Citation
Lankesteriana

Material Information

Title:
Lankesteriana la revista científica del Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Creator:
Jardín Botánico Lankester
Place of Publication:
Cartago Costa Rica
Cartago, Costa Rica
Publisher:
Jardi´n Bota´nico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Three times a year[2002-]
Irregular[ FORMER 2001]
three times a year
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Botany -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica ( lcsh )
Epiphytes -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica ( lcsh )
Orchids -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica ( lcsh )
Plantkunde ( gtt )
Botanische tuinen ( gtt )
Genre:
periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Costa Rica

Notes

Language:
In English and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
No. 1 (mayo 2001)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issues for May 2001-Oct. 2003 designated no.1-8; issues for Apr. 2004- designated vol. 4, no. 1-
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 1 (abr. 2004).
General Note:
International journal on orchidology.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
48491453 ( OCLC )
2001240973 ( LCCN )
1409-3871 ( ISSN )

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ISSN 1409-3871VOL. 15, No. 1 APRIL 2015In memoriam: Moiss Bhar (1922-2015) CARLOS OSSENBACH An annotated checklist of the orchids of Western Himalaya, India JEEWAN SINGH JALAL and J. JAYANTHI An attractive but rarely seen Odontoglossum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from Ecuador STIG DALSTRM Two new similar species of Masdevallia (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Pasco, Peru STIG DALSTRM and SAUL RUZ PREZ A novel seed baiting technique for the epiphytic orchid Rhynchostele cervantesii , a means to acquire mycorrhizal fungi from protocorms JESS BERNARDO CRUZ-HIGAREDA, BRBARA SUSANA LUNA-ROSALES and AMADEO BARBALVAREZ New species and nomenclatural notes in Acianthera from Brazi l A . L . V . TOS C ANO D E BRITO and CARLYLE A . LUER A new species and a new record in Trichosalpinx (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Peru LISA THOERLE and CARMEN SOTO Cyrtochilum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from the high plains of central Ecuador STIG DALSTRM Authors instructions INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY1 7 51 59 67 77 93 101 107 LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANAINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY Copyright 2015 Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica Effective publication date ISSN 2215-2067 (electronic ): March 16, 2015 Effective publication date ISSN 1409-3871 (printed ): April 11, 2015 Layout: Jardn Botnico Lankester. Cover: Acianthera bidentula (Barb.Rodr.) Pridgeon & M.W.Chase. Photo by A. Toscano de Brito Printer: MasterLitho. Printed copies: 500 Printed in Costa Rica / Impreso en Costa RicaR Lankesterian a / International Journal on Orchidology No. 1 (2001)-. -San Jos, Costa Rica: Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica, 2001-v. ISSN-1409-3871 (impresa) ISSN-2215-2067 (electrnica) 1. Botnica Publicaciones peridicas, 2. Publicaciones peridicas costarricenses

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This issue of Lankesteriana is dedicated to the memory of MOISS BHAR (1922-2015), pre-eminent Guatemalan orchidologist and a dear friend to all

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LANKESTERIANAINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGYSince the beginning of the century, LANKESTERIANA, the International Journal on Orchidology, has represented the activity, LANKESTERIANA established itself as a leading journal to publish cutting edge research on orchid systematics, ecology, evolution, anatomy, physiology, history, and other aspects of orchid science. LANKESTERIANA is worldwide distributed in over 350 national, university, and specialized libraries, and its webpage is visited by thousands of scientists and orchidologists yearly. References to the journal are found in virtually any LANKESTERIANA Core Electronic Journals Library, and Biodiveristy Heritage Library, and in the electronic resources of the Columbia University, the University of Florida, the University of Hamburg, and the Smithsonian Institution, among others.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1): 1. 2015. Moi, as he liked to be called by family and friends, passed away on February 14th in Jerusalem, where he had enjoyed the last years of his life in the loving care of his daughter Jacqueline. At the age of 92, he now rests in peace in the Mount of Olives Cemetery. After Otto Mittelstaedt (1919-2000) and Otto Tinschert (1915-2006), Guatemala’s orchidology has now lost the third of its founding fathers. Moiss Bhar Alcah was born on August 28, 1922 in Huehuetenango, Guatemala, as the third of six children of Elas Bhar and his wife Eugenia, who had emigrated from Turkey in the aftermath of World War I, after the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire (Fig. 1A). Elas Bhar set up business as a tailor and cloth importer in San Pedro Sacatepquez, in the Department of San Marcos. A small village with a predominant indigenous population at an elevation of over 7,200 primary education at the local school. He then went to high school in the neighboring city of Quetzaltenango. It was his childhood and adolescence in these pristine mountains of Guatemala’s highlands that marked his life and character, for Moi developed a close and intimate relationship with nature. medicine, Moiss moved to Guatemala City against the will of this father, who wanted him to go into the family business. He graduated as Surgeon and Physician in 1949 at the University of San Carlos and in 1954 married Beatriz Aldana, daughter of a well-known Guatemalan physician and former Minister of Public Health (Fig. 1B). Moi and Beatriz had three children: Michelle (1955), a plastic artist who now lives in Curitiba, Brazil; Jacqueline (1957) a translator living in Jerusalem; and Henri (1958), an architect who serves as director of a prestigious school in Switzerland. Moiss Bhar made a brilliant career in medicine. He specialized in Pediatrics and Hepatology at the University of Paris in 1951 and received a Master’s Degree in Public Health from Harvard University in 1960. After working as Chief of the General Direction of Public Health from 1951 to 1953 he began his career as consultant in pediatrics for the Institute for Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), being named in 1957 as Assistant Director and in 1961 as Director, a position he held until 1974. In 1975, Moiss Bhar moved to Geneva, Switzerland, to occupy the position of Chief of the Department of Nutrition of the World Health Organization. During his professional life Moiss Bhar occupied important positions. He was President of the Guatemalan Pediatrics Society from 1956 to 1957, Vice-President of the American Society of Public Health from 1966 to 1967, received the Bronfman Prize from the American Society of Public Health in 1968, was installed as a full member of the Guatemalan Academy of Sciences in 1973, decorated by the Government of Guatemala with the order Rodolfo Robles in 1994 and again with the National Order of Pedro de San Jos de Bethancourt in 2007. He published over 150 articles and chapters of books, mostly on infantile malnutrition, and gained international reputation for the development, conceptualization, testing and trials, together with a group of scientists, of INCAPARINA, a formula consisting of a mixture of predominantly vegetable protein made from entirely indigenous materials, income population of Central America. INCAPARINA derived its name from INCAP, the institute of which Moiss Bhar had been Director for so many years, and HARINA, Bhar, “for many of our problems the solutions cannot be found in the textbooks, nor will they be sought for by other countries.”IN MEMORIAM: MOISS BHAR (1922-2015) CARLOS OSSENBACH Orquideario 25 de mayo, Sabanilla de Montes de Oca caossenb@racsa.co.cr

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FIGURE 1950’s). B. Moiss Bhar (1922-2015) (early 1950’s).LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.2 LANKESTERIANA His interest in orchids began early, and became almost a second profession as soon as he had established himself as a successful professional and had formed a family (Fig. 3). In 1960, and on the initiative of Moi, six friends devoted to orchids began to meet on a regular basis, and thirteen years later, the Guatemalan Society of Orchidology (Asociacin Guatemalteca de Orquideologa or AGO) was formally established by its eight founding members. Moiss Bhar became the Moi dedicated himself to several areas of interest amongst orchids, but in two of them – intimately related– he became a noted international expert: the hybridization of orchids of the subtribe Pleurothalidiinae and the photography of miniature orchids long before the advent of digital photographic technology. His lectures on orchid photography where packed to the last seat (Fig. 4). The author was lucky to be able to attend two of them in Soroa, Cuba in 2000 and in San Jos, Costa Rica in 2001, and retains unforgettable memories of Moi and his generous and charming ways of sharing his enormous knowledge with the common mortals. His daughter Jacqueline recalls how he fell in love with miniature orchids. When he moved to Switzerland in 1975, he left his large orchid collection in Guatemala. After a while, he could not resist the urge to grow orchids, and so he bought a small greenhouse which he attached to his house. One thing led to another, and so the small dimensions of the greenhouse led to the growing of miniatures. He had to confront plants, while in winter they froze to death. Again, Moi had great success and overcame all obstacles, ending as Vice-President of the Swiss Society of Orchidology (Groupe de Romandie), to which he inherited all his plants when he returned to Guatemala in 1986. Of Moi’s dozens of hybrids, he dedicated two to his daughters: Lepanthopsis Michelle and Pleurothallis Jacqueline (Fig. 5). FIGURE 3. Moi and wife Beatriz at their home in Guatemala with beautiful specimens of Guarianthe skinneri .A B

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. OSSENBACH In memoriam: Moiss Bhar (1922)3 An enthusiast of miniature orchids could not live long without crossing the path of the unchallenged world authority on Pleurothalidiinae, Dr. Carlyle Luer. Moi for the remembers: “Moi Behar was one of our best friends. We knew him for over 30 years. I guess it was Lepanthes that brought us together when he retired from Geneva. We visited him and his wife in Guatemala in their home and He had also visited with us in our home in Sarasota. Later, after he lost his wife, he moved to Curitiba where we also visited with him where he was living with his daughter Michelle. Our birthdays were frequently, so when I did not hear from him since last August, I knew he was not well.” Moi and Luer’s friendship yielded a large harvest. Together they contributed to Guatemala’s orchidology FIGURE 5. Mois Bhar’s miniature orchid hybrids. A. Lepanthopsis Michelle . B. Pleurothallis Jacqueline.A B FIGURE 4. Examples of Moiss Bhar’s achievements in macro photography. A. Lepanthes Lepanthes

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.4 LANKESTERIANAwith the description of 23 orchids new to science, all from their beloved Pleurothalidiinae. In addition, Carlyle Luer described another new Lepanthes from Guatemala and named it in honor of his friend as Lepanthes beharii (Tab. 1). Moi’s grandson Asher, son of his daughter Jacqueline, became in his old days his pupil and companion, his fellow traveler and his ‘second pair of eyes’. Asher went with Moi to the tree tops to bring down the beautiful miniatures, helped him with the determination of the plants, and traveled with him to various world orchid conferences. Today, and thanks to his years with his grandfather, Asher has become another orchid expert. In Asher’s words, he not only lost his grandfather, but the only person in the world with whom he could talk on a similar intellectual level. Asher had a son 8 months ago and proudly named him Moshe, Moiss in Hebrew. to the orchidology of his country. Already in 1993 he had published a small book under the title Orchids of Guatemala, but his major work, in co-authorship with his close friend Otto Tinschert (1915-2006) was the publication in 1998 of Guatemala y sus Orqudeas/ Guatemala and its Orchids (Fig. 6), a beautiful masterpiece with descriptions and photographs of 260 species in 100 genera, with additional detailed information about the different life zones of the country. Most photographs were, as could be expected, taken by Moi himself. Moiss Bhar and his friend Otto Tinschert tried to set in motion a large-scaled orchid conservation project in the northern department of Petn. Defying the internal wars between leftist groups and the Guatemalan Army, Moi and Otto travelled together, trying to convince the lumber industry to save the orchids from the large forest areas that were being cut down and to bring them to an Army base, so that they could be later re-planted in other areas. Unfortunately, the project met with no interest and soon failed. Disappointed by the tragic situation of the deforestation in Guatemala, and with little hope of detaining it, Moi and Otto began, with a small group of interested friends, to promote the creation the voids in the areas of research, study, sustainable worked arduously towards this ideal, convincing FIGURE 6. Guatemala and its Orchids – Front cover. TABLE 1. Orchids described by Luer and Bhar.Dresslerella archilae Luer & Bhar Lepanthes almolongae Luer & Bhar Luer & Bhar Lepanthes chapina Luer & Bhar Luer & Bhar Lepanthes empticia Luer & Bhar Luer & Bhar [Fig. 08] Luer & Bhar Lepanthes herrerae Luer & Bhar Lepanthes ibanezii Luer & Bhar Luer & Bhar Luer & Bhar Luer & Bhar Luer & Bhar Lepanthes noelii Luer & Bhar Luer & Bhar Lepanthes pabloi Luer & Bhar Lepanthes pachyphylla Luer & Bhar Luer & Bhar Lepanthes stenosepala Luer & Bhar Lepanthes tecpanica Luer & Bhar Lepanthes velifera Luer & Bhar Luer & Bhar

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015 . Received 8.3.2015. Accepted 13.3.2015. OSSENBACH In memoriam: Moiss Bhar (1922)5and motivating universities, foundations and other organizations. This idea has now little hope of it becoming reality. After living for several years in Brazil with his daughter Michelle (Fig. 7A), in the last years of his life, Moi moved to Jerusalem with his daughter Jacqueline (Fig. 7B), while he still was able to travel a few times to Geneva, to visit with son Henri (Fig. 8). However, he never would see his beloved mountains of Guatemala again. Generous to his last day, he had donated his large collection of photographs to the Guatemalan Orchid Society, and shared his vast knowledge with anybody who came to him in need of answers, as the author can acknowledge from own experience. Wonderful doctor, orchidologist, great-grandfather, grandfather, father and friend. Farewell Moi! Rest in peace! ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . To Jacqueline Bhar, who has valuable insight into her father’s life and provided all of the family photos; and to Julio Fonseca, President of the Guatemalan Orchid Society, who contributed with many of Moi’s splendid orchid photographs. FIGURE 8. Moi and son Henri.A B FIGURE 7. Moi with daughters Michelle (A) and Jacqueline (B) .

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1): 7. 2015.Introduction. The Western Himalaya of India lies between 28 45’– 360 20’ N latitude and 730 26’– 800 24’ E longitude and occupies about 331,402 km area, which is almost 10.08 % of India’s total geographic area (Fig. 1). It spreads over three states viz., Jammu & Kashmir (J & K), Himachal Pradesh (HP) and Uttarakhand (UK) which has traditionally been categorized under one phytogeographic unit i.e., Western Himalaya (Hooker 1906; Rau 1975). Subsequently, a few authors described this region as North-west Himalaya (Deva & Naithani 1986). Rodgers & Panwar (1988) recognize four biotic provinces in this region viz., Trans-Himalayan Mountains in the Western Ladakh and North-western Himachal Pradesh (1A), Eastern plateau of Ladakh covering Changthang and Spiti (1B), North-west Himalaya west of Satluj (2A) and Western Himalaya between Satluj and Sharada in Uttarakhand (2B). The Western Himalaya represents a biological and physical attributes. Depending upon the physiographic conditions (size, structure, elevation), the western Himalaya is broadly divided into Shiwalik Hills, lesser Himalaya, greater Himalaya and trans Himalaya. The elevation of this region varies from 300 m to 8611 m. The climate ranges from the tropical plains to alpine and arctic conditions. The annual rainfall varies from 600 mm to 1800 mm. The amount of yearly rainfall increases from west to east along the front of the range. The region is characterized by a complex geologic structure, snow capped peaks, large valley glaciers, deep river gorges cut by the river system of Indus, Satluj and Ganga. Important peaks, Naga Prabat (8114 m), Karakoram (8611 m), Nanda Devi (7817 m), Kamet (7756 m) and Badrinath (7138 m) are amongst the highest in the world. There are a number of small, medium and large size glaciers in this part of the Himalayan ranges with typical landform features. Some of the famous and important ones are Siachen glacier, Baltoro glacier, Hispar glacier and Nubra glacier in J&K. Bara Shigri glacier, Chandra Glacier, Chandra Nahan Glacier and Bhadal Glacier are in HP. Gangotari glacier, Bunder Puunch, Pindari, Milam, Ralam, Sunderdhunga, Khatling and Kaphini are in UK. The forest vegetation of Western Himalaya varies with climate, rainfall, altitude and soils. This may be largely attributed to the variation in topography and climatic conditions that prevail from tropical moist deciduous to dry alpine scrubs. Champion and Seth (1968) categories the vegetation of western Himalaya into six major groups viz., Moist Tropical Forests, Dry Tropical Forests, Montane Subtropical Forests, Montane Temperate Forests, Sub-Alpine Forests and Alpine Pastures (Fig. 2). It has been recognized as a major biodiversity hotspot by Conservation International due to its rich biodiversity. History of Orchid studies in Western Himalaya. The earliest botanical exploration to North–Western Himalaya was started by Thomas Hardwicke, the AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE ORCHIDS OF WESTERN HIMALAYA, INDIA JEEWAN SINGH JALAL & J. JAYANTHI Botanical Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Pune411 001, Maharashtra, India Corresponding author: jeewan.orchid@gmail.com ABSTRACT. A checklist of the Orchidaceae of Western Himalaya is presented based on recent orchid explorations and herbarium collections. This checklist comprised of 239 taxa of orchids belonging to 72 genera. Of these, 130 are terrestrial, 13 mycoheterotrophic and 96 epiphytic. Thirteen (13) species are endemic to Western Himalaya. The best represented genus is Dendrobium, with 16 species followed by Habenaria with 14 species and Bulbophyllum with 12 species. In this checklist habit, habitat, phenology, elevational range of distribution etc. are provided. . KEY WORDS : Orchids, Western Himalaya, Checklist, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.8 LANKESTERIANA a pioneer phytogeographer of NW Himalaya who made extensive collections of plants from Kashmir to Garhwal and Himachal Pradesh. He also collected plants from Kumaun Himalaya, which are described in his Illustrations of the Botany and other Branches of the Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains and of the Flora of Cashemere (1833 – 1839). Hugh Falconer who followed Royle at Saharanpur, collected along Indus in Kashmir form 1836 – 1838 and later in Garhwal with help of several plant collectors. Major Nathaniel Vicary, Lt. Col. E. Nadden, Werner Hoffmiester, Sir Richard Strachey, William Jameson, Sir. George King, John Lindsay Stewart, Dr. Dietrich Brandis, J.E.T. Aitchison, C.B. Clarke, Col. Sir. Henry Collett and Edward Winterbotton made extensive collection in North-Western Himalaya (Burkill, 1965). In Kumaun and Garhwal the most comprehensive collections were made by Richard Strachey and J.E. Winterbottom between the years 1846 – 1849. Their collections, consisting of about 2000 species, were distributed in the years 1852 – 1853 to the Hookerian Herbarium, the British Museum, the Linnanean Society and other important herbaria of the world. The original catalogue was published in 1882 in Atkinson’s Gazetter of Himalayan Districts of North –West Provinces and Oudh. With the appointment of J.F. Duthie as successor to W. Jameson at Saharanpur Garden in 1876 and establishment of the Forest School at Dehradun by W. Schlich and D. Brandis in 1876 – 1881, gave a new impetus to the phytography of the sub Himalayan tracts in particular and northern India in general. Collett (1902) reported 38 orchid species under 18 genera from Shimla and adjacent hills. Duthie (1906) described 173 orchid species in 43 genera from the entire NW Himalaya and provided illustrations for 53 species. Blatter (1928) included 17 orchid species after independence with the establishment of Northern Circle of the Botanical Survey of India at Dehradun FIGURE 1. Location map of Western Himalaya

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya9in 1956, extensive plant explorations and collections have been made in the north-western Himalaya and the upper Gangetic Plain. After which, Nair (1977) listed 43 orchid species in 19 genera from Bashahr Himalaya. Raizada et al. (1981) published orchids of Mussoorie and described 89 species in 35 genera. Seidenfaden & Arora (1982) enumerated the orchids of North–western Himalaya and gave an account of 250 species. Deva & Naithani (1986) revised and updated Duthie’s Orchids of North-Western Himalaya based on recent collections and provided an illustrated account of 239 orchid species in 74 genera. Pangtey et al. (1991) provided a detailed account of orchids from Kumaun Himalaya and described a total of FIGURE 2. Landscape and different high altitude habitats of orchids in Western Himalaya: A. A view of Panchachuli from Munsiyari, B. Timber line forest (Rhododendron campanulatum), C. A view of Ali meadow, D. A view of Valley of Flowers, E. Mixed coniferous forest, F. Rhododendron forest

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61 genera belonging to 192 species. Uniyal et al. Uttarakhand which include 242 species of orchids in 72 genera. Jalal et al. (2008) enumerated a total 237 species belonging to 73 genera from Uttarakhand. Vij & Verma 2005; Vij & Verma 2007a, b; Lal et al. 2008; Verma et al. 2010; Lal et al. 2010a, b; Agrawala & Chowdhery 2009a, b; Jalal et al. 2009; Jalal et al. 2010 a, b; Jalal & Pangtey 2011a, b; Jalal et al., 2012 a, b; Vikash et al. 2012; Bisht & Adhikari 2014, have reported several new records, rediscoveries and one new species from Western Himalaya. Recently Vij et al. (2013) published a book on Orchids of Himachal Pradesh and enumerated a total 85 species in 44 genera. Many species are fast disappearing from wild due to habitat changes, forest fragmentation, road construction and clearance of virgin forests for making dams and other developmental activities. The present study is an attempt to provide a detailed documentation in relation to the up-to-date taxonomic information, nomenclatural changes and distributional records. Attempt was also made to solve any ambiguity found in the earlier works. We hope that this enumeration will give a summary of present situation which will be useful to students, researchers and conservationist. Material and methods. The present study is based 2002 – 2010 in different seasons and various localities covering the altitudes from 300 m to 4800 m.a.s.l. of Western Himalaya. On encountering the orchids the location and habitat parameters were recorded and brief sketches of the plants were also made. For herbarium specimens one or two portions of the live plants were collected. For each species encountered, specimen following the standard technique (Jain & Rao 1977). Data was also collected from different herbaria viz., Botanical Survey of India, Northern Circle (BSD), Forest Research Institute (DD), Wildlife Institute of India (WII), Kumaun University Nainital (NTL), Punjab University Herbarium (PAN), Swiss Orchid Foundation at the Herbarium Jany Renz (SOF) http://orchid.unibas.ch. Author citations of books and journals have been used following Kew’s website (www.rbgkew.org.uk) and www.ipni.org and also following Brummitt & Powell (1992). Accepted taxon name in bold with author (s) followed by full citation. If there is a basionym, it is mentioned just after the correct name followed by most popular used heterotypic synonym(s) and months, habit, habitat, forest types and altitudinal distribution is also provided. For doubtful species a detailed note is also provided. Herbarium consultation numbers collected from different herbaria WII, DD, BSD, PAN, NTL and SOF are given. In cases where herbarium specimens are lacking, the most reliable references (Duthie 1906; Deva & Naithani 1986) that are based on previous collections in Western Himalaya LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.10 LANKESTERIANA Species Habit Elevation (m) Aphyllorchis gollanii Duthie Mh 3000 (Seidenf.) Schuit. & P.B.Adams E 800 – 1500 Seidenf. & Arora E 800 – 1500 Tsi E 1000 Deva & H.B.Naithani T 3300 – 3600 Neottia inayatii (Duthie) Schltr. Mh 3000 Deva & H.B.Naithani Mh 800 – 1500 (Hajra) Szlach. T 3000 – 3500 A.N.Rao T 1000 Nervilia pangteyana Jalal, Kumar & G.S.Rawat T 800 Renz T 1800 Ponerorchis renzii Deva & H.B.Naithani T 3300 – 4000 TABLE 1. Endemic orchids of Western Himalaya.Abbreviations: MhMycoheterotrophic, TTerrestrial, EEpiphytic.

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TABLE 2. List of species which are reported from western Himalaya but not included in the world check list of selected families (KEW). Species Habit (Rchb.f.) Agrawala & H.J.Chowdhery T (J.E.Sm.) Lindl. E & L Rchb.f. E Lindl. T (Wight) Ormerod E (Lindley) Szlachetko, T Lindl. E (L.) Sw. E Rchb.f. E Lindl. E (J.Koenig) Seidenf. T Epipactis gigantea Dougl. ex Hook. T Eria coronaria (Lindl.) Rchb .f. E Seidenf. E (J.Koenig ex Retz.) C.E.C.Fisch. T Duthie T (Lindl.) Hook.f. T (Maxim.) S.C.Chen, P.J.Cribb & S.W.Gale T (Lindl.) Kuntze E (Lam.) Schltr. T Benth ex Hook. T Dalz. T Schltr. S Raskoti T (King & Pantl.) Szlach. T (Lindl.) Szlach. T Blatt. & McCann. T Griff E & L Lindl. E Oberonia ensiformis (Sm.) Lindl. E Oberonia prainiana King & Pantl. E Lindl. E Oreorchis patens (Lindl.) Lindl. T Rchb.f. ELANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya11

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.12 LANKESTERIANA by different explorers are given to authenticate species present in Western Himalaya. In the checklist, all species including varieties have been dealt with either based on the fresh collections or on the authority of earlier published records only. Results. There are 239 taxa of orchids belonging to 72 genera in Western Himalaya. Of these, 130 are terrestrial, 13 mycoheterotrophic and 96 epiphytic. They are distributed in variety of habitats between 300 – 4600 m.a.s.l. Thirteen (13) species are endemic to Western Himalaya (Table 1). The genus Dendrobium (16 spp.), Habenaria (14 spp.), Bulbophyllum (12 spp.), Neottia (11 spp.), Liparis (10 spp.), Eulophia & Nervilia (9 spp. each), Calanthe, Oberonia & Peristylus species viz., Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl., Calanthe alismifolia Lindl., Calanthe brevicornu Lindl., Chiloschista usneoides (D.Don) Lindl., Dendrobium transparens Wall. ex Lindl., Eulophia mackinnonii Duthie, Eulophia obtusa (Lindl.) Hook.f., Gastrochilus garhwalensis Tsi, (Lam.) Schltr., Habenaria longifolia Buch.-Ham. ex Lindl., Liparis cordifolia Hook.f and Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl. have not been recollected after a lapse of more than hundred years. This study also reveals that fortyfour (44) species (Table 2) have not been included in the Kew checklist for Western Himalaya (http:// apps.kew.org/wcsp/home.do). Six (6) species namely Brachycorythis galeandra (Rchb.f.) Summerh., Bulbophyllum guttulatum (Hook.f.) N.P.Balakr., Lindl., Eulophia spectabilis (Dennst.) Suresh, Habenaria gibsonii Hook.f., and Habenaria gibsonii var. foetida Blatt. & McCann are mentioned in the Kew checklist but there were no herbarium details collected from Western Himalaya. A statewise analysis reveals that Uttarakhand state shows maximum diversity of orchids (232 species) followed by Himachal Pradesh (84 species) and least in Jammu & Kashmir (44 species). Ten (10) species have been excluded from the list of Western Himalaya. Interestingly all earlier workers included such species is known about their occurrence in wild. The present annotated list includes collection data, habit and habitat, collection number in different herbaria and currently accepted name for each species. Checklist ACAMPE Lindl. Acampe carinata (Griff.) Panigrahi, Taxon 34: 689. 1985. Fig. 3A. Saccolabium carinatum Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 354. 1851. FLOWERING : October – November. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 500 – 1600 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S. Jalal 13742 (WII), C.M.Arora 36458, 52435 & 70843 (BSD), Malhotra 19733 & 51521 (BSD), T.A.Rao 11615 & 2660 (BSD). Acampe rigida (Buch.-Ham. ex J. E. Sm.) P. F. Hunt, Kew Bull. 24 (1): 98. 1970. Fig. 3B. Rchb.f. E (Hook.) Soo. T Platanthera stenantha (Hook.f.) Soo. T (Rolfe) Rolfe E & L (Lindl.) J.Moore E & L (Sm.) D.Don E & L Pteroceras teres (Blume) Holttum E Thelasis longifolia Hook.f. E (Lindl.) J.J.Sm. E Lindl. T TABLE 2 (continues).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya13Aerides rigida Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. in A.Rees, Cycl. 39: 12. 1818. FLOWERING : September – November. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 600 – 1000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : J.S. Jalal 13861 & 13897 (WII), P.K. Hajra 74471 (BSD). AERIDES Lour. Roxb., Pl. Coromandel. 3: 68, t. 271. 1820. Fig. 3C. FLOWERING : April – May. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 500 – 1200 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S. Jalal 13879, 13966 & 13755 (WII), Inayat 25811 (DD), C.M. Arora 36453 (BSD), M.A. Rau 11383 (BSD), Uma & Singh 249 (PAN), G.C. Joshi 24145 (RKT), H.C. Pandey 14011 (RKT). Aerides odorata Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2: 525. 1790. Fig. 3D. FLOWERING : May – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 600 – 1200 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S. Jalal 13967 (WII), C.M. Arora 36455, 49522, 55818 & 52448 (BSD), P.K. Hajra 74438 (BSD), C.L. Malhotra 51588 (BSD), Balodi 75572 (BSD), U.C. Bhatacharyya 21169 & 21358 (BSD), H.C. Pandey 5796 (RKT). ANDROCORYS Schltr. Androcorys josephi (Rchb.f.) Agrawala & H.J.Chowdhery, Kew Bull. 65(1): 106. 2010. Fig. 3E. Herminium josephi Rchb.f., Flora 55: 276. 1872. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine region, 3000– 4000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13932 & 13956 (WII). Androcorys monophylla (D.Don) Agrawala & H.J.Chowdhery, Kew Bull. 65(1): 106. 2010. Fig. 3F. Neottia monophylla D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 27. 1825. Herminium monophyllum (D.Don) P.F.Hunt & Summerh., Kew Bull. 20: 51. 1966. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial & lithophytic, subtropical to temperate regions, 800 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13704 (WII), C.M. Arora 36469, 49619 & 70816 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 16026, 31197 & 31143 (BSD), P.K. Hajra 87622 (BSD), Jagdeep Verma 256 (PAN), Rani & Singh 12318 (PAN). Androcorys pugioniformis (Lindl. ex Hook.f.) K.Y.Lang, Guihaia 16: 105. 1996. Fig. 3G. Herminium pugioniforme Lindl ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 130. 1890. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, alpine meadows, 3600 – 4000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13942 (WII), U.C. Bhattacharyya 40492 (BSD), Jagdeep Verma 237 (PAN). ANOECTOCHILUS Blume Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. in J.F.Royle, Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts.: 368. 1839. Chrysobaphus roxburghii Wall., Tent. Fl. Napal.: 37. t.27. 1826. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT : Terrestrial. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). This species was reported by Royle from Kedarkanta in Tehri Garhwal (Uttarakhand) after that no collection was made by the subsequent workers till date. Therefore this species is being included solely on the authority of J. F. Duthie (1906). APHYLLORCHIS Blume Aphyllorchis gollanii Duthie, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 71: 42. 1902. FLOWERING : August. HABIT : Mycoheterotrophic. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Ramsukh 23000 (DD).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.14 LANKESTERIANA This species is reported from Nagtibba (3000 m) in Tehri Garhwal (Uttarakhand) by Ramsukh collector of BRACHYCORYTHIS Lindl. Brachycorythis obcordata (Lindl.) Summerh., Kew Bull. 10: 243. 1955. Fig. 3H Planthera obcordata Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch.: 290. 1835. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 1000 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13711 (WII), Duthie 604 (DD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 29316 (BSD), C.M. Arora 38403 (BSD), U. Rani & S.G. Singh 2700 (PAN), Kailash Chandra 8698 (RKT), R.N. Tewari 11778 (RKT). BULBOPHYLLUM Thouars Wall. ex Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch.: 48. 1830. Fig. 3I. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 800 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13872 & 13976 (WII), Inayat 24101 (DD), C.L. Malhotra 67686 (BSD). Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Spreng, Syst. Veg. 3: 372. 1826. Fig. 4A. Anisopetalon careyanum Hook., Exot. Fl. 2: t. 149. 1825. FLOWERING : October – March. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Balodi 79209 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 21254 (BSD). Rchb.f. in Walp., Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 253. 1861. Fig.4B. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 1000 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13772 (WII), DD: Inayat 24085 (DD), C.M. Arora 38404, 41333, 36419, 37806 & 70812 (BSD), R.N. Tewari 19344 (RKT). Bulbophyllum helenae (Kuntze) J. J. Sm., Bull. Buitenz. ser. 2, 8: 24. 1912. Phyllorchis helenae Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 676. 1991. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 1000 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 37781, 37871 & 70824 (BSD). Bulbophyllum hirtum (J.E.Sm.) Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orchid. Pl. 51. 1830. Fig. 4C Stelis hirta J.E. Sm. in Rees, Cycl. 34: Stelis, no. 11. 1819. FLOWERING : October – December. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 900 – 1000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 15072 (WII). Bulbophyllum leopardinum (Wall.) Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orchid. Pl. 48. 1830. Dendrobium leopardinum Wall., Tent. Fl. Nepal. 1: 39, t. 28. 1824. FLOWERING : October – November. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 1000 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : P.K. Hajra 74473 (BSD). Bulbophyllum muscicola Rchb.f., Flora 55: 275. 1872. Cirrhopetalum hookeri Duthie, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 71 (2): 38. 1902. Bulbophyllum hookeri (Duthie) J. J. Sm., Bull. Buitenz. ser. 2, 8: 25. 1912. FLOWERING : September – October. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 1000 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 52437 & 66188 (BSD). Bulbophyllum polyrrhizum Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orchid. Pl. 53. 1830. FLOWERING : March – April. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 1000 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13888 (WII), Bora

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya1541390 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 20392 & 21253 (BSD), C.M. Arora 38849 (BSD). Bulbophyllum reptans (Lindl.) Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orchid. Pl. 51. 1830. Stelis racemosa Sm. in.Rees, Cycl. 34: 10. 1816. Bulbophyllum reptans var. acuta Malhotra & Balodi, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 26: 110. 1984 (publ. 1985). FLOWERING : October – November. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical to temperate regions, 1000 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13830 & 13867 (WII), M.A.Rau 35340 (BSD), C.M. Arora 45614 (BSD). Bulbophyllum triste Rchb. f. in Walp., Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 253. 1861. FLOWERING : March – April. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 800 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13873 (WII), C.M.Arora 66109, 66103 & 36448 (BSD). Bulbophyllum umbellatum Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orchid. Pl. 56. 1830. Bulbophyllum guttulatum sensu Seidenf. & Arora in Nord. J. Bot. 2: 10. 1982. FLOWERING : April – May. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical to temperate regions, 1000 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13962 & 14020 (WII), T.A. Rao 6716 & 11599 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 21353, 21335 & 21393 (BSD), C.M.Arora 37821, 70852 & 36416 (BSD). Bulbophyllum wallichii Rchb. f. in Walp., Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 259. 1861. FLOWERING : September – October. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical to temperate regions, 1200 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SP E C IMENS EXAMINE D : C.M. Arora 45766 & 38824 (BSD). CALANTHE R.Br. Calanthe alismifolia Lindl., Fol. Orchid. 6: 8. 1855. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT : Terrestrial. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Fairweather 24148 (DD). This species was collected from Mussoorie nearly more than hundred years ago by Fairweather from 1500 – 2000 m elevation, but never recollected by the subsequent workers since then.Calanthe alpina Hook.f. ex Lindl., Fol. Orch. Calanthe: 4. 1854. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate and subalpine regions, 1500 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : R.N.Tiwari 21262 (RKT). Calanthe brevicornu Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 251. 1833. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT : Terrestrial. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Mackinnon 24150a (DD), Harsukh 24150 (DD). This species has been reported from Tehri (1500 – 2000 m). It has not been recollected since hundred years.Calanthe davidii Franch., Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., II, 10: 85. 1888. Calanthe pachystalix Rchb.f. ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 850. 1890. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate region, 1500– 2500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Mackinnon 21742 (DD). Calanthe mannii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 850. 1890. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : P.K. Hajra 74476 (BSD), B.D. Naithani 47918 (BSD), Ramsukh 5996 (DD). Calanthe plantaginea Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orchid. Pl. 250. 1833. Fig. 4D FLOWERING : March – April. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate regions, 1500 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13836, 14030 & 14040 (WII), Mackinnon 22716 (DD), Osmaston 24149 (DD), M.A. Rau 14265, 35317 & 14420 (BSD),

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.16 LANKESTERIANAB.P. Uniyal 90615 (BSD), P.C.Pant 31854 (BSD), P.K. Hajra 74469 & 73996 (BSD), C.M. Arora 36429 (BSD), G.C. Joshi 35956 (RKT). Calanthe puberula Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orchid. Pl. 252. 1833. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 1500 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Osmaston 21787 (DD), Duthie 21076 (DD), M.A Rau 28589 (BSD), T.A. Rao 4330 (BSD). Calanthe tricarinata Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orchid. Pl. 252. 1833. Fig. 4E FLOWERING : April – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to subalpine regions, 2000 – 3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13734, 14034 & 14039 (WII), Duthie 1265 (DD), Parkinson 7055 (DD), Gollen 2059 (DD), B.M. Wadhwa 53030 (BSD), H.J. Chowdhery & D.K. Agarwala 40189 (BSD), C.L. Malhotra 72593 (BSD), P.K. Hajra 73996 & 73725 (BSD), N.C. Nair 35742 & 36065 (BSD), K.S. Bawa 3037 (PAN), B.P. Singh 1259 (RKT), M.R. Uniyal 3967 & 3802 (RKT). CEPHALANTHERA Rich. Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch, Osterr. Bot. Zeit. 38: 81. 1888. Serapias helleborine var. longifolia L., Sp. Pl.: 950. 1753. FLOWERING : May – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate regions, 1800 – 2500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Inyat 25401 (DD), Duthie 11265 (DD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 20387 & 39010 (BSD), B.D. Naithani 44018 & 47973 (BSD), Neera Vaidya 6 (PAN), N. Shekhar 152 (PAN). CHEIROSTYLIS Blume Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 1: 188. 1857. FLOWERING : March – April. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region ca.1500 m altitude. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Pangtey 4302 (NTL), Pangtey & Kalakoti 508 & 3328 (NTL). CHILOSCHISTA Lindl. Chiloschista usneoides (D.Don) Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 18: t. 1522. 1832. Epidendrum usneoides D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 37. 1825. FLOWERING : February – March. HABIT : Epiphytic. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). This species is included here on the authority of J. F. Duthie (1906), who reported it from Tehri Garhwal more than hundred years ago. CLEISOSTOMA Blume Cleisostoma aspersum (Rchb. f.) Garay, Bot. Mus. Sarcanthus aspersum Rchb. f., Hamb. Gart. 21: 297. 1865. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region between 600 – 800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Pant 35111 (BSD). COELOGYNE Lindl. Coelogyne cristata Lindl., Collect. Bot.: t. 33. 1824. Fig. 4F FLOWERING : February – March. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical to temperate regions, 1200 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13907 & 14022 (WII), C.M. Arora 66245, 38815 & 55801 (BSD), M.A. Rau 35304 (BSD), B.P. Uniyal 93501 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 20385 (BSD), B.D. Naithani 43982 & 41977 (BSD), H.C. Pandey 5406 (RKT), M.C. Joshi 4461 (RKT). Coelogyne ovalis Lindl. in Edw. Bot. Reg. 24. 91. Misc. 171. 1838. Fig. 4G

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya17 FLOWERING : September – November. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 1000 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13898 & 13915 (WII), Gamble 23142 (DD), Duthie 25808 & 24099 (DD), C.M. Arora 36436 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 21385 (BSD), Balodi 75608 & 79207 (BSD), H.J. Chowdhery 76274 (BSD), C.L. Malhotra & Balodi 83215 (BSD), R.N. Tewari 22052 (RKT). Coelogyne stricta (D. Don) Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 4: 184. 300. 1919. Fig. 4H Cymbidium strictum D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 35. 1825. FLOWERING : April – May. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 800 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S. Jalal 13862 & 14029 (WII), C.M. Arora 36489, 53817 & 35352 (BSD), T.A. Rao 6560 & 11596 (BSD), N.C. Nair 35556 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 21287 (BSD), R.N. Tewari 23165 & 19343 (RKT). CONCHIDIUM Griff. Conchidium muscicola (Lindl.) Rauschert, Feddes Repert. 94: 444. 1983. Eria muscicola (Lindl.) Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 47 (1858). FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, c. 1400 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 70847 (BSD). Conchidium reticosum (Wight) Ormerod, Taiwania 57: 119. 2012. Eria reticosa Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 5(1): 4, t. 1637 (1851). FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, occurs in subtropical region c. 1300 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 70848 (BSD). CORALLORHIZA Gagnebin Chtel., Spec. Inaug. Corallorrhiza: 8. 1760. Corallorhiza anandae Malhotra & Balodi, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 26: 108. 1984 publ. 1985. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Mycoheterotrophic, subalpine to alpine regions, 3500 – 4000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : T.A.Rao 6851 (BSD), I.D.Rai & P.Kumar 11449 (WII). CREPIDIUM Blume Crepidium acuminatum (D. Don) Szlachetko, Fragm. Florist. Geobot., Suppl. 3: 123. 1995. Fig. 4I. Malaxis acuminata D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 29. 1825. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, tropical to subtropical regions between 1200 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13770, 13817 & 13801 (WII), C.M. Arora 28590 (BSD), T.A.Rao 4780 (BSD), Uma & Singh 2245 (PAN). Crepidium biauritum (Lindl.) Szlachetko, Fragm. Florist. Geobot., Suppl. 3: 124. 1995. Microstylis biaurita Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 20 (1830). Malaxis biaurita (Lindl.) O. Ktze., Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 673. 1891. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, c. 800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Deva 8180 & 8029 (Herbarium Som Deva, 13, Balbir Avenue, Dehradun). Crepidium mackinnonii (Duthie) Szlachetko, Fragm. Florist. Geobot., Suppl. 3: 128. 1995. Microstylis mackinnonii Duthie, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 71 (2): 37. 1902. Malaxis mackinnonii (Duthie) Ames, Orch. 6: 289. 1920. FLOWERING : July – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region at altitude 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Mackinnon 25429 (DD), Deva 5855 (DD).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.18 LANKESTERIANACrepidium purpureum (Lindl.) Szlachetko, Fragm. Florist. Geobot., Suppl. 3: 131. 1995. Microstylis purpurea Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 20. 1830. Malaxis purpurea (Lindl.) O. Ktze., Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 673. 1891. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 900 – 1400 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13908, 13712 & 13815 (BSD), Naithani 1042 (DD). CRYPTOCHILUS Wall. Cryptochilus luteus Lindl., J. Proc. Linn Soc., Bot. 3: 21. 1859. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region at altitude 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 38820 (BSD). CYMBIDIUM Sw. Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. in Nov. Act. Sci. Upsal. 6:73. 1799. Fig. 5A. Epidendrum aloifolium L., Sp. Pl. 953. 1753. FLOWERING : April – May. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 500 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SP E C IMENS EXAMINE D : U.C. Bhattacharyya 21174 (BSD), P.C. Pant 31829 (BSD), C.M. Arora 66261 (BSD). Cymbidium cyperifolium Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 163. 1833. FLOWERING : November – April. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region at altitude 1000 – 1800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : B.D. Naithani 44040 (BSD), M.A. Rau 35331 (BSD), T.A. Rao 9585 & 9588 (BSD). Cymbidium iridioides D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 36. 1825. Fig. 5B. FLOWERING : October – November. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 800– 1800 m. DISTRIBUTION : We stern Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : N.C. Nair 35925 (BSD), M.A. Rau 35351, 6472 & 35349 (BSD), M.S. Pundir 97052 (BSD), B.D. Naithani 43915 (BSD), P.C. Pant 31845 (BSD), U.C. Bhatacharyya 21375 (BSD), C.M. Arora 36428 (BSD), A.C. Dey 2525 (RKT), G.C. Joshi 36439 (RKT). Cymbidium macrorhizon Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 162. 1833. Fig. 5C Cymbidiopsis macrorhiza (Lindl.) H.J.Chowdhery, Indian J. Forest. 32: 155. 2009. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Mycoheterotrophic, subtropical region, 800 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13767 (WII), M.A.Rau 15631 (BSD), R.S. Karki 82098 (BSD), B.D. Naithani 44223 (BSD), P.C. Pant 31896 (BSD), C.M. Arora 36473 (BSD), U.C. Bhatacharyya 33647 (BSD), M.R. Uniyal 3872 (RKT), H.C. Pandey 14015 (RKT), K.Chandra 10832 (RKT), R.N. Tewari 22962 (RKT). CYPRIPEDIUM L. Cypripedium cordigerum D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 37. 1824. Fig. 5D. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate region, 2000 – 3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13823 (WII), Fisher 1882 (DD), Gollan 2058 (DD), Harsukh 24153 (DD), A.K. Goel 64043 (BSD), T.A. Rao 9666 (BSD), B.D. Naithani 47985 (BSD), Bawa 3068 (PAN), Kuthiala 11566 (PAN), Shekhar 11454 (PAN), Singh 6810 (PAN), J.Verma 281 (PAN), G.S.Rawat 810 (NTL). Cypripedium elegans Rchb. f., Flora 69: 561.1836. Fig. 5E. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine meadows, 3000 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13933 (WII), Naithani 1025 (DD), P.K. Hajra 73237 & 73789 (BSD),

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya19U.C. Bhattacharyya 39009 (BSD), O.P. Misra 7627 (RKT), V.P. Tewari 11506 (RKT), G.S. Rawat 1608 (NTL). Cypripedium himalaicum Rolfe ex Hemsl, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 29: 319. 1893. Fig. 5F. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, alpine and subalpine meadows, 3000 – 4500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13979 (WII), Duthie 192 (DD), A.K. Goel 72838 (BSD), Balodi 89640 (BSD), P.K.Hajra 73238a (BSD), A.C. Dey 3121 (RKT), G.S. Rawat 1256 (NTL). DACTYLORHIZA Neck. ex Nevski Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo, Ann. Univ. Scient. Budapest. Sec. Biol. 3: 341. 1960. Fig. 5G. Orchis hatagirea D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 23. 1824. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine to alpine region, 3000 – 4000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13938 & 13949 (WII), Sahni 24892 (DD), Naithani 53158 (DD), Duthie 519 (DD), A.K. Goel 72661 (BSD), P.K. Hajra 73790 & 74143 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 71292 (BSD), Jagdeep Verma 206 (PAN), Puri 7508 (PAN). Renz in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 126:125, t.54. 1978. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, alpine marshy meadows, 1700 – 4500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Angmo, B.S.Adhikari & G.S.Rawat 21807 (WII). Dactylorhiza viridis (L.) R.M.Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W.Chase, Lindleyana 12: 129. 1997. Satyrium viride L., Sp. Pl.: 944. 1753. Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hartmann, Hand. Skand. Fl. 329. 1820. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, alpine region, 3000 – 4000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Inayat 25387 (DD), Vij & Verma 290 (PAN). DENDROBIUM Sw. Dendrobium amoenum Wall. ex Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 78. 1830. Fig. 6A. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 600 – 1600 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13870 & 13912 (WII), Mackinnon 21745 (DD), A.K. Goel 67747 & 73042 (BSD), P.C. Pant 31850 & 35107 (BSD), C.M. Arora 66242 & 66273 (BSD), N.K. Pandey 33569 (RKT), H.C. Pandey 5440 (RKT), M.R. Uniyal 2523 (RKT). Dendrobium bicameratum Lindl. in Edward‘s, Bot. Reg. 25: 85. 1839. Fig. 6B. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 600 – 1400 m. DISTRIBUTION : Distribution: Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13833 (WII), Inayat 24092 (DD), Mackinnon 21744 (DD), C.M. Arora 55823 & 49996 (BSD). Dendrobium chrysanthum Wall. ex Lindl. in Edward, Bot. Reg. 15: t. 1229. 1830. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 800 – 1800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED: H.J. Chowdhery 73183 (BSD), M.A. Rau 35343 (BSD), C.M. Arora 38809 & 45513 (BSD), R.N. Tewari 22057 (RKT). Dendrobium chryseum Rolfe, Gard. Chron.1: 233. 1888. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 800 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 38432 (BSD). Dendrobium crepidatum Lindl. in Paxton, Fl. Gard.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.20 LANKESTERIANA FLOWERING : April – May. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 600 – 1400 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Awasthi 1546 (DD). Dendrobium denudans D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. : 34. 1824. Fig. 6C FLOWERING : September – October. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 1400 – 2000. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13865 & 13775 (WII), C.M. Arora 70844 (BSD), H.J. Chowdhery 73168 (BSD), R.N. Tewari 22010 (RKT). Hook., Exot. Fl. 1: t. 71. 1823. Fig. 6D. Dendrobium normale Falc., Ann. Nat. Hist. 3: 196. 1839. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 800 – 1800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13769, 13735 & 13891 (WII), C.M. Arora 41389 (BSD). Dendrobium fugax Rchb.f., Gard. Chron. 1871: 1257. 1871. Flickingeria fugax (Rchb. f.) Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Arikv. 34 (1): 46. f. 17. 1890. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 800 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 70858 (BSD). Dendrobium hesperis (Seidenf.) Schuit. & P.B.Adams, Muelleria 29(1): 67. 2011. Flickingeria hesperis Seidenf. & Arora, Nord. J. Bot. 2:16. 1982. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 800 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 66130 (BSD), T.A.Rao 6598 (BSD), P.K. Hajra 74477 (BSD). Dendrobium heterocarpum Wall. ex Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. :78. 1830. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 600– 1600 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : U.C. Bhattacharyya 21382 (BSD). Dendrobium longicornu Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 16: t. 1315. 1830. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 1200 3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Soni Bisht 31 (WII). Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 78. 1830. FLOWERING : June – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 600 – 800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Mackinnon 22983 (DD), C.M. Arora 38843 (BSD). Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw., Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 6: 85. 1799. Epidendrum moniliforme L., Sp. Pl.: 954 (1753). Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. in Edward, Bot. Reg.24. Misc.:36. 1838. FLOWERING : April – May. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical to temperate regions, 1500 – 2500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Mackinnon 24155 (DD), C.M. Arora 66187 (BSD). Dendrobium monticola Hunt. & Summerh., Taxon 10: 110. 1961. Fig. 6E. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, temperate region, 1800 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : B.M. Wadhwa 57492 (BSD), C.M. Arora 70851 (BSD). Dendrobium polyanthum Wall. ex Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 81. 1830. Dendrobium primulinum Lindl., Gard. Chron. 1858: 223. 1858. FLOWERING : March – April. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 600 – 1400 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13892 (WII), P.C. Pant 31879 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 21140 (BSD), P.K. Hajra 74424 (BSD).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya21Dendrobium transparens Wall. ex Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 79. 1830. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT : Epiphytic. J.F. Duthie (1906) reported this species from Nainital (Kumaun). But it has never been recollected subsequently from this region. DIENIA Lindl. Dienia cylindrostachya Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 22. 1830. Malaxis cylindrostachya (Lindl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 673. 1891. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to alpine regions, 2200 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S. Jalal 13716 & 13787 (WII), Duthie 21777 (DD), Saxena 1256 (DD), C.M. Arora 49616 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 33724 (BSD), Jagdeep Verma 233 (PAN), Bawa 3029 & 3031 (PAN). Dienia ophrydis (J.Koenig) Seidenf., Contr. Orchid Fl. Thailand 13: 18. 1997. Epidendrum ophrydis J.Koenig in A.J.Retzius, Observ. Bot. 6: 46. 1791. Malaxis latifolia Sm. in A.Rees, Cycl. 22: n. 3. 1812. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate regions, 1000 – 2200 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : H.C. Pandey 14033 (DD). DIPLOMERIS D.Don Diplomeris hirsuta (Lindl.) Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 330. 1835. Fig. 6F. Diplochilus hirsuta Lindl. in Edw.Bot. Reg. sub t. 1499. 1832. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial & lithophytic, subtropical region at 1000 m elevation. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 15058 (WII), C.M. Arora 50016 (BSD), H.C. Pandey 6121 (RKT), R.N. Tewari 5890 (RKT). DITHRIX (Hook.f.) Schltr. ex Brummitt (Hook.f.) Ormerod & Gandhi, Phytoneuron 2012-61: 3. 2012. Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 197. 1896. (Hook.f.) Kraenzl., Orchid. Gen. Sp. 1: 599. 1899. FLOWERING : April – May. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate region between 2000-2500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Mackinnon 22733, 24170 (DD), B.P. Uniyal 93505 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 21314 (BSD), Kishan Lal 10429 (BSD). EPIP ACTIS Zinn Epipactis gigantea Dougl. ex Hook., F1. Bor. Amer. 2: 202. 1839. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to alpine regions, 2500 – 4000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Duthie 6000 (DD), Harsukh 23336 (DD), Jagdeep Verma 216 (PAN), Bawa 3042 (PAN). Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz, Strip. Austr., ed. 2: 467. 1769. Fig. 6G. Serapias helleborine L., Sp. Pl.: 949. 1753. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to alpine regions, 1000 – 4000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13730 (WII), Champion 6114 (DD), Inayat 24090 (DD), B.D. Naithani 37528 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 48569 (BSD), R.N. Tewari 11758 (RKT), M.R. Uniyal 3390 (RKT). Epipactis veratrifolia Boiss. & Hohen. in Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. Ser. 1, 13: 11. 1854. Fig. 6H. FLOWERING : Februray – March. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 500 – 1000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.22 LANKESTERIANAand Himachal Pradesh). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 14019 (WII), Duthie 10783 (DD), Aswal 6271 (DD), Mackinnon 22720 (DD), N.C. Nair 22069 (BSD), B.P. Uniyal 79248 (BSD), Jagdeep Verma 137 (PAN), Kuthiala 11576 (PAN), M.C. Joshi 5220 (RKT). EPIPOGIUM Borkh. Epipogium aphyllum (F.W. Schmidt) Sw., Summa Veget. Scand.:32. 1814. Satyrium epipogium L., Sp. Pl.: 945. 1753. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Mycoheterotrophic, temperate to subalpine regions, 2400 – 3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : M.A.Rau 12799 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 24123 (BSD). Epipogium roseum (D.Don) Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 1: 177. 1857. Limodorum roseum D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 30. 1824. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Mycoheterotrophic, subtropical to subalpine regions, 600 – 3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S. Jalal 14001 (WII), M.A.Rau 31745 & 12799 (BSD). ERIA Lindl. Eria coronaria (Lindl.) Rchb.f. in W.G.Walpers, Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 271. 1861. Coelogyne coronaria Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 27(Misc.): 83. 1841. FLOWERING : October – November. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region at elevation 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 66208 (BSD). Eria globulifera Seidenf., Opera Bot. 62: 125. 1982. Fig. 7A. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 800 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : H.J. Chowdhery & D. K. Agrawala 40133 (BSD). Eria lasiopetala (Willd.) Ormerod, Opera Bot. 124: 22. 1995. Aerides lasiopetala Willd., Sp. Pl. 4(1): 130. 1805. Eria pubescens (Hook.) Lindl. ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot. 2 (1): 566. 1840. isonym. FLOWERING : April – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 600 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13856 (WII), C.M. Arora 38851 (BSD), Balodi 75642 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharya 21199 (BSD). Eria occidentalis Seidenf. & Arora, Nord. J. Bot. 2: 15. f. 1. 1982. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 800 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 49508 (BSD), M.A. Rau 38785 (BSD). EULOPHIA R.Br. ex Lindl. Eulophia bicallosa (D.Don) P. F. Hunt & Summerh., Kew Bull. 20: 60. 1966. Bletia bicallosa D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 30. 1825. FLOWERING : March – April. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, tropical to subtropical regions, 300 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Inayat 25803 (DD), Osmaston 1355 (DD). Eulophia dabia (D.Don) Hochr., Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 6: 270. 1910. Bletia dabia D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 30. 1825. Eulophia hormusjii Duthie, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 9(2): 125. 1906. FLOWERING : March – April. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, tropical to subtropical regions, 300 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : U.C. Bhattacharyya 49457 (BSD), Mackinnon 22724 &22708 (DD), Jagdeep Verma 124 (PAN).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya23 FIGURE 3. A. Acampe carinata, B. Acampe rigida, C. , D. Aerides odorata, E. Androcorys josephi, F. Androcorys monophylla, G. Androcorys pugioniformis, H. Brachycorythis obcordata, I.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.24 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 4. A. Bulbophyllum careyanum, B. , C. Bulbophyllum hirtum, D. Calanthe plantaginea , E. Calanthe tricarinata , F. Coelogyne cristata , G. Coelogyne ovalis , H. Coelogyne stricta , I. Crepidium acuminatum

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya25 FIGURE 5. A. Cymbidium aloifolium , B. Cymbidium iridoides, C. Cymbidium macrorhizon, D. Cypripedium cordigerum, E. Cypripedium elegans , F. Cypripedium himalaicum , G. Dactylorhiza hatagirea

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.26 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 6. A. Dendrobium amoenum, B. Dendrobium bicameratum, C. Dendrobium denudans, D. Dendrobium , E. Dendrobium monticola , F. Diplomeris hirsuta, G. Epipactis helleborine , H. Epipactis veratrifolia

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya27Eulophia epidendraea (J.Koenig ex Retz.) C.E.C.Fisch. in J.S.Gamble, Fl. Madras: 1434. 1928. Serapias epidendraea J.Koenig ex Retz., Observ. Bot. 6: 65. 1791. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region c. 1600 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : H.J. Chowdhery & D.K. Agrawala 40199 (BSD). Eulophia explanata Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 180. 1833. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 500 – 1000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Mackinnon 22710 (DD). (Lindl.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 7. 1890. Fig. 7B. Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 189. 1833. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 500 – 1000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : K.M.M. Dakshni 8050 & 5535 (BSD); Mackinnon 22725 (DD). Eulophia graminea Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 182. 1833. FLOWERING : March – April. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 500 – 1200 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : C.L. Malhotra 31544 (BSD). Eulophia herbacea Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 182. 1833. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical grasslands, 600 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himanchal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : N.C. Nair 30018 (BSD), Jagdeep Verma 227 (PAN). Eulophia mackinnonii Duthie, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 71 (2): 40. 1902. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT : Terrestrial. SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Mackinnon 21748 & 22732 (DD), Inayat 25798 (DD). This species has been included on the authority of J. F. Duthie (1906) who collected it from Mussoorie up to 1800 m. It was never recollected afterwards from the reported locality by the subsequent workers.Eulophia obtusa (Lindl.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 3. 1890. Cyrtopera obtusa Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 190. 1833. FLOWERING : July – August. This species has been included here on the basis of J. F. Duthie (1906), who reported it from Mussoorie and Dehradun, but never recollected afterwards by the subsequent workers from there and thus appears very doubtful in Western Himalaya. GALEARIS Raf. Galearis roborovskyi (Maxim.) S.C.Chen, P.J.Cribb & S.W.Gale, Fl. China 25: 92. 2009. Orchis roborovskyi Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Ptersbourg, III, 31: 104. 1887. Aorchis roborovskyi (Maxim.) Seidenf., Nordic J. Bot. 2: 9. 1982. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, alpine region, 3300 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : P.K. Hajra 73972 (BSD), T.A.Rao 4547 (BSD). Galearis spathulata (Lindl.) P.F.Hunt, Kew Bull. 26: 172. 1971. Gymnadenia spathulata Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch..: 280. 1835. Aorchis spathulata (Lindl.) Vermeul., Nat. Ver. Wupper. 25: 33. 1972. FLOWERING : July – August HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, alpine and sub-alpine regions, 3000 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himanchal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : N.C. Nair 36118 (BSD), A.K. Goel 72852 (BSD), Som Deva & Dwarika Prashad 75 (SOF), Vij & Verma 288 (PAN). GALEOLA Lour. Galeola falconeri Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 88. 1890. FLOWERING : July – August.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.28 LANKESTERIANA HABIT & HABITAT : Mycoheterotrophic, subtropical to temperate regions, 1200 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Mackinnon 22726 (DD). Galeola lindleyana (Hook. f. & Thomson) Rchb.f., Xenia Orchid. 2: 78. 1865. Cyrtosia lindleyana Hook. f. & Thomson in Hook. f., Ill. Himal. Pl.t. 22. 1855. FLOWERING : June – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Mycoheterotrophic, temperate region, 1200 – 2400 m elevation. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh). Polunin & Stainton (1984) listed this species from Himachal Pradesh but without mentioning exact place of its occurrence, whereas Singh & Rawat (2000) reported it from Jiwa Nal Valley (Great Himalayan National Park, Kullu) in Himachal Pradesh. Vij et al. 2013 in orchids of Himachal Pradesh also quoted this based on above references. GASTROCHILUS D. Don Gastrochilus acutifolius (Lindl.) O. Ktze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 661. 1891. Saccolabium acutifolium Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 233. 1833. FLOWERING : October – November. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical to temperate regions, 2000 – 2500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 70821 (BSD). Gastrochilus calceolaris (Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.) D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 32. 1825. Aerides calceolaris Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. in A.Rees, Cycl. 39: 11. 1818. FLOWERING : April – May. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical to temperate regions, 1500 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himanchal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SP E C IMENS EXAMINE D : H.J. Chowdhery & D.K. Agrawala 40198 (BSD), N.C. Nair 35920 (BSD), Jagdeep Verma 178 (PAN), M.R. Uniyal 3704 (RKT). Gastrochilus distichus (Lindl.) O. Ktze., Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 661. 1891. Saccolabium distchum Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 3:36. 1859. FLOWERING : March – April. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 600– 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 1373 & 13838 (WII), B.P. Uniyal & Surendra Singh 90588 (BSD), R.N. Tewari 12784 (RKT), Kishan Lal 1614 (BSD). Gastrochilus garhwalensis Tsi, Guihaia 16 (2) 16, t. 1. 1996. This species is collected by Inayat (s.n.) in 15 Jun 1902 from Garhwal region in Uttarakhand. In 1996 Tsi undertook revisionary work on the genus Gastrochilus and published it as a new species in Guihaia (1996). The type specimen is only available in Oakes Ames Orchid Herbarium (AMES), Harvard. Not a single specimen is available in any Indian Herbaria. Included here following Tsi (1996) which was based on a more than 100 years old single specimen. Gastrochilus inconspicuus (Hook. f.) O. Ktze., Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 661. 1891. Saccolabium inconspicuum Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 56. 1890. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 600– 1200 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13857 (WII), A.K. Goel 65909 (BSD). GASTRODIA R. Br. Gastrodia falconeri D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem., Orchadian 12: 350. 1998. Fig. 7C. Gastrodia orobanchoides (Falc.) Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 3: 617. 1883. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Mycoheterotrophic, temperate to subalpine regions, 2300 – 3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13902 (WII), A.K. Goel 64328 & 67793 (BSD), Jagdeep Verma 219 (PAN). GEODORUM Jacks. (Lam.) Schlecht. in Fedde Repert. Beih. 4: 259. 1919. Lam., Encycl. 3: 516. 1792. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT : Terrestrial. This species is included here on the authority of J. F.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya29Duthie (1906), who reported it from Dehradun up to 1000 m. However, it has not been recollected from the area by any of the subsequent workers. GOODYERA R. Br. (Lindl.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 114. 1890. Fig. 7D. Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 496. 1840. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate regions, 1500 – 2500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himanchal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SP E C IMENS EXAMINE D : J.S.Jalal 15062 (WII), C.M. Arora 37876 (BSD), Jagdeep Verma 258 (PAN), G.C. Joshi 32808 (RKT), Pangtey & Kalakoti 3805 (NTL). Goodyera foliosa (Lindl.) Benth. ex C.B.Clarke, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 25: 73.1889. Georchis foliosa Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. :496. 1840. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate regions between 1500 – 2500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : M.A.Rau 28588 (BSD), Osmaston 1512 (DD). Goodyera fusca (Lindl.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 112. 1890. Fig. 7E. Hetaeria fusca Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch.: 491. 1840. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, alpine and subalpine regions, 3000 – 3700 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himanchal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S. Jalal 15027 (WII), Inayat 24084 (DD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 24336 (BSD), G.C. Joshi 36089 (RKT), G.S. Rawat 598 (NTL). Goodyera procera (Ker-Gawl.) Hook., Exot. Fl. 1. 3: t. 39. 1823. Fig. 7F. Neottia procera Ker-Gawl. in Edgw., Bot. Reg. 8: t. 639. 1822. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 6001000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13859 (WII), M.A.Rau 14608 & 35324 (BSD), G.C. Joshi 10931 (RKT). Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br. in Aiton, Hort. Kew., ed. 2, 5: 198. 1813. Fig. 7G. Satyrium repens L., Sp. Pl.: 945. 1753. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to subalpine regions, 2000 – 3600 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SP E C IMENS EXAMINE D : J.S.Jalal 13701 (WII), A.K. Goel 64333 (BSD), Jagdeep Verma 234 (PAN), G.C. Joshi 37010 (RKT), Pangtey & Kalakoti 2522 (NTL). (Blume) Coll., Orch. Arch. Ind.:41, t. 9. 1854. Fig. 7H Blume, Bijdr.: 408. 1825. FLOWERING : September – October. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate region, 1500– 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 15069 (WII), M.A.Rau 35307 (BSD). Goodyera vittata (Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook., Fl. Brit. India 6: 113. 1890. Fig. 7I. Georchis vittata Lindl., J. Linn. Soc. 1: 184. 1857. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate region, 2200– 2500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 15049 (WII). GYMNADENIA R. Br. Gymnadenia orchidis Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 278. 1835. Fig. 8A. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine to alpine regions, 3000 – 4500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 15025 (WII), Osmaston 24187 (DD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 24399 (BSD), Jagdeep Verma 292 (PAN). HABENARIA Willd. Habenaria aitchisonii Rchb.f., Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 3: 113. 1886. FLOWERING : July – August.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.30 LANKESTERIANA HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to subalpine regions, 2000 – 4000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13981 (WII), Mackinnon 22991 (DD), P.K. Hajra 87062 (BSD), Jagdeep Verma 601 (PAN). Habenaria arietina Hook. f., F1. Brit. India 6: 138. 1890. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate regions, 1800 – 2800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Inayat 24055 (DD). Habenaria commelinifolia (Roxb.) Wall. ex Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 325. 1835. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 1000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Kanjilal 1077 (DD), Duthie 521 (DD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 37745 (BSD), M.A. Rau 12631 (BSD), Jagdeep Verma 305 (PAN). Habenaria digitata Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 307. 1835. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region c. 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Duthie 24177 (DD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 37273 (BSD), Jagdeep Verma 501 (PAN). Habenaria diphylla Dalz. in Hooker J. Bot. 2; 262. 1850. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region c. 600 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Mackinnon 25411 (DD). Habenaria ensifolia Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 1835. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate region, 500 – 3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Naithani 1059 (DD), Jagdeep Verma 306 (PAN). Habenaria pectinata and treated as a synonym of H. pectinata in World Checklist of Orchidaceae in Kew. However both species H. pectinata has petals and lip white, midlobe of lip stout, longer than the side lobes. Spur stout, funnel shaped and curved outwards. In H. ensifolia yellow, midlobe shorter than side lobes. Spur slender and curved inwards. Moreover in H. pectinata the sidle lobes of the lip are uniformaly pectinate whereas in H. ensifolia side lobes of the lip are irregularly pectinate and somewhat like stag horn. Hence, we feel that H. ensifolia should be treated as a distinct species.Habenaria furcifera Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 319. 1835. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region at an altitude 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Duthie 2314 (DD), Mackinnon 21745 (DD), T.A.Rao 3418 (BSD). Habenaria intermedia D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 24. 1825. Fig. 8B. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to subalpine regions, 2000 – 2700 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13702 (WII), Saxena 2045 (DD), Jagdeep Verma 249 (PAN). Habenaria longifolia Buch.-Ham. ex Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 324. 1835. FLOWERING : August. HABIT : Terrestrial. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). This species is included on the authority of J. F. Duthie (1906), who recorded it from Kumaun and Garhwal occurring between 400 and 1500 m elevation. But not recollected from here by the subsequent workers since then.Habenaria marginata Colebr. in Hook. Exot. Fl. 2: l7. t. 136. 1824. Fig. 8C. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 500– 1000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya31 SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13726 (WII), Harsukh 24172 (DD), Jagdeep Verma 307 (PAN). Habenaria pectinata (J.E. Sm.) D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 24. 1825. Fig. 8D. Orchis pectinata Sm., Exot. Bot. 2: 77. 1806. nom. illeg. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate regions, 1500 – 3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13797 (WII), Duthie 21753 (DD), Naithani 1057 (DD), J. Verma 228 (PAN), R.N. Tewari 17368 (RKT). Habenaria plantaginea Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 323. 1835. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 500– 1000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Kanjilal 1078 (DD), J. Verma 308 (PAN), N.K. Pandy 25985 (RKT). Habenaria pubescens Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. 322. 1835. Fig. 8E. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 600– 1200 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13907 (WII), Mackinnon 21765 (DD), Jagdeep Verma 602 (PAN). Habenaria stenopetala Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 319. 1835. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate regions, 1000 – 2500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SP E C IMENS EXAMINE D : Mackinnon 22980 (DD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 29342 (BSD), Vij & Verma 504 (PAN). HEMIPILIA Lindl. Hemipilia cordifolia Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 296. 1836. Fig. 8F. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13994 (WII), Mackinnon 21768 (DD), B.S. Karki 82224 (BSD), Balodi 77146 (BSD), Jagdeep Verma 294 (PAN). HERMINIUM L. Herminium kumaunensis Deva & H.B.Naithani, Orchid Fl. North West Him. 159. 1986. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine region, 3300– 3600 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Duthie 6003 (DD). Herminium lanceum (Thunb. ex Sw.) Vuijk, Blumea 11 (1): 228. 1961. Ophrys lancea Thunb. ex Sw., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 21: 223. 1800. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to subalpine regions, 1200 – 2700 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13714 (WII), Mackinnon 21771 (DD), U.C. Bhattacharya 40404 (BSD), H.J. Chowdhery 73172 (BSD), J. Verma 229 (PAN). Herminium mackinonii Duthie, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 71 (2): 44. 1902. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT : Epiphytic. HABITAT : Subtropical to temperate regions, 1500 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 15043 (WII), Arora 50068 (BSD). Herminium monorchis (L.) R.Br. in Aiton. Hort. Kew 25: 191. 1813. Ophrys monorchis L., Sp. Pl.: 947. 1753. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine to alpine regions, 3000 – 4000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.32 LANKESTERIANA SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Duthie 3415 (DD), H.J. Chowdhery 76051 (BSD), Bawa 3052 & 3054 (PAN). LIP ARIS Rich. Liparis caespitosa (Lam.) Lindl. in Edw. Bot. Reg. 11: sub. t. 882. 1825. Epidendrum caespitosum Lam. in Encycl. 1(1): 187. 1783. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 1000 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13961 (WII), C.M. Arora 36437 (BSD). Liparis cordifolia Hook. f., Ic. Pl. 19. t. 1811. 1889. FLOWERING : September – October. HABIT : Terrestrial. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). This species is included here on the authority of J. F. Duthie (1906), who recorded it from Garhwal (1800 m), but not been recollected by the subsequent workers till date. Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 697. 1890. Fig. 9A. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 600 – 1000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Inayat 24113 (DD). Liparis glossula Rchb. f., Linnaea 41: 44. 1876. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate region, 1800 – 2200 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13926 & 13794 (WII), Mackinnon 21772 & 22734 (DD), J. Verma 295 (PAN). Liparis nervosa (Thumb.) Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 26. 1830. Ophrys nervosa Thunb. in J.A.Murray, Syst. Veg. 14: 814. 1784. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT : Terrestrial. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). This species has been included here on the authority of Duthie (1906), who reported it from Kumaun based on Blinkworth’s collection from 1500 – 2300 m. Liparis odorata (Willd.) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 26. 1830. Fig. 9B Malaxis odorata Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 91. 1805. Liparis paradoxa (Lindl.) Rchb.f. in W.G.Walpers, Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 218. 1861. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate region, 1800 – 2200 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Mackinnon 22995 & 21775 (DD), H.J. Chowdhery 78119 (BSD), C.M. Arora 70830 & 70831 (BSD). Liparis platyrachis Hook. f., Ic. Pl. t. 1890. 1889. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, c. 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 49616, 66186 & 52436 (BSD). Liparis resupinata Ridl. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 22: 290. 1886. FLOWERING : November – December. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate region, 16002200 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 38848 (BSD). Liparis rostrata Rchb. f., Linnaea 41. 44. 1876. Liparis diodon Rchb. f., Linnaea 41: 43. 1876. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate regions, 1500 – 2500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13723 (WII), Mackinnon 21773 & 29971 (DD), B.D. Naithani 54077 (BSD), C.M. Arora 38422 & 36467 (BSD), J. Verma 259 (PAN). (Blume) Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orchid. Pl. 31. 1830. Fig. 9C Blume, Bijdr.: 392. 1825. FLOWERING : September – October. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 1500 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya33 SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Inayat 24112 (DD), P.K. Hajra 74456 & 74422 (BSD). LUISIA Gaudich. Luisia brachystachys (Lindl.) Blume, Rumphia 4: 50. 1849. Mesoclaster brachystachys Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orchid. Pl. 43. 1830. FLOWERING : March – April. HABIT : Epiphytic. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). This species has not been collected for last 125 years in this region. Duthie (1906) menesioned two specimens one by by Falconer from Garhwal and other by J.L. Stewart Luisia tristis.Luisia trichorrhiza (Hook.) Blume, Mus. Bot. 1: 63. 1849. Vanda trichorhiza Hook., Exot. Fl. 1: t. 72. 1823. FLOWERING : March – April. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 600 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : T.A.Rao 4118 (BSD), C.M. Arora 36481 & 56481 (BSD). Luisia tristis (G.Forst.) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 25. 1890. Fig. 9D. Epidendrum triste G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr.: 60. 1786. Luisia zeylanica Lindl., Fol. Orchid. 4: 3. 1853. FLOWERING : April – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 600 – 1200 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13743 (WII), U.C. Bhattacharyya 21192 (BSD), C.M. Arora 66105 (BSD), J. Verma 201 (PAN). MALAXIS Sol. ex Sw. Malaxis muscifera (Lindl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 673. 1891. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to subalpine regions, 1800 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIEMENS EXAMINED : Raizada 18224 (DD), C.M. Arora 53569 (BSD), M.A. Rau 38674 (BSD), J. Verma 209 (PAN). NEOTTIA Guett. Neottia acuminata Schltr., Acta Horti Gothob. 1: 141. 1924. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Mycoheterotrophic, temperate to subalpine regions, 3000 – 3600 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : A.K.Goel 72854 (BSD). Neottia chandrae Raskoti, J.J.Wood & Ale, Nordic J. Bot. 30: 187. 2012. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine region, 3000– 3200 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : K.R. Keshava Murthy 113101 (BSD). Neottia inayatii (Duthie) Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 387. 1911. Listera inayatii Duthie, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 71: 41. 1902. Neottia kashmiriana (Duthie) Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 387. 1911. FLOWERING : July. HABIT & HABITAT : Mycoheterotrophic, moist temperate to subalpine regions c. 3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Inayat 25389 (DD). Neottia listeroides Lindl. in J.F.Royle Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts.1: 368. 1839. FLOWERING : July – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Mycoheterotrophic, moist temperate to subalpine regions, 2000 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SP E C IMENS EXAMINE D : J.S.Jalal 13728 (WII), Duthie 638 (DD), P.K. Hajra 73206 (BSD), J. Verma 236 (PAN). Neottia longicaulis (King & Pantl.) Szlach., Fragm. Florist. Geobot., Suppl. 3: 117. 1995. Listera longicaulis King & Pantl., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 65: 126. 1896. FLOWERING : July – August.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.34 LANKESTERIANA HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine and alpine regions, 3000 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : M.A.Rau 31778 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 21285 & 29652 (BSD). Neottia mackinnonii Deva & H.B. Naithani, Orchid Fl. North West Him.: 75, t. 30. 1986. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Mycoheterotrophic, subtropical region, 800 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Mackinnon 2542a (DD). Neottia microglottis (Duthie) Schltr. in Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 45: 387. 1911. Listera microglottis Duthie, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 71 (2): 42. 1902. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Mycoheterotrophic, moist temperate region, 2000 – 2400 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Mackinnon 25426 (DD), Stewart 14425 (DD). Neottia nandadeviensis (Hajra) Szlach., Fragm. Florist. Geobot., Suppl. 3: 118. 1995. Listera nandadeviensis Hajra, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 25: 181. 1983 (pub. 1985.). FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine and alpine regions, 3000 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Hajra 73201 (BSD). Neottia ovata (L.) Bluff & Fingerh., Comp. Fl. German., ed. 2, 2: 435. 1838. Ophrys ovata L., Sp. Pl.: 946. 1753. Listera ovata (L.) R.Br. in W.T.Aiton, Hortus Kew. 5: 201. 1813. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine and alpine regions, 2100-3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Inayat 25389 (DD), Royle 2469 (DD). Neottia pinetorum (Lindl.) Szlach., Fragm. Florist. Geobot., Suppl. 3: 118. 1995. Listera pinetorum Lindl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 1: 175. 1857. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine and alpine regions, 3000 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : M.A. Rau 31778 (BSD). Neottia tenuis (Lindl.) Szlach., Fragm. Florist. Geobot., Suppl. 3: 119. 1995. Listera tenuis Lindl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 1: 176 (1857). FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine and alpine regions, 3000 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13945 (WII), P.K. Hajra 73294 & 27221 (BSD). NEOTTIANTHE (Rchb.) Schltr. Neottianthe cucullata var. calcicola (W.W.Sm.) So, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 26: 353. 1929. Gymnadenia calcicola W.W. Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 88: 188. 1924. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine to alpine regions, 3600 – 3800 m altitude. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Naithani 53973 (DD), G.S. Rawat 1935 & 1510 (NTL). (Hook. f.) Schltr. in Fedde, Repert. 16: 291. 1919. Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 165. 1890. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine to alpine regions, 3600 – 3800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : B.D. Naithani 53973 (BSD), B.P. Uniyal 94245 (BSD), P.K. Hajra 73239 (BSD). NERVILIA Comm. ex Gaudich. Nervilia concolor (Blume) Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 404. 1911. Cordyla concolor Blume, Bijdr.: 416. 1825. Nervilia aragoana Gaud. in Freycinet, Voy. Bot. : 422, t. 35. 1829. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, tropical to subtropical regions, 300 – 1500 m.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya35 DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 36484 (BSD), J. Verma 297 (PAN). Nervilia crociformis (Zoll. & Moritzi) Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Ark. 32: 151. 1978. Fig. 9E Bolborchis crociformis Zoll. & Moritzi, Syst. Verz.: 89. 1846. Nervilia prainiana (King & Pantl.) Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Ark. 32(2): 149. 1978. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, tropical to subtropical regions, 300 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13808 (WII), C.M. Arora 70808 (BSD). Nervilia falcata (King & Pantl.) Schltr. in Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 45: 402. 1911. Pogonia falcata King & Pantl., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 65 (2): 129. 1896. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 600 – 800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Deva 3845. Nervilia gammieana Pogonia gammieana Hook. f. in Curtis, Bot. Mag.:39. 1883. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 600 – 1600 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 15009 (WII), Naithani & Dayal 1712 (DD), B.P. Uniyal 86643 (BSD), P.K. Hajra 82361 (BSD), J.Verma 283 (PAN). Nervilia gleadowii A.N.Rao, Indian Forester 118: 846. 1992. FLOWERING : May. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region at 1000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand ). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : F.Gleadowii 23940 (DD). Nervilia infundibulifolia Blatt. & McCann, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 35: 725. 1932. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 500– 1000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : G.T. 2500 (DD). Nervilia mackinnonii (Duthie) Schltr. in Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 45: 402. 1911. Fig. 9G. Pogonia mackinnonii Duthie, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal. 72 (2): 43. 1902. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate regions, 800-2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13900 (WII), Mackinnon 21781 (DD). Nervilia pangteyana Jalal, Kumar & G.S.Rawat, Nordic J. Bot. 30: 407. 2012. Fig. 9H. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region at altitude 800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 15051 (WII). Nervilia plicata (Andr.) Schltr. in Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 45: 403. 1911. Fig. 9I. Arethusa plicata Andrews, Bot. Repos. 5: 321. 1803. Pogonia plicata (Roxb.) Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orchid. Pl. 415. 1840. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 600– 1000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Harsukh 24193 (DD), C.M. Arora 70813 (BSD). OBERONIA Lindl. Oberonia acaulis Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 275. 1851. FLOWERING : September – October. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 1400 – 1800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13863 (WII), M.A.Rau 6559 (BSD), C.M. Arora 36426 (BSD). Oberonia caulescens Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orchid. Pl. 15. 1830. FLOWERING : May – July.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.36 LANKESTERIANA HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical to temperate regions, 1000 – 1800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Pant & Naithani 39573 (BSD); C.M. Arora 38821 (BSD). Oberonia ensiformis (Sm.) Lindl., Fol. Orch. 8: 4. 1859. Malaxis ensiformis Sm. in A.Rees, Cycl. 22: 14. 1812. FLOWERING : May – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 1000 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13880 (WII), P.K. Hajra 74421 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 21150 & 21377 (BSD). Oberonia falconeri Hook. f., Ic. Pl. t. 1780. 1888. FLOWERING : September – October. H ABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 600 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13843 (WII), C.M. Arora 36474 (BSD). Lindl., Sert. Orchid.: t. 8 B. 1838. FLOWERING : March – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 1200 – 1600 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : C.M.Arora 55803 (BSD). Oberonia pachyrachis Rchb. f. ex Hook. f. Fl. Brit. India 5: 681. 1890. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 1000 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13887 (WII), Mackinnon 24185 (DD), C.M. Arora 66101 (BSD). Oberonia prainiana King & Pantl., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 64 (2): 331. 1895. FLOWERING : April – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 600 – 1000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13977 (WII), C.L.Malhotra 55291 (BSD). Oberonia pyrulifera Lindl., Fol. Orchid. 8: 3. 1859. FLOWERING : September – October. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 600– 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 66143 (BSD). OREORCHIS Lindl. Oreorchis foliosa (Lindl.) Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 27. 1858. Corallorhiza foliosa Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 535. 1840. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to subalpine regions, 2500 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Osmaston 24188 (DD), M.A. Rau 10305 (BSD), J. Verma 238 (PAN). Oreorchis foliosa var. indica (Lindl.) N.Pearce & P.J.Cribb, J. Orchid Soc. India 10: 5. 1996. Oreorchis indica (Lindl.) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 709. 1890. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, moist temperate to subalpine regions, 2000 – 2700 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SP E C IMENS EXAMINE D : J.S.Jalal 13931 (WII), Duthie 14592 (DD), M.A. Rau 31764 (BSD), J. Verma 285 (PAN). Oreorchis micrantha Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 3: 27. 1858. Fig. 9J. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, moist temperate to subalpine regions, 1800 – 3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 14038 (WII), B.D. Naithani 68132 (BSD), P.K. Hajra 73724 (BSD). Oreorchis patens (Lindl.) Lindl., in J. Pro. Lin. Soc. Bot. 3: 27. 1858. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to subalpine regions, 2200 – 2250 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : D.K. Agrawala 40119 (BSD).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya37 ORNITHOCHILUS (Lindl.) Wall. ex Benth. Ornithochilus difformis (Wall. ex Lindl.) Schlecht. in Fedde Repert. 4: 277. 1919. Aerides difformis Wall. ex Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 242. 1833. FLOWERING : June-July. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 1000 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13807 (WII), C.M. Arora 36446 (BSD). OTOCHILUS Lindl. Otochilus lancilabius Seidenf., Opera Bot. 89: 94. 1986. FLOWERING : October – January. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 10001800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 37813 & 68256 (BSD). PACHYSTOMA Blume Pachystoma pubescens Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 376, t. 3, f. 29. 1825. FLOWERING : March – April. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 1000 – 1800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Mackinnon 24191 (DD); P.C. Pant 43736 (BSD); J. Verma 315 (PAN). PECTEILIS Raf. Pecteilis gigantea 1837. Orchis gigantea J.E. Sm., Exot Bot 2: 79. 1805. FLOWERING : September – October. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 900 – 1200 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 15061 (WII), Mackinnon 22981 (DD), C.M. Arora 36476 (BSD). (D.Don) Tang & F.T.Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 62. 1951. D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 25. 1825. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 1200 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Osmaston 23102 (DD), C.M. Arora 41302 (BSD). PELATANTHERIA Ridl. Pelatantheria insectifera (Rchb. f.) Ridl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 32: 373. 1896. Sarcanthus insectifera Reichb. f., Bot. Zeit. 15: 159. 1857. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 600– 800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Inayat 25817 (DD). PERISTYLUS Blume P (D. Don) Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Arkiv. 31 (3): 48. 1977. D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 25. 1825. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate regions, 1200 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13804 (WII), Vij & Verma 309 (PAN). Peristylus constrictus (Lindl.) Lindl., Gen & Sp. Orch. 300. 1835. Herminium constrictum Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 18: t. 1499. 1832. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical grassy slopes, 800 – 1200 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13806 (WII), P.K. Hajra 82310 (BSD), J. Verma 367 (PAN). Peristylus duthiei (Hook. f.) Deva & H.B.Naithani, Orchid Fl. North West Him. 181. 1986. Herminium duthie Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 130. 1890. FLOWERING : July – August.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.38 LANKESTERIANA HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, moist temperate to alpine regions, 2800 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13925 (WII), Duthie 4424 (DD), C.M. Arora 45690 (BSD). Peristylus elisabethae (Duthie) Gupta, Fl. Nainital. 351. 1968. Habenaria elisabethae Duthie, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 72 (2): 44. 1902. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to subalpine regions, 2200 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13795 (WII), P.K. Hajra 87623 (BSD). Peristylus fallax Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 298. 1835. Peristylus fallax var. dwarikaii Deva & H.B.Naithani, Orchid Fl. North West Him. 187. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to subalpine regions, 2200 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13954 (WII). Peristylus goodyeroides (D. Don) Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 299. 1835. Habenaria goodyeroides D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 25. 1825. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate regions, 600 – 2500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Duthie 1878 (DD); C.M. Arora 36465 (BSD); J. Verma 310 (PAN). Peristylus kumaonensis Renz, J. Orchid Soc. India 1: 23. 1987. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial & lithophytic, subtropical region at altitude around 1800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13993 (WII); Renz, Y.P.S. Pangtey & Kalaokti 13587 (SOF). Peristylus lawii Wight, Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 5 (1): 12. t. 1695. 1851. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 600– 1100 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Mackinnon 21767 (DD); K.M.M. Dakshini 5580 (BSD). PHAIUS Lour. Phaius tankervilleae 177. 1856. Limodorun tancarvilleae Banks ex L. Herit., Sert. Angl. 28. 1789. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region at altitude 600 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). A very good population was seen in the Corbett National Park (on the way to Sultan), but could not collect the plant because of restriction in protected area. PHALAENOPSIS Blume Phalaenopsis deliciosa Rchb.f., Bonplandia (Hannover) 2: 93. 1854. Kingidium deliciosum (Rchb.f.) H.R.Sweet, Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 39: 1095. 1970. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical to temperate regions, 1500 – 1800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 70820 (BSD). Phalaenopsis taenialis (Lindl.) Christenson & Pradhan, Indian Orchid J. 1: 154. 1985. Fig. 10A. Aerides taenialis Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 239. 1833. Kingidium taeniale (Lindl.) P.F.Hunt, Kew Bull. 24: 98. 1970. FLOWERING : April – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical to temperate regions, 1500 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13864 (WII), P.C. Pant 31863 (BSD). PHOLIDOTA Lindl. Pholidota articulata Lindl., Gen. & Sp, Orch. 38. 1830. Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 845. 1890. FLOWERING : July – August.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya39 HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 500 – 1800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13706 (WII); C.M. Arora 37872 (BSD). Pholidota imbricata Lindl. in Hooker Exot. Fl. t. 138. 1825. FLOWERING : June – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 800 – 1800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13871 (WII), P.C. Pant 31832 (BSD), C.M. Arora 36438 (BSD). PHREATIA Lindl. Phreatia matthewsii Rchb.f., Otia Bot. Hamburg.: 55. 1878. Oberonia myosurus (G.Forst.) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 16. 1830. FLOWERING : July – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 1000– 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13884 (WII), C.M. Arora 41332 (BSD). PINALIA Lindl. Pinalia amica (Rchb.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 679. 1891. Eria amica Rchb. f., Xen. Orch. 2: 162. 1870. FLOWERING : March – April. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region at altitude c. 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : P.K.Hajra 74465 (BSD). Pinalia bipunctata (Lindl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 679. 1891. Eria bipunctata Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 27(Misc.): 83. 1841. FLOWERING : July – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 1000– 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : H.J. Chowdhery & D. K. Agrawala 40170 (BSD), P.C. Pant 35115 (BSD), C. M. Arora 36471 (BSD). Pinalia leucantha Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 679. 1891. Fig. 10B. Eria alba Lindl., Gen & Sp. Orch. 67. 1830. Eria graminifolia auct. non Lindl.: Seidenf. in Nord. J. Bot.2: 14. 1982. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical to temperate regions, 1000 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Mackinnon 22982 (DD), C.M. Arora 52459 (BSD). Pinalia spicata (D.Don) S.C.Chen & J.J.Wood, in Fl. China 25: 354. 2009. Octomeria spicata D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 31. 1825. Eria spicata (D.Don) Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7: 1353. 1936. FLOWERING : August – September. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 600 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 38408 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 21343 (BSD). PLATANTHERA Rich. Platanthera arcuata Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 289. 1835. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to subalpine regions, 2500 – 3200 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Thomas 20797 (DD). Platanthera clavigera Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 289. 1835. Habenaria clavigera (Lindl.) Dandy, J. Bot. 68: 246. 1930. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to alpine regions, 1800 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.40 LANKESTERIANA SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 14014 (WII), Raizada 18279 (DD). Platanthera edgeworthii (Hook.f. ex Collett) R.K.Gupta, Fl. Nainital.: 349. 1968. Habenaria edgeworthii Hook.f. ex Collett, Fl. Siml.: 504. 1902. FLOWERING : July – August. HABITAT : Temperate to subalpine region, 1500 – 3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13705 (WII), C.M. Arora 36463 (BSD). Platanthera latilabris Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 289. 1835. Habenaria latilabris (Lindl.) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 153. 1890. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate regions, 1500 – 3000 m altitude. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 36464 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 44747 (BSD). Platanthera leptocaulon (Hook.f.) Soo, Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Nat. Hung. 26: 360. 1929. Habenaria lepatocaulon Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 154. 1890. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine to alpine regions, 2700 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 15018 (WII). Platanthera pachycaulon (Hook.f.) So, Ann. Hist.Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 26: 364. 1929. Habenaria pachycaulon Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 154. 1890. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, alpine region, 3400 – 3700 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : I.D.Rai 11457 (WII). Platanthera stenantha (Hook.f.) So, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 26: 363. 1929. Habenaria stenantha Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 153. 1890. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate regions, 1500 – 3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : Duthie 3402 (DD). PLEIONE D.Don (Rolfe) Rolfe, Orch. Rev. 11: 291. 1903. Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36: 22. 1903. FLOWERING : April – May. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to subalpine regions, 2600 – 2700 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : N.C.Nair 35536 (BSD). Pleione hookeriana (Lindl.) Rollisson, Nursery Cat. (Rollisson) 1875-1876: 39. 1875. Coelogyne hookeriana Lindl., Fol. Orch. 14. 1854. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, temperate to subalpine regions, 2200 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : H.J. Chowdhery 40136 (BSD), D.D. Bahali & M.S. Pundir 16 (BSD). Pleione humilis (Sm.) D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 37. 1825. Epidendrum humile Sm., Exot. Bot. 2: 75. 1806. FLOWERING : February March. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, temperate region, 2100 – 3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : N.C.Nair 35519 (BSD). Pleione praecox (Sm.) D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 37. 1825. Epidendrum praecox Sm., Exot. Bot. 2: 73. 1806. FLOWERING : October-November. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, temperate region, 2000-3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 45647 (BSD), R.N. Tewari 27159 (RKT). PONERORCHIS Rchb.f. Ponerorchis chusua (D. Don) Soo, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 12: 352. 1966. Orchis chusua D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 23. 1825.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya41 (Lindl.) P.F.Hunt, Kew Bull. 26: 175. 1971. Ponerorchis nana (King & Pantl.) So, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 12: 353. 1966. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subalpine to alpine regions, 3000 – 4000m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 15017 (WII), G.S.Rawat & Gajendera 14781 (WII), M.S. Pundir 55740 (BSD), A.K. Goel 72653 (BSD). Ponerorchis renzii Deva & H.B.Naithani, Orchid Fl. N.W. Himalaya: 199. 1986. Chusua renzii (Deva & H.B.Naithani) S.Misra, Orchids India: 258. 2007. FLOWERING : July-August HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, alpine meadows, 3300– 4000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : G.S.Rawat & B.S.Kalakoti 1225 (SOF). PTEROCERAS Hasselt ex Hassk. Pteroceras teres (Blume) Holttum, Kew Bull. 14: 271. 1960. Dendrocolla teres Blume, Bijdr.: 289. 1825. FLOWERING : Many times in a year. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 600– 800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13876 (WII), C.M. Arora 49524 (BSD), Balodi 75604 (BSD). RHYNCHOSTYLIS Blume Rhynchostylis retusa (L.) Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 286. 1825. Fig. 10C Epidendrum retusum L., Sp. Pl.: 953. 1753. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 500 – 1000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13812 (WII), C.M. Arora 36454 (BSD), G.C. Joshi 28650 (RKT). SATYRIUM Sw. Satyrium nepalense var. ciliatum (Lindl.) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 168. 1890. Satyrium ciliatum Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch..: 341. 1838. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate to subalpine regions, 2000 – 3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : G.S. Rawat 1929 (NTL). Satyrium nepalense D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. : 26. 1825. FLOWERING : August – October. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to temperate regions, 1500 – 3000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13718 (WII), J.N. Vohra 54321 (BSD), N.C. Nair 23379 (BSD), J. Verma 101 (PAN). SMITINANDIA Holttum Smitinandia micrantha (Lindl.) Holttum, Gard. Bull. Singapore 25: 106. 1969. Fig. 10D Saccolabium micranthum Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. 220. 1833. FLOWERING : June August. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical regions, 600 – 1400 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13813 (WII), T.A.Rao 6594 (BSD). SPIRANTHES Rich. Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames, Orchidaceae 2: 53. 1908. Neottia sinensis Pers., Syn. 2: 511. 1807. FLOWERING HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical to subalpine region, 1600 – 3500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13727 (WII), U.C. Bhattacharyya 14935 (BSD), M.R. Uniyal 1311 (RKT).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.42 LANKESTERIANA SUNIPIA Lindl. Sunipia bicolor Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 179. 1833. Flowering: October – November. Habit & Habitat: Epiphytic, subtropical to temperate regions, 1400 – 2200 m. Distribution: Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). Specimens examined: C.M. Arora 52439 & 66169 (BSD). THELASIS Blume Thelasis longifolia Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 87. 1890. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 6001500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : J.S. Jalal 13896 (WII), C.M. Arora 70802 (BSD). THUNIA Rchb.f. Thunia alba (Lindl.) Rchb.f., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 10: 764. 1852. Phaius albus Lindl. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 85. 1831. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 600 – 1800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SP E C IMENS EXAMINE D : J.S.Jalal 13707 (WII), A.K. Goel 67755 (BSD), C.M. Arora 37873 (BSD). Thunia alba var. bracteata (Roxb.) N.Pearce & P.J.Cribb, Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 116. 2001. Limodorum bracteatum Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3: 466. 1832. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic & lithophytic, subtropical region, 600 – 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Kishan Lal 1958 (BSD). TIPULARIA Nutt. Tipularia cunninghamii (King & Prain) S.C.Chen, S.W.Gale & P.J.Cribb, Fl. China 25: 251. 2009. Didiciea cunninghamii King & Prain, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 65: 119. 1896. FLOWERING : July – August. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, temperate region, 2000– 2500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : U.C. Bhattacharyya 29389 (BSD), M.A.Rau 31727 (BSD). TROPIDIA Lindl. Tropidia pedunculata Blume, Coll. Orchid.: 122. 1859. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 300– 1000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : C.M. Arora 38869 (BSD). VANDA W. Jones Vanda alpina (Lindl.) Lindl., Fol. Orchid. 4: 10. 1853. Fig. 10E. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 800– 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : J.S. Jalal 15049 (WII). Vanda ampullacea (Roxb.) L.M.Gardiner, Phytotaxa 61: 48. 2012. Aerides ampullacea Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3: 476. 1832. Ascocentrum ampullaceum (Roxb.) Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1: 975. 1913. FLOWERING : April – May. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 600– 900 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SP E C IMENS EXAMINE D : U.C. Bhattacharyya 21185 (BSD). Vanda cristata Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 216. 1833. Fig. 10F. FLOWERING : May – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical to temperate region, 1000 – 2000 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SP E C IMENS SEEN : J.S.Jalal 13708, 13724, 13869 (WII), C.M. Arora 66107 (BSD), J. Verma 350a (PAN). Vanda pumila Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 53. 1890. Trudelia pumila (Hook.f.) Senghas in

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya43 FIGURE 7. A. Eria globulifera , B. , C. Gastrodia falconeri , D. , E. Goodyera fusca, F. Goodyera procera, G. Goodyera repens, H. Goodyera , I. Goodyera vittata

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.44 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 8. A. Gymnadenia orchidis, B. Habenaria intermedia , C. Habenaria marginata, D. Habenaria pectinata , E. Habenaria pubescens, F. Hemipilia cordifolia

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya45 FIGURE 9. A. , B. Liparis odorata, C. , D. Luisia tristis, E. Nervilia crociformis, F. Nervilia gammieana, G. Nervilia mackinnonii , H. Nervilia pangteyana , I. Nervilia plicata , J. Oreorchis micrantha

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.46 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 10. A. Phalaenopsis taenialis , B. Pinalia leucantha , C. Rhynchostylis retusa, D. Smithandia micrantha, E. Vanda alpina, F. Vanda cristata, G. Vanda tessellata

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya47F.R.R.Schlechter, Orchideen Beschreib. Kult. Zcht., ed. 3, 1(19-20): 1211. 1988. FLOWERING : May – June. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 600– 1500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : U.C. Bhattacharyya 21238 (BSD). Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook. ex G. Don, J.C.Loudon, Hort. Brit. 372. 1830. Fig. 10G Epidendrum tessellatum Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1: 34. 1795. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 600– 800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : M.A.Rau 5377 & 5417 (BSD), U.C. Bhattacharyya 18373 (BSD). Vanda testacea (Lindl.) Rchb. f., Gard. Chron., n.s., 8:166. 1877. Aerides testacea Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 238. 1833. FLOWERING : June – July. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 600800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S.Jalal 13882 (WII), S.K. Malhotra 15371 (BSD), J. Verma 223 (PAN). VANDOPSIS Vandopsis undulata (Lindl.) J. J. Sm., Naturk. Tijdschr. Ned.-Indie 72: 77. 1912. Vanda undulata Lindl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 3: 42. 1859. FLOWERING : April – May. HABIT & HABITAT : Epiphytic, subtropical region, 600– 800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : P.K. Hajra 74770 (BSD). ZEUXINE Lindl. (Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 108. 1890. Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 487. 1840. Zeuxine seidenfadenii Deva & H.B.Naithani, Orchid Fl. North West Him.: 95. 1986. FLOWERING : March-April HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region at elevation 800 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMEN EXAMINED : Deva 9712 (DD). (Wall. ex Lindl.) Trimen, Syst. Cat. Fl. Pl. Ceylon: 90. 1885. Wall. ex Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch.: 487. 1840. FLOWERING : April – May. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, subtropical region, 10001500 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S. Jalal 14027 (WII), Balodi 75635 (BSD), Pangtey & Samant 2464 (NTL). Zeuxine membranacea Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. Pl. 486. 1840. FLOWERING : January – March. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, tropical region, 350 – 380 m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.Verma 125 (PAN). Zeuxine strateumatica (L.) Schltr. in Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 45: 394. 1911. Orchis strateumatica L., Sp. Pl.: 943. 1753. FLOWERING : Janurary – March. HABIT & HABITAT : Terrestrial, tropical to subtropical regions, 300 – 1200m. DISTRIBUTION : Western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand). SPECIMENS EXAMINED : J.S. Jalal 13740 (WII), C.L. Malhotra 26614 (BSD), M.A. Rau 8120 (BSD). Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr., Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 6: 270. 1910. There is a single report of this species from Almora by Gastiv probably based on cultivated specimen and never recollected before and after this work. Lindl., Gen. & Sp. Orch. : 39. 1830. This species was so far reported based on Das & Jain (1980) report which inturn is based on a single specimen collected by M.A. Rau 42954 from Eastern Kumaun in EXCLUDED TAXA

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.48 LANKESTERIANAAgrawala, D.K. & Chowdhery, H.J. (2008). Eulophia epidendraea (J. Konig Ex Retz.) C.E.C. Fisch.an addition to the Indian J. Forestry, 31(4), 629-632. Agrawala, D.K. & Chowdhery, H.J. (2009a). West Himalaya. Indian J. Forestry, 32(1), 103-106. Agrawala, D.K. & Chowdhery, H.J. (2009b). On the occurrence of identity of Summerh. (Orchidaceae). J. Non-Timber For. Prod., 16(2), 163-166. Agrawala, D.K., Chowdhery, H.J. & Kumar, V. (2013). Extended distribution of Oreorchis patens (Orchidaceae) and its Red List status in India. Richardiana, 13, 267-276. Bisht, S. & Adhikari, B. (2014). Dendrobium longicornu Richardiana, 14, 157-168. Blatter, E. (1928). Beautiful Flowers of Kashmir. Staples and Staples Ltd. Westminster. LITERATURE CITED vegetative condition. There is no such collection number in BSD herbarium; in fact this number was for a grass specimen. This species is known so far to occur from Nepal eastwards. This is probably a mistaken report and thus excluded from Western Himalaya. Coelogyne nitida (Wall. ex D.Don) Lindl., Coll. Bot.: t. 33. 1824. This species is also a doubtful occurence in western Himalaya. It is primarily an Eastern Himalayan species and its occurrence in western Himalaya needs further collection 112. 1906. It was collected by Mackinnon (Duthie, loc. cit.) from Tehri, Roburts (Duthie, loc. cit.) from Pauri and Edgeworth Duthie, loc. cit.) from Kumaun.Cymbidium eburneum Lindl. in Edw. Bot. Reg. 33: t, 67. 1847. This species is generally seen cultivated in gardens of Didihat of eastern Kumaun region. During this survey we have not seen any such plants cultivated in gardens in this region. However, its occurrence in the wild state requires Cymbidium elegans Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 163. 1833. This species is included here on authority of J. F. Duthie (1906), who reported it from Kumaun between 1200 and 2000 m. During our survey we could not locate any wild population of this species. Cymbidium hookerianum Rchb.f., Gard. Chron. 1866: 7. 1866. This species is generally seen cultivated in gardens of Didihat of eastern Kumaun region. During this survey we have not seen any such plants cultivated in gardens in this region. However, its occurrence in the wild state requires Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.) C.E.C.Fisch. in J.S.Gamble, Fl. Madras: 1416. 1928. This species is included on the authority of J.F. Duthie (1906). He has included this based on Gamble & Mackinnon (Duthie, loc. cit.) from eastern part of Dehradun. It was also reported in garden as cultivated but its occrrrence in the wild is very doubtful.Dendrobium moschatum (Buch.-Ham.) Sw. in Schrad. Neue Journ. 1: 94. 1806. Duthie (1906) has included this based on Strachey & Winterbottom no. 09 from Kumaun region of the Western Himalaya. Platanthera urceolata (Hook.f.) R.M.Bateman, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 104: 439. 2009. Duthie (1906) reported this species (Habenaria urceolata C.B.Clarke) from Byans valley in eastern Kumaun specimen number 6003 (DD), while revising orchid of north west Himalaya. Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall., Fl. Gn. Env. Paris 2: 330. 1827. Duthie (1906) mentiond that this was reported by T. Thomson from Lohaghat. Deva & Naithani (1986) also wrote a note that it was collected only once from Himalaya about 150 years back by T. Thomson at Lohaghat in Kumaun. Its existence in an isolated spot far away from its natural range of distribution proves that it could have been only accidentally introduced by the early British settlers who developed tea gardens and fruit orchards in the vicinity of Lohaghat which was one of the earliest cantonments established after the conquest of Kumaun from Gurkhas or can this be only a case of just change of the labels by mistake. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . The authors are thankful to the Director, Botanical Survey of India for facilities and encouragement.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. JALAL and JAYANTHI Checklist of the orchids of western Himalaya49recommended standard forms of their names, including abbreviations. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Burkill, I.H. (1965). Chapters on the History of Botany in India. Calcutta: Manager of Publication, Govt of India, Calcutta. Champion, H.G. & Seth, S.K. (1968). A revised survey of forest types of India. Manager of Publications, Government of India, Delhi. 404p. Chowdhery, H.J. & Agrawala, D.K. (2008). Pleione hookeriana (Lindl.) B.S. WilliamsAn intresting orchid species from Garhwal Himalaya. Indian J. Forestry, 31(1), 147 – 149. Collett, H. (1902). Flora Simlensis. Thacker, Spink and Co., Shimla, pl. 289-508. Deva, S. & Naithani, H.B. (1986). The Orchid Flora of North-West Himalaya. Print & Media Associates, New Delhi. Duthie, J.F. (1906). The Orchids of the North-Western Himalaya. Ann. Royal Bot. Gard. Calcutta, 9(2), 81-211. Hooker, J.D. (1906). A Sketch of the Flora of British India. Londan. 55p. Jain, S. K. and Rao, R.R. (1977). A Handbook of Field and Herbarium Method. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers & Publishers, New Delhi. 157p. Jalal, J. S., Kumar, P. & Pangtey, Y.P.S. (2009). Habenaria pubescens Lindley: an interesting orchid from Western Himalaya. Richardiana, 9(2), 76-84. Jalal, J.S., Kumar, P., Kotia, A. & Rawat, G. S. (2012b). On the occurrence of Pelatantheria insectifera (Orchidaceae) in Jim Corbett National Park, India. Richardiana, 12(3), 108 – 115. Jalal, J.S., Kumar, P. & Rawat, G.S. (2012a). Nervilia pangteyana sp. nov., a terrestrial orchid from western Himalaya, India. Nord. J. Bot., 30, 4071. Jalal, J.S., Kumar, P., Rawat, G.S. & Pangtey, Y.P.S. (2008). Orchidaceae, Uttarakhand, Western Himalaya, India. Checklist , 4(3), 304-320. Jalal, J.S. & Pangtey, Y.P.S. (2011a). Rediscovery of Vanda alpina, a rare epiphytic orchid in Western Himalaya, India. Richardiana, 9(4), 173-178. Jalal, J.S. & Pangtey, Y.P.S. (2011b). Gastrodia falconeri recollected from Western Himalaya, India. Richardiana, 9(2), 53-60. Jalal, J.S., Rai, I.D., Kumar, P., Rawat, G.S. & Pangtey, Y.P.S. (2010). Platanthera leptocaulon (Hooker f.) Soo: an addition Richardiana, 10(2), 85-93. Jalal, J.S., Rai, I.D., Kumar, P., Rawat, G.S. & Pangtey, Y.P.S. (2010). Bulbophyllum hirtum (Smith) Lindley (Orchidaceae) New record from western Himalaya, India. Indian J. Forestry, 33(3), 447-448. Jalal, J.S., Rai, I.D., Kumar, P., Rawat, G.S. & Pangtey, Y.P.S. (2010b). Goodyera vittata (Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f: A new record of Jewel Orchid for Western Himalaya. India. J. Non-Timber For. Prod., 17(3), 333-334. Kumar, V., Chowdhery, H.J. & Keshava Murtyh, K.R. (2012). Neottia chandrae Raskoti et al. (Orchidaceae)A new Indian J. Forestry, 35(3), 375-376. Lal, K., Agrawala, D.K. & Chowdhery, H.J. (2008). Three new generic records of orchidaceae from Himachal Pradesh. J. Non-Timber For. Prod. 15(4): 293-296. Lal, K., Agrawala, D.K. & Chowdhery, H.J. (2010a). New orchid records from Himachal Pradesh. Indian J. Forestry, 33(4), 619-622. Lal, K., Agrawala, D.K., & Chowdhery, H.J. (2010b). Rediscovery of Eria alba Lindl. (Orchidaceae) from Himachal Pradesh after a gap of more than a century. Indian J. Forestry, 33(4), 647-650. Nair, N.C. (1977). Flora of Bashahr Himalaya. International Bioscience Publishers, Hissar, Haryana. Pangtey, Y.P.S., Samant, S.S. & Rawat, G.S. (1991). Orchids of Kumaon Himalaya. Bishan Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun. Polunin, O. & Stainton, A. (1984). Flowers of the Himalaya. Oxford Univ. Press, New Delhi. Rai, I.D., Jalal, J.S., Singh, G. & Rawat, G.S. (2014). Platanthera pachycaulon (Orchidaceae): an addition to the orchid Richardiana, 14, 266-273. Raizada, M.B., Naithani, H.B. & Saxena, H.O. (1981). Orchids of Mussoorie. Bishan Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun. Rau, M.A. (1975). High Altitude Flowering Plants of West Himalaya. Calcutta. Rodgers, W.A. & Panwar, H.S. (1988). Planning a Wildlife Protected Area Network in India. Vol. 1 and 2. A report prepared for the Department of Environment, Forests and Wildlife, Government of India at the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. Seidenfaden, G & Arora, C.M. (1982). An enumeration of the Orchids of the north-western Himalaya. Nord. J. Bot., 2, 7-27. Singh, S.K. & Rawat, G.S. (2000). Flora of Great Himalayan National Park. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun. Uniyal, B.P., Sharma, J.R., Choudhery, U. & Singh, D.K. (2007). Flowering Plants of Uttarakhand : A Checklist. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. Received 14 July 2014. Accepted 24 September 2014.50 LANKESTERIANAVerma, J, Jaglan, P., Thakur, K., Sharma, K., Attri, L. K. & Vij, S.P. (2010). Habenaria aitchisonii Rchb. f. and H.pubescens J. Orch. Soc. India , 24, 53-56. Vij, S.P. & Verma, J. (2005). Luisia zeylanica Lindl. (Orchidaceae): A new record for Himachal Pradesh. Rheedea , 15(2),138-139. Vij, S.P. & Verma, J. (2007a). Peristylus constrictus (Lindl.) Lindl.: A new orchid record for Himachal Pradesh, India. J. Orch. Soc. India, 21, 57-59. Vij, S.P. & Verma, J. (2007b). Gastrochilus calceolaris D. Don (Orchidaceae): A new generic record for Himachal Pradesh. J. Orch. Soc. India , 21, 19-21. Vij, S.P., Verma, J. & Kumar, C. S. (2013). Orchids of Himachal Pradesh. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun. Vikas, K., Chowdhery, H.J. & Murthy, K.R.K. (2012). Neottia chandrae Raskoti et al. (Orchidaceae): a new addition to the Indian Journal of Forestry, 35, 375-376.

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2): 51. 2014.History and discussion. The Odontoglossum Kunth species described here belongs to a rather confusing complex of a taxonomically challenging genus that is which most Odontoglossum species display. The reason for this variability can probably be discussed forever, but natural hybridization appears to be a strong pollinated group of plants. Odontoglossum species in general do not seem to offer any particular rewards to the pollinator other than possibly perfume, and the contribute to lure various bees to repeat visiting the Species of Odontoglossum have been transferred to Oncidium by Chase and others (Chase et al. 2008). A Taxonomic treatment Odontoglossum hirtzii sp. nov. TYPE: Ecuador. Imbabura: Selva Alegre, alt. 2600 m, 29 Sept. 1984, A. Hirtz 1923 (holotype: Rio Palenque Science Center [MO], left specimen on sheet 0000748). FIG. 1 . Diagnosis. Odontoglossum hirtzii (Figs. 1), differs from the similar and locally sympatric O. armatum Rchb.f. (Figs. 4, 5) by a slightly larger overall size, a larger and pandurate lip with distinctly cordate to hastate basal angles of the lamina, much more developed purple-striped callus keels, and with considerably larger column wings, versus a more slender habit, a cuneate lip lamina with a less developed, generally wings for O. armatum. Odontoglossum hirtzii is also O. cristatellum Rchf.b. (Fig. 6), O. cristatum Lindl. (Fig. 7) and O. furcatum (Fig. 8) but is readily distinguished from them by the distinctly pandurate lip lamina and commonly purple mottled pseudobulbs, versus a more cordate lamina for the latter species, which all have plain green to yellowish or sometimes reddish pseudobulbs without any mottling. Epiphytic herb. Roots typical for the genus and spreading. Pseudobulbs caespitose, on a compact bracteate rhizome, ovoid to pyriform, apically obtuse, ancipitous and slightly compressed, commonly mottled with purple, unifoliate (on type, but bifoliate on larger plants), ca. 3.0 1.5 cm, subtended basally by 6 to 7 distichous sheaths, the uppermost foliaceous. Leaf subpetiolate, conduplicate, narrowly ovate, acute, ca. 8.5 1.8 cm. e , axillary from the base of the outermost sheath, erect and arching, to ca ca. bracts appressed, scale-like, ca. 0.4 – 0.6 cm long. Pedicel and ovary ca. 2.5 – 3.0 cm AN ATTRACTIVE NEW BUT RARELY SEEN ODONTOGLOSSUM (ORCHIDACEAE: ONCIDIINAE) FROM ECUADOR STIG DALSTRM 2304 Ringling Boulevard, unit 119, Sarasota FL 34237, USA Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica National Biodiversity Centre, Serbithang, Bhutan stigdalstrom@gmail.com ABSTRACT. A new species of Odontoglossum from a limited area in western Ecuador is described, illustrated with a line drawing and color photographs, and compared with apparently closely related species, which are illustrated with color photographs. The new species differs from them all by a combination of features, such as the limited geographic distribution, frequently purple mottled pseudobulbs, a broadly pandurate lip lamina and widely spreading purple striped callus keels on the lip. KEY WORDS : new species, Cymbidieae, Epidendroideae , Ecuador.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.52 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 1. Odontoglossum hirtzii. A. Plant habit. B. Column, ventral and lateral views, with anther cap. C. Column and lip, lateral view. D. Lip, dorsal view. E. Anther cap, dorsal view. F. Pollinarium with one (of two) pollinia, ventral and lateral

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. DALSTRM Odontoglossum53long. Flower stellate, showy; dorsal sepal chocolate brown with yellow markings, weakly unguiculate, elliptic-ovate, narrowly acute to acuminate, ca. 3.0 0.9 cm; lateral sepals similar in size and color, and slightly oblique; petals similar to the sepals in color, unguiculate, ovate, acuminate, to ca. 3.0 1.0 cm; lip red-brown with a yellow margin, fused to the of tissue for ca. 4.0 mm, then free and developing into a cordate to hastate pandurate, slightly undulate and serrate lamina, to ca. 2.0 1.0 cm; callus white ( Hirtz, but commonly spotted with purple) of well-developed radiating, gradually increasing in size, base of the canaliculated lamina; column color on type not described by Hirtz, but generally white with purple-brown spots, slender and erect, laterally weakly keeled, ventrally canaliculated with well-developed angles, and with a large rectangular and slightly serrate wing on each side of the stigmatic surface, ca. 1.5 cm long; anther cap color not described by Hirtz but commonly white to pale yellow, campanulate and angular rostrate, dorsally weakly lobulate; pollinarium of two cleft/folded pyriform pollinia on a narrowly elongate-ovate, ca. 3.0 mm long stipe, on a hooked, pulvinate viscidium. FIGURE 2. Odontoglossum hirtzii, G. Deburghgraeve 039 FIGURE 3. Odontoglossum hirtzii, Mindo, S. Dalstrm 3755

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54 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 4. Odontoglossum armatum ‘Rony’. Photo by G. Deburghgraeve.LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. FIGURE 5. Odontoglossum armatum , Maldonado, S. Dalstrm 053

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. DALSTRM Odontoglossum55 Odontoglossum hirtzii is an attractive and colorful little species that has been hiding in herbaria under purple mottling on the pseudobulb of O. hirtzii is a feature shared by the sympatric O. armatum, which speculatively may suggest that O. hirtzii has a hybrid origin, or evolved away from O. armatum at some time due to some genetic alterations. Odontoglossum cristatellum is not found near the area where O. hirtzii a thicker column, while O. cristatum, which is not sympatric, and O. furcatum generally occur at lower elevations than O. hirtzii. Odontoglossum furcatum may possibly be sympatric with O. hirtzii where their a longer column (ca. 20 mm versus 15 mm long for O. hirtzii) and different looking bi-furcated wings. Odontoglossum hallii resemble O. hirtzii as well but is much larger in overall size (for example: sepals 5.0 – 6.0 cm long versus ca. 3.0 cm long for O. hirtzii) and the pseudobulbs lack the purple mottling, which is typical for O. hirtzii. Plants of Odontoglossum hirtzii as Odontoglossum “denticulatum” [nomen nudum] by me in the past. This particular epithet was coined by Friedrich Lehmann, based on some of his collections from Nanegal, Ecuador (which, coincidently, corresponds with the known area for O. hirtzii), but not be used at all. After some lengthy analysis and comparisons between Lehmann’s “denticulatum” and the type, and other collections, of O. armatum, the conclusion is that they represent the same species, and differ from the locally sympatric and rather similar O. hirtzii. The most distinct difference between the two can be seen in the size and shape of the column, and particularly the cordate to hastate base of the pandurate lip lamina, as well as the more developed and purplespotted lip callus of O. hirtzii. The impressive variability O. armatum, however, suggest that natural hybridization may be rather common, which, of course, blurs the species distinctions. Plants have been found by me and others that suggest several possible ‘hybrid partners’, O. mirandum Rchb.f. (O. reversum Bockem.), O. cristatellum Rchb.f., and possibly also O. aspidorhinum Lehm., which all occur sympatrically in northern Ecuador on the western FIGURE 6. Odontoglossum cristatellum, plant cultivated and photographed by G. Deburghgraeve.

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56 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. FIGURE 7. Odontoglossum cristatum, plant cultivated and photographed by G. Deburghgraeve. FIGURE 8. Odontoglossum furcatum, plant cultivated and photographed by G. Deburghgraeve.

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slopes of the Andes near the Colombian border. Only by repeating these suspected crosses in a controlled environment can these identity problems possibly be solved. No plants of Odontoglossum hirtzii have been seen by me or reported from this area though, consistent morphology have been seen (in addition to the specimens cited below), to justify treating it as a valid species, honoring one of the world’s greatest orchid discoverer. ADDITIONAL MATERIAL SEEN : Ecuador. Imbabura, cultivation by Ecuagenera, May 2004, S. Dalstrm 2490 2000 – 2400 m, date unknown, A. Hirtz 031 (SEL). Same province, Canton Quito, Bosque Protector Maquipucuna, montane rain forest, crest and upper slopes of Cerro Monte Cristo, ca. 9 km airline SE of Nanegalito, 2700 – 2795 m, 00 03’ N, 78 36’ W, 8 Sept. 1993, G. L. Webster et al. 30556 (DAV). Same province, Mindo, ca. 2200 – 2400 m, Jan. 1979, S. Dalstrm et al. 574 (color transparencycultivation later same year, S. Dalstrm et. al. 3755 province, Tandayapa, along road Nono – Nanegal, alt. 2000 m, collected and cultivated in Paute by A. Andreetta, 25 Feb. 1982, C. H. Dodson 12858 (SEL). Same area, 1800 [?] – 2200 m, Feb. 1982, A. Andreetta 0216 (SEL). DISTRIBUTION : Odontoglossum hirtzii is only known from, and probably endemic to the seasonally extremely wet cloud forests of the western slopes of the Andes in north-central Ecuador at elevations of ca. 2000 – 2800 m. EPONYMY : Named in honor of Alejandro “Alex” Hirtz, a mining engineer and prominent nature explorer of Quito, Ecuador, who has contributed more than anyone else to the discovery of new plants, and particularly orchids in his country. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . I thank Wesley Higgins for reviewing and commenting on the manuscript, Guido Deburghgraeve for providing the descriptive color photographs, and the curators of the DAV, MO and SEL herbaria for providing opportunities to study the cited specimens.LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. DALSTRM Odontoglossum57 FIGURE 9. Odontoglossum hallii, plant cultivated and photographed by G. Deburghgraeve.

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LITERATURE CITED Chase, M. W., Williams, N. H., Neubig, K. M. & Whitten, W. M. (2008). Taxonomic transfers in Oncidiinae to accord with Genera orchidacearum. Lindleyana , 5, 20. Lankesteriana, 7, 33. Odontoglossum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) and a solution to a taxonomic conundrum. Lankesteriana, 12(1), 53. Odontoglossum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from Peru. Lankesteriana, 13(3), 401– 405.LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. Received 29 August 2014. Accepted 18 October 2014.58 LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1): 59. 2015.TWO NEW SIMILAR SPECIES OF MASDEVALLIA (ORCHIDACEAE: PLEUROTHALLIDINAE) FROM P ASCO, PERU STIG DALSTRM 1,3 & SAUL RUZ PREZ 21 2304 Ringling Boulevard, unit 119, Sarasota FL 34237, U.S.A. Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica National Biodiversity Centre, Serbithang, Bhutan2 Allamanda 142, Surco, Lima 33, Peru3 Corresponding author: stigdalstrom@gmail.com ABSTRACT . Two new species of Masdevallia , subgenus Pygmaeia , section Amaluzae are described, illustrated with line drawings and color photographs, and compared with similar taxa. The two new species are sympatric and share many morphological characteristics, but differ from each other through features such as pubescent sepals versus glabrous sepals, size and coloration. Both new species differ from all other members of the same subgenus and section by much larger plant habits . KEY WORDS : New Masdevallia , Pleurothallidinae, Epidendreae, Epidendroideae, Pasco, Peru, taxonomy In 2006 the genus Masdevallia Ruz & Pav., had become massive with over 500 species, classed into numerous subdivisions (Luer, 2000a, 2000b, 2001, 2002, 2003). This vast number of species, in combination with molecular investigations (Abele et. al, 2005; Pridgeon & Chase, 2001), encouraged Luer to split the genus into 16 new genera, in addition to the remaining Masdevallia (Luer, 2006). The taxonomic advantages of this division of Masdevallia, Luer are not recognized by us, however, because of each other in consistent ways, and in recognizing user-friendly and practical features to readily identify in which genus many species belong. We therefore favor the previous and more conservative taxonomic treatment of the genus as circumscribed by Luer friendly and practical reasons. Various authors (e.g. Collantes et al., 2007; Zelenko & Bermudez, 2009; Zelenko, 2014) also maintain the name Masdevallia as TAXONOMIC TREATMENT Masdevallia fenestralis sp. nov . TYPE: Peru. Huanuco, Choto, along trail Monopampa– Pozuzo, in dense and seasonally exceedingly wet cloud forest, at ca. 3000 m elevation, 09.249’S, 075.722’W, 24 Nov. 2013, S. Dalstrm et al. 3664 (holotype: USM). FIGS . 1. Diagnosis. Masdevallia fenestralis appears most closely related to Masdevallia carmenensis Luer & Malo (Figs.4, 5), in addition to the next described M. fenestralis differs in the overall much larger size, twice as large as M. carmenensis (ca. 10 cm versus ca. 5 cm long). Masdevallia fenestralis differs from the following new species by the white overall smaller sized plant, with a smaller white and Epiphytic or terrestrial herb. Plant tall for the subgenus, caespitose. Ramicauls erect, slender, to ca. 6.5 cm long, enclosed basally by 3 to 4 tubular sheaths. Leaf erect, coriaceous, petiolate, blade basally conduplicate and cuneate, elliptic, obtuse, to ca. 17.0 3.5 cm, including the to ca. 7 cm long petiole. erect, terete, ca. 12 cm long peduncle and a ca. 2 cm long rachis; peduncular bracts 2, tubular, below the middle of the peduncle, ca. 0.5 cm long; appressed, tubular, ca. 1.0.5 cm long; pedicel to ca. 1.5 cm long; ovary sulcate,

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.60 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 1. Masdevallia fenestralis. A. Plant habit. B. Ovary, petal, column and lip, lateral view. C. Column, lateral view.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. DALSTRM and PREZ — New Masdevallia from Peru61smooth to weakly rugose, ca. 0.5.0 cm long. Flower tubular, forming a ca. 20 mm long sepaline tube with a ca. 8 mm long and ca. 1.5.0 mm broad obliquely ovate, transparent section (a ‘window’) near the base and along the seam between the sepals; dorsal sepal white with deep purple spots, mottling and longitudinal stripes along the 3 veins, microscopically pubescent and carinate externally, densely pubescent internally, cuneate to linear, angulate-obovate and FIGURE 2. Masdevallia fenestralis in situ. Photo by S. FIGURE 3. Masdevallia fenestralis FIGURE 4. Masdevallia carmenensis in situ, Chiguinda road, FIGURE 5. Masdevallia carmenensis

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62 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.connate to the lateral sepals for ca. 20 mm, acuminate into a thin more or less erect to arching purple tail, ca. 90 10 mm, including the ca. 60 mm long tail; lateral sepals similar in texture and coloration, microscopically pubescent and carinate externally, and densely pubescent internally, connate for ca. 20 mm, obliquely and angulate-ovate, acuminate with apical whitish tails, ca. 105 22 mm combined, including the ca. 75 mm long tails; petals white with a purple stripe, cartilaginous, oblong, obtuse with an elongate acute apex and slightly serrate, with a longitudinal base, continuing along the midline and ending with the narrowly acute apex, ca. 13.5 4.3 mm; lip basally white and with a pink lamina, hinged on the column foot, with a basal, dorsally furrowed truncate swelling, and weakly erect lateral lobes that turn slightly downwards near and above the middle, basally weakly revolute apex, ca. column white with purple lateral stripes, straight, ca. 10 mm long, with an equally long, curved foot ; anther cap white and campanulate; pollinia not seen. ADDITIONAL MATERIAL SEEN : Peru. Only a small population of plants was discovered in the same location as the holotype. No other collections known. DISTRIBUTION : Masdevallia fenestralis has only been found in a single location, along the trail between Monopampa and Pozuzo, at ca. 3000 m. ETYMOLOGY : This species is named in reference to the window-like patch of translucent tissue near the base on each side of the sepaline tube (fenestralis; Latin for windowed). Masdevallia fenestrellata sp. nov . TYPE: Peru. Huanuco, Choto, along trail Monopampa– Pozuzo, in dense and seasonally exceedingly wet cloud forest, at ca. 3000 m elevation, 09.249’S, 075.722’W, 24 Nov. 2013, S. Dalstrm et al. 3663 (holotype: USM). FIGS . 6-8. Diagnosis. Masdevallia fenestrellata is morphologically similar and appears closely related to the much larger Masdevallia fenestralis but differs in an overall smaller size and a white, internally glabrous Masdevallia carmenensis, but differs in a larger vegetative size and for the latter species. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb. Plant medium sized for the genus, caespitose. Ramicauls erect, slender, to ca. 4 cm long, enclosed basally by 3 to 4 tubular sheaths. Leaf erect, coriaceous, petiolate, blade basally conduplicate and cuneate, elliptic, obtuse, to ca. 10.0 2.5 cm, including the ca. 3 cm long petiole. erect, terete, successiveca. 8 cm long peduncle and a ca. 2 cm long rachis; peduncular bracts 2, tubular, below the middle of the peduncle, ca. 0.5.7 cm long; appressed, tubular, ca. 1.0.2 cm long; pedicel to ca. 1cm long; ovary sulcate, weakly rugose, ca. 0.6– 0.7 cm long. Flower tubular, forming a ca. 18 mm long sepaline tube, with a ca. 5 mm long and ca. 1 mm broad obliquely ovate, transparent section (a ‘window’) near the base and along the seam between the sepals; dorsal sepal dull white, glabrous and carinate externally, glabrous internally, cuneate to linear, angulate-obovate and connate to the lateral sepals for ca. 18 mm, acuminate into a thin suberect to arching whitish to pale yellow tail, ca. 70.0 0.8 mm, including the ca. 45 mm long tail; lateral sepals similar in texture and coloration but with some pale yellow basally, glabrous and carinate externally, and glabrous internally, connate for ca. 20 mm, obliquely and angulate-ovate, acuminate with apical pale yellowish tails, ca. 70 17 mm combined, including the ca. 45 mm long tails; petals white, cartilaginous and slightly oblique, weakly unguiculate, oblong, obtuse with a shortly acuminate, narrowly acute apex and slightly verrucose and serrate on the dorsal from the base, continuing along the midline and ending with the narrowly acute apex, ca. 8 2 mm; lip white, hinged on the column foot, with a basal, dorsally shallow furrowed truncate swelling, and strongly revolute edges of the lamina, forming a slightly bilobed apex, which is obtuse to rounded ca. 9 6 mm when column white, straight, ca. 6 mm long, with an equally long, curved foot ; anther cap white and campanulate; pollinia not seen.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. DALSTRM and PREZ — New Masdevallia from Peru63 FIGURE 6. Masdevallia fenestrellata . A. Plant habit. B. Ovary, petal, column and lip, lateral view. C. Column and lip, lateral

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64 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. ADDITIONAL MATERIAL SEEN : Peru. Only a small population of plants was discovered in the same location as the holotype. No other collections known. DISTRIBUTION : Masdevallia fenestrellata has only been found in a single location, along the trail between Monopampa and Pozuzo, at ca. 3000 m where it grows sympatrically with the larger Masdevallia fenestralis. ETYMOLOGY : This species is named in reference to the small ‘window-like’ patch of translucent tissue near the base on each side of the sepaline tube (fenestrellata; Latin for “with a small window”). Masdevallia fenestrellata and the much showier Masdevallia fenestralis were originally discovered several years ago by Sal Ruz Prez in some extremely wet and dense cloud forest along the trail between Monopampa in Huanuco, and Pozuzu in Pasco (Figs. 9, 10). Both species grow intermingled with each other have been observed. The only known collection site is an almost constantly rainy, thick and impenetrable cloud forest at rather high altitude in central Peru. Uncountable wanderers have used the ancient trail that crosses the summit of Abra de Vacas, but hardly any orchid explorers, which promises to reveal more interesting taxa over time. The collection site was revisited by the two authors in 2013 after a strenuous hike which included several high-risk passages of variously entertaining sorts. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank the staff at the Instituto Recursos Naturales (INRENA), and Betty Milln and Ricardo Fernndez at the Universidad de San Marcos, Museo de Historia Natural, Lima, for providing permits and assistance. We also thank Wesley Higgins for commenting FIGURE 7. Masdevallia fenestrellata in situ. Photo by S. FIGURE 8. Masdevallia fenestrellata Prez. FIGURE 9. Masdevallia habitat along the MonopampaFIGURE 10. The Monopampa-Pozuzu trail. Photo by S.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. Received 27 September 2014. Accepted 27 October 2014. DALSTRM and PREZ — New Masdevallia from Peru65on the manuscript, Manolo Arias Silva and his family and LITERATURE CITED Abele, C., Rudolph, B., Thiede, J. & Rohwer, J. G. (2005). Phylogeny of the genus Masdevallia Ruz & Pav., based on morphological an molecular data. Proceedings of the 18th World Orchid Conference, Dijon, France, 111-115. Collantes M. B., Soto, C. & Koechlin, J. (2007). Orchids in Inkaterra at Machu Picchu pueblo hotel . Inkaterra Luer, C. A. (1986). Icones Pleurothallidinarum 2, Systematics of Masdevallia (Orchidaceae). Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 16. Luer, C. A. (2000a). Icones Pleurothallidinarum 19. Systematics of Masdevallia part one. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 77, 1-264. Luer, C. A. (2000b). Icones Pleurothallidinarum 21. Systematics of Masdevallia part two. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 82, 265-518. Luer, C. A. (2001). Icones Pleurothallidinarum 22. Systematics of Masdevallia part three. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 86, 510-780. Luer, C. A. (2002). Icones Pleurothallidinarum 23. Systematics of Masdevallia part four. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 87, 781-1047. Luer, C. A. (2003). Icones Pleurothallidinarum 25. Systematics of Masdevallia Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 91, 1049-1293. Luer, C. A. (2006). Icones Pleurothallidinarum 28. A reconsideration of Masdevallia , Systematics of Specklinia and vegetatively similar taxa (Orchidaceae). Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 105. Pridgeon, A. M. & Chase, M. W. (2001). A phylogenetic Lindleyana , 16(4), 235-271. Zelenko, H. (2014). Orchids, Masdevallia with its segregates including Dracula. ZAI Publications, Quito, Ecuador Zelenko, H. & Bermudez, P. (2009). Orchids, species of Peru. ZAI Publications, Quito, Ecuador.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1): 67. 2015.A NOVEL SEED BAITING TECHNIQUE FOR THE EPIPHYTIC ORCHID RHYNCHOSTELE CERVANTESII, A MEANS T O ACQUIRE MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI FROM PROTOCORMS JESS BERNARDO CRUZ-HIGAREDA 1,2 , BRBARA SUSANA LUNA-ROSALES 1 & AMADEO BARBALVAREZ 11 Unidad de Investigacin en Biologa Vegetal (L-301), Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza Campo II, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, AP 0920, Mxico, D.F., CP 09230, Mxico2 Author for coorespondece: bdocruzh@gmail.com ABSTRACT . We developed a new and novel seed baiting technique sowing mature seeds of the epiphyitic orchid Rhynchostele cervantesii under natural conditions, We introduced a sponge in each package that may serve as in pure culture and were inoculated on seeds and protocorms under in vitro conditions. KEY WORDS : Orchid, Epiphytic, Seed, Baiting, Mycorrhiza, RhynchosteleIntroduction. In nature, orchids utilize mycorrhizal fungi as a carbon source (mycotrophy) to facilitate seed germination and seedling development, and many are thought to remain intimately tied to fungi into maturity. Although most (73%) the world’s 17,00035,000 orchid species exist as tropical epiphytes (At-wood 1986; Cribb et al. 2003), surprisingly few taxa have been studied with respect to their mycorrhizal associations compared to their temperate terrestrial counterparts. During the last decade, however, a growing number of studies have been published that document mycorrhizal fungi from tropical orchids worldwide including Brazil (e.g., Pereira et al. 2003, 2005), China (e.g., Chen et al. 2012), Ecuador (Surez et al. 2006), Puerto Rico (Otero et al. 2007), and Thai-land (e.g., Nontachaiyapoom et al. 2010) among other places. This information comes at a critical time for specialists seeking knowledge of mycorrhizal fungi for conservation purposes (e.g., symbiotic seed germina-tion), but a great deal still must be learned about this aspect of orchid biology before effective protocols can be developed. -pire to study mycorrhizal associations of orchids in situ lies in the extremely small dust-like size of the or-chid seed itself which is nearly impossible to observe on natural substrates with the unaided eye. For epi-phytic orchids, researchers are faced with an additional burden of having to ascend into the tree canopy for long periods of time. The seed baiting technique ini-tially developed by Rasmussen and Whigham (1993) has helped considerably with the former, resulting in more than a hundred studies carried out in situ during the past 20 years, mostly involving terrestrial orchids seed baiting technique has since been developed that (Zettler et al. 2011; Zi et al. 2014) which may have po-tentials for use in a wide range of taxa. Nevertheless, seeds in packets that are attached to aerial substrates are highly vulnerable to desiccation, even in packets placed in direct contact with (moist) moss in continu-ous shade. Zettler et al. (2011) reported that only one -corms of Epidendrum amphistomum in south Florida, for example, and they proposed that moisture-rich sub-strates were needed for fungal growth and proliferation to trigger epiphytic orchid seed germination. If true, it is conceivable that placing a water absorbing/retaining material within the seed packet itself may raise mois-ture to levels conducive to germination. This possibil-ity was the focus of our study. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for enhanc-ing epiphytic orchid seed germination in situ using seed packets containing mature seeds of a threatened species endemic to Mexico, Rhynchostele cervantesii (Fig. 1).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.68 LANKESTERIANAMaterial and Methods. Development of the Seed Baiting Technique –. Seeds of Rhynchostele cervantesii (La Llave & Lex.) were obtained from mature capsules in the act of dehiscing during February of 2011 and March of 2012, from three individual plants within a natural population in “El Tepozteco” National Park (vicinity of Tepoztln, in the state of Morelos). The seeds of each capsule were added to sealed, sterile glass vials containing desiccant (CaSO4, Baker Chemical Co.) and stored at 4C in darkness. Seed viability was assessed using a 1% solution of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). The TTC solution was prepared by dissolving 1g of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride in 100 ml of sterile deionised (DI) water. Seeds were then pre-treated in 1% solution for 5 min. Following pre-treatment, seeds were rinsed then allowed to soak in10 ml DI water, and were then transferred to 1% TTC solution (10 ml) under a stereomicroscope and scored as viable (pink or red embryo) or unviable (unstained embryo) as described by Van Waes and Debergh (1986). Packets were constructed from 10 5 cm rect-angles of plankton netting mesh with pore size of 65 m purchased from (Medios Industriales Filtrantes S.A de C.V. San Andres Atoto St. No 75, Nauclapan de Jurez) (Fig. 2). The netting was folded in half and sealed on two of the three sides using a hot glue gun purchased from a local hobby store (Surtek model PS611). The glue used consisted of stick hot melt glue (25 cm in length and 7 mm in diameter, Surtek Peril-lar AV. N 99 Mx. ) that is considered non-toxic, and the above process resulted in 5 5 cm packets (Fig. 3). Using a scalpel, 3.5 2.5 0.5 cm rectangles of a syn-thetic sponge (Polyurethane foam, Fischermex Avila Camacho Blvd. N 3130 Tlalnepantla Mex.) were con-structed (Fig. 4), and both packets and sponge pieces were then rinsed in tap water to strip any chemical resi-due that may be present. The packets and sponges were then disinfested in a solution of NaOCl (0.5% v/v) for 10 min., subsequently rinsed with sterile DI water, and were allowed to dry at ambient temperature. Once dry, ca. 7,000-7,500 seeds (100 mg) were homogeneously dispersed over the sponge (Fig. 5) after it was placed into a nylon mesh packet (Fig. 6). The third edge of the packet was then sealed shut assisted by the hot glue gun (Fig. 7). A total of 22 packets were constructed in this manner. Seed Packet Installation and Retrieval –. A total of 22 host trees (phorophytes) were selected for seed packet placement. Each tree harbored at least one seemingly-healthy specimen of R. cervantesii, and Quercus rugosa Ne (1801). Each packet was placed at a height of 1-30 m from the ground on a branch that harbored young orchid specimens (ca. 1.5 cm in height, with pseudobulbs and leaves). All packets were placed in close proximity (ca. 5 cm) of a young orchid (Fig. 8), thread. Each packet was then lightly covered with li-chen and/or moss colonies from the same tree branch to mimic natural environmental conditions. Half (11) of the packets were placed in situ 1-3 months after seeds were collected (March-May on 2011 ), and other 11 packets were outplanted one year later (2012) (seed used were always of the same year they were colFIGURE 1. Photography of Rhynchostele cervantesii taken on study site.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. CRUZ-HIGAREDA et al. — A technique to aquire micorrhizal fungi69 FIGURE 2. Rectangles of plankton netting mesh. FIGURE 3. Plankton netting mesh was folded and sealed to create a single packet. FIGURE 4. Construction of synthetic sponge rectangles. FIGURE 5. Seeds was dispersed on the surface of the sponge. FIGURE 6. The sponge whit seeds was placed into a nylon mesh packet. FIGURE 7. . lected, this is because the stored seeds lose their vi-ability after six months)Each packet was assigned a reference number and the following parameters were recorded: UTM coordinates with a GPS to georefer-ence each phorophyte, orientation (north, south, east, west), height above the ground, location on the pho-rophyte (trunk, branch or fork), associated organisms (lichens, mosses, ferns, bromeliads, etc.). All packets the packets were collected. Care was taken to detach packets along with associated substrate (bark, moss, li-chens) which were added to separate sterile containers that were sealed to retain moisture. Containers were placed into an insulated ice cooler (lacking ice) for

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transport to the laboratory 24-48 hrs later. Packets and sponges were initially inspected in the laboratory us-ing a dissection microscope, and those that appeared to contain seeds in the act of germinating were placed on microscope slides for additional observations using a Fungal isolation and symbiotic seed germination –. Protocorms (3 to 5 mm in diameter) were carefully re-moved from the sponge whit sterile forceps measured and placed in individual sterile glass vials containing sterile distilled water and vigorously shaken to remove -cording to (Bonnardeaux et al., 2007). Protocorms were then removed from the distilled water using a sterile pipette and surface sterilized 1 mm in another glass vial containing 5 ml of absolute ethanol (EtOH) for three minutes; 25% NaOCl (Clorox bleach) and 900 ml of distilled water for 10 minutes. Protocorms were removed from the solution and rinsed twice for 1mm each in sterile DI water in a third vial each protocorm was then placed in its own sterile plastic Petri plate. Each protocorm was dissected with a sterile scalpel and each segment plated onto nutrient agar culture me-dia used for fungal isolations (FIM, Angle et al., 1991). Hyphal tips originating from pelotons that were clearly visible under a dissection microscope were excised us-ing a sterile scalpel. Pure cultures were obtained by re-moving a single hyphal tip from FIM to FIM or Potato dextrose agar (Bioxon Becton Dickinson). Colony growth was observed during a three week period, and cultural characteristics (hyphal growth rate, width, cell appereance) similar to protocol outlined by Currah et al., (1990). Seeds were removed from cold storage (4 C) surface disinfected as reported previously for pro-tocorms, between 100-600 seeds were placed over the surface of oat medium agar (OMA) (3.5 g rolled oats, 0.1g yeast extract, 6.0 g agar, 1L DI water) whitin a Petri plate. A 0.5 cm3 block of fungal inoculums was added to one side of the paper strip, and each plate -LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.70 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 8. One of the 22 baits installed in situ.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. CRUZ-HIGAREDA et al. — A technique to aquire micorrhizal fungi71ture and minimize contamination. Plates were then wrapped tightly in aluminum foil to exclude light, and incubated at 22 C for 13 weeks (three replicate plates were prepared per fungus). We sown seeds on Mu-rashige and Skoog medium (MS) with [50%] of basal salts, supplemented with sucrose and agar (Sigma Aldrich Co.). After three months, spherical protocorms (5-7 mm of diameter) with apical shoots were devel-oped, 15 of these protocorms were placed on Petri dish with OMA by adding a bucket with fungal hyphae agar for inoculation in vitro (three replicate plates were pre-pared per fungus and protocorms were incubated at 22C in a photoperiod of 16 hours light and 8 hours dark, with a light intensity of 322.9 lux, for 15 weeks) Results and Discussion. The seed baiting method pre-sented here improved on previous techniques in the substrates and increased water retention using pieces frame made with hot glue made the placement of the baits on the trunks, forks or branches easier and al-lowed for better mimicking of the natural conditions. It used techniques to close contact with the surface of phorophyte and, therefore, seeds often lose their viabil-ity or do not become infected by the fungal symbionts. In our improved seed baiting technique, the sponge mimics the water retention capacity of the mosses so the seeds do not lose moisture as quickly, raising the possibility of priming the mycorrhizal fungus. Yoder et al. (2000) establishes that the seeds of the epiphytes are able to absorb water from the air, this capacity sug-gests that these seeds are able to acquire the rainwater in a very porous substrate (the sponge provides an aer-ated substrate). Three of the 22 seed packets harbored developing protocorms of R. cervantesii after 124 days of incubation in situ on tree trunks, especially those with 80-90% moss coverage. In one particular packet (RC08), four protocorms were observed, and in the other two packets (RC06, RC07), seeds appeared to be in the process of germinating (Fig. 9). In two of the protocorms (Fig. 9 E and F), dark spherical inclusions were apparent that resembled fungal pelotons in epi-phytic orchid protocorms published previously (e.g,. Zettler et al. 1999). The fact is that these packages were collected during the months in which the fog and the rainfall was evident in the study area. According to some authors seasonal patterns in orchid fungal symbionts are closely related to host phenology and climate variations; and the overall picture shows that the diversity of fungi associated with orchids and the frequency and intensity of colonization in the roots in-crease in the wet months, while many of these fungi remain dormant as spores during dry seasons (Lugo & Cabello, 2002; Dumbrell et al., 2010). During the sampling seasons, packets were colonized by lichens and mosses present on the phorophyte, and formed a dense rug of about 5 cm thick on the surface, with an accumulating layer of decomposing organic matter. via their symbiotic cyanobacteria of the genus ( e.g. the genus Nostoc) mosses can absorb leached-out nu-trients from runoff water (Rai et al., 2000; DeLuca et al., 2002). It is likely that the sponge contained in the packets can absorb runoff in a similar matter, facilitat-ing germination and fungal colonization. So it is not surprising that some authors suggest that mosses retain much of the nitrogen after death and during decompo-sition (Turetsky, 2003; Clarck et al., 1998; 2005). The fact is that lichens and particularly mosses are authen-tic recalcitrant stores of carbon and nitrogen whose concentrations are higher in epiphytic than in terres-trial bryophytes and that when they die, they produce humus whit nutrients that are highly soluble in water, being a dominant mass of carbon and nitrogen which the canopy to the ground via runoff (Chia-Chun et al., 2002; Turetsky, 2003; Clarck et al., 2005, Cornelissen et al., 2007) For future works, we recommend install the packets (or plantlets generated in vitro for purposes of reintroduction) on moss substrate on the surface of the phorophyte; Also we observed that the phorophytes (Quercus rugosa) had developed a layer of bark (about 3-5 cm thick) underneath the moss colonies. Rasmus-sen & Wigham (1988 a) reported that the debris of certain species of trees can stimulate germination of orchid seeds, and is also suitable substrate for inducing subsequent mycorrhizal seedling development, sug-gesting that indeed the fungi involved are saprophytic. Nine strains with different morphology were successfully isolated from six protocorms and in-oculated on seeds and protocorms generated under

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.72 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 9. Photography of inoculated seeds at different stages in the baitings. A – Can appreciate the hyphae of the endophyte (HF) colonizing the seed through suspensor (S) and inoculating the basal region of the embryo (IE). B – On the surface of the testa (T), can be appreciated a segregated brown substance by the endophyte (G) .C – Embryo cells in the chalazal pole (C) are smaller than the pole near the suspensor where we will see the formation of coils (P). D – The external secretions on the surface of the testa have decreased dramatically. E – Rupture of the testa. F – Protocorm. in vitro conditions. The strain RC062.4EFIM (Fig. 10) generally colonizes the surface of the testa in 10 days and fungal structures appear near the embryo (Fig.11). After 28 days in culture, 98% of the embry-os break the testa, generate protocorms of dark color, have protuberances on their surfaces, showing that the strain had some epiparasitic activity, and after 60 days of culturing the protocorms become necrotic (Fig. 12). This strain cannot colonize the protocorms intracellularly and after 8 days protocorms die. On the other hand, the strain RCRPTC6.3FIM (Fig.13) is unable to infect the seeds, but in 12 days is capable of colonizing the protocorms intracellularly (Fig. 14). However, after 17 days of culture, the protocorms become necrotic. Seeds and protocorms placed in OMA without adding strain (control) survive for 47 days (seeds are only able to break the testa). We agree with many authors that the orchid fungus relationship is not the same under in situ conditions than in vitro (Masuhara et al., 1993; 1994; Taylor & Bruns, 1999;

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Taylor et al., 2003; Bidartondo & Bruns, 2005). The dominant fungus. For epiphytic orchids, these symbi-onts generally are members of the Tulasnellaceae and Ceratobasidiaceae, while micoheterotrophics orchids associate with wide range of mycobionts (Ma et al., 2002; Otero et al., 2002; McCormick et al., 2004, 2006; Shefferson, 2005; Jolou et al., 2005; Suarez et al hand in hand with the rarity (or endemic) orchid; however, the dependence on the fungi varies accord-ing to gender, species, growth habits, reproductive strategies, physiology and morphology (Brundrett et al., 2003; Stewart & Kane, 2006; Bonnardeaux et al., establishment (Phillip et al., 2011). Some strains in pure culture are capable of secreting substances via hyphal tip; perhaps under natural conditions hyphal tip works like a “drinking straw” that establishes a biotrophic system during the early stages of seed in-oculation, the fungus is able to transform the leachate present in the microhabitat in organic compounds to nourish the seed. To better illustrate this point, ac-cording to Stewart and Zettler (2002), the symbiotic germination in vitro, the oat medium is low in nutri-ents and Rasmussen and Whigham (1998b ) observed no seeds germination of Liparis lilifolia in asymbiotic culture, while the seeds germinated when a mycorrhi-zal fungus was added to these media, showing some fungus need an external source of nutrients. Perhaps the oat meal agar is not the best option to evaluate whether fungal exudates can stimulate germination; LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. CRUZ-HIGAREDA et al. — A technique to aquire micorrhizal fungi73 FIGURE 10. The strain RC062.4EFIM. FIGURE 11. Fungal structures of the strain RC062.4EFIM colonized the seeds under in vitro conditions. FIGURE 12. Protocorm (PTC) hatched after 60 days with protuberances on its surface,in the image can observer fungal masses (FM) inside of the testa by some embryo that broke. FIGURE 13. The strain RCRPTC6.3FIM.

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the best option would be to test an alternative culture medium made from bark, or leachate water agar, try-ing to simulate the natural substrate and saprophytic habitat where germination occurs. We hope that in the future this novel seed baiting technique allows to know the fungal partners and the processes involved during germination and establishment of other spe-cies of epiphytic orchids. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. The authors would like to thank Dr. Lawrence.W. Zettler for his friendship, suggestions and critical review of the manuscript.LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.74 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 14. Photography of in vitro inoculated Protocorms. A. Control whit apical shoot. B. Protocorm inoculated basally after 12 day of incubation. C. Protocorm in which can observe fungal hyphae and intracellular coils in the base. D.Tissue section of the basal part of one of the protocorms inoculated, in wich can be observed hyphal coils. LITERATURE CITED Angle J. S., McGrath S. P., & Chaney R. L. (1991). New culture medium containing ionic concentrations of nutrients similar to concentrations found in the soil solution. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 57, 3674 . Atwood J. T. (1986). The size of the Orchidaceae and the systematic distribution of epiphytic orchids. Selbyana, 9(1), 171-186. (Ericaceae): performance trade-offs during seed germination and seedling development. Mol. Ecol., 14, 1549. Bonnardeaux, Y., Brundrett, M., Batty, A., Dixon, K., Koch, J. & Sivasithamparam, K. (2007). Diversity of mycorrhizal fungi in terrestrial orchids: compatability webs, brief encounters, lasting relationships and alien invasions. Mycol Res., 111, 51-61. Brundrett, M. C., Scade, A., Batty, L. A., Dixon, W. & Sivasithamparam, K. (2003). Development of in situ and

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. CRUZ-HIGAREDA et al. — A technique to aquire micorrhizal fungi75ex situ seed baiting techniques to detect mycorrhizal fungi from terrestrial orchids habitats. Mycol Res., 107, 1210-1220. seeds and roots of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae). Myco., 22, 297-307. Chia-Chun, H., FuWen, H. & Chen-Meng, K. (2002). Epiphyte biomass and nutrient capital of a moist subtropical forest in north-eastern Taiwan. J. T. Ecol., 18, 659-670. Clark, D. L., Nadkarni, N. M. & Ghozl, H. L. (1988). Growth, net production, litter decomposition, and net nitrogen accumulation by epiphytic bryophytes in a tropical montane forest. Biotrop., 30, 12-23. Clark, D. L., Nadkarni, N. M. & Ghozl, H. L. (2005). Retention of inorganic nitrogen by epiphytic bryophytes in a tropical montane forest. Biotrop., 30, 12-23. Cornelissen, J. H. C., Lang, I. S., Soudzilovskaia, N. A., & During, H. J. (2007). Comparative cryptogam ecology: A review of Bryophyte and lichen traits that drive biogeochemistry. Ann. Bot., 99, 987-1001. Cribb, P. J., Kell, R. L., Dixon, W. K. & Barrett, R. L. (2003). Orchid Conservation: A global perpective. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. pp. 1. boreal forest. Nat., 419, 917-920. Dumbrell, A. J., Ashton, P. D., Aziz, N., Feng, G., Nelson, M., Dytham, C., Fitter, A.H., & Helgason, T. (2010). Distinct seasonal assembleges of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi revealed by massively parallel pyrosequencing. New Phytol., 190, 794-804. Jolou, T., Burghardt, B., Gebauer, G., Berveiller, D., Damesin, C. & Selosse, M.-A. (2005). Mixotrophy in orchids: insights from a comparative study of green individuals and nonphotosynthetic individuals of Cephalanthera damasonium. New Phytol., 166, 639-653. Lugo, A. M. & Cabello, M. N. (2002). Native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from mountain grassland (Crdoba, Argentina) I. Seasonal variation of fungal spore diversity. Mycol., 94, 579-586. tropical orchids. Mycol Res., 107, 1041-1049. Masuhara, G., Katsuya, K. & Yamagucki, K. (1993). Potential for symbiosis of Rhizoctonia solani and binucleate Rhizoctonia with seeds of Spiranthes amoena var. amoena in vitro. Mycol Res., 97, 746. Masuhara, G. & Katsuya, K. (1994). In situ and in vitro Spiranthes sinensis (Persoon) Ames. var. amoena (M. Biebertsien ) Hara (Orchidaceae). New Phytol., 127, 711-718. McCormick, M. K., Whigham, D. F. & O’Neill, J. (2004). Mycorrhizal diversity in photosynthetic terrestrial orchids. New Phytol., 163, 425-438 a marriage meant to last? Ecol., 87, 9031. Nontachaiyapoom, S., Sasirat, S., & Manoch, L. (2010). Symbiotic seed germination of Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume and Dendrobium draconis Rchb. f., native orchids of Thailand. Sci. Hort., 130, 303. fungi from tropical orchids. Am. J. Bot., 89, 1852-1858. Otero, J. T., Flanagan, S. N., Allen Herre, E., Ackerman, D. J. & Bayman, P. (2007). Widespread mycorrhizal (Orchidaceae). Am. J. Bot., 94(12), 1944-50. Pereira, O. L., Rollemberg, C. L., Borges, A. C., Matsuokae, K. & Kasuya, M. C. M. (2003). Epulorhiza epiphytica sp. nov. isolatated from mycorrhizal roots of epiphytic orchids in Brazil. Mycos, 44, 153-155. Pereira, O. L., Kasuya, M. C. M., Rollemberg, C. L. & Borges, A. C. (2005). In vitro seed Germination of (Orchidaceae) by Rhizoctonia-like Mycorrhizal fungi. R. Bras. Ci. Solo, 29, 199-206. Phillips, R. D., Barret, D., Dixon, W. K. & Hopper, D. S. (2011). Do mycorrhizal symbioses cause rarity in orchids?. J. Ecol., 99, 858-869.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. Received 19 February 2014. Accepted 19 November 2014.76 LANKESTERIANARai, A. N. Soderback, E. & Bergman, B. (2000). Cyanobacterium-plant symbioses. New Phytol, 147, 449-481. Rasmussen, H. N. & Whigham, D. F. (1993). Seed ecology of dust seeds in situ: a new study technique and its application in terrestrial orchids. Am. J. Bot., 80, 1374. Rasmussen, H. N. & Whigham, D. F. (1998a). Importance of woody debris in seed germination of Tipularia discolor (Orchidaceae). Am. J. Bot., 85, 829. Rasmussen, H. N. & Whigham, D. F. (1998b). The underground phase: a special challenge in studies of terrestrial orchids populations. Bot. J. Linnean Soc., 126, 49-64. Rasmussen H. N. (2002). Recent developments in the study of orchid mycorrhiza. Plant and soil., 244, 149-163. association in rare lady’s slipper orchids, genus Cypripedium. Mol. Ecol., 14, 613-626. Stewart, S. L. & Zettler, L. W. (2002). Symbiotic germination of three semi-aquatic rein orchids (Habenaria repens, H. quinqueseta, H. macroceratitis) from Florida. Aquat. Bot., 72, 25. Stewart, S. L. & Kane, M. E. (2006). Symbiotic seed germination of Habenaria macroceratitis (Orchidaceae), a rare Florida terrestrial orchid. Pl. Cell Tissue Organ Cult., 86, 159. Suarez, J. P., Weibb, M., Abeleb, A., Garnica, S., Oberwinkler, F. & Kottke, I. (2006). Diverse tulasnelloid fungi form mycorrhizas with epiphytic orchids in an Andean cloud forest. Mycol Res., 110, 1257. Taylor, D. L. & Bruns, T. D. (1999). Population, habitat and genetic correlates of mycorrhizal specialization in the ‘cheating’ orchids Corallorhiza maculata and C. mertensiana. Mol. Ecol., 8, 1719. Taylor, D. L., Bruns, T. D., Szaro, T. M. & Hodges, S. A. (2003). Divergence in mycorrhizal specialization within Hexalectris spicata (Orchidaceae), a nonphotosynthetic desert orchid. Am. J. Bot., 90, 1168-1179. Turetsky, M. R. (2003). The role of Bryophytes in Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling. The Bryol., 106, 395-409. Van Waes, J. M. & Debergh, P. C. (1986). Adaptation of the tetrazolium method for testing the seed viability, and scanning electron microscopy study of some Western European orchids. Phys. Plant., 66, 435-442. Yoder, J. A., Zettler, L. W. & Stewart, S. L. (2000). Water requirements of terrestrial and epiphytic orchid seeds and seedlings, and evidence for water uptake by means of mycotrophy. Pl. Science, 156, 145. Zettler, L. W, Burkhead, J. C. & Marshall, J. A. (1999). Use of a mycorrhizal fungus from Epidendrum conopseum to propagate Encyclia tampensis from seed in vitro. Lindleyana, 14, 102-105. Zettler, L. W., Corey, L. L., Richardson, L. W., Ross, A. Y. & Moller-Jacobs, L. (2011). Protocorms of an epiphytic orchid, (Epidendrum amphistomum A. Richard) recovered in situ mycorrhizal fungi using molecular markers. E. J. Enviro. Sc., 1, 108-114. Zi, X-M., Sheng, C-L., Goodale, U. M. Shao, S-Ch., & Gao, J-Y. (2014). In situ seed baiting to isolate germinationenhancing fungi for an epiphytic orchid, Dendrobium aphyllum (Orchidaceae). Myc., 10, 565-572.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1): 77. 2015Introduction. The genus Acianthera Scheidw. comprises over two hundred Neotropical species. The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP, accessed 17 Sept. 2014) published online by the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, lists 286 valid names of which 121 names have been recently reported from Brazil (Chiron & van den Berg 2012; Barros et al. 2014). As neither of these accounts on Brazilian species presents a taxonomic revision of the genus and because there still are several obscure and problematic taxa, including a number of yet undescribed species (Toscano de Brito & Luer, in prep.), this latter number is obviously provisional and will certainly change in the future. While preparing a taxonomic revision of the Brazilian Acianthera, the authors discovered two new species that belong to a complex of long-repent, similar taxa, henceforth referred to as Acianthera saundersiana complex. Chiron & van den Berg (2012) assigned some species of this complex to Acianthera sect. Sicariae subsect. Auritae Chiron & van den Berg. Species in this group are uncommon in Peru and Bolivia but frequent and variable in southern Brazil where it has accumulated a long list of epithets from several authors. Of about 30 binomials published in this complex, the most familiar is undoubtedly Acianthera saundersiana (Rchb.f.) Pridgeon & M.W.Chase. After studying all protologues and available type specimens in this species complex, it has become clear that several names have been consistently misidentified and confused in herbaria and literature. A number of published illustrations have been wrongly named (e.g. Cogniaux 1896; Pabst & Dungs 1975; Chiron & Bolsanello 2010), and several specimen citations in floristic treatments are in fact a mixture of different taxa (e.g. Cogniaux 1896). Therefore, the taxonomy of this species group is highly confused. It is, however, beyond the scope of this work to discuss or review in detail all published names in this complex. This will be part of a forthcoming taxonomic revision of the genus, which is currently in preparation by the authors. In this article we describe two new species, Acianthera calopedilon Toscano & Luer and A. cephalopodiglossa Toscano & Luer. We briefly discuss the identity of Pleurothallis bidentula Barb. Rodr. [= A. bidentula (Barb.Rodr.) Pridgeon & M.W.Chase], Pleurothallis saundersiana Rchb.f. (= A. saundersiana) and Pleurothallis serpentula Barb.Rodr. [= A. serpentula (Barb.Rodr.) F.Barros], and the name A. velteniana Chiron & Xim.Bols. is placed in the synonym of A. bidentula. An epitype is selected for P. saundersiana and a lectotype for P. serpentula.NEW SPECIES AND NOMENCLATURAL NOTES IN ACIANTHERA FROM BRAZIL A. L. V . TOSCANO DE BRITO 1,3 & CARLYLE A. LUER 21 Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South Palm Avenue, Sarasota, FL 34236-7726 U.S.A.2 Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, U.S.A. Corresponding address: 3222 Old Oak Drive, Sarasota, FL 34239-5019 U.S.A.3 Corresponding author: atoscano@selby.org ABSTRA C T. Two new Brazilian species of the orchid genus Acianthera, Acianthera calopedilon and Acianthera cephalopodiglossa, are described and illustrated. The identities of Acianthera bidentula, Acianthera saundersiana, and Acianthera serpentula are discussed. Acianthera velteniana, recently described for Esprito Santo, is placed in the synonymy of Acianthera bidentula. An epitype is selected for Pleurothallis saundersiana and a lectotype for Pleurothallis serpentula. Updated synonymy lists are provided for the taxa treated in the article. KEY WORDS : Acianthera bidentula, Acianthera calopedilon, Acianthera cephalopodiglossa, Acianthera saundersiana, Acianthera serpentula, Acianthera velteniana , Pleurothallidinae

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.78 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 1. Acianthera calopedilon Toscano & Luer. Drawn by C.A. Luer based on C.A. Luer 2174 (SEL).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. TOSCANO DE BRITO and LUER — New species and nomenclatural notes in Acianthera79New Species Acianthera calopedilon Toscano & Luer, sp.nov. TYPE: Brazil. Paran: road Alexandra to Matinhos, in cultivation, 7 Oct. 2011, A. Toscano de Brito 2911 (Holotype: UPCB). Fig. 1. Plant medium in size, epiphytic, long-repent, the rhizome 0.5.5 cm long between ramicauls; roots slender. Ramicauls ascending, suberect, 2 cm long, enclosed by 2 loose, tubular sheaths toward the base. Leaf suberect, coriaceous, elliptical, acute, 4.5.5 cm long, 2.3.0 cm wide, the base shortly cuneate, sessile. leaf, with a spathe 3 mm long; peduncles 6.0.5 mm 2.5 mm long; ovary 2--3 mm long; sepals ivory to slightly greenish, densely striped with deep purple, the apical portion and the margins purple, the dorsal sepal oblongobovate or oblong-lanceolate, acute, 13.5.0 mm long, 4.5.0 mm wide, 3-veined, free from the lateral sepals, the lateral sepals connate (easily separating) into an lamina, 13 mm long, 4.5.0 mm wide unexpanded, 6-veined; petals translucent-ivory, with three purple veins, occasionally with two outer, obscurely verrucose above the lower third, acute or subacute, 4.5.5 mm long, 2.0.5 mm wide; lip deep purple, thick, rigid, 6.0.5 mm long, 3.5.0 mm wide, with the margins rounded, the marginal lobes, on the lower quarter, small, erect, subobovate-auriculate, the disc shallowly sulcate between a low pair of verrucose calli on the middle third, anterior to the marginal lobes, the base truncate, minutely lobed at the angles, hinged to the column-foot; column greenish-white, semiterete, slightly winged above the middle, minutely denticulate at the apex, 4 mm long, the foot thick, 3 mm long, the anther, rostellum and stigma ventral. DISTRIBUTION : This species occurs from Esprito Santo (L.F. Varella, pers. com. 2014), in southeast Brazil, to Paran and Rio Grande do Sul, in the south. It reaches Argentina in its southernmost distribution. FIGURE 2. Acianthera calopedilon Toscano & Luer. A – Flower in front view. B – Flower in side view. Photographs by Wade Collier based on A. Toscano de Brito 3272 (UPCB). B A

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80 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. ETYMOLOGY Greek kalopedilon, “a wooden shoe,” and refers to the shape of the synsepal, which resembles the Dutch allwooden shoes or clogs. Acianthera calopedilon is common in private collections and usually confused with A. saundersiana, from which it is distinguished by the distinct convex, broadly obtuse lip. It is similar to A. cephalopodiglossa, also described herein, with which it has been also confused, but differs mainly in the shape of lateral sepals and lip (see discussion under A. cephalopodiglossa). Photographs of specimens of A. calopedilon have been labelled “Acianthera andreana” in a few websites (e.g. http://www.aorquidea.com.br/ forum/viewtopic.php?t=22299&sid=3f84b872ebc1fd 5ea4c215db21ac51e7) but this name has never been validly and effectively published. ADDITIONAL MATERIAL EXAMINED : BRAZIL: So Paulo, collected by Bauman s.n. from trees along the roadside between So Paulo and Santos, 170 m, May 1976, 1977, C.A. Luer 2174 (SEL). Paran: without precise locality, collected and cultivated by M. Klingelfus s.n., A. Toscano de Brito 2910 (UPCB). Rio Grande do Sul: Santa Vitria do Palmar, Taim, 20 m, collected by Srgio Englert, A. Toscano de Brito 3272 (UPCB). ARGENTINA: without precise locality, obtained from Rita Franke in B. Rinke s.n. (SEL-OIC 15729). Acianthera cephalopodiglossa Toscano & Luer, sp. nov. TYPE: Brazil. So Paulo: Registro, near sea level, J.L.M. Andr s.n. (Holotype: MBM), C.A. Luer illustr. 21182. Fig. 3. Plant medium in size, epiphytic, long-repent, the rhizome 1.5.0 cm between ramicauls; roots slender. Ramicauls ascending, erect, slightly compressed and sulcate, 4 cm long, with 2 tubular sheaths, one below the middle and another sheath at the base. Leaf suberect, coriaceous, broadly elliptical, 5.5.5 cm long, 2.0.5 cm wide, obscurely notched, acute to subobtuse, the base sessile, obtuse to broadly cuneate. of the ramicaul at the base of the leaf, with a spathe 5 mm long; pedicel 3 mm long; ovary 2 mm long; sepals gray with dark purple veins, glabrous, the dorsal sepal oblong-lanceolate, acute, concave below the middle, convex and slightly recurved on the apical third, free from the laterals, 17 mm long, 5 mm wide, 3-veined, slightly carinate on the midvein; lateral sepals connate to the apex into a concave, acute, broadly ellipticalobovate synsepal, 16 mm long, 8 mm wide expanded, 6-veined, obscurely bicarinate; petals same color as sepals, lanceolate-spathulate, acute, margins minutely denticulate on the apical half, 5.5 mm long, 1 mm wide, 3-veined; lip dark purple, obovate-oblong, trilobed, rigid, coarsely verrucose on the upper surface, 8 mm long, 4 mm wide, 3-veined, the lateral lobes below the middle, erect, rounded, the disc shallowly channeled between a pair of parallel, crested calli on the middle third, the margins erose-denticulate, incurved at the convex apical third, the lateral margins of the apical third folded and auriculate, the base callose, truncate, minutely biauriculate, hinged to the column-foot; column semiterete, winged above the middle, minutely denticulate at the apex, 5 mm long, the foot 2.5 mm long, the anther, rostellum and stigma ventral. DISTRIBUTION : So far, this species is only known for the municipality of Registro, State of So Paulo, southeastern Brazil. ETYMOLOGY : From the Greek kephalpoda (= Cephalopoda), a class of mollusks in which octopuses are included, and the Greek element glossa (= tongue), in reference to the lip, which resembles the head and mantle of an octopus. Acianthera cephalopodiglossa is similar to large forms in the A. saundersiana complex and to A. calopedilon. It is readily distinguished from these and all other Acianthera species by the peculiar shape of its verrucose, rigid lip: the apical half is convex and folded on the lateral margins, each fold forming two auricles, the whole lip resembling the head and mantle of an octopus. Nomenclatural note on Acianthera saundersiana Acianthera saundersiana (Rchb.f.) Pridgeon & M.W.Chase, Lindleyana 16: 246. 2001. Fig. 4.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. TOSCANO DE BRITO and LUER — New species and nomenclatural notes in Acianthera81 FIGURE 3. Acianthera cephalopodiglossa Toscano & Luer. Drawn by C.A. Luer based on the holotype, J.L.M. Andr s.n. (MBM).

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82 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. Basionym: Pleurothallis saundersiana Rchb.f., Gard. Chron. 74. 1866. TYPE: [BRAZIL?]: without collection data, imported by Messieurs Linden of Brussels, cultivated at Reigate, England, by W.W. Saunders s.n. (Holotype: W; Epitype selected here: original plate prepared by W.H. Fitch now kept in the illustration collection in the orchid herbarium at K, reproduced in Saunders’s Refug. Bot. 2, tab. 120. 1872). Synonyms: Pleurothallis felislingua Barb.Rodr., Gen. Sp. Orchid. 2: 18. 1881. TYPE: BRAZIL. Rio de Janeiro, Rodeio, J. Barbosa Rodrigues s.n. (Holotype: Lost; Lectotype selected by Chiron & Bolsanello in Richardiana 10(4): 203. 2010, here Brsil at the Library of Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden, cited as tab. 543 (then unpublished) in Barb.Rodr. loc.cit; copied and reproduced in black and white in Cogn., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 3(4), tab. et al.Pleurothallis saundersiana”). Pleurothallis josephensis Barb.Rodr., Vellosia, ed. 2, 1: 116. 1891. TYPE: BRAZIL. Minas Gerais, Serra de So Jos Del Rei, J. Barbosa Rodrigues s.n. (Holotype: Lost; Lectotype selected by Chiron & Bolsanello in Richardiana 10(4): 203. 2010, here Brsil at the Library of Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden, cited as tab. 825 (then unpublished) in Barb.Rodr. loc.cit; copied and reproduced in black and white in Cogn., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 3(4), et al.Pleurothallis saundersiana”). Pleurothallis repens Rolfe, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1912: 131. 1912, nom. illeg., non Ames 1908. TYPE: Brazil. Without precise locality, imported and found amongst a clump of Laelia purpurata, in the protologue), F. Wigan s.n. (Holotype: K). Pleurothallis juergensii Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 35: 54. 1925. TYPE: Brazil. Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Pardo, Fazenda Boa Esperana, 70 m, March 1921, C. Jrgens 20 (Holotype: B, destroyed). Pleurothallis insularis Hoehne & Schltr., Arch. Bot. So Paulo 1(3): 217. 1926. TYPE: Brazil. So Paulo, Ilha da Queimada, 6 April 1921, A. Gehrt s.n. (Holotype: B, destroyed; Lectotype: SP, designated by Barros in Orchid Memories: 17. 2004). Pleurothallis josephensis var. integripetala Hoehne, Arch. Inst. Biol. (So Paulo) 2: 22. 1929. TYPE: G. Edwall nr. 3705 (Holotype: SP). Pleurothallis josephensis var. papillifera Hoehne, Arch. Inst. Biol. (So Paulo) 2: 22. 1929. TYPES: Brazil. So Paulo, Piassaguera, 14 March 1923, A. Gehrt s.n. (Syntype: SP 8236); So Paulo, Ilha da Queimada, 6 April 1921, A. Gehrt s.n. (Syntype: SP 5452, also the lectotype of P. insularis Hoehne & Schltr.). So Paulo, Serra Negra, 1 June 1927, F.C. Hoehne s.n. (Syntype: SP 20633, not located). Pleurothallis josephensis var. subcrenulata Hoehne, Arch. Inst. Biol. (So Paulo) 2: 22. 1929. TYPE: Brazil. Minas Gerais, Pouso Alegre, 1 May 1927, F. Hoehne s.n. (Holotype: SP). Pleurothallis ascendens Garay, Arch. Jard. Bot. Rio de Janeiro 12: 171.1953, replacement name for Pleurothallis repens Rolfe. Specklinia saundersiana (Rchb.f.) F.Barros, Hoehnea 10: 110.1983 [publ. 1984]. Acianthera insularis (Hoehne & Schltr.) Luer, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 112: 118. 2007. Reichenbach described this species in 1866 as Pleurothallis saundersiana, based on a specimen House at Reigate, Surrey, England and whose epithet it honors. No published illustration of this species was known until 1872, when a detailed, partially colored plate was published in Saunders’s Refugium Botanicum, tab. 120. Reichenbach stated in the protologue that this species was believed to have been imported from Brazil by Hugh Low, from Clapton Nursery, London. However, a note by Saunders in Refugium Botanicum (1872) says that he received it from Messieurs Linden of Brussels. According to Reichenbach (1872), Saunders suggested that the plant might have come from Popayan, Colombia. Although the correct provenance of the specimen cannot be ascertained, it seems that it

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FIGURE 4. Holotype of Pleurothallis saundersiana Rchb.f. at W. By permission of the Keeper, Herbarium Natural History Museum in Vienna. LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. TOSCANO DE BRITO and LUER — New species and nomenclatural notes in Acianthera83

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84 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. FIGURE 5. Epitype of Pleurothallis saundersiana Rchb.f., proposed here. Original plate prepared by Walter Fitch and reproduced in Refugium Botanicum plate 120. Reproduced with the permission of the Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

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was in fact Brazilian in origin as stated by Luer (1977), as this species is common and widespread in Brazil. Still writing in Refugium Botanicum, Reichenbach (1872) listed the materials that he had seen of this species, namely: Saunders’s specimen and sketches, and his own sketches and description. The type sheet at W (Fig. 4) contains the two cited sketches but the actual specimen seems to have been lost. With the exception of an almost disintegrated lip in one of two envelopes glued on the sheet, nothing else exists. This lip is about 4 mm long and 2 mm wide and agrees well with the drawings on the type sheet and those shown on plate nr. 120 of Refugium Botanicum. It is possible that this plate has been based on a clone of Saunders’s collection sent to Reichenbach, or probably on a specimen from the same gathering, which might have (1872) stated that he did not see the plant depicted on the Refugium plate 120 and that he could not this is a common feature, not only in this species but also in other taxa of this complex. As the type of Pleurothallis saundersiana contains drawings and only a fragmented lip, we have selected as epitype the original plate (Fig. 5) prepared by the Scottish botanical artist, Walter Hood Fitch (1817), and reproduced in Refugium Botanicum plate 120. Fitch’s drawings are now kept in the illustration collection in the orchid herbarium at K. The drawings and fragmented lip on the type sheet and the selected epitype agree well with the illustrations presented by Luer (1977, 2004) and with a collection de Janeiro Botanical Garden in 1989 (Fig. 6). They also agree with the types of the taxa placed herein in synonymy and with collections from Peru and Bolivia that we have studied. Acianthera saundersiana is a variable species and quite common in the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil. An assortment of names has been assigned to its synonymy (e.g. Barros et al. 2014; Luer 1977, 2004; Chiron & Bolsanello 2010). However, some of these names represent valid species, others are synonyms of distinct species, while a few possess no extant types in this complex. We have updated the synonymy of A. saundersiana based on the examination and study of types and protologues of various taxa. The synonymy list represents the current knowledge by the authors and might slightly change to include additional binomials in the future. With exception of A. bidentula, which is also discussed herein, the excluded binomials will be treated in forthcoming articles. Plants of Acianthera saundersiana are epiphytes and possess a long-repent rhizome that gives rise to a series of suberect to erect ramicauls, 2 cm long, each with a sessile, broadly or narrowly elliptical leaf about equally long. From the base of the leaf, a relatively purple or brown, the dorsal is slightly longer than the lateral ones, 11 mm long, 3 mm wide, the laterals 8 mm long, 5.0.5 mm wide. The petals are small, narrowly obovate, acute, denticulate or erose, 2.5.0 mm long, 1.0.5 mm wide. The lip 3.5.0 mm long, 2 mm wide, usually very dark purple, sometimes almost black, thick and oblong with small, marginal, erect, denticulate lobes below the middle, a pair of verrucose calli on the middle third, and a minute lobule at each corner of the base. The column 2.5.5 mm long and foot 1.5.0 mm long. As said above, the taxonomy of Acianthera saundersiana and other species in this complex has been problematic and confusing since the time of its publication in 1861. Chiron & Bolsanello (2010) attempted to review this species complex in Esprito Santo, southeast Brazil. Unfortunately, most illustrations presented in Chiron & Bolsanello (2010) are crude, lack detail and are therefore misleading. Several of them can ADDITIONAL MATERIAL EXAMINED : BRAZIL: Without do Rio de Janeiro, 28 Nov. 1989, C.A. Luer 14487 (SEL). PERU: Amazonas: near Chachapoyas, cultivated in Tacoma, WA, 1993, K. Tokach 17 (MO), C.A. Luer illustr. 17028. BOLIVIA: La Paz: North of Yungas, wet forest near Rio Coroico, 1100 m, collected March 1981, C.A. Luer et al. 5603 (SEL); Santa Cruz: collected by Janet Kuhn with Fred Fuchs, probably in 1973, cultivated at J & L Orchids, Easton, CT., 29 Oct. 1975, C.A. Luer 592 (SEL). LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. TOSCANO DE BRITO and LUER — New species and nomenclatural notes in Acianthera85

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86 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. FIGURE 6. Acianthera saundersiana (Rchb.f.) Pridgeon & M.W.Chase. Drawn by C.A. Luer based on C.A. Luer 14487 (SEL).

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Nomenclatural note on Acianthera bidentula Acianthera bidentula (Barb.Rodr.) Pridgeon & M.W.Chase, Lindleyana 16: 242. 2001. Fig. 7. Basionym: Pleurothallis bidentula Barb.Rodr., Revista Engen. 3(7): 109. 1881. TYPE: BRAZIL. Rio de Janeiro, Palmeiras, J. Barbosa Rodrigues s.n. (Holotype: Lost; Lectotype selected by Chiron & Bolsanello in Richardiana 10(4): 201. Iconogr. Orchid. Brsil at the Library of Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden, cited as tab. 728 (then unpublished) in Barbosa Rodrigues (1881, 1882); copied and reproduced in black and white 4. 1896; reproduced in color in Sprunger et al. Synonyms: Pleurothallis vinosa Hoehne & Schltr., Arch. Bot. So Paulo 1: 227. 1926. TYPE: Brazil. So Paulo: Prata, 29 March 1920, F.C. Hoehne s.n. (Syntype: B, destroyed; Lectotype: SP [photo seen], designated by Barros in Orchid Memories: 18. 2004. Minas Gerais: Poos de Caldas, 24 March 1920, F.C. Hoehne s.n. (Syntype: B, destroyed; Isosyntype: S, photo seen). Acianthera velteniana Chiron & Xim.Bols., Richardiana 13: 278. 2013. TYPE: Brazil. Esprito Santo, Domingos Martins, 780 m., L. Velten s.n. ex Chiron 13321 (Holotype: MBML, not located), syn. nov. Acianthera bidentula in the genus Pleurothallis R.Br. based on a specimen from Palmeiras, in Rio de Janeiro. A 1881 and was later reproduced in Genera et Species Orchidearum Novarum in 1882. Pridgeon and Chase (2001) proposed the new combination A. bidentula with a full and direct reference to “Pleurothallis bidentula Barb.Rodr., Gen. Spec. Orch. 2: 20. 1882.” This, however, is not the place of valid publication of P. bidentula. According to article 41.6 of the ICN, Pridgeon’s and Chase’s error does not affect the valid publication of their new combination. According to Barbosa Rodrigues (1881, 1882), Pleurothallis bidentula was apparently a common species in the type locality for it was found covering tree trunks in the virgin forests of Palmeiras. As far as we could ascertain, Palmeiras is a locality in the municipality of Paulo de Frontin, formerly Rodeio, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Barbosa Rodrigues collected extensively in Rodeio and described several new species from this area (see Duveen & Toscano de Brito, 1991). The type specimen of P. bidentula is lost and the only extant original material is the illustration that appeared in Barbosa Rodrigues’s Iconographie des orchides du Brsil, which is now deposited in the library of Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden. This illustration, of which a copy is reproduced here (Fig. 7), was selected as lectotype by Chiron & Bolsanello (2010). It was copied and reproduced in black and white in Cogniaux (1896) and reproduced in color in Sprunger et al. (1996). Despite the fact that Barbosa Rodrigues neither included measurements in his original description nor in his can be traced back through consultation of Barbosa Rodrigues’s original illustration and Cogniaux’s orchid illustration in Martius’s Flora Brasiliensis (1896). Barbosa Rodrigues’s original drawings show a small, repent plant whose ramicauls are c. 1 cm apart, the ramicauls are only c. 1 cm long, leaves are 2.0.5 wide, and c. 1 mm fused with the synsepal at base, synsepal is c. 8 mm long, 6.5 mm wide, petals c. 3 mm long, 1.25 mm wide, and the lip c. 3.25 mm long, 2.25 mm wide across the lateral lobules. The column is enlarged and is shown in side view, but no enlargement ratio is provided. Based on other collections we studied, we believe the column was about 2.5 mm described as white, the dorsal sepal as having 3 lines, the synsepal suffused with purple, the lip and columnBarbosa Rodrigues’s original description of Acianthera bidentula (as Pleurothallis bidentula) by adding measurements and information on the morphology of this species. Although his description mostly agrees with Barbosa Rodrigues’s illustration, it was based not only on Rodrigues’s illustration and description but also on examination of an additional Brazilian collection by L. Riedel, a specimen without precise provenance. We have been unable to locate Riedel’s collection and LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. TOSCANO DE BRITO and LUER — New species and nomenclatural notes in Acianthera87

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88 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. In the absence of an actual specimen, it is impossible to be sure of the true identity of Pleurothallis bidentula and any conclusion relies on interpretation of the only extant materials, namely, Barbosa Rodrigues’s original illustration and description. Nevertheless, as illustrated in Barbosa Rodrigues’s Iconographie, this species is shown to be distinct from all other species in the Acianthera saundersiana complex. The closest taxon, and certainly only a variant with slightly larger leaves, is P. vinosa Hoehne & Schltr., which Pabst & Dungs already reduced to synonymy in 1975. The collections we have so far examined agree well with Barbosa Rodrigues’s original illustration. With the exception of the dorsal sepal, which is narrower in wide; synsepal 8 mm long, 6 mm wide; petals 2.5 mm long, 1 mm wide; lip 3.3.0 mm long, 2 mm wide, column c. 2.5 mm long. The dorsal sepal of P. bidentula is illustrated and described as fused to the synsepal at base. In the specimens examined, dorsal sepal is obscurely fused to the synsepal. One would feel tempted to use this feature to separate this species from others in this complex. However, fusion of dorsal sepal and synsepal can be observed in a certain degree in other species of this complex (e.g. A. glanduligera (Lindl.) Luer, A. rostellata (Barb. Rodr.) Luer, and A. serpentula) and cannot be used to distinguish this species. Acianthera bidentula is apparently a common species in southeast Brazil. It has been found in Rio de Janeiro, So Paulo and Minas Gerais, and has been recently redescribed as A. velteniana Chiron & Xms. FIGURE 7. Acianthera bidentula (Barb.Rodr.) Pridgeon & M.W.Chase. Barbosa Rodrigues’s original illustration reproduced in Sprunger et al. Pleurothallis bidentula species with estimated scales. Reproduced with permission of the Reinhardt Verlag, Basel.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. TOSCANO DE BRITO and LUER — New species and nomenclatural notes in Acianthera89 FIGURE 8. Acianthera bidentula (Barb.Rodr.) Pridgeon & M.W.Chase. A – Habit. B – Flower in side view. A: Photographed by A. Toscano de Brito based on A. Toscano de Brito 2890 (UPCB); B: Photographed by Wade Collier based on A. Toscano de Brito 3289 (UPCB). Bols. based on a collection from Domingos Martins, in Esprito Santo. A. velteniana is only distinguished from the lectotype of Pleurothallis bidentula by the slightly shorter, more elliptical, subdeltoid petals. However, petals of A. bidentula seems to vary even in the same individual and cannot be used to distinguish these two species. Figures 8AB are based on cultivated specimens from Rio de Janeiro. Figure 9 illustrates a collection from Domingos Martins, Esprito Santo, Brazil, the type locality of A. velteniana. We have been unable to locate the holotype of A. velteniana at MBML and apparently it has never been deposited there (L. Kolmman 2014, pers. com.). Barros et al. (2014) recorded A. bidentula for Rio Grande Sul, Santa Catarina, and Paran. We have been unable to study any collection of A. bidentula from these Brazilian states. We believe that these records are based on ADDITIONAL MATERIAL EXAMINED : BRAZIL: without collection data, purchased from Seidel in 2004, 15 March 2007, D.H. Baptista 071 (SEL), C.A. Luer in cultivation in Piracicaba, So Paulo, 15 March 2007, D.H. Baptista 058 (SEL), C.A. Luer illustr. in cultivation by R.A. Kautsky 807, 3 Feb. 1991, A. Toscano de Brito 912 (SEL), C.A. Luer illustr. 20558. Rio de Janeiro: without precise locality, obtained in cultivation by M. Klingelfus s.n., 31 July 2014, A. Toscano de Brito 3289 (UPCB); without precise 24 July 2011, A. Toscano de Brito 2890 (UPCB). Nomenclatural Note on Acianthera serpentula Acianthera serpentula (Barb.Rodr.) F. Barros, Hoehnea 30: 187. 2003. Basionym: Pleurothallis serpentula Barb.Rodr., Gen. Sp. Orchid. 2: 20.1882, replacement name for Pleurothallis punctata Barb.Rodr. 1877, non Ker Gawl. 1823, nec Lindl. 1835, nec Schltr. 1919. TYPE: BRAZIL. Minas Gerais, Caldas, J. Barbosa Rodrigues s.n. (Holotype: Lost;

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90 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. Figure 9. Acianthera bidentula (Barb.Rodr.) Pridgeon & M.W.Chase. Drawn by C.A. Luer based on A. Toscano de Brito 912 (SEL).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. TOSCANO DE BRITO and LUER — New species and nomenclatural notes in Acianthera91Lectotype designated by Barros in Hoehnea 30(3): 187. 2003: A. Regnell III-1649 (SP), here rejected. vol. 3 in Iconogr. Orchid. Brsil at the Library of Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden, cited as tab. 407 A (then unpublished) in Barbosa Rodrigues (1877, as Pleurothallis punctata); copied and reproduced in black and white in Cogn., Fl. Bras. (Martius) Sprunger et al. Barbosa Rodrigues proposed the name Pleurothallis serpentula in 1882 to replace the illegitimate name P. punctata Barb.Rodr., which he published in 1877. As already stated elsewhere (e.g. Cribb & Toscano de Brito 1966; Buzatto et al. 2013, Toscano de Brito 2013), Barbosa Rodrigues did not explicitly cite type specimens in his publications. Following standard rules time of his collections. Most of Barbosa Rodrigues’s illustrations were based on living material and are usually dated. The original plate of P. serpentula, which is reproduced in Sprunger et al. (1996, vol. 1: 19 December 1876.” When Barros (2003) transferred this species to the genus Acianthera, he claimed to have seen an isotype at SP, a collection made by A. Regnell, nr. III-1649, dated 26 December 1876. We have seen a photograph of this collection at SP and images of duplicates at P and BR. There seems to exist a confusion with the collection dates of these specimens. Differently from the collection at SP, the specimen deposited at P is dated 28 June 1878, while a duplicate at BR is dated January (“Janv.”) 1877. correct collection date for Regnell’s materials, this is this species. Regardless the collection date, Regnell’s collection nr. III-1649 is not the type of P. serpentula. When Barbosa Rodrigues (1882) proposed the new name Pleurothallis serpentula, he made a direct reference to the protologue of his P. punctata, the replaced synonym. He also cited Regnell’s collection nr. III-1849 (most probably an error for “III-1649”). In Barbosa Rodrigues’s Iconographie, Regnell’s analysis of P. serpentula and was later annotated there by his son, Joo Barbosa Rodrigues Jr. Regnell’s collection is not cited anywhere in the original description of P. punctata and, therefore, it is not part of the protologue of this species. Barbosa Rodrigues based his illustration of P. punctata on a specimen he collected in Caldas, most certainly around the same date he made his illustration, i.e., on 19 December 1876. This collection should be considered the type of the name P. punctata and therefore the type of P. serpentula, the replacement name. Unfortunately, Barbosa Rodrigues’s actual specimen has been lost. For this reason, we have selected as lectotype the original illustration in Barbosa Rodrigues’s unpublished Iconographie, the only extant original material. Acianthera serpentula is apparently related to A. saundersiana and to several other similar taxa in original illustration, mainly the dorsal sepal, resembles that of A. calopedilon. However, A. serpentula is readily distinguished not only from these two species, but also from all others in this complex, by the shape of its oblong, slightly pandurate lip. It is apparently a rare species, whose actual specimens, living or preserved, we have so far not been able to study. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . The present paper is part of the project “The Pleurothallid Orchids of Brazil: Contributions to an inventory and an understanding of evolution, ecology and conservation,” currently sponsored by the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens. We thank Wade Collier for providing photographs used in this article; the curator of SP, Maria Candida Mamede, for making available several images of types deposited at SP; Luiz Fillipe Varella, Jacques Klein, and Bryon Rinke, for providing specimens and additional information on Acianthera calopedilon; Maria Rita Cabral for providing useful information on A. velteniana ; Kanchi Gandhi of AMES for his assistance in resolving some nomenclatural issues; Rudolf Jenny for help in obtaining literature; Nancy Karam and Wade Collier for help in illustrations, and the Pleurothallidinae Alliance for making it possible. LITERATURE CITED Barros, F. de, Vinhos, F., Rodrigues, V.T., Barberena, F.F.V.A., Fraga, C.N., Pessoa, E.M., Forster, W. & Menini Neto, L. (2014). Orchidaceae Brasil. Jardim Botnico do Rio de Janeiro. Published on the Internet:

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FB11051Accessed on: 17 Sept. 2014. Barbosa Rodrigues, J. (1881). Orchideae rodeienses et alterae ineditae. Revista Engen., 3(7), 10910. Barbosa Rodrigues, J. (1882). Genera et species orchidearum novarum. Vol. 2. Typographia Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Chiron, G.R. & Bolsanello, R.X. (2010). Quatre taxons nouveaus pour l’sprito Santo (Brsil) dans le morphogroupe Acianthera saundersiana (Orchidaceae). Richardiana, 10(4), 198. Chiron, G.R. & van den Berg, C. (2012). Rvision taxinomique du genre Acianthera (Orchidaceae, Pleurothallidinae). Richardiana, 12(2), 59. Cogniaux, A. 1896. Orchidaceae, Fl. Bras. (Mart.) 3(4): 317. Duveen, D. & Toscano de Brito, A.L.V. (1991). Barbosa Rodrigues (1842--1909) and his round-up of orchids at Rodeio. Orchid Digest , 55(4), 149. Luer, C.A. (1977). Icones Pleurothallidinarum (Orchidaceae). Miscellaneous Species in the Pleurothallidinae. Selbyana , 3(3), 382. Luer, C.A. (2004). Icones Pleurothallidinarum XXVI. Systematics of Pleurothallis subgenus Acianthera (Orchidaceae). Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 95, 64--65 Pabst, G.F.J. & Dungs, F. (1975). Orchidaceae Brasilienses, Vol. 1. Brcke-Verlag Kurt Schmersow, Hildesheim. Pridgeon, A.M. & Chase, M.W. (2001). A phylogentic Lindleyana, 16(4), 235. Saunders, W.W. (ed.) (1872). Refugium Botanicum or known or new plants of botanical interest, Vol. 2. John van Voorst, London. Sprunger, S., Cribb, P. J. & Toscano de Brito, A. L. V. (eds.). (1996). Joo Barbosa Rodrigues Iconographie des orchides du Brsil, Vol. 1: The illustrations. Friedrich Reinhardt Verlag, Basel.92 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. Received 11 March 2014. Accepted 15 January 2015.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1): 93. 2015 In 1983, Luer proposed the genus Trichosalpinx to unite 85 species mostly scattered between various sections and subsections of the genus Pleurothallis R. discovered 181 years earlier. During their epic collecting expedition in the Americas around the dawn of the nineteenth century, Humboldt and Bonpland collected a plant in 1802 that Kunth later described as Dendrobium pusillum (Humboldt et al. 1816), now Trichosalpinx pusilla (Kunth) Luer. In the notes accompanying the original description in 1816, Kunth wondered if it might not better be described in the genus Masdevallia specimens, to dissuade him. Before the century was out, Specklinia Lindl. (1835) and then to Pleurothallis (1842). The confusion was not limited to this species: Lindley described the species currently known as T. ciliaris (Lindl.) Luer and T. orbicularis (Lindl.) Luer in the genus Specklinia in 1838, and the present day T. arbuscula (Lindl.) Luer and T. intricata (Lindl.) Luer in the genus Pleurothallis several years later (Lindley 1842, 1846). Subsequent species described and transferred by many others were attributed to Pleurothallis, Lepanthes Sw. , Physosiphon Lindl., and Humboltia Ruiz & Pav. Not all of Luer’s original 85 species remained in the genus Trichosalpinx, some having been transferred yet again to other genera, but new discoveries had boosted the number of species to 97 when Luer revised the genus and sorted the species between four subgenera in 1997. Luer differentiated species of Trichosalpinx from the three other genera in the Pleurothallidinae characterized by ramicauls with lepanthiform sheaths (Lepanthes Sw., Lepanthopsis Ames, and Draconanthes Luer) by the column, with four variations accepted in Trichosalpinx. Subgenus Tubella Luer, which includes the proposed species T. reticulata Thoerle & C. Soto and the newly reported T. acremona (Luer) Luer, is characterized by a slender column with a column-foot and an unhooded but more or less winged apex, as well as slender ramicauls, often proliferating; racemes usually longer than the one another, entire petals, and an eciliate lip lacking basal lobules. Current investigations at the Jardn Botnico Lankester show that Trichosalpinx sensu Luer and subsequent rearrangements (Archila 2000) are not monophyletic, and generic-level changes are expected (Fernndez 2013; Fernndez & Bogarn 2013; Fernndez & Karremans pers. comm. 2014). Since 1997, the discovery of new species has resulted in a total of about 112 species accepted in Trichosalpinx (Luer 1998, 2002, 2006, 2007, 2009; Fernndez-Concha & Ramrez 1998; Archila 2000; Christenson 2001; Fernndez & Bogarn 2011, 2013). Approximately 15 species in subgenus Tubella have described species in the subgenus are known from very close to the borders of Peru and may be expected to occur there. A NEW SPECIES AND A NEW RECORD IN TRICHOSALPINX (ORCHIDACEAE: PLEUROTHALLIDINAE) FROM PERU LISA THOERLE 1,3 & CARMEN SOTO 21 23 John Dyer Rd, Little Compton, Rhode Island, U.S.A.2 Inka Terra Association ITA, Machu Picchu, Cusco, Peru3 Corresponding author: lthoerle@cox.net ABSTRACT. A new species in Trichosalpinx is described, illustrated, and compared with similar species, and a new record for Peru is described and illustrated. A brief history of the genus is provided. Trichosalpinx reticulata is most similar to T. carmeniae with a pair of low, rounded basal lobes and an obtuse apex. Trichosalpinx acremona is recorded from Peruvian collections . KEY WORDS : Trichosalpinx , Pleurothallidinae, Peru, taxonomy

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.94 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 1. Trichosalpinx reticulata expanded. D. Ovary, lip, and column, lateral view. E. Lip, expanded. F. Lip, oblique view. Drawn by L. Thoerle from C. Soto Trichosalpinx #3 (isotype: MO).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. THOERLE and SOTO New Trichosalpinx in Peru95Trichosalpinx reticulata Thoerle & C.Soto, sp. nov. TYPE: Peru. Cusco, on the side of a mountain within the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, 2200 m, 24 April 2012, collected by Daniel Auccayllo et al., Pueblo Hotel April 2013, C. Soto Trichosalpinx #3 (holotype: USM!; isotype: MO!). Figs. 1, 2. DIAGNOSIS : This species is similar to Trichosalpinx carmeniae Luer, but differs in having gray-green, basal lobes and an obtuse apex. Plant small, epiphytic, caespitose. Roots slender. Ramicauls erect to suberect, slender, 2-3 cm long, enclosed by 2-3 tight, ribbed, microscopically scabrous lepanthiform sheaths with dilated, acuminate ostia. Leaf coriaceous, gray-green with purple reticulation, broadly elliptical to subcircular, apex rounded and 12 mm long, 9-10 mm wide, the broadly cuneate base abruptly contracted into a petiole 3 mm long. from the apex of the ramicaul, a loose, with the dorsal sepal closest to the rachis, displaying the exterior of the lateral sepals in the natural arrangement, at least 6-7 cm long including the erect to suberect peduncle 4-5 cm long. Floral bracts microscopically verrucose, acuminate, 1.5 mm long. Pedicels 6 mm long. Ovary 1 mm long, sulcate. Flowers light tanyellow with veins marked with red. Sepals glabrous, membranous. Dorsal sepal oblong, concave at the base, 20 mm long with a blade 11 mm long, 5 mm wide, 3-veined, acute, acuminate into a slender tail 9 mm long, connate to the lateral sepals for 1 mm. Lateral sepals narrowly oblong, 20 mm long with a blade 9 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, 1-veined, connate 2 mm, the apices acute, acuminate into slender tails 11 mm long. Petals glabrous, obovate, apex obtuse, 5.5-6 mm long, 2 mm wide, 2-veined. Lip glabrous, elliptical, apex obtuse, 7 mm long, 3 mm wide expanded, 3-veined, the margins erect below the middle with low, rounded side lobes, the broadly cuneate base hinged to the tip of the column-foot. Column slender, with small, obtuse, rounded apical wings, 3-3.5 mm long, column-foot 0.5 mm long. Anther and stigma ventral. Pollinia not observed. DISTRIBUTION : Known only from the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, Peru. ETYMOLOGY : From the Latin reticulatus, “netted,” for the netlike pattern on the leaves. HABITAT IN PERU : It grows epiphytically on small trees of Lauraceae, nestled in moss and lichens, approximately two meters above the ground, in wet cloud forest at an elevation of 2200 m. PHENOLOGY : Cultivated along Inkaterra’s orchid trail, Trichosalpinx reticulata is most similar to the recently described T. carmeniae . The leaves of T. reticulata are smaller, proportionally wider (index ca. 1.2), and gray-green in color, reticulated with purple; those of T. carmeniae are longer, proportionally more slender, 15-16 mm long and about 8 mm wide (index ca. 1.9), and green without the attractive T. reticulata is about FIGURE 2. Trichosalpinx reticulata Thoerle & C.Soto. The plant from which the type specimens were harvested. Photograph by C. Soto.

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96 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 3. Trichosalpinx carmeniae from which the type specimens were harvested. Photograph by C. Soto.LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. FIGURE 4. Trichosalpinx carmeniae. A. Habit. B. Flower. C. Dissected perianth, expanded. D. Ovary, lip, and column, lateral view. E. Lip, oblique view. Drawing by C. A. Luer from C. Soto Trichosalpinx #1 (MO). Reproduced with the permission of C. A. Luer and the Orchid Herbarium of Oakes Ames, Harvard University Herbaria..thrice as long as that of T. carmeniae. The long-tailed, acuminate sepals and the relatively large, two-veined petals are similar in size and shape. The petals and lip of T. carmeniae are solid rose in color, while those of T. reticulata are tan-yellow with red veins. The pair of of the basal third of the lip of T. reticulata differs from the obscurely 4-lobed basal half of the lip in T. carmeniae. The apex of the lip of T. carmeniae is acute, rather than obtuse. The Inka Terra Association Team discovered this lovely species on the mist-swept side of a mountain within the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu. It grows on thin branches of a small tree in the Lauraceae, nestled in moss and lichens, approximately two meters above the ground. In cultivation along Inkaterra’s orchid trail, Trichosalpinx reticulata January, February, and April. Trichosalpinx acremona (Luer) Luer, Phytologia 54: 394. 1983. TYPE: Ecuador. Collected by Janet Kuhn, without Easton, Connecticut, USA, November 1975, C. Luer 596 (holotype: SEL). Fig. 5. DISTRIBUTION : Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia. ETYMOLOGY : From the Greek acremon, “a branch,” referring to the branching habit of the plant. HABITAT IN PERU : Epiphytic in wet cloud forest in the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu between 2200 and 2600 m elevation. PHENOLOGY : In cultivation along Inkaterra’s orchid PERUVIAN MATERIAL STU D IE D : Cusco: Montaa Poques,

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. THOERLE and SOTO New Trichosalpinx in Peru97 FIGURE 5. Trichosalpinx acremona. A. Habit. B. Flower. C. Dissected perianth, expanded. D. Ovary, lip, and column, lateral view. E. Lip, right side expanded. Drawing by C. A. Luer from C. Luer et al. 15009 (MO). Reproduced with the permission of C. A. Luer and the Missouri Botanical Garden Press .

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within the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, 2200 m elevation, 24 April 2012, collected by Daniel Auccayllo et al Picchu Pueblo Hotel April 2013, C. Soto Trichosalpinx #4 (USM!, MO!). Same area, 2600 m elevation, 24 April 2012, collected by Daniel Auccayllo et al., Pueblo Hotel April 2013, C. Soto Trichosalpinx #7 (MO!). Fig. 6. Trichosalpinx acremona has long been suspected to occur in Peru, because existing collections are known from the eastern slopes of the Andes in the surrounding countries of Colombia and Ecuador to the north, and Bolivia to the south (Luer 1997). The two specimens cited here were collected within the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu by the Inka Terra Association team. Trichosalpinx acremona shares a with long, slender, acuminate sepals with a number of species in the subgenus Tubella. From these similar species, T. acremona is most easily distinguished by the lip. The well-developed, erect lateral lobes on the basal half of the lip are distinctively antrorse with an anterior margin ranging from irregular to minutely erose. The rounded apical portion is thickened and cellular-glandular to minutely verrucose above a smooth, featureless disc. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. The authors thank the National Service of Natural Protected Areas (SERNANP) for the permits under which these specimens were collected and the duplicates sent to the United States; Carlyle A. Luer for permission to use his drawings, and so much more; Jos Koechlin of Inkaterra and Jos Purisaca of the Inka Terra Association-ITA for their support of research and conservation, including this project; the Orchid Herbarium of Oakes Ames, Harvard University Herbaria, for allowing us to reprint Luer’s drawing of Trichosalpinx carmeniae, and the Missouri Botanical Garden Press for permission to reprint his drawing of T. acremona; the librarians at the Harvard Botany Library for sharing essential references; Melania Fernndez and Adam Karremans for discussions of their current research on the genus Trichosalpinx ; and two anonymous reviewers. LITERATURE CITED Archila, F. (2000). Estudio taxonmico morfolgico y delimitacin de tres gneros de la subtribu Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae). Revista Guatemal., 3, 33. Bennett, D. E. & Christenson, E. A. (2001). Icones Orchidacearum Peruviarum: plates 601. A. Pastorelli de Bennett, Lima, t. 792. Fernndez, M. (2013). Tubella die etwas anderen Trichosalpinx. Die Orchidee, 64(4), 310. Fernndez, M. & Bogarn, D. (2011). A new Trichosalpinx (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from the northern Phytotaxa, 38, 41. Fernndez, M. & Bogarn, D. (2013). A new species of Trichosalpinx (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Costa Rica. Brittonia , 65(1), 96. Fernndez-Concha, G. C. & Ramrez, I. (1998). Notes (Guaramacal), Venezuela. Harvard Pap. Bot., 3(2), 239. 98 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. FIGURE 6. Trichosalpinx acremona. The plant from which the type specimen was harvested (C. Soto Trichosalpinx #7, MO). Photograph by C. Soto

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Humboldt, A., Bonpland, A. & Kunth, C. S. (1816.) Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (quarto ed.) 1, 357. Paris. Hurka, H. and B. Neuffer. Lindley, J. (1835). Pleurothallis grobyi. Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 21, sub t. 1797. Lindley, J. (1838). Specklinia ciliaris. Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 24, Misc. 31. Lindley, J. (1842). Pleurothallis. Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 28, Misc. 72, 82. Lindley, J. (1846). Orchidaceae Lindenianae 1, 1-38. Bradbury and Evans, London. Luer, C. A. (1983). Trichosalpinx, a new genus in the Pleurothallidinae. Phytologia, 54(5), 393. Luer, C. A. (1997). Systematics of Trichosalpinx. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 64, 118. Luer, C. A. (1998). Corrigenda to Icones Pleurothallidinarum . Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 65, 82. Luer, C. A. (2002). Addenda to Barbosella, Dracula, Dresslerella, Lepanthopsis, Platystele, Pleurothallis, Restrepia, Scaphosepalum, Teagueia and Trichosalpinx. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88, 97. Luer, C. A. (2006). Miscellaneous new taxa in the Pleurothallidinae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 105, 245. Luer, C. A. (2007). Miscellaneous new genera, new species and new combinations. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 112, 10614. Luer, C. A. (2009). Miscellaneous new species in the Pleurothallidinae. Selbyana 30, 1.LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. Received 6 October 2014. Accepted 5 February 2015. THOERLE and SOTO New Trichosalpinx in Peru99

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1): 101. 2015Introduction. The Cyrtochilum species described here as “Cyrtochilum viminale 2010). However, that name refers to a different but well-known species represents an enigmatic paradox. It is very common along roads in the southcentral highlands of Ecuador, particularly around the old city of Cuenca. Plants can sometimes be found growing on the road itself, clinging tenaciously permanent threat to crush the plants. Anybody that passes by and has an interest in orchids will sooner often make herbarium specimens. The peculiar thing, however, is that our new Cyrtochilum is most rarely encountered in herbaria from older collections. The reason for this may have an interesting explanation. It seems plausible that before modern transportation entered the stage (and the Ecuadorian wilderness) this species occurred only as terrestrials in remote, scrub and grass vegetation, not seen by anybody except occasional natives passing by. Professional collectors probably avoided this seemingly ‘empty’ land that did not seem to host any commercial rewards. As engineering friendly areas, however, the disturbed road cuts offered suitable habitats for the orchid. In addition, passing vehicles loaded with livestock, plants and miscellaneous equipment may have helped dispersing the seeds, with new populations establishing along the roads as a consequence. TAXONOMIC TREATMENT Cyrtochilum soennemarkii sp.nov. TYPE: Ecuador. Azuay, km 52 from Cuenca towards Loja, in full sun along roadside, at 3250 m, 13 Dec. 1982, S. Dalstrm 354 (holotype: SEL). Figs. 1, 2. Diagnosis. Cyrtochilum soennemarkii (Figs. 1) is distinguis bright yellow to orange, basally gibbous, carnose and somewhat tuberous callus. Cyrtochilum soennemarkii differs from the similar but previously misapplied Cyrtochilum viminale gibbous and convex lip with a carnose and bright yellow to orange callus, versus a basally straight, slightly elongated, smooth, dorsally furrowed and bifurcated callus of the same ivory white color as the lip lamina for C. viminale. Cyrtochilum soennemarki is distinguished species by the gibbous lip with a carnose and slightly tuberous callus. ABSTRACT. Cyrtochilum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from central Ecuador is described, illustrated with a line drawing and photographs, and compared with the species that it has previously been taxonomically mixed-up with by the author. The new species is readily distinguished by the dark yellow, gibbous and carnose lip callus, versus more elongate, longitudinally furrowed and bilobed calli for similar species. KEY WORDS : Cyrtochilum , Orchidaceae, Oncidiinae, new species, Ecuador , AzuayA NEW AND PREVIOUSLY MISIDENTIFIED CYRTOCHILUM (ORCHIDACEAE: ONCIDIINAE) FROM THE HIGH PLAINS OF CENTRAL ECUADOR STIG DALSTRM 2304 Ringling Boulevard, unit 119, Sarasota FL 34237, USA Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica National Biodiversity Centre, Serbithang, Bhutan stigdalstrom@gmail.com

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102 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. FIGURE 1. Cyrtochilum soennemarkii. A. Plant habit. B. Column and lip lateral view. C. Column lateral and ventral views. D. Anther cap dorsal view and pollinia frontal, and lateral view with stipe. E. Flower dissected. Drawn from holotype

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. DALSTRM — New Cyrtochilum from Ecuador103 Terrestrial herb. Pseudobulbs caespitose, ovoid, unifoliate or bifoliate, ca. 5 3 cm, subtended basally by 5 to 6 distichous sheaths, the uppermost foliaceous. Leaves subpetiolate, conduplicate, linear elliptic to obovate, acute to obtuse, sometimes apiculate, 22 1.5.7 cm. axillary and arising from the uppermost sheaths, erect to slightly arching, to ca. 80 cm long almost straight panicle, with widely spaced, to ca bracts appressed, scale-like, 0.2.2 cm long; pedicel with ovary 0.5.5 cm long. Flowers campanulate to stellate; dorsal sepal dull olive brown on type, but generally yellow and sometimes with purple stains near the base, unguiculate, broadly elliptic to obovate, obtuse, apiculate, ca. 8 4 mm; lateral sepals similar in color, slightly oblique, narrowly unguiculate to slightly spathulate, ovate, acute, ca. 101 3.0.5 mm; petals similar in color, broadly unguiculate, obliquely ovate, acute, ca. 8.5 4.0 mm; lip similar in color, rigidly fused to the base of the column, then gibbose and recurved away from the column, apically concave, truncate, broadly ovate to indistinctly 3-lobed, lateral lobes rotund, front lobe bluntly obtuse, ca. 7.5 6 mm; callus FIGURE 2. Cyrtochilum soennemarkii . Plant cultivated and photographed by G. Deburghgraeve. FIGURE 3. Cyrtochilum soennemarkii, plant habit, Azogues,

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104 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. and broad, gibbose, central, longitudinally grooved, ca. 1/2 of the length of the lamina, ending in a pair of rounded, somewhat diverging angles, with an intermediate apical knob; column variably purplish, stocky, dorsally ending in a rounded lobe on each side of the stigmatic surface, ca. 4 mm long; anther cap purplish to yellow, campanulate, rostrate, dorsally lobulate; pollinarium of two obovoid, cleft, or folded, pollinia with an ovate, ca. 1 mm long stipe on a pulvinate viscidium. ADD ITIONAL MATERIAL SEEN : Ecuador. Caar, uplands of “Huairacaja”, 10 km NE Azogues, 3600 m, 2 Feb. 1945, W. H. Camp E-1788 (NY). Caar, near San Marcos, NE Azogues, ” m [most certainly 3000 m; author’s note], 13 Apr. 1945, W. E. Camp E-2602 (AMES). Caar, Azoguez to Taday, 3300 m, 9 Mar. 1992, S. Dalstrm 1630 (SEL). Caar, Azogues— Taday, km 16, 3300 m, 2 Feb. 1988, U. Molau et al. 2849 (QCA). Azuay, Cuenca—Loja, km 78, 3000 m, 20 Sep. 1980, C. A. Luer et al. 5507 (SEL). Azuay, FIGURE 4. Cyrtochilum soennemarkii FIGURE 5. Cyrtochilum viminale . Plant cultivated and photographed by G. Deburghgraeve.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. Received 24 September 2014. Accepted 16 February 2015. DALSTRM — New Cyrtochilum from Ecuador105Cuenca—Loja, km 52, 3250 m, 13 Dec. 1982, S. Dalstrm 343 (SEL). Azuay, Cuenca—Loja, km 42, 2900 m, 30 Nov. 1984, C. H. Dodson & B. Malo 15490 (MO, QCNE, RPSC). Azuay, Cuenca—Loja, km 67, 3380 m, 30 Jul. 1959, H. G. Barclay & P. Juajibioy 8573 (AMES, MO). Azuay, Sigsig, 2800 m, 6 May 1981, J. Kuhn 44 (SEL); Cuenca—Loja, km 30, 3360 m, 29 Dec. 80, M. Madison et al. 7407 (SEL). Azuay, Sigsig—Ludo, km 5, 3100 – 3300 m, 78 50’W, 3 05’S, 17 Nov. 1983, B. Eriksen & B. B. Larsen 45727 (AAU). Azuay, W Andes of Cuenca, 2400 – 2800 m, F. C. Lehmann 8069 (AMES). Azuay, Cuenca—Loja, km 80, 3000 m, 17 Jul. 1977, C. A. Luer et al. 1723 (SEL). Azuay, Cuenca—Loja, Paramo de Tinajillos, Sta Rosa, 3000 m, 2 Nov. 1988, G. Harling & L. Andersson 25580 (AMES). Azuay, Cuenca—Loja, 65 km S of Cumbe, 2900, 3 Nov. 1988, G. Harling & L. Andersson 25622 (AMES). Azuay, Cuenca—Loja, Paramo de Tinajillos, Sta Rosa, 3200, 4 Nov. 1988, G. Harling & L. Andersson 25636 (AMES). Azuay, Oa—Rio Yacuambi, 2600 m, 10 Sep. 1945, F. Prieto P-206 (AMES). Azuay, Sigsig—Gualaquiza, Ro Altarurucu, 2800 m, 13 Apr. 1968, G. Harling et al. 8285 (AMES, GB). Azuay, Sigsig, 10 km S, 3200 m, 3 Aug. 1975, C. A. Luer et al. 406, 421 & 416 (SEL). Azuay, Km 40 S Cuenca, ca. 3600 m, 20 Sept. 1944, I. L. Wiggins 10767, 10823 (AMES). Azuay, Cuenca— Loja, km 65 – 70, 3400 m, 3 Jan. 1981, H. Balslev 1423 (AMES). Loja, Loja—Cuenca, km 65, at pass above Saraguro, 3100 m, 20 Sep. 1980, C. H. Dodson et al. 10500 (SEL, MO). Loja, Loja—Cuenca, 12 km N Saraguro, 3000 m, 3 Jan. 1981, H. Balslev 1405 (NY). Loja, Cuenca—Loja, near Saraguro 3000 m, 5 Mar. 1977, C. A. Luer et al. 1524 (SEL). Loja, Loja— Cuenca, vicinity of Saraguro, 27 Sep. 1918, J. N. Rose et al. 23141 (US). Loja, Saraguro—Tenta, 2700 m, 16 Sep. 1980, J. Jaramillo 3828 (AAU, QCA, QCNE). Loja, San Lucas to Oa, 2600, 7 Sep. 1923, Hitchcock 21574 (US). Loja, Cuenca—Loja, km 80, 3000 m, 19 Dec. 1957, C. H. Dodson & G. P. Frymire 257 (SEL). Loja, Saraguro to Loja, 3100 m, 6 Feb. 1993, S. Dalstrm 1854 (SEL). Loja, Cuenca—Loja, km 140, 2800 m, 10 Feb. 1978, C. A. Luer et al. 2504 (SEL). Loja, Km 78 S Cuenca, ca. 3000 m, C. A. Luer et al. 5510 (SEL). Morona-Santiago, Sigsig— Chiguinda, 3000 m, 11 Aug. 1990, A. Hirtz et al. 5047 (QCNE). Morona Santiago, Gualaceo—Chiquinda, near Chiquinda, 3200 m, Jan. 1989, A. Hirtz et al. 4015 (MO). DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT : Cyrtochilum soennemarkii is reported from the high altitude, grassy and shrubby plains of the Ecuadorean provinces of Azuay, Caar and Loja, at the altitude of 2400 – 3600 m. EPONYMY Halmstad, Sweden, who contributed substantially to the understanding of the true identity of this species. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. LITERATURE CITED Cyrtochilum (Orchidaceae; Oncidiinae): Taxonomic reevaluation and new combinations. Lindleyana , 16(2), 56. Cyrtochilum . In Harling, G. & Persson, C. (Eds.), Flora of Ecuador No. 87 (pp. 18-198).

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1): 10711. 2015.LANKESTERIANAAUTHOR INSTRUCTIONS LANKESTERIANA is a peer-reviewed journal. Each manuscript will be critically evaluated by two or more external reviewers. Please read carefully the following Instructions and check the appropriate items to be sure your manuscript is formatted according to the journal style. Manuscripts that do not conform to the Instructions, both in format and contents, will be sent back to the authors for formatting prior to the reviewing process. This would repreGeneral Instructions Type manuscript in Word (or Word compatible word processor) on 8.5” by 11” document with at least 1” (2.5 cm) margin on all sides. erature cited. Do not justify the right margin. Authors are responsible for diacritical marks. second language], key words and running title page; 3) Text, 4) Acknowledgments, 5) Literature cited, 6) Tables, 7) Appendices, 8) Figure legends, 9) Figures. use before submission. If the paper includes newly described taxa, they must be illustrated, preferably by line drawings. Include the collect permits and the corresponding institution that granted it in the cases of newly described taxa. Title, Running title, Addresses, Abstract [+ optional Abstract in second language] & Keywords are in the following order: First Name (complete spelling), Second Name (initial), Surname. Indicate by superscript number after author’s name any current address. Addresses include Institution, Street, City, State, Postal Code, Country. Indicate with asterisk (*) the name of the correspondent author; indicate with asterisk, after the addresses, the email of the correspondent author, to whom reprints should be sent. and not indented. Do not cite references or use abbreviations in the abstract. Abstract is intended for quick understanding of the article content, and must include short but full reference to paper results. In the case of newly described taxa, diagnostic characters must be shortly stated. Optional abstract in a second language should follow in separate paragraph in same format. No translation services are provided by the editorial staff. Key Words: give up to 6 keywords preceding text as follows: Key Words:... includes the author(s) surname(s) and a short title. Total number of characters must not exceed 50. Text Begin on new page. a period, dash, and the paragraph text. Each reference cited in the text must be in the Literature Cited section, and vice versa.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), April 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.108 LANKESTERIANA Cite literature in the text as follows: 1. One author: Nobody (1991) or (Nobody, 1991) 2. Two authors: Nobody and Somebody (1991) or (Nobody & Somebody, 1991) 3. More than two authors: ther, 1991). Subsequent citations: Nobody et al. (1991) or (Nobody et al. 1991). 4. More than six authors: Nobody et al. (1991) or (Nobody et al. 1991) 5. Manuscripts accepted for publication but not yet published: Nobody (in press) or (Nobody, in press) 6. Unpublished materials: S. Nobody (unpubl. data) or (S. Nobody, pers. comm. YEAR) 7. Within parentheses, use a colon to separate different citations (Nobody 1991, Somebody 1991), citations should be listed in the order they appear in the reference list (alphabetically, then chronologically). 8. Use a, b, c, and so forth, for two or more papers by same author(s) in one year (e.g., Nobody 1990a, 1990b, Boom 1985b). abbreviations. thereafter in that paragraph. Do not abbreviate genus name at the beginning of a sentence. Use Index Herbariorum (Regnum Veg. Vol. 120. 1990; http://www.nybg.org/bsci/ih/) abbreviations to designate herbaria. It is not necessary to cite this publication. Do not use footnotes. Numbers. Write out one through nine, unless a measurement or in a description. Use comma with more than four digits (1000 but 10,000); 0.5 instead of .5; “%” instead of “percent.” Use 8.0.5 and not 8.5. Abbreviate units of measurements without a period, e.g., km, mm, ft, mi, and so forth; temperatures are as follows: 20C. ogy was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).” If keys are included, they should be dichotomous and indented. Couplets should be numbered, not lettered, and the numbers followed by periods. Authors of taxa are not included and species are not numbered in the key. Specimen citation should include: locality, latitude and longitude when available, elevation, collection date, collector (“et al.” when more than two), collector’s number, and herbarium(a) of deposit (using abbreviations in Index Herbariorum). Countries are cited from north to south; political subdivisions are in alphabetical order within countries; collectors are in alphabetical order within subdivisions. Acknowledgments should be brief and to the point. Literature Cited Use hanging indentation. Continue page number sequence. “In press” citations must have been accepted for publication; give name of journal (and volume number if known) or publisher. Insert a space after each initial of an author’s name. Insert the year of the publication in parenthesis. Do not abbreviate journal names. language of titles. Italicize title of journal and book titles.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), August 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. LANKESTERIANA — Author instructions109 Cite literature as follows: 1. One author: Nobody, A. B. (1991). 2. Two authors: Nobody, A. B. & Somebody, C. D. (1991). 3. More than two authors: Nobody, A. B., Somebody, C. D. & Someother, E. F. (1991). 4. Book chapter: Nobody, A. B. (1991). The effect of light on growth. In: C. D. Somebody (Ed.), Light and growth (pp. 209-291). London: Light Press. – or Nobody, A. B. (1991). The effect of light on growth. In: C. D. Somebody & E. F. Someother (Eds.), Light and growth (pp. 209-291). London: Light Press. 5. Journal article: Nobody, A. B. (1991). The effect of light on growth. Title of Journal, 3(1), 15-20. doi: insert DOI when is available. 6. Manuscripts accepted for publication but not yet published: Nobody, A. B. (In press). The name of the journal where the paper was accepted must be indicated. Please refer to the 6th Edition of APA Formatting and Style Guide for more examples of cited literature. Tables Continue page number sequence. Each table must start on a separate page and must be double-spaced. Tables can be printed landscape or portrait. Do not reduce type size of tables. If necessary, continue table on additional pages. Portrait tables can be prepared to be printed 1or 2-column width; plan accordingly. Items on each row must be separated by a single tab. Superscripts referring to footnotes should be lowercase letters, not numbers. Footnotes should be placed as separate paragraphs at end of table. References cited in tables must be included in the Literature Cited. Figure Legends Begin a new page; continue page number sequence. bles are in a separate, consecutively numbered sequence. for each group. Type legends in paragraph format, e.g.: Figure 1. Pleurothallis inedita A. Habitat. B. Flower. C. Flower view (right). H. Pollinarium. (Drawn from the holotype.) Illustration by Who Nobody. Figure 3. Luisia (“A”) should be in upper case and match that on legend. Italicize collector’s name and number. The specimen(s) on which the illustrations are based must be noted. or refer to them by name in the legend. Preparation and Submission of Illustrations PageMaker, Quark, Excel, Word, WordPerfect, etc.) will not be accepted. Photographs should be scanned at a resolution of 600 dpi; line art, 600 to 1200 dpi. All digital illustrations must be complete, with letters, of incomplete illustrations are provided by the editorial staff; reproduction is virtually identical to what is submitted; illustrations will not be enhanced by the editorial staff. Parts of a plate are labeled A, B, C, etc.

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LANKESTERIANA 15(1), August 2015. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. LANKESTERIANA — Author instructions111Submit to Editor-in-Chief , LANKESTERIANA Universidad de Costa Rica Jardn Botnico Lankester P.O. Box 302-7050 Cartago Costa Rica E-mail: franco.pupulin@ucr.ac.cr Managing editor , LANKESTERIANA Universidad de Costa Rica Jardn Botnico Lankester P.O. Box 302-7050 Cartago Costa Rica E-mail: adam.karremans@ucr.ac.cr Editorial assistant , LANKESTERIANA Universidad de Costa Rica Jardn Botnico Lankester P.O. Box 302-7050 Cartago Costa Rica E-mail:melissa.diaz_m@ucr.ac.cr Subscriptions and questions about LANKESTERIANA should be addressed to lankesteriana@ucr.ac.cr