Title Page
 Part III: Professional studies

Title: College athletics and scholarship
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098592/00001
 Material Information
Title: College athletics and scholarship
Physical Description: 65 p. : ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
Publisher: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1927
Subject: College athletes   ( lcsh )
College sports   ( lcsh )
College students -- Rating of   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: "Reprinted from the Seventy-second annual report"--t.p.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098592
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 17390335


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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Part III: Professional studies
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
Full Text



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ED L L 'FLI ih, L OfF' I*IIL' I Pi H t L--t- '4l

11 1 I 1 ,111 1 11 1 11 i ,l 11 1 1 1 1 11 11 1 11 1 11 1 1 i 11 1 I



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I hi a I c- .lll11 : mu1 C011111101 of tl : :1 d c l :.' l'i titl- l p.,- d LI-.iOli A itti riilienn ei l-
Iege :1tlel.tic- that thiyv w,-akrii the il-tllh.etu;il -pilit and hloer the ?ei,-elic
.tandiig iof un iilegraidu.it:. Tiheit ha. like, ite d'eilopIed : srI-> | f d deoign:d to ,I-stahli.h the climn that athletics, az oir Iizeiiid ii the c.olleL-,e< to-day,
du rnot i.akLinll thl scholar: rl t triiilhncic It I ,lai- l ,., tc i t l i f-othball. bas:ltal1 1l, tlIInI'
iCo Ing. and other port 4tiniiiuhat thle .r:ains of p[lai.-i'rs to l be.-tter coll'eiie wnork
"mid, thiolo i i. i .. ..Li'da .id lihono .., olter %,tiu. jla : ilil:n lti r.- to the I- n.iinhr',i-lice ofl
I I i .l.idi1 g. A Jout tld1> clI-.3 Oft, opilioh i ciu, t-r tli V ot.li,.l r i.tl -ti,,,,. l lid l *.'11
extranitou- to tihe fl-inndamrial issue-i. During te p'1_-t i :-ir. the F'oluridation. In tlhe
coi.e oil, f i -Lid : of Ainmerain .chc.ol. eolleg., alid uniser iht athletic., mith the co-
operation o1 1 itiliniIb r ot .i.elic'le, I1- .1oug1lit an .alsler to to tl" ui:.-tii'ii, \\h:l t .1
the I.latiuii of athil.tit- to >ihili:rshiip in Amerielican ol-Lgc :iand niili-rsiti:. At
thi., inol i :rllt it i: iI n t |,, -itll. to ri-ntine. jiud1 giitn on, the n;meritls ot tlhe Oplpo in
Iliws |it t in. liti>oiitd. T IJ u urpoI:s i iIIerI. lv to 1 out I i e i the sht: r: tIat li 11 > biii talei-
Irii t ;it ltth.-in )t tO de iet E 1.Ziid. ineal- b% r li h tih:e (quetio. n inil iVltim itc.l he tion-
s' c rcdi.

1. Till A A.xrFMii 'll .\AS1\i. 0i A ll iii i'.' ('o1.1 iI'F AtHILETrEr
Ir, 1 i,.w of the 'll siti.lf.-ss ith whihli urit,-' nmid .| -.:aker' icln both ides, of I1the
>o:litl o r,''\ hl nv- ~ssured :ian inti-:.'e t>:,d piubli': that ithl:ti:i:. help or hinder -Cholai '-
-hip. it ..'.~- fair to a-SLltinii that ther- exit, '.i bod'v of statistical data -utlicintlvYcomi-
prtlhensi\.e ,-ind .Ici r.it>.- to i ti7 \' -uIcli arg nlill-nltl Yedt c,-rikn v- .-a iri111111.1hicll :t thE
litetr.'tti f ccllo i -,e athletlts has ir,:,eti-d ili t ichil 1 i-' ot niti. rtil, nor ki th re eii-
d*Ic flint n.I thl ing of t si-i't it.s e b ii A -enillde The ill'el'iie 1 il, itei li
that thlie ( hio hi tc :itt: ked or defl'ended college athilitie- otl thii gi und t l .ithlr Ihat
.irgueld mainlY l rtin r pini oni r hl, : h. ,~ i cl thiiir conli.-ntiHii uponi c.a1i. too srall ii,
niimhihr to hie Iignific tit. P .rhap< it i i-.inlv lintuirl that tile ioppont:nt io college. -iport
houlild di-,i v.t Iiitoiihtlort Iie '.mn from the f.iliire if tile tlothall cpttan or ith- "star"
toi retcile hi-i dligrci:. jilit 'I it ik u 6ualti" thile t iiirtle--r otf athletic to point with
ii- to shiia ticll lh -or. -' ellriied hi under r.'-ul te spi rtliitii Inii i cI-c, upiilion
h.,1 hb.-ri ,onf ituled itli ftie., rei'ui.l ing li,L b-eehi too often b.i:ed-l ol ini ulll'ient evi-
deL.it-,a rnd in the hheet o id.it the l Ijud ient hat hoth studiie and athidt-
IC.' .Ie 91. [i4i't:d to hi,.sto> 0 upon their I'-ro-s, l ha- .e3 n conrlpicuiolhv ih'kiilt'g.
A rinlumbr of inttiittii Ionlr: in;i'l- d flor Ihliir own ipuriponi. tali.titcal t-niluir into,
tile acaid>mic 't.linding ot their athletee,. In th-. hope of g'.ithering tlhe i ; reultJ in a



f.ormn that would.I bI not -.nly couliipa:rlIe: but se'ici.tl to Adl in titutiLUtlO l-tter-
'ier dispatched to somnie l hunl ,red ulli\ersiti- ianld college- retIl ti1illg th.lt ;such
miatfrial- a- L ere a' %aIale o h.: selit lto the l Fourid, tion in p inted Io(r iotlr tfrni. Data
o(-r conc!tion-l 'e.re tin ?:edi from fortv-t'outr in stitut ion .
In most ot th,;sl collfe s much ,care ,andl time ha:,e ,it n elxpi)enilded upon tht.ie en i-i
ries. \rhile a .s-mbling aind u-insideTring the reI-illts the tru-toI tulle of the tfigur.
must be taki for gi an ted. Yet:. i- n ,,iticipated.thlt ;tu di lj i afford Ili ttrinal that :ir.i
-oinmparalilt- only an regard genera trindeni,-. The definition and cl.A iihoLtio(i ot :ll
athletic wereibinitted in practic.illy ever\ caste. Nattr all,. tach l iti tuition nmdi l;ue of
its own % ;ten.i or grain inLz : -some g ra'-d on a lIs of perceiint.ge-. -noie oni a literal I.l;-.S
othei on a b.-si; or -1, 1,or :3. ald till other. emplon 1 point t or cr s v-tei. A flA
did not indlicate the gralinrg ba-i- I; the, iinttii.d. that tlhev ent. Flnll- ithie iiu1-
hb.r of itlhletes. of -.ttin:lt. and of noii-atliletes "as in (.0 in;tance giei, .and there
wa.; no agreetment as to thie %e.l or ti- ni lai ~" to L liii.h thie miterlis pertilineil.
Indeed, thn: moIt cha.rntelri-Stl li.',turl e oI tIhe mtiterial pl,..ired:l to hi tllo h f';t that
each stuid\ diflfered froni all of tlhe other-
In older to e0hlui-'st the po iilities of the n s- of material thus kii.dill supplied,
they tre t? sul.jecd tl o stud\ h,; three e'.uaiiii-r;s. no ole of hoin had anyi regard to,
tlI r otherr2 Thli inftrentl th. t re,.sulted from this stu dy .e nutither in m. nior ionl-
,l ii e.. Such .-i thie are. they min., bI): ,:t forth as t 'llIns.
1. A total of 44 ilnstitution;s reported conliceriling the rel.ti e a' er..iges of p-irtici-
p.anrt' in athletics.
U)'2 inQtittions reporting on tlhe standing of football inein.
I st.' ed th..t onl 3 per int of thie flo' ittball nien a' eragei up to the aaer-
age of their griup.. .~lhich itn this insltutit n L are ,loiii0td by In.li' idual
iIIstlucti-or- on the b.sis of' academic giad.-s in e..chli o',urse.
1 stated tlit the inell in the lunior .-,I .(l s ior ,isde -. :hv.lo did t p rti-
cipate in football rinkel lightly high' r th-in those "ho toh,.k part.
Of the remiaininrg 2- iii-titltioii-.
1:3 ic: an1i'rol tlih stand.iing of the atldetes within thlit of tlhet nie st.,dentr -
In 8, athletes a eragedl liigher than thhe miien.
In 5. a-thletes a' %ra-gel lower than the imin.
19 comiipared th standing of athlete; %ith that oif thlie hole -studeit bod :

The in-ii..lln.-ri i ***l rar .-...p ir, .:-nJd i:h m lm.ni-al "-r. II. l .ani:.p l r,.' r-iri) *.I r.-. r L. ri. .'r t .- I
r..6r.nt. ,\ h'ril I C.-ile.1 II, l. r Cill.:..:. C .r..Lil L r.. r iy i_.- I ia, r.r.i ColorIr.,Io :.:r a.ulli '.l l ClII..c
CoioriAl Sct. .-,f M in-.'. li ,.'r f ,r ., C1).lr . I L r. r. -'r-i C.' ll- .'..* rimp.-.r., II'a Jcr.,d .ri. n.:i .-.1.
I. ll,.. rur.j L n :.* r -i,. ,, Li r. ., Ii r.. :.Inl. l. i .I ia,, -r., I. a\.:i. .r. i r ir-r I .L n. -. i i rt. n
L. ii .ell C-..li,.ce Lin.' -rii- .. I.,-u i- II- 1 n i 'r-*i i I M -i ir I ,. i, ..- i- iiinla .' .f*** Te ,t,r. t'. c I 1.ii .
Sl-v'.: .. M i. :i..: .r.. .1,.j.jiil,,ji a C.:.II \.'- % il- 'o .D . .i. C,. ili. : ,-' n1." t inm lj t' c. lln' r M iC.i r.i. c de' C.- I.
kI .. MN I.ri.,r, C ollc.-.:. Lirn, '.'r-i N. 'e id Nori n Cn r- .r..I ,c i '..-Cll .: :.1 .\ i lI' i rir'e ar.J .I--char. triz
N rlh P'l..,t. r Acriultur.a l Cu e. a ,L O- r,.-..,ri f i A.- r. 'airiaIl (;h llc CoilarI og. i .f e I i c'lm:. 'i.nra'i.I rn ini li i,.-
e..il.-e Coll-.-. r..r r .-. .url. in.. : r .r .-f IT... i.- ir .i;.-rs Linr. nr a ..u .i -.lhrr, .r ..d. r Ir.. i r .,r.a .
i.rif .r.i Lir.,. rr-:H Lini.-.n C..ll. Ci l,l..rl,, l C..I...,.i. ': .i.'rn Ie.r-:' : I n.i r l. W .-.Irn ri,- .r C : le-',:. College
',-,r \i ...ilr 1 \.- lio i ar, l Th.e ,[..- i ir. : Ir .'- .,r,, , .... ,r"i '*-'ar. ...ii.: i- c.' I r liv .c rn... I, cdl I d
: In tl .:..-.ll:--.- oi t... I.-...n.lat...r. r... .-r-.a n... i i: .r.- a il F..i'r, r .,r..-n. 'an J I.. M r Ru. ihj Burr. 1 Ill'11


Ini 5. .ttliltlt-te eri-geti higher tlHii thi :- hol.- -tudr nt Indy,
In 11. :thl:tt.t, :nltra.ged tloer thai. the "lulrc stuldent lui'd,
In :1. '.thleti-. t crigwed t? -he n.- a. the i ,lile tudertlt Ibody
1U ill'tituitinl.; noll [t1, ,. lt thI.. [.lndingl of .-tlil_.te- itl i tilhe st indinigs of
both thi- Iel, and the wlole 4tu,.II-nt boll :
Inl 1. atlik-t.-t a.Ler.ag-d ii._'her tini bothtl the nitn antl tlit: hole stu-
dlc~it h,.d v.
delit b...d -,
Iii athlletlc~ a'er i 1IIl lujy. r thlaln hot1h thel nlibi *illd thlt! "hl1k tlu-

In '. atlilthte' atcraLged liigher than the ineii. but l.:,,.r ti:an the whoil.
;tild:e-lit bndv.
2. A total of 1'2 in;titu ri-,,, i.pi.,iort.l, a er.-ig.. for p.irticipantt inll Ilni-tliletic
extr-i-cui riill.ir a t' itii,-.
Ot' the-C.
In 2. .itIhlltt-, ter.iged Iliglier th-in pa.rt;cip.int- in .icti it.ii- other than
athlet ic,.
II 10). atlilete'. ai-i tl,-d l.'-wer th.in p.irtclip.iimt, in uti'iiti,: other than
i tliletic'.
o3. A total of 11 iintitutiolu, reporttLdl at tr'ig-. |:,ge-ec ic;i I'urr f tudentA nIltt parti-
cip.ating ni :ithlletic-.
)!' th,-e.
In 6. athlete; atr'a.c-d Ili-her thlj nn-atl!et_.
In .5, :atll.-tl:, ,Lernaed lower tli. no-'thlil.te-,.
1-. A tuotil o 1.3 iil-.tlitlutm 'i l i ':.ii')rted aer t .r ti- r I ner l.)et .-i b -4 sf t.Iteriiit-i'.
Of the-e.
Iii 8, tlhe athllet,- .1,-i_; he hi.ihel than tihe nieillbe i W it rittrrniti.,.
In ". tII, thliht., "?tora;'"fd hlter thiman thle nie-ibe-i~l l(fA' _riitie-.
. A tol.-il '.I' 90 inlitltUtiloll. intld perceiiiteaig-' ill repltiilng ..lieiligt grilfd 's for
athlleitet. ;.ullie or .dl o tlit i- ilntitution- ieli:i itod :tn-.ili e gr tmile of i rious
glOU 0 1. folr Cruil.n rri'ison 1 I -.)ll., i' ai ll '1 tI elit'. iti.n. ]i L 1 tillp.ti)ift; in i(t T-ra-. rric-
ulair acti itit, -. t it.l r. i tlll Il ill n m r. Iin-il-p:l'tic'ip:lii t'A i ithlettic-. 'I'he ptlrc-'i -litages
in licau iig I 'r t .-Le gitrale, i ,I, a In I ol f I Io Pd-irtl .p s irit --. iI n-:-i,- i lletii .ItIt rs- Ii- ,r
All tlud.:rnt "l I
Stui'-nt pirtrir. iinc in neFilther atlIcitn 3
n.,r n,.n-.athletii: aL.t.iiti r.
A ll iin I.I
A lli -. ; ; .1
Fr.rt-rntrt mmbirs ;; ;
f6. II lte- rep.,Ort, gI % ill I :.rI'C.iihta.I tlit: i' ilgig o, t di ir1f:reiie bit-weei, tthe, aerige
of itlilet,- anid the 'ieim lc,-i .ll tlhe- '.Illdt-lt blod ir it itl I griiup io ut' mlen i~:
fit'rin -9 pri' Cilit to -L-i..8 pier ceint. (It tlhe"- ct,-es.


Ili 9. thie e t~l ..1 d1I'tltr:n-e '2 ) ,Q r ciit -*r irire,
[Ii 1', tllerL ta. a dirttri-ii1n o' 1t."f than Q. per uert.
H r,11 -v. r inlll 'et-4tin theI i 11i 11t- IIiM v 7:' tl,-,y Lr.. It m uI 1 t ,l il i l t,-I.1, il '1.,ii .lU-
'.i':.. o f,: 1 ti:. ir- .-o lIr their l K.,ne .lu- ei.in.:- h ,l ,i'e ,dItv htt-I I intil..o .i Ilut
the tir- ii.i 1r (ii -itih-ri tioIr, .iiiig hwch twi'.o .ire nm t irtimport- ilit I.-'tk ot oI Ii)ji.-
tI% t.. i ti-i tilt .ibe 'rlce il, h l l CO I Ic I i r I I iI[ II cI i l irl-ii. IIct I4I:iitlt' ,i. II'Ij It thli;t
it io-' lil~ nbhi id it.-i mof i11t-,: -t ti 'r .t o u iitil:r t ii .t It.l ti r, eili t t: I* obi t'11t d,
.inr.othle .ttt Ii- t I ,- 111 1i l It n i l i'p O.-ici t.-tl: e .I 1 .t Fle \p .t ~ ill~ le t.l'ti-11i11Iet
de. icl. I hich in p.ila. tic ,al : 'l.iir\ I, would \ ilH tru-t wortl, I I,-.-ult. whl,,thelr ai1plit,-.I
tu lIl) uioivnrsitie ..,d ) I ol.e-ile. r toi .- i l-- ii4titutioll].

II. A STiji : A TIII i Ti . i, 'IIOL. AI- l IN C1 L lll.l HIA. 1 i F,.L
A t t1lt: olit-i.I't r till 10 .t. 1 l]l 1 1ni.~iii Erj ial l.OI dlej t iii r re I'i I ll i .i' ln C e *lri-
ti.li tii.- u,'.--t In thi.. i ir-t iI r.,.. thl >n li 'uiit \ i d ulh lUi ,tie t wa, pIxi.'-t Ile
to mi kin it. Th i iiorl.t in ioul,.li n ,i'& ert I a- e .'"rl\ i phi .-d. t '"b.i l'.- troi' tici dl
r-i ,'. T he l ', i Ill 1.th' 11i i ti.t lcUil.-itild-. tl n.hI f'.r fr.om com li.c ted. -loulIi. b i .'in-
cl'I-I, :.. wit I Iiii .iii n I I. ot I ,,di,,Lrw ri v; or cOI 'ell i ti' ri. . **ur _nil ;t. t ,lie l.1... ii 'ul il
coiipl-.ti It ia- i.lesir ibl. tLh not .,i lii i, ts -' gr it, i r bt tile -r ( ul il, .-iititude t't-
thoul In:. in>lud,-:d.
Fin.iill., alth.Iu h olie lili d o oblij.e.i ti it, co lud bi e il ii li ly ,.i t ,t ,-l thlroiui'h I ck
:,l'if jerienti.,l knor l ,-:,t: ,, f tli, in titutiCn tt id ,. id e rthel,:. tlhe i r tituti,., n,,. t
II,< itu tdol im t I tr fr im th, ,lli.'.: :,' thn; Fo" ni,.iti:on to f;,cilitJt, ,o'l ultiti,,n %I.'r
dOruhtl, print- thi' t iiii ht .t rici -It i ipily. the. pr>.>j t intert te oltli.''L'.of Ci tmbi
.et iiiri- .1:11, i ii .lo d l :tr\ licilit\ t'.r it gand,. i h ,sl.-t d uir ',. ti-.i' 1 te e beI n
lit' thi: g4 eiat,:-t 1 lue.
In III ]i|h ,ir t ;fcul,-- .111 iddl,. ir ,tie ur of ,.,t" d t i. ,t il, t. tile- o'li,,d .1ti',.1 t 1, z -
If .Il iI.I t" ..i t, i- :,1hl- t,, ,-,li ;t t I ,- <-,rviit-- 1 t, i l P er ,.,nli, l R .* .i_ r,. I, FI .Urid ..Lil.in.'
T he prull.,i th i ,, : I ,|1 >.l i ,ll' Ito- .it[ .-itt,-. 1 1 "t tIiI t , i a tduhli ,| lI ->l i t.oii-
i irati,, -tUdl ,_, thil.l .: .l .- .lrfId A I II"i it-I.l:rl rr d ,:th>f: 11 in .1_ii h i I. ;- C(t .o-
i, nlii'i C ll, C i**.8 ccTU 'i,>il ,et ih,:.; ,,1"1 .e." iilllic ,:\p ei,-, ., tl,, lghti th) h,- ile-
vir a lk,_ thl-,, civ ,of 19-". lhich h I.1 ,ctr:'ed in 1."1,' 1 .- .- I ted. ni thl9 11. .:,ilh :
i rfil .e Of ll IIlil ll i'. 'i-,re I rllowld oI',r I. V, -6-1c. \cir na trf tlhle ,,u'iII d peri,.d
:.i leUIR d ill- gr Idu..Iti'_,II. Phl<.,t,:, at Coli Of ,:It the I(.:,l of th ilI: 66 i ilrl'l ti th
clh I,', ,rlei lired t, th,, F.und.ition, m.1, t 'i,-m itte,. to th, F ,l,_.r.-lion.

A. P rFit.I.IInv inA -. I is 111 i 'm ,iumW
A ft-i .-l i pi> o th-ll i, oi, h l ,cOrdI ,t,-I, uli, t. I tO. 0. irtil ti .-.t h. nic_.nsm of
"hlich ..all nat.-rial-. n uit..ltabi to thl- _inqui i ll hand , te .ic.iri.dIl. Fh -t, the
recOrd- of 100 m. l i-n ,,., gri,.lu.It.,l ,.ith thi cll-' huit who did not enter C,.,lui hil
I D r. % llir % B ir a lti m D ire ..r. r --f i ,,.. F'..l-'r -I.,,, .1. O .r a l ,-I. lD r 1 :' 1 F t-.2 ,J -.:.-:ir.. 1i \ : l l, t1, hi im -
m ralv'Jl'a 5uF. rt m f l ti I ..rhk.


C'lleg iithi it in S.:-pt.iiiber. 1 91. ,'r F>elrui'rv. 19'2'2, were removed. Next, Imenh who
Entered % itli t, i'.entv hiuUl ,r mor10l ot'.d.It lC-*.- I standll il1g who numbered 64 were
int co,-idro'led, ilr :3.-*-* :5 men who d roppe d ouit I.,lore completing one semester's
oirk. It prol I.-d il pr.'ttc Ibl tt att.IIIpt to uie ci. retain records of eight students
tr'a ferring fl'roi other iiiNtititionl Finllly. 2: rc.i-,lds otherwise available showed
inI scori ret- e.'Ci ii ilntclligenl.e testr. After th-coe t2:)0 eliminations the number of
rI:.L:ordt tllht were illltiall\ el,..ctcdl a's it.able im.at-rial for study was 436. It was
iiecet;I tOI r-ilui e thin- uiuiill.ir .till Iurthnr nt a Ilter stage of the work.

B. ri.FIV I.I r TrF I' "A\Tiil.:iI"
'Ill h wr,,jk on, the Il.ita tli:t had li-el ri:t-ce ii\ l troi the forty-four colleges having
.lhou tlhe nece-s'ty oI miint',l c'.r, 1 il letcriiiiiiig the meaning, for this study, of the
terinl "iathlit-" .,.I "i0on- ithll'.:t.-." tepl ler; l .- tilkii to compose these two groups
Ipr-'aticall .i d t i ti, l ll. I.l tier t Ii el Iii r icnil\. Three sources of material fordefi-
iiit )ii o,' the gilijpi "crle ican ai- ed. Fir;, i. geinerl knowledge and common report-
_.vin |.lcia;li'ed and personal Ino Iti r.e tI.,'leriini_, undergraduates on the part of
til, .ri. of t' U 1iii er-it -- : ere oi1mitted Ith'caui; tle attempt was being madetodis-
tt',r ..inet llo _' d tu'.lv l: Ie.irl' uili\ ': .i al i pn apl inabilityy as possible and because
,i .Ilpprieni< )iN le- t i iniil.irw In1ii; i l' -pe il iii.tilin.ition might not be available at
'1i.l Ither iii-tituiti:on '1'1i- il.'.l o .1' obj,_t ti\ it .ilou precluded this source. Secondly,
tlie ricroridl of tihe Athlelit- i ll .il~. ,ere \ie'- to iin.ikihig u-t_. I Iieri er pu%,ilile. o'p iiIilil-holi documents, the student yearbook,
thil, C !,,nhi., wi,.- elected a;, flI ilii i iiinIo- t of thi requirements of detachment. Al-
thltiigh tlhi p li>ieltion,. ii<:t bing otlici:,i, i iin ine.i.sure inconclusive, nevertheless
tlh.: (/',.l .,i.li., Ib)log- to :; typ.' of ,l pubilic.Ition available at a great number of in-
-titutioni. Collcgei ye hlituk; tlhe couiitrl \ '..e-r ci.oit.iin comparable data set forth in
ia fIormi that hli. lIbeet'i.ic e almot t.nd-ir'i',ii.l. The ic:uracy of the yearbook is gen-
,-rali. a._ii!'e 'l I the I'.ct thai thli liik ik. i ,tei.lled fIor publication and distribution
t4 al, illntiere tei gliulp) 4' i:'.l'der., in.--t Io'" ,hlitin hli..e themselves supplied the per-
-oi.':il I.t;, th.t it ciit:inll. All tliiincg ,,iisid,-r Id. thli. college yearbook is probably
tlie li. t dOticjiient.r' ,,irci .1tiil.il t: frl'ni tle iplnt. of view of comparability. In
other ,tud, .-, .ethllCtic rc:-rli.d 'inl tlih \.a,.iook night be employed as checks upon
etcli o'tliher .id.1 tiJpuii the peronii:d knowle lIe of *'tict-ers.
At length t tt.rkingi delfinition'i crer li'malinl, hlich follow:
1. An athlete i< is ilii.d1 i lncr.ii ,1I.- Ilt iii :it il)ild in the yearbook ashavingbeen
;1 1 iel l t', ofi i tlli er itv or tr. hlliitiI tl-'i.iinLl Ciew, even if he was not awarded
ii ighili.
Q A n tii- dlilete i' "inv otlier iidc- nit ib-r t1' the group.

In tie' application of these somewhat arbitrarily framed criteria to the 436 sur-

\' i 1\ ir Ineilbert o't ti. origin:dl grcu po'(;66 Iiell ho hi l R nil: rds ierTi', ail,h t thier con-;idtfi-atlon, of clit i;.intion nr of uti' : ad ibil % *. 1ere .iint 'e:d.
A.\ leglr l-l cl.a i ili-atolll iln .,nv or thr other _l"thhe tAt j group- o.,t nthletit- ai n non-
athlete%. oiiiinl.ir!.bdll :i ti:w Il in. hii(, ll.. cionTlltedtl kir tearn in.l n ciirthrlielet were
inot ienliiiei-'Jd i the veirbhook, "were cl ,-ilkid i; non-.ithhledt. .ilthiuigh it ic believed
tlant whate'.c-r inlaccuir:cv i inh.nt'rt inI thiQ pJr)ciedIli.re i ijijrio tlh.iiin c)ien'it-ld for
t.v tle g.niii iln I.dIlij ti' it nt ii illn ir e prie- i.I' Jdliinitoln .1 tlie grUil p'.
\Another probl,:.m ,'>,'ln, i ,:iition i-roze oi:r mnian.igers ol' t- h: Trl, ,|inio:n ap-
pears to be widely held that managing a college team or even a class team makes large
demands upon both time and vitality. On account of the fact that management is
one of the important phases of college athletics in the United States, the opinion has
been expreced t h.t the present enquiry should include managers and assistant man-
iagcr oft ttr:.-i. After due consideration, however, these men were classed as non-ath-
Itt-es lv detiniitin unless they themselves took part in contests. Not more than thirt;
mitn wir:e > rfi:.ct.:d by this procedure. It would be more illuminating to select managers
and .. ist t lor special study than to classify them as athletes in the present en-
,quil\. ind tliu to obscure its results, however slightly. It is probable, also, that segre-
gating t.otl.il! men from other athletes in more respects than are attempted in the
lire:-e:-nt Ilic.1,ion would prove to be an especially illuminating procedure.
Dillkicu. !lt -, *r identification from documentary sources accounts further for the elimi-
n.i tion irt tliir tln others of the 436 survivors. In a check of the names and identities
of .ill inu.n vih .I-re mentioned in two successive yearbooks as being of the classes of
1!)9 19125, and 1926 in Columbia College, a number of cases involving doubtful
identity arose. On comparing records and photographs, these cases were reduced to
thirteen, and the thirteen records were eliminated.
The final survivals in the two groups then numbered 423, of whom 86 were classi-
fied as athletes, and 337 as non-athletes.

The Columbian of 1924 and 1925 mentioned twenty-four athletic organizations.
representative of the college or of the class, as having drawn their membership front,
the group of athletes under consideration. None of these organizations is of the type
that is designated as "intra-mural" at many universities and colleges. If the seven
freshman organizations appear to be exceptions to the rule, it should be recalled that
most freshman schedules at Columbia College are rather more extra-mural than intra-
mural. In case a similar study were made of athletics and scholarship at an institu-
tion that especially emphasized an essentially intra-mural program of sports, two
courses of enquiry are open: either the same grouping might be adopted and inter-
collegiate and intra-mural participants grouped together as athletes; or. more li iit-
fully, division into three groups-intercollegiate aI thlete-, inti.t-iiiiii .l athlekt-., amil
non-athletes -would probably prove desirable.


The org iiii.'ition under on,.idr.dtii), aIrv litkd in Table 1.
I .\ n 1. I
.\ IIllI 'l' i.A l/A I Il. 241 11 14 1 1 lI'll i'NTED IN THU STUDY
-'1"' i i' i ".i-.. .j. ', ,:., ,. i Freshman Organizations (7)
IFooth ll Fir-_t IIIi : lc First eleven
J.mrior rcltr n
r(Iow.ng FI'rt crci, Crew and coxswain
Junior trc'
I [. -j. -P un i r- "
thirdd e-'re.
'Jecl. il rsty \ r- ninc
lTr',< k mn I clJ \Varsity trn-..1 tI'inm
A '. 'ity 1 4 '-t I ', i ifry
BaI tdill "V'irsity lit e First five
Westihng 'Varbay Leam First team
Junior team'
Fencing 'Varsity team Team
Swimming 'Varsity team Team
Wiatr polo 'Varsity team
T: nns 'Varsity team Team
Goll 'Varsity team

As ini ti,: c.'-t: of the study of the materials from the forty-four colleges, so in the
ca..'.- il the reI.corls from Columbia College, the primary object of the enquiry was to
ex\hlu-t thI- pi.rtinent possibilities of the data. Certain procedures were, of course,
ohil it.I' f'roi, tihe beginning. Duringthe progress of the work, others emerged asequally
;deliribl,. It i- tihrefore clearer to abandon, in this discussion, the order in which the
-ti.ps ut the dtuly were taken and to follow a more logical order, at the same time
ex.pli inning iu.el detail as seems necessary for complete understanding.
Three- main, classes of information were available: the scores of intelligence tests,
mn.lterial, ba. ring upon length and character of academic connections, and grades re-
'oeite-d in ; our- .. Out of these grew the following questions, answers to which were
r..light -t it.i.t e.ally in the materials:
Fii t. ,i, ht tmlation if any exists between intelligence scores of athletes and those of
iion-athl.te' ?
Second, i. i-h.t relation if any exists between length and character of academic expe-
rit-ime tochliing graduation, probation, and years spent in college?
Thlird, halt difference if any exists between the course grades received by athletes
Iml thoue ret--,i' "d by non-athletes? In addition, what testimony do the materials bear
t;ui hing il-Ictinii of courses-forexample, as between difficult and easycourses -and
tli-: piropiortioi.i o.f grades near the passing line received in both groups?
Fin.all% h.it .eneralizations or conclusions concerning methods employed can be
dIra n Iroim tlhe processes thus outlined?
' Mcr'lemrr.d n n'rd l-*ne yearbook.


I I,' orl s / .' ./" Il.t,/ Ii w. I. Tt, ,,: f t l.'!.i! ,.
Collimbihi (C tllege wa.- ..miong tli' Ilr-.t In- titutions to niakt, nlie ol inritllig,:l n tr-.t
ai- .-.ri T Iiir ,id isitJ1i1. Ilenct-: Fi.ir tlt- 4':)3 ilen 'If tli- t '.o largest *go.1 ... t.e I'etuI*li-
le .cre-s I-rui iiuilI tI-.t 5 e'rt? dtit?ilinel to l.e ofl' lriul-.iil \hle becall-I? of the vll'si o1
e\xlperiene in intellig.-nc' testing that li:t helhiiid them N.tuirail thil tir-t st- iin -ta-
titiika tr!-atimntllt '.-s to comil,!r the l th o i_'grou,.s. one ',Il 5( athlilte-, tiih otilitr of
3:31 nrli-.:thlele..< i-eg..lrd. intelligence scoure-. At ent-.rie. et.l ol' tli--.e nmen i,.,i
taken the Thorndike Intelligence Examination for High School Graduates, in which
scores may range from 0 to 120. Perusal of the records showed the average scores ,f tihe
two groups to be as follows:
Non-athletes 79.01
Athletes 77.74
Difference 1.27
This difference, being less than three times as great as the standard error, .Sl. is not
-igni a-,rnt

Q. Ret.-r. ,r.f Graduation, Probation, Years in College, Program Load
An atttlipt to discover the facts which give rise to the charges that atlletl,.s aire
1]~I- likiel y to graduate from college than non-athletes, that a greater proportion l aiti -
let--l -.llifte probation during their college course, and that athletes take liglt.,:r pi u-
grani,.. led. to a comparison of the two groups in these particulars.

ii C .riad..a,.n',, Probation, and Years in College
The proportions in Table 22 are percentagesof thewhole groups; the whole numr bers
with decmnals represent years in college.
A wrirI concerning the implications of probation at Columbia College will i.erh.-ips
clt ri f t the term. Probation implies that, although the student may continue hi-, co, i ,.
is .I.inl?inmic situation is not safe. A student is placed upon probation by office., .ict ioii
of the Committee on Instruction, functioning as an executive committee of the Fac-
ulty. Notices are sent to students and to parents or guardians. A student on proh it;lo,
may not participate in athletics or in non-athletic extra-curricular activitie-. 'Thi
removal of probation follows the requisite improvement of the student's work.
I This conclusion was reached by application of formulas Kelley (1923) 29, and Kelley (1923) 140. If the dii- .r.: r~:: h ,.
exceeded 4.74, equalization would have been brought about through elimination by chance selection ir. lI.,: ..r-r,:r
range of the non-athletes in test scores. This process could have been carried out without seriously affect: I.: t- i. rm
of tt-: .Ji rlr. ul;:, i cur . r : s~r.:i ir..e l .,r- r it:.li-..n regarding other factors than intelligence.
B -:n i r .r rn: thle.lnr :r-.n ..: In I an- i rl .I.l I rin f thetwogroups with the standard errorof thisdii, r:r.: .- it.
que .I I. '.i. ,r i,..rr i,: i r. r I h -n.r.. l i t .i.fn'.:.:ri,:,: in variation in tested intelligence in the two gro-wi ; i-
swered in the negative. Hence no adjustments for intelligence in either group were made.
Ii i ..l ri.- I .-',1 that,instudying intelligence testscoresat single institutions, either of these checks i. rs.: i:-; r -.
I I,' ,r-, r,-.-- .--..r, widely known, and, since they involve no advanced mathematical treatment, the ,r.? i. 1 :.:
I. rriiJrI- n il.,. t appear at first glance.
'.\ o.h.t -i .- r this comparison, the formula for the st.rri. iir.J tr.:.r I i .1 -rl.:r.: : r. i r r ..r..r I.'-r. r ,: mriloi..,I
'1""I I i] I. '. Form ula 6). The follow ing meanings a,:r,: ..rn I. tir.- .t rr,, nir . r..I...rI ,.-.. .f ....r,. It1.1,:t a
graduating (or on probation); q, proportion of non-athletir rit ..r'ili .'.lin i ..r I.. I ..ri i--r. r.- r-p. ir.. i[I.'.ll
"_I .. li l.' .: ri..1 i i r. i ".r .Ilr r .ror.i r i- ,. r p r ..r l.:.r i : on o f r I ti-r l- i .: E I r ). .i r.i. i .'.r .r[I ..I .i.-. r i I .... i r 1. r, f.. r..
t. r fa i l.. i j..-il- I, i i.: [In .'. v .. p .a T"i l.rn I [. :1 II .: I r..._ I 1r o l i. ". I 1 ...- II, ." u i i.... ..r.. l..ui l l li1..
l,.:n. I..r.. ij.v i. .r. .i.Il ,.i.lition.Tables in Bingham and I rri.J. Pr.. .. r. E.rii .pi-r, it P.s i. . I .i .
p. rii i. rini:ht r.- ,i.J .. .iven a slide-rule might prove suii-:iert in i'.-rl\ :[..:r t i-rind


I'. - i- t.7. .,, ...... Percentage on Average years spent
J. ,... probation in college
Athlete1- E! .69 3.50
Nur.rt.i lcltes '. .21 3.01

Tiu. a : iiraller fI.propJtiui I ahlelites than of non-athletes obtained their de-
gri'c-, ltlhouglih the atlhilte .pein.t O(. the average almost a semester longer in col-
I.-i. 'Te I'o1,"'.rtion of :ithllctir : on prollo.tion at some time or otherin their college
c'Oilr'e s:1, Ilorl' thl.,an tllree tines .r large as the proportion of non-athletes.

b. Hours of Work Carried
It was felt that the weight of the academic programs carried by members of the
two groups would have interest. Accordingly, the numbers of program hours were
tabulated for each semester of the normal four-year connection with the college, and,
in cases that involved supplementary attendance, for the following academic year as
%ell. The relationships are set forth in Table 3.

.. rlester Year

F.ll 1921
Spring 1922
F ll 1992
Spring 1923
F.ll 1993
Spring 1924
Fall 1924
Spring 1925
Fall 19925
Spring 1"ni
.\r l.tcrge. ill -..nicrtcr

Average Hours

Non-Athhltes Differences
Average Hours
15.91 -.85
15.82 -.92
16.84, -.59
17.50 -1.66
16.48 -.76
15.93 -.43
15.4.2 +.90
14.97 +. 64
12.69 -.09
13.47 -1.66
15.43 -.58

A.;i check uIpon methodtl all of these figures were subjected to mathematical tests'
_ill luir t(o tlho-'e Iilll'o-i. uipon the figures affecting graduation and probation. It
is ii trest ing to note i iIha in all semesters except those of the senior year, the athletes
L:trl i, pIriXFra.in lighter in hours on the average than the non-al.tiletei.

STI- lt i. ,I I .,l ,I ll,.- I t I i. i been questioned with some justice. It is pointed out that they represent
ai, Ittr -r,.li 1I ..:l I ..ri.. .I ,:...rnt...l- internal to the material- a process that by its nature can r, ..i- Il .1 i
Ithi tIr,:t .' ril,. ;. .i in,: lI .I. r .-ir :.i .. I for tests in tie laboratory sciences.There, control is establi -:.I Ilr...-..I
*.l. .. l.,-" r, rri Ii. i ,i.. .... ..; ,:.r ,IIr ir .ilbjects to conditions that are as nearly as possible the sanll.. i. li.:. r.
I i... I. ~... r.. a II. .. i.. I I.: I ar,. rejectedd. Thus, tile controls are external to the materials. II r.: tr.. r .i..i *
iin: .,rl. I r. ,1. rri :.1 I1r I.:'r....I ii..,,T e Ile materials unlderpoing the lests. Tie reason for applying Ir.-: ...:k- ..
r... i.r.. ornt .I I .1 I. I 1... .: ..:. i h:.. use of every possible and available means of veriflealion, n.., .Ii ,rilpl.i a
I In I l-... n ,ir A t:i ... i r. r- -


0 J', ,.' /. lIt, ., .'.g -C r tiI'' g. 1 ..g,, ,/i (, m -:r.i:
'Th,. gr.1..l ,icli :d bh thb t ',.. group 1,:r rI:ei.rdl-il inunilv in i lit.ral .v-1 t rm
oft II I.irk 1g. vilth piII n :c ii,11 Iillu-s egifiling it I A + .- tli- hl i -t ,I ii.i- in t-
tili E..1:. Iid Iniiii [ ith I-'- the lr IU t iii. rk. III :iliee? CuionipuItlt:liii -,.\i.i :tIi .
iiLi -Icl t I t .ii.i .ll, uit. i. iI eiCIrrl.-iit IF. t C1 Idm11 .11 I (C'lll.gt.i' I II\ m in. i, nt Ii,.'li t r-
.1, L I' II n t It r .'iip ' ll t>: "it l grl- s ..nil thk ir im inn.rieral ,,-iui jal- nti.I .irt t,1.
Iorthi iii 'I'.IT le 4-:
Literal Grades Numerical Equivalent
A+ 16
A 15
A- 14
B+ 12
B 11
B- 10
C+ 9
C 8
C- 7
D- 6
D 5
D- 4
F+ 2
F 1
F- 0

This system of equivalents was employed in striking averages in the present e;,nuiuir.
In certain cases, however, numerical grades on the basis of 100 were officitll Ic-
corded instead of literal grades. Under such conditions, it was necessary, f;it. to
transmute these numerical grades into literal grades and then into the numeri.,d :l-
ues indicated in Table 4. The following values were used for the first part ot' hf..
Grade, Basis 100 Assigned Literal Value
94-100 A
87-93 B
80-86 C
75 79 D
74 or below F

Thus, a grade of 79 became D +, which has a numerical equivalent of 6, while a I',li.:
of 90 became B, with a numerical equivalent of 11. Although this process ilne it.i l.
produces a certain amount of distortion, it is believed not to be sufficient to in-lli-
date any result into which it enters.
Certain other procedures that were adopted bear upon the ..-Trtges. Fird., it' .
man completed a course with a grade of I) or F, that grade was uin ii i t.miput..ili.ni-.


Ift. li' i-r, lilt ender',- nt iuclcef ill\ .1 deficienctr or -"mkv -up" examination, the
graldt as-'ignid il that ex.,nllliitii, i L .uli er'l.ld tle I:filing cour'.I grade previously as-
.sigiJ. Se'on'iid, if a hii rl't.el.d ,1 ni.l-'ear mark in fuI'll- %ar course, in which lie
- regtilia:rl nr'olled liut ldi nolt contnu'.' tel! o.Ul s I'u tlir. no grade assigned to
lIiin11 that e.'Cir-e w\i' uul. 'l'lliIl,l iIn tIoIIptIling c,,iiineil aerages, work done in
-it.tr- 'ent illn I.'tlr col:lcge- of Columinirt Uni .cr'itv wva in lud ed when it counted for
the.li.'gret at ,Colunlili IC'olltleg, ,ii:l ltbore upon 1 lliiiilit\ for 'ar-ticipation in athletics.
Thelic e CI'.') ltt iin ihi iuh Iiuch a ork ul I.lone tere thit- 'ol. iT ._ :.r Architecture, Conm-
mer?[Ce. Engineeritng..lournali .ni L .n ,anl M,.,li< int.'. N1. gr ult- received in summer
_I'lCool --1 1-1 e'xttnii,'I'i C':urI' e w reC incluitiI.
T'I-e leI.ultl olf tile ,oiliplitatit.i:n' irt .xl.il it-_d iil t... t.ili.s. One, Table 6, sets
fortli a, er ge initlligence.' coi. tl a eragi gr.gr'. ... .l a' rage grades for semes-

r.1Pl.I. t,
.\1% P.\t> IN F l .[ I F.hl. Ns I. -, t ll .\NN i i ll.\1 Il
it. 1.1 ..r T'..', ,'a. ', r .' . ',. 11 i i, i ., I Y.. ,. i. .p*',, / Corre- Roughly Corre-
l.i .4AlIt,i. ..t'i-. ,,,,..- .... I ra Literal spending Literal
S, t Athletes Grades, Nun-
Inrtelligen-. S.c re- Mj .. ; ;.; I ;t i'l
T..ral ArraJr G(r'de "; ..; ; C C+
Ateri, GraJe:'
F 11. Iv'l '. I t C C
.rng.. 19'.' 9 C+ C+
I. i' ; I 'I .; C+ C+
S[,ri0. 19'3 I; A -a.1 9.i C+ C+
F Ill. 1;.? 1 ; .' '.1 9 ; C + B-
?[,r.n_,. 1921 19 9 I I;I I| C+ B-

S.',ringn 197" ,;*4 'P.I ') ,, C+ B-
Fall. I:'.', I. 41 ,.r. ". C+ C+
SpJrl 19:'. I.31 7 ; C C+

tir-l o:f tli. I,- olkg' .u'I .r-e. iThe li.the., 'iltle which i- irr gii.d according to sports
inl lid iCd:d inIto two iprt., li.,i_)os iti. ge int, lligciict ,cor-,l' and average grades.
IE'i'li ..t of et clloiuti-tition an:i t .;t.d 1). all of tlie I.:'-hJck I .ne iously described.
.\Itlioulh tlite -ithlet,- u11i the lionitl- ithlletes It lie rleg. ed as of practically the
'~ille let'l ,:1 int -iliginc. tile 1no11 n-thilet':-- A\, r-g C+t ill tl.i r course grades, whereas
tihl athlete- .,\,-rge. C ''lhil ditfferei, .c n it -r.i get. Ilol.r-'lhiI, is also small; but the
liL:-lillo l1 tIl it it In '' -:ilm ,iig iili.llani i, ht'III.Icd b\ [tI. fth t that cli scholarship
ditfrrene,.- .-a. are founiI ,ru. L.trorahlei to their non-.Atllet-e. in nine out of ten semes-
terl TlhhI te-t oirk of tl, I iIon-.ithllj teh wa-. Jiiore .lulriig thIe ac.-.demic years 1~l1-': '-
: ian 19'24-'5. whlicli lii be r It.:g id lel n.iti.ll, as tlh-ir itmior mnd senior years. The
s :co'nd -eitll'-ter ol thl ji lior ietir iodu'c:-ed theii highe-t chiollItic average' \. I.L, :-,
in thll e i of thl ., th..' firit -en tcr l th.. jiunio)r LearI b right the Ihigl..-t .\1: V-
nge. .


T.%.F i ", P IT I
N.urnbh-rs in parentheses following designation of sports rihtr to, the [.i(i..intn of each sport in relation
to scholarship grades in Table 7. Part 9)
Sport Number of Men .1. I,,V. 7t hrience
I .. .
1. Tennis (3) 6 87.16
2. Fencing (1) 5 81.10
3. Wrestling (2) 10 80.91
4. Rowing (5) 8 80.75
5. Water Polo (4) 4 80.75
6. Golf (7) 4 79.25
Non-athletes 337 79.01
Athletes 86 77.74
7. Football (8) 22 73.47
Two or more sports 17 73.30
8. Track (6) 5 69.90

(Numbers in parentheses following designation of sports refer to the position of each sport in rela-
tion to intelligence test scores in Table 7, Part 1)
Sport Number of Men Average Scholarship Corresponding Literal
Grade Grade
1. Fencing (2) 5 9.7 B-
2. Wrestling (3) 10 9.6 B-
3. Tennis (1) 6 9.4 C+
4. Water Polo (5) 4 9.3 C+
5. Rowing (4) 8 8.8 C+
Non-athletes 337 8.7 C+
6. Track (8) 5 8.6 C+
Two or more sports 17 8.6 C+
Athlets 86 8.4 C
7. C..11 if.i 4 7.3 C-
8. Football (7) 22 7.3 C-

The average intelligence test scores, when inspected from the point of view of par-
ticipation in various sports, yield interesting comparisons with average scholastic
grades. The tennis men did well in both respects. Football men did not. Ind-ield,
football men received lower grades on the average than the athletes who partici-
pated in two or more sports. The relative places of the wrestlers in both tables will
doubtless surprise those who do not associate the physical appearance of the wrest-
ler with either high intelligence or high scholarship. On the other hand, the rank
of the track men in both intelligence and average grades is perhaps equally aston-

a. The Selection of Hard and Easy Courses
One of the commonest accusations brought against the athlete is that he is an
idler in his studies. The statotaiunt ".i ,:f-;queintly.ivade that athletes tend to take

'.':"':' :i '".': ". :: :..

e:;siei (.I Lir- in greater pl-liportion thLin thi.,r who do not participate in athletics.
Inl order to .hi .l it p- I, ililc.i .nim Iiglit upoiii these matters, special attention was
gi, e to h it.- tlh t i .i.mid tLii t.h. 11i11i r tihenm.
\V\h.1i i :;I ",..1"\' c li -l \\'hti i~, i In. l'" course? Most attempts to identify
third Id ii-y, i. e1.'. t II- i hili.ert, i heen i uective -matters of opinion. Indeed,
tihc ll.t actIlroI.i.( to ti: pr1'c'i-TiLt proimlem i .1 made through the judgments of menc-
b'ei of the (C'ol0umii-i I'o*llegie 1gie ll, a.id tlhe student body. By a series of ratings
fr'im ht'.e nmimlr i is il ai th- f ...ll t-re t i'ere ;irnmed two groups containing fourteen
ciiure- i ;ll II. ixiS "ea-% ii.1 eight "h n1 iit tn of the fourteen cases, the judgments
ot tihe facuilty mlnihenli eri e indr'- plridcli tv co'irmed by student comments printed in
thL colle-_-e inP -p r.' O tie :nieaei g[hi. gtitk- were actually found to be higher in
the "ea-% ".. ti.Ite-dl tliii tll. tit in tie "hard." Moreover, all of the "easy"
cOur-e ,Ytie .li . Ijy 1'elag. gir.ii'., tio I. "easier" than the "easiest" of the
". Ilar.', cir'.e'-, \itli (.iii- xceC[ tiion. i, Iiicli .tud. ent criticism indicated to be difficult
lt timllIiitnlg. O.n tile ,otl:her I olii it ,'. if-lt, that even a composite of subjective
'jiligmeiil of certain iteacheric i tilul .lldntL concerned rather the reputation of these
Iour teuln Co'Ii rse tli an tLheir ritual ditihcultt oI- ease. Furthermore, in attempting to
.taply tlhii- nrthod of cla-.-il rin, _-,rr:: 1 i other institutions, grave dangers might
, Intll, liio i:,l lie Ilea-t of ithli l pri.,l ilroba.bly be a lack of trustworthiness in re-
,ijlt. Attention w ..i r tliertlo i trned t one ti. other means of labeling courses as easy"
or --" 1. rd."
''lih Ine.;n-. lirnll I~ltpiiprid I bIr- lie-ed to:, li as nearly objective as it is possible to
emp iplo. Gradt ,e' rt -tuliii,. i.not iion theu b si of the average grade assigned in each
'iiur e[. but .11n i..ill1 ,iri in .1 it' ih tjdii t' gi .ide with his own average grade for the
ei.?llttEl' Th finl d etiinitiiin i 'f an "''.ai\ c.,irirse was, therefore, a course in which a
highi proportiomi :, thIe -liJlct: whi:i took it received in that cmir-t, higlii-r grades
than theii a .eiagle- for all ol f i t: i i.'iui tlhat they took during that .ren-ic-ter. This
det-fin tin i aiu tlm.ti icall i-m|ini ,-i.,.tei' i'ir ch.iges in instructors and course standards.
It i. feIlt to fin i li i e.irclling, .ani ;it tle .iiine time a fair, criterion.
The- 4'2''3 -.tuideiilt in t ie t ~, gr-,iup, athl itts and non-athletes, took during their
.ta in C'oluibia ('olltih i t ital -if 3i llrf lit rei t courses. From this total, all required
i.ourl,' v. rcv olimin-ite :i a Iiot lea':.ing mlicr t opportunity for the exercise of the
triden-t' i-.xin \-ilii nii on i- l. n l edi ii- reiaind. Moreover, no course was considered
i liclih ta t;.enrl li\ I\- er tLi ih.n i:-; t hlete, oir ix non-athletes. In consequence, there
\.ere lcit I;or inrt.--rnite cin'idler tioi ii dtfil.rf it courses. On the basis of the percent-
;ge of' ;tudint lih,. ico i' l in e'IIch cliii -.c gr-tdes higher than their average for the
s.'rnester II, wlilkh tie course a..i tkeii, tlihe, 85 courses were tabulated for distri-
I.iutill'. In the i-,iln i 1'n I ih conriie4 r iito the five groups, Hard, Medium Hard,
Ar'gt:. Mulimi E-i'. and En:,\, tl,, I, in- in o demarcation between the groups were

STh-, r- -.. t r.'r. ,.rd. 1 '7.


sc.,iIlrIriJ t arbitia itlv I.lri \ ii, but at tih, :1miin time the dlitribution throw, the coui, -e
roughly intr. thi grouping.
l"-':r ticli h ,f h -. fi it groups, Ji triijution,,. ri. ag,, ahd I'QiU I-I 'y I tf thI Il. r i -i. ilt" .I
0o' itu.leit- whi., rc-ril' e higher t.-r.ade thIi,,i tlhir a% er:ie- .urn gr.n.l- i h.or th- %:-
nii..~ter i .z-hMi i 4.litributted in T.ibl,: .".

Ratings of Courses Number of Courses Percentages in these Cour: .*
Hard 8 14, 21, 22, 23, 24 (3), 2 .
Medium Hard 17 31. 32, 33 (3), 3t (2), .Vi.
37 (4), 38 (4), 39
Average 29 41 (3), 42 (3), 43 (5), 14
(4), 45 (7), 46 (2), 47, ".
49 (3)
Medium Easy 21 51 (2), 52 (6), 53 (2), '.1
(2), 65, 56 (5), 57 (2), :,
Easy 9 61, 63 (2), 67 (2), 71, 15.
76 (2)

For the moment our concern with these steps touches only validity of the nitthoil-
employed. The first check imposed was naturally a comparison of the result' gained
from the subjective method of classifying "hard" and "easy courses and from the ob-
jective method. That current faculty and student opinion concerning the at-.' inal
difficulty of courses does not agree with the statistical facts is shown by thel <.iinci-
dence of the subjective list of 14 courses and the objective list of 85 courIs,- at IinlI
three puint_. InI other words, only two courses reported to be hard and onle cll-ourIe
reportc- to bL. easy are correctly appraised by popular opinion. One course :ippe,.:treid,
at first, to be erroneously classified as hard. The average grade in the cui.c n ui
high. Yet 86 per cent of the students who took it received lower grades ii, it thanl
their own average grade for the semester. The explanation is probably sniething
like this: Those who take this course probably form a highly selected group in tcnrmi
of scholarship, and even this selected group finds the course difficult in cnliiip..lri-,ln
with other courses. It thus becomes apparent that the mere fact that tlh ,!r.l'm.-
grade in a course is high, or low, does not prove that the course is easy, or hrd.

b. Grades of Athletes and Non-Athletes in Hard and Easy( Courses
The courses having been thus classified, it remained to compare the grade. '-igi i..
in them to the two groups of students, athletes and non-athletes. In order ti.. prho-
ceed upon the safest possible grounds, only the eight "hard" courses and til. nileI:
1 For example, in the first course listed, only 14 per cent of the students received higher grades than Il.:.r t r .-'
i'..r II.. *rm.m-ter. .\ r.- r.- II,- ri li 0 t I r. 24 per cent of the students received, in threecourses, grade i ict,.r Ih ,I
iii..r i ,rl.:', for ti.,: ,.rll.::- l.r


"ti E courses, a dailid a;Ii gLOtlI.-pd bI the, oblji-ctive tests-the two ends of the
scale. .I) to speak \" re coiinidli r.-. Th- comnil'. ii)ou, of average grades are set forth
in Tabill 9, in whichh lo01io.i illunelal. arL ;u i.tituti.l for the names or designations
of the 17 cour'e.-
1".\ i|i. I. t
A\lEiA'.I .[ iA. -i I I .li. .\[a I".\SY COURSES
WITlH i'i:OiOi1 io\'- ill Till- F ,i.,' .i i. I.blNG 'THE COURSE
If.,,.t l .,,r I'*r ..,r ..,. '. ... ..": Average Grade
l,1 ,'..,... ', '. Athletes Non-Athletes
I". II: "I I 7.70 8.57
II ".'" I;' 8.25 8.18
III r'','"' 0 .* 6.33 7.87
IV ,' Ihl Jl; 10.33 9.21
V "r l,"l *r.!" 8.28 8.61
\'I i l l1ii i ,,'3 8.14 9.50
V I \' I." 1 1;: 6.18 8.00
VII I I I'. .; I 8.50 7.99
,A I H 1 L i, 1, I,1rj 7.96 8.48

I\X t.2'",:' ,- 12.16 12.40
X 1.111l I; 10.44 10.25
XI I 11. II:. I: 10.70 10.70
XII ".Ii *1.',.3 10.30 11.00
X 11I '':, I 1, ; 11.75 11.47
Xl\ IIV 'I I "s 9.42 10.51
XV <'1 .'' l l 9.42 10.06
XVI ,..";" 5". 10.67 10.80
X\II II' II J 9.91 10.35
A. r[\, ..F ,JlI '. 10.53 10.84
It "ill thu, l.t c -eli that a greater l' proportion offI athletes than non-athletes tended
ti.o elct Ih rlrd ciiur'-, ILbt. n the other hai.l, the inme is true of the easy courses. In-
dtlI. 'i lI_.LiLher proportion of both groupl r IeilLi tto elect easy courses than hard. In
tie li.iil crlur e- t thl.at vlrcI elect'ti. :,thllet:t .ei\ elged about C-, non-athletes about
S+ ii thit c..i.' cour.-_-. l.hili gloupI-_ did Ititt- l : thli athletes averaging barely B and
the iion-.athlt,:- a little higherr in thi,: s.amlu letter-division.

Thi l-I:t tiealitAlnt to hicli tlhe conr-l' gr.de' \ere subjected grew out of the
'iluestion A.i hetlher tile gr.ad- a.-igned to athleltc; or to non-athletes tended to group
thnn-,I;l\L- about the pa.silig lne. The 'igiihcalicn of the passing line, which lies be-
t.,:eiie ( -and D + i, the- eqr.i CliiLi.. t that a, C'oliubia student, in order to be eli-
gible for pail ticip.t tion in liiitircoll'e te competition, must do passing work in at
leijt t,%ele hours of his (irogr.rIn.
In solilig thil prollkinm, th- Jir-t step a .i- to -elect the several course, takteli hb
thll: Iirge-t numblnwr, otf i11Irn uIder conliid'r.aiti'a Tlhe courses selected nniulib'red t'O II -


trevm. enclh of whlich "a. taken byit it i:it iie hundred' of the nmetn iho-'e records
erei being .tu id, aii tilhet c-Iet giern by rive diffltrint department ., t o.ll ow-:
Cliiistrv. 1 Coi.i ,:: O.lluIJk'. '2 Ciour'ist-. Itili-li. 1 COUr-ie, Flrei ch. (i c.OUI SeCs:
( .tliii.:l-Iit_. T' cOLr-c-. "id ii'toN. t' cUlr--e. .A 11 i \'ii ,t' thl e gri td I- lc c
dturiiii' the period 1'21-'li6 by imi:mihber' ot' the el:- .iof 19'2.3 I h.) to,.,k thl-e i':,.ir:t,-'
i,11ltd .tt ,t co0 11 .- ii d.ll I I llL [. io lci iii 'i,. I n:-ll r e ,itli' etec- I IT irkl.r U i .t L. b .i e l iiig.
)' all of tlte .u irk' recei' ed tli*lti. 1..I liper cev-it iL-.r C- I .md t Si per cent '.
.a total ot 44.1' plei cnrt.a c p.ireild "ith % i aper cent ('- and 0.4 p-r cent C.a
total of :34 4 pl-r c elit. Viiiong Ion-,Iathliete.. Thet'e ptercr'nt- i ie r- cl ct thI 'I tu.'llon
1,liot Ii genera.l. .a l ii i nt.p ert if i ind iviiUi.il court e.s aniung ti le Iiiurtt -i I.iil-r ell-
luiiin. Athlltti recei\ted more marks of C- a atan non-athi-:ti in iiine ol the th.ir-
tii.- ctie' :ur- :, il. in ore marks of C in every course. In seven cour-l i tl-, t-uidlnc-;\ ".t
prulot- nelll -l. .A tli.,ugh in two courses no marked difference ini the distri hut;on of thtl
Itr.lid- i thilletle- ;i compared with non-athletes appeared.

O(Ie me: thod of comparing the scholarship of athletes and ot io.-ii-thlete. li.i- li.-i-i
.utliiil in ol,: detail,and cer aiad erin of its limitations and a, Icw Of the olCe- iOt
posiilitl e it.lr lia been mentioned. The mathematical pr.:,-ci--e .ri: riela.tiNi,-l 'li.-
pli,..,rnd the use- to which they are put are widely know. The ll'-t ,|Ue--ticnii, thlat
c,. cerir uI areiI these: Are the steps that make up the pr..ilpodl method ic.! li? Inid.
It Iioll,.,u ,1. v' ill they lead to a series of results from which Iccur.d, te coIi cli.Cioni I iI
Ihe dl-.- I n by ni, one fairly well versed in the interpretation of staftities' It is hi,-
lieti- that hith ou these questions can be answered in tlh>. allihin.aliice '-ith -onii.-a--
cUI ltil'.
At tiwo pin-iiit. however, objection to details of the method hj -le i edy b-eni raised.
SoIIu. !riiidillv critics have felt that team managers should hI r- bhi.n incldid iln tlhe
i-inuiir\ 'lii ilC others have believed that special information ii. thl- po-Ut.-'ioi oI1 \t-
riiou pel .,ni -lh,uld have been availed of in accounting for -.ceming .anll ,lier in the
treclid, of the .tudy. The reason for the exclusion of te;im Illffini- er.- h.r bIen i et
toi thi. Th,. idi el of objectivity accounts for the attempt to -ro.iud Ithi- .-nrilirl ill
pil nt*ed. publi ihdlld documents.
If. then, the method employed is sound, certain gtni:CI ili.i tiion,- Irou I tlhe tudly v i-
piernii-.sibl, W\'ith respect to the class of 1925 in Columbi. Colleg,-. tlih-,e melnhbr-
Sli-i, [i,rticilitI d in sport and those who did not, appear to he of l'abut tllh- .-Ine in-
telliFgiciei. On the basis of course grades, however, the athlete- iin thilir studied fell
elI,-w tihe !noii-nthletes. In spite of the fact that the athlete- tewldlI-d to iIo.ain :lol ger
SIn snr.3li.r In .]itr.ll,.n- this limitation might be reduced to an appropriate r urrn -r. A .ii-l I, It-. -c ri rc.l, ti.-.n
ri,.-ht ir.- the .ri..,I tIn that the average of undergraduate men in the smaller .n-.l.i.tit.r, .lijrini I e pl rinod under
e.I.ultir, : t ri .r: ..c[. 1 which approximates the t :r-3i ,. r- ,rT.l-.er .'I Trniei, ill.lrr .luar s in I.luirl, i Unli. -.-.l r-
I ri ir a r-. I- .l-. i; i i s, in acollegewhich .i :,' I :.-.-l-i' i e un.l r.-ri -Ic. l.ie;- '.r ithe poor.-i.I 1v:-.-:1. ..r l -.'3-.
:-.-:ni.r.l r tin "Ilh. either I'. years or fourwere ner.J;,l i. i...n.ipii: ith r ri.,:- r.i-. the I.- ir.lll. .r.iu c;1I1 :t. : le.:tl n:
-i:r i :- ..-i -. i.nl inot ill, one hundred of the Columbia enquiry.

ill college., sm11.1ili pi>.llJrtionl reiei\>-d d tlrit..r .l1, d :1 iiich 1i t tcleatr IproportlOil o'

I.t- s .l 111d 11o 1- tllI.-l t- .ttdl t.1-\ JLII It. -, I,,1,n 1 l' i* tlv II thii ll 1I1: .I. ; t.. I il tlu1m

dlifixult. Fillli. tih 1 ra li.- C it':tllltc: -h .,I i s ;tr.vii1,Li t1.n, Jt-ir lc to gr.n it.Lte tc-."1,ir
lthic pi~-ing 1111. thir.i thn: ,rule, oft no -,atlilet,-<.. ,d ;lh.th -t. reci-t Il on th- I, ,il,
IIorft l ii'iki o l'- 1i t' I' ll t' l i :lh l R Iauuiiliti i .
o.tl h tli- u it:l hoid .11.-I tlii- LIt'I il UliIill, MLe p ll ii'1 d, 1l.-A .-1. IliI li.o'.iti.)r t r Fi aTs
UllU lj.ll g'-. 1 II,..* ll,. ti, l-. I-Lit :- thiU le till ,' o .-\ terlld>-il 1uI I-lli lll.,i rv Ci' i t- I., .li-~ .rT
tli:- i o.. ln. W I.'hAt i- t .: r-litioii otI' th-e .Il, .r.hli[ ,' .,thl.t-.h- t l ,l;t >I noi, --tlh-
I,-t:. ill A I-:ll i(.. l uIU i ,'-.itic: l ,I I 1 rll .. It tl.- 1i1 t,4 tl., ill ttir h ,i ,i_\>. 'tedl I 1l..
ilnttri't I iawl m uch Il(.-ll i i>i II I rln t lH iII .0II. l ,iit-i,.l,: .r' ,iUll .g-: % ill-. \\W ith tih-
.CI;i[Ir,, ti> lit' .-I nu ,t1 U i l ud ll :, 1111 n i i .1 it !i,- il -U[II i g II .ii iIIIr.l l,.r 'i..
UC- il Ilu'10lo ( 'Il li e li.. tb L'(t1- .1 t I t I 'r l i I 1. till ft. I-i I nli,. ii tl. i'
' lili itl. I'iR lll it I? I >ho .)el tli.it tl, Ill,,.-t.l I it 11 ,ll .ni I I. to .111' \ il.-ti tlUt ill
1r 'k11l11' I leth ..,d Of ol' r~. i i Iri 1 tli .., hli,. ,ll :l.l .ti h' ,, i ,, II I,| 1.1' it, *tifll l. t ,I th
iln.Itllel It- :;ppil lralillit_ ext I.end, t''r h i.\ ,id ro l: d th i i rt' .d ithltrl .nt.l nd h l h rl-Ilip.
h l., .illl .I. . s.l. . 'l,! t /,, ',

(.C'OI I.. ATHill.ETI'S

Hilli-tin N u..ilb r lwghlewr, ( -o" m- ,lln / til, i, t','.tl ., S // ls ,.l1 C11I i_ 'tre ith ..
'".5 pg'P -. 19Q7.
A liltial l{-I[ l- of' thl I'lre-iIh:. t ,l: ,li tl H1 T r. II it- el
'1 ,- I lilt..i l,. 1I i. I' ;';-:;>7. "I'll." .1/n,,, ,' ,,f C_-,./'f l d/,-h..
Th. Niit,.. enth. tl u 1'21. i.j'g.- 114- I-11.1 .. .n .,-/'; In/ t ,Xf7 d; ,,/, ,,./ Pr,,,-
It 1' .
The 'IT aent'ii lth. "19). p gl-- 1 -l-t1. <..//) ti/i,(n <
'T h< T"' ,ntI -lir-t. 1)9 ., p i 1 45-15`'. .dl.t. t ,; (f. an,.i d,l (',,,C.i l ./",.

/I.I/ n ill ul ll, r., ,I, ,, /. l. t, .I 1_1 I/ r.1 :l h, lS.. l,, .t,. t l . ,I .. l l F .m, I e, .'/ l
'2~ I',lt6 l I, ..... } ,Ne, }ul I X.' t .

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