days at the American Re-
search Center were spent research-
ing the other reliefs in the Saq-
qara/Memphis area. I was familiar
with all of them except one from
the mastaba of Mereruka, which
dates to circa 2400 BC and which

Reprinted courtey of IFAO. Cairo

INA Quarterly 19.3

In the tomb of Ti relief (left), two workers raise pounders high above their heads in the
process of seating a plank. Another worker stands at the center of the hull and ensures an
even setting of the plank. (From Le Tombeau de Ti, Fascile II, plate 129.)

A relieffrom the mastaba of Mereruka (below) shows Egyptians using a plumb bob in ship
construction. Two workers stretch a line across the hull on the right half of the relief, while
a third (the fifth man from the right) drops a plumb bob to the hull. (Facsimile painting
from The Mastaba of Mereruka, Part HI, Chamber A13, North Wall, Scene 2)

Rpriat -coMtmy of t Odri

happens to be located just one thousand yards from the Ships infull sail appear in a r
tomb of Ti. The court official would have ,
The relief (shown above) turned out to be much smaller to different parts of his estate
and simpler than the Ti relief, but it contained some gious importance- The scale of
equally important information in a rendition of the con- process of construction, in relay
struction of two boats. The right half shows two workers figures, is greatly distorted. 27
stretching a line between the ends of the boat while a third large as the one below. (Le Tc
worker holds a plumb bob perpendicular
to the line. A fourth worker appears to
be marking a place where the plumb bob
touches the hull. It was a very exciting
moment of discovery for me as I knew
that this was the only known example
besides the Ti relief of a plumb bob
being used in vessel construction. Here
was further evidence that the Egyptians
used some form of control during the
construction of their boats. Classical
Greek shipwrights may have used simple
mathematical relationships to determine i
the size and proportions of their vessels, r
and I wondered if the older Egyptian
reliefs were displaying a similar use of
some kind of mathematical or geometri-

tian architecture will provide some in- I ,
For the time being the Mereruka relief
poses far more questions than it answers.
I believe it is the only known depiction
from antiquity of a boat under construe-
continued on page 13

relief of the tomb of T1
ised these ships to travel
and to visit sites of reli-
'the vessel depicted in the
rion to the size of human
'e boat is actually as
,mbeau de Ti, Fascile I.)

fRcprioted courtesy of IPAO, Cairo

INA Quarterly 19.3

R prhted ceua of IFAO, o


by Fred Hocker

Archaeology Underwater: The NAS Guide to Principles and Practice.
Martin Dean, Ben Ferrari, Ian Oxley, Mark Redknap, and Kit Watson (eds.)
Nautical Archaeology Society and Archetype Publications, London, 1992.
ISBN 1-873132-25-5, 335 pages, 152 figures, soft cover.

How do we define this peculiar sub-discipline of
archaeology that takes up so much of our time and effort?
Some call it nautical archaeology, the archaeology of ships
and cargoes. Others call it maritime archaeology, the study
of human use of the sea. These are both definitions based
on an area of study, just as physical anthropology or
historical archaeology define areas of interest. In the early
days ofnautical/marine/maritime archaeology, it was more
often called underwater archaeology, and considerable
attention was paid to the techniques of diving and excava-
tion, sometimes at the expense of research and conserva-
tion. As nautical archaeology has moved into the academic
mainstream, the underwater world increasingly has become
just another place to excavate. Unfortunately, that world is
hostile and presents peculiar difficulties to the archaeologist
if he or she wants to do work of acceptably high quality.
Not the least of these is staying alive. The technological
support required for an underwater project can be daunting,
if not prohibitive.
The first books addressing the technical problems of
working under water were written in the 1960s, when the
discipline was still young and largely experimental. As new
techniques have been developed, they are often described
in journals dealing with ocean technology and surveying,
or in the International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and
Underwater Exploration (IJNA), but only recently have
comprehensive manuals or textbooks been attempted.
Jeremy Green's Maritime Archaeology: A Technical
Handbook appeared in 1990, and now the Nautical Archae-
ology Society, a U.K.-based group similar to INA, has
produced Archaeology Underwater: The NAS Guide to
Principles and Practice. A number of respected British
professional archaeologists have collaborated to publish a
single volume that attempts to address virtually every
aspect of underwater archaeology, from basic archaeologi-
cal theory to the technical specifications for induction
dredges. The book is aimed at the amateurs and diving
volunteers who have been indispensable to underwater pro-

jects in the U.K., but it contains much of value to interna-
tional professionals as well.
The authors of the NAS Guide have chosen a compre-
hensive rather than a technical approach, and a large part
of the book is devoted to a sometimes condescending
explanation of the goals and principles of archaeology in
general. The NAS not only encourages surveys to locate
and document sites, but definitely discourages excavation
except where the site is threatened with imminent destruc-
tion. The reasoning is that because archaeology is destruc-
tive, and because future archaeologists will have more
advanced (and perhaps less destructive) techniques, it is
better to preserve a site than excavate it. To a certain
degree, the NAS position on excavation and survey reflects
the realities of archaeology in the U.K., where funding is
scarce and most projects are undertaken as rescue efforts a
short step ahead of bulldozers and dredgers, but I believe
the preservationist argument has been taken too far. At

"A number of respected British profes-
sional archaeologists have collaborated to
publish a single volume that attempts to
address virtually every aspect of underwa-
ter archaeology ... "

what point may we decide that our techniques are suffi-
ciently advanced to permit excavation? Followed to its
logically absurd conclusion, this line of reasoning suggests
that we should abandon all scientific research, because later
scientists will have better techniques and will be able to do
a better job. Endangered sites should be given priority
where resources are limited, but to discourage research
archaeology (as the authors call excavation of unthreatened
sites) is to discourage the quest for knowledge. We do not
excavate merely to preserve the past, but to understand it,

INA Quarterly 19.3

and research archaeology, because it allows us to choose
the site and to excavate and study it without the pressure of
imminent destruction, offers the best avenue to that end.
Similarly, the NAS insistence on partial excavation of ship-
wrecks (so that future archaeologists can re-investigate)
dooms us to, at best, partial understanding of the site. I do
not believe that a shipwreck can be sampled the way a
large land site can; only complete excavation of a ship-
wreck offers the opportunity to draw informed and valid
conclusions about such things as the ship's origins, route,
and owners. Archaeology does indeed destroy historic
resources, but that is the responsibility we bear as scholars.
As long as we understand the consequences of our actions
and take all possible steps to see that no scrap of informa-
tion goes unrecorded, the knowledge gained is worth the
damage done.
The more technical sections of the book are by and
large excellent. Every aspect of an underwater project,
from choosing staff to organizing records, to drawing, to
photography, to research and publication, is covered in
sufficient detail for the amateur or student to understand
not only the practical aspects of a project, but the underly-
ing reasons for why things are done the way they are. The
sections on legal problems (jurisdiction, ownership,
insurance, etc.) and environmental remains are especially
well done, as is the section on setting up the increasingly
complex system of notebooks, catalogues, databases, and
photo logs that are required on any archaeological project.
Coverage is thin on some of the specifics of surveying and
mapping, and I would have liked to have seen a section on
recording hull remains, but overall the thoroughness of the
text is nothing short of amazing. At times, the authors have
been too general in an attempt to cover all possible situa-
tions, and more illustrative examples or case studies would
have helped (only one topic, the construction of photomo-
saics, included a case study). Some help is provided in the
appendices, which offer technical specifications for airlifts
and water dredges, extensive information on cannon
recording, and a list of useful addresses.
Because the book is written rather specifically for
British divers, some sections (such as the discussion of
legal jurisdiction) will have little application internationally,
but I recommend this work strongly to anyone, amateur or
professional, who would like to have either a good intro-
duction to the theory and practice of nautical archaeology
or a field handbook for technical matters. I do hope that
the authors will correct the grammatical problems in the
title; the use of "underwater" as an adverb, instead of
"under water," is consistent throughout the book.
Available from Archetype Publications, 31-34 Gordon
Square, London WC1H OPY, for 25.00. a

continued from page 11
tion being measured. I later found that the mastaba of
Mereruka--including the boat construction relief--had been
published in 1939, but as far as I know it had gone unno-
ticed by nautical archaeologists.
The reliefs from the tomb of Ti and the mastaba of
Mereruka present us with information about Egyptian ship
construction technology and methodology that is currently
not available from other sources. The ancient Egyptians
may have used some form of control other than just the eye
of the shipwright to determine hull shapes. Perhaps the
reliefs depict an early phase of naval architecture. For now
I return to the library to try to understand these reliefs and
to expand the story of ancient shipbuilding.

My research in Egypt was funded by the Jordan Institute
for International Awareness at Texas A&M University.
Thanks to Dr. Fred Hocker for originally suggesting that
I study the Ti relief. Mr. Steffy and Dr. Hocker answered
innumerable questions and were an inspiration for my
work. Special thanks to David Grant for his support and
witticisms. I received a tremendous amount of help during
my research in Egypt from Dr. Kent Weeks, Dr. Donald
McDonald, John and Debbie Darnell, Dr. Zahi Hawass,
and the library staffs of the American University, the
American Research Center, and the Oriental Institute in
Cairo. Thanks also to Mike Fitzgerald, Cheryl Haldane,
Claire Calcagno, Mrs. Jessie Jordan, and Ursula Cuzzi.

Suggested Reading
Haldane, C.
1988 Boat Timbers from El-Lisht: A New Method of
Ancient Hull Construction. Mariner's Mirror 74:141-
Lauer, Jean-Philippe
1976 Saqqara, The Royal Cemetery of Memphis, London.
Lipke, P.
1984 The Royal Ship of Cheops. Greenwich.
Petrie, F.
1917 Tools and Weapons. London.
Sliwa, J.
1975 Studies in Ancient Egyptian Handicraft: Woodwork-
ing. Krakow.

INA Quarterly 19.3


To promote scholarly research into
Maryland's maritime history, the
Maritime Committee of the Mary-
land Historical Society and the
University of Baltimore Educational
Fund are sponsoring their Fourth
Annual Maritime Essay Contest.
The two organizations provide the
following information and guide-
Cash awards of $300, $125, and
$75 will be given for the three top
papers in the competition. Winning
entries will be considered for
publication in the Society's Mary-
land Historical Magazine.
Appropriate subjects include all
aspects of Maryland seafaring
(ships, sailing vessels, steamboats,
small craft and their equipment,
cargoes, passengers carried on
Maryland vessels, maritime
shipping, ports, economics, naval
activities and maritime law). Papers
should rely on primary source
materials and should not exceed
6,000 words. In preparing their
essays, contestants should follow the
contributors' guidelines listed in the
spring 1989 issue of Maryland
Historical Magazine.
Contestants must submit four
copies of their papers to:
The Maryland Historical Society
201 W. Monument Street
Baltimore, MD 21201
For further information, call Byrne
Waterman or Cathy Rogers at the
historical society: 301/685-3750.

News & Notes

New Mapping
INA will soon acquire a new tool
for its excavations. Software used by
a number of nautical archaeologists in
Europe was introduced to the Institute
by Mr. Nick Rule, who developed
DSM (Direct Survey Measurement)
mapping software in conjunction with
nautical archaeologists on the Mary
Rose project. During the last week of
October Mr. Rule gave a demonstra-
tion and a series of lectures on the
system's use of statistical analysis to
streamline site mapping. His talk,
"Good Plans From Bad Measure-
ments: The Use of Statistical Best-Fit
Algorithms in the Mapping and Re-
cording of Archaeological Sites,"
demonstrated how the system can
point out errors excavators make when
measuring artifacts for site maps. In
"Mapping the Mary Rose: The Devel-
opment of Computer-Aided Surveying
Methods on Henry VIII's Flagship,
Sunk in 1545," he described the de-
velopment ofcomputer-aided mapping
methods during the excavation of the
Tudor ship.
Mr. Rule has worked on a number
of archaeological projects and is now
employed as a senior consultant at
Lgica PLC, England's largest soft-
ware developer.

Caravel Replica
Faculty and staff from the Nautical
Archaeology Program at Texas A&M
University brought their expertise in
historic ships to a sixth-grade class at
the Oakwood Middle School, in Col-
lege Station, Texas. The children, as
part of a Columbus Quincentenary
program, built a life-size replica of the

Nina with the help of nautical archae-
Full-size sailing replicas of Portu-
guese-built caravels visited Corpus
Christi and Galveston, Texas, in
1992. Dr. Dave Cheney, who spent
three weeks rigging and subsequently
sailing on the caravels, came to the
Nautical Archaeology Program on
October 23 to give an illustrated talk
on rigging and sailing the replicas.

Lectures in Portland
Don Frey, INA's vice president and
administrator of Mediterranean activi-
ties, spoke at Oregon's Portland Art
Museum on November 18 about his
lengthy experience with surveying and
excavating shipwrecks in Turkey.
Originally a physicist, Don Frey
began his association with nautical
archaeology in 1969, when he volun-
teered to work on the Roman ship-
wreck at Yassi Ada. He then went on
to learn about and teach the applica-
tion of physics to archaeology. He has
been with INA for a number of years,
serving as president until 1988, and
participating in excavations and sur-
veys in the Mediterranean.
George Bass, INA's archaeological
director, will also speak in Portland
this year. He has been invited to
participate in the Institute for Science,
Engineering and Public Policy's Resi-
dent Scholars Program as a speaker in
the Science, Technology and Society
Lecture Series. The lecture series and
related events are cosponsored by
Oregon Public Broadcasting, Portland
State University, the Oregon Commit-
tee for the Humanities (an NEH local
affiliate), as well as various corpora-
Dr. Bass's talk, "Bronze Age Splen-
dor," will take place January 8, 1993,

INA Quarterly 19.3

_ __

at 7:30 p.m. in the Arlene Schnitzer
Concert Hall. INA members are wel-
come to attend. For further informa-
tion call 503/224-8499. Tickets will
cost $17.50.

Proceedings Available
The Underwater Archaeology Pro-
ceedings from the Society for Histori-
cal Archaeology Conference, from the
meetings held in Kingston, Jamaica, in
January of 1992, are now available.
The volume, edited by Donald H.
Keith and Toni L. Campbell, includes
25 papers covering a range of sub-
jects. Fifteenth- and sixteenth-century
ships and maritime trade; small craft
in South Carolina; Caribbean under-
water archaeology; advances in inter-
national underwater archaeology; and
technology, theory, and analysis are
addressed in the Proceedings.
The volume is available for $17.50,
plus $1.75 for postage and handling
($2.25 for international mail), from
the Society for Historical Archaeolo-
gy, P.O. Box 30446, Tucson, Arizona
85751-0446. Orders should be accom-
panied by a check or purchase order.

AIA Meetings
The 94th Annual Meeting of the
American Institute of Archaeology
will be held December 27-30, 1992, at
the New Orleans Hilton Riverside and
Towers. George Bass will deliver a
talk, "The Shipwreck at Ulu Burun,
Turkey: 1992 Excavation Campaign,"
at the conference.

Lisht Publication
A recent volume of the Metropolitan
Museum of Art Egyptian Expedition
publications includes an appendix on
ship timbers found at Lisht during
excavations at the Middle Kingdom
pyramid of Senwosret I. The appen-
dix, "The Lisht Timbers: A Report on
Their Significance," is written by
Cheryl Haldane, a doctoral student in
the Nautical Archaeology Program. It
appears in The South Cemeteries of
Lisht, Volume III: The Pyramid Com-
plex of Senwosret I, by Dieter Arnold.
The appendix includes a detailed
discussion and catalogue of some of
the timbers and should be a valuable
reference for nautical archaeologists.

Studies in Nautical Archaeology

Copies of the first volume in the new monograph series, Studies in Nautical
Archaeology, published by the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas
A&M University, are still available. Those Vulgar Tubes: External Sanitary
Accommodations Aboard European Ships of the Ffteenth Through Seven-
teenth Centuries, by Joe Simmons, examines contemporary ship depictions
and models, descriptions in the historical literature, and archaeological
evidence from the perspectives of both hygiene and hull form and construc-
tion. The result is an illuminating look at the nature and development of
prominent external waste-disposal features on ships. The volume surveys
evidence of such features back to ancient times in the introduction. Forty-five
line drawings by the author, one original by David Macaulay, and seven
black-and-white photos illustrate the text in lively and informative fashion.
Vulgar Tubes is available to INA members at a discount price of $9.00. For
further information write to Mike Fitzgerald at the INA address, or call

continued from page 7
To make a single lay (strand) of
rope, I gathered ten to fifteen single
fibers together, twisting them slowly
between my fingers in a clockwise
manner. I was careful to do this even-
ly and uniformly. Additional fibers
were continually added to the center
of the twist, thus extending the length
of the lay.
To "lay up" a three-lay cord, I
attached three strands--all the same
diameter, length, tightness and direc-
tion of twist-to three separate hooks
on a simple rope-spinning machine,
designed to work much like devices
used hundreds of years ago. At the
opposite end, I tied the strands to-
gether and used a three-slotted cork-
sized piece of wood to keep the
strands separated and tensioned. To
tighten the strands, the crank was
turned. The direction of the turn
usually is dictated by the natural
"twist" of the fiber used.
The person who creates the lays
must ensure that the strands are twist-
ing evenly but separately. One hand
holds the cork-sized piece of wood to
keep the tension, while the other hand
holds the loose turning material. It is
essential to "feel" the fibers twisting
together; this helps maintain evenness.
After the cord is finished, It is laid
out, straightened, and then coiled in a
spiral for storage.
The Kinneret Boat model required
about 90 feet of rope, in keeping with
the 1:10 scale--the original boat prob-
ably required up to 900 feet.

Suggested Reading
Mackay, Ernest.
1916 Note on a new tomb (No.
260) at Drab Abu'l Naga, Thebes.
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology
Seymour, John.
1984 The Forgotten Crafts. Knopf,
New York.

INA Quarterly 19.3


George F. Bass, Archaeological Director
Donald G. Geddes II, Treasurer

John H. Baird
George P. Bass
J.B.R. Chilton
Gregory M. Cook
Harlan Crow
Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon
Donald G. Geddes HI
William Graves
Nixon Griffis
Bruce Hcafitz

Robert K. Vincen, Jr., President
Rebecca H. Holloway, Secretary

Bengt 0. Tanason
Hary C. Kahn II
Michael L. Katzv
Jack W. KeUey
Sally R. Lncaster
David C. Langworthy
Samuel I. LeFrak
Robert B. Locton
Frederick IL Maycr
William A. McKenzie

Donald A. Prey, Vice President,

William H. Mobley
Alex 0. Nason
Ray H. Siegried II, Chairman
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew O. Ward
Peter M. Way
Gany A. Weber
Martin A. Wilcox
George O. Ysmini

George P. Bass, George T. & Gladys H. Abel Professor of Nautical Archaeology
Kevin I. Crisman, Assistant Professor
D. L. Hamilton, Associate Professor
Frederick Hocker, Saea W. & George O. Yamini Faculty Fellow
J. Ricbard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Frederick R. Mayer Professor in Nautical Archaeology
Shelley Wachamann, Meadows Visiting Assistant P&rofeaor of Biblical Archaeology

Cemal Pulak, Mr. & Mrs. Ray H.
Siegfried, Jr., Graduate Fellow

Selma Karan
Sheila Matthews, M.A.
Jane PannellU
James Parrent, Ph.D.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Cemal Pulak, M.A.
Sema Pulak, M.A.
Murat Tilev
Tufan Turanl
Patricia Turner

Jeremy Green
Cheryl Haldane, M.A.
Douglas Haldane, M.A.
Margaret B. Leshikar, M.A.
Kathleen McLaughlin Neyland
Robert Neyland, M.A.
Ralph Pedersen, M.A.
Donald Rosenorantz

Edwin Doran, Jr., Ph.D.
Cynthia J. Eiseman, Ph.D.
John Gifford, Ph.D.
Faith Hentachel, Ph.D.
Carolyn Koehler, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
David C. Switzer, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., M.A.

Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Cornell University
Coming Museum of Glass
Department d Arqucologia Subacuatica de la
I.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of
Shell of Turkey, Ltd.
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas. Austin

James A. Goold

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