Citation
Lankesteriana

Material Information

Title:
Lankesteriana la revista científica del Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Creator:
Jardi´n Bota´nico Lankester
Jardín Botánico Lankester
Place of Publication:
Cartago Costa Rica
Publisher:
Jardi´n Bota´nico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2010
Frequency:
Three times a year[2002-]
Irregular[ FORMER 2001]
three times a year
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Botany -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica ( lcsh )
Epiphytes -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica ( lcsh )
Orchids -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica ( lcsh )
Plantkunde ( gtt )
Botanische tuinen ( gtt )
Genre:
periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Costa Rica

Notes

Language:
In English and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
No. 1 (mayo 2001)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issues for May 2001-Oct. 2003 designated no.1-8; issues for Apr. 2004- designated vol. 4, no. 1-
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 1 (abr. 2004).
General Note:
International journal on orchidology.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
48491453 ( OCLC )
2001240973 ( LCCN )
1409-3871 ( ISSN )

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Vol 18, No. 2 August 2018 V OL 18, N o 3 DECEMBER 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY ISSN 1409-3871 (continues in the internal pages) Editorial. A paperless journal, but still on paper nevertheless FRANCO PUPULIN The effect of smoke derivatives and carbon utilization on symbiotic germination of the endangered Pterostylis despectans (Orchidaceae) and TIEN HUYNH A new species of Anathallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Brazil The four footed Lepanthes (Pleurothallidinae), a new species from north-western Ecuador and Trichocentrum undulatum (Orchidaceae) by Melanagromyza sp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Cuba and HONG LIU The genus Palmorchis (Orchidaceae: Neottieae) in Peru: a taxonomic synopsis including four new species and a new record and First wild record of Dendrochilum warrenii (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae) and Sertifera and A new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) in subsection Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae with a unique, highly reduced, morphologically distinct labellum and I 167 177 183 189 193 207 211 217

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGYLANKESTERIANAEditor-in-Chief (Director)FRANCO PU P ULINUniversidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica franco.pupulin@ucr.ac.cr Editor MELISSA DAZ-MORALES Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica melissa.diaz_m@ucr.ac.crEditor N OELIA BEL F ORT O CONITRILLO Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica noelia.belfort@ucr.ac.cr JAmMES D. A ACKERmMAN University of Puerto Rico, U.S.A. GERmMN CCARNEVALI Mexico PHILLIpP CCRIbbBB Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. CCARLOS F. FIgGHETTI The American Orchid Society, U.S.A. GNTER GERLACH Botanischer Garten Mnchen-Nymphenburg, Germany HHEIKO HHENTRICH Deutsche Homopathie-Union Karlsruhe, Germany JULIN MONgGE-NNjJERA Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica DAVIdD LL. RRObBERTS University of Kent, U.K. AANdDR SSCHUITEmMAN Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. JORgGE WARNER Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica FRANCO BRUNO MARK W. CCHASE Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. U.K. RRObBERT LL. DRESSLER Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica LLAUREN GARdDINER Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. EERIC HHgGSATER Herbario AMO, Mexico WESLEY EE. HHIggGGINS The American Orchid Society, U.S.A. AALEC M. PRIdgDGEON Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. GUSTAVO A A. RROmMERO Harvard University Herbaria, U.S.A. PHILIpP SSEATON l UCN / SSSC Orchid Specialist Group, U.K. W. MARK WHITTEN Florida Museum of Natural History, U.S.A. MARIO A A. BLANCO Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica VVCTOR JImMNEZ GARCA Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica GAbBRIELA JONES RROmMN Universidad Estatal a Distancia, Costa Rica AAdDAmM P. KKARREmMANS Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica FRANCO PUpPULIN Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica JORgGE WARNER Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica NNORRIS HH. WILLIAmMS Florida Museum of Natural History, U.S.A

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SAVE THE DATE7th International Conference on Comparative Biology of MonocotyledonsCOSTA RICA San Jos, Costa Rica March 6, 2023

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LANKESTERIANA INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY Copyright 2018 Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica corded on the title page of each individual paper) Effective publication date ISSN 1409-3871 (printed): December 30, 2018 Layout: Jardn Botnico Lankester. Cover: Palmorchis yavarensis Damin & Torres. Photograph by I. Huamantupa. Printer: MasterLitho. Printed copies: 500 Printed in Costa Rica / Impreso en Costa Rica R Lankesterian a / International Journal on Orchidology No. 1 (2001)-. -San Jos, Costa Rica: Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica, 2001-v. ISSN-1409-3871 1. Botnica Publicaciones peridicas, 2. Publicaciones peridicas costarricenses

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ISSN 1409-3871 V OL 18, N o 3 D ECEMBER 2018 Editorial. A paperless journal, but still on paper nevertheless FRANCO PUPULIN The effect of smoke derivatives and carbon utilization on symbiotic germination of the endangered Pterostylis despectans (Orchidaceae) and TIEN HUYNH A new species of Anathallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Brazil The four footed Lepanthes (Pleurothallidinae), a new species from north-western Ecuador and Trichocentrum undulatum (Orchidaceae) by Melanagromyza sp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Cuba and HONG LIU The genus Palmorchis (Orchidaceae: Neottieae) in Peru: a taxonomic synopsis including four new species and a new record and First wild record of Dendrochilum warrenii (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae) and Sertifera and INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY I 167 177 183 189 193 207 211 LANKESTERIANA ( continues )

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A new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) in subsection Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae with a unique, highly reduced, morphologically distinct labellum and Scaphosepalum tarantula (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae), a new species from Ecuador LUIS E. BAQUERO, ALEXANDER HIRTZ and GABRIEL ITURRALDE The Orchidaceae of (1818) Book reviews Index of taxonomic novelties, LANKESTERIANA vol. 16, 2016 LANKESTERIANA vol. 17, 2017 Author instructions 217 231 239 243 247 249 251 ( continues ) LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3): III. 2018. EDITORIAL A PAPERLESS JOURNAL, BUT STILL ON PAPER NEVERTHELESS FRANCO PUPULIN Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica. P.O. Box 302-7050 Cartago, Costa Rica franco.pupulin@ucr.ac.cr Since immemorial time, humanity has expressed its desire to transmit ideas, emotions, concerns, and knowledge, in a manner that could be conserved through time. This legacy has been shaped in the form of documents, recorded on a wide range of media: fabric, parchment, and paper. We are now witnessing the passage to the multi-media era, where information is output in the form of pictures, movies, sounds, texts or a combination of these, stored in a plethora various kinds and sizes, CD and DVD ROM, internal and external hard disks, and others electronic media. Some of these media have already passed away, and no equipment is currently available to read and interpret the content stored in their memory. Post-Linnean botany has been mostly perpetuated through books, journals, leaflets, and herbaria, and paper has proven to be a pretty effective medium for conserving the information. Libraries and plant museums have guaranteed unconditional access to this information. The validity of paper as the best storage medium, both from the point of view of efficiency and environmental impact, has however been put into question in the last two decades (Conway 1996). Let we discuss these two points separately. Preservation is not a matter that applies to challenges for the preservation of data as well, and the risk of loss is probably higher than in most other preservation functions (Conway 1999). Nevertheless, the principles of digital preservation are the same as those of the analog world and, essentially, aimed at extending the useful life of information resources. In some cases, however, the basic conservation principles of longevity, choice, quality, integrity, and access, have shifted in priority and actors. Traditionally, preservation of the information involved a complex, physical work aimed at perpetuating the integrity of the sources through the active control of external and internal factors of deterioration (stabilizing and maintaining temperature, humidity, light exposure, pollution, dirt, dust and mold, surveying handling techniques and security, adopting digital world, preservation is less concerned for the longevity of the storage media, but is much more dependent on the life expectancy of the access system to retrieve the data stored on them. For this reason, most libraries simply do not physically store electronic publications. Even though a study by Shipman et al. (2011) unequivocally shows that to destructively digitize documents in-house (disposing of the physical it is several hundred percent more expensive than physical conservation. So, the libraries e-journals, e-books, databases and so on, are linked to from their catalogues, but stored elsewhere. Where? Usually, on the publishers own website. In the past, the active role of the publisher ended when the book or journal or whatever kind of printed matter was released and dispatched. From this moment on, the responsibility of its conservation as a tangible item, and the preservation of the information stored in it, was passed on to the individuals, libraries, archives, museums and other subjects who owned copies of the publication. In the digital world, this responsibility remains mostly assigned to the publisher. So, this poses a basic question to Lankesteriana Are we ready, from the point of view of the knowledge,

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. II LANKESTERIANA the protocols, the human and IT resources needed, to be entrusted as the main conservators of the information stored in our journal, in an exclusively virtual, intangible, digital format? Last month, in only two consecutive days, we lost two of the three external disks (in addition to the two servers) where the history of Lankesteriana is preserved. None of us, is a specialist in computer science, and even less in the theory that must undoubtedly exist on the best practices of preservation of digital information. We have already replaced the two damaged disks, but not system. Simply said, we are not ready to go completely paperless and we do not know when we will be. On the other side, the environmental issues associated with paper and digital media have occupied a large part of the debate on migration from traditional to electronic storage. They both do present common environmental issues including the extraction of materials, the use of huge amounts of energy and water for their production and transportation, and their transformation into waste throughout their life cycle. Whilst the use of paper seems to be more environmentally questionable during the production stages (but the organization representing the paper and print industry claims that the paper-making process is sustainable), digital media are particularly they contain toxic materials including lead, mercury, trioxide, polyvinyl chloride, and phthalates. A study by Toffel and Horwath (2004), comparing the reading of newspaper content on a personal digital assistant vs the traditional way of reading a newspaper, and the wireless teleconferencing vs business travel, shows that for both cases wireless technologies create lower environmental impacts. On the other side, Bull and Kozak (2014) argue that the context of the information and communication technology will continuously impede the ability of the the Life Cycle Assessment methodology to measure its products to be compared with the environmental footprint of paper media. Our assumption that digital is greener than paper could still be based on unsubstantiated claims. As the main reason for physically distributing Lankesteriana aside from improving its visibility, is to augment the probabilities of its forever conservation, we decided to remove from the mailing list of the journal all the individual subscribers, who obviously play no role for this purpose, including the authors themselves, who have so far received a physical copy of their publications. This also includes the numerous research libraries which, over the years, have shown their interest in essentially converting into repositories of digitized information, and therefore no longer require a physical copy of the journal to be placed on the shelves, and those organizations that the Costa Rican laws of printing assumed as obligatory recipients but were recently downgraded to digital users. Coherently, Lankesteriana will no longer accept individual subscriptions, which will be reserved exclusively for those public libraries that wish to offer a form of Cleaned of individual subscriptions and libraries no longer interested in receiving physical copies of the mailing list of Lankesteriana will be reduced to 280 copies, including the copies to be used for interchange and those printed for the journals physical archives and intended to replace any copies lost or damaged during shipment. LITERATURE CITED Bull, J. G. & Kozak R. A. (2014). Comparative life cycle assessments: the case of paper and digital media. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 45, 10. Conway, P. (1996). Preservation in the Digital World. Washington, D.C.: Commission on Preservation and Access. Conway, P. (1999). The Relevance of Preservation in a Digital World. Northeast Document Conservation Center (NEDCC) the-relevance-of-preservation-in-a-digital-world, consulted November 2018. Shipman, B, Potter, N. & Herring, M. (2011). Physical conservation vs. digital preservation a cost comparison. Toffel, M. W. & Horwath, A. (2004). Environmental Implications of wireless technologies: news delivery and business meetings. E nvironmental Science and Technology 38(11), 2961.

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3): 167 2018. THE EFFECT OF SMOKE DERIVATIVES AND CARBON UTILISATION ON SYMBIOTIC GERMINATION OF THE ENDANGERED PTEROSTYLIS DESPECTANS (ORCHIDACEAE) School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora VIC 3083, Australia *Corresponding author: t.huynh@rmit.edu.au Orchids are highly dependent on exogenous nutritional sources and mycorrhizal associations explored to improve germination and seedling establishment of an Australian endangered orchid, Pterostylis despectans (Lowly Greenhood) and its mycorrhizal fungi. Stored seeds were germinated in vitro with peloton0.0 mL L -1 as the carbon source (10 g L -1 water, highlighting the importance of fungal diversity and supports research-based conservation strategies to circumvent environmental challenges. : in vitro doi: https://doi.org/10.15517/lank.v18i3.34534 Received 2 May 2017; accepted for publication 10 September 2018. First published online: 13 September 2018. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivs 3.0 Costa Rica License. Introduction are ideal for wind dispersal. However, they are unable to store nutrients in the embryo and often rely on fungi (predominantly imperfect Rhizoctonia spp.) in order to germinate (Arditti & Ghani 2000, Brundrett et al. 2003, Rasmussen 1995). When fungi colonise orchid seeds, they grow as intracellular tightly coiled hyphal pelotons and a symbiotic relationship is established (Huynh et al. 2004). In this symbiotic relationship, fungi supply the orchid with nutrients including nitrogen (Girlanda et al. 2011) and phosphorus (Cameron et al. 2007) while the Read 2006, Carbon utilisation by mycorrhizal fungi vary with some clades from the same Rhizoctonia species inhibited by sucrose (Wright et al. 2011) resulting in suboptimal seed germination (Huynh et al. et al. 2014, Wright et al. 2009). Some in vitro studies have successfully germinated orchid seeds asymbiotically (without fungi) using germination (Huynh et al. et al. 2014). Despite the germination success of asymbiotic plants, symbiotically germinated orchids established in soil better in the long term than those without fungi (Batty et al. 2001, Rasmussen 1995) which suggests fungal superiority and importance to orchid conservation particularly for plants that reside in depleted nutrient habitats. between species and different fungi are not equally effective in seed germination or growth (Phillips et al. 2011). Australian orchids generally have higher from other continents (Batty et al. 2001, Pandey et al. 2013, Phillips et al. 2011, Wright et al. 2009). Moreover, Rhizoctonia diversity in Australia is lower compared to other continents (Brundrett et al. 2003). Patchy fungal distribution in the soil, high fungal-host fungal selections (Wright et al. 2011) can lead to orchid rarity (Phillips et al. 2011) and is a considerable barrier for the conservation of endangered species, for example Caladenia huegelii (Swarts et al. 2010) and some other Caladenia spp. (Wright et al. 2010) but not others (Bailarote, Lievens & Jacquemyn 2012). some species whilst stimulatory for others (Brundrett 2007, Duncan & Coates 2010, Janes, Vaillancourt &

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LANKESTERIANA 168 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. its ability to increase the germination and development of some orchids (Papenfus et al. 2016, Mulgund et al 2012, Malabadi et al 2011) but not others (Teixeira da (Jasinge et al. 2018a) or fungicidal (Jasinge 2014, Lin et al. 2012, Parmeter & Uhrenholdt 1975, Zagory & Parmeter 1984) due to compounds such as phenolics, et al. trimethylbutenolide (Papenfus et al. 2016), this could affect the ability for fungi to assist in seed germination water. Pterostylis R.Br has over 400 species that are spread across Australasia (Phillips et al. 2014). Many of these species were described only recently and their et al. 2008). One representative, Pterostylis despectans (Nicholls) M. A. Clem. & D. L. Jones (Lowly Greenhood) is Duncan, Pritchard & Coates 2005, Janes et al. 2008, Marsh 2011), restricted to south east Australia (NSW Government 2018) and conservation efforts are required to mitigate its decline. This study investigated factors to improve germination for reintroduction based on success from other orchid genera. The aim was to determine water on protocorm development; and the effect of Materials and methods Seed collection and preparation Germination was performed on 8 year old dried seeds of P. despectans collected in Talbot (Victoria) on January 2006 from seed capsules of six random plants. The seeds were surface sterilised for 1 min in 0.5% NaOCl with one drop of Tween 20 (Fisher BioReagents ). Seeds were spun at 13 ,000 rpm for 30 s and the supernatant was removed with a sterile glass pipette. Seeds were trice rinsed with sterile milliQ water and the supernatant removed. Fungal isolation . Three collars were collected in situ during the growing season in July 2013 from a population in Bung Bong state forest (Victoria). The collars were cleaned under running tap water, surface sterilized with 1% NaOCl for 3 minutes and rinsed trice with sterilized were sliced into 1 mm longitudinal sections in sterile MilliQ water under sterile conditions. The pelotons were observed with a dissecting microscope, scraped out, dispensed in sterile MilliQ water and droplets containing pelotons were plated onto fungal isolation medium (FIM 0.3 g L -1 sodium nitrate, 0.2 g L -1 potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate, 0.1 g L -1 magnesium sulphate, 0.1 g L -1 potassium chloride, 0.1 g L -1 yeast extract, 5 g L -1 sucrose, 10 g L -1 agar, prepared to 1 L with deionized (DI) water, pH adjusted to 6.8 before autoclaving (20 min at 121 C, -2 ) (Clements 1981). Isolated pelotons were grown for 48 h at room temperature and scored as 1) Rhizoctonia no growth (Huynh et al 2009). Fungal growth and smoke water . Rhizoctonia fungi were transferred onto malt agar medium (MAM) mL L -1 ) and labelled as collar number (1) and a letter representing separate fungal isolates from each collar. Each plate contained triplicate plugs from the same and their growth was measured using a digital calliper symbiotic germination plates containing autoclaved oatmeal agar (OMA). Symbiotic germination. OMA (2.5 g L -1 ground rolled oats, 0.1 g L -1 yeast extract, 8 g L -1 et al 2014) was prepared in sterile petri dishes with three concentrations (0, 0.1 and 1 mL L -1 or presence (10 g L -1 ) of sucrose (Sigma Aldrich) before sterilization. One cm 2 squares of sterile Miracloth (Calbiochem, USA) were placed onto set OMA. One droplet of surface sterilised seeds was released onto each Miracloth square and a fungal square was placed in the middle of each plate. Nine fungal isolates were used for each of the six media types. One plate per treatment was not inoculated and was used (Si

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 169 et al Pterostylis despectans light FL). Seed changes were scored as 1) dormant unchanged, 2) swollen, 3) protocorm and 4) protocorm with green leaf primordium (Fig. 1). Data analysis. Data was tested for normality and using Levenes test for equality of variance and was the above assumptions were transformed to normality. Normal data was analysed for statistical differences by test for homogeneous data and Games-Howell post-hoc for non-homogeneous data. Abnormal data was tested statistical software (version 23). Fishers family error test was performed using Minitab (version 17). Results Effect of smoke water and sucrose on germination. Symbiotic germination for P. despectans was low with the majority (94%) of seeds unchanged and positive effect on seed germination produced more than double the number of primordia stages. The highest germination was observed in media without and 1.0 mL L -1 particularly for protocorm and primordia stages. Although swollen seeds were noticeably changed from from 0.0 to 0.1 mL L -1 but decreased from 0.1 to 1.0 mL L -1 1. Pterostylis despectans seeds at different stages of germination. A. Dormant. B. Swollen. C. Protocorm. D. Protocorm with green leaf primordium. Bars (right bottom corner) = 1 mm.

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concentrations of 0.0 and 1.0 mL L -1 (p>0.05, GamesGames-Howell test) and even though there was more seed development stages from swelling to germination tests) (Fig. 2) such that no seed reached protocorm or Effect of fungal variability and smoke water on germination stages reached. Control (without fungal inoculum) was absent of germination. This was differences in total germination between and within each replicate plant and isolate, with plant 1 isolate b initiating the highest overall and individual stages of germination. Even though there was a noticeable 170 LANKESTERIANA LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. Pterostylis despectans symbiotic seed germination. Data are mean % -1 0.1SW=0.1 mL L -1 1SW=1.0 mL L -1 Means that do not share a (>95%) were excluded from the graph. 3. Pterostylis despectans fungal isolates effectiveness (%) to germinate P. despectans seed ( 1SE). Fungal isolate abbreviations: numbers indicated a different P. despectans plant and letters indicated a different fungal isolate. Means that do not share a letter (>95%) were excluded from the graph.

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et al Pterostylis despectans 171 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. from the same plant (Fig. 3). The effectiveness of fungal isolates from different plants was variable with the best isolates from plant 1 and the worst isolates from plant 2 with varying germination within. Effect of smoke water on fungal growth. (p<0.05, Fishers post-hoc test) however the impact of growth greatly varied between fungal isolates (Fig. 4). The greatest overall radial growth was in isolates from plant 3 and the least from plant 2. These patterns did plant 1 that had middle range radial growth. Discussion Germination. Pterostylis despectans seed in this study had very low germination success compared to other orchid genera. For example, other Australian orchids showed high germination that reached up to 100%, including more common Pterostylis species (Batty et al 2006, Huynh et al et al 2014). This low germinability may indicate requirements for additional stimulants and be a contributing factor to its rarity and consequent endangered status of P. despectans There are several other reasons that cause low germination numbers: seed age, post-harvest seed storage conditions and fungal Pterostylis despectans seed were collected 8 years prior to the experiment and may be too long for the optimum viability to be maintained. Studies on other plants have shown that time affects seed viability (Merritt et al 2003) with high orchid seed germination achieved when seed material was obtained within a year before germination (Batty et al et al 2014). Seed viability of Australian plants was affected by relative humidity and temperature during storage (Merritt et al 2003). Pterostylis sanguinea had et al 2014), and the higher incubation temperature used in this experiment at 25C may have restricted the full germination potential of the species. Australian orchids are often colonised with more than one taxa of endophytic fungi (Dixon & Tremblay 2009, Rasmussen et al. 2015) which explains why fungi different effect on seeds (Fig. 3). Other studies found no correlation between fungal taxonomy with germination et al. 2010) and could indicate other factors contributing to varying seed responses. Pterostylis orchid species varies between the plants rather than within one plant despite morphological and genetic similarities (Huynh et al 2009). Complex comparisons such as gene-environment interactions and metabolomic studies may provide more useful answers and direct future conservation efforts such as in situ inoculations to rejuvenate fungal diversity to improve germination and growth. Symbiotic fungi were essential for P. despectans seed germination but highlighted that other factors may be important for improved germination and survivorship of this species. High and successful asymbiotic in vitro germination can be achieved to rival or exceed symbiotic germinations beyond 93% (Bustam, Dixon & Bunn 2014) and may be the only alternative for similar P. despectans that have fastidious requirements for both the fungal partner and seed. radial growth (mm) of nine isolates from P. despectans L -1 0.1SW=0.1 mL L -1 1SW=1.0 mL L -1 ). Data are means ( 1SE). Fungal isolate abbreviations: numbers indicated a different P. despectans plant and letters indicated a different fungal isolate. Means that do not

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172 LANKESTERIANA LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. The effect of smoke water on germination. on P. despectans seed germination (Fig. 3). There are germination (Jasinge 2014, Papenfus et al. 2016). Other of non-orchid Australian native plants (Bradshaw et al. 2011, Dixon et al. 2009, Flematti et al. 2004). On the other hand, heat was found to be more important in seed germination initiation of some plants in Western et al. 2001) and this is a events particularly for recalcitrant species. the germination of P. despectans the results were still suboptimal with germination not exceeding 5%. This result translated into an ecological conservation context would mean that copious volumes of viable seed is required to replace existing populations and even more for the expansion of populations which is not sustainable for the longevity of the species without water as a stimulant also resulted in low germination rates on an African orchid, Ansellia africana (Papenfus et al. 2016) with <19% at stages 4 of development, future research, especially highly endangered species that have low germinabilit y. The effect o f sucr ose on germination. Sucrose had an adverse negative effect on P. despectans seed germination. Similarly, the addition of sucrose decreased the germination of Caladenia species (Wright 2007, Wright et al 2011) resulting in the omission of et al 2014). On the other hand, some other orchid species ( ) grew better with the presence of sucrose (Huynh al 2004, Wright et al 2009) especially those germinated asymbiotically (Huh et al 2016) so there is a need for individualised ingredients to cater for the preferences of both orchid and fungus. In the presence of sucrose, fungi dominated and outcom peted seeds for nutrients and thus negatively affected seed germination. The fungi in sucrose media were morphologically different with more vigorous dense growth and covered orchid seeds. Similarly, it was observed that high concentrations of sucrose encouraged parasitic fungal growth whereas lower concentrations of sucrose promoted symbiotic associations in Dendrobium chrysanthum (Hajong, Kumaria & Tandon 2013). In contrast, other studies on C. tentaculata found no changes in hyphal growth or dominance regardless of sucrose presence (Wright et al. 2011). They found that individual fungal isolates due to fungal isolates belonging to different taxa (Wright et al. 2011). Fungal isolates from P. despectans may also have different requirements and responses to carbon utilisation and assimilation. This may also stimulate or exacerbate fungal functionality in situ under extreme events. The effect of smoke water on fungal growth. These growth (Jasinge 2014, Zagory & Parmeter 1984). toxic to fungi and inhibit fungal growth by altering the et al 2012) suggesting that fungi from P. despectans had higher tolerance to phenolic compounds. The varying fungal tolerance to phenolic compounds is thought to be due to the quantity or quality of enzymes (laccases) that metabolise these toxins (Jasinge 2014, Zagory & Parmeter 1984) and symbiotic fungi. Foundation and Helen McPherson Smith Trust for grants and funding of this project. Department of Environment and Royal Botanical Gardens and Australasian Native Orchid Society for providing orchid seeds for the germination experiment. Collections permit #10006965.

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et al Pterostylis despectans 173 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. Arditti, J. & Ghani, A. K. A. (2000). Tansley Review No. 110: Numerical and physical properties of orchid seeds and their biological implications. New Phytologist 145(3), 367. Bailarote, B. C., Lievens, B. & Jacquemyn, H. (2012). Does American Journal of Botany 99(10), 1655. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200117 Batty, A., Brundrett, M., Dixon, K. & Sivasithamparam, K. (2006). In situ symbiotic seed germination and propagation of terrestrial orchid seedlings for Australian Journal of Botany 54(4), 375. Batty, A., Dixon, K., Brundrett, M. & Sivasithamparam, K. (2001). Constraints to symbiotic germination of terrestrial orchid seed in a Mediterranean bushland. New Phytologist 152(3), 511. Recovery Plan for Pterostylis despectans Mt Bryan (Lowly Greenhood) Threatened Plants Action Group. Bradshaw, S. D., Dixon, K. W., Hopper, S. D., Lambers, adapted plant traits in Mediterranean climate regions. Trends in Plant Science 16(2), 69. doi:10.1016/j. tplants.2010.10.007 temperate terrestrial orchid conservation. Australian Journal of Botany 55(3), 293. doi:10.1071/ BT06131 Brundrett, M., Scade, A., Batty, A. L., Dixon, K. W. & Sivasithamparam, K. (2003). Development of in situ and ex situ seed baiting techniques to detect mycorrhizal fungi from terrestrial orchid habitats. Mycological Research 107(10), 1210. doi:10.1017/ S0953756203008463 Bustam, B. M., Dixon, K. W. & Bunn, E. (2014). In vitro propagation of temperate Australian terrestrial orchids: Revisiting asymbiotic compared with symbiotic germination. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 176(4), 556. doi:10.1111/boj.12216 J. (2007). Mycorrhizal acquisition of inorganic phosphorus by the green-leaved terrestrial orchid Goodyera repens Annals of Botany 99(5), 831. doi:10.1093/aob/mcm018 Mutualistic mycorrhiza in orchids: Evidence from plant-fungus carbon and nitrogen transfers in the green-leaved terrestrial orchid Goodyera repens New Phytologist 171(2), 405. doi:10.1111/j.14698137.2006.01767.x to Rhizoctonia solani inciting Papaya damping-off. Horticulture NCHU 37(1), 13. Clements, M. (1981). Developments in the symbiotic germination of Australian terrestrial orchids Paper presented at the Proceedings from the 10th World Orchid Conference, Durban, South Africa. Dixon, K. & Tremblay, R. (2009). Biology and natural history of Caladenia Australian Journal of Botany 57(4), 247. doi:10.1071/BT08183 Dixon, K. W., Merritt, D. J., Flematti, G. R. & Ghisalberti, ecological restoration and agriculture. Acta Horticulturae 813 155. Duncan, M. & Coates, F. (2010). National Recovery Plan for Twenty-two Threatened Orchids in South-eastern Australia Melbourne, Australia: Victorian Government Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE). Duncan, M., Pritchard, A. & Coates, F. (2005). Major threats to endangered orchids of Victoria, Australia. Selbyana 26(1,2), 189. Flematti, G. R., Ghisalberti, E. L., Dixon, K. W. & promotes seed germination. Science 305(5686), 977. doi:10.1126/science.1099944 Girlanda, M., Segreto, R., Cafasso, D., Liebel, H. T., Rodda, M., Ercole, E., Cozzolino, S., Gebauer, G. & Perotto, S. (2011). Photosynthetic Mediterranean meadow mycorrhizal associations. American Journal of Botany 98(7), 1148163. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000486 Hajong, S., Kumaria, S. & Tandon, P. (2013). Compatible fungi, suitable medium, and appropriate developmental stage essential for stable association of Dendrobium chrysanthum Journal of Basic Microbiology 53(12), 1025. Son, S. W. (2016). Effects of altering medium strength and sucrose concentration on in vitro germination and seedling growth of Cypripedium macranthos Sw. Journal of Plant Biotechnology 43(1), 132. doi:10.5010/JPB.2016.43.1.132 Huynh, T., Lawrie, A., McLean, C. & Coates, F. (2004). Effect of developmental stage and peloton morphology on success in isolation of mycorrhizal fungi in Caladenia formosa (Orchidaceae). Australian Journal of Botany 52(2), 231. Huynh, T. T., Thomson, R., McLean, C. B. & Lawrie, A. C.

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174 LANKESTERIANA LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. (2009). Functional and genetic diversity of mycorrhizal fungi from single plants of Caladenia formosa (Orchidaceae). Annals of Botany 104(4), 757. doi:10.1093/aob/mcp153 Janes, J., Vaillancourt, R. & Steane, D. (2008). The occurrence and conservation status of Tasmanian Pterostylis (Orchidaceae). Tasmanian Naturalist 130, 86. Jasinge, N. (2014). The effect of seasonal burning on Australian native orchids. (Master Thesis). RMIT University, Melbourne. Jasinge, N., Huynh, T. & Lawrie, A. C. (2018a). Changes in orchid populations and endophytic fungi with rainfall and prescribed burning in Pterostylis revoluta in Victoria, Australia. Annals of Botany, 121, 321. Jasinge, N., Huynh, T. & Lawrie, A. C. (2018b). Consequences of season of prescribed burning on two fungi. Australian Journal of Botany 66, 298. doi: https://doi.org/10.1071/BT17179 green orchid and its mycorrhizal fungus Epulorhiza sp. Biologia Plantarum 54(1), 97 104. doi:10.1007/s10535-010-0014-2 papaya seedling. HortScience 47(10), 1453. Mulgund, G. S. & Nataraja, K. (2011). In vitro seed germination of an epiphytic orchid Xenikophyton smeeanum as a natural growth promoter. International Journal of Biological Technology 2(2), 35. Marsh, H. (2011). Advice to the Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (the Committee) on Amendments to the List of Key Threatening Processes under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 Merritt, D. J., Senaratna, T., Touchell, D. H., Dixon, K. W. & Sivasithamparam, K. (2003). Seed ageing of four Western Australian species in relation to storage environment and seed antioxidant activity. Seed Science Research 13(2), 155. Mulgund, G. S., Meti, N. T., Malabadi, R. B, Nataraja, K. in vitro seed germination of Pholidota pallida Lindl. Research in Plant Biology 2(2), 24. S. & Dixon, K. (2014). Germination responses of four native terrestrial orchids from south-west Western Australia to temperature and light treatments. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 118(3), 559. Retrieved from https://www.environment.nsw.gov. [September 8, 2018]. Pandey, M., Sharma, J., Taylor, D. L. & Yadon, V. L. (2013). A narrowly endemic photosynthetic orchid is Molecular Ecology 22(8), 2341. Papenfus, H. B., Naidoo, D., Pota, M., Finnie, J. F. & Van on in vitro seed germination and development of the leopard orchid Ansellia africana Plant Biology 18(2), 289. doi:10.1111/plb.12374 Parmeter, J. & Uhrenholdt, B. (1975). Some effects of pinePhytopathology 65(1), 28. Phillips, R., Barrett, M., Dixon, K. & Hopper, S. (2011). Do Journal of Ecology 99(3), 858. Phillips, R., Scaccabarozzi, D., Retter, B., Hayes, C., by fungus gnats in Pterostylis (Orchidaceae). Annals of Botany, 113(4), 629. Rasmussen, H. N. (1995). Terrestrial orchids from seed to mycotrophic plant Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. T. (2015). Germination and seedling establishment in orchids: A complex of requirements. Annals of Botany 116(3), 391. doi:10.1093/aob/mcv087 Swarts, N. D., Sinclair, E. A., Francis, A. & Dixon, K. W. (2010). Ecological specialization in mycorrhizal symbiosis leads to rarity in an endangered orchid. Molecular Ecology 19(15), 3226. doi:10.1111/ j.1365-294X.2010.04736.x in vitro Cymbidium Journal of Plant Development 20, 63. Tieu, A., Dixon, K. W., Meney, K. A. & Sivasithamparam, K. of seed dormancy in seven species from southwestern western Australia. Annals of Botany 88(2), 259. Wright, M. (2007). Maximising the effectiveness of mycorrhizal fungi in the conservation of Caladenia taxa (Orchidaceae) (PhD Thesis). The University of Melbourne, Victoria. Wright, M., Cross, R., Cousens, R., May, T. & McLean, Caladenia tentaculata of genetic and geographic variation in the mycorrhizal fungus Sebacina vermifera

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. s. lat. complex. Muelleria 29(2), 130. Wright, M., Cross, R., Dixon, K., Huynh, T., Lawrie, A., Nesbitt, L., Pritchard, A., Swarts, N. & Thomson, R. (2009). Propagation and reintroduction of Caladenia Australian Journal of Botany 57(4), 373. Wright, M. M., Cross, R., Cousens, R. D., May, T. W. & McLean, C. B. (2010). Taxonomic and functional characterisation of fungi from the Sebacina vermifera complex from common and rare orchids in the genus Caladenia Mycorrhiza 20(6), 375. doi:10.1007/ s00572-009-0290-x Wright, M., Cousen, R. D., May, T. W & McLean, C. B. Caladenia tentaculata of genetic and geographic variation in the mycorrhizal fungus Sebacina vermifera s. lat. complex. Muelleria 29(2), 130.Zagory, The American Phytopathological Society 74(9), 1027. et al Pterostylis despectans 175

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3): 177 2018. A NEW SPECIES OF ANATHALLIS (ORCHIDACEAE: PLEUROTHALLIDINAE) FROM BRAZIL A. L. V. TOSCANO DE BRIT O 1, 2 1 Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South Palm Avenue, Sarasota, FL 34236-7726, U.S.A. E-mail: atoscano@selby.org 2 Orchid Herbarium of Oakes Ames, Harvard University Herbaria, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 20138, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Anathallis luteola is newly described and illustrated from the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil. It is similar to A. guarujaensis KEY WORDS : Bahia, Brazilian Atlantic forest, taxonomy Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Costa Rica License doi Introduction The genus Anathallis Barb.Rodr. American in distribution. According to Brazilian Anathallis are found in Brazil, of which 76 are endemic. recently transferred to Stelis Sw. (Chiron, Guiard & van den Berg 2012, Karremans 2014) and to Lankesteriana not yet listed in Brazilian Flora 2020 (Chiron, Guiard & Bolsanello 2013, Krahl et al. 2016) and excluding a number of obscure names and synonyms, the current Anathallis taxonomic revision of the Brazilian Anathallis an described and illustrated. Anathallis luteola Toscano, sp. nov obtained from a collector, cultivated by Maria Rita A. Toscano de Brito 3352 DI A GNOSIS by very short ramicauls, thickly coriaceous leaves, and two orange-yellow or greenish-yellow successive A. guarujaensis (Hoehne) F. Barros from which it is Plant to ca. Roots thick. Ramicaul enclosed by 2 evanescent sheaths. Leaf to subacute, minutely tridenticulate. 1 to several successive racemes that emerge from an annulus below the abscission layer, shorter than the Floral bract Flowers 1.0 mm long; sepals translucent greenish-yellow or orange-yellow, glabrous, 3-veined, acute, the dorsal slightly ovate-lanceolate, slightly concave and curved oblong-lanceolate, shortly connate at base, forming a

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LANKESTERIANA 18(1). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 178 LANKESTERIANA shallow mentum with the column-foot; petals same lip FIGURE 1. Anathallis luteola A. Toscano de Brito 3352 UPCB).

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TOSCANO DE BRIT O New Anathallis from Brazil. 179 LANKESTERIANA 18(1). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. FIGURE 2. Anathallis luteola. A. Toscano de Brito 3458. B. Habit, based on A. Toscano de Brito 3352. slightly arcuate, the base minutely lobed at the angles, hinged to the column-foot, the disc unnoticeably channeled in the middle, the channel running from below the middle, minute, glabrous, obtuse, erect, the recurved; column yellow-white anther, semiterete, concave abaxially, the foot, broadly winged above the middle, shortly and stigma ventral. DISTRIBUTION : So far known to occur in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil. ETYMOLOGY adjective luteolus ADDITIONAL SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Brazil. Bahia: Without A. Toscano de Brito 3458 (UPCB); same collection data, A. Toscano de Brito 3458-A (UPCB). Maracs, Pedra da Fazenda Canabrava, 977 m, 16 June 2018, C. van den Berg & S. M. Oliveira 2826 (HUEFS [not seen], Anathallis luteola resembles A. guarujaensis A. luteola smaller, sometimes about half the size of those in A. guarujaensis

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 180 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 3. Anathallis guarujaensis. University Herbaria.

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glabrous. In A. guarujaensis A. luteola At lobules are found, a lobule on each angle. These are easily overlooked and were omitted in the illustration A. guarujaensis F. C. Hoehne s.n. A. guarujaensis which are illustrated as 3-veined, but they were found collection examined of A. guarujaensis ( C. Luer 21146, et al. A. guarujaensis of Caraguatatuba, state of So Paulo, in southeast A. guarujaensis Anathallis luteola was originally collected in it was collected again in Bahia, this time in the dry Atlantic forests of Maracs, southwest of the state. readily recognized from all others in the genus, and for this reason we do not hesitate to describe it as new. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS to an inventory and an understanding of evolution, ecology taxonmicos em Pleurothallidinae e Oncidiinae clado and Irina Ferrera for their assistance during my visits to the Orchid Herbarium of Oakes Ames (AMES), Harvard my visits; Wade Collier and Nancy Karam, volunteers at illustrations, and the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens for van der Berg (HUEFS) for sending images of his recent collection from Maracs. TOSCANO DE BRIT O New Anathallis from Brazil. 181 LANKESTERIANA 183). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. LITERATURE CITED Chiron, G. R., Guiard, J. & Bolsanello, R. X. (2013). Richardiana 13, 210. Pleurothallis sensu lato Phytotaxa Karremans, A. P. (2014). Lankesteriana a new genus in the Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae). Lankesteriana 13(3), 319. Lankesteriana Lindleyana in Orchids (West Palm Beach) Karremans, A. P. (2016). Genera Pleurothallidinarum Lankesteriana 16(2), 219. Anathallis manausensis (Orchidaceae, Pleurothallidinae), Phytotaxa Miranda, M. R., Menini Neto, L., Jesus, F. J. & Chiron, G. R. (2014). Anathallis guarujaensis (Orchidaceae, Pleurothallidinae): Richardiana

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3): 183 2018. THE FOUR F OOTED LEPANTHES (PLEUROTHALLIDINAE), A NEW SPECIES FROM NORTH-WESTERN ECUADOR LUIS E. BAQUERO 1,2,4 JUAN SEBASTIN MORENO 3 & GABRIEL ALFREDO ITURRALDE 1 1 Carrera de Ingeniera Agroindustrial y Alimentos. Facultad de Ingeniera y Ciencias Agropecuarias, Grupo de Investigacin en Biodiversidad Medio Ambiente y Salud BIOMAS Universidad de Las Amricas, Calle Jos Queri, Quito 170137, Pichincha, Ecuador 2 Jardn Botnico de Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador 3 Fundacin Ecotonos, Cali, Colombia 4 Author for correspondence: lbaquero@hotmail.com ABSTRACT A new species of Lepanthes closely resembling L. hexapus and L. aguirrei, is described and L. bibarbullata is presented herein RESUMEN Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Lepanthes, cercanamente relacionada a L. hexapus y L. aguirrei L. bibarbullata. KEY WORDS : Ecuador, Lepanthes hexapus new Lepanthes Orchidaceae, petal lobe Received 26 July 2018; accepted for publication 13 October 2018. First published online: 24 October 2018 Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Costa Rica License doi Introduction With more than 1,100 species, Lepanthes Sw is one of the Noetropical genera in the Orchidaceae with most accepted species together with Stelis Sw. (Karremans 2016). New species are being discovered frequently (Jrgensen & Leon-Yanez et al. 2017, Pupulin & Bogarin 2012). Some species in the genus show a wide distribution range while others are endemic to restricted localities (Baquero 2018, Moreno et al. 2017). Species of Lepanthes are recognized by the ramicauls enclosed by commonly ciliated lepanthiform sheaths, the petals that has a body which connects to a pair of blades the base of the lip a small structure, present in most of has been traditionally used as a morphological trait which helps to distinguish among different species in the genus, and its importance in Lepanthes pollination Blanco and Barboza (2005). of lobes in the petals and the shape of the lip, can also help to distinguish among species in Lepanthes Based on the number of petals and lips lobes, some species of Lepanthes have received suggestive names, Lepanthes pentoxys Luer, Lepanthes hexapus Luer & Escobar, Lepanthes heptapus Luer & Escobar and Lepanthes octopus A rich species area of Lepanthes is located in Carchi province, Ecuador, very close to the limit with Imbabura and Esmeraldas provinces. In this region, a new species has been discovered. It is described and compared here with an informal group of species within the genus, that shares similar morphological Lepanthes tetrapus Baquero & J.S.Moreno, sp. nov. (Fig. 1). TYPE: Ecuador. Carchi: north-west of Lita, 0 24.42.0N 78.28W, 754 m, 08.03.2017, L. Baquero et al. LB 3112 (holotype, QCNE). Diagnosis: Lepanthes tetrapus is vegetatively and L. hexapus from which it differs by

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 184 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 1. Lepanthes tetrapus Baquero & J.S.Moreno. A. Plant and Habit. B. Flower view in position. C. Flower dissected. D. Column and lip detail. E. Lip detail. F. Pollinarium. Line-draw by Juan Sebastin Moreno.

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BAQUERO et al. The four-footed Lepanthes from Ecuador 185 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. three. Epiphytic, caespitose, erect to suberect herb Roots Ramicauls erect, ciliate, ovate, acuminate and slightly dilated. Leaves erect, coriaceous, elliptic-ovate, subacute, light green, prominently reticulated along the veins, veined in purple, 1.0.0 0.6.0 cm, the base cuneate into a petiole 1 mm long. a congested, developed above the leaf, shorter or as long as the leaves, up to 1.8 cm long; peduncle terete, 0.6 cm long. Floral bracts acute, 0.8 mm long. Pedicels 1.5 mm long, persistent. Ovary to 1 mm long, glabrous. Sepals yellowish green suffused with brown-red veins. Dorsal sepal free, obovate, obtuse, acuminate, slightly concave, 3-veined, 3.0.3 1.5.7 mm, the margins minutely denticulate. Lateral sepals obovate, acuminate, slightly concave, 2-veined, 3.0.3 1.5 1.6 mm, connate for 0.5 mm. Petals FIGURE 2. Lepanthes tetrapus in situ. Photos by Luis E. Baquero.

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0.5 mm, the lobes equal in size and shape, falcateciliate along the margins. Lip purple, orange towards the margin, bilaminate, the blades narrowly ovate towards the column, 2.5.7 mm long, ciliate along the margins; the connectives cuneate, oblong, the Column cylindric, to 1.5 mm long, the anther and the stigma apical. Pollinia Anther cap magenta, obovate. ETYMOLOGY due to the four Lepanthes tetrapus is very similar in habit and L. hexapus and L. aguirrei Luer (Fig. 3). Both species, L. hexapus and L. aguirrei, have erect sepals and trifurcate petals, and plants which are small for the genus. Nevertheless, the two species differ in the size of the plants (taller in L. aguirrei, with ramicauls reaching 4.5 cm vs 2 cm long in L. hexapus ) L. aguirrei and acute in L. hexapus Lepanthes tetrapus is similar to both species, sharing all the characteristics each petal instead of three. Due to the characteristic Lepanthes international alert symbol (Fig. 2). This similarity might visually help to immediately distinguish L. tetrapus from any other species in the genus. DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY from a low elevation cloud-forest close to Lita, where the species in the province of Esmeraldas. It is found growing with several other species of Lepanthes including Luer & Hirtz, L. saltatrix Luer & Hirtz, L. tentaculata Luer & Hirtz, L. scrotifera Luer & Hirtz and L. bibarbullata Luer. Lepanthes tetrapus L. hexapus and has not been observed at elevations higher than 800 m (Fig. 4). Lepanthes bibarbullata Luer locality from a specimen obtained from J&L Orchids Lepanthes bibarbullata Luer, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88: 87, f. 310. 2002. TYPE: Ecuador. Without locality: cultivated by J&L C. Luer 19440 (holotype, MO). SPECIMEN STUDIED : Ecuador. Carchi: north-west of Lita, 0.42.0N 78.28W, 754 m, 08.03.2017, L. Baquero et al. LB 3113 (QCNE) (Fig. 4A). LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 186 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 3. Comparison of Lepanthes tetrapus Baquero & J.S.Moreno and two similar species. A. Lepanthes tetrapus Baquero & J.S.Moreno. B. Lepanthes hexapus Luer & Escobar. C. Lepanthes aguirrei Luer. Photos by Luis E. Baquero (AB) and Sebastin Vieira-Uribe (C).

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BAQUERO et al. The four-footed Lepanthes from Ecuador 187 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. Las Americas (UDLA) for funding research on orchids his photo of Lepanthes aguirrei used in this paper. Luis E. in several trips made for obtaining plants and data from the new species in situ and his enthusiasm in the orchid world. for issuing the Environmental Research Permit No. 008-2016-IC-FLO-DNB/MA. FIGURE 4. Lepanthes bibarbullata Luer and some sympatric species in the genus. A. Lepanthes bibarbullata Luer. B. Lepanthes tetrapus Baquero & J.S.Moreno. C. Lepanthes saltatrix Luer & Hirtz. D. Lepanthes tentaculata Luer & Hirtz. E. Luer & Hirtz. Photos by Luis E. Baquero. LITERATURE CITED Baquero R., L. E. (2018). A new species of Lepanthes (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from northwestern Ecuador. Phytotaxa 343(1), 75 Blanco, M. A. & Barboza, G. (2005). Pseudocopulatory pollination in Lepanthes (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) by fungus gnats. Annals of Botany Dodson, C. H. (2004). Native Ecuadorian Orchids II: Dresslerella-Lepanthes Quito, Ecuador: Imprenta Mariscal. Catlogo de las plantas vasculares del Ecuador, Volume 75 St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Karremans, A. P. (2016). Genera Pleurothallidinarum : an updated phylogenetic overview of Pleurothallidinae Lankesteriana

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LANKESTERIANA LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 188 Icones Pleurothallidinarum XIV. Systematics of Draconanthes, Lepanthes subgenus Marsipanthes and subgenus Lepanthes of Ecuador. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 61, 1. Luer, C. A. (2002). Icones Pleurothallidinarum Stelis of Ecuador. Part One. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden Luer, C. A. (2010). Icones Pleurothallidinarum XXXI: Lepanthes of Bolivia. Systematics of Octomeria species north and west of Brazil. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 120, 145. Luer, C. A. & Thoerle, L. (2012) Icones Pleurothallidinarum XXXII: Lepanthes of Colombia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden Moreno, J. S., Vieira-Uribe, S. & Karremans, A. (2017). A new species of Lepanthes (Orchidaceae) from Colombia with a large and protruding column. Lankesteriana 17(2), 227. doi: https://doi.org/10.15517/ Pupulin, F. & Bogarn, D. (2012). Lepanthes novae Tapantienses Orchid Digest

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3): 189 2018. SPECIALIZED HERBIVORY ON INFLORESCENCE STALKS OF TRICHOCENTRUM UNDULATUM (ORCHIDACEAE) BY MELANAGROMYZA SP. (DIPTERA: AGROMYZIDAE) IN CUBA HAYDEE BORRERO 1,2 JULIO C. ALVAREZ 3 RAMONA O. PRIETO 3 & HONG LIU 1,2,4 1 Florida International University, Department of Earth and Environment and International Center for Tropical Botany, Miami, 33199, U.S.A. 2 Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Coral Gables, 33156, U.S.A. 3 The Institute of Ecology and Systematics, National Herbarium Onaney Muiz, Havana, Cuba 4 ABSTRACT Trichocentrum undulatum ) has been observed in Cuba, which resembles the specialized herbivory interaction seen in southern Florida between a specialized dipteran, Melanagromyza miamensis (Agromyzidae) and the Mule Ear orchid. We are able to identify the Melanagromyza It is possibly the same species that can be found in southern Florida. The mule-ear orchid is endemic to the Caribbean region, i.e. Cuba, Jamaica and southern KEY WORDS : Agromizid, Cape-sable orchid, Florida endangered orchid, Oncidiinae, orchid herbivory Received 5 July 2018; accepted for publication 9 October 2018. First published online: 29 October 2018 Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Costa Rica License doi Introduction Trichocentrum undulatum (Sw.) whose distribution extends from Jamaica, Cuba and in southern Florida is the northernmost limit of the species and is the only mainland North American population. In southern Florida, T. undulatum is rare and only found in a restricted area of coastal salt marsh found growing only on buttonwood trees ( Conocarpus erectus L.). This Florida population is Melanagromyza miamensis Spencer. Such herbivory has not previously been reported beyond southern The dipteran genus Melanagromyza (Agromyzidae) consists of over 300 species and is within plant tissues (Spencer 1990). Herein we report T. undulatum observed in four provinces within Cuba (Artemisa, Cienfuegos, Matanzas, and Sancti Spiritus). Methodology Trichocentrum undulatum can be found within every province of Cuba, in different habitats, and growing on a diversity of phorophyte hosts. Four populations of T. undulatum were visited in Cuba in the provinces of Artemisa, Cienfuegos, Matanzas, and Sancti Spiritus during the summers of 2016 and 2017. Transects were laid out within forest of four transects were made at four wild populations in the Artemisa (one transect) and Matanzas (three evaluated and collected for herbivore presence at Macradenia Orchid Garden in Cienfuegos province and Comunidad 23 Orchid Garden in Sancti Spiritus province. For every T. undulatum plant encountered on the transect, a search for other plants was made within between 20 to 100 meters, depending on the forest

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 190 LANKESTERIANA holes were examined and any pupal casings found were photographed. Results T. undulatum was captured, larval casing characteristics were used to determine that the herbivores affecting T. undulatum within Cuba are a Melanagromyza species. Pupal casings were extracted the description of the genus Melanagromyza by having two sclerotized plates with pronounced bulbs atop the plates with a protruding horn in the center (Fig. (Scheffer pers. comm. 2017). Exit holes found on the southern Florida population (Fig. 2). No other Diptera or fruits of T. undulatum A total of 391 plants were located in the transects between the 2016 and 2017 surveys. Of these, 149 Melanagromyza sp. presence was 48% (72 plants). The number of dipteran casing presence. Melanagromyza sp., we observed fruit in both 2016 (two fruit out of holes and boring architecture were deposited at the Onaney Muiz National Herbarium from the Institute of Ecology and Systematics, Havana, Cuba. Discussion T. undulatum by an nature of the Agromyzidae family (Spencer 1990), it is possible that the observed Melanagromyza in Cuba is the same species as that found in southern Florida, but this requires further taxonomical study by a specialist. Melanagromyza sp. has only been observed in the T. undulatum and not on any other orchid species in the surrounding areas assessed in Cuba and southern Florida (Borrero unpubl. 2017). In southern Florida, herbivory intensity by M. miamensis was 100% between 2014 and 2015 in the largest FIGURE 1. Pupal casings of a Melanagromyza sp. found The sclerotized plate with the doubled horns are apparent and particular for the genus. FIGURE 2. A. Exit holes made to accommodate the emergence of Trichocentrum undulatum in Matanzas province, Cuba 2016. B. Exit holes made from emerging adult Melanagromyza miamensis from a T. undulatum

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BORRERO et al Specialized herbivory on Trichocentrum undulatum 191 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. T. undulatum population within the Everglades and subsequently, limited fruit/seed production (Gann et al 2009, Borrero unpubl. 2017). In contrast, only Melanagromyza sp. herbivory between 2016 and 2017. Florida could indicate that different biological and ecological factors exist between populations. Study is on-going in comparing the demography and ecology between the orchid populations in South Florida and Cuba. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS International Universitys International Center for Tropical Leyani Caballero Tihert, Ernesto Mjica, Ester Lidia Santa Francisco Ortega, and Jimi Sadle. LITERATURE CITED . 109 New Rare plant monitoring and restoration on Long Pine 5. Miami: The Institute for Regional Conservation. Retrieved from https://regionalconservation.org/ircs/ dilemma. 7(1), 141. doi: https:// assoc.htm. FIGURE Melanagromyza sp. herbivory was evident.

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. of Florida with a supplement on species from the Caribbean. 7, 1. Washington D.C.: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 192 LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3): 193 2018. THE GENUS PALMORCHIS (ORCHIDACEAE: NEOTTIAE) IN PERU: A TAXONOMIC SYNOPSIS INCLUDING FOUR NEW SPECIES AND A NEW RECORD ALEXANDER DAMIN PARIZACA 1,2,4 & LUIS A. TORRES MONTENEGRO 3 1 2 3 ABSTRACT Palmorchis P. blancae, P. liberolabellata, P. loretana and P. yavarensis P. imuyaensis Palmorchis RESUMEN Palmorchis (P. yavarensis, P. blancae, P. liberolabellata y P. loretana) P. imuyaensis) Palmorchis KEY WORDS Palmorchis doi Introduction Palmorchis Palmorchis pubescens and Palmorchis sobralioides Geonoma et al. et al. (1993a,b), Palmorchis Palmorchis et al. Palmorchis Palmorchis Palmorchis tribe Neottieae (Chase et al Palmorchis Neobartlettia lobulata P. lobulata

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. LANKESTERIANA FIGURE Palmorchis lobulata

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DAMIN PARIZACA and TORRES MONTENEGRRO Palmorchis LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 1. Palmorchis blancae sp. nov B. Leon & I. Bohorquez 895 P. nitida vs vs vs Herb Roots slender, 0.23 cm wide. Stems Leaves Floral bracts Peduncle Dorsal sepal 11 Lateral sepals Lip Column anther aguajales ). Until P. lobulata Palmorchis Palmorchis Palmorchis et al. in situ Taxonomic treatment KEY T O THE PERUVIAN SPECIES OF PALMORCHIS P. imuyaensis P. yavarensis P. liberolabellata P. blancae P. lobulata P. loretana

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 196 LANKESTERIANA

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pollinia stigma Fruit DISTRIBUTION : ETYMOLOGY : P. blancae Palmorchis P. nitida and P. vs vs vs Palmorchis puber vs 2. Palmorchis imuyaensis C.H. Dodson & G.A. Romero 18922 Palmorchis imuyaensis P. puber ( vs vs vs DISTRIBUTION : DAMIN PARIZACA and TORRES MONTENEGRRO Palmorchis 197 FIGURE Palmorchis. Palmorchis yavarensis H. Beltrn et al 5698 I. Huamantupa 14065 Palmorchis imuyaensis Damin & Mitidieri 4040 Palmorchis loretana M. Ros et al. 4268 FIGURE 3. Palmorchis blancae B. Len & I. Bohorquez 895 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018.

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 198 LANKESTERIANA TABLE Palmorchis Character Palmorchis blancae Palmorchis imuyaensis Palmorchis liberolabellata Palmorchis lobulata Palmorchis loretana Palmorchis yavarensis Plant size (cm) 55 30 40 50 40 50 Leaf shape broadly elliptic narrowly elliptic broadly elliptic elliptic to ovateelliptic oblong-elliptic broadly elliptic to obovate Leaf size (cm) 15 6 13 1.5.0 37 7 24.0 9.0 9 3.0.9 65 101 Leaf veins 5 3 5 7 5 5 terminal terminal lateral terminal terminal terminal Flowers unknown white with blue lip green-yellowish yellowish green pale yellowishgreen, purple lip yellowish with red lines lip Sepals size (mm) 101 1.5.0 8 2 8 2 13 2.5 6 1 27 2 Petals (mm) 10 2 9.5 2.5 8.0.5 2.0 11 2 5 1 22 2 Lip size (mm) 10 4 9.0 4.5 8 5 10 6 5 3 23 8 Lip shape obovate, 3-lobed, midlobe rounded spathulate, 3-lobed, midlobe ovate obovate, 3-lobed, midlobe bilobulate obtriangular, 3-lobed, midlobe triangular obtriangular, 3-lobed, midlobe triangular oblanceolate, 3-lobed, midlobe long Lip callus 5 thickened veins v-shaped 5 thickened veins subquadrate cushion-like 2 parallel tall 3 thickened veins, with a furrow in the midlobe Column (mm) 8 mm, densely pubescent below the middle 10mm, densely pubescent 10 mm, shortly pubescent near the base 11 mm, densely pubescent 8 mm, densely pubescent 15 mm, densely pubescent FIGURE Palmorchis imuyaensis Damin & Mitidieri 4040

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DAMIN PARIZACA and TORRES MONTENEGRRO Palmorchis 199 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. SPECIMENS EXAMINED : A. Damin, N. Mitidieri, R. Cahuachi & M. Segundo 4040 13.0 vs 16.0 9.0 2.0.0 mm ( vs 10.0 vs Palmorchis 3. Palmorchis liberolabellata sp. nov. 11 H. Beltr n, W. Nauray, R. De la Colina, L. Acurio, J. Tenteyo 3204 Palmorchis liberolabellata P. prospectorum vs vs vs vs Herb Roots Stems Leaves cm wide. Peduncle Flowers bracts cm wide. Pedicel and ovary Dorsal FIGURE Palmorchis liberolabellata H. Beltrn

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 200 LANKESTERIANA sepal Lateral sepals 2 mm wide. Petals Lip Column anther pollinia stigma Fruit seen. DISTRIBUTION : ETYMOLOGY : Palmorchis P. liberolabellata P. prospectorum P. liberolabellata P. prospectorum P. liberolabellata Guadua sarcocarpa Palmorchis deceptoria P. powellii Palmorchis P. liberolabellata P. powellii P. liberolabellata P. powellii the middle P. liberolabellata P. deceptoria midvein, while P. powellii and P. liberolabellata bear Palmorchis deceptoria is P. powellii with dense shade. Palmorchis lobulata 113). Neobarlettia lobulata G. Tessmann 4518 et al. Palmorchis lobulata P. guianensis vs vs vs vs DISTRIBUTION : ADDITIONAL SPECIMENS EXAMINED J. Schunke 1652 F J. Schunke 2517 1968, J. Schunke 2693

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DAMIN PARIZACA and TORRES MONTENEGRRO Palmorchis 201 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. Graham & Schunke 809 P. lobulata lobo medio brevi triangulari P. lobulata are scarce, Graham & Schunke 809 ( vs vs vs Palmorchis loretana sp. nov. M. R os, T. Mori, N. Pitman, L. Torres & C. Vriesendorp 4268 Palmorchis loretana P. sobralioides vs vs ( vs vs herb Roots Stems Leaves FIGURE 6. Palmorchis lobulata Graham & Schunke 809

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 202 LANKESTERIANA Floral bracts 12 Flowers small. Dorsal sepal Lateral sepals Petals Lip Column pollinia stigma Fruit PARATYPE Huamantupa, Z.Cordero, N.Pitman & R. Garcia 14698B ETYMOLOGY : DISTRIBUTION et al et al ADDITIONAL SPECIMENS EXAMINED : FIGURE 7. Palmorchis loretana M. Ros et al. 4268

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DAMIN PARIZACA and TORRES MONTENEGRRO Palmorchis 203 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. J. E. Lawesson, T.Lassoe & P. M. Jorgensen 43445 A. Ducke 14663 Kinupp, V.F. & Pereira F.N. 2015 P. loretana P. sobralioides P. loretana P. loretana has a P. sobralioides P. loretana Palmorchis P. silvicola P. powellii P. sobralioides ( Lawesson et al. 43445 P. imuyaensis P. sobralioides P. loretana P. sobralioides et al. vs P. loretana ). 6. Palmorchis yavarensis sp. nov. H. Bel trn, R. Foster, N. Pitman, R. Garca, C. Vriesendorp & M. Ahuite 5698 Palmorchis yavarensis P. maguirrei vs vs vs H erb 60 cm tall. Roots Stems 0.8 cm in diameter, with 8 leaves. Leaves terminal, 8.0 Peduncle Flowers Floral bracts Pedicel and ovary 9 mm Sepals Petals Lip Column Anther pollinia stigma fruit n.

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 8. Palmorchis yavarensis ( H. Beltran et al. 5698 PA R AT Y P ES 2010. I. Huamantupa, Z. Cordero, N. Pitman & R. Garcia 14065 J. Schunke & J. G. Graham 16290 ETYMOLOGY DISTRIBUTION Palmorchis yavarensis P. carlos-parrae and P. maguirrei, P. yavarensis Palmorchis carlos-parrae Palmorchis yavarensis P. yavarensis has P. carlos-parrae Palmorchis et al. et al.

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DAMIN PARIZACA and TORRES MONTENEGRRO Palmorchis LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. et al. P. yavarensis. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Vanilla P. imuyaensis Vanilla LITERATURE CITED Genera et Species Orchidearum Novarum, Vol I Monographs in Systematic Botany of the Missouri Botanical Garden 69 In Orchid conservation: a global perspective In Flora brasiliensis Icones Plantarum Tropicarum 2, 101. Lindleyana 193. Palmorchis Orquidea FIGURE Palmorchis.

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213. Field guide to the orchids of Costa Rica and Panama orchid family Plantas llamativas del Yavar Flora of Ecuador In Per: Yaguas-Cotuh World checklist of Orchidaceae Orchids: status survey and conservation action plan Palmorchis Flora Brasilica 12(2), 203. Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 10, 237. In Per: Yavar Genera Orchidacearum. Volume 4. Epidendroideae (Part One) (1999). Amaznia Central. The Primitive Epidendroideae (Orchidaceae): Phylogeny, character evolution and the system of Psilochilus (Triphoreae) Palmorchis Phyton Palmorchis Systematic Botany Palmorchis 8, 10919. In Per: Tapiche-Blanco LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 206 LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3): 207 2018. FIRST WILD RECORD OF DENDROCHILUM WARRENII (ORCHIDACEAE: EPIDENDROIDEAE) CONFIRMS A PHILIPPINE PROVENANCE MARK ARCEBAL K. NAIVE 1,5 & BARBARA GRAVENDEEL 2,3,4 1 Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, Mindanao State UniversityIligan Institute of Technology, Andres Bonifacio Ave, Iligan City, 9200 Lanao del Norte, Philippines 2 Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Endless Forms, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands 3 University of Applied Sciences Leiden, 2333 CK Leiden, The Netherlands 4 Institute Biology Leiden, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands 5 Corresponding author: arciinaive19@gmail.com ABSTRACT Recent explorations on one of the mountains of the Bukidnon province on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines resulted in a wild collection of Dendrochilum warrenii an Orchidaceae species described in 2004 from a cultivated plant of unknown provenance. In this publication, an extended species description along phenology of the species in the wild is also provided KEY WORDS : Coelogyninae, Mindanao, sect. Platyclinis taxonomy, tropical botany Received 10 October 2018; accepted for publication 8 November 2018. First published online: 21 November 2018 Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Costa Rica License doi : https://doi.org/10.15517/lank.v18i3.35249 Introduction Described by Blume in 1825, the genus Dendrochilum belonging to the subfamily Epidendroideae, is a largely Malesian orchid genus encompassing over 280 species (Sulistyo et al 2015, Ormerod 2017). With approximately 120 known species, the Philippines are considered as a center of diversity for this genus (Cootes 2011, Pelser et al. 2011). Given that most Dendrochilum species are restricted to cool, humid, and often exposed conditions in montane forests with an unusually high share of narrow endemism (Pedersen 2007a), it is believed that there are still a number species awaiting discovery and description, especially in Mindanao, as this island is composed of a number of high mountains which are relatively unexplored botanically ( e.g. Cootes 2017, Naive et al 2017). Fresh materials of an interesting but unknown Dendrochilum the section Platyclinis because of the synanthous and an apical wing on the column, was collected Bukidnon on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines in June 2017. After meticulous examination of its morphology and comparison with protologues and digitized type specimens of Dendrochilum sect. Platyclinis species from the Philippines (JSTOR 2018) and neighbouring countries, we found the material matches with Dendrochilum warrenii H.A.Pedersen & at the European Orchid Conference in London by Blair Sibun (Pedersen et al 2004). It was then described by Pedersen and Gravendeel in 2004 based on a specimen in cultivation provided by Richard C. Warren (after whom the species was named), with unknown provenance. Based on moleclar phylogenetic analyses, these authors hypothesized that the species could be originating from the Philippines and/or Sulawesi (Pedersen et al 2004, Sulistyo et al 2015). D. warrenii origin. An extended species description based on this knowledge is provided together with color photographs Materials and methods Fresh plant material was collected during a botanical excursion in June 2017 in the Bukidnon province of the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. A spirit collection was deposited in the

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 208 LANKESTERIANA University of Santo Tomas Herbarium (USTH). Our descriptions of vegetative and reproductive characters are based on living plants and the spirit collection. The species description follows the style of Pedersen (2011) using general plant terminology of Beentje (2016). Below, we provide a detailed description and colored photographs as well as notes on the distribution, phenology, and ecology in the wild. TAXONOMIC TREATMENT Dendrochilum warrenii H.A.Pedersen & Gravend., Blumea 49: 358. 2004. TYPE: Warren EQ 3066 (holotypus C), sine loco et coll./cult. Richard C. Warren anno 2003. Fig. 1. Small, tufted, epiphytic herb Roots arising from the rhizome, 1.0.5 mm in diameter, unbranched. Pseudobulbs clustered on a very short rhizome, fusiform, 1.0.1 cm long by 0.4.5 cm in diameter, unifoliate, covered with 1 tubular, attenuate to acuminate, papery cataphylls which soon disintegrate Leaf petiolate; petiole up to 1 cm long, distinctly canaliculate; lamina dorsiventrally complanate, coriaceous, narrowly linear, 10.0 10.2 cm long by 0.1.2 cm wide, with prominent midrib, margin entire, apex subacute. synanthous, racemose; peduncle straight to arching, up to 10.5 cm long, terete, very slender; rachis nodding ca 2 mm, slightly furrowed, 3.0.5 cm long, basally with Flowers white to greenish white; persistent, glumaceous, lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, 5 mm long by 2.0.1 mm wide, papery, striate, many veined, margin entire, apex acuminate. Dorsal sepal 3-veined, linear, 6.0.1 mm long by 1 mm wide, incurved, margin entire, apex acute to attenuate. Lateral sepals 3-veined, linear, 6.5.6 mm long by 2.7.0 mm wide, glabrous on both sides, margin entire, apex acuminate. Petals 3-veined, narrowly lanceolate, 4.4.5 mm long by apex subacute. Labellum 3-veined, sessile, lanceolate, 2.0.2 mm long by 1.0.1 mm wide, glabrous on Column short, subclavate, slightly incurved, 1.0.1 mm long, glabrous, distally prolonged into a bidentate wing exceeding the anther; stelidia inconspicuous, two, erect, margin entire, apex obtuse. Pollinia four, subpyriform. Rostellum Ovary (including pedicel) semiterete, ca 2.2 mm long, glabrous. Capsule not seen. DISTRIBUTION : The Philippines, Mindanao, province of Bukidnon. ECOLOGY : The species grows as an epiphyte at elevations approximately between 1,000 to 1,200 m asl among mosses on the trunks and branches of trees under shaded to slightly lit conditions in montane broad leaf forest. PHENOLOGY months of June and July. CONSERVATION STATUS : Following IUCN (2017), we species with only limited distributional data and no information on population size, trends or threats to the species in the wild. SPECIMEN EXAMINED : PHILIPPINES. Mindanao: Bukidnon, elevation 1,200 m asl, 25 June 2017, M.A.K. Naive 101 (USTH, spirit material) Full locality data are withheld to prevent potential exploitation of wild populations for commercial purposes; Warren EQ 3066 (holotypus C), sine loco et coll./cult. Richard C. Warren anno 2003. Following the publication of protologues based on cultivated material since 2000, D. warrenii is the sixth species of Dendrochilum located in the wild. Earlier on, wild plants of D. coccineum H.A.Pedersen & Gravend. (Pedersen et al. 2004), D. croceum H.A.Pedersen (Pedersen 2005), D. quinquecallosum H.A.Pedersen (Pedersen 2007b), D. undulatum H.A.Pedersen (Pedersen 2007b) and D. hampelii Sulistyo, Gravend., R.Boos & Cootes (Sulistyo et al. 2015) were discovered in ( D. warrenii D. hampelii) before their formal taxonomic descriptions were published. Following recommendations by Pedersen (2011) and Sulistyo et al. (2015), we rechecked The International Orchid Register (accessed on 16 September 2018) to

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NAIVE & GRAVENDEEL First wild record of Dendrochilum warrenii 209 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. FIGURE 1. In situ photograph of Dendrochilum warrenii described but the latest addition for Dendrochilum was from 2000. Finding this species in the wild in a remote and pristine montane rainforest, together with the congruent molecular phylogenetic positions provided by biparentally inherited nuclear genes and maternally inherited plastid genes and distinct single peaks in all chromatograms (Pedersen et al 2004, Sulistyo et al 2015, Pedersen et al in prep.) convinces us that D. warrenii is not of human assisted hybrid origin. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We wish to thank the students of Bukidnon National High School in Malaybalay in the Philippines together with their adviser Mrs. Irene Escrupulo excursions. LITERATURE CITED Beentje, H. (2016). The Kew Plant Glossary, an illustrated dictionary of plant terms (Second edition) Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Kew Publishing. Cootes, J. (2011). Philippine native orchid specie s. Quezon City: Katha Publishing Co. Cootes, J. (2017). Dendrochilum marknaivei spec. nov. Cootes (Orchidaceae), a new species from Southern Philippines. Die Orchidee 3(18), 121. JSTOR. (2018). Global Plants. Retrieved from http://plants. jstor.org/ [Accessed 2 September 2018]. IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. (2017). Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 13. Retrieved from http://www. iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf [Accessed 2 September 2018]. Naive, M. A., Boos, R., De Leon, M. D. & Cootes, J. (2017). Two new Dendrochilum (Orchidaceae) species from Mindanao, Philippines. OrchideenJournal 24, 56. Ormerod, P. (2017). Checklist of Papuasian Orchids Lismore, Australia: Nature & Travel Books. Pedersen, H. (2005). A new miniature Dendrochilum Orchid Review 113, 286. Pedersen, H. (2007a). Hotspots of narrow endemism: adequate focal points for conservation in Dendrochilum (Orchidaceae). Lankesteriana 7, 83. doi: 10.15517/ LANK.V7I1-2.18444 Pedersen, H. (2007b). Changes to Dendrochilum Orchid Review 115, 220. Pedersen, H. (2011). Three new species of Dendrochilum, with notes on the practice of formally describing cultivated species of unknown provenance. Malesian

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Orchid Journal 7, 117. Pedersen, H. Gravendeel, B. & Mudiana, D. (2004). Three new species of Dendrochilum (Orchidaceae) and their phylogenetic positions according to plastid and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences. Blumea 49, 351 360. doi: 10.3767/000651904X484315 Pelser, P. B., Barcelona, J. F. & Nickrent, D. L. (Eds.). Retrieved from www. philippineplants.org. [Accessed 2 September 2018]. Sulistyo, B. P., Boos, R., Cootes, J. E. & Gravendeel, B. (2015). Dendrochilum hampelii (Coelogyninae, is a new species, not a hybrid: evidence from nrITS, matK and ycf1 sequence data. PhytoKeys 56, 83. doi:10.3897/phytokeys.56.5432 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 210 LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3): 211 2018. SERTIFERA A NEW GENERIC RECORD FOR THE PERUVIAN ORCHID FLORA DELSY TRUJILLO 1,6 & MARGOTH ACUA-TARAZONA 4,5 1 Facultad de Ingeniera Agraria, Universidad Catlica Sedes Sapientiae, Jirn Manuel Gonzales Prada Mz. Unica Sub-lote 4-B, Urb. Villa Los ngeles, Los Olivos, Lima, Per 2 Herbario San Marcos (USM), Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Per 3 Herbario MOL, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Per 4 Red de Ecologa Funcional, Instituto de Ecologa A. C., Xalapa, Veracruz, Mxico 5 Laboratorio de Gymnospermas y Monocotiledneas, Museo de Historia Natural, Jess Mara, Per 6 Author for correspondence: dtrujillo@ucss.edu.pe ABSTRACT. Sertifera purpurea A description, illustration, photographs, and comments about the species are provided RESUMEN Una especie de orqudea, previamente conocida de los Andes del Norte, se reporta por primera vez para el Per: Sertifera purpurea Se presenta una descripcin, ilustracin, fotografas y comentarios sobre la especie. KEY WORDS / PALABRAS CLAVE: Bosque de Proteccin Alto Mayo, Peru, Sobralieae Received 3 October 2018; accepted for publication 15 November 2018. First published online: 26 November 2018 Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Costa Rica License doi : https://doi.org/10.15517/lank.v18i3.35319 Introduction There are currently four recognized genera in the Neotropical tribe Sobralieae: Elleanthus C. Presl, Epilyna Schltr., Sertifera Lindl. & Rchb.f, and Sobralia Ruiz & Pav. (including Brasolia (Rchb.f.) Baranow, Dudek & Szlach.) (Neubig et al 2011, Chase et al 2015, Baranow, Dudek & Szlachetko 2017). Orchids of the genus Sertifera have relatively small Elleanthus Vegetatively, Sertifera like Elleanthus and Sobralia are caespitose plants with slender, elongate cane-like stems and plicate leaves. However, Sertifera is easily distinguished from the other genera of the tribe by having leaf sheaths with tubercles, axillary peduncle. Lindley and Reichenbach (Reichenbach 1877) described Sertifera with two species: S. purpurea Lindl. & Rchb.f. from Ecuador (with lateral corymbose S. virgata Rchb.f. from Peru (with was transferred by Schweinfurth (1938) to Elleanthus The second species of Sertifera from Ecuador, was described by Kraenzlin (1899) but hiding under the name of Diothonea lehmanniana Kraenzl. (transferred to Sertifera by Garay in 1978). Schlechter (1920, 1924) then described three species from Colombia: Sertifera colombiana Schltr., S. major Schltr. and S. Schltr. Subsequently, Williams (1939) and Schweinfurth (1946) described two more species from the same country: S. grandifolia L.O.Williams and S. aurantiaca C.Schweinf., respectively. Recently, another three species have been proposed for Colombia: S. gracilis Rchb.f. ex Szlach. & Baranow, S. risaraldana Szlach. & Baranow and Szlach., Kolan. &. MedinaTr., (Szlachetko & Baranow 2014, Szlachetko, Kolanowska & Medina Trejo 2014). Thereby, at the moment ten species are referable to Sertifera Sertifera has been referred as a genus restricted to the northern Andes, species have been reported from Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela between 1,000 and 3,600 m of elevation (Schlechter 1924, Szlachetko & Baranow 2014). the presence of populations of S. purpurea ; which

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 212 LANKESTERIANA during a Rapid Assessment in The Cordillera del C ndor, next to the Ecuadorian border, two specimens Sertifera sp. (Schulenberg & Awbrey 1997). Those specimens are housed at MOL and were examined for this present study. Here, we formally record the genus Sertifera for Peru and provide a description of Sertifera purpurea based on the Peruvian specimens. TAXONOMIC TREA TMENT Sertifera purpurea Lindl. & Rchb.f., Linnaea 41: 64. 1877. TYPES: Ecuador, [Andes Quitensis], Tungurahua Spruce 5394 (syntype: W-76627, photo seen, designated as lectotype by Garay, 1978). Ecuador, [Quito], Jameson s.n. (syntype W-76625, photo seen). Ecuador, [Valley of Lloa, 1857], Jameson s.n. (syntype: K-501912, photo seen, (mixed), photo at AMES). Ecuador, [from the forest on the western slope of the Andes, 1854] Jameson s.n. (syntype: K-501912, photo seen, (mixed), photo at AMES). Synonym: Sertifera lehmanniana (Kraenzl.) Garay, Fl. Ecuador 9: 135. 1978. Diothonea lehmanniana Kraenzl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 26: 489. 1899. TYPE: Ecuador. Pichincha: Western declivity of Cerro Corazn, near Canchacoto on Ro Pilatn, [2000 m, Jan 1881], Lehmann 126 (G-422011, photo seen, lectotype, designated by Garay, 1978; isolectotype G], photo seen). Plant terrestrial, up to 1 m tall. Stem cane-like, erect to slightly arcuate, enclosed by reddish brown verrucose tubular leaf sheaths, unbranched (rarely branched), leafy above (Fig. 1A, B). Leaves somewhat coriaceous, blades ovate-lanceolate to ellipticlanceolate, acuminate, plicate, margins minutely erose, sessile on tubular sheaths, 3.1.7 0.7.8 cm. axillary, arcuate, subcapitate, shorter Floral bracts linear-lanceolate, acute to acuminate, green turning blackish purple, 2.0.5 mm long (decreasing in size towards the apex). Flowers globose, sepals and petals pink to purplish, lip and tip of petals white (Fig. 2A); ovary and pedicel green to red-violet. Dorsal FIGURE 1. Sertifera purpurea A. Plant in its natural habitat showing a branched stem. B. Verrucose leaf sheaths. Photographs by J. Edqun.

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TRUJILLO & ACUA-TARAZONA Sertifera a new record for Peru 213 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. FIGURE 2. Sertifera purpurea sepal elliptic, acute to obtuse, minutely mucronate at apex, 3-nerved, 5.5.5 3 mm. Lateral sepals slightly connate at base, oblique, elliptic, acute, mucronate, dorsally carinate, 3-nerved, 6 3 mm. Petals ovate-elliptic to subrhombic, obtuse, somewhat undulate towards the apex, 1-nerved (sometimes with 1 or 2 short lateral nerves), 5 3.0.5 mm. Lip enfolding the column, basally saccate, conduplicate,

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 214 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 3. Sertifera purpurea A. Habit. B. Flower. C. Dissected perianth. D. Lip. lateral view. E. Lip, ventral view, F. Lip, M. Acua 1803 (USM).

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obovate, when expanded transversely elliptic, base of the lip thickened, with a small callus, disc provided with a transverse, plate-like ridge which holds the two sides together, the upper margins involute and irregularly erose to shortly lacerate, 5.5.0 mm long. Column slender, slightly curved upward, auriculate at apex, 3.5.0 mm long. Anther reniform, 1 mm long. Stigma bilobed. Ovary cylindric, curved, glabrous, 7 mm long. Fruit narrowly ellipsoid, 13 2 mm (Figs. 2B, 3). SP ECI M EN EXA M INE D : Peru. [Amazonas, Prov. Condorcanqui], Cordillera del Cndor, [July -August 1994] M. Cavero 1636 (MOL). San Martn, Prov. Rioja, Distrito Pardo Miguel Naranjos, Bosque de Proteccin Alto Mayo, 2500 m, 13 April 2017, M. Acua et al. 1803 (USM). Same locality, 3053 m, 23 May 2017, M. Acua et al. 1969 (USM). OT HER S P ECI M ENS : Peru [Amazonas, Prov. Condorcanqui], Cordillera del Cndor, [July -August 1994], M. Cavero 1627 (MOL [sterile]). DIS T RIBU T ION : Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. In Peru, it is known in the Departments of Amazonas and San Martn, between 2,150 and 3,053 m elevation (Fig. 4). HABI T A T AN D ECOLOGY : Plants of this species were found growing in shrub vegetation with small trees up to 5 m tall, dominated by Podocarpus oleifolius D.Don ex Lamb., Clusia sp., Weinmannia sp., Miconia sp., and Myrcia sp., and open areas with herbs and small shrubs (Fig. 2C). Individuals with October. Sertifera purpurea and S. lehmanniana were described based on plants from the north-central Andes of the Ecuador. The type specimens of S. purpurea were collected in the Province of Tungurahua ( Spruce 5394 ) and the Province of Pichincha: Quito ( Jameson s.n .) and in the Valley of Lloa ( Jameson s.n .). The type specimen of S. lehmanniana was collected in the Province of Pichincha: west of Cerro Corazon (south of Quito), near Canchacoto ( Lehman 126 ). Both species display similar morphological features. Based on examination of the herbarium specimens (digital of S. lehmanniana (microscope slide prepared by Garay, HUH-82476), the feature that distinguishes S. lehmanniana from S. purpurea displays ovate-oblong to ovate-ligulate petals ( vs ovate-elliptic to subrhombic). Dunsterville and Garay (1966) considered that they both represent the same species and placed S lehmanniana as synonym of S purpurea ; we agree with that assessment. Sertifera colombiana is also similar to S purpurea (Schlechter 1920, Mansfeld 1929, plate 13, nr. 46); however, additional research is necessary to state whether they are the same species. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. We thank the staff and curators of AMES, K, G, and W for their help looking for the type material in their institutions. We also thank Stig Dalstrm and Gnter Gerlach for their help with the bibliography; Jos Edqun for providing photographs of Sertifera purpurea for granting a permission for collecting plant specimens (research permit N 007-2016-SERNANP-BPAM-JEF). Cusi, Elluz Huamn, Jos Ram rez, Jos Edqun, and Elmer Mondragon for their invaluable help during the TRUJILLO & ACUA-TARAZONA Sertifera a new record for Peru 215 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. FIGURE 4. Distribution map of Sertifera purpurea (black circles) in Peru.

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and the American Orchid Society supports the work to M. 280642) for supporting her Ph.D. studies at the Instituto de Ecologa, A. C. We also thank anonymous reviewers for commenting on and improving the manuscript. LI T ERA T URE CI T E D Baranow, P., Dudek, M. & Szlachetko, D. L. (2017). Brasolia a new genus highlighted from Sobralia (Orchidaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 303, 853. doi: 10.1007/s00606-017-1413-z Chase, M. W., Cameron, K. M., Freudenstein, J. V., Pridgeon, A. M., Salazar, G., Van den Berg, C. & Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 177, 151. Dunsterville, G. C. K. & Garay, L. A. (1966). Venezuelan Orchids Illustrated V London: Andre Deutsch Limited. Garay, L. A. (1978). Orchidaceae (Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae, Neottioideae). Pp.1 In : G. Harling & B. Sparre (Eds.), Flora of Ecuador 9. Gteborg and Stockholm: University of Goteborg and Swedish Museum of Natural History. Kraenzlin, F. (1899). Orchidaceae Lehmannianae in Guatemala, Costa-Rica, Columbia et Ecuador collectae, quas determinavit et descripsit. 26, 437. Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beihefte 57. Neubig, K. M., Whitten, W. M., Blanco, M. A., Endara, L., Williams, N. H. & Koehler, S. (2011). Preliminary molecular phylogenetics of Sobralia and relatives (Orchidaceae: Sobralieae). Lankesteriana 11(3), 307 318. doi: 10.15517/LANK.V11I3.18286 Reichenbach, H. G. (1877). Orchidiographische Beitraege. Linnaea 41, 17. Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beihefte 7, 1. Schlechter, R. (1924). Beitrge zur Orchideenkunde von Colombia I. Orchidaceae Hoppianae. Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis Beihefte 27, 5 Schulenberg, T. & Awbrey, K. (Eds.). (1997). The Cordillera del Condor region of Ecuador and Peru: A biological assessment RAP Working Papers Number 7. Washington, D.C.: Conservation International. Schweinfurth, C. (1938). Nomenclatorial notes VII. 6(5), 112. Schweinfurth, C. (1946). Orchidaceae Andinae-II. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fsicas y Naturales 6, 573. Szlachetko, D. L. & Baranow, P. (2014). Notes on the Genus Sertifera (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae). Systematic Botany 39(1), 41. doi: 10.1600/036364414X678143 Sertifera (Orchidaceae) discovered in Colombia. Biodiversity: Research and Conservation 35, 19. doi: 10.2478/ biorc-2014-0019 Williams, L. O. (1939). Orchidaceae Austro-Americanae I. Lilloa 5, 51. LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 216 LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3): 217 2018. A NEW SPECIES OF PLEUROTHALLIS (ORCHIDACEAE: PLEUROTHALLIDINAE) IN SUBSECTION MACROPHYLLAE-FASCICULATAE WITH A UNIQUE, HIGHLY REDUCED, MORPHOLOGICALLY DISTINCT LABELLUM MARK WILSON 1,7 KEHAN ZHAO 1 HAILEY HAMPSON 1 GRAHAM FRANK 1 KATYA ROMOLEROUX 2 MARCO JIMNEZ 3,5 FRANCISCO TOBAR 4,5 BRUNO LARSEN 6 & LVARO J. PREZ 2 1 Department of Organismal Biology and Ecology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, U.S.A. 2 3 4 5 6 Constitutiestraat 94, 2060 Antwerp, Belgium 7 Author for correspondence: mwilson@coloradocollege.edu ABSTRACT. Pleurothallis minutilabia Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae because of also compared morphologically to Pleurothallis kaynagata from section Abortivae to which P. minutilabia P. minutilabia KEY WORDS: cloud forest, Ecuador, labellar morphology, Pleurothallis pollination 6 December 2018 doi Introduction. Within Pleurothallis R.Br. as circumscribed by Pridgeon et al (2005), subsection Macrophyllae Fasciculatae Luer represents the largest taxonomic group with between 236 and 305 described species, depending on synonymy (Wilson, unpubl.). A consistent characteristic among all the species of Pleurothallis subsection Macrophyllae Fasciculatae described to date, without exception, is a prominent and conspicuous labellum or lip Pleurothallis castanea Mark Wilson, G.Merino & Pleurothallis nangaritzae Tobar & Mark Wilson and Pleurothallis rubrifolia Mark Wilson, Tobar & Salas Guerr. by Wilson et al (2016). While the dimensions, morphology, texture are currently no described species of Pleurothallis in subsection Macrophyllae Fasciculatae with a highly reduced or apparently lip. Pleurothallis to be described Pleurothallis abortiva section or subsection within subgenus Pleurothallis Luer (1986) created section Abortivae to include P. abortiva P. abortiva from the section, rendering it monotypic. Luer (1998) retained the monotypic section and stated that P. abortiva is distinguished from all other species of the subgenus monotypic until Doucette et al (2016) described Pleurothallis kaynagata A.Doucette, Mark Wilson & Until recently, P. abortiva P. kaynagata Abortivae

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 218 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE Pleurothallis subsection Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae demonstrating the prominent, P. arctata. B. P. baudoensis. C. P. calamifolia. D. P. calceolaris. E. P. conicostigma. P. crucifera. G. P. depressa. H. P. latipetala. P. octavioi. P. ortegae. K. P. pansamalae. L. P. platysepala. M. P. scurrula. P. titan. O. P. tridentata. P. P. volans Colorado College by M. Wilson

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WILSON et al. A new Pleurothallis with highly reduced labellum 219 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. remained the only known Pleurothallis species with lip, none existing in any of the other taxonomic groups within Pleurothallis sensu Pridgeon et al (2005). The only thing remotely comparable P. crocodiliceps species complex of subgenus Ancipitia (Wilson et al 2015 an undescribed species of Pleurothallis was (Muchhala & P et al. et al. 2017). The species was brought to the attention of Wilson because of the minute lip and the remarkable, P. kaynagata and bilobed stigma, the new species was most likely attributable to subsection MacrophyllaeFasciculatae not section Abortivae Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae described to date exhibit a glenion on the hypochile below and slightly in front of the anther/rostellum, which is in vivo substance on the lip (Wilson, unpubl.). attraction and positioning during pollination (Luer 1986, Wilson et al 2016). Therefore, any species different pollination syndrome from other members is described and illustrated and we present an the species. FIGURE 2 Drawings of A. Pleurothallis abortiva (drawing reproduced from Luer 1980, courtesy of Missouri Botanical Pleurothallis kaynagata (drawing reproduced from Doucette et al 2016, courtesy of Sociedad Orquideologa ).

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 220 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 3 Pleurothallis kaynagata from material in Ecuagenera collection.

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WILSON et al. A new Pleurothallis with highly reduced labellum 221 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. Materials and Methods Plant material species was examined in situ in Ecuador by Tobar, Morphological and taxonomic comparisons of subsection Macrophyllae Fasciculatae in order compared with all described species in that subsection. The new species was also compared in detail with Pleurothallis kaynagata from section Abortivae using (Wilson PL0734 and PL0735) and Pleurothallis abortiva from the type, drawings and description since the new species was compared with those described in subsection Acroniae in case the species had mistakenly been published in that group. Scanning electron microscopy were dried in a critical point dryer (model EMS 850, prior to mounting on aluminum stubs and sputter USA). Specimens were imaged using a scanning Results Morphological and taxonomic comparisons literature for subsection Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae section Abortivae and subsection Acroniae subsection Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae based upon subsection. The lip initially appears to be absent when though the point of articulation on the column was not base of the lip appeared to limit the range of motility by resting against the synsepal. Scanning electron microscopy Considering the at the base, assuming minimal shrinkage during critical FIGURE 4 Scanning electron micrograph of Pleurothallis kaynagata M. Wilson from P. kaynagata collection at Colorado College.

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The pollinarium is typical for subsection Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae pollinia, 522 264 m, subtended by caudicles, with a TAXONOMY Pleurothallis minutilabia sp. nov. the trail to the outlook, 1000 m, 04 06.9S, 78 A. J. Prez, F. Tobar, N. Zapata, W. Santilln, H. Namcela 8539 Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae the most morphologically similar species is Pleurothallis erythrium Luer. The new species is easily distinguished from P. erythrium distinct glenion in P. erythrium P. minutilabia ) and the surface of the petals and sepals (hirsute in P. minutilabia P. erythrium ). Plant 10 cm tall. Roots Ramicauls spreading, 5.4 11.6 cm long, enclosed by thin, papery, tubular sheaths, basal sheath 3.2 ramicaul sheath 13 mm long. Leaves 3.8 1.2 2.8 cm, base sessile, shallowly cordate, coriaceous. fascicle 7.8 4.3 4.9 mm, resupinate, borne from reclining spathaceous bract 3.8 6.0 mm long, pedicel 2.5 1.8 2.2 mm long. Dorsal sepal beige suffused with LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 222 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 5 Pleurothallis minutilabia column and lip. A. Petals. B. Synsepal. C. Column. D. Anther cap. E. from Wilson PL0996 FIGURE 6 Pleurothallis minutilabia scanning electron micrographs from Wilson PL0996

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4.0 2.2 2.9 mm, Synsepal beige suffused with 3.5 2.7 3.0 mm, Petals beige 3.3 1.0 Labellum rufous, triangular, slightly wider than long, 520 538 m, stout, 285 of attachment on underside to tip). Column rufous, stout, 1.0 2.0 1.2 1.4 mm, papillose, anther apical, stigma Pollinarium ADDITIONAL MATERIAL STUDIED December 2017, Wilson PL0996 (paratype: COCO). ETYMOLOGY WILSON et al. A new Pleurothallis with highly reduced labellum 223 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. FIGURE 7 Pleurothallis minutilabia scanning electron micrographs from Wilson PL0996 FIGURE 8 Pleurothallis minutilabia scanning electron micrographs A. Lip (lateral from Wilson PL0996 FIGURE 9 Scanning electron micrographs of Pleurothallis minutilabia M. Wilson from Wilson PL0996

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 224 LANKESTERIANA Pleurothallis minutilabia is placed in the group Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae (Luer 1986, 1988, 2005) emerging from the apex of the ramicaul at the base FIGURE 1 0 Drawing of Pleurothallis minutilabia Romoleroux from material used to prepare the type specimen.

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WILSON et al. A new Pleurothallis with highly reduced labellum 225 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. FIGURE 11 Pleurothallis minutilabia LCDP prepared by M. Wilson from Wilson PL0996

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P. minutilabia Abortivae (Luer Acroniae series Amphigyae Luer (Luer 1998), because rather than bilobed, stigmatic surface. Pleurothallis minutilabia ( Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae ) and Pleurothallis kaynagata ( Abortivae similar and could be confused. Pleurothallis minutilabia P. minutilabia cuneate in P. kaynagata ) and the stigma (bilobed in P. minutilabia P. kaynagata ). DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT : Pleurothallis minutilabia the southeast of Ecuador, on the eastern slope of the 13), between 1000 m, which, according to the Ministerio del Ambiente de Ecuador (2013), lies within in the foothills of the southern Cordillera Oriental sur de la cordillera oriental de los Andes (BsPn04)). This species is sympatric with Pleurothallis aff. undulata Poepp. & Endl. and Pleurothallis cardiostola Rchb.f. from subsection Macrophyllae Fasciculatae and the tree species Centronia laurifolia D.Don (Melastomataceae), Ocotea longifolia Kunth (Lauraceae) and Guatteria pastazae (Annonaceae). C ONSERVATION STATUS : Pleurothallis minutilabia appears area of ca. 1500 km 2 protected since 1982. The second the distri bution and abundance of this species before a made. Discussion. characters place Pleurothallis minutilabia within section Pleurothallis subsection MacrophyllaeFasciculatae (Luer 1988) and not within section Abortivae (Luer 1980, 1998) or subsection Acroniae LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 226 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 12 Pleurothallis minutilabia distribution map indicating type locality (white star). Map prepared by H. Hampson FIGURE 13 Pleurothallis minutilabia habitat in Podocarpus

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series Amphigyae (Luer 1998), the only two other possible groups. The labellar morphology of P. minutilabia Of the 236+ species described to date, all possess a lip (Wilson et al P. minutilabia reduced structure beneath the column. The only P. abortiva and P. kaynagata Pleurothallis kaynagata would be attributable to section Abortivae et al. Pleurothallis neossa (Luer & Acroniae which has been borne out by recent phylogenetic analysis (Wilson, unpubl.). Although Luer (2005) chose to combine subsections Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae and Acroniae under the resurrected name Acronia C.Presl., preliminary phylogenetic analyses indicate that the two groups are phylogenetically distinct (Wilson et al 2011, 2013). P. minutilabia and P. kaynagata are morphologically within Macrophyllae Fasciculatae lip of P. minutilabia 538 of P. abortiva 1.6 0.5 mm (Luer 1980) or that of P. kaynagata 1.0 0.7 mm (Doucette et al 2016). And, the lip of P. minutilabia from those of the other two species. While the lips of P. abortiva and P. kaynagata 1980, Doucette et al P. minutilabia which lies against the synsepal and appears to maintain Luer (1998) referred to the lip of Pleurothallis abortiva as degenerate, rudimentary, or atrophied, having become functionless in the course of evolution remaining in a form that is small or imperfectly developed and not able to function Pleurothallis minutilabia the highly reduced, but elaborate to comprise a lip of P. minutilabia WILSON et al. A new Pleurothallis with highly reduced labellum 227 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. FIGURE 14 A. Pleurothallis minutilabia B. Pleurothallis kaynagata by B. Larsen from Wilson PL0996 and Wilson PL0734

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 228 LANKESTERIANA progress in the study of pollination strategies in Pleurothallidinae, including in the genera Acianthera Scheidw. Andinia (Luer) Luer Dracula Luer (Endara et al 2010, Policha et al Lepanthes Sw. 2005, Blanco & Vieira 2011, Calder Restrepia Specklinia Lindl. (Karremans et al. Trichosalpinx Luer (Bogar n et al other Pleurothallidinae much less is known about pollination strategies in Pleurothallis with only a few Calder et al. 2014) and only one of these being of a species in subsection Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae et al. all species of Pleurothallis subsection MacrophyllaeFasciculatae et al. unpubl. ). The lip of P. minutilabia species of the subsection and, therefore, one might conclude, functions differently than the other lips. Pleurothallis minutilabia role in the process. To date, among Pleurothallidinae, Andinia Lepanthes morphological similarities between the lips of these species and that of P. minutilabia that would support P. minutilabia strongly P. crocodiliceps et al. 2017a, 2017b, pollination by pseudocopulation. Acknowledging that only in situ pollination by pseudocopulation in P. minutilabia sparsely distributed, tropical montane species, in the meantime additional studies are planned to address the hypothesis. These include light microscopy of labellar transmission electron microscopy of labellar sections FIGURE 15 Pleurothallis minutilabia B. Pleurothallis wielii Scanning electron

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WILSON et al. A new Pleurothallis with highly reduced labellum 229 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. unrelated Pleurothallis kaynagata morphological similarities between P. kaynagata and P. minutilabia ecology of P. minutilabia P. kaynagata and the P. crocodiliceps is one area of ongoing research in the Wilson lab ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS thank researchers) and the Ecuadorian Ministerio del Ambiente the Editors of Lankesteriana LITERATURE CITED Lepanthes El Orquidelogo: Boletn de la Asociacin Bogotana de Orquideologa 46, 15. Lepanthes (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) by fungus gnats. Annals of Botany 95, 763. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mci090 Lepanthes Orchids 80(6), 356. Pollination of Trichosalpinx (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) by biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society 186(3), 510. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/box087 Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae) species: Annals of Botany 88, 75. Pleurothallis colossus Orchids 80(12), 740. Lepanthes yubarta Bradysia condiciones seminaturales. Orquideologa 29(1), 31. Mexico. Tropical Ecology 48(1), 1. Pleurothallis and a new name for Acronia rinkei Orquideologa 23(2), 123. Colombian endemic species, Pleurothallis marthae (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae). Lankesteriana 13(3), 407. Dracula orchids. Lankesteriana 10(1), 11. doi: Specklinia Drosophila Annals of Botany 116 (3), 437. doi: Luer, C. A. (1980). Miscellaneous new species in the Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae). Phytologia 47, 59. Pleurothallis Monographs in Systematic Botany 20, 1. Pleurothallis Lindleyana 3, 133. Pleurothallis sect. Abortivae sect. Truncatae

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 230 LANKESTERIANA sect. Pleurothallis subsect. Acroniae subsect. Pleurothallis subgen. Dracontia subgen. Unciferia Monographs in Systematic Botany from Missouri Botanical Garden 72, 1. Dryadella and Acronia section Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae Monographs in Systematic Botany from Missouri Botanical Garden 103, 11. Restrepia (Orchidaceae) and the potential Flora 225, 10. Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador. (2013). Burmeistera zamorensis (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae), a new species from southern Ecuador. Novon 24, 36. Brunellia Phytotaxa 311(3), 263. Magnolia chiguila and M. mashpi (Magnoliaceae): two new species and a new subsection ( Chocotalauma sect. Talauma ) from the Choc biogeographic region of Colombia and Ecuador. Phytotaxa 284, 267. doi: https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.286.4.5 Dracula New Phytologist 210(3), 1058 doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.13855 Genera Orchidacearum. Vol. 4. Epidendroideae (Part one), (pp. 385) Pleurothallis Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae from northern South America. Lankesteriana 16(3), 349. doi: Wilson, M., Belle, C., Dang, A., Hannan, P., Kenyon, C., Low, H., Stayton, T. & Woolley, M. A. (2011). A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pleurothallis with emphasis on Pleurothallis subsection Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae using Lankesteriana 11(3), 369. doi: analysis of Pleurothallis sensu lato Lankesteriana 13(1), 139. doi: Pleurothallis crocodiliceps Rchb.f. (Pleurothallidinae, Orchidaceae) and four new species of Pleurothallis in subgenus Ancipitia Lankesteriana 17(2), 165. doi: Pleurothallis (Pleurothallidinae, Orchidaceae) in subgenus Ancipitia from Colombia. Orquideologa 34, 34. Pleurothallis Ancipitia and Scopula Phytotaxa 343(3), 249. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.343.3.5

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3): 231 2018. SCAPHOSEPALUM TARANTULA (ORCHIDACEAE: PLEUROTHALLIDINAE), A NEW SPECIES FROM ECUADOR LUIS E. BAQUERO 1,2,3 ALEXANDER HIRTZ 2 & GABRIEL ITURRALDE 1,2 1 Carrera de Ingeniera Agroindustrial y Alimentos. Facultad de Ingeniera y Ciencias Agropecuarias. Universidad de Las Amricas, Calle Jos Queri, Quito 170137, Pichincha, Ecuador 2 Jardn Botnico de Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador 3 Author for correspondence: lbaquero@hotmail.com ABSTRACT A new species, Scaphosepalum tarantula is described. It is recognized by the medium-sized plants with which it shares similarities. RESUMEN Se describe aqu Scaphosepalum tarantula una nueva especie. Se reconoce por las plantas de lo compara con con el que comparte rasgos similares. KEY WORDS : new species, Pichincha, sympatric species doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15517/lank.v18i3.35605 Introduction There are more than 50 species of Scaphosepalum et al. 2001, Endara et al 2011, Chase et al 2015, Valenzuela Gamarra 2015, Karremans 2016, Karremans et al 2016, Baquero 2017). Scaphosepalum species are recognized from other members in the Pleurothallidinae mainly by the osmophores at the apex of the lateral sepals, sepaline ( Pridgeon et al 2001 Endara et al 2011, Karremans et al Scaphosepalum Luer & Hirtz, Baquero and S. that shares these characteristics but is much smaller in size compared with and and differs from in lip morphology, was discovered close to Quito and is described here. TAXONOMIC TREATMENT Scaphosepalum tarantula Baquero & Hirtz, sp. nov. (Fig. 1). TYPE: Ecuador. Pichincha: Las Tolas, 0.1N 78.3W, October 28, 2016, 1884 m. Baquero 3092 (holotype, QCNE). DIAGNOSIS : Species similar to Scaphosepalum tum from which it differs by triangular osmophores of the lateral sepals instead of quadrilateral osmophores; rhomboid epichile instead of an elliptical-subpandurate, threelobed, purple lip; and the rhomboid petals versus the subquadrate, oblique petals of (Fig. 3). Plant epiphytic, densely caespitose, 15 cm tall. Roots slender. erect, slender, 1.5 2.0 cm long, enclosed by 2 sheaths. Leaf erect, green suffused with red-brown to purple stains at the petioles, thinly coriaceous, conduplicate, longpetiolate, 8 cm long including the petiole 1.8.0 cm long, leaf apex acute, the blade narrowly elliptical 1.0.5 cm wide, attenuate below into a slender, channeled petiole. a loose, distichous, verrucose, descending peduncule 4 cm long, originating from low to medially on the ramicaul; thin, acuminate, conduplicate, 2 mm long; slightly recurved, 3 mm long; ovary ribbed, 2 mm long. Sepals cream colored, densely with spiculate carinae. Dorsal sepal tricarinate,

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FIGURE 1. Scaphosepalum tarantula A. Habit. B. Flower. C. Dissected perianth. D. Lip extended. E. Lip and column. Drawn by L. E. Baquero from the holotype. LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. 232 LANKESTERIANA

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BAQUERO ET AL. A new species of Scaphosepalum from Ecuador 233 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. not spiculated, ovate and concave, 7.5 4.0 mm unexpanded, concave below the middle and narrowly linear above the middle with revolute margins and a swollen apex. Lateral sepals connate 7 mm into unexpanded, the apical portion of each lateral sepal cushion 3.0 2.5 mm, continuous with the acute, oblique, diverging apex terminating in a decurved, sepal 14 mm long including the tail. Petals orange suffused with red, solid red at the base, spotted with red towards the apex, rhomboid, acute, 2 2 mm, provided with a longitudinal callus medially, the labellar margins obtusely angled. mm wide, the epichile rhomboid, fringed at the edge, the disc with a pair of tall, erect lamellae above the middle; the hypochile rectangular, slightly concave, the base truncate, minutely bilobulate. purple at the base, fading whitish towards the apex, semi terete, slender, 2.7 mm long, slightly winged 2, yellow. and seeds not observed. EPONYMY : Named for the large, hairy spiders of which DISTRIBUTION : Scaphosepalum tarantula a few remaining forests near Las Tolas, not far from Quito, Ecuador, north-west of the city. HABITAT AND ECOLOGY S. tarantula were seen growing in a cloud forest, not far from remain in the diminishing forests at the same location. It grows at an elevation of ~1800 m a.s.l. as an ephiphyte and is sympatric with other orchids of subtribe Pleurothallidinae such as Scaphosepalum Luer, (Luer) Luer, Dracula (Luer) Luer, Luer & Hirtz, Luer & Hirtz and Platystele Luer. As with many other species in the genus, it grows in a very moist, low light environment, the zone. CONSERVATION STATUS : Even though a population of S. tarantula is still growing in the same area where it being cut down and about 80% of the original forest is now gone. Urgent actions are required to preserve this remaining forest since not only to protect this new species, but also a very rare species. Most of the plants of grow in nearby. Not far from where S. tarantula grows, some protected forest such as Bellavista, Mindo Nambillo or even Pahuma are being protected, nevertheless, in about ten years of searching for a new locality of S. tarantula by the authors, we were unsuccessful at Sca phosepalum tarantula is unique among the species of Scaphosepalum because of a particular combination of characters. The leaves suffused with the rhomboid petals and the pandurate lip with a shovel-shaped epichile distinguishes it from any other species in the genus (Fig. 1). This species has tails of the lateral sepals (Fig. 3). Nevertheless, the different shape of the lip and petals distinguishes both species. The rhomboid versus subquadarate petals and the pandurate lip with the epichile shovelshaped versus the elliptical-subpandurate, trilobed lip, separates S. tarantula from In S. tarantula some other features are different from any of the forms of including the slenderer apex of the dorsal sepal, and the tails of the lateral projecting to the front instead of projecting to the S. (Figs. 1). Although and S. tails as well, the plants (to 35 and 25 cm respectively) S. tarantula have a pair of lobes near the middle of the lip that are not present in S. tarantula The lip on has an obtuse epichile against the rhomboid epichile in S. tarantula In erae

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. 234 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 2. A. Plant and habit. B. Flower in situ. C. Close-up of the apiculate apex of the dorsal sepal. Photos by L. E. Baquero.

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BAQUERO ET AL. A new species of Scaphosepalum from Ecuador 235 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. FIGURE 3. Comparison between Scaphosepalum tarantula and 2. S. tarantula 2 S. tarantula C. Lateral view of dorsal sepals, column, petals and lip: 1. S. tarantula 2. 2. S. tarantula Photos by L. E. Baquero.

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the pedicel, while in S. tarantula are shorter than the pedicel. was found growing in Imbabura and Esmeraldas provinces, north from where S. tarantula is found, in the province of color than those from Imbabura, nevertheless, the color and shape of the lip, the petals, the dorsal tail and the rest of the morphology are the same in the two populations (Fig. 4). AC K NOW LE D GE M E NTS research on orchids in Ecuador. The Quito Botanical S. tarantula and comparison of species. The Ministerio del Ambiente de LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. 236 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE and S. tarantula A. form from Esmeraldas province. B. S. tarantula Photos by A. Hirtz (AC) and L. E.

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LITERATURE CITED Baquero R., L. E. (2017). a showy new species in the genus (Pleurothallidinae: Orchidaceae). Chase, M. W., Cameron, K. M., Freudenstein J. V., Pridgeon, A. M., Salazar, G., van den Berg, C. & Schuiteman, A. (2015). 177, 151. Endara, L., Williams, N. & Whitten, M. (2011). Filogenia molecular preliminar de Scaphosepalum (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae). Karremans, A. P. (2016). : an updated phylogenetic overview of Pleurothallidinae. (2016). Phylogenetic reassessment of and its allied genera in the Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae). 272, 001. Dresslerella and Scaphosepalum Addenda to 26, 21. subgenus , and Addenda to Platystele and Scaphosepalum . Addenda to Platystele , subgenus Scopula and Scaphosepalum 44, 126. Dracula (Orchidaceae). 46, 80. subgenera Rhynchopera Addenda to Dracula Lepanthes of Ecuador, Platystele , and Scaphosepalum subgenus sections Truncatae subsection subgenera and Addenda to Dracula Lepanthes , and Scaphosepalum Garden 72, 11517, 120. and subgen era and Addenda to Scaphosepalum and 60. Pridgeon, A. M., Solano, R. & Chase, M. W. (2001). Phylogenetic relationships in Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae): com 88, 12, 2286. Valenzuela Gamarra, L. (2015). A new species of Scaphosepalum Arnaldoa BAQUERO ET AL. A new species of Scaphosepalum from Ecuador 237 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018.

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LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3): 239 2018. THE ORCHIDACEAE OF PRIMITIAE FLORAE ESSEQUEBOENSIS (1818) CARLOS OSSENBACH Orquideario 25 de Mayo, San Jos, Costa Rica and Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica caossenb@racsa.co.cr ABSTRACT The German botanist and Professor at the University of Gttinge n, Georg Friedrich Wilhelm Meyer (1782), studied the plants collected in the Dutch colony of Essequibo by Ernst Carl Rodschied and those kept in the herbarium of Professor Franz Karl Mertens, which he had received from a Dutch colonist during the early 1800s. On that basis, he published in 1818 his work Primitiae Florae Essequeboensis, science. KEY WORDS : Essequibo, Georg Friedrich Wilhelm Meyer Guiana, Orchidaceae Received 3 July 2018; accepted for publication 11 December 2018. First published online: 17 December 2018 Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Costa Rica License doi : https://doi.org/10.15517/lank.v18i3.35625 Essequibo (or Essequebo in Dutch) was a Dutch colony on the northern coast of South America from 1616 to 1814 (Fig. 1). It was founded between the Essequibo River on the west and the Demerara River on the east, on the eastern border of the Spanish General Captaincy of Venezuela in the Guiana region. It formed a part of the settlements that are known under the collective name of Dutch Guiana. Essequibos FIGURE 1. Carte generale et particuliere de la colonie dEssequebe & Demerarie situe dans la Guiane en Amrique Brave & Wouter (1798).

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 240 LANKESTERIANA main town was the small city of Starbroek. Essequibo and Demerara were captured by the British in 1781, then the colonies were occupied by the French until in 1783 the Peace of Paris restored the territories to the Dutch. The British occupied Essequibo again in 1796 and gave it back for a short time to the Netherlands as a consequence of the Peace of Amiens, from 1802 to 1803. After that it was again taken by the British during the Napoleonic wars. The British never left again and Essequibo became of London. Starbroek was renamed as Georgetown. The colonies of Essequibo and Demerara were merged into British Guiana. Georg Friedrich Wilhelm Meyer (1782) was a German botanist and Professor for Forestry at the University of Gttingen (Fig. 2). He had studied Forestry and Natural History between 1801 and 1805 in Gttingen and Dillingen and came in 1813 under employ of the Prussian Government as Forestry Inspector and then Director of Forests in Paderborn, Corvey and Hxter. He continued his studies in Gttingen and received in 1818 his Ph.D. It was at that time that Meyer became interested in tropical botany, especially after he had the opportunity to purchase the herbarium of Ernst Carl Rodschied (?). Rodschied was a German physician and botanist who had emigrated to Essequibo in 1790 in the service of the Dutch West-India Company and had lived there until his death in 1796. Rodschied wrote several small works about climate, social circumstances, and health problems of the population of the colony, and made frequent botanical excursions along the rivers Demerara and Essequibo (Baldinger 1796). Meyer was also fortunate to make the acquaintance of Professor Franz Karl Mertens (1764 1831), a botanist from the city of Bremen, who had a second collection of plants from Essequibo, which he FIGURE 2. Georg Friedrich Wilhelm Meyer (1782). Engraving by Meno Haas. FIGURE 3. Title page of Primitiae Florae Essequeboensis

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OSSENBACH The Orchidaceae of Primitiae Florae Essequeboensis 241 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. had received from a Dutch colonist during the early 1800s. These he gave to Meyer on loan Based on both Rodschieds and Mertens collections, Meyer published in 1818 an important work, under the title Primitiae Florae Essequeboensis adjectis descriptionibus centum circiter stirpium novarum, observationibusque criticis (Fig. 3), in which 344 species of plants were described, of which 118 turned out to be new to science (Anonymous 1819a, 1819b, 1820). Five species of orchids are mentioned in Meyers Flora, among them two that were new to science: Cymbidium trinerve G.Mey. [= Cyrtopodium andersonii (L.) Lindl.], Oncidium emarginatum G.Mey. [= Dimerandra emarginata (G.Mey) Hoehne], new to science (Fig. 4), Epidendrum ciliare L., G.Mey, yet again a new orchid species, and Vanilla aromatica Sw. Oncidium emarginatum was collected by Rodschied on trees in the sugar plantation Hof van Holland The type specimen of Oncidium emarginatum can be found at the herbarium of the University of Gttingen, Germany (Fig. 5). ACK NOWLEDGEMENTS. Special thanks to Dr. Marc Appelhans, Curator of the Herbarium of the University of Gttingen, for valuable copies of the type specimen of Oncidium emarginatum LITERATURE CITED Heidelberger Jahrbcher der Litteratur 12(1), 33. FIGURE 4. Protologue of Oncidium emarginatum from Primitiae Florae Essequeboensis FIGURE 5. Type specimen of Oncidium emarginatum G.Mey. Herbarium of Gttingen University, Germany (GOET008434). Courtesy of the curator, Dr. Marc Appelhans.

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Anonymous. (1819b). Primitiae Flora Essequeboensis. Flora oder Botanische Zeitung 2(1), 337. Anonymous. (1820). Primitiae Flora Essequeboensis. Jenaische Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung 17(4), 292 294. Baldinger, E. G. (1796). Ernst Carl Rodschied, Arztes zu Rio Essequebo, Leben. Neues Magazin fr Aerzte 18(18), 203. Meyer, G. F. W. 1818. Primitiae Florae Essequeboensis adjectis descriptionibus centum circiter stirpium novarum, observationibusque criticis Gttingen: Heinrich Dieterich. LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 242 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 6. Oncidium emarginatum Flower analysis by Leslie A. Garay from the type specimen.

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3): 243 2018. BOOKS Rankafu. Orchid Print Album by Stephen Kirby, Toshikazu Doi & Toru Otsuka. Richmond, Surrey, UK, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2018. Volume in octavo (19.5.3 cm), x, 289 pages, 250 illustrations in color, 31 black and white photographs. Hardbound. Special price at Kew Gardens, .00. Rankafu is a remarkable book, which tells the story of a remarkable set of Japanese orchid woodblock prints from the early 20th century, and through them the story of three remarkable men. Shotaro Kaga (1888), the eldest son of a wealthy family, was a banker and a pioneer horticulturist, whose work and collection helped to start an orchid craze in Japan that continues to this day. He built what probably was the best Japanese nursery of its times, taking advantage of the direct experience he had acquired through the acquaintance with renowned collections like that of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and with famous British growers like Sander in St. Albans, who he visited in 1910 and from whom he would buy hundreds of plants over the next decades. To ensure his plants were cultivated to their best, Kaga had them grown under the care of Kenkichi Goto (1895), who had been in charge of the Imperial Nursery of the Shinjuku Garden as a specialist orchid grower and had acquired direct experience on the natural life of orchids through collecting trips in the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and India. In the greenhouses of Kagas Oyamazaki Villa, where some ten thousand orchids were grown, he made more than 1,100 crosses and germinated hundreds of hybrids, some of which were portrayed for the Rankafu collection. He retired from his position shortly before Kagas death in 1954. Finally, Zuigetsu Ikeda (1877) was hired in the early 1930s, and for the next twelve years he was the main artist at the Oyamazaki Villa, where he sketched and portrayed in watercolor thousands of plants. Of these, 83 found the way to be immortalized into the Rankafu woodblock prints. Another series of 60 water colors, intended for a second volume of the work, were never printed. Ikeda painted his last orchid from Kagas collection in 1942. botanical art printing available at the time, no

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 244 LANKESTERIANA matter how expensive and costly (Kaga 1946), Shotaro Kaga asked help from the authorities on his expectations. Then, Kaga directed his attention to an old Japanese printing technique, that of wood engraving. This technique had began in Japan in the mid XVIII century and reached its highest standards during the XIX century. I guess that, until Kirby and his colleagues decided to publish their meticulous research on Rankafu just a handful of westerners had any knowledge of traditional Japanese wood engraving. Their work was instrumental not only to disclose the Rankafu to a larger audience, but also to the organization of an exhibition of the same name, held since last October at the Shirley Sherwood Gallery of Botanical Art, Kew Gardens, which will run until March 2019. Woodblock prints represent a spectacular art form, and a technical challenge but, as the used inks are water-based, it is particularly adapted to reproduce watercolour paintings. Highly specialized woodblock carvers transform the painting into prints, carving away the areas that are not to be printed on individual blocks of cherry tree ( Prunus serrulata ) for any of the colors of the painting, and leaving raised areas that may be as small as a fraction of a millimeter. one block to another. In the process, the original watercolor is usually lost, and no original Rankafu painting that corresponds to woodblock prints remains. The book is very instructive in describing the technique and the materials of woodblock printing in great detail. years of the war, 83 sets of Rankafu were printed at two different workshops and by at least six famous printers. Apart from the printings prepared from Ikedas watercolors, Kaga wanted to have printed in the Rankafu also a few black and white photographs taken by Toyo Okamoto, and nine conventional color print copies of colour oil paintings done by one of conventional copies (not woodblocks) of Ikedas painting are included into the prints collection. All these images are duly reproduced in the book together with the core section of woodblock printings. The superbly printed book showcases in full color the set owned by the senior author. Particularly well featured are species and hybrids of the Cattleya alliance, Cymbidium Dendrobium and slipper orchids, plus a number of orchid species from different groups, which were among the preferred orchids by Shotaro Kaga. The quality of the prints, and the delicacy of the compositions prepared by Ikeda, are simply stunning. In 1954, Shotaro Kaga died, and by 1958 the greenhouses were in disrepair. In 1967 Kaga heirs sold the Oyamazaki Villa, and by the 1970s the greenhouses had been demolished. It was the end of an era. The villa was fortunately brought back to its splendor during the 1990s, when the Asahi Beer Corporation acquired it and expanded it into the Oyamazaki Museum of Art, an important regional museum. As to the woodblocks, a series of originals for twelve woodblock printings were discovered in 2003 in Kyoto, in the warehouse of the Muira Printing Company. A set was reprinted with traditional woodblock printing methods, and was sold in 2005. Fortunately, the book by Kirby, Doi and Otsuka has now made available the complete set of these spectacular prints, which for their level of accuracy and artistic expression are justly considered masterworks of botanical art. I just want to echo the words by Phil Cribb, who introduced the book, warmly recommending this extraordinary work on a single collection of orchid prints, not only as a great introduction to a less known and highly decorative form of art, but also to the history of early modern Japanese orchid culture and some of its greatest proganists. It is an informative, varied, and really entertaining lecture. Franco Pupulin Lankester Botanical Garden University of Costa Rica

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BOOKS 245 LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. The Genus Phragmipedium A treatise on the conduplicate-leafed slipper orchids of Latin America by Guido J. Braem, Eliseo Tesn and Sandra L. hlund. Atlanta Belgium, privately printed by the author, 2018. jacket. $110.00. If you are interested in slipper orchids, The Genus Phragmipedium is a must have. The richly illustrated and colorfully executed book by Braem and collaborators is an essential guide. The book starts off with a short chapter on general followed by a very practical and detailed chapter on the cultivation of Phragmipedium species written by Eric Sauer. The main body of the book is composed of the treatment of individual taxa. Each is accompanied by a wealth of useful information from someone experience is transmitted throughout the book. Every accepted species includes a synonym list, type information, etymology, a discussion on history and a morphological description. Each of them is appropriately adorned with watercolors, photographs and plates. The rich illustrative material presented in species and also of varieties, subspecies and forms. by the many plants that are photographed in situ species as well, allowing easy comparison among closely related taxa. A few orchid people are also featured, including Henry Oakley and Cassio van den Berg. The book is full of short stories and side notes which make it very entertaining. An example is the story about the discovery of Phragmipedium lindenii Three slightly different versions are provided, starting with that of Linden himself. The discoverer of this notable species is famously quoted to have encountered the orchid when escaping from a bear. His account reads It was a bear that made me discover it, and this circumstance, coupled with my astonishment such a strange form, will always prevent me from forgetting such an encounter. I will not further spoil the story and encourage the reader to procure their copy of the book. Historical information is provided for several species. Especially interesting are the extensive commentaries surrounding the controversial discoveries and introduction into cultivation of the

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 246 LANKESTERIANA Phragmipedium bessae and Phragmipedium kovachii The taxonomic treatment of each species is meticulously carried out. The reader is given all the elements that the authors use for each particular decision. They are extremely precise in arguing each detail in favor or against the recognition of taxa. Ample explanation of which morphological features are useful in species recognition is given throughout, this is extremely helpful to understand some of the lesser known names in the group. This objectivity is unfortunately lost when the taxa that have been described by the authors are involved. One example is the use of P. popowii Braem, Ohlund & Qun over P. humboldtii (Warsz.) J.T.Atwood & Dressler. The discussion as to the correct name of this species, articles in recent years, takes up several pages in this book. I am no expert on slipper orchids, nor on Germanic languages, but the code is clear. Article 46.2 explicitly states that a name can be ascribed to someone other than the author of an article it appears author and provides a, albeit brief, description, the taxon is for all effects validly published regardless of Reichenbachs own opinion. Another is perhaps the interpretation of good species within the Phragmipedium schlimii complex. Phragmipedium anguloi and both described by the senior author are accepted, whereas P. manzurii and P. ramiroi which are not, are regarded as synonyms. The arguments used to recognize these taxa are similar in each case, and not particularly strong. Nevertheless, taxonomic interpretation is always up for debate and the book looses no merit for what is an understandable defense of the authors own work. At the end it is far more important to document orchid diversity well and that is the biggest success serious drawback of The Genus Phragmipedium are the recurrent personal attacks on fellow botanists that appear on several instances throughout the otherwise highly entertaining read. Rather than give the book, or any argument therein, additional strength, the unnecessary critiques become tiring. The book would be much better without them. Besides these minor details, Braem, Tesn and hlund present a wonderful treatment of the genus Phragmipedium The book should be in the hands of every orchid enthusiast, especially those interested in slipper orchids. It should not be missed by anyone looking to know more about the historical details behind the controversial discovery and description of orchids with potential commercial value. The beauty, diversity and intrigue of Phragmipedium is uniquely represented in this outstanding work. Adam P. Karremans Lankester Botanical Garden University of Costa Rica

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. LANKESTERIANA 18(3): 247 2018. Anathallis luteola Toscano, sp. nov. 18(3): 177. 2018. Andinia obesa S.Vieira-Uribe & Karremans, sp. nov. 17(2): 311. 2017. Brachionidium puipuiensis L.Valenz., sp. nov. 17(2): 114. 2017. Catasetum colidense Engels, Fern.Rocha & Benelli, sp. nov. 16(3): 329. 2016. Catasetum lucisuareziae M.Bonilla, Mosquera & Benelli, sp. nov 17(3): 404. 2017. Cyrtochilum albovirens N.Gut. & P.A.Harding, sp. nov. 18(1): 63. 2018. Cyrtochilum luerorum Dalstrm, sp. nov. 17(2): 281. 2017. Diodonopsis ramiromedinae Thoerle, sp. nov. 17(2): 223. 2017. Echinosepala biseta (Luer) Pupulin, comb. nov. 17(2): 303. 2017. Echinosepala expolita Pupulin & Belfort, sp. nov. 17(2): 294. 2017. Echinosepala longipedunculata Pupulin & Karremans sp. nov. 17(2): 299. 2017. Epidendrum lasiostachyum Rodr.-Martnez, Hgsater & E.Santiago, sp. nov. 16(1): 30. 2016. Lepanthes tetrapus Baquero & J.S.Moreno, sp. nov. 18(3): 183. 2018. Lepanthes vargasii J.S.Moreno, S.Vieira-Uribe & Karremans, sp. nov. 17(2): 227. 2017. Masdevallia luerorum Bogarn, Oses & C.M.Sm., sp. nov. 17(2): 237. 2017. Masdevallia tatianae Dalstrm & Ruz Prez, sp. nov. (3): 367. 2016. Myoxanthus cereus (Ames) Luer ex Rojas-Alv. & Karremans, comb. nov. 17(2): 210. 2017. Szlach., Mytnik & S.Nowak, syn. nov. 16(2): 141. 2016. Myrosmodes cochlearis Garay, syn. nov. 16(2): 147. 2016. Myrosmodes inaequalis (Rchb.f.) C.A.Vargas, syn. nov. 16(2): 144. 2016. Myrosmodes weberbaueri (Schltr.) C.A.Vargas, syn. nov. 16(2): 138. 2016. Oliveriana hirtzii Dalstrm, sp. nov. 16(3): 346. 2016. Pabstiella avenacea (Ames) Luer, syn. nov. 16(2): 165. 2016. Pabstiella calimanii Toscano & Luer, sp. nov. 16(2): 154. 2016. Pabstiella cipoensis L.Kollmann, sp. nov. 16(2): 173. 2016. Pabstiella deltoglossa (Cogn.) Toscano & Luer, comb. nov. 16(2): 182. 2016. Pabstiella leucosepala (Cogn.) F.Barros & C.F.Hall, syn. nov. 16(2): 165. 2016. Pabstiella mentigera (Kraenzl.) L.Kollmann, syn. nov. 16(2): 159. 2016. Pabstiella podoglossa (Hoehne) Luer, syn. nov. 16(2): 178. 2016. Pabstiella pterophora (Cogn.) Chiron, syn. nov. 16(2): 168. 2016. Pabstiella recurviloba Toscano & Luer, spec. nov. 16(2): 158. 2016. Pabstiella stictophylla (Schltr.) J.Caetano & L.R.S.Guim., comb. nov. 17(1): 158. 2016. Palmorchis blancae Damian, sp. nov. 18(3): 195. 2018. Palmorchis liberolabellata Damian, sp. nov. 18(3): 199. 2018 Palmorchis loretana Damian & L.A.Torres, sp. nov. 18(3): 201. 2018. Palmorchis yavarensis Damian & L.A.Torres, sp. nov. 18(3): 203. 2018. Phymatidium glaziovii Toscano, syn. nov. 16(1): 13. 2016. Platystele baqueroi L.Jost & Iturralde, sp. nov. 17(1): 55. 2017. Platystele carl-lueriana Karremans & Bogarn, sp. nov. 17(2): 215. 2017. Platystele jane-lueriana Karremans & Bogarn, sp. nov. 17(2): 219. 2017. Platystele pamelae Baquero & Zuchan, sp. nov. 17(2): 245. 2017. Pleurothallis andreae Mark Wilson, B.T.Larsen & J.Portilla, sp. nov. 17(2): 177. 2017. Pleurothallis avenacea Ames, syn. nov. 16(2): 165. 2016. Pleurothallis castanea Mark Wilson, G.Merino & J.D.Werner sp. nov. 16(3): 358. 2016. INDEX OF TAXONOMIC NOVELTIES, LANKESTERIANA VOL. 16, 2016

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LANKESTERIANA Pleurothallis caucensis Mark Wilson, sp. nov. 17(2): 122. 2017. Pleurothallis chicalensis M.M.Jimnez & Baquero sp. nov. 18(2): 104. 2018. Pleurothallis indecora Rodr.-Mart. & Karremans, sp. nov. 17(2): 251. 2017. Pleurothallis jostii Mark Wilson & J.Portilla, sp. nov. 17(2): 146. 2017. Pleurothallis juvenilis Rodr.-Mart. & Karremans, sp. nov. 17(2): 253. 2017. Pleurothallis kelsoae Mark Wilson, B.T.Larsen & J.Portilla sp. nov. 17(2): 184. 2017. Pleurothallis leucosepala Loefgr., syn. nov. 16(2): 165. 2016. Pleurothallis lueriana Karremans & Rodr.-Mart., sp. nov. 17(2): 255. 2017. Pleurothallis luna-crescens Pupulin, J.Aguilar & Mel.Fernndez, sp. nov. 17(2): 158. 2017. Pleurothallis magnicalcarata Loefgr, syn. nov. 16(2): 159. 2016. Pleurothallis manningiana Mark Wilson, Salas Guerr. & B.T.Larsen, sp. nov. 17(2): 180. 2017. Pleurothallis mathildae Brade, syn. nov. 16(2): 165. 2016. Pleurothallis mentigera Kraenzl., syn. nov. 16(2): 158. 2016. Pleurothallis minutilabia Mark Wilson, F.Tobar, A.J.Prez, sp. nov. 18(3): 222. 2018. Pleurothallis nangaritzae M.M.Jimnez, Tobar & Mark Wilson, sp. nov. 16(3): 358. 2016. Pleurothallis navisepala Pupulin, J.Aguilar & M.Daz, sp. nov. 17(2): 344. 2017. Pleurothallis podoglossa Hoehne, syn. nov. 16(2): 178. 2016. Pleurothallis pterophora Cogn., syn. nov. 16(2): 168. 2016. Pleurothallis pterophora var. minor Cogn., syn. nov. 16(2): 168. 2016. Pleurothallis pudica Pupulin, J.Aguilar & M.Daz, sp. nov. 17(2): 154. 2017. Pleurothallis queremalensis Rinc.-Useche, Rodr.-Mart. & Karremans, sp. nov. 17(2): 257. 2017 Pleurothallis quitu-cara Carrera & Baquero, sp. nov. 18(2): 87. 2018. Pleurothallis rubrifolia Mark Wilson, Tobar & Salas Guerr., sp. nov. 16(3): 351. 2016. Pleurothallis scotinantha Pupulin, M.Daz & J.Aguilar, sp. nov. 17(2): 337. 2017. Pleurothallis wielii Mark Wilson, B.T.Larsen & J.Portilla, sp. nov. 17(2): 174. 2017. Porroglossum raoorum Baquero & Iturralde, sp. nov. 17(1): 50. 2017. Scaphosepalum tarantula Baquero & Hirtz, sp. nov. 18(3): 231. 2018. Scaphosepalum zieglerae Baquero, sp. nov. 17(2): 305. 2017. Spathoglottis jetsunae N.Gyeltshen, K.Tobgyel & Dalstrm, sp. nov. 17(3): 397. 2017. Specklinia avenacea (Ames) Luer, syn. nov. 16(2): 165. 2016 Specklinia elegantula (Cogn.) Luer, syn. nov. 16(2): 165. 2016. Specklinia leucopyramis (Rchb.f.) Luer, syn. nov. 16(2): 168. 2016. Specklinia leucosepala (Loefgr.) Luer, syn. nov. 16(2): 165. 2016. Specklinia mentigera (Kraenzl.) F.Barros & Barbarena, syn. nov. 16(2): 159. 2016. Specklinia podoglossa (Hoehne) Luer, syn. nov. 16(2): 178. 2016. Stelis aenigma Karremans & M.Daz, sp. nov. 17(2): 197. 2017. Stelis diesnatalis Karremans & M.Daz, sp. nov. 17(2): 194. 2017. Teagueia anitana L.Jost & Shepard, sp. nov. 17(2): 271. 2017. Teagueia beverlysacklerae L.Jost & Shepard, sp. nov. 17(2): 269. 2017. Teagueia kostoglouana L.Jost & Shepard sp. nov. 17(2): 263. 2017. L.Jost & Shepard sp. nov. 17(2): 265. 2017. Trichoglottis corazoniae Naive & J.C.Martyr, sp. nov. 18(2): 81. 2018. Trichosalpinx mathildae (Brade) Toscano & Luer, syn. nov. 16(2): 165. 2016. Trichosalpinx podoglossa (Hoehne) Luer, syn. nov. 16(2): 178. 2016. Trichosalpinx pterophora (Cogn.) Luer, syn. nov. 16(2): 168. 2016. Vanda cootesii Motes sp. nov. 16(3): 341. 2016. Vanda mariae Motes, sp. nov. 16(3): 337. 2016. LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 248

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LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. LANKESTERIANA 18(3): 249 2018. JAMES ACKERMAN, Professor & Director of UPRRP Natural History Collections, University of Puerto Rico, Department of Biology, San Juan, Puerto Rico. JON GREN, Department of Plant Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Sweden. JESS AGUIRRE-GUTIRREZ Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Biodiversity Dynamics, Leiden, The Netherlands. LEONID V. AVERYANOV, Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia. Department of Plant Taxonomy & Nature Conservation, The University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland. Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Lower New Colony, Meghalaya, India. Jardn Botnico de Missouri-Per, Pasco, Per. Jardn Botnico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica. Jardn Botnico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica. Institute of Biology, University in Bialystok, Poland. ERIC DE CAMARGO SMIDT, Universidad Federal do Paran, Sector de Ciencias Biolgicas, Centro Politcnico, Jardim das Amricas, Curitiba, Brasil. GERMAN CARNEV ALLI de Yucatn A. C. (CICY), Yucatn, Mxico. El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Chetumal, Mxico. JEAN CLAESSENS Department of Botany, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. N COLLANTES Inkaterra-Inka Terra Association, Lima, Peru. JIM COOTES 7 Bronte Place, Woodbine, NSW, Australia. 2560. Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Ro Piedras, San Juan, Puerto Rico. The Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, U.K. STIG DALSTRM 2304 Ringling Boulevard, unit 119, Sarasota FL 34237, U.S.A. LORENA ENDARA Department of Biology, University of Florida, Florida, U.S.A. Jardn Botnico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica. Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico at Humacao, Humacao, Puerto Rico. NICOLA S. FLANAGAN Conservation Biotechnology, Universidade Federal do Paran, Setor de Cincias Biolgicas, Brazil. Jardn Botnico Orquideario Soroa, Universidad de Pinar del Ro, Candelaria, Artemisa, Cuba. Herbario AMO, Mxico D.F., Mxico 5317 Delano Ct, Cape Coral, FL 33904, U.S.A. RUDOLF JENNY Jany Renz Herbarium, Swiss Orchid Foundation, Switzerland. Herbario Nacional de Bolivia, La Paz, Bolivia. Laboratorio de Ecologa Urbana, Escuela de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Estatal a Distancia, Santa Cruz de Guanacaste, Costa Rica. LOU JOST Fundacion EcoMinga, Tungurahua, Ecuador. ADAM KARREMANS Jardn Botnico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica. JASPREET KAUR, Department of Plant & Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, U.S.A. Department of Plant Taxonomy & Nature Conservation, The University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland. INDEX OF SCIENTIFIC REVIEWERS OF THE MANUSCRIPTS SUBMITTED TO LANKESTERIANA VOL. 17, 2017 The Editor-in-Chief, Managing Editors, Editorial Committee, Editorial Board and Editorial staff of LANKESTERIANA acknowledge the reviewers listed below for their willing cooperation. It is greatly appreciated that they have generously invested their time and competence in providing valuable comments and advice, for LANKESTERIANA

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TIIU KULL Department of Botany, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia. Costitutiestraat 94, 2060 Antwerp, Belgium. CARLOS LEOPARDI Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad de Colima, Colima, Mxico. MARIL YN LIGHT 174, rue Jolicoeur, Gatineau Qubec Canada J8Z 1C9. GARY E. MEYER Vice-President, Pleurothallid Alliance, San Francisco Orchid Society, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Fundacin Ecotonos, Cali, Colombia. ANA T MOSQUERA ESPINOSA Departamento de Ciencias Javeriana, Cali, Colombia. MARTIN MOTES Fairchild Tropical Botanic Gardens, Coral Gables, Florida, U.S.A. ERNESTO MJICA Centro de Investigaciones y Servicios Ambientales ECOVIDA, Pinar del Ro, Cuba. CARLOS NARANJO Universidad Tcnica Particular de Loja, Ecuador. SIU herbarium, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University, Illinois, U.S.A. SUREEPORN NONTACHAIYAPOOM School of Science, Mah Fah Luang University, Thailand. PAUL ORMEROD P.O. Box 8210, Cairns 4870, Queensland, Australia. Jardn Botnico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica. Laboratrio de Biologia Molecular e Biossistemtica de Plantas, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de So Paulo, So Paulo, Brasil. HENRIK PEDERSEN Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. EDLLEY PESSOA Laboratrio de Morfo Taxonomia Vegetal, Departamento de Botnica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Pernambuco, Brazil. Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Kent, U.K. GUSTA VO ROJAS ALV ARADO Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jos, Costa Rica. GUSTA VO ROMERO Orchid Herbarium of Oakes Ames, Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, U.S.A. GRETTEL SALGUERO Jardn Botnico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica. ESTELA SANDOV AL-ZAPOTITLA Jardn Botnico, Instituto de Biologa, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico Distrito Federal, Mxico. ANDR SCHUITEMAN and Naming, Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, U.K. Botanical Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Maharastra, India. RODOLFO SOLANO Instituto de Ecologa, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, Mxico D.F. Mxico. LISA THOERLE 23 John Dyer Road Little Compton RI 02837 U.S.A. DELSY TRUJILLO Herbario MOL, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Per. SPYROS TSIFTSIS Department of Botany, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. NGEL VALE Department of Plant Biology and Soil Sciences, Faculty of Biology, University of Vigo, Spain. Grupo de Investigacin en Orqudeas, Ecologa y Sistemtica Vegetal, Universidad Nacional, sede Palmira, Colombia. Jardn Botnico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica. Senior Biologist, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Florida, U.S.A. Department of Organismal Biology and Ecology Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colorado, U.S.A. Center for Global Change and Sustainability & Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria. LANKESTERIANA LANKESTERIANA 18(3). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. 250

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LANKESTERIANA 18(): . AUTHOR INSTRUCTIONS LANKESTERIANA is a peer-reviewed journal. Each manuscript will be critically evaluated by two or more external reviewers, under the double-blind model. An Editor in charge is assigned to each manuscript, who performs editorial tasks to improve the accordance of the manuscript to the general style of the journal, and Please read carefully the following Instructions and check the appropriate items to be sure your manuscript is formatted according to the journal style. Manuscripts that do not conform to the Instructions, both in format and contents, will be sent back to the authors for formatting prior to the reviewing process. This would represent a General Instructions cm) margin on all sides. cited. Do not justify the right margin. Authors are responsible for diacritical marks. Appendices, 8) Figure legends, 9) Figures. before submission. they are generally not accepted for publication. taxa. Title, Running title, Addresses, Abstract [+ optional Abstract in second language] & Key Words after the addresses, the email of the correspondent author, to whom reprints should be sent. understanding of the article content and must include short but full reference to paper results. In the case of newly described taxa, diagnostic characters must be shortly stated. Optional abstract in a second language should follow in separate paragraph in same format. the title. are provided by the editorial staff. includes the author(s) surname(s) and a short title. Total number of characters must not exceed 50.LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 18(). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018.

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Text period, dash, and the paragraph text. 1991). et alet al. 1991). et al.et al. 1991). should be listed in the order they appear in the reference list (alphabetically, then chronologically). thereafter in that paragraph. Do not abbreviate genus name at the beginning of a sentence. Index Herbariorum (Regnum Veg. designate herbaria. It is not necessary to cite this publication. the numbers followed by periods. Authors of taxa are not included and species are not numbered in the key. et al. in Index Herbariorum Literature Cited LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 18(). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018.

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LANKESTERIANA Authors instructionsLANKESTERIANA 18(). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018.number if known) or the publisher. language of titles. Light and growth Light and growth Title of Journal insert DOI when it is available. or publisher. The name of the journal where the paper was accepted must be indicated, the volume number should be included if known. Tables Figure Legends each group. Pleurothallis inedita Luisia inedita Somebody 567 or refer to them by name in the legend.

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LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 18(). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018.Preparation and submission of illustrations background. They are not placed over a rectangular, contrasting background, but directely on the photograph will not be accepted. The artist must also be cited in the Acknowledgments. unused area. Distributions of several species with non-overlapping ranges can be placed on one map by using different symbols. Conditions for publication in abstract form, and that the article contains no matter which invades the right of privacy or which infringes any proprietary right. publication in any book of which they are the authors or editors, subject to the express condition that lawful notice of claim of copyright be given. What to submit ucr.ac.cr and lankesteriana@ucr.ac.cr, pending the submission of a e-link for high-resolution images regular mail (see address above).

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LANKESTERIANA Authors instructionsLANKESTERIANA 18(). 2018. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018. months, any phone, fax, e-mail numbers for the corresponding author. Indicate which author of a multiauthored ucr.ac.cr) or the Technical Editor (noelia.belfort@ucr.ac.cr) by e-mail after sending your package. When to submit LANKESTERIANA (April, August and the time to correspond with authors, the editorial staff of LANKESTERIANA is committed to reduce to a minimum the time for articles publication. Submit to Editor-in-Chief LANKESTERIANA E-mail: franco.pupulin@ucr.ac.cr Associate Editor LANKESTERIANA Technical Editor LANKESTERIANA E-mail: noelia.belfort@ucr.ac.cr LANKESTERIANA should be addressed to lankesteriana@ucr.ac.cr.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY LANKESTERIANA Editor-in-Chief (Director) FRANCO PUPULIN Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica franco.pupulin@ucr.ac.cr Associate Editor MELISSA DAZ-MORALES Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica melissa.diaz_m@ucr.ac.cr Technical Editor NOELIA BELFORT OCONITRILLO Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica noelia.belfort@ucr.ac.cr JAMES D. ACKERMAN University of Puerto Rico, U.S.A. GERMN CARNEVALI Mexico PHILLIP CRIBB Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. CARLOS F. FIGHETTI The American Orchid Society, U.S.A. GNTER GERLACH Botanischer Garten Mnchen-Nymphenburg, Germany HEIKO HENTRICH Deutsche Homopathie-Union Karlsruhe, Germany JULIN MONGE-NJERA Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica DAVID L. ROBERTS University of Kent, U.K. ANDR SCHUITEMAN Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. JORGE WARNER Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica FRANCO BRUNO MARK W. CHASE Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. U.K. ROBERT L. DRESSLER Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica LAUREN GARDINER Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. ERIC HGSATER Herbario AMO, Mexico WESLEY E. HIGGINS The American Orchid Society, U.S.A. ALEC M. PRIDGEON Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. GUSTAVO A. ROMERO Harvard University Herbaria, U.S.A. PHILIP SEATON l UCN / SSC Orchid Specialist Group, U.K. W. MARK WHITTEN Florida Museum of Natural History, U.S.A. MARIO A. BLANCO Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica VCTOR JIMNEZ GARCA Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica GABRIELA JONES ROMN Universidad Estatal a Distancia, Costa Rica ADAM P. KARREMANS Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica FRANCO PUPULIN Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica JORGE WARNER Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica NORRIS H. WILLIAMS Florida Museum of Natural History, U.S.A LANKESTERIANA tion of original contributions on orchidology, including orchid systematics, ecology, evolution, anatomy, physiology, his evaluated critically by two or more external referees. LANKESTERIANA Library, and Biodiveristy Heritage Library, and in the electronic resources of the Columbia University, the University of Florida, the University of Hamburg, and the Smithsonian Institution, among others. LANKESTERIANA POST M ASTER Box 302-7050 Cartago, Costa Rica, C.A. ED ITORIAL O FF ICE MANUSCRI P TS IN F OR M ATION F OR CONTRI B UTORS ME MB ERSHI P O FF ICE INSTITUTIONAL SU B SCRI P TION RATES : $50.00 per year. SU B SCRI P TION TER M : Calendar year only. Not IN D IVI D UAL SU B SCRI P TIONS are admissible. RE M ITTANCES BACK ISSUES : Single issues are available for sale at $ 20.00 CHAN G ES O F A DD RESS LANKESTERIANA LANKESTERIANA LANKESTERIANA DIRECCIN POSTAL OFICINA ED ITORIAL MANUSCRITOS INFOR M ACIN PARA CONTRIBU D ORES Y CONTRIBU D ORAS OFICINA D E ME M BRESA COSTO DE SUSCRIPCIN INSTITUCIONAL TRMINOS DE SUSCRIPCIN TERM SUSCRIPCIONES INDIVIDUALES PAGOS ED ICIONES ANTERIORES CAMBIOS DE DIRECCIN [\

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Vol 18, No. 2 August 2018 V OL 18, N o 3 DECEMBER 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY ISSN 1409-3871 (continues in the internal pages) Editorial. A paperless journal, but still on paper nevertheless FRANCO PUPULIN The effect of smoke derivatives and carbon utilization on symbiotic germination of the endangered Pterostylis despectans (Orchidaceae) and TIEN HUYNH A new species of Anathallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Brazil The four footed Lepanthes (Pleurothallidinae), a new species from north-western Ecuador and Trichocentrum undulatum (Orchidaceae) by Melanagromyza sp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Cuba and HONG LIU The genus Palmorchis (Orchidaceae: Neottieae) in Peru: a taxonomic synopsis including four new species and a new record and First wild record of Dendrochilum warrenii (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae) and Sertifera and A new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) in subsection Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae with a unique, highly reduced, morphologically distinct labellum and I 167 177 183 189 193 207 211 217