Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The need for post-high school...
 Current attempts at post-high school...
 Some proposed principles and...
 Back Cover

Group Title: new junior college;
Title: The New junior college;
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098581/00001
 Material Information
Title: The New junior college; the next step in free public education
Physical Description: v, 63 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Starrak, James Abel, 1889-
Hughes, Raymond M. ( Raymond Mollyneaux ), 1873-1958 ( joint author )
Publisher: Iowa Stae College Press
Place of Publication: Ames, Iowa
Publication Date: 1948
Subject: Junior colleges   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: "Selected bibliography": p. 61-62.
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Statement of Responsibility: by James A. Starrak and Raymond M. Hughes.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098581
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05209656
lccn - 48006593


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    The need for post-high school education
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Current attempts at post-high school education
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Some proposed principles and standards
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Back Cover
        Page 65
        Page 66
Full Text

fr airituri ii


IE?'urtwuo ?1tbra1r3





]ameie c4. Starrak
PI-'r[l.'--sr of Vocational Education
Iowa State College


Prcidyond Em. Io ugw te
Prei-ideim Emeritus, Iowa State College


3 /76-


Copyright, 1918, 1by

I'RINT'ED T ill In'1 I 11 ~ I .II I i,'
.' I1 L I,:." l .. I .


3 1262 08645 475 7



Tii- NFFTD I-,R IPot.),-HIGii i(. iil.-'o EDUC -i.ION . 4

I rl:., i. In .\-i ...1 I .11 Ini., Inlui> il Employment, 4. De-
cilr. in .\- ,I .tn.id nrni Mi.i t.jl i 1 1 i-1. I. 'l ,hi..i -ni College, 7. Inadequacy
i.1 C iiirri ( -iiul '.. ( ii:i ,n: [)i.niinds of Modern Society
loi Ti.n.--i \\,'i 1.. II. Cli.,in::. oiI Ri iiiI Social Organization,
ii II .i:eai. (, iii].l .l M .:.Il,.! n i-.iety, 16. Increase in
l_- uLiIC- I1:. I


Thel juiiin -i Cultlr:, '11 I .:cl nic: il Inlrirt~bri ,s, 34. Junior College
D;'.ion,. .ini ,.i.n ii n, (I:.-., '..:, Extension of the High
s,.ho.:.l .'.i. T -imin.i ,Fl E r.in.)ir i in Ili;.:h School, 39. Area
\'.,ii l.,n.II_ .l _c h,_._. I I"l


Til, Cuiii Lilin. l. (-.,. !.i11, \\ .Ilr aid School Experience,
4-7 C(ii.I.mrn 17. iOin..i. iil, Al Administration, 49.
.~ -.-illiii,. 'I s, 1' 5:. TI. ii l drnt li;,dy, 54. Location, 55.
F[Ir in lr. ,'-. N rrll lr .i il ,l n LitllIll u 11

Sr .I (. D lLi .G 61

I . 63


This bulletin deals \ it .1 arel -ticli nic-\ b it rapidly developing
area or division o-l Fpublic ediicuatioii in these Unit,.d States. There
is, as \t no cmimionl.v accepted iname '.,r this new educational
unit i r institutional (.Gcoi :e D. Stoddard.' president of the Uni-
ersity ,of Illiniinis. Ilas si ir.4ested tie teim lt[leit I.' education, which
seriCs ti, indicate its positioCn ith ieferenc e to I l the two exist-
ing loc'r Indcl,--primari\ "nil seondar\: and 12) the higher,
li1l',v colle.iatie IC\Li's. i tice senior C lle. e and the university.
Time alone il re'cal .\: h-ther t[is term Ie-omnes standard. While
it is dcscripti\c of tel :general area ir hIc ser\cd, it does not
describe well the nature .it. the new iiisntittimon which is taking
loi nm.
.\A present the relati\telv lew instiitutions ihlcli are attempting
to serie lth eldua.tionnl needs in tiis area are most commonly
known as iini-toi coiteccs and i'lteaca,! i,.,ivit.,. but neither of
these terms. ibeiause ofl is icll-establishl Id tisa-4c. indicates ade-
quatel', the nature of the c-,ljietri\es te Ie, ac-hieced by the new
unit. nor tIl. instirutitional prrogam which it should offer.
These programs are better described bi stcih terms as general
CeduIt ioii 'ii.'/rio :f.t'io iatl,. reclnic a. and vocational-technical.
XV11ile this t nc\ unit ndcoulbitedl', constiittes an extension of
our public schoIi.il ssteim, it is noit nle tc blie addedl to either end of
o(ur educational "ladder." Rather it is it- be insrcied or attached
soinmeihere in the icinit', i-l the Ilst ti ., \si.rs iof high school and
hie first tweo \ears *,-f illc.ge. (.S, Fig 1.) In other words, it
represents a lr'.ioiir'nr.il rather hlian a verticall expansion; it is, in
general. post-hilh cl -,iol. Iut not neccssaril or always collegiate.
It is ilintcild it, srC\C thie educational needs of two main
grTOups: 1 1 1o-un11'g men -in i't oien i ho. [1:ir i 'i.ons good reasons,
are unable to attend immediately a standard loti'.ear college, or
e,,e a>e D. St'dd.i. ii. T, rt ,' ,ruin J r ,ii, Cal. i i.i :e. r 1.it : Hlarvard University
P oi.: 1~ l i, 36 pp. I I he In h; li I c: .e. 1.il i

liI, pI'p( [.' c i Ce i iinheIiS %%hid) ~~IicIi e SLDIf'ltcI

aIIo~r I k dli ricnh ckw ib a. -,,i% t- apruth ime tpv 13 -It Ir ion: (2

(It m%'CiAI -iX i( t.L atI u i b% Y.%I 1itcn ri ~ric', l, I% t 1( is ell kll-i%'~Il that

I .. 1 i i. ri 1 ll 11 1 I 1

THIT NIT%% 11,1.()R( CIAIA.I(A.


the ediucnationill needs o'L bcithll esc .,iiIip'c l e not being adc-
qiiatelF\ sele J at p1 esent.
In lihe pages whiih lo:ll:I, thle -attempit i made to deal with
tl1ii ne 'ic:i:nnlel in the dc:llltiiI:al Ille ti\ch i in terms of the educa-
tionail needs to be set \edtl. ithe objectives It lI. achievedd, the current
attemi ptl s bi insllitll ions l :,) se' Le tllese nlicsl aicn the more signifi-
cini l plln iplc. adl piol.,leni' incolild in it establishment and
:lillt i l 'I [ iai i i-,I n

The Need for Post-High School Education

Many factors iha e olinI)ITIneI. dir in-_. recent i C.:ideC'i t, crt. ate
a real and urgent need I oi the ori[ if ediul:a.itiil ins titutil-
described and advocated in thlce p.iage'. T' dim ii''l tlhe'c facoir in
detail is quite blwi,-,! the 'p.ilct limit.ation- .and pilrpos i-ft this
publication, but ii rt rteferenet" i ill I.it miie Ec-,.i le\, ofil tice 10 more
important of them
Due to child lal.-no lai incieasng inletilaniz.ation ol ind.iisl ..
unemployment, anlI o-dli -atises. ite a.ce Ci enltt into hill-tilim
employment ha, Ibeen rising st.ladilv fI*r Ce\eiial ri-c:..lck. The
1930-40 decade alone aJn it i ie hr n I;'-1S tc- II-' I \2ens. In
1923, 11 per cent ,lf o-iir inclislri.ll tiket' i\crie iinder 21: in
1928, 8 per cent .iand in I'937. O-nl \ i pir cent. The sanie geneiial
tendency is slho nI in T.ailie 1.

T.\B.[ It
PERCENTAGES OF 19-. Ei -,-,LL,.i L'i ... Fr.i, it' S,-H..-.I. i. N UL'F-iF I. ', Fn i '2:- '

F'. r,.ta; N .:l E n .Ipl:'.v .J
Year E. -pl:.i. .l in S.l.-:..I :*.- Ir. I I.. .
1920.............. -." I 3
1930 .............. I 2 I1 .'
1937 ............. 4 . .'.i, '. j

W alter C Bells, II ,, 7I .. .., .., T . IE....;,, Xr :r,.:a .ii.,lr..n ,:
Junior Colleges, 1941 i' 2. 1 -':'

In spite of the man'. elClti' t-' redlcte iineiipli-.\mienit during'
the '30's, the trend iepi ted in Taille I comntinuiell until clic ed I,\
the war, with its enlirmn11-ll dcln.iii.d lr \iiinng pci-l< inl Inlith tile
military forces and indiutrc' In Miichl. 19 11. (, oire F. Zo.L.
president of the .-\Amcriiin C(.soiinil I'ln d(iic.ltillcn, st.ited tl.at
"there are now 3 .iii i.c iiii ,,:n.: pci'pl.- Ibietu cin tle .icge;s o( 1li.I Ind
24 %~h, .ire neither ait ~irik ni-,i it sc.l."'I In thc s.amne \car. tle
'\\ i I ir C Eells, i'.., Ii ,,....r .-*,' r. ', .i' i. \ n r .-aii .\ ,:.-
ciation of Junior CoF.: y: I'll I p _;'.1


Fedeial Resene BLoard reporrted th.a American industry was then
producing mole g'oocs%. \iil I 0.Iii.100 fewer employees, than it
had in I1'9.-
Tlhe \wa quickly\ rCe\erse.d the employment situation, but it is
highly pro-bable that .It'cer the abnormal postwar demand for goods
has been satisfied. tlie trend tcoi ard higher ages of entrance to
regulai emiployVIlment ill be resuiiied. In 1940, Eells reported 75
per cent ,of :, el Il.0 educiiaion;ll and lay leaders surveyed were
of e pinion tl i tha3 iin their respective states young people in-
cre.isingl' uill lie ;unabe ti- secure Eull employment before they
.1re 2'l-2l \;.alr lF ;if e.1
The ih\iouis uiand si(:rnitant fal:t is that not only do legal and
other restriln.tions opciat against the employment of young
workers., bIt In C\eri incie.lain proportion of our workers are
einplo.\ed in oc-Iupa.io:,nal. field heree maturity above the high
school .1ie is demi.anded b\ einpl'o:\rs. Long-time trends in this
direction e moremr likely\ to be continued than reversed.
fecaui'e Itf iiipro\td attendance. decrease in retardation, more
flexibilicr~ in cmurr1i.ula, and ,>othi factors, the age of graduation
from high i!i school has beeln lo Iered during the past few decades.
The inl.lijrir~ f.F \.Liiuthi iwho complete high school now are
gra.duratd at 17 and Is years :o ag'e. Those who do not enter
college iae, in n:iirmal times. Laced with the possibility of two
\ears of enforced idleness b:eflore entering upon steady employ-
ment. ThoI:,i ih ', idl to:, enter collegee and are financially able
to do so ;ar usu1aIlly able to, continue their education without
interruptions. Wh'lile the priop. iiion of such youth has increased
sharply in recent \cars, as \et tliese have constituted only a
inritoiii\ o tohe total niinlher of %uitlh of college age.
Duluing the depression period of the '30's thousands of high
s< hlool graduatires I ho \ecie fin.ir:ially unable to go to college
returned tin their highl school seeking more education. In most
cases they fh.Ilnd the schl,,.,Is unpiepared and unable to serve their
During' the s-iaie period as inan\ as five million of our youth,
unablle co find emiplo\enclt '.'r t..i enter educational institutions,
I: "' "'. i.
ltii .. |" "

1Tin i~ "'(''.\ s'ItP (- A iLELLG

were literally waide lin l' .,iiind [he .',inti[ ac-quiling habits ':t
idleness, vagrant,. iiand i ine: and A.ipprx)AinilLV UL-.0w million
more were reachlin' tie .icage of unplin\.Abilit\ each veai. Crime
statistics soon relkl ted tlii deplolii.i ie ,itu nin i: lihe modal a ze
group for incidence ofl tr minal .l.ati ioir dropped tri im a pre-
depression one of 2' \%enia til one o' f I (..I i.. itih ithe lnei r Mi l est
group made up of I 7Tear-olch. Oti rc~,il:ir idit..iiinal agencies
seemed helpless ti -__pe .ith tile itt;i tiii.on. .ima< ;i, :a result tilee
were created vatiinii fhedcrl ci.um iiilll t igci! .i's. ni[tabl\ the
CCC, NYA, and \\ F\. A-\lt tli<' u'ie in 'piiration fur :i tne.
the modal age giiip I'r l in in.l lichal ihr r Es' tc 23 xears. The
latest reports (19 ., I f i the F[lt pla.i it -ig tin l IS \ ars. ith the
second largest grimip n 17 icar,. Tiit latest d'rop is att ibited to
the effect of war oinditiniis.
Under prewar conditions ,,ur _ii.lir ciypluI\lmtnit outlets and
our educational instituti.ins 'comiiined did nut absorb more than
60 per cent of out ,-uith. [This f,.rced upon .iour n.atii:n the most
significant youth problein it Ii.s e\lt laced. The '.ir pi:,\ided
a sh:i -time solution, but it is ib\ l _11HS that nI ithel It nor the
fecdeiil agencies referred toi .ib:e oinstittiie a sojltitli'n that is
desirable, adequate., ocr permanent.
\\ lien -:on-iditi ns become mloe nearly ) normal. \\e shalll pl:,lb.
abl\ be [aced again lth thle choice io oine or m:lIe ol the fiollouing
siluiti:iins: ii) keep N\:iuth at hor: e in I :0i'liparatI.1 e idleness. and
in many cases, po\ retn: IT turn them adil t lend o to ii Uhen isel\ e
and to prey upon soi;ciet: (3, (aie foi inneasing nutiimlers in
relrnm schools and penitentiary ies: i4 a-sNirb tihiiem into an ex-
tensive national con mptilsoi miliitan trainnin. prltogram: 5 i IcSIIur-
rect the piewaui edelal labonedluction \outlh ag.i ciecs or rc .lt
new ones for the samei pinpose: oi 16i prol ide iundei Ii .il i ntriol
and make readily, a -..essiile <- o all Oii ithi :id( .it.e edcnl Iti,11 .11
f .ilitie,'s designed 10 sei\, tlh.i. nect d' for ,i c ice.tii'n -i uidanii .:.
and training.
For in(t:llizient. into inrid pe. ,s. .'nsiti\; to the serinusne:-'
of the yiith proileIm anid t tihe other t diiditi, ii ,f i modilcrn
society, the oriii .lihie .tnion this ailti native is not difficult
1t make. ( Oh%' iusl the last in thIc lint is the ianl onie whith teisfs
anything at .ill prmiini.i in the a f a permaiiinent soltiiin.


Fuither e idc-nce of til n'leed for a new and different r\pt. ,.if
eliic.ti l ins tin instirLi in (1. bei f'iiind in th l hiea. \ student Iinit-
tr;lit' in hii.hl schools. in the 'mill per .enrae oif high school.l
gradluate \\lith enter -mir l I.liher edtc.lrl.,'nal [!stituitolins. and in
tile Iare percenitaes which dri.p -,nt '.If these s institutions befotle
lthey hate completed their especlive (-111 vi,.,la.
Nimn111CeIis statistics are anail.able ,n [his topic. I:,bt ,Inly a
mninimuml -amnple of them taken horn ,offiinal report ol the O)ice
of Eduic.iion. W\'a-shin toni. D. C.. i ill be presented here.
Tihc rat of iit.l-nll ini:mtalitv trom the l4th grade thlouihi to
hiu.h schoolI -4a.-- d1ation tor %-elected prewar ae.lis is shion i in
Table 2 Ihi ill Ic. noied that althl,,:-',.l the school., ha'e inci.lca.ed

L.'LIF. VI' V L ibi (- O rCiF F FFP 1.11I1II PIjPI L E '.r- LL ,-Er I' THE FrITH I-P EiF 1lrt i,. DUi.\ TF r
Fi.. :.',I H i ii,.:,.L I n Ti r" \ Ar Ir ,l," TEr, '

I N .jm .- i ', I 'j i i-r.l rer 1 ',.,) l",J[.*,l:
b..h,:.:-] FIc.-,-I" 1'2 -, 1'"2 *2.. I :- '. 4 I 3- _,

i ',h 1h '" '' i 1 ,, 1 ,l .'
ES.F ,h -i -4- 4 1i
Eichch I' .5 '42
NI I -. I.t ,i..,
Ninrh 2 I2
Ter ar 41 (.24 '.
Ele.enr 4 5e'

e ,a "I l :,I',lt...n l",. [ 1",., J'' I ''d

(ilT : ...I L .l.._.i ,:i.:. in:i...1! .,rri .f '. ...l Ed l.. ; .:,,,, 1'4!-4 2 1 -,n:i n.
I').. C., V .: I. prern i p .1
t F-urith [.2r.ie ii1 11 ,ia .Je ,:iei t h -.I i i.-.ie 1 1- r.i' : 1:.,

[threr hioldin. p~,\ er consiideir:ilabl\ s[nc: the carl\ 'il.2'. Ithe\ .till
rncaduate from hi-"h school i:nl\ 41 perC cent l[ I the niitnlir I ,b l:i
enter the filth giadce of tlIe elementary schol', and sollle'ilelat l ilre
than 50 per ceni of those enteLiin, .-ide nine The pei(icent-fge
1o souith 17 Nears of age iwho t eX e .c radtuated tioin ou 1 pil.,lic aind
private hiuh schools inl ceased liom nn (aerage A. I 2 in 1810-f-11
to ,1.2 in l 41-42'-'. It should bl.e noted that these .1qu:niii ic' .re

Ti- r Nr\, .[i.,lNioi COLL(.EG

a\ernaes indl lil eiiin n1n11\ S( hi, l- [rie peIC [ii:l.es L.lPdut.iting arec
nimu h less hiln l the .al\eiral i; i ni f-r 19141-t'.12
lihe pitei in[trzI 0on the oclthier hind, his l;ietn Steadil deciic-isin ls$ thle hi-ghl scl,-i'
ienrllmcl nt ins- in'rc.ased. In 191. S [hi p:ic ncit.i'.e- i\'-i 51.8, wiliile
in I'J7 iR as inl\ 21'. ()ic [ile [n-i'.lNar peri,'ld between 1931)
and IlU41.), tlis plei:cen.l.te ii n\cred .rcli.iiiil ri to j. Not' minre
than 4 ir r) per cien enliii t pi;s o' p)-st.hii4h slhiu.)l edu.c.uiionrl
ins;itiiii, ns i other than ic lle'-s PIa.il\ l.eca ie ',t I-e.a \ ticldent
mori[.ali during colle., i.i 15 tu. 20 'l. per cent f oturl ouih 1O
college -i4- are enrulled in o>ll.';ees a.nd uni\ersities.
The student ni, r[:ic li., in tliese insriiitiiunl s ul hii;he le t nin1. ,
is sho' n f':i the pie\wa ptriiod in Tab~le :.

F'i i' vE i S ''i. I L .E i i l .'r, ir i _l i'. Ei *ii i f. iF i F r,. "

PIer .eril ae Le, in_
C(.. I!l''e r DPe rir,.; e '-r
Freshman p' ?
Sophomore .. *1.
I Total l ia'. I rl. oll e pr.or to [J.inior o,.r ,0.
Senior 3
T.'-. ,! lei. ing ,' llee i!dring J-\ 4- r p ri':, !

> Ad. jiFp d Ir,:,iT. I .'. '' .'. : I!. :.' \\'.,l.ir.Ltli:.n. C' : -i G io: ,:rnm. rnt
Printrin COlli.e '1- Orfi e co Ed.d B.lIl.. 1'." NI. I I. p. 21.

Instittitiois \ai\ i l4e.ati iln lthI pi lcIILt e 'if t ir i t s4il'nt'
whnc. .rlI-p --Lt bel>l[,iO- "r.ldij ,IIC11 Ill tlh I stildC i I' e' Ii ld tI 0 l. \O,
the nt/ ici al;ilit\ 'i co- lli' i st.r llulentl s tll f e r ite Ci t I h Ilo '211.
to G'-'. peri il nu lihi'r of he',li n in i i i lle .Oi., comiinpletel tile li'.itr-y'c.ir C1il-
ricul.i .and e.i e.'i CI' dei' i'T s.
In ian her siudi[\ inml\ t in 1 tM:i[\-fi'.e ricpre'eniltaLi\ A n1 ic I.an
uniersi-ces anld f, in .\e, l l (e.:s, i[ h\.Is flilnd [Ili i[fi c;\i l 1ii00
students enlc-rin2-. ,inl\ i;ti; ciniple.tei their fiesiiimn.i \Cil : 19!, ile
sopliinlluire \e.'ir, [lie jii in al \e : and i .17, lie -:niii \i-Ir.
iI ihle jLniii (I.1. 'leges ,f [lic n.iiinl -ni\ a.llioi .r r: l tcin t of
lhe Ileshlilen c> l ntinll e ilio [I1 _s plllni i or C1 .ai111. 11 ian .ll .C-
tliinl < 1 j lunlioi Co lle.;e sti.dei s SI|)iit], L-[lti) cnlltc hr 1i 1I ,;dli;. -
[ion.11l insiiutIions. In Califirnili. 1 lim, e jinic, oilles 'ffier (onll


sideirillc \rc:irtionl- lechllnic-rl in rirui lioii. onl\ 1l per cent of tlhe
einrIlleCe 1i1 'i dalliei i in lte n*.rm.al i',-\ .1r ptr1'icd. Thisi is
beca.uNs [li e ,11 11_11|iN\ i see i lu n 1" 11 _loll ir ininal couLI'es
of a: \I.Itia n.ial naInIt e. and elni ll JI iII ll in air*e n11illlji15S lien
thc-\ .are i .idle a\. ilal.le. Althliciih alout 7.l pelr cit of ilie
i1.itiolfl ij nilili t o tllc s Ofiler terilinil -iLIii til- a i _iiN\ .iliiin 314
per cent i to .all ijuniia r colle-e siMidents rii einitllcd in [cei nila l
culrricull:. "h lei' is. fir 7'1 p Cir -entr all : 1 stli;lenll (ie |iii.,i ci l-
le is [i teriin.il 1 i.s i n i ille ti l ha it lea t 411 per ceni ,.f .ill jillitir
college s udeltis lare eni,,llcd ill ciririil3 n'nI i .lcideilned i er\e
their needs.
(O Il i.i.iO i[lni,_ir :i c llege stlticln[s whio 1 weie ai'ked if rilev
planned l C 'lO illitile r.iial lic, ie .ii .( l iill l er .le(-l.ill l ti.a Ii.nl ht*ill
jinii.r rullege. Si)1 pe:r cent i rp.iltei d lI.th t ihc\ pl.iiiellnel 1i C' iiiiie.
15 pc t icei l t'elll Lac<-i in. ;ind i ll, I Iil \ peri cent l (i.l e iiil'l y did nli.e
plan l., (c'j niinlie. .\ !.llc'.i p study .l this s.ainm :7.oup dis.lIe I jed
thl.iui Inl\ '1 per einl iCiin l. Cll i (d enter senior tolell ge .ini d oInl
cl per cent were ;radincil led.
O f c'iir't. niot all i ( .-ll e [l ii t h lis l11: Illuirt. litv cailn be
cl;irged :. :l',_.-it1L i-ll r \11 I illnsittil illns. hili.',iu LI sh ,Inii (IIt I elli
nii.,lit ijsils 1e cc(l tied h.l il their t iiltic t'-, sttli tle pri.,blen a .ind
thtei lack .if i tleres iln lIe i.itlierc t' lth se s~ tildenls t lini thev
There ire d10 tn[Ulitlss i.in\ c.1i',-' to_'r i liWe [ ilIife i ,l sudti ills t o
complete their ciirricuila. In :i In.i' hni in'\e1 ii_.-tinni of lhie
problem. college reco.,rds were so ilurin lm H itni1 ll >in .' 5ll pe-r
cent of the cases no kino" n cause could be diisci.ored -inmial
lor failtire ti nake passing Ildes aiccounied fo,.r fi.*nii I.' I5 37
per cent i the, dnpi-Inai: financial dilliculties. Froni 6i r.o I p-r
cent lack f illier'it, 3 Io '9 pel cell. (Oil er c.ises cc nt e nelle tr
S. Lu s niiall sit li ler p- c ic i *.e* .
\'ohile not all student morality\ is dui to in.ideqnincy of the
t'.pical hi.igh school and college curricula. [lhe percentages attribited
to Itle several Ic Luses in Ihe piecedin,;' paa.n;;il:h st.i'i ig s i'Ie't
hat it mn be [tle must important single factor.

'1 l[. r C. E l.'l I mic.-n ;.n,.. iini..' *r C..llIre SmIleit'" /, ..r C-.1', :,- I I I.i
''It Lcir.1,.r. 1r9il 3-10.

THE NFE\\w l|MiR (.JU -O LI-.F(

T I i trt icndLi-ils ilcl .ease t'ril I il 1-.II shl ,-.I llriollllt lenl and
in rFll- [--,I, ti loIl ol :ur %Ci-1: L t I \ 1o %\-II eC enrIC I -Ollf dtlri]ll, tihe
P.ist f (1[t eltilil\ ifl mill 7 pet t fl -i t[ 17 T-, .a-. 'Ids in I98IO to
It2 i' i, e ll I In 1'i40i I s I eil l e iII I cil i 111\ ij ni .1il ch:1.111ges ill
0t Jp. i tic'es. IILieesis. o t Lt iit l o Inie iIionlls, alili conseiIentiI
edliu,-n.i n l n cds, ,- ili<- tmicdrnit iw-,, \\'liilh: i-I, tc .ittem pts
Il.i\ b c-n in.li,: I\ ,,-,ne I)iCCh l,, 1I,,-,-,% m, Io JC thcir ]:),"->r, ,.o .mi s in
fid,10 t,-, ,.CI tih ll: .,,:, ,-t .1 ilcl thuir .i dc i [hC, i 4.lri 11111 1.1 O Lile
.ilJ Ill ji'-ii i f t-I 11 11 hi'lih chlinl .lit still d 5si n d to setr e die
il _cd- of tli n r- o J..wiinlildei.ll 1 iiind1 d tttldentll. F. hll is sitiillent
tlie 1hi4l s:i. i-I-I is c ll n l i' tile- nlic e'..ti\ teps in his cxiended
pIcpar.itiic-illn f.- cIilt .1l .lnd piofcssi:n)ial c:1'petillnc\ Onl tlhe
lii'iher le tels. 1This tipe of stiid nit wls in the imlorit c our
earl\ hi.4lh schools. but he inol% constIiteL s o:n\ a- i .elati\el sm:tll
i1111110 ir I he t L i lpc l li hl s: ll li p r led L 7 liliC li i i n N r 1It o ilc-
_.L3pt-i1i\ nor 1o ille 1neuds o_ i hii :y i nJ| hugi\ ,-Q itn Ihntcnlls The
reJill i, dino:I nlll;I. ellent .and I1, 1iiji'i ll i-,i I f ir l \I M1"l re forti cd
I t ilin.ll.I l til l O1 1 ; Cii d .-'i ilic dl s iii \ci . li l iinl.i ,I f
.l illl:- ft ,l- tlliis-c i ti-A lw o i-iii t ;3 si,-ill .1s tlic\ .llc illo'i nid [il dli) %)
lii Ic .1 Ji! p.icllliu l ii Cllisilt.
Tlie j i mc l:i1 tl' le. 'ten 11 iO 1.11 ,r exl ent. j% n J tilrtd l '
tli -ri_'i n .l c \ h diop-_ il. in oilrs '; lt -111 i )[I liiilC IIt: nin..
i \' l i CMi l t i ini i cLc F i .l c l l, inl ll l i 1i4 l hi :. ;pc ctJI 11 ii l.1 ;il-
ti.it lt Ii'4 1 ii-.- it 1)1 ;1 l li )i llc ili llitl pnli.io ic.i.l. ; i snd w itli
lil li tll( ,.1111(; I'C'.ll lt.
. dlu' '.o ~c, .i, .1 riil li I.I\ c l cLII ii iil ..n to hl ,.cr ,--r .tdiiisi their
.Jd. 'i.'ll I. l i lti. Iii1 [ Lt ui' ll. ii 1ii i u.l, i d IhI lc A.ls l Inc t \ i sio i nl iln i[ t ii i -il. i i ii ;illd
|:.rl.[1-, iis[ilh. il! s,-. T irhe, hI.itC :ls.- been itClucillt lto offer
e .P.li.ItEC r1 "u..ii,- ofl ) ionll oll [iI." 'hll111d th. i l t- i p i.-'l ills 11i-iild e lld ti, 0l 'L" [lie1
q i1.i!it -Ifl [btl'ir i .(iIl.r liii .-le:r de', 1e pio'iNn1 is. I..oii-t 1 ill
t hle field -f 1 eni in ell- ilg Ldii( Jtill li. \ ic ll "ic \ ill N. .s liill tildv
I.> ithe pio lil ,t "',c il l -i-i ,il.l l :l i i1l-01 ilit .1c ti.iiiinl4 (r,
se-\e :-il stairs. \'lI L ie _-.nlli.ll ii he : 1e-;1I nlled f- til ,s [tvpu l
edil :iiiOil. [l-1 l:i\ de-, Iiie d o10 :i -lepi It w the ie _sp,-il i li lt) ,
ile ie'.il:f t e ll Iinit, I ill it l l -.l
\\ Rliievele 11i.11 he il 1e mle-rit of lill o Isi l. i t k is t ile [ 1. i lie


easier alterimiatioe ti 1.einfl up nondciiee ciii- itla. and the one
Imosi i.Itcmiil niIonl adopted. has been to "'drop" thoe students who
weie unable or unwillin _,0 meet pievaitlng ,i.,d.nds.
This has been just .as I ie o't tle lil)bii:l .0rs o-llees because of
tie academic character .of their culiiiiiula. No~~ long ago the
IeCsonses ot 1.91.i7 educational arid lai lea-dii, wic obtained in
response to the question. "Do ,oit think tli.ir e _...urse of study
in tile average uni'eisitx or liberal iars college adequatelyy fits the
nei i l. t ( tlIdentll \t l-,ho will l i-snd on t\ :' \ rs in college?"
Fiht; -li\e per cent ieplicil. "No": 10 per cent "t'Vs"; while the
rell ll.iiniii l pci i I1 I '.Cie tilldecidel.
Tlie fihi!ie i iiI ,'iir higher edl::iiiatio inal.ltlitions to serve the
edi-.uiai.nal n.ed -f -ill \ %.,iuli li- kno,:k at tleil doors should
no,.t le irega-rded .:s ia wholesale indictienL ol theIn. The point
we %ilsh to inmke is niit lthat the present iour-\ea colleges and
unixersties slii:ou l adlis_ iheir stani l:iIl.N an' I cid 'rricula to the
need'ti ol all '.llOiii tri, fIind it n1ce1'nii\ It: drop because of low
schlii 'la iip. luiii rti er that lthe ciierrnt ciirr ii :til:ia -f these institu-
tiion, .tr i.C I deii'inelld (i., .\%e thlI edu ci.ii.inl needs and interests
rof tils lirge i iup ol \oiinag pc,-plc: The .awin i..an be said of the
i\pu.al junii.iir colle.;. Elt.m 1i.h pcirhl ps witli less justification since
a larger prI.,p..ir[I.,ni oif [tie Irtter haxe attempted cuilicular adjust-
ments i tihe desired directions, as will hb: il-si rihed later. The
point e ale natte mptin r l:, IIl:ike iN di: ll soine pro\ iion should be
made Lo sel\e iliat l:igt. ptl-P-imltlcn o:If :,'ur \nurtil whose educa-
[ionlli needs. Hoi 'tr-iils eltinN,. ac it 110[ i % being'i served by our
edthlcalio. al system. If. rt d(1 tillnl :iequi.ltl\. a radical revision of
soIlle '- tlie C\i rin l dix s loI.ns (ii .Ailr edticA:liin_ system, or the
creai3lon ,of a 11e' [\p-e c.1 institio;n. is irc. lled, [len we should
pro, ced imillcdliel \i tlo ke iake iie elssn\ ii e MliiOlS' or to create
s .i li I l tricliit .itll .

Clhnging. co,(nditions and tecIinocilogaical ad\ianles in the fields
of piodn iit-t-in .and welice hale increased slI:aply ihe need for sub-
priofeNsioin.Il and tec'linical wikers. Between tile learned profes-
,ioiis at tlhe top and thie nontechnical tiades aind services at the
botmoni, there lies a la .ge aind apiill\ incieasing nimnbri oAt oc,.i- /

pations which call for a hi; dlcigrci i.t inr.lligence. some s. iuttic.
understanding and judgment. an.l, in si.,er c.aes. a co-nsidcr:iblc
amount of manipulative skill. Till, miiildd li ..ip ,o Ltecillnii, .11i ind
subprofessional occupati,,ns is Lt ob htimni in ;a'ric:ultiii:il. indus-
trial, governmental, social. -,r ist .Iind ,ili.inis fields.
There has occurred a ,iiar.ckd ,tratifu.tiin iin the sei uc pin.
fessions due to their exp Insii .ind thi . e, ca.Il;':i'oun oft f[unc(t rio,
within each. Medicine is ,a ..Id illu,:r Iti..n, lo,-r thie irt of hu.jling
is now a realm of stratfihud pi.,if:c ,ns ll :,. ': :,:il)tionis .iimii.l~.
physicians, surgeons, psyi hl i iitr. o.,pt.-'ie n l is'- n s11111 lit Uo
technicians, all requiring diff.ic.-int r rpes a.n.l :-ointl .o [1~ini111iig.
One does not graduate fromii i .iiie tile otlir of' tlih(i- 'tr:L-i,. liut
rather selects one of them. pielpar.s ldeliniiill'. i-i ir. .id piir tic(es
it more or less exclusively and ipei iainentl\.
Industry likewise has mulltiphid IlI [,. i( niiital fuinctio.ns ol
engineering, and many :,f l se lin, I ,,i :. ti bpro lessionil in
character. They are to i' filioul iln ,an.h rieas i:, po:idu ition ;Ic
supervision, inspection, ti.-,i iUmil prI,_du ition dllallin,. plant
operation, and mainten.aml e. SiilS.c[ssllil peti [i lMilanie o i lesc
functions does not require a f 'ur-.car derice in en gineel ing. bul
it does require specialized t1ichnill; instru'tLion '-i trainin g hI-c'i-ndl
the high school level.
At the present time beci:-use i the la k -I psl icsos si tr.iincd.
college graduates are beinii ecil)lo,\cd to iell n pci m h I.ui irk. in
40 per cent of the 117 indu:strial plian I icd ili a 9l;--1-1
study.6 In more than tv.o-lthllds in thle ipl.ii t. ,lhI jol, c', ildl
be filled acceptably by pelions i' iil i ppp( i'i re \i.n. uiincil-
technical training of less than ci.llcgc.-h.;lce 1 r:cdec. The s-ine
investigation revealed that. foi iidutri\ a- a li...l. an a11le. -e oi
5.3 technicians, with less tiIniii i--llc.ie degr-.c pnirparation1 wcre
required for each college-tain.ci eniin.-i.i
In a prior investigatio-n IConlii ti-d in l19l."1 tile nanaiei s o't
manufacturing industries cm rlll..-ii rl ti dCsi:i.al.l quota ol their
employees having two yea.s r tr.4 cr in.i ab. lc tile sec':ondlldv le el
at from 6.0 to 8.3 per cent if their. toral r..irk in. lor.:es. Moieo\ei.

U. S. Office of Education, I'r.,. .r... T.i . i ',. ,' T iU ,~l ,I i 1 r,, .,,,/ I i'. ..,,..
'.., I, ,. i., i ,1 Education Divi-.... 1 .11 pill '
S.I St,. .,r Technical lustin,,, lire _..j -i I.. r Ithe rili.i ritn *.If Fr 2iii:.'i ;ir
.Ih. .:.n r:l I'l1 p. 7.

THE Ni.,'.% I umuvR C-L-1.1 I (


it % a- estimated that thie de ranl lb.r Liih persuminel at that time
was not mlte than once-fiilieth supplied.
In a more recent intestir;1ati,,ion made in 194 1. the'same mana-
gers esimIated tiie desital.,le quotnia ot f empl-O\ees witli two years of
\'V(ationalie cal ttainn; alehnicnl e I heri Iligh .; iool level to be
appr.- iniat el 's pe Cienit I:i1 Ilile tli'r l p iliat r.athr radical changes I,:icl taken place- ini iinlustrial technology
since 191I. It I'ilil appi:-iI that hliile tlihe number of manual
w,'rkers per nit i l"f prdi Ltiotn in tihe mi nufim. -turing industries
has deci .ased mar. k Leril\. iliere hai Ib-een a ioireponding increase
in the n1 ni l>:it of o 1l nitt ii -,kaI ic> t, iie!.
F- 'n as long a:t as 19 I'-'uS tni treniid i ai niceitable. In a survey
made b\ the Si t .ci-_i\ [t'-r lthe Pi:,omoin in cf Engineering Education,
nmanufil:icturers rip.'[ertie tihat 1I per i.emn of rheir supervisory and
tec hn ial stalIs sli,:ild be 'g;adit i res o01 st ndard ifour-year colleges;
that 41i pet cent should haIe \tw:' \ears of technical training of a
nondeigee clarat-tel: and, lfirtlicr. that in nIormal times industry
could ahsotl 411.011i0i t) 1.).il..I. i graduiates o-f two-year terminal
tcuises pelr -eal r.
\\. E. \\'icleiitdl i. chairinan ''- the c<-imrnittee making the
surIes. det'rilted thle sii.i:iioiin tiltis: "Real engineers are sur-,
rouInded b\ li,:sis ,f dintsme'n. detail di._iiir-,-. specification edi-
t,_urs, inspe':i ,rs. I-_s(>Trs. itlsitilll 1ni1 mIen. sales representatives,
contictoris. ocfie nt innaers. and operaiin r superintendents, and
nobocd kno-ws wliere the proAession begins or ends.''8
The general :tiaia:-teristic:s of the o' ccuptini:,s we have refer-
ence to: c ar1e ell ldes--ribed in thle tollo- in.; definition:9
"A\ Techni al Oiitpation is a nationon requiring skillful
appli,-.crtit n :i Ii.a ith degre ,-of speci. listed knowledge together
with a bIro.i indeIsirs indi of peiatioiial pro-cedures; involving
rlie requent- applic.alioin personal jI iu4ii,:nt: usually dealing
nitlt a 1 vieiv i'l situations: and oc:n li requiring supervision of the
work ..f others. It offer I the 'opp.riminit [r tri li, i'orker to develop
an e er-inc easing, person'il cn l _nirol m:r thl: application of his
kn il-led-Ie to his .work -nd tsiia:ll\ reqil ',es i:ewer motor skills
: ..,,r It trI i P ,.ni'i -l.tin ri Fn.,ir.ein. E i,,.,ii. -n I'.p ort of the Investiga-

I' nh'i lli C P,w n 'ri ,.I .-1, T .'l, ;'. .1 (i,''. t'.l.'. r ." .i. l, 71. ', i, y."r1
i M I',.ii stajw Fint,,.,6, D'. art.m m 1 ilh.', ,1 lrniie, i e'-t\ iinln, 1, p. 1.

Til~. NL 11 L'.N1' 1, C:OLLEGC.E

lhin a trade ,n skilled occupation and less generaliedl kno'wlled- ge
than a pillession."
While the data. and their edllicatic'nal impli(cationls. pie eited
abo e .ieedclir n chieRl\ [Rin,1ii indcisti-l 01 manulat tc in i. ;inl
setn ice occip.ationls tlie grici'l n sitimatic1n t1he depict exist, iln lthci
oc (Ip.tion.il fields. .AWl '-rti ltiire, I.,r insrt.ince, has b'enc.ile ", coum.
plex and its o'peraiti'.ns so.i teclhnical ili.t to siicceed in it ldeninds
lthe intellii.eni appli.cantion ol : grea \ lietv oi e:on cnl. :and scient flh known ledle.
In a recent in\esrigati.ion in iiwhich tle I djud.~entl of 2-13 eini-
nenitlv t i'ce-sslil I loa' 'rinei't ,ere l'ain.. 30 per cent placed
the a 1io'iiinlt of [01 nrl l ( 11c.'iition needIld l, thle f.i miners ..t, Ioa
|ollI it n, \1 e.n1 lhe-'indl thie hilih schliool. The ienmnininz 50(
per cent l~iFe alIomi eqtralls divided betxweeIn '. ~c.adn ti:'n ilti-m
lhii h sclh..'l and -,.idr.mti. 'n a i.rm : [.,li *',ica co:le.e.' It xW- also
a.pprent from tieir responses to othei questions that tlie txpii al
[llfl.le cal : Ilege ,lc91ce0c ci iijltlim lln in rlc]ilr ce do l not (riii-
stiLute tile imost a.pplopriate training. needed.
For a.l of nir iiaj]r occuiipatio:'n: Ihfield oninhined it hNma, lieen
estimated that tliere are fi e posiLion'i rt-iii-ing two ,e:ars -F pst-
lir.hi ch'lii:il t.iining tfr. r e :ach one rel iiirini g hiIn \e.n 1 i f st- nda.ird
co lle.;e i o k.
Rel'ire leat'in'2 thlis topic ir slu",iill lie p imtedl out t,.it the
to e:ar, of prep r.it;on. iisinlls inliit:ued .is desirable for the
t\pe, ,'' .f iripitions licte-l ali',e. A. n'-t coincide either in ob.
iectite 01. cntenti iithl t e hr'l ti \ei ar' of a regilimar f'ouii *\e r
college c: irriciilin. Students \I',. drli-.p ouit o c''lle.ge at the end
,f the fi t u'., Neir A the ulrs t'. tle ee :lrii icula in their ie-
',pe-ti cr C-u_. ipa ti,.,nal fields. as so i.n\ dc.... recenie neither the
.i1111 lnt n110' tie cOiltel t l tIe l.'iinin :ai[pp ipiliate l'i thcee
technical and sll-oi-,lesionil ,occmlpations.
ril \'F.r' 1 RIiR %. 'OAtCI.lL 'OR<,.\"iA' .\ 1 \
( .em tL.iml i o mi ulii. and s' i I.l fi.nces. opeiatin. 1 ithili incie.'simi-
fcctC sinic thie le1innin.i ,I tilis ceniiiii ha e pi rdi.iced profound
Lini.-les i ln t e Csi lo.. i!l ,orri niznti',n o inial .\mierit:i. In
pioneer da.l\s tlie rat.lier simple phliricril., conlimeicial. and ieciei-
1' i \ MIl, l, l. ( w l 1. 1 ',' i l (-rl l, ..c ,d ,.,'1.. ** r l. .% 1 -t .l C' .- Io . 1
/'. .... , \ n ,_ .-, \. r t ,l > q ,.- h ,1 1 ;It l l,: ',.ll-,.,, 19 1._,, P.Il ]I 'I

NFrII rFi P, -l-i. II.tll (-HOOL EDUCATION

ti. ial li\ itics.. i: d nees.l ., il I. ple e were provided by the small
ppipuIlati On clte ll wilih spi l% l n: up11 along the railroads and water-
w.\' .. allll at the inIelrsection, o'[ important overland trails. These
c-iMcs also supplies the iel.tI\cel\ tew goods and services which
Ictl pio-llccl 1'at m I milics c-.-luic nr.t supply for themselves on their
,own f:i iins.
In ic-int '.i i tthie mechani.ation and commercialization of
a- 21. Illtill,. tlc >l\-c lr'-pinel n lt rapid transportation facilities, the
inmcl li .i' In lcpcundlic-lic .4 ii n ll iner upon wider domestic and
fi'ii..ign iii,-rkr.ts. a nd theliir icaltcd factors, have increased enor-
n11 1..- i 1 i1, nliiil.l i .ind \ .' icE *it c-,.ids and services which farmers
ntcid .iani .t1 nw' dc.u.n in-. Onl~ the most strategically located
io tilie e.rl .ir .tirlh. nnts i ce Ii i '. I cing called upon to supply these
',-,Ids .nd n sc, i'c-s. I ne '1.ait ni.ia juI ity have lost, or are gradually
failin-g ti hI,.ld. tlih k,. p 'siticns tliey once occupied in the eco-
no:,mic and s-,i:il life If rm l -i -pplc. The general result has been
tli-eir '.;iduall dcca,. Tlice e -senm ti, be good reasons for believing
th1. exc-Cpt in ei \ exceptlionil cases this decay will be permanent.
P,'irminenl :,inl' n._; thli stcl-i.ies demanded of these smaller
p-,ipulatir-nl celntteis wa.is educati':in. especially of the secondary
lcil Tihe c*.nc- r,'.-im cleimntar. school could not satisfy this
dcim.-iind -in -(, i.Ln. \ edi,.litiiin. and after a few early and rather
iiltilictr i .it t,-inpis t,. cLta lilisli their own high schools in the
iplln c nt r,11 friiEicrs I<_. .,cii r, jiiin with town people to form
*cn:.'i'.ltd.id thn lii distri.ti .Inld maintain high schools, or to
.ntr:in- : \wit[ l i'i..i Iliih ,i ....ll l .liistricts to have their children
attend hii.-li schi.l' I ,n a tI iti,_ni basis. These high schools were
usti.llv 1:icated in tic ill.ces aind towns which served many of
the other needs :,l arm p-:,eple.
\ li'ce ipr:'l:O *p:uLi n i:'t tl'c:cse A illages and towns were adversely
alTecitd I: v cI hanl1i1n.; c-l.ln''miic nMlc social conditions and have
gradually\ aulmiullr IlIt: i.l c -tI dri-.-idence described above. The
hilgh s,:Ihoi:ii l:aled.i ll in t Iese sm.iller centers were never very
elliciunm insli iiii'ons. :IIn..[ t1hi I .a become comparatively less so
in ict-eilt Vntls. In tli c- ..-a \ Ila' they did serve to prepare for
,cole-c-; : s.ill pi opo-ll iin if Ili rtial youth, and that was about
all il:ri \.ci, dLtiii.nlcld -4 hIlinli Tlic great increase in the propor-
tionl 1 -nir V\.o 'i vl-i- at.it.lndt Idi'.li school has created demands

upon the presen-t liv hli lhi school [LoI a \arints f eduiicatiion:'l
services which the Sinlier hi.h schools art Suiiitie inf.apa Ilte ,of
While a large proporti.:n o ouitr min-ller pipiil-atiCon centers
were deteriorating. Others %er expand lding nior ,on\11 in p7.,pulatiion
but also in their: abtliti\ to stppl\ t[lie idei.ndi i.f [l arlliers for :ian
increasing i number and i n iits ,if needed *.,.',_ods ,nd sen ices.
They thus belcime en tc t' (If lari'er trade areas i iln:l aie kn.:mun
to sociologists as "'-I -nl .itltt!niii'n'n.'s. Thiev al'.. haxi\e become
centers of education fi-r thi- M inrt iuc ingudii. rur.a I .arc. especialis [-,I
education on high schl,)il leels.
But the factor [ teIprnl 1-3ible I.ir the i.hanges in ul tal c (-OlllLlllni[
reni.r aniti ri,.,n t .iutli o e..l abl .iL e are still witih us. and their _.-n-
tinued i.ipeiatii n is trlin',intg i.npidl\ into existence e a tliid and
nlarer type :,t sciiologii:il tnit. l:tr ', hi, no 'Citalll e tel it ihas \et
been found. It is a tmulti-corin1uniti areIa with a .rtiipar.iti\el
laige t OlnM as its in .ctlets. :an l I c< pa:, le o-, t-f ..lf rin.r el \ i .e i hii.h
the nelighb-.ii Ilcr.dl :in al local coulmnllllitL\ entelli I .i sli pply. It
least ~tithi tIe I sami e ile.r,-,- of in-u \1 and I aclet~ ia \'While these
larger community\ c'entel tend *I t itsiniidle \'.itlh the- i.inntl \ se.i t
towns, in many cases tle latter :I e 1tc sc a.ill t i Inl -et i lie demand'll
made upon them. nth tile Si-suli that l.i .'i Ii ilnS ill ndclicent
counties may bei:o-,e the ,oi iolnci.al a.nclters o-f I.t:gecr muntlti
community area,. einill.i.tin. tin., .11 mire idij:cent ciunlties.
The great number .indl col!plexit\ o[f itlUretli et Cillfon i. sli. i:l.
and political sitl atiion- anI prl-,leits lih it i .i..ira teriac e -utr
modern society i tk:-Ie extlaoirtlin .til\ ieaNh demands pon tilhe
intelligence, un. icli ta:ti i il.;. .and i h i i t ir i ,ll -i (.itizelcns
Probably at no other time h.txe ,- mai\i pe,'ple needed to know
and understand so 111n Ii abomit -,o iian1 thingll .I, at present, ill
order to safeguard tic- cit l .ite i ,il I n l. i \ anf l d to preveni tihe
worldwide collapse c-f it ir C\ i ii/at ion. (C:.liefil sttidetnts ol morudern
life all seem sericoul I c.i -nci cid .ii.rillt the dc:-n.cgis which threaten
human freedom in rite cear .ii- tlnedi-tele ahead. Tlie reatnI
with dismay the li. edtic:ati.in.11 statIs ol adults in the LUnited
States revealed in the 194I0 eiistis. The t pical .\merican citizen.

T I I i N I 1,% -1 U,\ I,-)R COL LEGE


'2' sears '.IlI :indl m\c. Is, tle e-quivalent of slightly more than
eight veai s i.t sl h.,line': ni,. in .a\ i epesetative sampling of 100
persons. I pcs .nslIl II' Ie e( i r .i tended .-in school, 10 have had four
ears I- r le I-i c t elementary sih.i.il c'pei iecm-e; 46 have had from five
Lo ti.lit t.r11 :~i.0 ihax. i.d Il in ,I in. mrc c.irs of high school educa-
tionii. while tile rncinaiinl' l Ia l : .itrtndiled college from one to
F''ll" ', ai s.
This is tile cilit.i it .dul.li.iin.il status of the nation which is
re.ard, de i as tlic :it.d.l ofi dcil,,..ir :.', [In a world in which the
edtiucation l. le l i.if nis,,t ,l ii ints ii s .is iIn considerably lower. No
salne pSerr.l c.ln :iIrItle triat 1-1.o cLiii nt di.iniestic and international
pt':illelns a rc ;,. s. simple tihat rli\ Ican le solved satisfactorily by
persons ,.itli an ici h.111'ladec edtIcation. Moreover, there is no
likclihm.iIl ''I a smiddlen, ietiii I, tilhe simple life of our grand-
parenti. licen linme h IC.* i(leucalii)-n wa\.s required of people who
\allted tII IKc lrilt ,ii ', lll.l sir s.
01, iullllI, .a Ihnc-ei pei i'-d >if ftill-rilnc educationn for our future
\otcis than is a .iil.ilic tIi rli. inl~.iijrt of them today, and the )
cin. iniI il, p:irt-timi ediliicatiii 'if adultss are clearly indicated.
Ncitli i the L\pi:.il Inl i'4hi Mi.il nii juniir college is today giving
the kind anil all in 111t of t(.diatiinial seniice required by citizens
of the r,-rild -if tod.l: .imld tomi tiiru. The majority of our adult
,iters 1 mi it quite sl'n heccilrnc \%Cell inli-rIned on a great variety
of comriplex pruihlcrnis. \\hiie i small piioportion of them may
acihitIe this intelli.tII nce h\ In .lependcni study, the great majority
need s\ster atic iniiucti' 'n i:'esi relai'. ely long periods. This
implies a lar.e expansion ,in-, oiiatnitcd faiil ties for adult education.
The triren tm,, ard .1 sim- ter .,Lri kin.l day for a steadily increas-
ing pipo-rnin ,- ou'ir pr.ipulil ationl wiicli has accompanied the
nmlc h.lai.'ati'on ..If indtistri\ dm in'lig lie past few decades, will un-
dt ilit;dl\ ,:.intinue. Because tihe cli.racter of our leisure time
a;.tri ities affects so p :ol':unlld tIli qua.ilit\ and fullness of our lives,
ite t.e\ elupmlien lt l Al \a lll I-le leisiliie nnie interests and abilities
.has hit,:i.'me ri-cc gnllzed as an imp.:rtnii oi:bjective of education.
There is ample et ihlenie thi.t mni i l\ Ii [IC. leisure time activities of
a laii-t pru'Pp..'Ati: n f theili .\nmeliall pc''-ple do not contribute to

T IF Ni\ t | 1)RK C(:LLLGL

sane and wholesome li in, 1 l)Denite impiro:,enien is ol\ :ou l\\
called for in this aspiot -\i .\meiii an life.
Facilities for instrlctio:n and pal. [icipanin in lei iu e lime edu-
cation which are no% pi:\n idld tii, sin-,i (i tintl in up-itoclate ele-
mentary and high sc(ll,-ril neeid ialo t lie made available during;
post-high school yeai Thi, i, tile pel i,'d \ Iln 10i iit has pe h ap
the greatest need for ippi-ii [unities -nd .i,.n,1 i.e in the p,-rper Ili(
of their leisure hours Ii ik is th lie pci ii.,d icwhen. ilntelc pirem-ni
circumstances, practi:ill\ nI'- ii.'aniied iand iiprl:peirlv sllpIlnied
recreational activities .f an htee nl-nl.nilm1llecial ied -li haratic nai3
provided for them. CQ.liie :ob i-'usli. a 4get e painsin o-f I( Ii
facilities is urgently rleqired.
Such then is a brief descriptionI of the genelal sill.riianl lii.hl
must be faced by th.llne h\l> admiinistci anil ilitct I u rl pllilic
educational system. It appeal. inpnlp-isihli to- Ilo-,d.e til, reupo, nsi-
bility or shift it to lthei iinstitioiinl a..nf ie T' anin e.er-
increasing extent duriil, tile pait f,\ Ilei .'I.ic. [lie re-poi.nsibilii\
for certain phases of lhe c(dii- nation 'fl \oI .irt. x\ Iiich \\ere I onrmerl
the function of other n._'iciiei. has been plni-cd tup'on the public
When the public. h.i' hali.ie failed toir disc-haIge these e-
sponsibilities, the federal g.'-ternmenrt hai entered the held ot
public education with its '-i-n speiallv created agencies. ni-'tabl\
the CCC, the NYA, and the \\'P.\ oi recent mieinoi\. In a \er\
real sense we can see here the be;inniin; s o: a federal s\sterm f,[
public education to siupp:lement and. perhlips in lime. supplant
our state systems. While ithe iiw has res Ilted in lthe al andr:nment
of these federal work-eclu-at inn a.en- ies I-ri \:oIut[. tilc.ie i' oil,
reason to believe that. shlil:l certain ec-n-nlii an11 s-,c-ial ciiodi-
tions of the '30's recturi. and the pliulic s lii, priic lnwillin.l iri
unable to meet the rce'iitant elu'ca-tii-onal Ineed f I-,L \NI-rlil. [ilC
federal government -'iiuhl i iime a.:iain <-reate ani pci.r.atc it; nn
Whether this trienil tir pla.i e addelId respP-'n 1i ilitie upon tlhe
public schools is desirable ,o juirifiable imn\ he debatable. hi n I-
debate it is not our piirp.-ie at present. The fact remains tlint
society is looking to its public educationinal s\steinm t prepare its
citizens for successful partic ip.ati 'n in elliient. intelligent. dcemin.

1\LLL' IOR I)'.O -HIGII Cli,'L EL) \ 1II\ 19

cr.iri li\ in.. It is : ll.dl \ lc.r char. it cducar Iln is rj lie successful
in dikL h.i.Ign.n rhi rcsp'"nsil il ltii. I niig r pri. d i( 1 normal syste-
m.'ric cdU. daiL-,n. iWvi 1l 1I,-I e.l IN % in; 11 i i i r il.ir Affi ings designed
rt A crL. tIlhe occuip:mlonal. social. and ictlre:mll-In.l niids of modern
lift.. .'ill Iw r-eqirtied. Hnce llte current irendl i. extend the
prnl I if s'c,-,ndarv education andii ,: emi I ilic i curriculum in
tlis ic it.il as. pe'ts 'A t :our Il es I i :l. i''uI ilIh:t tIh educational
inrirutiins in exisienI:c i.,:dc %\. ellect.i' c as iman\ 'i liem are, are
no i Hin'. .iilhiuiia eli\ ine e,:lucl:itioin.l rn eeis to hilt majority of
,uii pc,,pl.

currentt Attempts at Post-High School Education

Attempts w, nm-ct tihe needs f uiuI pe:iopIle tu post-hi igh school
education, gu,\ in.g .nit t ihe iCi=iit riil outlined in the precedin.l2
section, have ;gicn rise i, secrI.l diritelent t\l ps -it edliuationlal
institutions. Solie ut these ha\e been designed to se e one kind
of educational need., and s9miile. anl. other, and onl\ a \cI' small
percentage :A thIem. ii ann. slhlold bel- regarded as senig ade-
quately the educational needs ol all .voutil and adult in thier
respective sen ice areas.
The purp.-.ieN ol thiN o luiine demand tlia at leart hriel dtestrip-
tians be given rd I i l. lll,, ring.: I i the lunior _olleg.e. 2i ithe
tci hni i.i in itLlitie: :, 1 thi jilnio-l college4: ili\ isions 'A- olhk.t.I s and
universities; 4 til L I.;ih and I 4th hi'41 sc-hool _gi.ileN. t til:
industrial hIih school: and ,i61 area ocatiinal Nc hoolN.
The termr "jilnicr <.illcI." is a ramhlr general one con:inioiil
and rather ,lounh\ i][p)loed c des.4In.ite a oariet oft educational
institutions offei rin 4 iisi.ll\ \ea s ut colle',giate instrlictiiiln
beyond the Ili h sciho', In :iddi':l 10 thie nel Iv cre'ed retIl'ir
junior colleges. there are included in this c.aite'go\ i I public hlilI
schools that ha\e aidle Il junior college divisions. i21 established
preparatory schools ,liui ha' e expanded their ofterinys into the
college level. I.: small tl 'ursenar ci'leeg l;es lnch have dropped
their senior i.,llegc ik 1to cilnenlltiate on the first t\o \enis ol
college work. -l hran.li jinical i.olle';eq iponsored h\ universities.
(5) emerge:lc and Ir'clinl.l jiinici colleges which have ri'eentl\
been organized. ani .a Itw ,tlhi.i t\ pes.
W while alreal pi(lt\ I(.11 et.i-liih Ni(d .as a pal (t o 0111 educa-
tional system. thi: jllnii ciolege mI'llemenl ic \et iln a state ol Iiix.
luniirIl ille.'geN are ill ti e pi .ocet oN l dc isco\ ei in; their ti tie puril:'i ses
ill1n rliir i iItl l place in l tie s leille ol Aml eliic nll edllcatiin.
I i I

Tlhiekliae, ricon;idi -rl blE. aiii.t-iin .\ist i.betwr een them II -I le-
111 s. cI ri icII.1, eni olllllicim's .. III .l I..Id inistri m m llc I1.-..ii -s. I ".-i
i cli the ii saill ie ca in. I l l .i ii il .t.- li, ini' i m1. l i.ll n and st a is-
TiN 'n tlile junii.r i.i'i l l .l i. lu11 11i lti.ni .lre dcifi litI lllO u lil. n And 111C
'.io '11 OLI :1 Mccl.
,ii l-\'h TH OiF Ji l Ili C ll.f l Ei.
T he 'lioitil :it [.l, ti I imni,'r i.,-ilc-c1 i 'l li ti t Iri i i t il t rnited
St-at,-,, !iIs bIee i ntilI r sl[T- [..1,-, il.,1. I' ii- i.;illv Ill -A such r tli i It-u.
ioni- n rs 111 i1lbe ii -.. o,: er e I ..1.10 h.1 e bcen e.l sl:l Iied ilno- tile
:L. inni II 1 4, IIle Ceil.lll\. C.oi:r csp.- ldilln',; ill:ief e Ii.- I 11< III .l
in nim1.1l lenint' IIi nI( in e 1 iul belr :[ CLiLii : la li C, i-t, l.
T.able 1 h ,i . LIoiIns :ifild th1c d..i leN [lu r OCe i IlillZ.

D ';1 L. -:-F OC PEN' IN-: *'F i.,r1i.:.R C .:iil F.: IT F, '[r T TL.

i.,:.-;. T.o'tal PI.il' F i'- l.

B'ifc 1 "1 *' uii
TI 'E I. 1 I P h

' ' 1 1 4 '1 '
I 1.: -
I 31 ,, I I I .
!"' i ,,i .l4 I1J : 4' 4 -.
I- I,., I. '"-" '.,: 4,4- --1
r tli..IJ :.;,i. '.- }, 2 _' 1':'

c R C( ritloh, 7.'.,... :.,','.
I' 4 p. 14.

S/.,'. .. l ULrbjnar.

III.: U ni er. it, .,I Illir...i Pr

Thl lnu ch in .i -niolli.i.nit II.- ali s beein nre iialikiblc. as is
Theii n in .a i ble 0'.
lihe .appearai.'i.ne special stuidcint' ini 1935 c('liiinid.'s \\ii\ [ii. in-
ict. i ll .i.Cln ':ite i: l 111 IdLIO'l (in i o[ \ic.li .ilini !-e.i lii ll. ill'tr i .tiinl
in jt lnlol i:olle'e1 .
The ihilTeieni staicts \.i\ ,zicattll in thle nuiml.0ir of junior
col legeI ithlin lthiir Irid hrs. liom two e.,li in A\liz in.i. New'
c\ic>:,. .nid f )i-ryn to si\t .l,-i.ir inll C lil:'i nii.
TIne niinil..-r o| j.ilclilc \ tnil pi ai el\ conii ll d i iinl ,i i ii|-
lhc'e. in ca:h s.it. : in 11-14. ail _n with thlin.ir tcrtal (nll-c1ilni;nt' iII
pli.%c.i.l- cd in T.ilje i;.



I U~.LE.
,.. .ri C j t :. I, , L_ Iri 'r t >Tr :, l*2 T- 15.'

Ye ii N,. I...

1928. 4
1929. 4
1930. 42

1931. 4.
1932. 4,
1933. rI
1934 . .1
1935. 5

1937. 2
1938. .

1941.. ..n1
1942. ,..-
1943. ,.4
1944. ;,
1945. -.

'. R i rifT. 7.'.
1945) p,. 11.

E nr... I ,: rt 5lu.J_ rT

.41 1 '4r- ':'
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1.1. I

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L n -r i .I IIIr..-.i ; -re.


nl 1, illl l[ir \.11 '.IL.i tl' I fi l n i l k. r li .-e In 1 --14 ta.,
had full-ir l t'.nrllll'llii r lnt' olr f l' is h.in "I I, I h d l. trli;in I111
and I.'i.' .h d I~s thl n .'ill stu cnts ( )I1 t[li oilicr end ci1 '[If sFi' cle.
there -a .31 i ith t\eir 0001 and 15 ilth ili 1,0010.
'Ihe st tes also \;- 1 i;il\ ,rleatl l l e1 -mid c1 tlhe Opiporit in (._1
their rIesp :ti\e populatio- n' zil'ilid in juni.:in C'I : lle F iu e '2
presents- thie nui il-er io'[ stILdenI s n tlled per 10.00l 0 p(ipl:ltii-n.
Calilo n i le.i'k a'?in i it llh I i ittlenti' emiolled Ipe I r l z .i.11 popu-
lation [,llcnci.Il I \ I. Liah uill Il .. lI.1 -,i i. i li 4-10: Kansas. 3":
Illinois. '-'4 Mii'''i "'2. I0 a Ii.< I'nl\ I en- l c i ,li ld pei 1-10.0110
popii la inn. i lIil lit- ..rt:i pet ) I 11 ,-iiih l ilt \[h lii lr I- n \ isN [I>.

.AI\I'IN. I I :.a1 IN .AMN O) 1.ANI/.A 1 I1IN

0 1 tlhv i'27 Jil 111 tIllc.. ''C ill *p1it.ionll in I.112, 3 1.s: cl : pil-
vatel it ,ni ,lled. lillcc ithe in indcir 2't ..ic undcri ,m ic
sort -A p liII ,-,'rm ,l '

I .,hl..r l I l.:II .. I' P u i. l.., "'| ni -,. r ('..ll .'I : l'e,: I' il /,,,i i .i
Collh' . I. ... I \ I .l .,, r. n ll ."'* -uti I

: pe.:j l

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Ir,: rea.e
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r- ,..
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T.A LE ..
N .'.ir P ".,F a rir r.t.'r .:tiLti PIrr" P P..-, Pr '. i. C':'.Ti .LL r r .N R
(_. *,L I r ..r I TI t r i. T Frr 1 i r "I4 4 '

TL3l. .

latrnr ,
Ar' I. niri

Il.inia a
Canjl Z'.','c
N.or. e, al: 1 n,:
ND' Ia. ar,"
DI'ir (a. l ,ra b, :
F i..,r ,.Ia .

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Kr.i.r,,:1 I

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M.ar'h Iand

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Ne br'a
Nc ala3
N'.. Harrr.T'-re
N,.: I u:".T ';

Ne-* 'Ml.- ..: -,
Nc 'i ...k k
North C ar'..lrraj
N.:.r ib D k.,ra
L.h h-,iI'..'r -

Penn;1| ar.id
Rh...de Il.,rnd

South ,a rl.ri:.

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\ s,' \irciLi.,

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0 1 ,0 : 0 4- 50 60 70 60 90 100 110 i2O 130

( ,,,, ..... -96
Ulah 60
Dist. of Columbia 46
Idaho 40
(dnsas 32
Illin is 25 i ,r,,,r,' I
New Mexico 25 El ,
Mississippi 24 i, .. 1
Arizona 24 I l ,
Texas 24 (,,,,, -
Oklahoma 23 a ., i
Missouri 22 I l in ..t .,0
cul, nd, 19 i I I
f(. et..e:, o l. 19 rI I l.,id t,
Georgia ,., N .6,
Iowa i15 i i
North Dakota 14 terrr,
Massachusetts 14 t ,11 m 1
Arkansas 1 ,' I... Im
,,,, ,. ,,, 14 N .... ....
,...... ... 14 .. . !',
h w a. ..I 13 .l
12 . (
i t h 12 I... ....
Virginia 12 N...,d,

Fic. 2. Juni ir C,..ii,; 6 nr,.Ilrnesu .i, t n. ,lrr ci. h lil( s .11I ,- ilr l 'i in, 191..
(Based upon U.S. Cein.u. I r .- ili ,nl1 n. l 'iin i in -.1 i T.-lie I! 1

Publicly stippoi llted .nd :adll li eredC ilil ni, i llis'.e, aI I i... I .
main types: I II ita.te ii-o tli ,-lled. :ind 121 ialIill oi'ntroilled. Til e
first are usually ad",mintrcEd In appintle, ,r elected state Ia id
of education, a1.n l upp ratedd ii rel it nit : nti ely. b% state iindi
iThe second g ip inclt elcs a1 iu :ll jiikir leges controlled bi b,.imrd
of education -r tIuttc:s elected ol a ditl -t. ,,tint\. -Ili ip.l. rI
other type of Io,-al dlisti hIt Ia- sis.
California. to li, h ,,c h..all 'Iten ieei biecatSc it, il. linjl
position in the jiniir _legc hfieldc. umpl.ss three tpE , i [blili.
junior college dli't icti ki the lcal qHt l,, ii itii. C' teilllIIl' ,_5s
with the high ich1,,.I ditrict. 12, the1 t1ni.,n ditri(-(t. cirh.trnin
two or nore (O,,otiti,,s hiih I .,,_ll' dii r;licrs; 3111 an I tlie cL_1.itIL.
including all oLnut tEelitr\ nt .,litelr1 d in a hi,.h sl,.,, dist ice
Publicly contruillcd juLi,_r ,colle._es in.i, ,lo be cl:,ssiied vas Il
thbse which ale integral pS:-I ts al tlhe publi- schi:lol istenlls. tiu~.allI
h1,-,li.lI ill the h111 2 .h A ,:),: ill ini and :ldmilnisterel b\ tilt' I,:,cM .l
b)trlds and sti cho,, I ,It_ rl tnendentl( : -laid ,2) thrIste in1der SteFItt
a. llinistrati,-n .11a1 Supertl i silll 1, ithl ph iih.I pI tlEt( iidep,:lx4.- i t
,,( hii l, :,l h S lh I Ii, lh-1 ini S

O( tile 2-7' puldic: juini.jr collc-ecs 14 are administered by the
state. while theI tnilliindler ,i ,nstitite pa. s th lie public education
system of the aiea, in \Ihicll tlic\ ale located. There is a growing
tendency tol h.i\e hli.in aidniniii eticd \ ~ lit siame board which
adnlmnisters the local elementnnr ahind liil.h schools in their respec-
live districts. Honweer. il soniie st.nrrs. spc-;iali junior college
districts hale been icre ate.I. each i f w\hi-li enibiraces several high
Slool dist icit. Each if the( e :pe:i i I i niir i .:o le;e districts has an
elected or appointed board ot eldmii.ation to adminilister the junior
:olle;e. Iand a special property[ tax is le\ ied flo its su pport over the
whole disu ict.
These silpelinptosed jpinni'il iolleg'e districts are created in
siltuaionll [ 1here (lie liral units of school adiininiitration of high
Ii hool are too l iiall to maintain ileie 1:1 n junior colleges. Where
thc\ are i.ne enouiigl. tile lnail lioaid ot education administers
tlhe pui li.. junior college oif tlie colm ii niti \.
Allith ouh olitniilnbered b\ die private ininiri colleges, those
under public control enrolled 7I per cent Ai the total junior
college enrollment in 19142. The ilLncrease iin entillment has also
been much more rapid in recent \ears in the public institutions.
The pri\atel\ ci-_ntriilled jiinioi r ci.lle' es., h..il independent
and denominational. deri e their chief support liom student fees,
current p' rae giilt and income lniii endi:" ments. With about
a hall d'nzen exceptions. Iie\N i di- nnt recel e ainy public funds.
Tlih methods of euppoiiting pulilic jlniir colleges vary con-
sidcrilabl ain ni trie rta re Fimnds conlie 'hoin iveral different
sources .ind the niimbcriii of tI'e'e orltrces and tle proportions of
the total ispporr derived [ri-om e:ichl al.i a.ir\ 'iri.ltlv from state to
state. The chit s-IliincTs lae student fees. 'r.ate appropriations,
county cit. r and di-tric:t pro.penrt tri\c fedeirl Ippropriations,
pri\tae ;ilts arid giants. et ndoin e.irnin.s. .nd sales of goods
and set\ ices.
In Table 7 the ex~ei t t o wilicl e.iaci of the '29 states, with public
ijniol:r i-olleges. drai,'s upon rlie diff ienl sI ncl s f i r their support
is s'lW Iin.
While student tees are enlploCe ill e eir state the extent to
which theN are \a;ries gre.rl\. fTOmn '2.-i and I pel centi of lthe t-ntal

.\ I I 1llr .\1 PO.'I-IH IGII MII'. L -I'C. I ION

THE N l.\\x l.\liRIK COLLEGE


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iI tl -t icll i- tI I 't i i -, -, ll': . i i, l h l a I k ,:1 i il led Ii a 1 ll i ti':-, .11 |T I 'V -I
thel s'il i: ll f l-. fl c Itil:lit I q ii ,I c '.lla n I ;'. I _CI I state -ii .i I- I.hI.
,iil,, l L tI ii] io iittll :1. T li i :ils a l ,. il i]: Llrs in1 c.,' l s iti:l ,iipL 11 it
slncu IK..1! d i i1(.[ i I't i i, i, k I l\ :I Ip in pI l :,p- itl\ I.i\< 1 I II I
.Il0 .illC i 1il ill n 1,11( 1 iS 11.ill ( p i .Al.;' 1 iN 1 i li i 1 -.l '-l*. 1i
T IIC t.-, l |I i ,[- u Ill ,-t II -n .-il t l l li .." 1i l il il <,-,lit:.-,:.. k t it il .1
,f v t .. l)ll\ .h( % i lie p ,-,. r, n hl.1s l.iei t:,1 at c i 11 Li i (. 2",i .
In .ItI( uill I :I\ |-)i It 1ii i l,[ i in.11 is inlil :d i '..it- : lcI II C..1i I 1 111li.,

lil1': NE lJITNItR C-OLLE<.E

which leads the Ulnired Staites in tile detelopiment olt its juniir
college prograii. tIIn- rtLa.l public expenditules per s.tuellnt in
average daily attend.irit.e iii 111--t'l ranged from $S115 tI -, $.
with an average #of $.''4-. W\'hen the cos t o capital oitl.i\ i, de-
ducted, the coirrespioidirig \alues become .'il $288. and .$22-.
It should be noted that teacnhcis' salIari s in Califloniai .,re cim-
paratively high and that in tlieii lUinl': r coll(.gcs thle. otff.r a1 (n-
siderable amount ol \ocational tec-hnical iduicaItion. hiIh is micre
expensive than instiructiori in a-cadminic i.ubjc. lr
The curriculum o. the junior collegeeg e ia, bhI--n to a Io-nidcera ile
extent under the dlomiination l oll state universiticL. aiid othcr iii-
portant higher inLstitLriIons ot learning .\ a rc:iil of tlis iinflu-
ence, the typical |inioi college cur-ri illlinm Ila been I.lrgel a
replica of the program -n f t I- Ii rst r \\t o cr. cif t[le iregulr ftiiur-vear
c'ui i i:ila in thic institiitiln-,' Thiis influenct is le'-%enini_ soine-
lihat .is it becomes miorc a:ipp.ariit [hat th[lie jniir ,.llge an best
%irlC it%- commilnit\ l>\ *iffeli in a i lithIi birioader pniigrain than the
customary preai.admin ic and lpri-priorf sit i.-iln stiuldies if le l st t Itwo
years of the deglre-. an.in1. ill titutllionsr II iresplonlse i an in lreas-
ing demand, tuiniial ciiiciil.a. l -ti nationall and .ener.-il or
cultural, are becoiini' inmporitani fe.aturn i ji ihI in' mire puiglessie
junior colleges.
Terminal cil iicila aie( insiti uitiional prograinms hichi are ni11
intended primarily\ a aI prcp.ir.tion foi s iil)sc:tlti:nt editn tiaion. but
as a direct preparation flo partiicip'ati n in normal life nati\ities.
Such curricula arte no bein.; Giteid iln o\eri 2-i o.c iupationil
fields, including su~. h \widel\ \ar\ in'g ones as aT iat ion. ,onstir ittioln.
radio operation and iepaii meclian-'ial specialisIs, newi\' icportinr .
medicine and dentmiti. secretaniil and clerical Iwork. niursing.
real estate, insui dance. suire in.g. watchh epailinil. l.'1riiiltlire aind
forestry, chemical Itechn il-ian'i \ork. hankirn.r. ad\ertisini:. land-
scaping, gardening. Constirutlon t :ontracting. :i:,ismeiolol,.gs, pOIlic
work, electricity c'ommeicial ait. lioiel ardi'I restaurant mallinage-
ment, library clerical (oik. tIelding. Ibliieprint Inakini alnd
real ding.
IT-eIminal courses : if the "geneIail" education t'ype ae i T offered
in suc(l hfi lds as the line a ls. lite'atiie. lan.l n ua,;'es. and rlitc ial


studies Tlic.i c,',li- .ine not lgi\en for the purpose of accumu-
I.itinl aca.enic li di t t iL be Itrinserred to a senior college, but for
inriiediate fhim tion1al ie inl the em ichment of the intellectual life
-of tlhe indit lul.l 3 tli roI.ill t[ie .Ic'elh.,pment of aesthetic apprecia-
tion and si-al iiunderi't.ndinill4.
Silie terminiial ctirrictila (coiistilte the phase of post-secondary
educ ati- n itih \i Iil it tiii. Ibulletin is most concerned, special at-
tenti, n will be ienii ti tlheim at Itli point. They are of two general
[ pes: i I Ci ieiii.cl ,ir iultIurl a.mi (2) vocational or technical.
The in.1 be fthiitlr ici Jsified .i full-time or part-time, as day-
time n.r eiening. fn.i nlltih n.r itr adults. Perhaps the following
definitioii ia.g csted yv tlIe Co mission on Junior College Termi-
)al lduican.til.n -i[( the Ameri.ln association n of Junior Colleges
will sutffie Fi -ir iur purpose"
"Terminal curricula .ire designed for students who wish in one
or two ealrs to .,ain an understanding of their intellectual, social
and cI\ ic enm iionments. to explore several fields of work as an aid
in makinI; rc-i.Ipatrlional cholc-. or to acquire vocational training
\' lich will lead ti-, empl,\ic'mnt in c rni-professional fields.'2
The nccd I,'r tclrminil _<.trri,_ ul on the junior college level
waIs lt'ret'etcd in tie pri~,edling s. ectin of this bulletin. It is sum-
m11.rized "Biut .te .are n1i\' fa. till a ne, awakeningg to the effect that
belo" thle stric l\ pir:lenio'nal, wne have the semi-professional and
skilled icclp.a~iions \\which demaniid education adapted to that large
i.iss ,: oiir iii.erician pe people iwho ate not going to be the scholars
bin ratilhe the 'wrkeis Iin ltheii respective fields in the countless
a \einues of indiiistrial. [;\el nmenital. social, artistic, and religious
mtioements. TheI-e ,onmtitiite .a neew unit which is clamoring for a
Ie _-,nitiiiin of it, iden'itit\ a.nd1 a lla.e in the universe. They de-
imnid for their le\el ain e.ffc, tie background in general culture
tIll mnenl 'ii.ite ', i[tl xl'a.t [lie ti.ll. will bear; but this must be
tinled irth .1 \i...1iii, nl ':jeti.ic and an appeal to the vocational
and tile .i\ o'a:i ii.nl Iirue \\'lhteiri form of educational organiza-
tion crops ,tiit,. we mist1 de.il with it in those two years of adoles-
(-ene which ale coi\eredl at the junior college level. It is now

'.\icr;r i n .\ ..i .. Iir ..i C.-ller s, Commission on Junior College
TermiinilI F.liirjir .. I .... ii ,..r r I. 1 ,-.1., Association of Collegiate I.g 'l. ,
M\ I ,1(- 1i1-,,l 'i~ii i r --, I


uencrl i nllv sler- ni.'.ied ilhirn > i.il intIelli.eice and \ica.il: l c'lli-
< jclLl\ c'`i l leliJ1 li i l i od IL' l I 1 .iei\. .A 'oLli'd ili/ -ILA is
S' i l\ e i.II [nall; cli cl\ la<..ill-:,- lie Is si'iallv intelli ni. .iind
lie i, ,''- iallv inI 1te ,ll c iic pIrtl., l t'.ll e hle is ,::ati'n:illl \ i,-lhi iem ."
Thi e le I, lhlo l llle ti he e.' li est i i l e innin.i s :At lie i il nIi
i ili.c-, I'll'i ii i III .1 i. l .ir t:<.,l niij .n. iii11 tile Ip cilet A i [ C i iit' ia-
[i,11'. l le.nl i' [ i f tIi lt. ie "p tlinii i[\ -t ni i.le.i i n -:Al ti leS e jll ti li -
tia ii [, pi ile I c i b 11 .11 itf.ti( ,.i u l in bo itl is I -1 Ine Il l 1nit \, .l -
t in.il peIts. -I Ils ills bieen eII:-Illt trul e :i t i:-I lit p ul. li,. 4111i
pi N:te insti ; i,.U ns. H :l',.e\eri these leadlei h e i ci.n in the
1111110!i iL\ i l ( I lie c\[Lc 11t h111 I I ,I-r l:A Inl.1. iDil b e.1-t l b eF I iIC i
itla- d. il( eene m .l m er H1-:,.e\ei. in tli<- p.st, tI,\\e i[\ \(;lens qliuire
apid. pt,-. e'.s I.is I)e<- ii tie l I I l ll( [i :i in.il < i r,,e., eele
i ep ii t' t.I in [l ie illilil i ,leQ-.,> i e the I.i' i t2 l St.tl e Iln l'.i'- tlU0:
iln I 3 'i. .1 l in l '. .'..' !'I . .1 Il i i 4 I1 ll
In .1 1 l ie t c mi i 1 111. l i I. 241 pulic ii j ii i.r .i<. llct4 es ii \i.is
l; lt 1d .l1.It liTc t,., l IIII li ei r ,1111111.t_ iii .i l ,.11 r i. ilc i c :lle d c in :11 1 :,-
thein \.:is I ti:,.'-, \1 lile i he n111.11il nl -. dittel ent tel r ill ial L LIl Ic i.i
S .i-, .360ii. C.;ill.:i rii le.dl a l c hi 1 1 1 A cul n all o h .it ih ti i i .ill ts
iiniltr c,:,lle.esn -inii Lo' s lAngheles j ini,:r CI:,lle.e led all ,:iher
I:, -Ih .-s nilh ',1. Ei.:lh \ein1- h t i.h '24- 1 iirni:,r colleges -ffie ld at
lc i co i 'i1 e l 1ini .I l lsl I c linI. Fil-. 11 iti-ll i Te l OiVnl e 4-'i. \t -:
' iltl i li -'I [t -ill T i ll\e t I -l eI ic liel nth e ll' 01 1niihte

)f 1 l ie ."dil) c I ffeoi lt ,.ir i i l i. 1 tin. r iii ti ic rI t ,s in. ill. l
I el tecd se2i iceCs ,, in P-i-n11 1 ,tili il,.4 .11n1 ..i ill lci it..l3l d<>.<.ip.1-
t1ins -Ie ,icher-uii .i in..I <.c l lii .Il .i '. ei c I ff i li l -. c.ct'I,-,. \ dil.
leii 1 :,:, lee : se -iei i -. i l tr.iinin.1 inll 1> 1Cnt\l .t ,. 1. in I I sinl' in
I, i I\ ll.m I ei 1ill;l (CL]i l<. I le .i.[i ll\ e ci !n.- .liti ed In e, Idh
, i-t h l: i li e i ln j \ i i,;ns ,;,t ,. >;ll :i i,_,ns I is ed. I_\ l ic llii Icii ,f1 (lie
Cc ll ,Is.
T ill, t\|: ,1 iA l ll II,1. l C Ki1.1.1.1 l ep-,,iiclI inll .1 sikll e ,\ ,'1 IlIN
1ni"ii >I It-!-e-, 1)\ Eells in 1.11 IS-:'I.1 Ire listed in T ible '.1 .\n
C\ iini ,11. 1,n ,,t t1El ti ble shl.\%_d th]it <.iIl .il.i in the business field
Scle i.' lero, 1)' I h l e I l 'Lt est nt1 n1 i c i ,_,I i)sei ti 1i i i 1s-ind I h d +nio ll -
i .i 1 s -1111i. llii il,' D. [, el l c Len t i l e h ,.,.1 l. I'l ) Iii: _C r iC e inld lthe
.il I F ,u l.. l .r -, T i, . .- ; I ,,, 1 1 .I ".- i I| !li
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Termrnal tieljd ncl st'iate

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D C. ..\m r. iar. tio:ia ioi juii.r (.." illi 'i I1 1 i. pi 4'
t Th' sUaelis s ir, ,C iahlic ar ni ot i on pli:t: i ln': ,iiii ll (.1 ihid rlllii;l'r i...i.hi. '.j
in rhc ir. i.;i a1j lon r,:pjrt i:J ciirollnicii III all (1 Ihi :lirrir:i l. ihi',. i :-IT,'ri:... [rh>
tolt l nini r i nllllii l ilTn r-l I ri[ r n.il : .I.rii;. : l. i .1i : 31:.1i5 Filir n icr rihc did
not ir :.ri ii.-llrri' i ii i A ii. ihih ir icuri.ijli i.hile o* h rc ripori.cId crrir.lrr.m rir.
for ..:,m .r .u I rn:.[ i i m ji i i- r ierm inal *:urrii.ulA I rn'iltii.iir *. which .jlner se er. i :j urriiula
williri .ni : oii ihe ier i, li hId ied in ihe aiL I are unitedd onl once in rhiis iummn ar,
figur' e I h. h field ja a 1. hole.

fi1ne 3ia s 1t:ill,:i cl(:> n-l t[lie nuihlei i:of itnscitit limon. offet ii; ili ill.
G cnr i.l ci.iltuai l. liom e ec n',] 1i' .s. eneinc'i -l ll' _n and itc h n llll,' ,..
jo i it 11.11ili lh altli a di c. arn ; : i_,, ( tilt- lnc f ll I n ti l ii, i dL._r.
T lih pit ,, i ti,, ,,f jui nii,i Cllt im i1.1. i.,,(n 1a.pidkl\. iisplt., l 1 n tI Ie inllitillil-, s ._fll1I.r lnl
a c\idc \.iriiit%\ SU t i >C iir i il.i IIi 192'.-, in ninlietn puTblic
j1ii-ii r :'i le. cs. 21.1 per (cen it'l A sonic 11.0.)110 re;istUilnts i'tere en.
rolled in nonvicaldenic or terininfil : lrriu ll. Tl. i -:tAs later
(ill' u ,1 pMl (-l in l p r Oe.i. i e 9-+ i_,isti .nts Iin thi 1 t nc, publi |c iinIn
colle._es imnC..ali-. .1 I-ele so
I \ kI.,.I; -anrA I | \1 :','r;,-i T ,,hi l cI'n ill PI rlI, junior Collc.,'i'
Jt ,, r I !, ., r., r- !. III _0 .:tl." -cr i ':1 .'-lii
III. S u :: Il ,. ,r .r! H 1 F /i.. ,,, r il l... .. ,Ii .ir/i C rtl ... (C -Il I
Still P .r .I'Il.: <1.T...i '' '. | 7.".

I l l IA g -- ( a"


analysis o[ more ili.an 3;i.0fil students in thirty-five California
puhlih: pllnior co-ll.ge. i'Lund 16 per cent enrolled in terminal
' 'ricil_ a.
The expe iiene ol Pasadljn Junior College with terminal
ci.rricula climii' nsrailcs iltc popularity of terminal curricula when
tliol ,li miade alc ~ilaIih. In I'.r2 only 4 per cent of the graduating
:a ssO tif 1t;i iniiriion %n.!-,; riiolled in terminal curricula. The
pcri:clu .Ifi-c tr ;illiecqii-in periods were as follows: 1929, 33 per
i:cnt: I ',1'. ipn per ctnll. 19'i 1;ll per cent; 1938, 67 per cent; and
1941. 72 per ci nt.
The st[.ace \a.\ \,idlekl\ in lte percentages of junior college
stiidcnts enrolled in rteillinn l icuricula. The percentages in states
lihant1 t:en or inn te junior' colleges were as follows: Iowa, 8 per
centi Oklahl:'nma. S p:,ei cncr: Texas, 19 per cent; Minnesota, 28
pei cent: Kans4as. 44 per cent: Georgia, 46 per cent; and California,
5I1 per cent
One miii,41 initr imn i li rnumerical data presented above that
thelc exist' an ectensi\. anld rigorous development of terminal
Acurricula irn -ir juni-r iil-llc's. The fact is, however, that many
of thlic;c ,iata arc midnisIcaidin In many instances they seem to have
Ici.-ii nbiir.inacl 1 an :ian i; is I'. junior college catalogs. Close stu-
dent.s ) t[he tI ct.,! sit atini in tell a somewhat different story. They
ha.i\e ai stiro-n siispicioi thli:u ma-iny of the terminal curricula re-
ported are ci.nmp'.'sed ot lte saime old traditional subjects simply
regrouped in .; moire i lin,:ctionl order, but without any funda-
mental c: anes in objetw\ es i,- content. As such, they are quite
inadequate t'to serie the needs A terminal students. Hollinshead
reports that exceptt in a lei, Ilnior colleges the work currently
offta (l in jiunil-r c'illeg t; minal courses is not impressive-
cotiirsCs are lar-.-'l'. taiiidit;inl Iand nonfunctional-they must be
rear..r in/cd ,i .1 finlii tionnal ia si of students' needs, interests, and
.,Iiliici . If i'nio) Icll-ees instead of trying to imitate the
fiii-\ie.ir pir.Tiam .s nihld oiffe courses close to the interest of

I- I L;d.I I LiiI..]li' ii, \'.i i:.i.is Curricula of California Public Colleges,"
Ca!. 'l. r,,, .l XT,..... X c: ri. l.t. I i l i . ".03-08.
1 \\'lI c' E. ll- P,.' .. Si i. 'I I, nior College Terminal Education (Wash-
;in r,[., D. C.: \iii: '.-n ,\ '-,A iri.i I,,nior Colleges, 1944) p. 49.

THE NE Jil.'NIOR CO.1)[ [:(-.

the Lstideint. a1 nd suLied 1'' 11 s ab ililniC. rl i, \h Il.i l.enC i i :LI to oIr(up,
one I l l ile in' ost imlp.i Ill ini phti in .~ tiic in l llC e (dii '
Sq ilfi l Il ln ies ihn u\:Iriinlti-i <.il i ::n12 i anld (iorle-
._11 ll114 1 1t t I 1 11 ,: o *,.C :- II. I lai ,, I 114 L .-tL S0 1De INE ailr I iU i II-I
[ions l11 l I li rllll l l t i i I1 1li IC t ll ,I I i: l t-. I t .I \ \ i l 11i'il:.
rnin l l in'l i: iti i lii ii. I cli .1-i.1i11.i .ili ; LI I% .I | 1 I1 I le li l\ iu lhi t.ii-

Ill3i In-,1 ,ltl( Clll ll CttLd Itl. ril.l~\ i _-,-- l,_l ttll \ It .iil [ fills lli p( ia-
[14i1. '.'LIuSs i ill tile I il: s. W Ai .iniieti po int in di 'witi% ni4 [the
makenj. |' the rcoie cLI U iiiniiii in tlite. uici( l uritiui .iI iii!-
l ici 1 l ir i lniniri'.i :h ILei Ir;lkes L 111- lli ll ll% i' ll. "n 11ti e i, lt 11.iOl'i

and q -nhi. i tiiiiIin i' In ii.ii\ ii1'tiiiiti'iii',1n.'differein e is made
ill tIX' I' 1' 4llit1 1II ila. I lllt 1 i i ll i lli ~, I- i I 1.S Iet 1. Sie Im pic.
e iflit :: fi l ila il ( ri ir i.in d ll i III h,.s Ii li e. Fill nlld l c ll iia le Iminl
* ii r i l.f i lie i ledi iinl iilll plic, ir.ii li \ I it ll ei tha Icll mindl il
*:li.i I .ci il ,lie s-i ie.;idcied l t\ lt e ii'.l1tiIC ''i 111 1li ':c.1
\nll.ion'. t lle lI 1111 I in e i e i llut dtlli ii I e, Illlllilil I *Lilis" -s
I1 il.in i,"r .i '-',;e;os ilii [ ,,1i ll, ii nl' pii);ill \liS f llli l ,i .lli t alif. in e'
SI i n i r in.i ept.ili ( ila 1 ,i 11 Iih ,lliti l)\ II :lll11 Ii t i of iC 'icedllin,'
.-i.. :n i; i d l:il lll\ ii n iIali ininj. .liied instrli '_r ; i.l

Ilifti-ii:lr ill .Il).11. iinll.t \_,l i.- i hi m 4i i 4 ,1,icil.I] d sil: im in )iti :on
l1 1 0 e' il iiW i 1it\ I. ida K t111 tii 1.411 iL .1 II I 4 i' 1ii i: mII t k .1 n
o 1 lli e cl .iii>' i, t II ia il it ilie tl td .II l[e e Il\ed I:, i eilin:ili
1.11 1 1i ill.i. ihct-' liill, iiii e_ d,_, ii'.t st-e ill t l.e e lelicl\ i_5 i41 i .i ni
I' i lip l.iS il e '.'1 leeinl .,\er>'.'llle.
rhe uii-stlndini r sn1c:t eSs -1 ilth lei. jiinoi: colleges it lhich Ii.l\
hoii'lcheiea teii l\ ;itta ked il pi'-r lein l pi [t i lii'i A1 ilil'ti' li onI l -i a elinitiu il i li. u w0 .f(I i 'i i \ h I% ithl-
('ill '1 1 i 1 i -l1i, in i.' lic il i ., 1 ii --lic e lle ili.;,' l il ld t 1 1 i.it dIt l il t
IIp,,n ll ,pi i lli,, 1;iL-1 InIl\ e\pie sed, 1i .idilini'lltr.1(it e ,ffi c-;_.L
i.' 2 i i: l iii' '. i >i i' ie. _e' fi i i il 'cii llei.i ti ,, td ii. lt :,.t i:e in-
- st l -:l[iin .111d. i,_-..iIl r dI ..-' i : ilihti 11 ti ,ll I.il i'-)l it C.illiw.d ,:
s511tic -es llii in ilie -.1lnt ill titillai il
F1IF CH\IC \iL f i rnll m
The :in ieclini. al in titIIte" is tile iI.-,st C.,iillnicll desiitl -
n.II,i t .ill p., I i-I s ,:ol teclini.,il inslitillions wh l oflf r i ori',
S ...~.ri, II..l .l ,r,, ..: ,,1 T |,,, I. I. -, i,,i l F .hII. ,I r i .I. n i i l ..l C ., . .. ,.L l ? '
,, ". .i, .-I I,,,,,," ,,/ ,_'., il/,r,, \ \ I i l l |- nlh.-i I'lli| I.. "l-l'l.
"f .., i \\' ,l r I I.. 1 1 i'.. ',, *i, i .. i. 1.)-, . T. , ,,,. i . ..,,,, -, .,,,
i l -i ,li,]i. ,l, [r ( \1 ..i.l r 1 *..... .. ,,i,. ,.. .\ [iii ..i-i ] ,-,11,;(. iCl lI'i I. T -,.-
l/,,,l im Pi l

.\1 IF.'IPI A I I', .I -H I I. 'tillt ,I I' li I_'UCATION

1illt nl '\ IC111 III[i ,1 ,lt l n'h.i l i (n-i 1 111-.*, lini,:- titan do the four-
vyar <,illege'.- Ir dc.'s noI inlliide tlarlie .-ih-,11 which aim to de-
\eldp :iiliniphili"i\c skill ,.-ir litriwsinsplli in tile manual arts and
c:r:iltr, 11. r [I. ,Ic j ni..ir L olic~-.es .ilv putt -11 \I l.It e offerings are in

T-lIr .1lll i-i li ,I I il4 e II c Jll'.111' l Ill lliulll c is distinctly and
a <1owc>li\ it.1 illit-il l.- i t<.]ulit. i l co liento1 ii I t more than two
ifll e:II lk;. TI-I: .Oel'i iti ..ie p[ilell technical and less
tlieoietimi.:.i tl l El i s I'- ol:iffll -d in i-el ineeriin, colleges, but they do
tustill *.ie sut l_.st:' titu l insti cti.,n in the iundlerlying sciences,
cldria' in. e t..'.mnoini,:i. :i:nd En .li.s -lT e *. -idu.iti:- of technical insti-
tutes :ire piep-red It ill tlie rapidl)il\ ;41:. in.- ri-ed in modern in-
IItSLI to r hI !i l\ tI i le i ei teclini'iians- inspect N ri s. supervisors, etc.
A.\ i:eCnt icpo rti'- -.'n Ltc:'inic:il insituiites -.il.s the enrollment
d;:ata pilesme:nie: iln Table 9.
Ins lt'i 'til''ii in .1 --leit tariiet\ ,-l ,-',-- l li'-il.,I fields is offered
in exi ill ir.: e tc:hn1 il in-,tiltt i. T.i!le I1 I l <' rI llse offered during
l l".-4. Io., pilll, l Il tlrpp-i itl lt iit( l i~ncl itniri rlles. Privately en-
,loned .Iin piip ilr.1it rci nic.il inl. ti t tl;re .ffte ed lists of similar
pt'ip1) rtiV iI s fl(i \'n I,[I\. In All. I tr r.il .4 I'lP i different curricula
weret li -rcl. I s. It eiln.- in enAl incI c in- .ind, rc-i.liilogical fields, 16
inll 1'1 ici illili 'in ; .1i: llic r11 I in ii h ine :(C.inmll ics, 3 in health
t', t 1'i.,? :ill I i _,-: l l i.,1 i-..,u% OC,] pLip ti,.n .
A fhi'. '.i rlmc s1.tLu reclliicil in- itil [ei s .illet Ai .ire than two years
of ,..ik. The C.ilitvr< ni:- P.,I,,teclirnic Schi':,l 'tfets two- and three-
\eaur citri,.ila ,:'n tlie \iL:c ti-iin. ll-te' nii.-il le,.el and a four-year
clinqll ii lum 11 n the p' ,lesi 'i[aIl le :l. in Irtil i.ricultural and in-
diistrial fiel:is Ti-. I sate tei.tlh- s licoils in Massachusctts offer
w.no- ,aind tlhee-ke.it lipl'linm. lt i'ul L in thli textile technology
Tlheie is inclt sid ;ti' it\ i n SI -~c;il '[a-ite; in the development
ot technical insitiii .s. N it ,-ik .Strtc hais announced its plans
Lo expand lthi- '' i L the I .ti i liliitai l anti t,<-i hnical institutes now
in exiitCen'ci and. in :-11litiion it ie-ite I lat.:- number of new
institui tes rif applied .rti ain..l s. -ni es in se et -l f the larger cities.
Ele;-rn -i thee l \\ ill htc- ir Ne \. Y' -, k C.It\ :ni'l operated in coopera-

'It.. I sr, li \n .iI ''. 1', I .I Ilti.li -il I.-i i i,, F Technical Education
,\'. ,.. \', \1 ,-> 4 I N..\ IiI. ,-. % <-rl,- t.-(. -, .FH ill Book Co.).


r -I --


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I F.:i4',i.: AL l. ; Tin.T il.'i lP 'J1: -4 o '

Numib. r :.i
I r..rsli i [. *rr
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(..'. I : i : u nI (I. 'trr .. i n 1Jrnr:i.Jlj

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A i i .ilrli i. r AppliedC i
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C.ro' Ip Pr':duJ:u':n 1 P iinunr rJ l-' Pil. I.:h I.
Da.r, ,i.. ,nd Pr.:.d
Frui[ Pr:,iu.:iion I T. l
M,'t[l- .rmalI HiJi hundri 1
O)rr:lnp. rial H..rli.:ulrujr" 2 H, ..'1 ,
Pc.ilrr\, Pi s.lu. il:.r I 1 I.. at.:,r: lr..r, T '':ihn:ri l.: I:. ,
I--- Pr .'r:il:,j Nur.,'n

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Te, Is hI
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Sl>:am ar..J D,, I
b.ip,-r. i:i.:.n :rnd F'ri.1ij;crn,-n
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Ger,'-ral rni lri:::'llIr.isr..i

T. ral..


F.:..d .Adn-i;ni:iraj .rn
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Ki ril D.Llrt-uir.'in

T..ial :

(..ranrd T.-ial

S .L.- F. ,mirh. .\rnnuijl .,ju .F'. ci Tr':hnic l Irl.lriJr:." 7 rt.';,.;,'
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Number l01
I ri"1 u (ion;
(PTC i ;nr
C- i rri :IIlijm 1

. I l



I -

E ..' :,.,'i \'.t ,

tion with the 1 i.iid c. f Fdiii..ition: ele% In ImoIe %ill be l;s, i ed in
Otler l.'e po[:inl:.cion i.CIInN-. Of [he sau.e.. Ai.o.,il ing, 10 Sidd nd.
w\heIn hie w.as SIatE C.(lo.inrssiiiner i:i Ne\ \'York: "Thlie wi-idll
offI~ I (_ l l ll i L,.i.i n inlII 'III'I in .1al )pel s.onal ar Is (lt cal ih. l .giene.
Ihornle mi iniageimiielt i.h.irac(ei. ieO .i tionsm : (bl i (.i\ i a t in his \.
'i\ci in'ien iL Ini[i\ hri nd finai.- i : ,il n a bas' c piep:i.
l. fill [:i 1 ..iI 'ouI , I1l[ \ 1i'1..[I,,In .i 1 1 n p ,iofcs-io' . . \ll

.S 1 H- Nr \\ ILhMOR C.OLLI-.E

[i t !C- .Iiiitix xlliillht I)c pt.I. lit al. llt [lIL 111.1111 idla is ii. piroxide a
licfiul e 'Ct lP, ia l t SL o ld.11% C L lit. atiiln I
C'-i. rli <.(.(i(il is n ice ii. J4l -In sitii.d it 1% C1 -.r1- llnd1 ,1 e it Offc -
111, ,*f it .xt ci t II CU\i inl ti.itl s. i<.ihi,*l, a;. l.in'_ [t <.> full \'ears oI
t[c'c li i..l1 il tiilt Li'.'il litC i Ist i i ill iiliitIl % ll l.i c COl .inpOisct
o.f lo.i~xer ;ind a highiici d it i i l I lie h.. n r d isi.in wi ill ollfe
C.iiu e fo1 [l ic ti ,illif4 if' iii.:hiil : .pc ;:it. rs l.,i i.. iijpatiIoial
_ pit. A.it., \ pur p .-.-. 11i, fii rl i. \ cli.,pi Aiit i .-l l.a.i.ic kills. Inll he
upper cli isiol. O.p[, .iitillitirs W 11l b ji ii fo Ltainin; of -i spe-
( i:l i7cil 1. 1tai.ieL ii i tili .irea s Ai .11 1 at inl ; l i e i i]. a\ i.tioin st i enice,
elc-in pnit s l. tl Ienll.il l' i -lL Clfr. Lille i O l metal. it ing plh In Indli',n:-. teclni,-al institute es iele ,,,,tniLeti in 19-1 ;is an
ex[c nsiri n nin l .ri: I -i riliiie Linli eI si\. Theelic ilnl ititlt':m .n-i I,..
cated in the (.-ari FoEi \'anV. e. antd lI liiti:napti li ire.,I. Inti In, li,
is carried on iiil\ in hli e clinz..
It is inti Lt[iin if n )1i i eai nini '..i,- ['t .im p, l I le i in ri ent u .it lii.s
of technical inleiti',e in thle L1nitetl Staex .ind in RInsi i. Rui"i.ia
has 1,516 '"tc .hnit. ii not ,c intina ie ldi<.il. p-dl.u.,i-a.i .a. nd
other secondl.n \ ;pec.i.tli,'eI el lm _ai i,-nal in iiiiitiion''. ThIiem ite h-
nicuins eniill -I'-"I .ii xtlulenti Stipendl :ile t .;i\en it-, iniilenti
and teaches .le c.lli-pa; "
JUNIOR illl, I -1. ITl-IM l II 1 I\\l LRKI IL A\.1) AoLLL(AL
In univi i-ilis aid lind-r- a t ii.olle.;s tlhe nut i bel ot edi a-
tional progiami< lexiniedli_ to- tilniiiite in the jitnio ,i college \eas
is not impresi\l. \\ leie lthe\ do exit the ale Ohieill\ in a.i _iil.
ture and in 6c, tict.ii ial htlii. -I li:'w\ei tleie has ie entl\ been
considerab' .a. l in in tli t.lc\telopliiuetnt oI tciaiiniial pio.;ianm in
general edui..aiin. Tlhe. ipaaiin-l if inii:i an.di sen" ti'l l lege is
an expressing f t[lii;. l I.i ei ie ie:si intinsin. iapidl\. Pri:mtincnt
examples aic li Guencil.I Co-llege ofi[ LIUniei.,it' of Minnesola.
which offers 1 t e., ,:-[ r t ui r i i ili l i t -eiie .l ediiLc:i<:ii6il ithi spe-
cially designed > ii, e<: '-' C(enei.il C(ollege ait lni' eisll \ itA
Florida, which is . G eorge I 1.. I. I I I .i i. : II ii.i .' I'.I l' .. i ii .1 > ;i .n.il n .'>.]i "
T he A nnals or tc .I .. .... ,. .,, 1. -. 1 .I t ,,.i l .,, ii'.. ,,;..- i,' \.-I. 231
p. 138, June, 'l1i I
Scm yon 'l.. l mI S.... ;.- T t.l.i..-ci ii. 7" .. . /.,, r ..* ., .. , \ 1 \ .
No. 4, lune, l.ii".


(leius are i-nr'lled i:ln.ll: fist WI \eC s.1 and in which the curricu-
laI ftterin.s_ .iii in .'c nli11 eduin:.niton. Ibit not exclusively terminal;
I:M tIw\-.ar ,elii t ci u ll illuir, in Ctolle.-e ot Arts and Sciences
at Ulnii:1sits iL f Inudi.,n i. intended c r ti tl'se not desiring to finish
tlie f,'urle. r ci r i i ic l11n -Ilt I :C 1 111rses are nIt especially distinc-
ti e. Ot her inlstiit[iutL n dli_,\ It li;'n mi entinen in this connection are
Ce,'rge W\'.Ishllui't'on Inii i(i ; .inI. the niii. ersities of Chicago,
Nebra.k.i. New lMe\icL Son ithilin Cnlilf!nija. Colorado, and St.
.-As a tule. ouir s.tan:l.lrd fu!.\r. I!r c..lleges and universities do
n, t adleqi.itel\ .en e the nrci,-s of tIie l.v.ae I uill er of students who
entei bit nex er graduate- th: inme..l\ iinrll n I them all in the four-
\eai cle-ree i:i rrictil The first \..i \e.ars' ':ork in such curricula
are tisuall pieparato.' i I, thle thiId and ft, irtli years. The general
reas.in *.glen tfor not pi', ,idinjg distincti.ie juniorr college courses
f' i i' group'ii is the contentin iithat \w:.k AI a %ubdegree character
(calnit hb Q\uilen in a i'f in- ear c:lleC'e w1 ithiout either lowering the
at aticini, %a;nd:ail '-f il' reguC lr i deigee in ur:ula or making the
te m I in.il ri ti la t1,, lii'llh pr,-,le, i,,nal.
.NA I-, cities Ii.ie .anitt-nipti- t, s'..,I. e this problem of post-high
(sc hl- I edcCii t:, in I,\ adding tu nin i e .iad I-s. thi rteen and fourteen,
It.t the regular liih sIi : liIc. \Whele this has been done the tendency
lias been to inc lude in thIese t\rn \an, considerablee vocational--
tec(llnal training. pliaing in them nmiil, i t ie vocational train-
inl f.-rilnne I\ i-ffeir in ,'cradht s ten. eleenl. aind twelve.
The hiiief ,lijc, ti,.- it this sliemn i., that while it may serve the
needvc' f \.[li .ich ,h i.iul iit ci-trn im; le Ithnwn on to the labor
nua ket .at r ,nrl\ ,1in 4.. it dit, nl-t prvo ilp h for the education of
.idultis f the ., niruniti. Aniltih r ul init.tiI..n, of course, is the
fa:i that s, l.ar.e .1 i:,r portion 'n f1: ,111 Iilh m hool communities,
especially\ in some states .111: mIirc t-i-, in:ill to supply enough
tiii teenth and ilI.irteenth Triide -,r' lcnts iti make an economical
unit of attendance. .\ thild is [' ', Ic uiiind in tlhe lack of industrial,
lbuinesi. and sei\'ice t estanlishiiiicnl in tie smallerr communities
i le e \ '..,k epel icene could ibe pio,, id-d I,-i those students major-
in.- in rlheie r-', lipltolins.


Strictly speaking, high school cdiucation iau,1,is oinui I.- iicin
the area suggested by the title ol thiii IIIbCluin. InIut Ijict imcntioiii
is made of it here because of tile se reLl.atioi.iship it be.Ir r tilo
general problem of providing ic'>u pat'-nziill training -1l l' I than.
college grade.
There are three types of hii' sl ih',-- in 'I liIh ,i'oic p.rti,.i.l
training is now being given: i l till tci I ihn.i. hi.h 111 .o1 'ol: I2'i
the industrial high school; adl i."i thIe c. p'-iii itc r *i colnmplcl-ll
sive high school.
The technical high school IIIn:-,i nt[l li.is r\ n sitc.nlil\ (jlatin.
the past twenty-five years. Tl-he iii. Iii Alii- jiumpi inpcd -nidcial1,.il
after the last war and rose shat pkl durinii III I .indi 1 112 In Nc
York the increase was from 30'J in It921 1t- I1 i.01.1 in i 1912.
The curricula of technical hiiSh Mll,-si'.'1' ii~ plIlnnMld si' th.i[
graduates may enter college if destid -i .o dii i tl\ i11tu Indust y.
The objective of the schools is t:, g .iie '.tiii thle prelimin-lr\ pep.i-
ration for their entrance into siuclih .l-iupationi.il *.roiips ;is te lclni
cians, servicemen, engineers' and a i i'lii i:cts i'sista nis. and p oduc-
tion managers in industry. C.'i.per.ui\e tainnll'g, wit local indas.
tries is a well-developed feature ajl some i:, these s,.l,'.ils.
The industrial high schools. uwlich are .ls:-, kn,-\ni :Is 1rlde
schools, industrial schools, vocat.Lional hii'i sllol'io:s etC,.. place cliIet
emphasis on the development 'i manipulat[xe iailiit\ aiLnd inclt-li
in their curricula much less iit thie Silentiliic aniil mailihellii'ial
foundations of industrial operations thi.n do til tLchlic'al inisttiL.e
and technical high schools. Th lsI li .' l- I aIIll\ aI lle Il l i i ti la
and evening programs. The -,tbjic t;\ ',t thc prepare young persons for efflt.i'.c ti. ici.ntlle u iipn \.ii!c cl.llingll
in the skilled trades. The length -,f pir'-i.iami i' tiiI. ll'\ hiIn oin:,e [
four years, and graduation f:o.m lthe cigtliili -.i(r.i ; iiii.iilli re-
quired for entrance.
The primary objective o tihe eieninig prcioi m ii 1[lc Up-
grading of the employed worked. t,: imprul'\e iillm in hi' pisLcnt
job and to prepare him for ad.i',ranement\. eItuc l' no. tle
cooperation of labor unions, oi,'aaniedl insI.rltitiiin is gi\Uni for
.I pp e n t ices.
Ilil tl c comprehensive type o(l ,liih scli--lI only part 'f[' thie smi-
dent body is enrolled in the ,ocaiiin.il .lnl riiul.i. Tli'l:c t liidlCniS


mav take tieii acladeInic subjects in classes with students in the
Iegril.~ :.llege prep.rtl.itoi curriculum. It is on vocational instruc-
tion in tlii tNpec of s~:hool that most of the federally aided voca-
Sonml tI aiin i1 inI i ':'iti lture, homemaking, and distributive occu-
p.tions is being_ expended at the present time.
In Oldel it meet the demand for vocational-technical training
in tni.ul .IieLi wr.liL milst of the youth live on farms or in small
tLo.nlls ainid illies. It Iias been suggested that "area schools" be
ct:,l;llish-l. Tlics.e ( needu ,1f Ithc L.lnm \,iiili \\hlo must earn their living in occupations
,rlil I di in .Liiin .. and I ,or the majority of youth in small towns
anud \ill e.i4 i. !i,- ill elter manual or industrial occupations of
Milie ri\p. In ,nideir t,, itomplish this end, such schools must be
iii.ad ri.idil :.c.r- sill. in point of distance to be travelled and
i' l'i' inlllnel., .ithe li oli, who need this type of instruction.
Thle teri ".rea i' desinates an intermediate educational ad-
inisniu tir e unit la gci than a single local community and smaller
than a .t:e. It intlic:ate, school administrative unit which pro-
\ ides. certainn ei:li:calticnal facilities for a group of communities, an
cltitiic c o'ilnt\. a rro.li' of: counties, or a distinctive area which
iiigh1t iocc.asioiaIll iniu:lidl parts of two or more adjacent states.
RecientIl\ ttemptL li.ie been made to have the federal govern-
nient enact Ileliat ion pit iding for the establishment and support
ol a \5stem i:il ara.i \i-,n:.ional-technical schools. Opinions differ
Siiel\ a. I' ti- tie p.at lhe federal government should play in the
adnlini'triatiu .ind linn..n.ing of these schools, which partly ex-
plailn the 0 lel.\ in leg;slaive action. It is extremely likely that
",m'te dleinirl pn graim will finally be adopted, and in some states
plu:-s aie bein' imnade to,. make it possible to take immediate ad-
v.al.i.e of :ini in.inc:ial .aid which may be forthcoming from the
federia.l gq\uinmlcnt f1 th lis purpose. If the individual states do
noit miio\ a ,dgressi\ely to provide the type of educational services
needed. either ndii ildually or in cooperation with the federal
govelirnmente, it is not unlikely that the latter will inaugurate and
jdliinister a sep.ii.-ite s\ 'tem of area schools.
In this chaptei %L h.11e attempted to bring into focus the major
I\pcs 1i insItituiolns opeiUating today in the particular area of post-
higli si.huol cduci ation. '.lih-li is the central problem of this publi-

-1' THi N F.\' JINI JU, C.0 I F.(,[

cati.n i Iu ds i r iprtitis otf th In hai- necess.Ii: l, bieent incomplete,
but perhaps enuitlgh int,,irtLarii'n has been presented it, impart
st'ile apprei;citiIorn f their inalde llat. .It present tnr s) le tlhe
urgent needs ., eduA .tion today Not inl ae hie i institution l that
Coexist t i' [few I in number and ,0i iiii'.enli distril.,uted toi be acces-
ible Lt:i all I.io need tleir ser\ ites but tile inistit l cti-nial pri., iairis
mI:'t r[t hemln oilfer ane ni-ri. %.,ell :idapted 1 tho e eduiicationdl needs
Sl! I I eI C ist.
\\ liil prniiabl mn'st i-' tlhem c:-in be gFi\ en cledit Ilor servin.
mrn' 0ir ie' ai.ler.:atelv at least a small part of tile e:rlcat:tionii
needs ,It a p rtiri iil thlenl Iespect i e C:onstituencies. i i, don:bil lss
tic thit I, irh \CI\ tale exceptl.ins. none (A[ them ,eresN a all the p.-st-hiih <, I N ol ed.]i nc:i nal needs 'A :i11 the pCe-,ple
In iorde! tr llak.c tlie Iln dei.d t\pes i'l pOist-li.'h i h:li'nIl idclii:a-
lio:,n aciCessible -tc, :ll %.lh needl .n11 1 a111 pt,-hlIt foI it. r..di..il
ichlilnes and e\tensints [iist bie .tiniie in elistinj, insitititiion or
ar1 entirel, ie. t\ pe 'of edt iat;trii.i l iIlr'is t titIn nititsr be ,Created
tind ilkstrl.-ltetd i idelh ,icr the llnitiied States. The idctail iILst be
to i-lean l all pel .itms o il pi.st.lhi.4 h shtJi' l aI;i.ge 'itli edtlIca.it inail Ir-ili.
ties ad.ipLed .I their needs.
The Educti ii.inii al P'-li'.ies Coiiii siiin i( f I he N.iti- i .il EdIui.i-
i:-n .\sso:iation p1-roposes i .,o-, methI -ils '-f :l.hiie\t in 'tV this iolibective.
()le in\t:'l\es the addition i-f it\\x,-,i'i re grades, thirteen and
(oivtieentil. t te hih schlio,-, while t ie othei involves the re:ituion
,t a newi and separate educational tnit or di ision. Tlihe ard\octe
that these ne iiNtitititiolns be :called "commuini[\ institutes."' The
tei ll peoples Ille,'" lias also been su.iested ij otilther as bein-
inditihatixe -,f the nature atind purpose of these new intiitit:tons.
Still ,,rthrie s i.'ilil ,a.ill then\ jiI niotr ,.olle;es. e\en thioitu i thLe-
w -iild ble Xairl i dillerenir h 'iii tlle t\ pi Sirt-e the teritii "-'nitnIinlit\ institittte" ha, been applied liv lithe
N artion;il F..lii itti.-n A si,, iatin. x lle slall ii ii iin ld ler t, a ilia te
ftirthlici referen t tliese institutions.
In the next ihap.lPerL. lthe :ittemnlpt is inadei' ti-disciss rio \ Nll' i-orlne
'f the mote itmportan.it piint iplet- and ,standailtd .,Ili whi liroiild Ite
t','nsidered in thie ori.nieaton .and dtiiianirtie, n c f the instite-
li-n. .hliilh .1 e needed, no- in-i.ltI0 1li.t thle\ in-I\ le ,called
C.hl. .. ..n .I I'.1 -li- i,.- i -- n i ...ll I,, *I i .,i, .i ],.,i LV -il .
ilsh l. ii 1) <" N j .li ,, I l',ll.i ll ,,,1 \ I.,, i t ,i in I'ltl

Some Proposed Principles and Standards
\\'e trust Ili.,r r lI c" 1, 1,, lai.e followed our thinking thus far
Ih le co'.ie ri : r I ior [rlh.ce in- inclusions: (1) there is a real and
tIlrgent need Lor the ,ii i ,f p, -r.i; igh school education we are advo-
caring:; i'i' present r cdu irin'.i facilities fall far short of making
this i- e 'lt edutc itiinii .n:cssillh to all of the people who need it;
i.' the I ck it apprl pri.i.ile cdicatcional facilities results in literally
hu ndleds o ti rlioI s.nds (.A o:lu r \ .uith entering four-year colleges and
llni' ei sInes I' hose ci Iuric: l!. i aie not at all adapted to their educa-
iona.l intelIeSt. C:ap..:ities :At needs, and from which they never
.ae a lntlu.riO ed: .ind 141 etliet a new unit or division must be
created within the hrameiw.:,ik A:I our public education system, or
inllSreal. \eim\ r.i.Ii l ie\ It'n i,-n .I expansions must be made in the
C'ull rit lIa it sti:ime oil :u'i ex.C siin; educational institutions, if the
edull.mr.l:nal need I I a la: ..e pio:,portion of our people, perhaps the
ma.,j it [\ aiIe t.: be ,er ed.
Ir ie:.malin. [ir ii', i. li~,'Cu the problems involved in the wide-
s.preaItl e~.aiJliihm-in .111id adminiiiistration of this new educational
unir. Ii hl:It ilcl Ihe apparently :;i ile outset of our thinking on these
plil.i'r oif 1-1l1 pilleirl [IlIr it;li, proposed community institutes,
i\lhile t:ekLing rlt 'ui *..,:it -iiiil, objectives and embodying the
s .e ldii.c i:.'ri l plin cipir e.-eiitial to their proper functioning,
will inc:essris \nt\ c.,nsidernl.l!\ in detail. This is so because of
t i. maiin rsIc.im.: A I I 1 The diftIrent communities in which they
\*ill be I.. sire, wealth. Vreso.lr:e's.. .i.ciup.uiional activities, and educational
status ii O inlhal:itantsi :ind I'-'i ne of the very first principles to
be rec:CIgnized is ithI these pin.posed institutions must serve the
ed:l cati:ioil needs uclh exist in their respective service areas.
It is. tlei el:o e. not our iIirpii.se to describe a model'institution
whiic l minLt be Iplicat-ed in all its details over the whole country.
Rather ie h1;1Ill :Imtempt t,:i present certain basic characteristics
a.n piinciples w\iiiicl, Ah:i,-ild I,e incorporated into any plans for
f13 1


the (o igani:Uti ion and dlo-elopment 'f tls- p 'rpoed comlunliv
institute.. These characteriisict and p inciple :ire in hamion\
with mIll,,tln demlli tit pllillisph\s f education .ind Ihiave been
substantia[.i d I\ thli e\periencel thI li.e cxistini institultialns \ Ilich
are piineerin. in this iea ,t f ,duic.itri.inal service. They ill be
discunr:-hd in their relatiiin t1, c>iirrictiltni. administration finance.
location. ntiden t.iod\. .mnd other si.niii1'nt -speclls c.f post high
scho.'-l cidui:atirhn.
T hle curitl ilillin. in its tli.r dt,-st ense. inclu des li whiat is
taught in an\ edu:iti-a>nil intstitition ind I2' Ih\ n it is tai:u-hIt-
the conitenm and the method. .\ s siiih. it i il I- mo11c iimpir'Anit
attribute (o 1 an\ eduiatiConal pirogila[ m iind shlimild recipe: iiii'iir
attentnin oin the palt i''f tilh'c h plan .inil aldiriniiter ,'ie r edut.ia-
tional in'.titutii' n T lie ilesi.-nin..l -if (ti rrit >ilda for po(r-Fiio-i'h N.chool
instit ii,,iin, ,f Fhe ti\pc \,e are .id in.' i b\ nl means a simple
problem. It ca innot le e a in e xact and strictl\ scientific pro-
cedure. bint it d-ues rei.quire the e\xer:i-se c'l sOillnd judlI,'igent Ijsed
upon a few basic: piin:'iples. and 'p:'n tacis decried l tri: an
anal\xi' 'o.f :co'inprehensi\e sure's i~' :onlditi 'ns in all aspects ',
indi i;dunal aand .:ommuniti life. This statement als,- implies that
the ]c:cal coinmunl\ institute slhouild hase legal autlh-riti tLo di-
sign and piescrribe int''< i-n ii ri,:ula and -o'urse1.
II t[lie needs I all s iuih andl adults tr, i' n.ideried. tlie ,Illw-
ing general i\p f ot cu 'r'ula \il iie reuri'cled f1o the t\ pi:al oi m-
munit :
1 Prepanmriti (pirepr'Fes>i(c.nali- -,.,nsisting lar'-ely of a-:a-
demic sbihjec: ,1 r'uired f(or tenant into' seni_'r _(-'llege or pro-
fession.il sc:ih iools.
2 TerIninial-designted as preparation. notr F'or subsequent
courses. 1in fur immediate entr into i :c':C, pati.onal fields. Terminal
currictila -are .:i i,,: t\pes: In general o'r cultural. and (bi \oca-
tional .or iteclhnial.
3. \Adult educt ation-ldel:ned tn increase tie cultiual. social.
civic. and \ocati -,'ial cmpetence -o adults \.lh are ilread\ in full-
time emiIpll,\ 'met.
T he iillt iciiIii offe ineII of tile c''lllunlilit institute IllIC st
make pr i\ isi', n hr thle ,hllo\\ in ii l.i es ,of sti- denti: 1 I iill-time

suIdents,. ibotli piepar.lt':r\ and terminal; (2) part-time students,
\SIuih who\ are w,:i kin._- at regular employment and cannot attend
full time: and i: ai .llnts hll: -an attend only in the evenings or
in 'lack peri:dcs.
Cut r iculal arrangements lmust be flexible and readily adaptable
to chaninig I.-ndulitlns and needs. This applies more to terminal
than [t preparato:'rI culicula. The latter will cover the work of
hie first L%.,-, \'t.-I, of t[ie stL'andiard academic four-year degree college
Cnlri, uluim. Thii',iv w .rk i faln .i well s:.ndal. lin.'zd knd i; set foi-thl
in lthe cndl.mniLce leiullemcintL I1; the higher institutions. Specific-
terminal icurricila \,ill need it- vary in length from three months
Io t\\,, \:n. r Fii e.,IIl.a flill.tiiiie students, depending upon the
chiAl.n.i ter a id leit- 'l tile i C::lp.uaion for which the trainee is being
prepared. In practical\ all serni- or subprofessional fields, the
len.lth Of training shiiould be the full two years beyond high school.
Courses [ or partLtime stlldents will usually be of short dura-
tion and deal 'n lh quite spec'licl topics or subject matter areas.
Courses fc-I ac liIt \ ill utislall\ take the form of classes, lectures,
[lortlln., diSicul n,,slI. eLC. C(:i.untnity institutes must stand ready
to .'l'er instructiLIln in ann\ a ea of human knowledge, and on a level
and: ti) li extent ind.liilc.ted I\ tle real needs of significant portions
f thile so ice arca. Tle\ iust developp year-round programs with
\t. flexilCie i c.l.uionat aIs ir ime and requirements for entrance.
Terminal cdiucat-. n sli uild be both general and vocational in
cihal iit r There is F:iirl\ .._,,mnlon agreement that instruction in
irizeiinsllip culniimal appre.ii:iri-n and understanding, and health-
ful lit ing sih.-'uld Ibe part f.'I the education of every person, regard-
less of the occt:upatin he f-ll.iws This is what is usually meant by
the tr m generalal" edoca'tion. This principle of generality should
be applied to terminal rcational curricula. While these should
emphasize prep-aiantin I'or specific occupations, they should also
includtle --,n,:lier ble amiunits ,nL basic instruction in the sciences
and himanities for tihe pilrp',se of developing flexible social in-
tellIgence and an adelIiaei phili. sophy of life in every student.
The pirpe prpiop tions of, general and vocational instruction
to I-e in nip.'wated in an\ 'gi\en terminal curricula will depend
upon secral f:ctrns. and 'will not be the same for all curricula or
for all students in tie ,amne cur icula.


TH iL NL w I U\L'M' C l I i F E

In the Los Angeles Junillr College. n a-iIert.e ,f a.bl -nIII per
cent of the time is given r.' '.o, iica-n.il sub.ec -411 p., eral subjects and 20 per .ciit t, elccti\es.
This same distribution las been pres Cribh tion standards for junior r co:lleges adopted1 I in 1'I, tihe Nli land
State Department of Educatiorin. Thi \isdo-m of ', hcczin.' ,m
distribution of general a:nd \ocat:inal suIbjls in tilt tcinillm
curricula of junior colleges in a I, hclc statc is. in ''Ill opininl. \CeI
Many variations from lthe Los \Anglcs -I f .41i-21 p:tr in c r til
be found. An analysis l ili : coinp-iip. i-iin i :of :.;1 iii n .r .. lle'e ,.ur-
ricula revealed median pe- -entag4.< *-f .1 5 f, 5 < \ Iti.nal I iii.rs,
28.6 for general subject,. and 14 I6 clir.ti\L
If the work of the I-t t\\ -i ic.lN i iT hi:i s.l l \ d 'ei pit..perl\
integrated with the p l-'t-hi..Ih .i.lI,, iI pri:;r I nil- t rlhe ,.'-lnminllit
institute, it could be m.ide t, pFr-ide an ade iluite .I t Lieneral
education. This, howc\ter \.-1Iid, n hlt be -.if the tr.lditdiItnal t\pe
of high school curricula desiner d n111inl\ t.., meeIt i.'llege clentrance
requirements, but should father be .adIusted ,:, sei-e tile needs.
interests, and abilities o:, prl- i'pe-.[tie termin.11 stridents :At while
community institutes. Its ii.iin emph.lsis 1sh1 .i.ld poiinit tI':ward
intelligent citizenship. m.:nsiumer educatin..n. .ind the mi':Ile intel-
lectual types of recreational acti it es. Withl the pro\ isi'n *:l[ termi-
nal courses in the post-high scho:,: l \ears. muclh i:, tlie c, -ati:'n'al
instruction now being attempted:l i Ill i sCj h I:ll ciouhld Ibe dll-
continued, with substantial al a.Int.ag1 to all cI:onierned.
Even the more stritl r xpil,:E.i [l phiise -,l terminal C(cdulatl.-ii
should be broadly con. ci\ ed and i ncluiiil tilhe Cloi c in:,n ic. '<:i ill. .1anl.
cultural aspects of spe_.iFi. i,: ..atio:ns and thlis:e l'c elI iclated to
them, as well as the morel putl c-l tit.jlici.l .I ,sp) [t
There are those wlho-,. \hlilet ;idniiring trhat .1 rel ainil Irentl
need exists for both g ner.il niiid i ,'' i..itln:ll -ilI,..rrin -If lthe (\pe
we have described and f-, iinstl,.ti-iiIn i-n boIth tIle de.nee andi the
nondegree levels, belie\- thl.ut tlie t\\w:, p <. a;lnn:,t be ; cin 'ic.t.ess-
fully in the same institiirin. W\'e dc.oubt the taliditv (of tliis beIlif.
While specific examples of fa.iluire to ..Illml.bine gen!lcill an.1 \.i:.1-
tional education can be pointed u-tir.. s-.i a.ls .:tn e i\a ples . f :.t .:n-
spicuous success. The instlim.es ,., Ia ilure c-an in mn-n i.caIes be


Il.lcd [tl Il' : Ii strilhe attitudee of faculty members, most often
ri-\njl \i.at;i ion.l riii-ti.:tion. This attitude in turn is usually
baed In't iip,'n .li r lnit rather upon prejudices, an outmoded
,c-d iI .:r i,--ial phlil Is, ,ph\. ;iiid an unwarranted worship of traditional
%al.ln.iidl .Ini adniiiii' l i ive procedures.
The iexpcrinu. c- of tli-se junior colleges in California in which
a I:i ,e .iiiinmn t i4 Icllinal curricula of a vocational-technical
in.iire is l' beiil nRt4ced along with regular college preparatory
(. ili ii.ul i. aff..rd> nuinple et idence of its practicability. Enrollments
in Mii.h insttiLttirnsi hane increased much more rapidly than in
th.ise with ,'l',, academic curricula. There seems to be no evidence
tha .ueitl er \ pe ,'t c:.1 I icula has suffered thereby.

C'_,-'_peiatile a11 an.gements between the community institute
iand rlie I-uLsineNs. iinlditrial, and professional establishments in
thle cniOmmlnii\. \\.llcilb youth attending the institute could be
empl''-\1.d p.lt-tite in Ib.na fide work, would seem to be particu-
I:nl\ iiell .idapt :d ti terminal education, especially of the
\ni'ca:ri'nal-t(i. IMical t pc. The many values of cooperative work-
m, IIil pcl ien I. e aie ico'gnized today, and we may well expect a
I.i \'-p.in>iii 'fi it in the future. Through such experience youth
le:unii lhrst h.nd id.lat makes his community "tick"; he is given
")pP, [.tuni\ t0 t:-st hiisc interests and abilities, to apply some of the
kncLo. lcdi.,e andl tec n i-, .Ie is learning at school, and to acquire
thie seine
Cf-,ip(;:ar'ti: \nk .mnd school experience also can reduce but
nt cliliiicll t ei :Pc\ es' of maintaining shops and laboratories
.3 1he instit l rc1 irn \ iich students may bring to the level of profi-
Oirn.\ tle si.ill, :iiind tecinics of the occupations for which they are
pri:p.ring. H-l,.:.~er. this will not eliminate the need for some
s..wentitfi an:d teni. il equipment in the community institute
f'.iI insmt ii tii:,nal tpInii ] 'is s.

T\r, .enLcr:l Itpes 'I1 services must be provided in the curricu-
lum on f [lte comm init\ institute: (1) instructional and (2) guid-

THEF NE\\ I1t;\iO CO.<( i.rict

ance. The preceding paje line dealt \.ih the Itst. (nlh a Ict
reference will be made it,: tiic se .o:'nd.
Guidance-personal. s,(.;al, moral. and X\ caional -Slhould be
an important part of hie Io:,lft ng s ':l ilie Loinnuinlitv institctels.
especially for the full .ime and part-tine students. Guidance in
all the areas mentioned is rapidly becoming- ie> eog1 ::,ni/cd as a inio:r
responsibility of the education At southh at all le'l's. The neI.e1itI
for guidance has probably neler been as appare-llnt a t present.
and perhaps at no otici a';e le;el is it 11noie iirgCtiv neelud than
in the post-high school )ea: s.
Vocational guidance in parIti ulli li enssiil it terminal cuir-
ricula are to be succtslul. P:i.adein. l nior C:.,llege in which
terminal curricula are tattired, has t~i. deans :,or directors ot
guidance, six full-time and ei._.ltr pait-tini[ I.otseloirs. Its stLident
body numbers 6,700, iiit.re the l.iire guidance sLtll: ibut een the
smallest institute must ,iie \c,:'.ation.al .,iid:tane. .t Pasadena.
parents are invited to attend the [lst inltel \ IC itLh ileah I s[tudnt.
/It has been found that \ hen all l:iacs ae plesentedl LO tlhein twoi
thirds of the students and paints select iterininia l In i ricula.
This is somewhat nearc tle :col:reit prI.)p'jrtiiiii andl is nu1clii
higher than when adequate ,gttullance is ni-,t gxi\eni. A.\O-ii 73 per
cent of junior college uldcint-s d'1, n:oti enter lii.lher iinstititio', s.
and for them terminal cturrii ila \ iit:ld lie mnie appii priat.
The placement and follo'w-iip ,o giaidlmitLcs iii appiniri.ite posi-
tions should be regarded .is x ial p.u s :,t ile l' iii'lanc e pIr:'gr.vn o:,
the community institute.
So much for the pliilusophl '. t er inil edcl.. iil.On. T lie speci i(:
curricula which should I-e hollered in any pa:ticulan r coiu-ninniit
institute can only be deteim inned l\ a ca'etLl suin\ e o:1 the cil-
tural, social-civic, occtlpatio-nal. :nd recreietio:nal acti\ ines. oppor-
tunities, and needs of thil inhabitants wi thiiin Is sei ice aiea. Soiime
of these needs will fall into lthe :cantgi:t v oi: "g.enci l" lediuation jnd
involve instruction in Iim ic art. literatiuri. anil til[ humaniieis;: in
current economic, so.,:,i. .tnd political pri-blenis: in lic.ilti and
physical education. S:'lme u ill lie lasted .i \:,,ti':inal W.d U ill .all
for appropriate instrunti,,n in %.im io:'is as p)ctis a.icnliture, Imsi-
ness, engineering and ic.lith'>lo'g.v. tiailes and industry. fine arts.
home-making, and p hli i sci i ic.e.


Thle II.iiitIr .ind ex[tCIi of the educational needs having been
detc mined. the nict \ tep in curriculum construction is the de-
IerniinKion i, f the tIl)jei matter content as indicated by these
nicd,. ,and thl rn irI in, i. ii of it into appropriate courses. This is
:I i.ask ifu wll.-tr.iiid ecli i.tors, and any further discussion of it
is bcc.ind lihe piirp.I I.uf iItis volume.
I'i.'.-ibt.l tic m.nis b.sic principle to be advocated here is that
tile ilnstittons in ilestioln should be component parts of the
public educl-at: system *o[ the state and be well integrated with
the otlicr parts -,I it. Thlis principle has not always been followed.
A.\ i esiilt. se'. ei l illlrcinrt plans of organization and administra-
tion lnL',1 I.-e Iiund lthn'i.L.-hout the nation in the existing junior
collec. s l .aid tc. linii .al ini titiites.
T TlIhen i i1' iite _.1:n1i:ll a.eement among students of this prob-
le'ji th.i.t tl~eM p,,st.hiil~ i I hciol institutions should be administered
b\ the li.,il _l~ii ids ot edii ution rather than by state authorities.
\Where tei lo:;il s:chIl' :: district is large and populous enough to
sIppiit a~n ell:t .e in ni r i:ollege or community institute without
dr: w.iii, stiidenits [ liiin otitside the district, the same school board
hii:h .idmininsters lic :otlier levels of the local school system should
be iin ontii:il ol ai p-t Ii ll.i h school facilities in the district.
This int urics i rc.lter nount of integration within the system
:iil I ittirr;ii iiln imiire nt.irly adapted to the needs of the com-
inmnity tlh.in ti s ~ .iin\ .thlicr method of administration. It is also
fe.t ible ind perhaps desir.itble under such conditions to provide
the desired ed.lii..ti'n.11l Fhi ilities by adding two more grades as
post- higi sci:lioil edull, ati.inl facilities, and by offering in these two
.grades the I\peC of instrii tion we are advocating. A few cities
Ih ie doinm tIi i,. sine ,Il theinii reorganizing their whole system on a
6-.4-4 liasi Titrei is perh.ips one weakness in such a plan. Facili-
ties t, r .i.ihllii e .i.[ii.,n niihlit be more likely to be provided in a
i uinilmnit\ intititI e .I i jnicor college than in a high school.
In mu.nt[ I.'f ,Ou sit es. however, the great majority of high school
distrt its .e too sIma ll in population and in wealth to support a pro-
gr.inm I., p.-st- l hI sllho',l education appropriate to the needs of
heir inhabitannts. nnd ac--essible to all of them. In fact, the
m.i.lritv .as lhe\ no't sut:nd are too small to provide traditi,'i.il:


hFli'li school a.1,.ilitiCs 'ii ailthiing .ipproanltin; an a dc(iiate and

Clu ill n tr ends ill t Ie rei' .1 n izaLtion tf ishool distl i tis in .1 fe,'
of our states g',\e *go.inds [lr tile hope ill.Ir some day all t tilhe
existing school disti icts c hihi nle too small to em er Io;tumnc cweIfei\ti e
economical units w ill be disconiitinued :is nl, h and le .IlI, I bCd int.--
larger units oi at enl.ldnce and adlinii i ati:iii If tiler wCere '4.-.od
grounds foi belleting that this ',lil! '.>. iii withA in a decade or
two, we would Il:. ji itiind ,il h.ip, in pol"lipo)nin he L.reation of
separate por.li-.lh :,.hi-.lIol in titilltlns until the desired ire',rganizia-
tion had been i on ,iminitt-d Thiic alie. lihmcei e. poI'ertil Ioies
operating a'.linir sNhodl disUti i -t iei rga.ini.;ti:'n, and while w\e n.ia
expect to see subst.anti:al pi iroi es, in thle relatihel\ near future. it
would be t, is- i li isinr expec-t it rc- happen soonii en:,ui.;h to
affect all, or e nil a in.1,_iit[X. II[ thle present 'ieneratliion eot vXoilith
and adults.
Therefocie. it 'iwtuld seen expedient to:' proceed "lth th(e .rrtail,-
lishment of the pi opIosed poist-hli.h sih,:c:l la rllliie inllnedi.ielv
on what rn.iN pi- e to be a temp,:irai \ 01 interinic<.li.ate 1).1si e ,en
at the risk of (reatini' pri:,blemlil '',hiih i would inot be, likely to
occur under in itd:al tni less pira, ital plan.
T here .ire to'o: O,,tl,: I ,.cs IiW tile --r4..ini.'.1iti:i f the (,_,'n-
munity institute. i I uniiiii-n distlrits-:pecial <-onuni[, insltlec
or junior college districts. Created b\ meiielg; ton 'lr mor'lt i'.li
school disti i ts: and I( t' the ,:_ounr\
In the .first plan. \h lichi is w idel, used in CaOlil-' ni.l. .,ll parts
of the newly I._cacil Cdiit it A silhal iln OXlN f lmlint.linin'. t[he
institute, v hii h is. 'it i._ciirse. op)p"n rti ll illhai.iltnti of t ie new
district on thle am.lnl liNi .An elu.etd bi ni. iepr-iti nt. i\ie ,_1t the
enlarged distI i t.. a.llmnistcI tlie ine institiltion. This plan sulfers
from the fact hli the ncit district aind its bia.ird \erlap tile ,_on-
stituent district and lteir rle sp:.ti\t bt.alids. This gotten is pr:o-
ductive of frin,.ti,_n .ind iInelfi.iien'.\. .ald '-pt ir-tes .Iagarinst tile desired
integration :of the high s l.hi'_l .wnd posc-hi.ig s.himmol programs. It
should not be taken 1,_r m .ianted. hom\Mt\i. that the problems anlis-
ing from this plain of,, 4.-ini.,.-tiin in not be solved. o:'r that the
disadvantages i':er l l.in e the Ad\an[Alit,. In it:ii, iinder certain
conditions the ftrn.ati,:on of uIniiln distirIts in.i\ be tlie ,-_nl prac-

PRI IC ll'l.L ,\NMI Sr,\\LAKIc,

tic.-,Ile plan .ata.il.-llc fr pr,- iding; post-hinhi sdio,, Ijh i liti-:.
Moeo\'e (C.liti rnia pill ides niain\ siicessliI xa'ii\ plis i oit thii
pl.n' f i w.0.ini/.i(-n.
I1 s[. ; -iplti.S tin': l(l tii 4.ltd i i ll hN 1 l t _i N ,ti\ ell ill i lii li
scoonci.id N eidii .Ati' n inll iIt I 1 ic 11I'int\ is pi.ett\ .Cell intci.1it1(.
.aionrd ,,,;t: 1ri n illc ii- ii : .;t ll tl. \,,tltl o [ !i(-
:c l liM rlie i nIdt c '. p It 11 i. li il,>l S c h i\ a e i: pii i i \ ltci l i\t I
etXt ilClin thl e i ltl erili'i; n itne r nl.ie ''I t1ie .I ca .t d i 11 ,
str.tegic.all\ located high *,schols. Since there i nnlNl\ 1 'I bl .iild to
(dtci atirjn [r) ie %(\l tlOl iri-tnlt\. die pliOblti i f In l Lippinll
disn tivtIs min [i.11 s h otii .ild not e\is[.
Tlhise is Net ainotheii plan Mo making posillii'h ,:hl)inl M1ic:..-
tion atiailab c lI t- all the t Ni:.ti ,-, tile stat. Thii plin lies nor
in ,il'c .an\ l ..nil or01 w' .nic ie lgai nizatii11 On ( diri Wiirs. bilm p 'ro
\ idl ,s f l ll the 6 ". 1 1li -l-ni t 1I p1 lt-li.i-h siIl,-,] f.iAcilti eS inll t e
larI tei piipiila tiii(in cln[-ters of ti ;t.ntc. rt, Ic .id nin istiued .is pa) ts
t eof p lic s>- h'oil icllm1 If' dI ci" I .C. 1i "e 1 i2 the tA' i ilh e ,:,l
enrollment in these acilities foii \ inth likin.;1 outside these lt.Cei
centers in other school districts ..ind .i arr.inll tenint Ilo tile pa\
menr of tuitii'on. either b\ state: s.h l;arships o'r b\ tie loia:l districts
in which the souh leside. Thii til is tile plan used in m:an'. of the
states at present t', make high sl:honl education a:. ailable to eighth
grade *;radiuiaes oM mil elerieniitai cdisti icis noCt mintainin; ligh
sc li-ols. \T iile onsidleira l\ i eilter ithan no:, plan at all. this hlas
11111\ (di. adiallta.e* ;iil ( cilailll\ N 31111a t bl e irc aidetl as a s5 lis-
[aii to-rv inlli pCl l.i t.n t sin lir'lioln to di. pi ,l .miii iA eil t lie the liilil
i hl o A 01or po-s -Iih.;- S".I(C,,,I I(h \ l- is
Pi,*schi4h school educti ion ol iei t ripe I ae ad'l at\ inz n1iusr
be made ie:idil\ accessible to ill : of iur peopi:. A.WcWssilili\ is
.ltfeced bi thilee ,-los 1 lelatee I t.lt: s: i l dcisitance I .tert en the
inscinitnioi and [hl e Ioilil l i thnse ltcnilli'.: 21 l:inspir (.ti-..n11
l.a iliiies a.\ailaille: 1and .., ii n ,- [ ,il ttiendiance t: the indi\ idi ll
Fi-,T \\CF FrI'\ I\iTIr TITI>\
Olioioisli. A c iinsidtcralle .ilf rene:t. ct ists iwC.r :en the ciost o.
li\ ing [ .it hm e .ind th.t in\Ailled iii lid in11 .iai\ flnin mie 'Iilel

1.1 11 II.llld r id b:i rld mll[ lie p:id iin in c.i.sh. Thi- difference mhay
oL-ien be Mi.lniii prIc'.nt a.ip:ible and ambition's persons :lln
Ien'oln1. hIese insLiII[e.. thlere'fore. should be close enoligh v,
tl th hoilles il the stideits lo enable them it lle iat h ie. Meilh-i.T
';At .in pori Lta il'n a\ail:ible and tilt di.ItanCe Ili.-t ati be tra. cllled
lii-intii- il al i r ill ar1, foll ideal \ l \ .I 'Late'. I In In'Ii t ,ti.itc' [lie
Inl i ,'l i itN ,it tile tu tli -ntiil ., l i Fr ,i I ,.l-il l v. ,, ra [ el Ih aullt ,-
1 ,ill Ai ilnd .l pi ,, i l i c. i l ,\1 n r.,lln.,,r I.iti, I l. PrI ,I).Ibl 3j 1.1 m iles
e.-'ch ditel tii. l (1 IIl. lInillcs Ii'liiiid-riip i is [die 11i.l\illllli dist[ llLC
w lich peirs'ns i-'uid be ex\.pece:l t1 ci i\e each da\. Fori most
] pe ls '. nlat. ell ..,lin tis tlsL.ilr -e dc ili wouldd in 'll\, e itio i <-li-uc
expense. unless pIlain (cnll be teffcted l [i'il ,eiial p(oi-nsl tO LIse
onl c31 To I.\i.el ,.laiil\ dlisane-w- 11111mi l in exceii ol 30) milCe
',nkilTd iii ii i' ll\ lit ixp nll n I lc e Il .nli IlIiiCn \ thii. l t
] ,iL 1ij- i \ t i ,, i t "Il,, il in li ti .iff idl
TIK.\ 'AN P T.\ I i-. F I.\CiLITILS
Tlhe t pes: 'l niinsp:ioriati.,n Lacilitie-s hichi would be employedl
I1, ttiil-Ienis itteln'itir* 3 S\S't'il l 'O iAdespietad anld aJ esible p'-'11-
Ii. ii l :, i-, -l i tllti, i niIo 'I %kill. Al cOLIIu se. \,1 \ "1'ie 1l\ 1 \ 'e [lit:
na.nti: In lhii kl, -..ii:liptilateil il b. in area s ilee ci al. aili cI'adi .
and blI l lines i o'uM eici ,e a IM l,- pipi'i inl -l [ ';itlent'. In r1nal
areas. prik.t ll-l Onint I -c llitie,. in 1n1' 1Ns t.'1 ile fam il\ car,
.ui'i d111 be 1. e tl ,t iliii, iin illid(.c t h[ei.in.p[iit .ii ll'.i
T iI,: UL ,,dilin -s pil in urs .lll .-,nc., i .i ls \,>l ld ( l f en
leti ,inle .1 tL.ii-,r i 1 m.111aiaii inipl.irt.inle. \\hlile In _eic iinl s't est11' the
i......r :'-ildiion Il iLnal rloads %'.Wild p e que a handicap Lt
ie.2Ll.a attendance, in o:tliei i.hii ii iou :ld n,_t be .in inipi t1ant
factoti In all smtites e mna\ "ell expect 'cnsidelalble implement
in lhe ':adl ,'iL,.iraticn in thile next ii1 injn\ c'tl pirposes
(OST li 1 .5'1 T l NLi'.\ (: I.
The ._entr:il priuiple t.', l.e emphii i.ized here is that the cost of
atenld.im.n e ti, the incldi idtial student,. in atual ca.hl oi utla'. inu't
be nacle as lin, as Fpo.Sible. ho Is are thise whi. deeply c'insciuiis
ol the need lot making_ potihiighi schoili education 3aailbble 10 all
(ii \in' th. inii';t thai.t :ll co.ts incidental to, attendance shouldd be
pnli b\ tile p ublici while e such in iniestmnient' ot puiilliC lItnds

Fill jil.\11--w


1niig41 pcni',e in thel Ion. i run to Ibe a thoroughly sound one, both
economic call ,ind i._iialls. 'e doubt that it will become a reality
in the near fI.ItUe. \\'Ve .lie nf.g the position, and we hold it to
be an immediately piactti.ble one, that attendance at post-high
~iisch l institutionsI of tic he i\pe eare discussing should be tuition-
free to all students.
It t Inul ie irec:ni.'.ed that e'en to attend tuition-free educa-
tional inutitutir-,ns in ol'.ie c i nsiderable cash expenditures for
Ir.\,l. b i.i k. i' l.thies and ohei incidental items. Moreover, even
111thotg the c'' (,ft tli.se items might represent a quite small pro-
1portion of t[he tIital cost '-I election, it is large enough to prevent
some \: \in tl'i* tI .nron attending. However, it also must
he kept i in ind i iit "' -to inmu i help extinguishes the soul" and
that il the pri\ iliee lof itt nitdaliic is sold too cheaply, it may also
be l ighitl\ i e'ga ded.
In Itint .tates at piesctlt. quite substantial share of the cost of
opeirat it. jni i.i, colleges is derived from tuition fees paid by
students. The '_iait incrieases in enrollment, however, have been
in thlce st.tes in v. lid h l attendance has been relatively free. It
oniildi .ilppc.ir thatI no '.g eat eCxpatnsion of this area of public educa-
tion c in be L\pcc-:t-d I. li il: tLidlents are required to bear any more
1han ai ei\ nomninal sl.- e in qtlesti''_n.
The tendency\ ait piris.-nt i to-, igard post-high school education
as sinmpl an e\irensii.*n i.4 ec iindalv education and as such entitled
to public In s i l:r its entire uiipport.

T-i nIlmbri o.[ tludents enrm'!led in an educational institution
is tile imica-suic siA i.:e most coinmmonly employed. The minimum
enrillttint. contisittnt \ i~l, a desirable level of economical opera-
tion. t.'r li t\pe 4of institiniori I'.e are advocating has been set at
S Iroim 17 -, 2'-i. [nill-time Itu ldents. Of course, the institutions
could be isperted a.nd ari iln Lact being operated, with much
smaller enrollments ilan -'n1. bliit the cost per student increases
rapIdlls with deci ~s-s iln cllr.llinent. This is especially true if
\vaietl curni iula adapted to, ilie needs of all youth are offered.
Tlihee r ill be instan.es in rsp. ,iilv populated areas where, in order
to make po,:st high sch,,il education accessible, it will be nit.c.ss-IN

THF Nr\ .INIOR (.:4111 1G I

Il, tileit.e l naI 1113 ir lll l nllm iirt< and hlli .ir LiSts p Cr students 13an
i\,ll!d Itlh'l \ i S e Ii o',lliidered perillIisSilP, iit this sl iouCI not
,n unil i .I sI. sitildi -11 111 li e 11 t (t.1J015 in thie lo1l1 sill.i.i 0on
cutnlhllis le tlhe f[.i-t til t,-, ,-itil.ln ,1 ea1ier enroll illlncnit one o0 ln:'ie
i-ollsiderIill ons I e\i. l Cii13ti [eii '._tli e 11 thaln ec-' 'n' 'il\ ao f o:peia-
tion "\oull d hlin\e to: be sn,_rifiHed.
TI HE rT;lIt N IlOL\
It has lre a.l\ ICen Wu,._,Westeel t Ihat t Il p 0p110(d1 institutes
I thI < 1 4 \, i.' tilei po lit l Ill .gII I, il l ithli tlill ~ )l i 'dil s i[ .ill pt 'rS-tlls
ill thl.'ili ii pl. in. 11,e:1 i ,t ll. IN is I lt thi, ll '.IesteI.l t(1i.1 l ti e
Inlig.it pr,,t Inc in Il, l nit lin in ir tdcs and indus l ii l ,-;, r1 k [or (ocI I L' in
bo.s in thie high sI h i-iol rTi:dcs hl are sr deliien in itellcitual
:pacit% and 1 inerc1. s to1 render Alicn in:lap:ble ':l p:ltin.g hoin
the i e'.1lar hih schcl cuLIli ic l llln. Setih iI.Idenl \ le Iestilled
it liea e M ic'ol 's s'n1 .a thile laK allo:iws. and t: t li ien o, n iL i. l.
i.nd ti.it of M -iet\ tllt\ s ,hiiii.l LMtel iC i .u llar emplin\i cnit illn s'me
kind Jl, m nit.\ il \ i- k as -,in as p,-,ll l'l le" Iici ll,' i lll ll- I l. sc lli-t
._4 ili 1il 11111d I I p. c s p 15lll~ 5 if rlltli 35 ki l 0 3 i so n II I@ t ct l t. i as
<(- thi' cll ,lii-d l'. plr ,p ru.,l ti ,L k11 .1IlI stl ie 1 ietl il Ct ii \lS i l.' ii .1
Il nllie .ii.,.C.'Ftl l 1 1, .l iip i is if llit.\ t l" :;pploprihi. -l l r ailn id
fli a l-e< ifi rtp lit o f nipnl iti\ e ;alk ti it\ Thin tP)C if edini:1-
tii',inl c\ l ie: C i- ilrc\ iT rc li P, iii (. p ilI) l 'l\ I ii ',l:nne,_tioii t i i tile h ',, :,.tiiin3l to hlnii_.1 l pn-'*.r n.l ,i-t the pi r,-p'- sed
II nSltille.
\\itli ilt e ( 0'pL i ill t ili ielatii el\ sm.111il .Tonpl (lie sittndclt.
Ii nl I ~ill4.id li-e ,i 1'%ip, s, I i.: 111.1111 ,"ioll IS t,, 25 t.- ars t age andi (2) .liilt'h ,t all ij'e. ManM iot the latter
II Ill, 11-t h .1\c i_ iip l, t i, li .h I,, i l,1t 1, ill lI e r .1 11ille. Inie lli-
4efnt inldi it:lim l'.. t_2p.l, ', of pIrfilil h,1 m ii i ,ll II l ,:llnl
TlI:. ed0 icC i'-_ill needs .ind ln .ic ',t' i tM :Hi mt a il ill gronttp',
1 %il. :li i C11 se. .i r \ ir.it!\l TI ,h mjji l- ii i of tl,,- \oiitl, ill lie
i ier l e'Ste ed Iii.1inl', in instrLl,_ti,-_n drsi. .i .-d I,- .i t thl- ill I l ,oos-
in..;. pieep'ii Inl.; t, nnd cnterin,.!g ip,,n dedia.' l. w, ,l p.,riou is K eln
ilhi,, ,h, u'\pc:t to- :'enter p ,-lqo cssi,'s \.hkh li '-llil. ,itunlh.ld

Il. o. i ig il i 1li I II illS tfit 11 '4 t I n ii w .i l i p1it p.'l ii. 'r i
tr.inin ii helii l I -4: nl tile instit lln i il\ l ,ill ,. ilnicr'l t .v ill e,-
t.L'.ili ill tI i i l l i i [l 1-I li p.i it ,_li r i t Iiei ,l ilc I ,.1 pI .:P .11i tii mt
%hiI, i.,, k,- -,Ji\01 at the jInl r c,_ ll, el.-lt: ( )th.r, nay t e
",till[)1 io il plans \hh1 l l quite -Hil'. on,_ ',.-.1 o spt. iv/.i/ d 1ain. ing4 tin pieplie Ol ier OI r cer aina i, [< .e I, ;.'il.:f il-t.

PRICI'i fr .r \ ) N Si .\NDiAR.\R

I'i~ l i.le. 'it Ct.ictse. IInreiess allied needs i ohil ierl tlin tile strictly
\octiil n.i. Tlihe in j'. ritt\. ill l nte peItonial, social. aind leciei-
ti..n il ,'iidin e "-nd insfr tion. T hle,,- ill need a.ilo [: iih e111 I e
their cliic inld political intelli-ence :nld t.i pil ticip.ate in1 ,iUllnp
alti itks of i: in II\ Inpes.
Nl )ibel l of til-i .allidult -l. >o p ,..l1i hli.i\C e ,,;ci.C p i,' n ll ieehn ito
he seied lut nont litose in\ol\ed in liiho in., .incl enltelill.. up'.n
i ithc life \%,.-rk. I lier lthei .'l lati nill ineIC ests l ill bIe i'-I>ci ni-i l l
,idl l llmnre:isiln theil 1:0111pietei n:\ i ln leir i.ll rei lt ioL Ciitpli lls.
Their iniajo intieirests and need it ili prlil..\ be in IeAl 'rlier
lian c.l;cationl I. i.e.. in econ nomic. ,iC, ial. .i d i)p..- l icil pi1 ,ilcinl
o(I te di ay a nd in re:cteational a:nti\ itie'
Thie'e coliniitinit\ linstintire, lhoiild be diiibl.iuted l idcl\
tii 'li.iill'i t tile Fl.lti''ll and lli iin l' IInnit elcii natte ill oide' [lilt
tlie\ in3\ lie ieidill\ I ('cce-'Ille to .ill iiliabitants.v Tlhe\ -hol ild
aldi lie Iocat'ir in the l.lier c.enites of p.:puil;ation. inlf.ir a~s in
prat ricalle to ci'. sm ..'. ith'.,u \ ila in. tile pi iiniipile ,'f cessi il' it\.
Somnle of ithse :elntcl. o' popitl.ition in.i\ ni't lic lar'e. luiiM dile\
wlibleil lhe tie larze- ceniel, in tiieit lcspcti' e diktriic' In onier
,' iids. eihl '.ine should be the Oin or cit, \liiii pi< l\ ide1s '.i the
people li ing in tli .alea sill Io1.ndi1n1 it tillnw nee1.jri 'nids aind
el\ ites whli<:h the,, cainnoit ,'111tiin in rlieir 1n ille- r \illa;es and
neigil,-hborlood -enteis. Each In11- i thie _.enter ,if the I erl multi-
CI.i1111lullll\ Airel 1a- li>l 'e :Wh i less dislti i t 'i lm .
The ie.ac-ns fr this are .'l,\ irous. First. pl::ain,' thie instinl-te
in the I.nrei >enter' of pi.pi.Ilation insiile'le lni.e1 enillm.inents
since tile\ will Ibc nii.r' re.cldilv accessiblIe tc, more people. Second.
people a:e alre.adv acquirini the Ilnl it of goi 1, i[ tli tcs la.rer-,
comuI ni[t\ ci nters lor meine l:.il. le.gal. ibinkint-. .indl hioppint'
seri'ce. 3n11d for their lo-le.~ 111 1i:1 nact litie In [ile rllild ph.e
efRectie \O:.tiicn'tl-teLin ':i l ildoiti in i lll i lnl_ ti.it ,-pporlillni-
Lies le made a.iailable for Nlludent' t-o ,sIei' e :and ti t olanin pi a.ctice
in lie occup. ,ti*. ns 1 oi, hi h il1 tile\ : pire pli rii. .
riF\ \.\CF
The lunda.iient.il principle in it,-.ird to tilte financin.g of post-
tiihi sclChool edilic:ioni ll.i' iltea.id\ ibetnl entnillnIatcd in .an e:n liei


section. It must be tuition-ilre. at least :or all youtl. Otherwise,
man'v of those w ho need it most will be'unable to obtain it. This
implies g : neioiir i support t honll the st.te or ledceral ;o\ernments or
from both, sine real property wlhic h is piacticatll the only form
of wealth loA.il district i can tax. is alr al', carrying hea\\ tax
burdens. This is espe- iallI true in those it.tes in which the major
portion Ol thle 11nanc.ial support for the public schoIol \st-enm comc-ls
from the local piopert\ taxes. In suh stiCats, il full ,os of the
coimmlnll instiitUes miglt well be Finani. el foni n state tlunds.
supplemenecl-d b\ suchi monies as maN i e clerl\able fhom federal
sotl I c's lor thli piu poses.
In lthoIe qiatmes in v.hcih a lrii-e share. .5i per elent or more. of
the cost oqi public etldication is aliheald being borne b\ the siate.
the piresnt plans --A 's h1i-iil support c u(ld be extended to co\ er
post-high scllceol c1dlla.ltion. California. '.hI,1h tar excels ain other
state in the number and enrollments of its junior colleges, has
seemingly\ a quite s ucc,-fiul plan of state support. There, the state
pa s a lump sum in of $2.0i00 per ecar to ea, h propel\ csitabiishedl
junior college. together with $11.il for e:uIh lull-time stilcLnt en-m
rolled (l52iO after 1'47i This amount approximates 50 per cent
of the entire cost per student of a recalls Frit-, l.ss program. Thn1
plan gi\es a small colle-t e geeriou .sisiati enabling. it 1t c:elil
on a creditable pIogi.im oli post hih school education .it a i ot in
the local district If 5100 or less per student. (On tie other hand, a
wealth\ (Cimmlunit\ ma\ cami\ on as elab.or.te .1 pr.-ani :is it
wishes to support b', increasing the proponrion _of local support.
Using the (alitornia plan of financial support as a basis indl
an a.crage of t$1'i) as the am-ount of state aid per student. \we ha'c
attempted to estimate the total cosi to each i state of supporting a
fail\ adequate \scte-mn 'if pc'st-li'ih school education of the t\pe
It '..is hi'st ne-essr\ to estimate thile numieii er of students ilio
might be expected to aitend tliese community institutes if the
curricula offered were well ajinstei to their needs. This nuimber
has been set hiN some studemlt of the problem at :1 .000.0010 voucth
of post-hi' h sthlool a'ce This is roulghl 511 per ellnt iof present
hiah schliool enrolhmenit and o\er ten times greater than the present


jilior .,.,l h-?cg! eni clliielt. Others expect the maximum enroll-
ilent in IuI 111n co,11 .I.'I equ' cual one-third of the current high-
scllhl.l iinrllliii ent. Ple-idein Stoddard1 of the University of
Illinois lis s s.tel thIa.t if liill program of tertiary education (his
teinl fo:i lie t pe 'fI pi:sti.h-ih s''hool education we are advocating)
iere esei .Iilisled alon2 meiient:il, recreational, artistic, and voca-
tin1(a1 Ines. S. pei cet il inr high school graduates would enter
and a \ei sill.iLantia plop ltion would finish a complete two-
\ean pi -r-inm. Tie a IlLill a. tending evening classes and part-time
studlentl .arc i,'-t inillicled 1n rliese estimates, but they might total
-is ii.11.nV s tJli m1II,.il .b r i[f hill-time students.
Ir is ,lr iplni, 1l.0t Ill-c. estimates are based upon the most
hvi."r..lir blc (rditi.,n, im i in.iblle and are much higher than may
irasi-'_i.l.ll\ be \epectr:ed. Oil estimates of enrollments, the number
'o insiutictions needed clnd tihe probable cost to the states, assum-
inig thaIt tlie Calitl-cinia plan ofl financial support is adopted gen-
erall\. are presented in Table 11. These cover the cost for full-
limne slLud ni s iCi ll\.
Th I lUllii inzl .a~siimpti',ll. based largely upon past experience
and :ll -,i ing [,or rea.-inaile' expansion, were used as bases for these
estimiliate: ('I The Imnaimuin total college enrollment, at least for
'i-ine \ea.irs ti conime. ilI prii.bably not amount to more than 27-
per ct nif ~liut 1 ti. 21 \eners of age (only one state, Utah, has
appacelied tlisis : I'-'i :6 per cent of the total college enrollments
i, in the hfr.ishm.in \c: 1~i> 6 per cent of the freshmen will con-
Liniiue in tie siopliomori e Near: (4) about 33 per cent of the total
collegee enrollmen \llent ll he in the first and second years of the junior
:l.'lleges. and i17 per cent \ ill be in the four-year colleges.
lhese ansuimptiins anid the estimates based upon them are the
best w\e liaie been al.ble to ria..h. They are only approximations
\. Ilic 1 ill i \; hr n state c,.- state, but they are probably accurate
enlougtih t-, ser\e a- prelinin.iiii estimates of cost. More accurate
etinln.,es based up oii locil ill eys must be made for each state by
pel sns re.pnsible hfr tlie planning and development of post-
hi,,.h ,, h _.,' l ed.lic:,ti,_'n.
Friirlnirm-.ore. tile I iimlinn te development anticipated will not
lie reaC.lied pii..kl\ Pru-.b bl\ few, if any, of the states will obtain
'C(.'.*re I, N.i-.,lI.. I Ti. .i,. r-luraton (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvardn i ,i.
' r.: .i ir' r- I 'll :', .1 ,li. 1 ...i-. Lecture, 1914).

r. Ill ilL" ;:Fi THE N u. _ir ,F P..'-i-,i. H.,- OI I .\:Tii.Inrl..-. NELDLD, Tul 'F.,I-
E.- il i r -LL-TiRIE I.'% -, ll IENT, A'.r. THEir, (.r,: TI: THE ST. L I ,L[. _i -,.
.T4T F I-.n .\V i .,l _1.-ANl--)- Fr., F- H |P.:T TI- Tr '-,.. PLi. 1 n t i 'L %h ILh FiI_ -iMF
_rTi.rL T r I


New York........
O hio.............
Texas. ..........
California. .......
Mirhini ...
N ,-., rh :,r.:,lhn-i ...

New Jersey.......

Missouri ..........
Georgia.. .......
Tennessee. .......
W isconsin ........
M innesota........
Louisiana .........

Iow a.............
Oklahoma... ..
M ississippi ........
South Carolina....
West Virginia ....
Maryland .......

Colorado. ........
Oregon .........
M aine.........
Rhode Island......
North Dakota......
South Dakota .....
U tah............
New Mexico.......

Montana .........
New Hampshire....
Vermont .........
Wyoming .........

Totals .........

I d r .'1 Ti .re
Iii~ ~ 11~1 I r-.;1 l 5i

P,:eri r Lir

6111 1'. 1, 1 .

~: 111(( 1 41 11111: 1 ''i ii,1:1:

111,1I: I I l I 1:1111:11I '.

44 111111

iII 1111112 4SS 1 1-0
." I.~III III I 11

IIl~l~ ll *i.'II 111111 :

1 i 41


-.2 214

41, II' 14 II1 I II.. I
i'- 'll-"' JI.III phi I III.I

:dII II ~: lll ~IIII.

4 41 '1111 I 2 1 .1:11:1 I
0ii 5 21:1111 .~ .11: 1 I: I

41 11-1

2' II: 2 1 ii.
''I211: I'4 .411):~

1- 1I1li' -,1

* 1 .4 p:.

4 si (
44 11111 Cd,
In 111111
1 I.' 4.1

4 1111.1


I,. 1.1(111
I. 11111~1

I 4'I III)1
1 11111 1
''iii'11 i

I iI IIII ,*

I I 1.1111 :

S~ 1.11.'11 12





: 1'111,

S .i" -11 1~11 111

4 'ii:l 111-111

4.I 1 I 'IIIII
4 11111

'1 111111
2 lilIl

1 411:11111

I I'I 1 ,11111

1 251.).10

i 111111
. -Ir I 111111

1 1.1111
41~ ,l i IIII


411 1111
:., l

tie p:ls:i'.e sIl.ii le islatiiiin .s is ilee ded in lea tiliain fi\i Ai

l.ie est.l.lishcd t 11til e tini w '-L r p in, iI lloi n lic pA.l .l'." Ai the
en.l.lin l. le y1isla. 1'11n. 111 1h -,111 n, ill ,_t r .ac11 Ali ih II I. i ni IIn cn-
,lilfl lent ithill ten tl l i.. Nt .\ 11111iii 'ill tIl the i \ ( [ Ill.tilll f ll ti
re n.1 11in 11111 1 -illi ls ,il (~l~(: ins itult-_\s )ill pi,.eedl .11 (his i .0 it
nim l be predicted: that lonel lii I l 'f tle tr s tu l I...i i l bc'i I: .i all ii l t. ii
in A.)1i.1 1 I e \en : rtI >thili i .l ill ;a i.b ill littel 'Ie \e.tl r .111(d (IlI- t .tal
11n IA etole it llt -l/ :,- l tilli t\ \1:.Mr1 .
It. ,'lien ili e", IlI- ill Iu11 ,p11 :1 :tilinl theli e in.,tilr i ,ilnls ,:fei
ieasrinal,i'1 lull pli1. .iilrls .IIl.ipti !I r(i lie Huil ti ;l l ian l \int..ti[n_,:l
nIieedls I- t tI iplh)C1il \'i ll .tlh .a i lt s 5. tls ie 1111\ m -\pt, t I enlillnllLn
il in eie p lo,'ilnei i] urll. ll en .
.\Assui n ill*' ll1 IIIc t pin_.,l part-(imle Stildenit II i Ji l+ all ili .itle-
[thir l .If 1 fill pI n 1.1111 .11i .111 prI -Dp :,tii n ,-llie L.',-,t. 3 pi:i A.ent ,_
thu .iiillll t of tile co 't 1si listed in T al.le I II ,I II,- l il lic .itcdecd t.i
olbt.in the tot-i cist to the state iM, lia1- ili.lllinl'J [ill: pi,.s p.._ed
insll t it lt i ll,.
T here is anw hliei aspect iIn ot considerti. ion. \\liile ilhe plan -e -, I-\ at-.e h ,lili c.all f1r11 in
creased eXpenllitnll i on Milie p.rt of tle Lt.ite. tils lli.Iilt ni,.t hI s.:
S h i';e as at ltt l lie-lit- li. Sta.I in'tite tti'll'n '-I lhi-.lier l .Ii, in.- Ie
iilre.(l ,I'\ il-i- ,~~hl ad l ti l wid, l ([, .th.e. *inllnll, l.lte ile: students
-h:si, i j >.-I utr.: n>.,: la..n cP p.inii. in .i ),.,di phi\Si;:1 il plI-ni ,11ind
I.' nl\ 'ill lI e n:lit :issa, \. Pr,.il.-l.,!\ as nm an a.s [tI .i.thilds ,1 tile
,iiI ents ill these Ills ittili 11on :1 e itll tile l1 Shilln l l .1-tld S _o1)p i lo ll
\c.-tS. T it Tl i :jolito \ ot th sC (--illh b l* l thesll iliSt t'.o \ ena s oi
<'-_l ,,le k Ill ilnnio l ,.,lII.e.s I Instituti es l-.k:'ite:l nean then
holes Iat imun less ia T bsi lil ii, te iic lI. nd l in t1e liStents'
p i ienm s. It i lnhl ler- ,t( -. rII,- ,>.i > lle' and ll nill\ lsitlles
would not 11aeid 11 .i p Cnl tlcii plc i Lt ilit iH lillt c iuil die\ ite
h illrn toI inl tiltiOn ain th a e\t :ni,:ir ,.,iltl ,i t nd i.It iitt: hi .'ls.
Se (ra.l state inisersitie.. liv e ahl>-.id,\ a lpttd \'ari.i ,ns ,-t lthis
plan undlrt tdi.' StI SS of ilCl'e.lSil L'r :1nlin i ti L' r, ;n l t In.l i,\ II
lic:- ile ti lt Ie 1le tor (ile h illlU e.
I lhe estill tes in 11 ,-ill: 11 eit_ ier t,, il ll-tim ,e ifi, .nts I
\\e add one.hird moie ti. -',er <... of p.,rt-tin : (nd 1dult

edilCation ilthe lltinm.te ainnua.l e\pelditil ,c hill lbc .ppri'okill'it:l1

I'l, I \CI 1-1.11 A.\ D -STA\ 1) M', I),

Tur NrwEl I11NiR C:l.l.Fc.r

$ 1'll' (Ii'I'l'li''I I )' 1' ,.til L e a 'ld an 0ILi1a i ajlli nL t i 1) lilI-e I cal
Cdi trilCi. T his i aii I.iCII, t LIIII. ImIb t ppul iunl it'1 \\1ll 1 ie
aill rild d lllntiri d.s O:f illislanc ds ,F \i:ilit .311itd illll toi enricl
tltii lites and t. in, t -i.ci-. tilheir cihic and i:O<:up.ati, ll elticieni c\.
We estimate that .i:iiii0.000 i:uh ill be in [tll-time attendance
and an equal ilnumbc ir At outlh anld adultss in parttime atiitendance
at these 1,346 institutions.t .-\l ill live at hline. Thle cah expc ;nse
of attendance to: the student will be small. Al.1 \\ o lha\ e aml.niti,-n
and the ability\ Lto plofit Tromi instrucii:tn will Ie hee to: a[ttnd.
The gain to tie United States. and 1t the Iw orlI. iin intiiieased
material we.altl. in enli'litIlncl leaderiliip. in all important
aspects of our llllliinlnit, and nati'niial life. in ilic enricliien-rt of
the life of thle coimli on main. and. in wide'pre.id human welfare
will be enormiuls .and be.-:,nd ci:mpliati[ii:,l.
We are told that ani-',_,lter x' .,ild \\ar x would spell the doo'm rfor
this present ci\ ilizati:rn and tIhI eduIcation of lthe proper t pe and
on a world basis s tlie onl\ means At preiemning another iwar. Tlie
total annual .los t i- inailntaiinnl ; the educational institutionL's '.e
are advocating is c.:onsidcral\ ,i l than the cost per da\ to the
United States ot \',i Id \War II.


.\'s.i1 *' [i 'L\ ~ L' [ '. fr.:'i I Occupational Trends in the United States, Stanford
[ rnr,~,.-i'. [ Ill,
Fl 'ic I .r.I.. I' [I.ii.-n I. '.'.cal Education News, published periodically by
M.Crat .H I ..... ..1 i ni m y.
C\LiOrnr''. Pr.srr. 1-. FiL.%i i.,i A New Type of College Training, Los Angeles
|i I1.i... Cl I ... 1 l._i'.-s, 1932.
CIL'CPT C. C. CI 'iii.ili', TI._nds in Junior Colleges," Junior College Journal,
ct....1-.. I.. I '."3
C 'iiiLLL. I 1). .1 L r., iri! Siftdy of the Stated Purpose of the Junior College,
N,' h :.ll.- T.:iii (.'....:C Peabody College for Teachers, 1930, 126 pp.
Fil.io. J \ "Pr,..en F r...l ii of Terminal Education," California Journal of
S . i. L '.i. .,...: I'. 153-56, M arch, 1911.
IIl R i,' i F Funi:'i'n :ot the Junior College in Engineering Education,"
:.r ., I ,:'.,:.:': ri-lucation, 23:427-37, February, 1933.
[I3OL'.L1 II R Pil '', T, .r,7inal Junior College in Meeting Youth Needs,
'pll,_iji, .: ii .e Ni.:. I.all Association of Secondary School Principals, 25:
I I6--' Ijrian i. I l.lI.
LI.., .[ E I 'N:-' Fi-l;i.. MI..:ts Terminal Needs for Women," Junior College
tinit. MaNl. 'l2
'Ens Fri.mi-l.t. i u PITT[: i(R BENJAMIN F., A Study of the Financing of Public
iitio-i. I:..c ', ,1 T i ,. Austin, Texas, 1931, 80 pp.
E.i.oiii ., I' oi11.11 CUr.'r.i.i,'j, Education for All American Youth, National
[l..ln.ii..:.n \~ .:.i:,;ii'.n --. United States, 1914.
[ELL. \V'LTEP CR' ai r' ,. ,r Status of Junior College Education, American
.\,,,:,a ;.:.. .:.l niii..:.i C.:.illeges, 1941.
-----. '17-r I,.. i .i lie.- T, rminal Education? American Association of Junior
Coll h:.-.4 l''l
..----- I.;.. .,r.ir, i, .',.r lc.'lc... Washington, D. C., American Council on Educa-
t;i.n I'* 'r. :, prp.
----- l unir C..1l..e I ermninal Education," Junior College Journal, 10:244-50,
Ia-,rin I',-,1i Sniiimrn in School Review, 48:6-8, January, 1940).
Ff crrp'' L r. y.r. Fr. n. 1\. C. The Literature of Junior College Terminal
L,..i..t,,.i. \'Vi.ii,,,..,ni D. C., American Association of Junior Colleges,
T .imaul EI., ,,ia,.:l. \l,.no-graph No. 1, 1941.
['.'.i.,, J 1l T~~,iin..i! .lu..il in Diagnosis," Junior College Journal, 12:133-34,
N. s : mn l..:l I ll I.
FIi.P (.. H ".\r,:j \ ..rJII...nIl Sicools," Industrial Arts and Vocational Education,

Fi~H \\-'u MikrI. TI.- I;,. c-,i! junior College: Its Community Aspects, Yale Uni-
r~sa\. l), i..r.il 0i...rti ,.on, 1936.
Crii'.1s. 14K \..i \...:;a, .r..l Schools," Journal of Home Economics, 37:147-48.
Cni IF.r %. \\'\liR I, l*.' allegesges Office of Education Bull., No. 3, 1936, 15

HI'vi..^... I cl n.- r.ilo. Needs of Terminal Students at the Junior College
LiI-'l "' S ...-I.;l 1 ,. ., c,--tober, 1910.
HI II-i. I. i S *.r,,mn: ".. r.iials of Terminal Occupational Education at the
|.nn.,r i-.-Ih:i I.~t.I s. mlool Review, February, 1941.
----- T-inmal.il -<._:l al E education at the Junior College Le'l." .\:-i.,i..',;
--f Xr.ic-iir.n Clll-:.; ll11., 26:570-77, December, 1910.
I 61


HUTCHINS, R. M ., "Jur.n-i iC..:.1-.. Tini.,l F.tiC III.n *i.'.., C(i,,ll, ,- I l.,I il f.
May, 1941.
JAYAL, ARNOLD E., Facto', r, .I., I. r'. .: '.l .l I .., ,r .r... ,.l., ', r ,,, ... I I,,tI...
Colleges II t t.. '.a. ,' .1 ., . -. I. ;. .,,,' t. :i d c C tl tr n,. 1'.' I:.
102 pp.
Koos, LEONARD V., The I i,,,.,i ('.-i. I if.. .. I (.-.l i .. .' L'I.:i,..ti. '12',
-- -- The Junior -..;!..., .I,.... i,.'. ... \., l ----- Trends at th. I,,, .,o C.i;!. .. I..i.I. I i .II..I,: I.'i \'.llni N;.I iII,C ilfi.cI .
of Higher Inst:litin'n: I'r.-cci.il. 'i.- i'il
-----, Significant Tr, ,..t I,. (-.i ,,,,.i,,.. ,i n,,. i,.. ..i C:.0!I :, L, 1 I. li tlllu e
for A dm inistrai Ii 1lf...i l. II ]. -: ,I : I.. 1iill -. s [il. ,,:_c. i.1II I 'l \-t.Ilc d
readjustm ents ill Iii..ti r hi11l.' .1 .ri .1.1..l L. \ (.r .\ p[. '1'-1l'...
Chicago, IlliInoI IIi.',,r-.r,, ..I C(_ .... I. I'.:.. i,.
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tive Officers of Iti.il m I r I il.'.i.-rii I or.':...-,,. !'4 -' ".p 11-12
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Junior College If.i,.. r! I I 1 I Ii.c lI.l< !'i.. I
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SEASHORE, CARL, The Ji,-, r (.;. I. 1.. .... I' N\,. l..I HI lt; H.II PIili
STODDARD, GEORGE DINSM..RT T, n Il FI. ii...' ( irlnl ..|.r \1. :: ,i llllI:.1l tl il lid
University Pre m: I1 1 :1 '' The_ I1 Ll1 [i ,..'i ., I'llh
U S. O FFICE OF EDUCA BIO ''\..I r.l .i .. t,, l,, i ..il I!..,. \\.i IIi.l I 1. i
D. C., 1915.
-- --- Vocational T, i .... T,.- ,,. i l ." I I,. i, ,l ,,1'' r t ,t.. \ .... .l.i .- ,..r.
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WooDs, BALDWIN M1.. ANM Il,lti R*.. C I i., /' 'l '.., ... '.
Terminal Edum .Il. .-ii V1' I I.I I.i O1' .1. 1 1: 4.
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W ARD, PHEBRE, Termin l I-.1,t ... I ., -.i C. .- H irp.:i I 1 il ,d i.[-,.i'
New York: 1914
W RIGHT, J. C., W ar Tra.i P,.- .!, I l.. it II ,, ..t t Ii ll.: i..::
tion, Vocation, Ili ... i litilli t1.n N'.. I ii


.\ Ii .,i11 lvii hi. 11 I (I quit red for,
\ir .1III \.... ii ..in ...I Junior Col-
..0, -'
I,...,h l I ( I :
c( CW C. I,
( ..II.: -

S |III .I I i 4 .I '
1 :11 rrI-IIN 11.tv kna d o tan

In .I.Ic -.. k .I I ,l ..:l 10 I

f-.I t, I l I -I0,11
t ,,- ,,l 2 1,
[ i ... .: .,l I' o ii. ii-. ( ,iiin issio n, '2

I .l (' I 1.F 2 ;,. 3 3,34
( llpth. L R -1I

I. lii l .i ,i 1 it
II li .1 , I -, 18

.-i 'l L'li' .t i Il I

l i l l ll ,, ll 7
4iihIi. Ir .ill ..,i inh 10
u pL nil ',..-.Jin.ii, li isr. li schools, 40
I uI. llli.h:. l I .

I .i lll i.il .I ali. !i I l
,.h.i'.h II.' s i .li.ni.nii..l for trained
'.OI k". 11- 1 1
l l ll-.l. l l .l l ol... n-. '. ,
,..,u1 ln n I .i liln :.*

/li n.in ': l.] s. ij _,p .. i ':.- '-'
,illim h _'l
l.:'i.'i : lti I> l,,l .,n- I ...:,l|:- es and uni-
'1.L l -,r I .:,*
nm b-I ''I

i ,,.% L \' -
_i. to tio -. l ,.n l, .ioI '.i i.eded, 18
I iln l_,a\. F B.. 3

:>]l li 4.:.l l l[.l ll:l .: l- ... I' ~

eflecl on (riiiiim;il incident, 6i
possibility of' return, 18
P'lotkin. S., 38
Principles ;itan standards of ad(iniis-
tration a;ind org;inization of the
new junior colleges
accessibility, 51
administration. 419
cost of, for nation, 58-(i0
cooperative work, school cxperi-
ence. 47
curricula of, 44-47
financing of, 55
location, 55
number required in United States.
organization, 49
size of, 53
students, 54
Public education system, current and
proposed, 2
Rural social reorganization, 14, 16
Seashore, C. E., 30
Smith, L. F.. 30
Society for Promotion of Engineering
Education, 12, 13
Starrak, ]. A., 14
Stoddard, G. D., 1, 38
Technical education, definition of, 13
Technical institutes
curricula, 36-37
current development, 38
definition, 35
Terminal curricula
definition of, 29
enrollment in, 32-33
evaluation of, 33-34
need for, 29
population enrolled, 32-33
types of, 28-31
United States Office of Education, 7,
8, 12, 26
Vocational schools
area schools, '11
high schools, 40
WVeersing, F. J., 32
Zook, G. F., 4


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