Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Method and scope of the invest...
 General organization of boards...
 Social composition of boards of...
 The control of education
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: Supplementary educational monographs
Title: The Social composition of boards of education;
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098580/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Social composition of boards of education; a study in the social control of public education
Series Title: Supplementary educational monographs
Alternate Title: Social control of public education
Physical Description: ix, 100 p. : incl. tables, form. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Counts, George S. ( George Sylvester ), 1889-1974
Publisher: University of Chicago
Place of Publication: Chicago, Ill.
Publication Date: c1927
Subject: School boards   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by George S. Counts.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098580
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05878673
lccn - 27018490


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Tables
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Method and scope of the investigation
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    General organization of boards of education
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Social composition of boards of education
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    The control of education
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Back Matter
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Back Cover
        Page 105
        Page 106
Full Text



m n .


Pr l. :,h,...k 0! .. .n. i th
NUIMi. ER F, ILiL' 1'27






.1 i Ii.. h

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . ii
I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . I





INDEX . . . . . 09


EDUCATION . . . . . 15
CATION . .. . . . 16
CATION . . . .. IS
CATION . . . . . 31



XXI. EDUCATION OF MEMBERS OF CITY Bc. 'rr.I *r F r.i;.-,Ti.,:-




XXV. OCCUPATIONS OF MALE MEMBERS OF (i.'. [;i.'r.i **_r r.i--
DIVISION . . .-. .


COMPUTED FOR THE MORE IMPORTANT ;-:-: i.T *.ii-'*. .i ( I..i: 1-



PENSATION AND OF FIFTY-FIVE CITY F'1., il: ,'i ri. *i.'i. i.
MATCHED AS TO LOCATION AND SIZE ..r (i ,, \\'i 'I i i '.


M EMBERS . . . .. .

XXXIII. OCCUPATIONS OF hlEMBERS OF STA:r l .r..: l .,ir '-. A .-




T f96






T ri|

I\'. i i:(i) 1.' 1. i [IN
'Thl ftirlJnicAIntl' cih:r:-i r r .. pt Iublic clut:hi.n il the l United States
i in die l. ani .-ivi.i. _iS, cttrmined 1..' the l. .ir., ti.hit cI.itr[. the school.
To: be surt, back ...I the L oard tAn.lshe il.t m eit,. Ti biut I... l :ir the state
Ia. oi lat cd i c.iithe pr ti.. .m c. .:. .: p ubi c dc .n lt;i.:.n. \\'ithi the wide
limits rcat ed I, Ioi2sl.ni\te n c:itm nt. th. br.eId -utlinr.c of policy are
hi ip J lv i : the mL:er .i t. hi. o:\. .\;c..rding 1t.. I : .. iJd.iLge, as is the
Icicher, S,.. i Ihe ch.o,: lhe tii I e t .ch r i- the i rc.i trm .I t-h t.l ard of edu-
: tioin, hii '.ct.r ain., in hi; l yhai oIr 1t.:at \ within Ain.J .iti:uLt the school,
Ii. mu t ci ..rn.' rm t.. sti ldard; rce.t..e i:to tt h-.irJ. l' .i ree and in
ai flii: ii ,il:l:.ni r ir.,dA., the c:i.on it, spirit, ain piirpo:e f public edu-
cati;'n nust rtll et l i tcl L.ia. lthl limitaLti-.n i* d h rieihi e of the
membership of this board. The possibilities which the school possesses
as a creative and leavening social agency are set by the good will, the
courage, and the intelligence of that membership. The qualitative ad-
vance of public education must depend as much on the decisions of the
board of education as on the development of the science and philosophy
of education.
Who are the men and women composing the boards that control
public education in the United States? From what social classes do they
come? What training do they bring to the task of determining the educa-
tional policies to be adopted by the schools? What particular prejudices
or special points of view may they be expected to exhibit? In a word, what
i; thi:ir ilitellectu.L.il aild morn1 equipment for bearing the heavy responsi-
Ilit_-s .1Wich sitty hias placed upon them? How much time do they
dev\ :te t':, th': luti:. '. hich devolve upon them as members of boards of
edu: itii.r? \\'Wh.t is tl- probability that they will support a type of edu-
c.AtiLn whi.h -se-:s t.. nmak the coming generation genuinely intelligent
ab-..ut the present c..rjlkx civilization and its numerous problems? Are
the roimi.iis hic.l Ii it:.:ict h is evolved for the control of education com-
inunsuratt. ith tht. burden t, l.e borne? These and many other questions
of a -iniiir thiar:tcer ought t... receive the earnest consideration of stu-
dents . niut ti:iin.
.\ ur \ lI f t he ciiL- t c t l.:inl literature shows that these questions have
not Ieen subjected t... sufficiently careful study and investigation. Atten-


S SC-ILL 'MfI- S[ TI[r N 'OF [;O.\F [S OF ELL'UCTI',,N

ti:.n hac Ieen -irercred t'.. e:xc jlu'.ivei t. t.. the cducatitiv'e pr' :s and the
r'..utuie .I adnirinitrati,.r,. Either th.' fi,nd .ri. nutil ri'.: lL-Ay'ed b. thli
l:..ard .:. ed-.i:iti:.io hac been di,-r -e rdc,: ...r it h,:- n...r lee'a : .omniprellendeJ.
I ,iz i rin.t t... dI.nt th m ,iii ,t'd'Jie :I O:f .rd I' .di cati.-'n, ha.-c hit.-r
rn J,:. The .:.,trar ,- the iat: but, l'...r ri-he ni.-.t Fp rt, tihl-e ; .tiit. ,c i.-ave
:le.i!t ith the Ic- f'uri'nda v,:n l i:! A s.... th. pr'A.l. n. I hrv ,:v bc -een
-. .-i c-ii,:c .j i t' i u,:h s .l u 11 titi :.I t [le ..ri :iri'na.iai .:.!! 1. :' tie: l .: .a rd, l, t e I Ium -
Ler .i mreim b.':-rs, th. term .1 .'l,. :ei, and thtli raL th..d .f s:el ri...n. ...r
b.I iw- ttdJi,.d li.'. e been le'... iii, E ihei u!iJerr.,ikeii, tile' h, e Iusu- ill
i ttr:,acted i !t [ ittl artt ui.., fr m l 'r .s.-*_ ,,_.l I ni:!e it A a n iitte, r ? .r i lI:A nt, *-u.;h
itudis ih: c .I l."' n i: ... ii' l it.' d I 'a ,s... n .', .:J, :iC Li...ii l la I m ,n :i [:..;er:t
el a ,ei ir tle f- r. ..rfl i...!i, il csrudy .:.1 elu : r .,
I h: f. unrdatiis- f ,4 uch j.iu'd n thn[5 aJ s .tude'rl .. "f h...I a.JrLnistlra,-
I.i.ii, h -'. ,.,- : :.n 'ii e h r,r -.t-r :.l e l.:.. l-:: rd, nicmbnl-rchipi l.ce Ic. en
*.:-tk in ..:.th their -:ieritic: a i-d the r [ [il....'.i hi: i l, a-pe ts In the firsr
[.]a... t:, [h ar m r lc ,.,ai:ni.., d,;r,. d f'r,..,rn i r'- n ..r I';. ::lr:nd:. d .-'-
ta.t. \'.ith .:o l : t::..,rdJ-. ie.y re ri:,t pr.:l,.r: f tin. y'-I.em .i, sti -ud '
the prn-',len,, andI th, .' .,t.itacr, 't.. v lich the, arc h,.ia d ':-.e ..rd'inarily
bIe-in i .i.,.'riJ b,. :in ni-iii.Jite- inte 'rI lt ii the :i::: '.r ii ,id re ...I s. ie
[,ers ...nil pr:.ie:t. II thi e Cc : '..i J pl :e, the iu l r.ie nt- I i:.rn ie:l ic.:. ni ..iily
rerl- .rA i s ....,A l phii, ..ifpliy 'hi.Jh hais ir t h .en ij .-.r'J .- t a c:ar:lil irindJ
,:r i.>:, l <>. m.nr, ;'1i ti..,n. T-hey si L ,eZt- l i. .t .ie t ,: 1 ,:,,:, -A ;,o ad ii' tr -
ti':'i I'\a e '.:.t i.'een cireati', c:.:.n,:-:rne. I ai'.ur the fundamlin',rtl fr'.hi ni .
the f...r>c.. that ...iit[r l] the n. h....I jndJ -hii: th- i r. far-r ri-i-hiiL eJuc:a-
ti,:.nal p, licie .
The ritererr t .:. the ..- l .I admiiistr.ar..r has lairn, a pp':ir,'ntl., in,
ari..rh,. r d;rtJi i...n. In s... l:r as he hi- p: 'ssi d jiiJ gment ionl -.li.:..l-'-:ird
mernl.ership, i I. lii line c,. in terms f thit e ,.iontri uti_..i '- thit ntii, (ii'r-
lhi' t.-. the m...rer pjracr:ial adrm irislratin .f Lth,; -h-....i!I Thi, p-?rhl.-,p ic
[lul natur:-,l. HI i hAi the task :1 keeping the li...:.l in ..p r:ti..ii. c-he
nl.:,r1- i r lied, t an: rf in l ..e d i .- f -, .-c iLan r,_ 'i'1.| LiU. nil ai, irt
hi, attert[i.n. lH e is almdn,. 't l. .e ; t... ':,ri.r .:. ii r. c' r:iir i ,: tr, : a:-
- mifln tlhalt. lh li ti-. ln; ..:i:il a rran emn- en 1 4 n..C t ulj,.c:r [... nil.,'l'l t-
tl'..n antl that he m u.s-t th,.ref'..r .....n'me t.. tt rnims ih it. \ii *:-.Ier i-.ur i e
: rl: r.' r. ':'r-%X ic: !, viii,.n c ry, nd. J iiii tr:' l .A puhili.: -..r irant, he n...
:.l.ul.r feel- that hiC rec-p.:..-i C hbil y ends v' hcr tha--t i--f l.ih':., r l Lir
T hi, rn...m t l'...r .. l '., h. h-,,.,:.. i' a di, ... .. :rd i t i ll rr-.:.-;, ni it ,,L
pr.:.'in,:e ni rei, ini v. 'lthin it H is ;t,ter--it i's il ai ..ard hj i \" ilL l .:ili.;i: e
the [r'.,e '.,. ,.,I d(ilI;ri;i rr.atio' rat her tti n in a t:: i:l that i- equip[-p,.ed
i:'fr h:,iiriL i lta aii,: e educ i:.riii. I p.licy. A, l.,ird '-I th IlLtt:r t1ij: pe i.y


....nrinie !iuhli tiln c in .:.iIt'r..r: and may therefore appear to the ad-
,nlint;rii '.i C L,.. .kl Im:I, .ei-c, l'. the prosecution of the school program.
lit- nie. .;Ir,- ..I ccl.. ...I In':rI iz i .he practical one of the efficient transac-
ti,-n .-.f I... inl:.. Th i- ..: r.i.l Inl' one measure. That it is the only, or
e\ ln the most important, measure of the board of education, few would
An altogether different view regarding the function of legislative and
policy-shaping bodies may be easily defended. While an efficient transac-
tion of business is always to be desired, the more important question re-
lates to the nature of that business and the ends toward which it is di-
rected. The most significant decisions of a board of education have to do
with the basic purposes of education and the relation of the school to the
social order. In a dynamic, changing world, in a world of the type in which
we live, decisions of this character cannot be evaded. That the social
composition of the board and the educational equipment of its members
are factors which have important bearings on these more fundamental
considerations would seem to be open to little question.
However, as suggested in an earlier paragraph, a few studies of the
personal qualifications of school-board members have been made. The
scope and nature of each of these studies will be described briefly. In
December, 1916, Nearing gathered facts from 104 cities which, according
to the census of 1910, had populations of more than forty thousand. In
summarizing his findings, Nearing writes as follows:
The tabulation shows a concentration of occupations of board members in
a relatively small number of pursuits. Thus 144 of the business men werd
merchants, 78 were manufacturers, and 104 were bankers, brokers, real estate
and insurance men. The concentration is still greater in the case of the pro-
fessions. Of the 333 professional men, ii8, or more than one-third, were doctors
and dentists; 144, or about two-fifths, were lawyers. The total number of teach-
ers was 18. These were for the most part college professors. ....
Five occupational groups include the bulk of board members-merchants,
manufacturers, bankers, brokers and real estate men, doctors and lawyers-588
out of a total of 967 board members.,

A somewhat less ambitious investigation of this same problem was
conducted in 1919 by the Teachers Union of New York City.2 For the
purpose of securing occupational data for members of boards of education,
SScott Nearing, "Who's Who on Our Boards of Education," School and Society, V
(January 20, 1917), 9o.
2 "Few Cities Have Labor on Board of Education," Headgear Worker, IV (No-
vember 2i, 1919), 3.


this organization addressed questionn.iir>le tl,. i t 'l,: u:riintliJi..nts ..
schools in some 204 cities with populat,:.i-I ,-o i A ,:.re ta.ii fort. I.lth:.iiu.!I.
Replies were received from 67 cities. i.i'rn til: [,iinlr, i,,ti r-.t ..f th.-;
investigation was in the representation i: f .,:r .1 ..lei leJ l;. -1 i:.
the findings was not reported. The stat:iir.niL ..ai, mn:r.ll, n.Li tIh.It ini
only seventeen of the cities were there reprrereitli. L I ,:,i .l':r :iii tli
The most comprehensive study thus lir .t l.l.inp:.J is Ii si.i.ly rd.l
by Struble' in 1922. He gathered data rtg.arliii aLge, sex, ..i:.iup'atiL.r, anld
term of office of school-board members ir,..'n i: Cu Cill,.. I, sii,, thl: s ctii.
ranged from less than 2,500 to more th,-i : :.o:.:. Iiih:ilitaI.. Oif th Ilir
male members for whom occupational il..i ;,L.t.r- r cur:lJl, .nli .,l 4 ,l..uhl
be classed as manual laborers. There v.w r.. :-: I in;rcl.i!.L, 7;0 I:aiiker-, i;
lawyers, 57 physicians, and 53 business Y,:e:uiti\EI Tlhi., a[r..L-inm trl
60 per cent of the members of the 169 L ...,irJ, 'rr .ira .J ..n fr._.m ri' ..Ccu-
pations. For the most part, these fact: .are ii harii i.i':.n iti tl!e L iri.liing-
of Nearing and the Teachers Union of Ne.: \Y..rl: (-Ci,.
The question which is raised by suil -.i'li. i-: i.ii' rIf Lr :.'r. ,LJui.i-
tional and social significance. On the basil ,:,f th ihr, :ih.:iig i -th -ir in-
vestigations, the claim is often made :-. .iLt,.r lealit r- .I-111 I'21'."ilthi .'.r:
that the public schools are controlled b.. tlE :il[l,:,\ in l.'seI;, that c. l.-t':,r
is without representation on boards ofi i.:iu>.tL..r, ani: thli.t, :ti .i 1o.-.-
quence, the interests of the laboring clat:.. ;Ir: rL. .lct a.li.i;l, l,:. r.L:i.:.gniLJd
in the shaping of educational policies. T ii, ai numt tli.i thelIcr .re
many cases of direct discrimination ag.ilhilt lth in r, rts .-. t L hl:- cl:iSS
and that the school programs reveal a bian ii, fai..r ..i tlhi nmiire firtuw.1i ely,
situated economic groups.
The primary object of this investipatEior; is tou gt.lli>r L..i0n .hich i .: ill
throw some light on this problem. Thb.- t,:rg,:i g ii,:iiitmilirit. -'E.f ,i..E t..
rests on the assumption that there are gl'lruini ci.:iict., If itli. ri.St n,.,iiig
the various groups in society and that thll. int. Inlr r : .1:, l :Ii c i rce-
ly be expected to protect the interests :f ,iitlir Ti-h >..,ul..L .iit thi.
assumption will not be questioned in th is ri. [ .ri. 1 I : Ir :-I -t. ii snli. Ir, -
ly seeks to discover whether there is a f:i: 1L1.1 Ic:c r fl:,r tlit- .--cr rti. _.i. m .1-.-
by the representatives of labor. The irn -t ;.,ti,_iii iLnl ro.m .!iiL:h Iie 1,' lil
drawn their conclusions are, to say-the l..,: L, iti,:,!1 lE .tiie td raigmri, ,t., r,
From the cities data should be gathere.:l inucllh li..r- 4*.t ;mr;ltica.lly, I:itl
the study should not be confined to ,:it\ I.,.,ard. Tlie '.vri,:u, tL['-.s 'i
SGeorge G. Struble, "A Study of School L.:. rl 1 ir.:[: .l. .I ,,e...:,, -. i,.., ..I..
Journal, LXV (October, 1922), 48-49, I37-3t.


I..,ari:ls rhat c:.:.nItrO:l pllc edu..atir.:,n in the United States should be in-
:lkd In the irn.ct-igati-'n -A i.Iit:-:i.n of such importance merits care-

l ii; .ritr, h:, h'.ier, ha- n.. illi rsons regarding the completeness of
the present investigation. This is but one of a series of researches which
ought to be undertaken in this field. The school board and its members
should be subjected to the most critical study from many different angles.
The assumption made here regarding the unfitness of the members of one
group to represent the interests of another should be made the subject of
objective study. Facts brought to light in this investigation suggest the
need of organizing an extensive inquiry into the prejudices and social
philosophies of those classes in the population to which society today
delegates chief authority for the control of public education.
The report of the investigation is divided into four divisions. The first
will describe in some detail the scope of the investigation and the methods
employed in gathering the data. The second will present data regarding
the general organization of the various types of boards; since numerous
studies in the past have dealt with these matters, this division of the
report will be made as brief as possible. The third division will concern
itself with the central interest of the investigation, namely, the social
composition of boards of education. The various aspects of this question
on which data were secured will be examined in detail. The fourth divi-
sion of the report will be devoted to a critical interpretation of the situa-
tion revealed by the study. Here the bearing of the findings of the study
on the fundamental question of the social control of education will be



The present investigation is ,:...,!'lei t.. a t l,'J ,( ihd I.....ar-i that
control public education in the Ullte-l tatcs. Mui. h i:.l..l Ie sn. in
favor of including the boards that -'api th p[..ii:is .-If .i.ur p.ri.at.:
institutions. The latter still constit,.ute [Iartic':ularly, at the hicirhr le\cl-,
a very important division of our i..u .ati..nl -':ti:m. S;in'.,i the p'rllI.h.mn
of control presents somewhat differ -i a. ,rcr;t in the It.,., tQ T'i-.. i' r;t-
tions and since the inclusion of both i.,.iliM and pF ri.ate sih.:,l .:., i:,ir, in
a single study would greatly com-,liI:a't ithe ni ,h -.. l r.. ii pr.,c'J'iirte a.111I .lie
interpretation of results, it was tbluAhcht hert tI:,. :.nrinne the Irinv\%eigat[i:,
to the public agencies. Moreox':r, tht: L_.arJ ,:,.,. tri.,llin' the private
schools are of sufficient importance t... i. erit ;.t[,larate stu.l.
Practically all the more important tr-p' "f t"iarils .. lih .....'ntr..l i.ul.,-
lic education are included in this 'tud In Jiffereit *.Ienee. c.:. plte-
ness, data were secured from distctr .Iar.l-, h i:,untk l..:,ars., [..:.ar.k' ini
cities of all sizes, state boards, anl] L..-ars that .:..ntrI...l! te ltate ci:.lle'ze.
and universities. The point should ic made.., Ih:i.. .e r, that thie :it:, :.tar.]
occupies a central position in this in\estica'ti :'. In Iat.t, at lthi ..tll.;et tie
inquiry was confined altogether t... L.._jard. ..I this t.Te, .-!l.i the ,'ri;inal
intention was to keep the study -..:t!hin the limits :of the it:,. [:. auise ...1
its complex and dynamic chara.rter, thile rl- an c.. liiit', seeme..l t-
present a problem in the control of :'J,:at i.,! ...ich vi.a f iir ni-.tl int-ir-
est and difficulty, but, as the invesr tiat;i:,1 [Ir:i;r.-s..'1, th.: Jc-irailit;:, i-
increasing its scope to include bcard; i.,i their r t;1,Is' Ile' aj Ci il'ent.
The sources from which data aerre .e,:urrl in thri ini ctig, atil, i.ere
the public-school officers who stc-,:I in th,: ,..i_-t rel.ti;:.n t.- the b,'ard
studied. For various reasons thi:i p[::ir...ach -eemcrni tI.. .-r.mi';ie t.rttir
success than a direct approach t.:. tlle i icmi t r- ...f the .. r.i..:r'. l.act:i: f.r
the district board were secured fr.rni the ':''..,!,' :,FirrtIr.-ndr'-nt, '.'.r the
county board also from the count. st.i,.-riritii. nt, i.,r tiie I;'it ,,arid
from the city superintendent, for the -tat .....ar.i from the state :nI['rin-
tendent, and for the college or niilerzit:. bl-.ard fr. ..m the prreis:ient -of
the institution.
The data were gathered by mrra.i n -..I a I.lut'li p[..s- l i:airl, \v.ich ,.aas
mailed to the appropriate publick-l.i:h l .I..lItr On tih tw' s.k'.. f th.:


..,ne I-.l t.I I-r. l it-re i', ii .. ri.ttn arir .I printed, respectively, the name and
a1.dri -- .- I th, i h :l-....l I...il' :.:r .n.I th.: instructions to be followed. The
iintlre ,:.lr rtif ii,;tr.,,.ti,-,ns i- re, caled by the following letter, which
iappiarid ri t ... :ar.J i:i it i.. lth: ,:..uninity superintendent. Similar instruc-
ti,.,n \r'._re Iivrn t. th.,-, r irirrti: tihr facts regarding the membership of
i. he ,,th'.r t .,, _,-.: ,.,." I.,a rd- .
T.:, C.:iu,.- i[ Li:tr.. i. I'ari-h, I,., ., U'. ...i ) Superintendent:
I .in; iwail.;ig :tu.Ir. ,.t ..:.iitt. .rn. ...ther local boards of education in the
lii.t :.1 -i-t.;:i;. \\ il ',...u. tli:l.!.:l.r.. L.ii'r... have someone in your office fill out
....I ,i-;l th, :itt:i.:lI.:J p..-: t l :i i.J' -I Iut; should be given for your board of
,.l...: rI....i, '. h. tLh r [ t i it : i l i. i.iiurit .l strict, parish, town, or union board.
In addition to the general facts asked for at the top of the card, five items of
information are desired for each member of the board: sex, age, occupation,
education, and number of years the member has served on the board. If the
member has retired from active life, indicate the fact and also give his occupa-
ti.:.o t..f..i.r. retirement. In giving facts concerning age and education, approxi-
Inta- statementss will suffice. In the case of education merely estimate, as nearly
.-, .,,u can, the grade or year in elementary school, high school, or college
completed, e.g., 7th grade, 2d yr. H.S., ist yr. Col. Facts for the president of the
board should be reported on the first line of the table.
Thanking you for your co-operation, I am
Sincerely yours,
Professor of Education, Yale University
On the two sides of the other postal card were printed the name and
address of the investigator and a blank calling for the desired information
regarding the board members. The information blank employed in the
-tAiL.]. of the county board is shown on page 8. Similar blanks were sent
to those reporting facts for the other types of boards.
Ihi: infl'irmat.rn i:.iaested varied in detail somewhat from board to
I-..iar.. Tin iil'.irnmati.i..n blank sent to the city superintendent was almost
t11ie ineic a- that z'01t tL-, the county superintendent. Data secured regard-
ing itLhi: rminlt,:rs.hi.ip .i the college or university boards were almost as
i :.iletc A'. thiIe rrie-ntc. report will show in subsequent chapters, certain
i.l cts .':i:.tur fr.,ri thl three preceding types of boards were not gathered
fi:.In the in, ml:-ri.ihr .:. i lie state board of education. In the case of the
dlitri.:t tard.l u iI. 5tui._. was greatly reduced in scope; in fact, the only
items :.f inl',:.rmatii.: .:.hitained from the county superintendent regarding
tli, ni nil"r-.hlii[.. 'If hi,_- t oard were the items of occupation and sex.
A .. ,:,r.l e.:.iil.I I-e. i.i[ regarding the probable accuracy of the returns.
Ml,.t ,i( thi it ( nr f ir-formation called for undoubtedly lay within the


knowledge of the person to whom the postal car.:i :.a .::ire-.sei. 1,. thi
statement, however, several exceptions should I.,-: ri,.,td. 1 he daiI., rcL:,ird-
ing the age and the education of the members .-i tile hr.'r.:l ere certain,

Name of county Population oi ,..:,,.nt.:,.
Name of state Over what part of thi ....unt., ,j.:"- th-: .,iar.:1 i'.
Number of members Compensation__ r, ir- r.'l.r: -Il. t,

Approximate number of hours a member devote: t:..' .:, i.i ilul.. irni- .ll.
Term of office Number chosen .-:ih :. -..ir
Number having children in public school now _

Sex Age Occupation I 1. :... ..












not at hand in most cases. We may assume that th:; cho:: i ,..t.i.: r .iupp'l -
ing the information seldom possessed precise In.,.,.le Ige cii,:Trnilg th,:
age and the education of his board member-. and lthi. h,: [:rabl.hl hain.
access to no source of information except the nlmeiier tlh.-:mi.lvis. I liat


I .. '.flent did n.-t lt.,.. JlrI,.i;ee of this source, the returns seem to indi-
c3ate. .\ .. .t.,-I.e-,nce in 3rin, instances the reports on these items are
[.'r.'lbal:;, at lst ..nl: .... ..' Jlei-s. The same may be said with regard to
tllh in.t'.iim..t. 1.' i.irnri.icd .in th,. number of hours a member devotes to
l.-.:. rJ .Itie;-. Uin.dcr th-. mn..t fa. orable circumstances, completely trust-
',..rli., ri-...srsii t a "* .I;I1:',;.n of this character would be difficult to
. .,lirc. Irt interr.rcri;- tiL: r!..,'.Its of this division of the investigation,
[Ii.it'r-..r. ..n mrtiUst a .iin .1 :crtain inaccuracy of the data.
The riionil:er -.. I... ilr. l incihded in the investigation was 1,654. The
representation of the different types of boards, however, was very un-
equal. More than one-half (974) of these boards were district boards serv-
ing rural communities. Complete returns were secured for this type of
board from fifteen counties representing twelve states. The facts for
county boards were secured from sixty-five counties. These counties were
distributed geographically over twenty-eight states, from the Atlantic to
the Pacific and from the Lakes to the Gulf. The number of city boards
included in the investigation was 532. In the study of state boards of
education thirty-nine states were represented. This number includes al-
most all the states having genuine boards of education. Data were ob-
tained from forty-four boards which control our state colleges and uni-
versities. The number and distribution of these boards also insure a fairly
comprehensive and thorough study of the situation.
Since the city board is the center of interest in this investigation, the
size and the location of the 532 cities included in the study merit atten-
tion. Facts of population and geography regarding these cities are given
in Table I. The reader will observe that in both size and location the
cities are widely distributed. Although the representation from the South
Atlantic states is somewhat meager, all the great geographical divisions
are represented. Likewise, although there are but twenty-five cities of
more than 1oo,ooo inhabitants, cities of all sizes from 2,500 inhabitants
up are included in the study. These facts indicate that the investigation
is based on a wide sampling of American cities.
The present study was initiated in the spring of 1920. At that time
the interest was confined entirely to the relation of the board of education
to the various elements of the population in the industrial city. As a
consequence, the study was then limited to cities and to cities of more
than 5,000 inhabitants. The other phases of the investigation were pros-
ecuted during the spring of 1926. That a period of six years elapsed be-
t..'..:n the gathering of the data for boards of education in cities with
p',p.l idions of more than 5,000 and the study of the other types of boards


would seem not to impair the general validity. .4 the.- If;it. \\W. ina a;-
sume that with respect to most of the questi...n und lr inri'.:-;l il.:. tlh
conditions in these cities in 1926 were much ih, -in ll t.- i. .I .1i- 1i-. ,.r...
in 1920. The general organization and social :...ipr.'il.'n '. : :,:.iar.t
could certainly change but little during this .?:-i-.ar r...i.1.
At-one point, however, it was thought ihat o:,n;t:.rl ri. ii'l t li C.r
changed considerably in the interval. That thl i... 1--.'r.n ..t .-n in



2,500 3,000 10,o00 : : : : :: : ::
to to to I I .
5,000 10,000 25,000 i: : .,
New England............ 7 25 31 i; '- i
Middle Atlantic......... 17 31 40
South Atlantic .......... 3 2 12 ::
East North Central...... 21 38 49 4 i:
West North Central ..... 17 6 17 : -
South Central .......... 9 6 16 -
W western ................ 9 13 17 i 4 ,

Total.............. 83 131 182 4

For the purposes of this investigation, the forty-eight ', i I b. i'i:i:. i '. i. ,r
classified in seven divisions as follows: New England-Connecld :.,r ;.! .1.r i. .i.1. u .c ": i ,i
shire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic-New Jers '..- l 1 i.-.. I i.. ..~
Atlantic-Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, M I-J r1 r .. i. i i .. ., lb L. i ,-
Virginia, and West Virginia; East North Central-illinois, India- i ..I.. ,:.r, ,I.,. ,.. J '........ ..I
North Central-Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, N r.i i I. r. --! -' i,'* ,. j i .- 11
Central-Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississi, *.. l11.i .. ........ .. .1 i
Western-Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Ne I .. 1 .., -...-. LI i.,
ington, and Wyoming. Throughout the report this classification "I r r* *,i 1,- 1 .I.:. .1

American politics has been changing rapidly ii' re iint 'I.. r- : ..-. 1 L.n... n.
Thinking, therefore, that the representation .1 i..:.n .n ...i .: it. i.,::.r.lc .-,
education had changed somewhat since 9:-.:., lie A ritrr .'.arI--' tl LIn.
same cities again in 1926. At this time data -*.r.. ijii n rtiilicerc.i ., ii
reference to the representation of the sexes ndl ..rn ,c:icriln ..ti,.r l.,int.
bearing on the general organization of the I,-:ir.1 .-If i.Iu:alti.,n In 1:-
cordance with the anticipation, certain iml.p.rtlnt i:-,.c: *.'. :r,. l..ul]
to have taken place during the six years. T'i- :l iara:lI.r .-.1 th.1.. :h,.in-,:i
will be described in the proper division of thi r,.'..,rt.

:,I .NLr,:.\L r i.:i.; \,NIZ Ii\" 1:11' 1.1i. \RDS OF EDUCATION
Ihe i-..i.ji. .14 tie iprecin-t _.hjpt:ir i+ t.. describe very briefly the gen-
,.r l .rLal ilra r'i .f i. h. . ':-i.:.I [i: I. -e I:f I,:ards of education included in
ithe -tIIl, I h: tri:.tilenit ..aill L. l.ri:f It.,cause most of the phases of
I..:IrJ ..ir:.ani; .ili:n r:Fp..rt.J] h .-er: h.te I..:en adequately covered in other
in'.reste.ti;,li. .\lih...u:rh the aii;.:.r emnih.isis and interest of the study
lie L-_i hr.re, pr.i,:ti:e-s: .. ith rc:gar to.: .r:i.nization cannot be ignored al-
together. A brief survey of such practices is thought necessary to provide
a background for the examination and interpretation of the more intimate
personal data to be considered subsequently. The inclusion of data on
organization also makes possible certain significant comparisons between
features of organization and social composition.
Under general organization the six following topics will be considered
in order: the number of members, the method of selection, the term of
office, the tenure of office, the time devoted to board duties, and the
compensation of members. Although certain of these topics may appear
to be closely related to organization rather than definite phases of organ-
ization, the logical place for their treatment would seem to be in this
Facts regarding the number of members found on the boards of edu-
cation included in the investigation are given in Table II. An examina-
tion of this table shows, as have previous studies, that practice is far from
urninf:rm ['..-irdJ r lae in size from three members to one hundred mem-
I err ':.iiic., hrrec n-.. be found a board of almost any size desired. Only
in the .:, i.: .-,i the ,::-iinty board may there be found any tendency toward
air n .r: ril. Here rii.: far from one-half of the boards have five members
rach -Am-iner the :.rher boards, the most frequent practice is the five-
nnmli-e I.-r Lii ri in the cities. Of the four types of boards included in this
ital:,l, tie ..:unr., I:.l.rd is, on the average, the smallest. The median
runl...r .if nlcn-iLicr on this type of board is 5.5. The corresponding
,i.ure: I,.r ,:it. I....lr-.: is 6.4; for state boards, 7.2; and for college and uni-
\Lriltr. I-.. r., -, ,.<. \\hy one type of board should be larger than another
is '.i.uei" ti..n hi. h i difficult to answer. The present situation apparent-
I. rellci Id- e r-c cucational and political traditions rather than an effort


t.:, ie tirminlie the s e -if the I:: jarJ in tern'm of thle fun,.ti n. ti I.e p.r-
Fa: t-: regar.-inz tile .i', of Ithie .Jtlric t l..ardsh- were r. .t intl,.ided in
T.-i le I .I 11 h. acl ahl ,,i t ...iriplete unil.f.rr i It .4 pra. tir -asv S Jis:-. ered.
In ai ir..'ii:nately :.-. ir .Alt of tlh ca-e?: stii.ele the district I.ardil as
i.:.u: I ti ...r mp,-:'.e f three mrcnte;rs. In ;r -nite inritanis t the ar3 .ia


N .i i ..r M [MriB r- ,.*;i L., i' i,: i,*F ,_' I .*:T: i t [' r[ r: T..- E I

r.U rTii'.ct .u I r, t, i.. i n.'. I j r ".'1 r.1 ; i tr". ...r.:. 41. E ... J" i. E. '.

I: .4i .ii.
"l :. ,I iij

I . I

I .: -
I .

I ,. r.II -
S . p -

II .. r r.- I

,\l I.-. .,.. l.-: r I :l Ib *- . I 1 3v l I1 r .r c. l l . 1 h. ** I F 1.1

.. i i lhat In zer, including fi .e i ni l..ers. anti i.n tIlr. it fIun.tn l.n
the I...art:i .'.ere di.,hargc.J I.,, a -ingle tru-.tee. I-iit the al.'.. tu uni.erial
praC ti.. i, t.,- dIele at le i e nti [I ,.f ,Ji:,.I li,:,on in the di.itri.-t l., a l :oardl
.4. thlrev menil-ers.
'1.i .e the stli.id O:f 'il. l .-ar. ..a *s .,ieL t.'iiah L i.re ( .tenr iv thlinil
that ._I the O'ther t.~t- ,'i liars, the data irtri thi' s-i.iurce vi.ill ie rma le
the sulj.ij,.t If fu.irther anal s. i. .An e..iaminatii:,n :i :pra.ti.i.'-- in diif,.rent
p[.art- ...f the.:-:,u tr. il ,e ,.f int,:riest-l. in the v<.h Isuld an e:.:aimlinati..ri


.I..'As htt.le relation I..cti:i.cc ge'I:gr.[:i 'nd size of board. Yet some
.illfer'-ncs. aini':,it the great .ihvisinr ,r f th.: country are discernible. In
tile Eist N,,rth C nttr.dl s~t[-i;.- t an in th. western n states there is a tend-
criy t......rgani_-e man:ller il:.;r:l. In th,: areas the three-member board
i:..J t1l f e-i c-mr in r Il.,ard are ..ri- unn-l..n. In the West North Central
stati-s the i six-memirer l A:,r., i. .i;, l a rather unusual type, is the most
frIe.iIt I.Cirm -if .Ii.ania.rti.in. in the l Middle Atlantic states the pre-
ilirnirinnt tpi is a s tin-i..ml_.:.r I.-ar'J. These comments, however,
sh,.ulID n.ilt .Ls.ir.L thic fc i t l.at in c\cr, geographical division there is
,ide rare I i-,ra.ctlie. N,,rh-r.: i thcr.. a pronounced tendency toward

Seti .. n thlli- --:. i tie I.i .ia' in. tin he *ie of the city there appears to
be a posittie relation. IFu example, the median number of members on
the school board rises from 5.7 in cities of from 2,500 to 5,000 inhabitants
to 6.3 in cities of from 5,000 to 1o,ooo inhabitants, to 6.5 in cities of from
1o,ooo to 25,000 inhabitants, to 7.1 in cities of from 25,000 to 50,000
inhabitants, to 7.7 in cities of from 50,000 to 1oo,ooo inhabitants, and to
9.1 in cities of more than 10o,ooo inhabitants. That the larger cities re-
quire larger boards than do the smaller cities in order to transact their
more extensive educational business is a thesis which it would be difficult
to defend. However, evidence to be presented in a later section of this
report suggests that the larger cities do have more business to transact.
At least, the members of the boards of education in these cities, according
to the data secured, seem to devote an unusually large number of hours
to board duties. Yet some of our largest cities appear to manage their
schools quite successfully with boards of from three to five members.
Moreover, whether an increase in the size of the board will reduce the
burden placed on the individual member would seem to depend on the
methods which the board employs in doing its work. If the board func-
tions as a whole, an increase in membership might be expected to hamper
ithe r.i[.i' transaction of business. On the other hand, if the board func-
lti..r; frir lth most part through committees, the addition of members
miglt ha'1i an opposite effect. As a matter of fact, there seems to be little,
if an;. relat,.n between the size of the board and the amount of time
i hih it ;n members devote to board duties.
l'er!iapi a: defense for the larger board in the great cities might be
i?,. 1:li,:.1 in another direction. Certainly the large city exhibits a com-
i'l,:xitl. ,anid a variety of interests which are lacking in the small urban
ioniunijty' The ordinary American city of more than 0oo,ooo inhab-
iLtatl hasi numerous industrial and commercial interests, competing eco-


nomic organizations, divergent ethnic al.l rai:al gr... ri.al rli;gi..
sects and denominations, and every -. arirtl. r .,i C.1t,.lr1 ia .in s.,:i:.il inter-
est imaginable. The representation of Il r,:- '. ar .:.u- p.:.111-t -s I'.'1 ,n th.
board of education would seem to be dl.:-ral.,i.. L'.: i-n '..Iit a lar-e IA...ar'l
this is extremely difficult; with a small I.:;ard-l it i inimp:.it.l; -
From 386 cities data regarding th,. -i- .4i ith. I...r. ti >:.ti.i:ati.iti
were gathered at two different date.s-- irst itn ir-', .-1I I.i ltcr irn i-...
Since the same cities reported the fa.t-. i..r I,,.th ,tar.. ar ii iu:.uall, aj:-
curate measure of the trend during th>: :i.-:.c a r [ c- r... I !: I c i: il!i:.iinr-
Certain tendencies seem to stand ou: i c.:.n! i .Icrl i.f tciarii:. In
these cities the number of three-meml.. r i..lir-llri>rmli.r. i;-.-:nil.cr, art:d
eight-member boards decreased apprc: ia.l.l Il.,c ci lle .1a r;: c. al ni
1926, while the number of five-member sr ?tr.!-i-eml .: r. nii.-nint-mlil..-r, :i! I
ten-member boards increased in like .r .-" .r ti .n. Theic i:i, i: ugg.c I thai
cities are tending to abandon the ver,, -imall I: .arki and the t'.;ar.d .'i-th
even numbers of members. The obshr. at!,-i .-hi.l h l.1 a~ I...I ma i c lha.t
the very large boards are likewise be.in:: r'li,.:i-.l iin I c. T Ie r .'.,: i' r
these changes are fairly obvious and .re 111 :,.-.-.id i. ith thi: t:n:r.l',l
accepted theory regarding the size of :hr. -ch..l l. ..a;r., l. 'ii t hal :in', i:!rr-
cut trends should reveal themselves i:i ,., sh.r..t !t iin ;a!;- m..-t l..r':.-
fully of the instability of current arranii mrnt.ri-.
This brief survey and analysis of rhi: pri.'r :t sli'r il...i i. jth re.iard ti.r
the size of school boards suggests certain scigniii:cat i..'lr.-lnt i rni Tlih
great diversity of practice probably rH,_cfl.t .- .ur It.li:;ati .!i:l h! :Ir:.r' ani.
the local origin of our school procedure: F.... ir,.led I i:.ll. mnariit.lri, that
these differences are a reasoned product .iri-ing ir.,r.m th. .~i1 -re iteeI.l ,:.f
schools and communities. There is i-.-,l caii.-: i...r I:.e!i.. Iri that the
present fluid condition of the board ..ii.h rei-l:.* .: t,-, thli .nit it.i. lr. :at
least in the cities, represents a wide.srrca-d .Ai tti. u.. i i -*.prirlerltatil.,n.
In the city the movement is in the dir.Lti.n ,..,i I. :.:rdl .-i m.-..J.fratl si..'e
composed of an odd number of meml:er. \\Whik -ich a tr,.ni.1 *:"-. harIll,
be said to rest on scientific grounds, it di.-. i.- t.. l:'. cte i -iipp'"rt '.t
the results of more or less careful ob,: r'., ti'rn.

METHOD OF -ELL' i l'i'.
The methods employed in the t kcict.. n ...i mI. mcil r- i i l. ...i.1r]s ..i
education tell much the same story as .I: Ihe [iratieii: ri l ar,.r,; tihe- 1:
of these boards. The present situaticni ..-a :,.nr,:tc!, lc iin.lr:lr ....- l c...I:cli
in terms of the way in which Amerin: n ;,L1.-u,'- 'f oltui U.atin I'.'%t ,I..-
veloped. The most casual examination .-.i rht.- ii Lh.., I at t.~ c: ti'..n slig-

GFI'.\IL .\NIZ \Tr IO:N 1. 1 I-I..\.L:L' 01 i.[UCATION

,. -ts th'at I lie,,' I._i-re ,:k-'i csl .1c .dr1,- s.'t I c.i.l and -.rite I:. inm unities sought
i :. :r; i::i li.:ri-. f.r th,. o r..l tr ,..t4 :-.Ln:.ti':.i. Ilirc', re the products of
a i:..nliti.ii :.1 .:i:ii uii mlit.ii.: a .ni I.L.ail iiaut..I.:.riy. They likewise
refle-t a (...ii iti'.n .f .,rn,.unir t, i,.Ilat...n arl I ._4 'ir.c.%eloped systems of
trans[.,.,'rtatI.r .'1n. 1 O:. i' lri|] m i l .l:'l
Ii 1F.atl, III art [pr..-..nt:l thtI factiit ir It:,'-ii.t county boards of
.lu.ati..ni. ,\ili....rh !iglll,' il!., : re tliar ii: e.i ijal .:4 tl se boards secure
tiih ir ijircilci! -hi[ I.,' pI.pular ..t- t., tht ri art. tien .- thr.r methods employed
in .ri- '.r n'i'rt iltan:ir Tlie rt ...l,:cr' al,., .. lii in examination of
tihi.z tl '' eh'. h i.:. .ti s i- lat ho r thd: i criti-n -i which has not al-

T.\ ,LI. III
_l ii ..r"i: ...r 'Li ,: ii' ..:. i i i I....i i 1..W i- F...F EDUCATION

: .I.: r. I .1 ,..I .. ..,.-ber Per Cent

Elecuon by popular vote............................. 30 51.7
Election at town meeting ............................ 6 0o.4
Selection by grand jury .............................. 5 8.6
Election at convention of school-board presidents....... 4 6.9
Selection by county court. ............... .......... 3 5.2
Selection by election board composed of county superin-
tendent, commonwealth attorney, citizen appointed by
judge.......................... ................ 3 5.2
Appointment by county superintendent ................ 3 5.2
Appointment by governor of state .................... I 1.7
Appointment by state board on recommendation of county
superintendent.................................... I 1.7
Appointment by county board of supervisors............ I 1.7
Appointment by county board of commissioners........ I 1.7
Total ....................................... 58 0oo.o

ready been put into practice would require no small measure of ingenu-
ity. While the natural expectation is that the county superintendent is
selected by the board, there are certain instances where the reverse is
true, namely, instances where the board of education is selected by
the county superintendent. Present practice shows little consistency re-
garding the relation which the board should sustain either toward the
people of the community or toward the profession of teaching.
.\nig.,r th.e cities many different methods of selecting board members
.ir I lik. 1-r i fulnrid, but there is a much stronger tendency toward agree-
micnt thlan ainirn. the counties. An examination of Table IV shows eleven
:liffe-reil ]ivIIt:h.:l employed in the 507 cities included in the study. Only
i.ur .I th .,. l thods, however, are represented with a sufficient degree
:of irc.-i i:1 ti: make them important. Under these four methods may


be grouped more than 95 per cent of the citi.s. In aln.'im.t three-i..i.rths ...
the cities the members are elected at large. If t: t these .it;es arc aj-ided
those cities where the method is that of el::ti..n 1', ..ar,. :more ti lin
83 per cent of the total are accounted for. TIir_ nmrian. that the C:itie h!', e
practically decided in favor of election by th; peop:,ci:,l the pr.-.i: r nm thiod
of selecting board members.
There is one method of selection of board ncrmnl.'ers v'hh is s.:. un-
usual, so striking in character, and so contrary. : i,' i:lc!dtii:rati,: trai.:lt...ns
that it merits special attention. In one of ti:-c :iticE ricp -..rt- in the tal.l-e
the board selects its own members. In Selnia..\la:l.al an. the ......J '. hi.:h
shapes the policies of the public schools an ..Il!ectc:~ taxes icfr their Ztu[i

METHODs oF SELECTING MEMBERS OF Ci:. [..* *, [.* r i:. i iTir..

Method of Selection ...t. r F. r 'r,

Election at large. .............................. ;:
Election by wards ............................. ... :. '-
Appointment by mayor ........................
Appointment by city council .................... I '
Election at town meeting.................. . i
Appointment by city commissioners .............. : "
Appointment by governor. ................ .. ... .i .:
Appointment by city manager................... i
Selection by judges of supreme court............. I I
Selection by board of education ..................
Selection by special board of mayor and aldermen.
Total. .................................... : C: :

port is self-perpetuating. In the city of Mac,.,n andr in li?.il. C... iiti'. Geor-
gia, a similar condition prevails. Correspondence .'tl tl-,thle Iu[,erin Icn rienti'
of schools in these two cities revealed the fait tnha thl: sill-p,: rl:s:ttatlir
board is a product of the period of reconstruci,:.ri. The Li.ard at ilMac..n
was organized in 1872 under a special act of the legislature .I." tIhe- iatie oif
Georgia. The object of the enactment was t.:i r emi..e the riul.,li,- s:li:...!.
which was then being organized, from political iinuencii. I hi- mrai t. of
course, the removal of education from the control :.i tih nc~~r... oic a\nd
the carpetbaggers from the North. In this c...unty tihe Iir.-..:s i' re in
the majority. Consequently, the white element in the p.:.ulat.i Lin C:lhi:,:
to have the board named in an act of the legslaIture withl the p['..er i:.
According to the testimony of those wh..i hli, e l.eein as;ic::al il inli
the boards in these cities, the membership har I,.cn :.f un it...rrnily Ihigh

GErEi-.\AL lIG,\Niz,\ i'iN i'C -,(.\f.DS OF EDUCATION

'type and:, .* hile p- rha [..- i:fm.. tu n i,:.s.er'.a.ive in outlook, has apparent-
I. ri. erijrd t i.h> I :l-.-.!? e'' ellenri t l -r :,iC:. .\- the conditions which created
thIcs- sel'-i-rpctu'atin g t::.ard: disa.ppl.ar. the boards themselves may be
c:.m,..:tJ Lt.: I..a-As. I hlli cangl: haI ai:tul.ill been taking place in some
c,-,ri niii ti-es in thl irii lli.i Cte i.-t tlh:is I:.,:..irds were apparently some-
.hutt m-j:or. n. r:.,i-u.s thiin t he, arc t,-:la.. Fhus, Savannah had a self-
perpetuAIi.' ig i,-ard: until Augu-t, :-.. accordingg to the superintendent
of schools in this city, as the ancient Hebrews clamored for a king, the
people of Savannah clamored for a board democratically constituted.
A study of the methods of selecting board members employed in
cities of different sizes shows some significant differences. Election at
town meetings is naturally confined almost exclusively to the smaller com-
munities. In cities of more than 1o,ooo inhabitants there is an observable
tendency to resort to the method of election by wards and to the method
of appointment by mayor. Since election at large implies acquaintance
with all the candidates on the part of the entire electorate, it is not sur-
prising that this method is employed less frequently in the larger com-
munities than in the smaller communities. These differences, however,
should not obscure the fact that in cities of all sizes the common practice
is to elect at large. Even in cities having more than 1oo,ooo inhabitants
this method is followed in 58 per cent of the cases.
In the several geographical areas certain distinctive tendencies may
likewise be observed. In the West North Central and Western states the
overwhelming practice is election at large. In the Southern states, on the
other hand, both along the Atlantic coast and in the central area, this
method shows the least strength. In less than one-half the cities studied
from these states are board members elected at large. In the New England
states, the East North Central states, and the South Central states, elec-
tion by wards or districts is unusually common. In the Middle Atlantic
states appointment by mayor is frequently found. In fact, twenty-two
It' the thii t[,-nmin cases of this method of selection are from these states.
Li Li.< Ejat Nr..drt Central states appointment by city council is a fairly
cnmitn:.ii metli..I Nineteen of the thirty-one cases reported come from
this ari.a. In the S:outh Atlantic states this method is also fairly common.
Thl-i r.-:- 1 _-,sho,:i I n-:t be lost sight of, however, that in every geographical
di.-isi-n the m[irth-,o:l of election at large is the prevailing or most common
practice .
Tie mieth.:ds eminployed in thirty-five states in the selection of the
nienil.er- :o tihe state board of education are reported in Table V. Ac-
c:rdinig it ti-_ til..le, the variety of practice is somewhat less wide here

18 SC'.IAL COI 'r (RIT IOrN C'F P-\,i[ -,I- FF[L \.tit '

than in the il, anI' co-.l u nt I...ar..l Therer ar ,. t 1 .i i ii, r,.n i t: -, i ...d
employed, and. thlt u:,Jal n.l-..hi i- a"pp.intn,.rit I.:. ,..'.rr...r lTh,: .nl-
other method that i r p ri.-.r.:l ,ri. : th.iin l ".:i iF that -.4 ,..t ,.,i n "i the
board of m en-l,. r: < .. i; ti ... lt. latti. r p .r. i : i':. i cl I i l .....i .: iii [li
selection of the mn ci .l-r if il.e l....ar,:i c v1iit arc m i.. .al it thi .ir
jurisdiction. M ,,r,.'. r. th,. -_.r- .-.l. A -..'i.i,: m ,i d-n ,-r; i, ,:.]il,,..l. tl
m ore com m ..,n thl! in the t ile ,-.* .1 i ,[,lI. '-,.:-,1:.',ie I,., rd, .. h r- th..
m majority of na l .i.rt: ar :.i. i .. I', '-*. ,th ii r rii i..t- h ...in: ..r in ..,r:
m em bers will I'b .'..iiil C.r' inl, -:. ..!.11,i..
The great-'t .il *-r itv n ntr ... ` -h-l. :ii2 i enirfl,.r iC ..I.irlJ iii
the boards v.hi-lh ,*.r tlr...i the. .ltjt. a...ll ..g and ,.irn .-r.itn-. An :l.:in irLt-
tion of Tablr l h .... i i I -.. i lc e i .-i In tl., -:l:-,:,t .: ...t n l.. r-

1 \bLE V
M ETH. ,** ,ELE2Ti" E I, : ;i- ' T D,'F L F I. i .i i ..'

h II' J I 6.1 h. ,' u, r, .
Appointment ',. .-rlr.r : r.:
All members e. ..i. i
Election by pt..r.. '
Election by le,.-:! g': i. i : .j
Appointm ent I...' r.i.. : :.i .iir r...i-i I i .. . .u J
Election by ser,. ,:... pi.r ,r.i bi .,r .j
Total.... .:..

of the forty-thr,:e i; ,rh.. r 'i ,.lr i, Iin ,-i sziii..jy, thirtl-. Ji'll.r,.nt ni,.th-
ods or combiiatii..i-z : -.thl...i- at fi.iii.-n ..\ A in th ...i a c ,f ih,- ,,.: i..,
of the m emr l.'.r: ..I the -tate i:.'.i r .l- i.. i 'J i i..'rai I, a p.iiiintmiin i tv l:
governor of lie -tat: i ih n it ,...i ni'iii, ni.thi ..:l ci p.i!:.: . In lai.. it
seems to be jahl.it thi. ..ii, ni'th..h.i .hi.-h ihi-r. i aii'. agr .m-iirt.
M em bers of the.r i-.:,ar:l .ire .ir :irle.: ,. I.. e .:*.. rn..,r, :lictel I..C tlh.r
people, appointred I. th. t..ar.t itk r lL, t.li.:ct.1 1.-. t-h aili.n!-i, 0 il. ch ,ill I:.:.
the state legidlat..ir., i'.r l ::t .I 1..1. ari...`I z1 ,:, iai l.....ii.- i that .ir:- al-
ready in existii. ,e ...r ar,: t:r.at.l fr.r thii [urp..i. A[pair,enll crt,:,rt ha-
been m ade t.. g '., t ri:.it:. gr...i I ain iv ti. r,.t it th.. i.at i .1 .:i. i ini tlh
determ nation ..1 i.the Ir'iin l u pur .i : i-, t- he l ate ,..il:esC i..iii i r-i-
tics. Possible: th cL..iprtl[ h .i ;:.- th.- ;iituati.,i i. Ji.. ['.irti t ttl' hi.riia r-
bequeathed t... th-:- pol.il. inzii.it i.ii:. I: e l..ili er i ri .i.. !!.L .
In concl-.:l i:jg thl I i.il .i i .n i the i- rn eth i- *- in-l'I :. 1ii ihe '- l: i.6in
of m em bers I I...-'ri- .t Il tii. th- Ctati i. t .. I i:h ,,.i maii ii t th li
outset should I.c r .,.ita.l. The In.:t -tinl.iig .hr.,,tcri-n: ti thic -\iiinr


uititil.-.n I~ rhe .:I. er.~rl, ..i i'r.'' tice. While certain tendencies possessing
':..i-' nJ ral..I!. sitr. nith n11iy 1c .-I .- rved, almost any conceivable method of
s,.Ie.l;rin I.- I.lr. I nieinil..r. rni.. I.,: fund employed somewhere. At present,
tu, t.,-,i ..I i;.h.. I aL.inroititi.:.n are inclined to favor an appointive
tL.-.r.: i.:.r i .:!,iiriii. irlr, i.. cli '.lii. n in the larger areas and an elective
board for administering education in the smaller areas. Excellent argu-
ments have been advanced in favor of this disposition of the matter, but
it must be admitted that at present detailed objective knowledge for the
support of such recommendations is lacking. In the present state of edu-
cational and social science we can scarcely pass judgment in complete


Method of Selection Number Per Cent

SAppointment by governor ........................... 18 42.0
Appointment by governor and ex officio ............... 9 2i.0
Election by people .................................. 4 9-3
Selection by state legislature ......................... 3 7.0
Appointment by governor and board of control ........ 2.3
Appointment by state board and alumni............... 2.3
Appointment by governor, council, alumni, state superin-
tendent, ex officio.. ............................... 2.3
Selection by state legislature and board of control...... 1 2.3
Selection by state legislature, board of control, and alumni i 2.3
Selection by board of control, senate, ex officio ............ I 2.3
Selection by governor, ex officio, state board of agriculture i 2.3
Selection by governor and alumni.................. ... 2.3
Election by people and appointment by governor....... i 2.3
Total.................................... 43 ioo.o

confidence on the different types of boards of education. Quite possibly
there are several or even many different methods of selecting board mem-
bers which are equally good. It is conceivable that this problem is one
of little importance. Judgment, however, must be withheld until evidence
.t .in objective character has been marshaled.

rhe term of office of members of boards of education would seem to
b,: an important matter. Theoretically, this term should be of sufficient
IciiLth to give the individual member time enough to become thoroughly
i.iniliar with the task which society assigns to him. It should also be long
'-i.:.ugh to insure to him a measure of security against the mob propensi-


ties of the electorate. Only under such conditions, so the argln-ient r.unr,
may his decisions be expected to reflect a dispassionate stud) ...i Iri pr.r.l,-
lems of the school. On the other hand, at least in a democra:v, ihe tIrm
of office should not be so long as to tempt the member to los. tI...I:h :. iit
the electorate and thus to give support to policies which are -:.jt .:i4
harmony with the ideals and purposes of the community serx .j. I'Pcrh:i.p
the confession should be made at once that we hardly know tcia ia1 ..1 t t: v.'
long a term of office should be in order to meet these requiir-i'ntn-.
The facts regarding present practice as revealed by the [r, I-tri: ti.:.!i
are presented in Table VII. An examination of the last cclumn ..I Lthi


Tn Years City County State and
Term of Office in Years Boards oards Boards Universi-

I .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2...................... 10 19 13 2 i
3..................... 49 24 3 7 -
4..................... I16 32 39 22
5 ..................... 8 7 9 7
6..................... 16 13 30 31 -
7 ..................... 5 ........ 9 4
8.................... ......... ......... 3 11
9..................... .. .......... .......... ........
IO ... ............................ ....... ... 2
12 ........... .......... ..... ... ...... .. 3 2
L ife . .... ............. ......... .......... 7

Total.............. 00 oo 00 oo 00 00
Number of boards... 485 59 33 44
M edian............ 3.8 4.3 4.9 6. -

At least one board with this term of office was reported, but the representation is r.,, ...il I... .
in this table.

table shows that the central tendency for the four types of i,...ar.-l i:.:.t-
bined is between four and five years. It also shows a consider-l.,k anricti
of practice. The length of the term of office ranges from one c, r r.*. life.
The modal term is four years; yet two-year, three-year, and si.:-\ ear tc rni
are not uncommon. In fact, three-year and six-year terms o:,:lir :ln...st
as frequently as four-year terms. The apparent avoidance .:. the fi ce-
year term is difficult to explain. Five would seem to be as go.,] i .1 r.ml 'i r
as any.
A comparison of the different kinds of boards suggests th.att h ll- rgi r
the geographical area involved, the longer the term of office. .-\ criii


Ie.-rec ..I4 r nmi- r.Lnct- I'r...rn tihe pr,,ople seems to favor a lengthening of the
irirmn. LiLke.'.i-, -.hi r tr IL I.. ...1r fashions policies which touch the gen-
cr:ll publicc .i-nI I irtii:,:. .:'r n.:'t at all, as in the case of the state or uni-
.:rlit i.... 'iri. tin, me ml.ir- :tr' removed somewhat from the control of
the electorate. Also the practice of appointing members seems to be as-
sociated with the longer term. Thus, for the city boards the median term
of office is 3.8 years; for the county boards, 4.3 years; for the state boards,
4.9 years; and for the college and university boards, 6.4 years. Apparent-
ly, where the board is more remote from the people and where the board
is appointive, the term of office is increased.
An examination of the more frequent practices in the different kinds
of boards reveals the same tendency. Thus, among the city boards the
three-year term is most frequent; while the three-year term is important
among the county boards, the four-year term is the mode; among the
state boards the four-year term likewise occupies first place, but the six-
year term rather than the three-year term is found in second place;
among the college and university boards the six-year term is the most
frequent. For the boards which control the higher institutions, even eight-
year terms are not uncommon, and in 7 per cent of the cases members hold
office for life.
Between the length of the term of office and the size of the city, there
seems to be little relation. However, a slight tendency for the larger
cities to favor longer terms of office may be observed. Thus, while in the
cities having between 2,500 and 5,000 inhabitants the median term is 3.7
years, in cities having populations of more than 1oo,ooo the median term
is 4.3 years. Moreover, in every one of the six classes of cities recognized
in this investigation except the class containing the largest cities, the
three-year term is the most common practice. In these cities of more than
1oo,ooo inhabitants the six-year term is the most frequent term. These
facts are in harmony with the conclusions drawn in the preceding para-
In the several parts of the country certain differences may be noted.
The shorter terms on the average are found in New England, the East
North Central states, the West North Central states, and the Western
states. The medians in these four sections range from 3.5 to 3.9 years. In
the South Central, the South Atlantic, and the Middle Atlantic states,
on the other hand, the terms are somewhat longer, the medians for these
three sections being 4.1, 4.7, and 6.1, respectively. In the first four geo-
graphical divisions mentioned the most frequent term in each case is three
years. In each of the other three divisions the most frequent term is some-


what longer. Thus, in the South Central states Ili:.r :.eiar i- ile i... .i
common length of term, and in both the Middl.. A.\larL; ilanl the ',-.i.th
Atlantic states the six-year term is the mode. Thtiee ii.:i- ..,:.uiiJ -eeni t..i
suggest that the longer terms are found in the Lirt ....cr. ti.Ci: i..l:.-
tional areas.
The social and educational significance of the' I- la, rt.gar.i;r-iL t-rm ..
office remains to be determined. Just what eff(,:t I.:.n!- .o:r :hi:.rt ti:rni: .:f
office have on the quality of board members anld thi f. ritilaticLi! lt ei:lu-
cational policy has never been made the subject i:i .:. rc:ul iti\ c:eit;, iit:i
Possibly this also is a matter that is of no great I r.-,n.,-c..icvnc. C..-iL:C'-.-
ably, good boards and bad boards, competent Iar:.tr]: ir,.li nc l.:.'.tIl.
boards, progressive boards and conservative bctr. :l a.ire tii Ie futi.:Jl ii
accompany with equal frequency both short anc I. !iL t : riii-- ..I .1Ilt:.., irt.
until this question is brought within the range ..._f u.i:nti!: inltud., it will
remain a subject for speculation.

More important, perhaps, than the term of ..fii:c i.ri..; 1... ,. laj' ia
the tenure of office. How many years of service .1:,:. the :rdlinrar. mn.in--
ber render the board? This would seem to be a nmai..er i.if c-.ril.lerj-Ie iri-
portance from the standpoint of the responsibility. i hi;ch th,. hl:,trd i-
qualified to discharge. Apparently, one of the criter.i fi:r .:leterniiriic ithe
optimum term of office is to be found in some s..i'I ."'i: relat.-in ti tir. .n
term and tenure. There are other considerations, t... I:. i ure, ..hl. ijil i",i'
make a fairly long term of office desirable, but the rl.t.. -. ti renii re i;
undoubtedly a factor which has been very gener.ill," r>.i.:,gni;_. 1.
The results of the present investigation ini... tle I.eii re i.t .itice .*i
board members are summarized in Table VIII. IIt.r: ar,: ,:,:prt. i h..
facts for county, city, state, and college and ,il er-liv I,.:'i .r :l Tih
median tenure of office of the members of all fo-ar I I .in rl- c.. nbii-nil :. is .-
years. Of more interest, perhaps, is the great ranG,. iin i~erinre. There i- r:]ie
case reported of a member who has given sixty yeir -, r'. i-rt t',-. hs :iti .
At the other extreme of the distribution are 72''- ii..il.: -.It .I [-a I
of 3,920 who are serving their first year. This hiiiihcr i- c-i.I-,l- ral.l
larger than the number found in any other cattig.ry. Ih:ri; r :e t... I.:
very great mortality between the first and secoril .r..
A word should be said with regard to the a.icurai.y :l th: dlaa prn:-
sented in Table VIII. The reader perhaps has Ch-cr'e..l that rh,. iiumniher
reported as having served six years is somewhat -ria.t:.r ijr th ithi: ni.nl.i .r
reported as having served five years. Moreover, ra tilr .ii-n'ci. ritl, ftrI.rr,

CI :II :.\I. I'il t. .IZ \ '[lN 'IF BOARDS OF EDUCATION 23

tIi: l.'iir- ar Ca i:;I tg.'r\ [l, IILI. I ,er reported as having served an even
lcIL n l.: r ..f ,.i rt I: r, .t th.- Ll iii number reported as having served the

i \I .i.1: VIII
'I i i. i-. I.l. i.if-r r ? .'.IFr' RS OF BOARDS OF EDUCATION

B t College and
.,t .- :. 1 1 .. Boards State Boards University Total

:.- i. 89 37 51 728
i- i .:' 123 30 29 542
.i 60 23 32 436
o6 28 38 402
S- 86 26 30 266
-: 60 14 18 322
S- 7 : i03 13 12 135
;-3- .3............... 163 IO I1 194
8.5- 9-. .............. 6 88 9 To 113
9.5-1o.5.............. 12 146 3 Io 171
1o.5-11.5 ...... ....... 4 31 4 9 48
11.5-12.5 ............. 15 114 12 10 151
12.5-13.5 ............... ......... 20 2 6 28
13.5-14.-5 .............. I 28 I 4 34
14.5-15 5. ............. 8 69 2 7 86
15.5- 6.5 .............. .......... 27 4 5 36
16.5-17.5 .............. I 12 1 5 19
17.5-18.5 .............. I 36 2 2 41
18 .5-19 5 .............. .......... 5 .......... 3 8
19.5-20.5 .............. I 49 3 7 6o
20.5-21.5 ............... 3 .......... 2 6
21.5-22.5 ............... ...... 7 .......... I 8
22.5-23.5. ........... .. ......... 6 I I 8
23 .5-24 .5 .............. .......... 8 .......... 2 IO
24-5-25.5 .............. 1 17 2 I 2I
25.5-26. .............. .......... 6 .......... 3 9
26.5-27.5 .............-. ...... 5 I .......... 6
27.5-28 .5 .............. ........... 4 .......... .......... 4
28.5-29.5 ............... ........ ....... ....... 2 3
29.5-30.5 ...... ................. 7 2 I 10
3 0 .5- 3 1 -5 ... . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .... . .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .
3 1.5-3 2.5 .............. ........ .. 2 ..... ...... . ....... 2
32.5-33.5 ............. ....... ... I ......... ......... I
33.5-34 .5.............. ........... I ......... ......... .
34 .5-35.5 .............. ... .. ... 2 .......... 3
3 5 .5-36 .5 .............. .......... 2 .......... .......... 2
39-5-40. 5 . .......... ... ... ... I .......... .......... I
40.5-41.5 ........ ....... ..... 3 .... ................ 3
41.5-42.5 ............. ...... . i .......... .. .......... i
59 .5-6o0 5 .............. .......... i .. . .. . . .. i

Total.............. 284 3,093 231 312 3,920
M edian............ 3-9 4.1 4-4 4.7 4.1

immediately preceding odd number of years. Thus, the number having
served eight years is greater than the number having served seven, the

24 ''". ..\L CO ITF'l'ITi-'N 'l BA.\REF'S 1:1' ELUCitTION

ngnitr I t ,. r,',:..l L ',t .l y i k f i .'r:.tt.-r t Ou- n Ot lo IIIIIll,,Or !W:. i ni r'. ,I
l'u lt :, ith : iiul ll l.c r .'l'i ..' in .' "'c i r-"k ,'"ir- i--. ,!' r..icr titr i lh1i: n u.in l':r
hj 'i, ze r..,d -:I,: .%:1 -I. :l a -,- ,-, l- h,. rl, : A-.,:, -ti._plio' toL: tli le it, r.:|e i ,
:ir f' urn .i i. ie rfilt nth :iri. thr i t.-ftith *, itr h lc :[-il.tn,tLi,'.n o
ih:-i l :: ;.- .l.i. .. : Thie, ir l i t lijl. --.0: pt for thlie r,,rter ternz
,-.I er :, .ih, rrepo i- : ni r, t ..r I -- iniiiccur.tc. C( n..ii- -itl,:r h.i\c
al '. a- ', : ii.: U m ii laif trr ii :c Ii l t:, ho ':.: *,: :i:tl ntl,' ,.l o'ire | r-
...i r:[..,n:-.J t hi nc n tl n it the d..J 1 i.i ir-- -i f this l.in l, hl v, -
e'.. -r, ,I., lo im p u: r .h :- ,il ,'ti t! ,. .l a,n ,t lh,. h :o W nnthj _>i-'...r t.... i., ,.Ir: ,.-n
fr-n tile tA.l.l The rI,.,-rt- l..r th -h. .rl. r irlii .-1,f i [ic aic ptri .'.l-.1;
f. iirl rt. itil '! inr I ii : t.. ni i .l' iit ll-ithin Ih -i.- ,.( th . l .tr' bii-
tLi..ri i :cn tr:il ter :,, ,:.in I-_ .. ,:,- .p u t,.'.I i.ill r lati ,ii- t i,:lj .tc:,, :l',:i
erro:,'- 4 ,: or I' .t-.. in' th rei ii .:l:i r .,- : th i thi lc .IA r: ," a t: | ,j rti':u-
l.iI Ln i', n.r c. 1 li,. >' r 'il im p r n :'li'. :", ,J I,', the :tli'l ,u. ,:] i me ri
t, i ... r iu *.., -rtl-,,
A l.. itari.rL--. .1l th. L 1:11. i utin l fr n.m th,: f .ur t, j.;- l..f:nr.J-
.-lh .., nr,'. -_ni-.j i i .'ut r *-l',,,. ,I I i rnil-il|" rt:ilit ..'l!fernl-r, T h-Tr nic. li.in
tL rm a- ,t" -. -r. Lr ,_: r,.tte.r 1n t11 ,i l', l...i r.tl th in. h t :. niunt. I.n,-, l: 1.:,
i-_ t1 I': rn er i thr t.- l .t : : ir:l t! l, I ,I-.,- l i. .i II iii i' C rti L', I.., :ird.l T he JiR i r-
ti t: i nli':' l i .l 'l 'i ,. ir 1.i '. i ii I ~- e :l i.iri term .-f ..I r. ice f. r trhe
: .:. n't i.-.', r 'r: l lth ,: n*l],. LJ t I i ln ,-,f -_ r". ict: fo- r t .ll,. : ..,l,-'t:- A l..l ,i| !. ', r-
Ok I : .i ..o1..v, pih L'sis-f voi I iti h ii -2r AppLtl irerti, the ilr rnii-
-i ',' l t,:,:'r':l- t- ., 'If,. l.,l?' : -_-i ,i 5' ,, ll :'L-i2 tti'I 'iit I "n ea ,[-'i r 't.l i n ri i : 'iii'-
l...: r- ,hi rl" h,.:, l ,.i h' h :re m .-.r re n.'-t: l'r..nt thi.i m. .L' '' l: |': -" <:-"
:J hihti ', i r'e.t~:rl -ti. i t thl. .i < : h th .i ii : i...r ,hi:, the i..r:tr.:l- ,v*.I u i
Art: ,,,rt r, : .[_i,, : e 1, i,. 'l : '"'i irii, Tl 'r Iher'itt ,t l'I:rc i;_ .:r, _ij itrl.tt
to: th,. t h -i L"**h.: .n ;i >: '.l ;ti i h, r ,. :' :.iin:,,ij -_, : n i..i n Li .4 ,.
.\A n I[ ':i:"ii t i il,, I'. 4 i .rn fr-_ l', !' i:[ l .li ',e fr i _- ,'-- l' '.'Ii l'c ,i
.,A: ;r' nLt t,. r nJ' i'i -. .\ +II'-'I'.-' I ,ll "S i. ,'!. -- s 0' 1 ,- it ti:t ,d th': Iwth.i iL t'ni r,
..'i ..Itn: ra ces fI'-,L .. t... 4.4 'VcarL I hi rlln ..'I" 1: i i Ailt-.',.r ,.iii hlAr.'l1,
h r c..' r,:,',l -. : i ltrif ',.t i l-,. rti. u +l rl;, iiiir il-, ..tri. i.L .n ,li',.,-.'.,:t+,ro,
_i.-, r.,. r-A: tion t,! th.- :L.-, 4, the citii ,- lIh,. ,..'t: t"'t ,.hl r'] lTr in:, 1 .r.l :-
ti:,. h p.:, r-,ln: tV c,- :.,ir i.' i-,._,:rn c o: f 5t.0.- i t* r ,.:,: 1, 10, 00:,:.: inh..l i.Atrtt
:Ind..l i: i. -_ f fr" .A i i_.: .:.o .-. -, ,. :".: i0nh il- it.t .-.
In th :t- : ,- f h : :-.us :, ,._"r..: .ph i -re:-L ,,ine, .. l n .-.ri: -. LI
,: tt ,:hireen, ..:. re f:. ind In t j, l., I!'. "i _l rin.i: in l,,. mI! .JLtn t"r i,
Ci. .f tli ..l-hi I' t_ .'CL n ,J I-::'. r r _.l i-_ f,-,.,n lil, ,iL lithJ ,-, .r' .t ,ii11 .El ,1 i -
-T,..rs. T hr _h,,eL-. lt r ri.-I, ,:" !,.r -- it I,,i.ut.: i ill tI \. ,-_ r t,:r n i thc
Ej.: N -.rtlh C .et, 'I! -i.l .-. ThI,- in in,, l.l- 0,r lh- h t ,r.-.u ,-- ,-t _itl.e-
.tn: %.; :r,:i ; 1 v nrs. r, p.: tli .:l., \t tlht .-.lhrr ..,tr<:-ni it. tl ,,: tlh
A l.i. tt. :.i i-p \1 it' ,1 n '.':.lan .:.f 5 '": .r -1 : )... ltV er f.ur q .r At -r.,up'~


-o st. tesl .-,:,[.. a i:ci' v'r.ti[. i i; a1 .re very close together. This would
.:i'l i. i.l ii itL. LIt: h i t ii' t i:i' .11,th A lA I tic states at least there is a certain
i. t.i!t 11 I i!n tlhe I,,:ril ,I .li-li i n..t fund in the other areas and which
i.'.ri t ., i,;: |:, .rl !i r!l I n ii i!4 inM tlhe W est. This greater stability of the
I,:ar..l ti he si.L itlIh-a.irr. ist ie [ .. ..iibly reflects a greater stability in
One would expect to find some clear relation between tenure of office
and methods of selecting board members. Such, however, seems not to
be the case. There are four methods of selecting members which are
employed with sufficient frequency to be worthy of examination in this
connection, namely, election at large, election by wards, appointment by
mayor, and appointment by city council. The median numbers of years
served by members chosen in these four different ways are 4.1, 3.8, 3.8,
and 4.2, respectively. That appointment by mayor or by council does not
result in greater permanence in board membership is difficult to believe.
Yet this seems to be the case. In order to put at rest any fears which the
reader may have regarding the adequacy of the data, the point should be
made that for each method of selection data were received for at least
145 board members. These facts seem to suggest that under the condi-
tions of the modern city, with the extreme mobility of its population, the
complexity of its institutional life, the number and variety of its inter-
ests, and the uncertainty of its politic', the tenure of office of board mem-
bers can hardly be increased by. changing the method of selection. The
stability of board membership appears to be a function of the kind of
society served rather than'of the political device employed in the choice
of that membership. '
However, a more striking relation, or absence of relation, remains to
be considered. If stability of the board is not to be secured by adopting
the right method of selecting members, it can certainly be obtained by
extending the legal term of office. So the argument naturally runs, but in
actual fact the argument seems to be faulty. The evidence available
shows no relation between the legal term of office and the number of
years which board members serve. Thus, for 261 members serving on
boards with legal terms of two years the median tenure of office is 4.2
years, while at the other extreme, where the legal term is six years, the
median tenure of 499 board members is but 4.4 years. The medians
for boards with terms of office of intermediate length depart.but little
from the medians of these two extreme groups. Tenure seems to remain
constant despite changes in the term of office prescribed by law.
What the optimum tenure of office for board members may be lies

f. "-OC-I \L c .111r' i-i-ilr N OF i-:0 \i .I-S OF E ULit '.\XTI'

s..m i .h l ,F .'ndI r lie raniiir ., .,r,..s.n l.n....,.JL, M-:rc-:.r. : r : n :!i- i.Lans
re L,. r,.!i 11r; th-s mijtI t r *:. 1i h.Lr,.!!,, Ihe r a,-lhed i n th c is:. l .- I ;aL r >:>rA: ntil.
rre rdinig lh | I i-, > li i.:.'i n t-I h,-- lI...ir, ] n ;.-il...r II he;- is supI.:-,,s, 1 '..e-pre --
, l;,,:..il i i: ,' i >I lh' I .\ 111111. un li [m pr- rc.i lI, l:n..-,.i lgii, i..l s:h ......I
, iM lt rs, j. _h,;r. i.t.nu.r, ,.-f r L m .. i. no ta us,. l,..r ALi m. r n l] ,1 ; I:.I.l 'r bai idl
it h,. [i C't.e t, i rr, le.n ;, lE irlen r r. ]hi f-rn .it.1 i n if rh,. a..- i!
,:,i ._:, ]h,-.-l [_,,.,Ii ., ,_l in th .. [ ,r i l ,.,I i. L ,1 1 1- 11r1i Lu , I d I..I iii t Ir. ri I i n i
h'-,n r .ri r i '.f -~ cr i C v i- ientl il I i6 i :' ,lent b. Cl -r, ri.nm :.. rt ii
. rct ,ri.. nt-.l; in eir i. rhtr pIjr.tu r ih- cht. it h i r.: n.l ;', .li iilt,: r I,, :.; -
tr..! ih. iin ,lt.er i ci ,c r- vh h l ...i r..l in'i _i lri '.i.t r l. i r' l Prha p- rh:-
'..i I --Liur _L t'. [.,. u rium 1 I ,' .*-.J -.,r 11,L fL'uni t n [ .. l ; l.,,.. Ar.J r.-,ihi r .th-i n
thc l,.IrJ .i the fun tii.:In. .\t [1 par l'a:o .ir tiim e :Iin l .I li : th,.,- tI:riLire .1t
..l' liii I- .1: i: ri-in'.'J I, tI he nji t iure -I ..Cit tC

li;li l], e\, t] [ Ii: r E A _Fi [,i.iTIL :
T i, an,.,uil. .I. I n e .l : i l.. j r. r rn, m li,,r r l ...i T j..I s, .:h",l : iulie-.
i1.'i. t h.i i: ii .1: *r lp t n t 3 ri.l, i .,h i lri 1 ui liiil.- 'f. lii'h .W hi ....I lI .ijr I
i.Ji J ,i,:!' rge. it. u h that ''. -.. l in tin r i.: iin tii lat r;'.ii in piA_ r.Ia-
r I,'-z 1 i i:c.,tnn ,i,: ., n v.1 1 h 1i ,J- .,.i4 ,., i .,i t. Icn ir, .t I'4:ie -i,.h t i ,e r -
p.raHt.l hI ;.re. Il ;.i-h....-l .. .r. ni.:-il.er de\ ..t- .ain inrii[ .ru nt i r i...n ...I
Lh.ir lin, e I C[ d :h-.., l-l...'.ir.;l lult ;- h .ri : ni , f : [-;, I i hi e.i r re i .:. i-
l. i ,icr .hit :! l. t I.r.,. I , .- iv r I tt -m1 le ,. h it r n,, lIt i [ l lt -_,.
,1unIL .I *','rtrc In : liiiLmA,.]. DTi!_ iiI":C In "I ,ul. -., n l.' t, Ib r .:',i '."
r; ,l i ii ~ ,h i :,n I if ftuni.:i I, l.l ..rt i I..i-n0.J. .n Iil i u.lrerntii-n -: nt..
1 . i iF io i r> pll t ; .i:I t| .Ii L 't -'r L :ir l . il .'. 1 .h J ic.i.iL. ILL I t .Il
t'l i.|. i, trti . I t i : '*j. l..',i l rC : i t t i l Ut 'pt ,.iirii J l ', ,L'. i-ir in-
Se: lii.ti..r nJ l c>-;ur i1 i har.d1 1. c l..1c 1- sC nlinj i!.-.n 4 b I :t r
it l... I :llil 'ri: in t n ..-: nJ I 'i u r.] e .'-I '.i e i n C :h-ia ra,:-c r, i i.:n .Ii ihe
urc . nd er n. \~ ...r..r l, ie .c.: li]rac: ...I lh.. :-i t .:.I .e pr.-e- i al h ri.-
,.r,. ._ nmu .h l., IIe .-re ,l h'. .:.uLp rillt ,I.ln'it .. -, h,,l .-. .' :a as: ,J II
; Ja ih C';i-' -erel', [,-, k.lini. I l!'i, I i l u it n I tim, T .li ,.: [-'I ri I.,r.!irI J r' a I, ..r l
m"wh, ,.i, r lI: I tvs L,:- the di Lit I I hi: ,..i.T' .lur n I i '., r Jr N ,. .. ILI L
e rr r. ir,.; r :> ra.t i, Id,'rg, i .4il ,, ,. i rn n h:r- [,[ int, th-, : .t ni re H'i'. -
.-\, r, 1,11, th1 i.i,.: l ,.,i i-u t hi.i r I iiip ... i, FLa .ht:," r,, tlII ln i i I ., L ,.,I
,,-.[r inf h: lV rn ti n.. .. k' thf I I...;r..l .,. :i !, u.: i t n. t h l h ,.*. r It el tih.t
th,. 1.1 -" Li_, re- ar c 'I i il i'.: I it r. .rI h [.o lIt n, >::.rde- IhC, I nl i ling-,,J
1,1', tim i .i I .La h' r. i. u L n .1r,, l.,: '. >.. r' ic n si i C, i e>tI Li .i tA 'I'i ,'i

I" 1, 111 in .1>. LI.E ,'II I,, tj I a .v r,.... 0 t I- i ,.]I. , -1.n .. k.i r.. inulu ,d I In
[thi 1 .L i ., ,.i .n->.iune. ,.il.i fr..m bI.ut threC L\y 'l l-.- .rf l ar.'

Gl:NI : \f. "-,G,;ANIZ \ rl:I

,.ail.iL.le. 'Th. r1 :ice .-,li-..:.'.ere- in hth::: boards are presented in
T'LLk- IX. Acc:nr.1- u.. thi tal.Ie, nmil h tIhe same situation prevails among
the .:..uritv. .il ,, an.J :...!l .1,e I ui'. erst: L....ards. The median number
.. h'..urs *Je, ,:.trel ti, s..h.:. ,I-L,..,ard .Jtir's *iimallh by the ordinary member
is not far from fifty in each case. This means that five or six full working
days are rendered the community in the course of the year.


College and
Number of Hours City Boards County Boards University

I 12 ......... II 10 6
122- 37 ......... II8 9 3
37- 62 ......... 144 21 11
62 S7 .......... 42 5 3
87 -112 ......... 52 2 ,1
1I2'-137 .. .. . 8 5 ............
1372-162 ... ..... 13 ............ 2
162 -I871......... 6
1622-IS72 . . . . 6 ............ ............
1871-212 ......... 5 ............ I
2125-237 .. . .. I . . ....... .. .......
2373-262 3......... 6 ............ I
2621-287.. . ........ I ............ .. .........
3I2 -33712 ................. .......................
3372-3622 ...........................................

3412 437 ......... I ........................
3874 -4 123 ...... .... ............ ................
4 12'-4372. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4374 -4622 ....... I ............ ....
Full time.......... ........................ I

Total ......... 412 52 29
\Iedian....... 51.0 46.4 51.1

If the results of this investigation are reliable, the wide range in prac-
tice is a matter of genuine significance. To the performance of their duties
the members of certain boards devote less than twelve hours a year, while
in at least one instance the discharge of board duties demands an annual
expenditure of more than 400 hours per member. The most extreme case,
that in which the board members give full time to board duties, is not
included in the comparison because the board involved is not to be
classed in the same category with the other boards studied. In North
Dakota all state educational institutions are placed under the control of a
single board, whose members receive a yearly compensation of $3,000
each and devote their full time to the work of the board. After excluding


this board from the comparison, the rang.. ..i [ras.:t ti: rin mi-,: I.u]t-i.t ntlt
wide to be worthy of study. Clearly, the fun:it..' i .:' a rienil.'er ,:, a i1..ar.l
which requires but ten hours of service a ,.ar imust t .I ;r, .. It'.rirt i .I
that of a member of a board which requirc ..nc Ini..lr:-. I .r I m...r- I-'..'r- r
a year. In Los Angeles the minimum amn:Iuint .i .4 th l,. n .-ialil i.-I th4 l
board member is 450 hours, and some mcint.-cr. ai nmiil, as iC1,:.:.
hours a year to the duties of office. In Pr.... ],urirnc I, .r- ii the [ir. i :t rtic ,
in Columbus, 1oo; in Cleveland, 170; anld i Dal. t..n, 4-.:. .\ ,i',.y .. t ith.
activities in which these boards engage -h.'uld ra.-i ..-ic iiiii un.l-ciiIert.i
questions regarding the functions of the i.:udlrd .I c:, ul:at.in.

MEDIAN NUMBER OF Houxs DE'. .*i i.. .:ii :.i -..:. .i
DUTIES ANNUALLY BY AME It i P: *.i I i.. I,.i.-.ri,-
OF EDUCATION-CITIES CL --i li \. ..,i i:-.., I..

Population Nu .i. i -,,. [,: J,

2,500- 5,000 ............ :
5,000-10,000 ............ 4"
10,000-25,000 ............ i :
25,000-50,000. ............ ". 4 .. :
50,000-100,000 ........... :
oo00,000 or more........... .. ..

All classes of cities ... . i

Among the cities there seems to be so:nmc r.latii.'n Il.,:t'. i.. tlhe I.ur'.. ni
placed on board members and the size i the r .it. i.Ari c:.iriau.iin ...i
Table X shows this to be the case. In i.hi-, ial..- i rt[pirtiIl th-.: n!..llin
number of hours devoted to school-boar. I .luiei .llnur.ll. t\ nlnmi... .r: ...
boards in the six classes of cities includ.i' in thi. i-it.. 1 hi i- meli' a l-
vances steadily from 38.0 hours in cities ..4 is thin :,.:.. irhi..iitanlt, 1t.
96.4 hours in cities of more than ioo,oc00..:- h-.l iit.a int. \\'lc t 'I-crc i-. ..
course, great variation in practice within ei'.ih r...u[' and' i.hiJ: trr'.,rs
probably crept into the reports on this ite.ni, tlhc iitferencec ax- .r' i ofi -
cient magnitude to be significant. As sci.-.l i.\...irdsi lunrii...n i...i., h,..i
facts suggest two conclusions. There seems l., I.e .:onI.c r0l-1i.in, in the
first place, between the size of the city andi thLi amjn'iit nii bLu.nirin.-s i';-icl
a board must transact and, in the second pl.':. .- i.et'wen the I.i,,,iint :f,
business to be transacted and the amount i4 tiinm.: i'-h i.. -i ni.r cl l.. ri
must devote to their duties. In the large 'tilc- ithec *len.ii iJz I l.:-hi.C .
membership makes on the individual's tirit c.in'stiit.te ai grnuirnc Iuurdltn.


'Thiz- -ituali.:.i iniiLc -i le-: t nu ry a- i.:. whetherr a member of the less
I ... red .:.:.n..in: :!c l .'.i : i. t .i T:.rJ t .:. i : r. the board without financial
co-:.n [ ,en .4 L[.:.n.
Slie r.ra.t::. S I, 1ith rsp:*t t.: ilict .ini..,irt of time devoted to board
,luti-' l.: IL 'i:,:; m 1... 'iry -i..n ,e.irl. in dilferent parts of the country.
The r ir:e .:.f t! ivillrin-s ir fr:ni :,..:- hi: ur.. in the South Atlantic states
It:. ;'.'J hours in thli. W' \ trn ti L.itr;. The c...rresponding figure for New
[En~-'lii 4:. 4: f:r lthe 'i:.Ltlh Crinr.il :ta[, 45.5; for the Middle Atlantic
Il.ltc-., .:,.4; fir rthl \\'.st No:rth C:ntrl st.ttes, 55.7; and for the East
N.'rth Ci,:Lii.ral -.s .:. i. TIi: strrikiri ia.:t revealed in this portion of
tIl iti.13 [ir rt-iisi t: tl le .t t: ..I( Cal.i l .rnia. For the thirteen cities re-
[prtt.ii l'fr..n, ts 'iite til ie Ime 1.lm I i -, Whether this reflects the un-
u-Iu il initere ..f il- [i:.cp:[il .: Ca lilf:.rnl in education, which has often
LbLn rcmarl-cd, Llthe pre.ci iii .nLigatui.i.n liCes not reveal. Nevertheless,
it suggests the existence in California of a conception of the function of
the board of education which is certainly unlike that which prevails,
let us say, along the South Atlantic seaboard.
All these findings merely indicate the need for further investigation.
It is, of course, conceivable that the errors of this study are so large that
none of its conclusions are valid. Whether this is true, only the use of more
careful methods in additional research will determine. Moreover, the
amount of time which board members should devote to school duties is
not known because what boards should do remains a subject of contro-
versy. Detailed study of the activities of boards of education should be
undertaken. The discovery of the relation, if such there be, between the
amount of time which a board devotes to school duties and the character
of the activities in which it engages should make an interesting research.
Until studies of this kind have been made, informed and reasoned judg-
ment can scarcely be passed on the present situation.

.Aj,:,,.:rd.' to a fine old aristocratic tradition, a citizen should render
[,ul.,iii: s,-r, ice without thought of financial reward. The aristocratic origin
Mi-1 -i ture .:,f r his tradition should be observed, however. If service in the
c:.nioir:rin mnt- r,:st makes large demands on the citizen's time, the rendering
I:[ so':1, r, icr,!.i. is necessarily limited to those members of society who
II.i.-cL .t h-r rm:ans of support. Nevertheless, students of school adminis-
L r.Li i.:.n I.e commonly favored this aristocratic tradition. The common
irumni L! in if vor of this practice is that compensation, unless it is pro-
'.i.-l :-i .1 ;, efficiently generous scale to rival the economic rewards


offered at the higher levels of ind,-] tri an. it.ii.ioorc:, nni-. 1u ijci. 1a1'I.
draw inferior men to the school I.. .ir I. Oi tlihe .:.rl r .had, if rn.-. f. rmni .f
financial remuneration is atta.-h-.id I. t!,. -.t'i'.-thc, li- .argumn-itn i- al-
vanced that only men who are in rle-miint.].|kl in liic i- puti,- .-cr. -ve w.ill t_,e
attracted to membership. This '..:..il i -I--r t. .k .ii n F . l:r -:iri!ilii':at; n
of the forces which drive men ir, -.tJr rind-trii irl.i et! If, in ili, -
of compensation, men as a rule -i:.uglht imtll' r.hipt ,n -.*r, .ra- rn ., 'Iuca-
tion purely from disinterested nr..t'-.t:. lI hn if ra.i':.iinr nlli.'il I.e
accepted as substantially sound. bI:nt fei.v hd.,: :iar f.tn.iili.tr with ti cl :.rr..it
situation, at least in our cities, .v.ull -urin t.irn that hi i- f'orm f n:i.t i-
tion generally prevails. Not uri:-,nl..n!; roniler;,iir. ,n I1r- Lt,,.ar ..4i
education has its extra-legal per.:U iile- :ta ;I .'ll tilL r .- a r.h- v.l0ich air.
written in the law.
T.\lI.t. Xl
COMPENSATION OF MEMI- r' **r c if.. r*F R, **r EI.'.: ,.ii,:."

Compensation n,,r. F
No compensation ............... i
Compensation per annum ($12.00 to I, :.*: :: I i
Compensation for officers only......
Compensation per meeting ($1.oo to i .::.:
T otal ................... . . i

The extent to which our cit:., hia ,: i'.ll...:'1 the lir.:ctici .. Io-.ni.p: n-
sating their boards of education i- -ll:.. r.n in l'at.!. XI .\X : ..lin.- ii:.
table, only rarely does the Ameri-.t it'. Ir ..' i. l- t'inai,:i.l c.ni[.nri.t..t ,
for the members of its board c.f .ll.ulat i.:.i. In '-, i[,r .ri, .-.I ih!: -,ite-
included in this study they ser\c ithut i:..mni :i-a t.... Her- .irn-l thi:rl,
however, other practices are fol!.'-,..l. In ns':.-t irn,.;-, *.' I r-n c.[. : n-
sation is provided, a fixed annual -im i tiji.ul.,..l. .ut there ree-r' t,.- I1
little agreement among the citie- .1- t.. h-.-.. I.arg r til- Iuil I.-.u 1.1 I.: '1i I
range is from twelve to twelve hIirlrel -1:.llars I h. r--.t frc:uer ii ..
pensations of this order are fift, .1, .-1.n huI.iirI l' ..:ll.ar: In i ..m :a
only officers receive compensa:i..n. i:':oa-.ii..ill ', nm'.nit.'r: ar: .':ni'cii-
sated according to the number .,I ,t. 1-nre, i t.-n.ldl Hre :.iiri Lt..r..
little uniformity. This form of rLimtuncrat.i;..t. r.ngr- fr..In ..nc: t,..' ic. .1..1-
lars a meeting. The city, howe cr. ,: .aar'l'.tilr- il. it' ..re:l ti.c .-ct .l..[i-
ment of the tradition that service -,-- .- Ih i. ..: .i -!,:...1 -h-.ulld I .,: rcn.ldirol
without economic reward.
Among the county boards tl-h, ir.n t-AiCt ..I'* .-..[r, .natiinc nmnin.l:r' is


ni-u:i l i.:.re c,-nlmmn.ri. 'I'l- flu:t is revealed by an examination of Table
XII. In ..rml, ; [:ei-r :,1Iit .l .il ih-, .:.r. I included in the investigation is no
.I.:mnl[i*.- tlt.l. [,r.,. il-'. 1. ,r-....: r, there is great variety in the methods
I;:l,.,yl':.J. 1 he rin...it i:..,nn,..l ['pr:lti,.i:e is to provide compensation by the
dav. C.'- .nlenioat.:.,-r per anrit i, h,:a-.r'.er, is found with almost equal fre-
>.iu.:i':y. 'Pr.. ,i; i.ll I.*r tra.,:liiiL c..l.penses, mileage, compensation per
nicriI:i., Ci:.lipensalii:.ii pir I,:iour. anid compensationn per month are meth-
*"1- ..hli.h Iri emc[.'l;,1cd .*,:.i-.ri.Illy. Explanation of the difference in the
tre.'minrt iw:...r.l'] the i,:y I:..Mar.J a.ii the county board with respect to

C..'l,' '.- li .'. ,,i .l i ..i C,'UNTY BOARDS OF EDUCATION

Compensation Number Per Cent
Compensation per day ($2.00 to $6.25) ......... i8 30
Compensation per annum ($30.00 to $o.oo)00)... 16 27
N o compensation ........................... 15 25
Traveling expenses only ..................... 3 5
M mileage only............................... 2 3
Compensation per meeting ($5.00)............ 2 3
Compensation varies with members........... 2 3
Compensation per hour ($.0oo)............... I 2
Compensation per month ($35.00) ............ i 2
Total .................................. 60 oo

the question of compensation is riot difficult. In the case of the county
board attendance at meetings often requires the members to be absent
from their places of business for a day or even for several days at a time.
A certain amount of traveling is likewise necessary. This creates a situa-
tion in so far as compensation is concerned somewhat different from the
situation ordinarily found in the cities. As a consequence, the counties
seem to have established a tradition of providing compensation for the
members of their boards of education.
Facts regarding compensation were also secured for the college and
university boards. The practices followed in the forty-one boards of this
type for which data are available are reported in Table XIII. The tradi-
ti.ir- portrayed here seems to be very much like that found in the cities.
For the most part, service on the boards which control our state colleges
and universities is rendered without compensation. In twenty-four of the
forty-one cases involved traveling expenses only are provided. This prac-
tice, of course, should be construed as meaning no provision for compensa-
tion because the member receives no remuneration for the time devoted to

32 SOCIAL CO1IN [I-,iTi(,N ':F -:,:[.\L -.I Fr LiU(ii.\ I'IN

board duties but is merely. reral..ur ..d l.:ir eI:.x!.:n:tlii.,rc ri.Jdc in -.'in-' 1,:
and from board meetings. In the >it', n';. :uh ,i quence are involved. Iit tI. .. ii nsl..,:., allth .liuc tr3 .1. ILl and al..-.rt<..
from business are nc.. .'ir, rni. i, .ni[.c 3-.. n r .ha -.,:c,'.t i ,I e. ii
traveling expenses, are .ill.:.,v eJ ...r (. r, a...rd e I... th ri [.: rti ..' t ihe
heads of a number of t ie .iithcr -t ie n.i- erticti th.I t.i,, ar, I nerilI e.r., :il-
though entitled under ti Ih- 1.:. tra.lin :r,,icqece :ut.:.in:irl,. t1..ar th
costs involved in attenr-i mn tl,.- meetIlicc.i thcl I...,rd t. Un.ler i he. .:.rn-
ditions the board memllor :c. i Ae n..It ..rnlv i-.f I time lI.ut .rn ,i i.:l -
resources in performing ; .lte ditw ,ie. h* i ...I Ii'..I .
Apparently, the ti.tvl iu_, -a hc ai i .:lc e...e. al...:.uit the .:illc e an.:
university boards is soimei'. t t n aran..-. hi that 'lK! I. i c, ,...IJ in

COIPENSATION OF 'JELI ; *.I *-.*J L* .i L .ri I P. *. . -i r iL .LL[.i E':
F U1.' ', e.ilt

C O I r. .r r. ,r. I ,a ,Tl..c [ r l 'r ,l
Traveling expenses only.. .
Compensation per day ($4 *: 'i: :.: it .! tLa...lir.
expenses. .............
Compensation for officers ,r :. .
Compensation per annum I i.:.: :: .:: :. ..
No compensation ....... .
Total .............. 4 :.

connection with the u Lri L .. I..ardl] Tl i' ,-litifr,-in..e in tr t,.liIt.in i ;ias aI -
peared although the i:.:.iitJi.i:.ni r'griint, Ira' t.lirong anj al.,'ten.ce r..In
business are much the .amiie in ithe i.'.. .c-- Te e-:pr.lA 1 i:nl ..' thi
situation is to be found, nI.n ith I il -i"-t rj at.I't.:n '.I tile a.I:t;...L.t,.:
tradition in the college and Lilti.er-iity I,...r-. Mentler- ..,. tihes, .:. itrJ
are more or less deliberat..i ly 'Jdr.av.n ir...ti ti. I-Pr:i,'. Ier.:i.I .t l .-,:,:i.n,:n ,:l
powerful elements in itlie i:.p:l:li.lin. .\ : t.r'n'.eq'u. rci,. ith...nit hir'J-
ship they can easily bear thle e :iene inl I.I'. el ii, ai tenjliQ mIeetlnlc ..I
the boards. Inability L.- J,. ti; mi- t I.c. r' r .r' .1 as :. J n.;e ..
unfitness for the office In m.re as man .:hn .;.:.lre re[.rr_._nt the
aristocratic tradition in .\ riarn I u..t'li...[.,iirt .. 1 t. tl [Ie ri:'ht I i.i i ritA '....
it is the possession of tlie Ia .:re,.l >.li:-c-z I'nI their :hil.:ren .ir le Itel
to attend it. W hy, thcrel.._-.re, --,h..ul. thL-y n...t I. aill .......J lt.,...,ri.r...I ilt?
The case of the county lIard, .:. te I li,,tr hi;ind, i ll.l'e .lil rent I hi:
board is of the people .and is a [r.._, .,nt :il thii.: .tm':irid ,..t11 tl ir i .',p rt I'.'r


i [l gnrirall .: .t:r..n *,f ihi.: jt.,i t;l il.portunities. Its concern is with a
f,,trm ...l t: lui' nt.:.n i'hi.:h rnl. I,, : rci;,r. led as the property of all classes.
C:.11nt i. :.n ,I nit:mil.. r hip ...n t1s 1, .rdI.n, therefore, should be of such char-
ac:ti.r as l.:' iir\ itt nici.,-,rlhiIf ifrl. th,. less favored as well as from the
!p -rn I '.',rid:, I';. : .
in an lf.':.ri t.-, ,-i.:,-,'. er .l-i ether there is any relation between com-
[pcri-ttin anri ,ria.tn,'- f: triiurr, the writer made a study of the
lteiurr I:. ther riiiirl.ir:r_ ..i th. .,i. t, I.oards in which compensation is
i.r.-' ,..]- SinC a tiendin:-n t: n l :1 r.:i meetings entails a certain amount of
personal sacrifice, the association of compensation with service on the
board might naturally be expected to make members content to serve for
longer periods. However, the evidence brought to light by a study of the
actual situation reveals no such tendency. In fact, the median number of
years served by members of the compensated boards happens to be three-
tenths of a year less than the median number of years served by members
of the non-compensated boards. In so far as permanence of tenure is con-
cerned, therefore, it would seem that factors other than the factor of
compensation constitute the limiting conditions.
What effect, if any, compensation has on the quality of board mem-
bers remains to be determined. That compensation is likely to attract
inferior men to the board may appear reasonable, but that it actually does
seems doubtful. Data to be presented in a subsequent section dealing with
the occupations of board members will suggest the wisdom of deferring
judgment until the evidence is in. At this point attention will merely be
directed to the experience of a superintendent in one of our large cities who
has been associated with a relatively well compensated board for a long
period of years. In Rochester each of the five members of the board of
education receives an annual compensation of twelve hundred dollars. In
reply to a query regarding the effect which this compensation has on the
quality of board members, Superintendent H. S. Weet writes as follows:

I think anyone who is familiar with conditions in Rochester will tell you
that during the twenty-five years that the board has been thus compensated
it has been of a high order. Certainly, compensating board members has not
in this case had the effect of producing an inferior board. I am by no means
ready to advocate salaried boards of education, but there is something to be
said in favor of such action. We regularly hold a two-hour session every Thurs-
day, from eleven o'clock until one, with a great many special meetings in addi-
tion. All business is done by the board of five members serving as a committee
.f fl,.. -. 1,.,l. My rather limited observation leads me to believe that we make
'i,'.h H.. i Ier demands on our board here in Rochester than are usually made.

.-i4 'Xl.L COi'OSITION o-- r.CI.\RFr- oF Frr.i_.TIoN

C'n the: .*rh-. r h n.ri iii .. n i .i n 'ilt,.i n Is th.n t l-.i i.... i.kl. mi., tinge, in .' hL-h
.III tbu-_iIe .S i- t '.:. btv th,: b .. ]r.l. :'1.tin.,- .. '-. L._ mrinotti.. .:-.f thl -. h..l ,urt
about the most vital factor in developingr- :1. in ;rtlrlLentl!. intlr:i-t-.d t:. .r,.

This statement, along with other i:'.ikn.,: l'.hi.ih i.il e Ire- cr tr.d,
suggests the need for a careful anrd i ..itemallr citul..,! ,.If Ithi: IliutiL.,-n.
The experience of the city of Ro-,_F t: t': r I_.ann..t -iml IIj l .li1-r r.ir.:tl..
However, an investigation of this ipr..il.lrm niu i. i. I.i:-ct i. ih ni.i: ,J l'. -
culties. Not the least of these is the .:leternIrun.i: t... ,f t(Fi i -r I4 i lunctr i.:.!j
of a board of education in a dem-. r.uai .: i t', J.it .lhat 1 m- anl t,1
quality of school-board membership musI i:.e SIubhicLted Ir. tlie c!:.'-sst
possible scrutiny. Perhaps the abs. nt- .i .ipmc t fI n.atuln fr -i r.i.( ..n tlhe
board has no effect whatsoever on mi-r,,rhi[ l ,.If "... thii priac-
tice actually does tend to exclude ..ir lmnt tli- re-i.r:-r, ntatic.n i.f I_-rr.umn
classes on the board, the wider s.:-; -i2 ':nillAn:: .I' 1l ti :i fa iict mu; t I.
carefully considered. Students of e,-iuc.tir.'. liu! I'i..Cire i f the nitur.ial
tendency to appraise a board of *:.1 *i.lti .n in t.rrrn *.t it- *.l'.i. *:.ri thi:
administration of the schools. Th( ni.in.r fuim..l.: ntr. l .:lun ;i i.r .ni i..r.:.i: .i:p .
have to do with the representation ..f' the a.rii-u- ;ni rt'r .i r t and .up' in
the community and with the formuli.t i.:-n ..AI the iunr.I.amlnital :.Jicat;..irial


Th.. [rc-ent ch.ia-t I.ru .rt I.s i tl. e heart of this investigation. The
prin.ar.. .~ll-.:t f4l t. L, .it', rs n..l to accumulate additional data on
the ~ .. .rial .:rgarn'.i-.ltin I" th I.--...-,r:l of education. This question has
,.liten becn the i._.j.. .., _-iul, in the past. The fundamental purpose of
thie Ir.: .rin ir'in ir; '.. :;-. t.. -_:,ti.r .:c rain personal and social data regard-
ing tl.:i- .: :ir t ii h.. c.,n ti inle ,: r boards of education. Facts were
ga:thi.r.:.d .:i.: LriIniiL ~.;:, e I:. cli.:.tilin, occupation, and parental rela-
tionship. Such facts should throw some light on the character, interests,
and bias of those persons who shape the policies of public education.
One of the most important questions that may be asked regarding the
members of our boards of education is the question of age. It is generally
believed that, as a generation grows older, it becomes more conservative,
tends increasingly to present a closed mind to the world, and is inclined
to turn its eyes toward the past. The truth of this belief has never been
made the direct object of scientific study, but the evidence of biology, of
psychology, and of common observation would seem to lend it support.
Since the days of primitive man, the control of education has commonly
been vested in the old men of the group. That this has tended to make
organized and formal education conservative, if not reactionary, in its
outlook, few students of education would deny. The condition in our own
society today, therefore, should be of peculiar interest.
Data regarding the ages of board members were obtained from four
types of boards. The findings of this division of the study are recorded
in Table XIV. According to this table, the membership of American
boards of education is very heterogeneous from the standpoint of age.
The original data show that the actual range in age is from twenty-two
to eighty-five years. Both extremes of this range are found in the city
boards. Apparently, eligibility to membership embraces the entire period
of maturity, from the years of early manhood or womanhood to the grave.
The great majority of the members of these boards, however, are of inter-
mediate age. The years from thirty-five to sixty-five include practically
th: entire membership. Beyond either of these limits only rarely is an
in li,. ilual asked to serve on the board.


A compari.-n .t I,- il't-: iit t[ e: 1 :' tiirl' lea c e.i- i e itcri L :li
relationships. Thi: i, .li;i n .i j : ol .h. rai l.r ':. L it. and] .,urintv I -.,.arl_
are identical. Lii .iIch _a e thi ni.ea- ure I.- 4 '', ,. rz. I i..i:: 'tiru
found the m el,:in t i'_ a. a:rii.,er ,.,I it, ',l,. ,l ,A ,I tk he 41 -4
years.' The c.-.s': i.:e l.ra:nt ,i t t: ', t,1 ,l, -'iL't'L -t- r.I. li, ely-' t t1le
condition with r: r..l i :. I L.. 1 L4. r, it r.. L :.l l.iting 1 .rc.it,.r
age on the ave1!3 .- : I: e dr l .n,-h.iil I:ar4 lia I: 1 ni ii al... ir' ..uri[',
and city boar'.-, th,. Ir rl.er: I.. I ..,. in.l Co lle* i and' uri, rzit',: ..arh

T.r;[.rF XI\

AGES OF M E .!i.I: [ '.t ,.i -.,, .T I II, i Ir E r : IF

A g e ._ .. I ]. ,: -, !. . I ; i. ,-,, r:;, .
i .. r,!
Below 3o . i
30-34 ......... ;
35-39 ......... i
40-44 ....... u i
45-49 .........
50-54 .........- i
55-59 ......... r:. i
60-64 ......... ., i.
65-69 ......... i
70-74 ....... 4
75 or more.....
T otal ..... : : ::: : : .
Number of mrnrrUL.:r: .. :.: : 0.4 ,,
Median.... 4 4

likewise show a,:: li-,tril:ulti'.ron jln.ia-t .,_-lriLal itn liarata,_tr. In the ,:,e
case the m edi rn i -,.-.. .:;l rs .-i ;n i lt ':ithl r .,. : .:;,ir.
The greater! .ig'e '4. tlr: nh e n1i.eal s ..f the -.ii I' anr.l c.lle: -e l-c.'arl i4
probably to ,:. .:.i i: l i [..irl ',b thl r :t-i.L s ,:" t s. I '.li.' ti: 'i -.h AL pr.'-
vail in these b:a'rjl A\n.,tlei fa:t r,'.. i.. ub'j an.i ,:n.- ta. t i- r.r a l- [-l'
of m ore signi!',_l.an,_.: i the er,:.at r ge,:rap.I i;a ar.; '... r ..ia>,. -. .ta
and university i-,. rl- ii.- .. irn- lti n. IrT ,'.r.I r t.. tr, Iir. ilaL -bi ririm
on either of thes:.a L...a..s a ,-nd.rl'.l.atte I 'u_'t I.-'. l- .'! .i andi ril :rue tia.Il
connections anr I n'ni-t ri:..i ... ri. l hain lc: l ,, -i,.:l-[ ,.:ri.. H I rIn.iM I!ruist
be known bey.'ondl ther nrai..-: v limits _4 -.cthe ai''. in hi!Ai b1-: hI.-s In
other words, ith. [,i:j ti." roa t' ii ,i \::.a l s:. t.,. ;tat. .:.r ai ...r.at',
board is some.hal-.t lo.r.'-,r hII.in that ..i i.:h i:.il i.- thei ait', i Urint,

G eorge G r. bl.:. .\ i iu.l. .. i,.h..I l[:.jr.l l'.:r- .rin ,." .. ...,.: .; ....., F...i..
Journal, LXV (0-.:J .1. ., -.;: i ,i,.


l..:ard T it .':.uAJit:,n-c ,.:.Il. ,,--mi to give age an advantage over youth
in the .il:. r .i tii.n I'. r n. rihl. r.lip .:.n the boards of wider authority.
.\ study ..I! tl! prlci.ldentt .:t the .:ity boards of education shows them
to be older by two years on the average than the ordinary members.
Thus, the median age of the presidents of city boards is 50.5 years, where-
as the median age of the entire membership is 48.3 years. The first con-
clusion suggested by these facts is that within the group is a certain respect
for age. A further study of the situation, however, indicates that the
greater age of the board president reflects the recognition of specific board
experience rather than respect for the advancing years. The office of
president is seldom offered to board members during either their first or
second year. This position is naturally reserved for those who are ex-
perienced in board business and are familiar with the problems of the
school. The median number of years which the presidents of the city
boards have served is 6.0 as opposed to 4.1 for the membership as a whole,
including the officers. This difference of practically two years is sufficient
to account for the greater age of school-board presidents.
Among the cities there is great variation in the average ages of board
members. On examination, the actual range is found to be twenty-three
years. In Selma, Alabama, the average age of the members of the board
is approximately sixty years. In the case of Duryea, Pennsylvania, on the
other hand, the corresponding measure is but thirty-seven. Selma, the
reader will remember, is served by a self-perpetuating school board. This,
no doubt, is an important factor in accounting for the extraordinary
average age of this particular board. Why Duryea should have a board
composed of relatively young men, the present study does not reveal.
Perhaps it is traceable to the operation of those chance influences which
in the course of time give to any city now younger and now older boards.
If the cities are classified according to population, no important differ-
ences in the ages of board members are discernible. The median age
of board members in cities having populations between 2,500 and 5,000
is 47.5 years. In the cities of more than 1oo,ooo inhabitants this measure
is but 48.8. Since the median age for an intermediate group of cities,
namely, those having populations between o,ooo0 and 25,000, is 48.7 years,
there seem to be no good grounds for assuming that the slight differences
between the smallest and the largest cities possess any significance. Ap-
parently, in securing that social recognition necessary to school-board
membership, the factor of age operates equally in the larger and the
smaller cities.
The differences among the various geographical divisions are some-

38 SOCIAL. i 'i:'.I i I''ON r r,' 'F: i,': I F rF ui'.\Ti''N

what larger. Loc.I .,'n :,,- .ni I...1 I.. :ll r" ill ,rti.I th.i' i r. ,*,'f Ilitv, T il"e
differences here, I r-.. e' ,.r, r. I, r. nl I .i n, ..r n. uri' .: .\>' ,r. lin ... ith
data available, th.. "l.,n.;I'l nrnil.rin ihie N\-,, Erilanri, ith. ',:.ti (-n-
tral, and the W estLe rn r -ra t-- .dr. r ih, ',.r ., i ut t ,.. trs ;...ui :r
than the board n .i. r.,r i In i.- ?M i.i.il- .\ lirti.: .ir.:l tlh .,. Ih .i tlan ic:
states and about .-,r ',rar ',. ijnc'r Ih.i th.. I.,.ar- r.' :rl ,ti,.r: ir. ih.: La_-i.
North Central a-i ith. \\'.-i. N,..rih Ce ir.l -t.Lter. Tle.:iler : .: n
hardly be regarde'I a: .irnifi .art h,-. c. r, in,:-: th:';, I. .i'il, '.. ilhi'i tI..

M ETHOI I .L 1' l''. . Ai C .\'E *: r '.ii .... .:. r. i \I Pri
F I :r i' fi i t. l' r ; -

i 1 E l .' r ', I 1... l. II. 'i.,,- ~. r ,4 .l..l.l. I i.... I,
Age I.

Below 30.........
30-34 ..........
35-39 ........
40-44 .......... .
45-49 .......... .
50-54 .......... .
55-59 ......... ..
60-64 ............ ;
65-69 ............ i
70-74 ............
75 or more.......
Total ........ :
Number of medlr. ii D .:
M edian ...... I 4. 4.

error of the inve-t atl..i i-n. In .ll r trt .i th c.i- unI tri .itii ,::- f a. pr.:.i-
m ately the sam e .'-: -:'. L I .l. att it..I l., thI. : it 1it.. -r.i 4 ',I L: .iiL ril i .
In an earlier I_.t a ri a pr h Ih,: .i inirnt v..- ri.t.k thai t i ,..n tt.l.i r:.!.
exists between th,- i tli:,ii ..f ',l 'cti-n arin thI iage I. .: rl I -i.-m ,,I r.
The truth of thi- ..h .ri ltti..n r,:-t: .di thI-: f i :t pr.-- n ..r. in Tal..I. X \'.
All the city board. iii.lii.'-i:.- iti tI.: in ti..ati.n ...re gr ,:ri ir'I fi, ,
divisions on the '-, :i: .ift hF- m .th. l .I l:.i, -.i i t -li r c.l ..t r r.r;iil,;r-.
According to a tal..I. .ilr:ai. ..A.iiIIc.l,' the-r .i,: 1.; t llair in -th...I-, .,
selecting board nriemir .r- v. hi:h i..i:cur ith j r., de rr- ..f t ,i.u,-rn , n ,,:-
ly, election at lait .:. .1l...ti n I..y .,r -i s. i ...n ntri. .nr I. n.a, r, ian l :i,
point ent by co ir.:Il. hi the ti ..i: r.,-h ,... th,::- l: ur i.'thli...- i- g '.
distinct status, aril atl ,*th,:r i l..tI .Jtr. gr. .iu ,,i-.,l urnit.r i:ugl,-. .:'Ite ..r .
An exam nation i: i h,: riii.d ii-< ir thi i ,'' r,,ul.- :h \.v ..- that %in ith. h.'Ii, .
'Table IV, p. i,..

-i.i, l.\. C'iMPl'OiTI'.'N I.' IlrARDS OF EDUCATION

the I,.,.,r.- ,..ili i >: i',, .uI:c icst rlrnilers are those whose members are
..i.c>t: I. ..u1.!'l. The rn..l; :, :ic a.1i.ances as members are elected at
larId' t.jil,:'iNtl.I I.vi tlhe i a:..r, an.l .[i>pointed by the council. W whether
the ri .i.s f .4 iA1-it;. Il 'i.-i.Iii _-rI. trrikd to the people tend to place the
older men at a disadvantage or whether the mayor and the council are
influenced to appoint older men because of their superior wisdom is a
question which this study cannot answer. The fact remains, however,
that selection by popular vote seems to favor the younger aspirants while
selection by appointment appears to give the advantage to the older
candidates for office.
Before this discussion is concluded, a few comparisons between school-
board members and certain other groups will be of interest. In 1904 Orth
made a study of the ages of the members of the state legislatures of
Vermont, Ohio, Indiana, and Missouri.' As a part of the present investi-
gation, age data have been secured for 750 men whose names were selected
at random from Volume 14 (1926-27) of Who's Who in America, for the
ninety-six members of the United States Senate in 1926, for four hundred
members of the United States House of Representatives in 1926, and for
the nine members of the United States Supreme Court in 1926. Data for
these groups and for the four types of boards of education included in this
study are reported in terms of median ages in Table XVI. According to
this table, the membership of school boards is recruited from men of
intermediate age. If the situation in our state legislatures today is similar
to what it was in 1904, the members of these bodies are, on the average,
a few years younger than the members of boards of education. On the
other hand, the members of Congress are somewhat older. Likewise, the
median age of the men whose names are recorded in Who's Who in America
is somewhat greater than the median age of school-board members. In the
United States Supreme Court we have a body which in.this respect
occupies a unique position. In 1926 the average age of its members was
sixty-six years. Of the groups compared in the table, the United States
Senate is its closest rival, with a median age of 59.3 years. Whatever may
be the merits of the Supreme Court, it is undoubtedly well qualified by its
membership to pay homage to precedent. Possibly this is the service
which it is expected to render our rapidly changing industrial society,
but we should probably be thankful that the destinies of American educa-
tion are not placed in the hands of a body of this character.
In the matter of age the foregoing presentation suggests that the
SSamuel P. Orth, "Our State Legislatures," Allantic Monthly, XCIV (December,
1904), 728-39.


American board of education leaves little to be dJi;r.:d. On the \' h:ole, ;r
membership is both mature and relatively y'oungI an.: \vi,.r.uc. For the
most part, the men and women who shape the p-:i!;; i ..l pIui.,lI;: c.J'.,:ati:nr
in the United States would seem to be in the [.tine ,:.f life. .A the sa.me
time, the ordinary board is composed of individuals : r':l.,rts:nt:ti i- ef l. Ih
different age groups in the population. Both the yo-iunt.er and:i the li.der
generations are given membership on the bo.,irJ. The -..nh.rtluri '.hichl
is about to leave the stage of action forever and the gleneirtic.n .'liii:l is
just entering upon it for the first time are both f'..i.nd in this I:iJ\. "l'tF r -
fore, in so far as age reflects the various interests tof s.-.;ier! th.:.e interest-


Group I. ., ; '.r r .1 .
Lower houses of state legislatures*........ .4:. r.:
State senates*........................... .:. 4
City boards ............................ 3
County boards................... .
College and university boards............
State boards ................... ........ 3 1
United States House of Representatives. . 3 4::
Men in Who's Who in America .......... .: 5 ;
United States Senate.................... .
United States Supreme Court............ r.

Adapted from Samuel P. Orth, op. cit., pp. 728-3;

would seem to be in a position to make thern-lchi\. heard .rn tih i:,t:ri.l
of education.
According to Chancellor, women seldon, ,i:i:c. cinJd ich '.:Il-Lbo r
members.' Whether this represents merely th I.rejuii'.li -..f aI l i in-niaiJ
world or whether it is a fair characterization i:.i the Ick. If ,:i:men o',
school boards is not a matter of great importance hi r,:. \\V':n-mn .:,rns it it iit
one-half of society and therefore may be expe.-teJ itn one I..'..iy o:r ani-ther
to influence educational policy. Moreover, in \vie :of the l:.Lngiing Ci..-
nomic, political, and intellectual status of women-n iand lth, ra:i.ly gr..'.-:-
ing tendency on the part of women to engage in th,:.e .-ti-: .itik .ind I nt.'r-
prises which in former times were the special p.rerr.gati; i. .i' rmnin, aI tl ly
of the representation of women on boards of ed:iu ti..n is,,t ouf i us.il inlt-r-

SWilliam Estabrook Chancellor, Our Schools: Ti:.., .-I./t..".." .i..;:.. t ,/'. . -
sion, p. 13. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co., 1915 [reviseill.


, St I.., Il. luch hlas been 4:i.i and vr;tlin about the peculiarly intimate
rl:ll.:.n -.f *.n.inan L.-, cilO::lk;:, and tle care of the child. To some this
inhtr'.;t in llti: ), unger generaric.n, vhi.i I is assumed to have a biological
foundation, gives to woman a sort of natural right to direct the work of
the school. With the conflicting views and prejudices, however, we are not
concerned. Our problem is, rather, that of determining whether woman
is actually coming to occupy an important position on those bodies to
which society has formally delegated the responsibility of directing the
organization and administration of the educational program.
The situation as revealed by the present study is shown in Table
XVII. Data on the representation of the sexes were secured from the
district boards as well as from the four types of boards to which reference
has more commonly been made. Rather marked differences are found

Number of Number of Total Percentage
Men Women of Women
974 district boards ................ 2,545 169 2,7r4 6.2
473 city boards .................. 2,527 422 2,949 14.3
58 county boards.................. 299 39 338 11.5
39 state boards.................... 252 20 272 7.4
42 college and university boards. .... 351 29 380 7.6
Allboards .................... 5,974 679 6,653 o1 .2

among these boards. If the inclusion of women on these governing bodies
may be regarded as an advanced or progressive tendency, the cities ap-
pear to form the vanguard of progress. Fourteen and three-tenths per
cent of the members of the city board are women. This means that one of
every seven members is a woman. In this extension of membership to
women the county board is not far behind the city and occupies second
place. Following at some distance and at approximately the same point
in the procession are the college and university and the state boards.
Bringing up the rear and most conservative of all is the district board.
With but 6.2 per cent of its membership women, it no doubt preserves for
us the conditions that have generally prevailed in American education in
the immediate past.
To an observer unfamiliar with the patriarchal tradition of our so-
ciety, perhaps the most striking fact reported in this table is the severe
discrimination against woman. While her representation is greater on cer-
tain types of boards than on others, in the city boards where her position


is strongest she may be o'.,lr.,rcd i: r.. :.nei li ; :,li.:riiii ii...i a :'ii-
woman is further revealed Iv ..:i- I:i ri. n ..f i l. 4 l;:triir, l., ..iii I
the two sexes of the offici- *if Ir', t .f th- :'.r.: F.:.r iLthe nun ih.
ratio of presidents to merrw rs .:. thi,: cit .. : r ii ...r,. I l. :i hii t:!i. ihe
corresponding ratio for w..uin-i ;i .. r- r.,i r.r. -niine. .-\- .. ;i I... -h'.. ii n
in a later section of the rei:":.r t, .. ..ii.. i[: i t nal ,,!r.uiiii ain.ir. r h, n l r t, [.-
proaches this low ratio of prei.k-nt r i.-, niuriuler. Tile iin,:,t ,i ...nI]:ip.tit..r
is found in the men engag:.e in ti,. .,ri.u-: fi.rn s.f r1i n l.n i iL TliLir
ratio is approximately or t:. r -Ir cri. Aippa rc-!l!, .hile .h ,,,in ha.,
been successful in forcing h'.ir ..:., ilii the I. .iia f .i ia ii: i.: i-n i n.,1
numbers, they have not Lben .i,-l t:i sc,:ilr rr:,r ili;ali..n c~.iul it th:ti
of men in the positions of c.:.ur'.i. ri *..i.lCililiv. i ,. .iri- elC:Ite.iJ
follow the leadership of tlh .:iliher c.:.
The occupational disirlriii;.- rhtI '.-.. wlirnl meililrs ,:.1 th, r:!t..
boards of education is int resti(r- .- \\ h l .. I c. kiltl :.i; .;.l .r r.i. .. t I tht
occupational data will be resi;r' I fi.r ire-tineiit *!: c'.'. lerc. l.a t: '...r ithe
women members may well I.. [r..i.r'-i..l Ir.-tll., here. hI h i in;I -,. ,i .::u-
pations represented is ver. ;.: l Ii ui.I:l.C:es Il.:.isi.:. i: ti hI r :..,I.i.,l
workers, physicians, philarnhr. *li t. r, iinaldJr- L.:, r .-_ .rh i,:.r irp !-
ists, dentists, merchants, mI si,:,uIi i" ,fier j.l i:.th I his I;it ii t-I.ll
is indicative of the chang idl r. rt.i i .. ,n,:iin. lih zrari .:.:rii :.' I h-
women members, however. ;ll:'r:'r,:.nIa.ii.-l ;. I-,r '.,.nrt, a:ir. .ll...irg
woman's conventional occur ip. ti.:.n. h lr, I .:.f II.:.i- te, I l. ii'. ( l ii. i ..:' .:'th':r
callings, teaching and soc, l ...rl:, ha rnrL thaii inc.I.eAr ,.i ini.;cniti-
cant representation on boa:i r.l :1i *:IIi: *ii. :.i.
In chapter ii the statteumin i n:le that f.r.r .r, : i i ir, -'_ .::l.: .i, th1i,
representation of the sex-.: ..nr I *.....arl: ..f .Juc:i atii In .r . :L.. lr,.d i a i ..i
different times. These ciie; 'r :irir..ise.:l ti i ii I :il .,,: 7,i iiI
1926. During this six-year r[..i.r,,, .till th r,..d.l':r iriu:-t ,:ir in ni; l rh.,t
the same cities are involved, t. e -,r:eri i -il e ,:,I .':.ii,,:ni ii:ras,:id irr..i,, .
to 14.6. This represents an L:.tr.tr..iMri.,.r i.h.,ii. i, ;ri: f a Ij,-iril. In,
his study in 1922 of 169 Ciii L:., 'Al lhh, o:i thi -. cr, .. r. -. r. :..-t. h
smaller than the cities incl!i-.-l in ithe lil t!i :t: i .l ri:-t rii... S.truil. e .:..in,,I
women constituting 9.3 f r r.! t ,' .'I' iL 1, h. imrn:i.:r ,hii: ...1l' I.. rI: I, i. Lu,:.:-
tion.' The corresponding [ern-iL ItL f..r N,-rria; ; tt,.:l. ,: i.i. I :.41-
cities of more than 40,000c ill'.it.it.- : :;.. I h'. rc.-lt: if li heC_ t...
investigations would seem :. c :.rr.:.lr.ate le ti n.':1 Ii .!i,- [:.rc-.::ni
George G. Struble, op. c: 1' J
2 Scott N hearing, "W ho's Vi I. .. i .iiiur i;...rJ ...iI ]i....i ...i,, , .. ,; "...., V,
(January 20, 1917), 9o.


istn... Api.arcntll., ti. I:,: ing of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920
iirl.jrl aIi !il:rt.nt i.-.:n.!i.st in woman's struggle for political en-
franchisement. In the meantime, whatever success may have attended her
efforts in other fields, her advance in securing membership on city boards
of education has been phenomenal. If this advance should continue at the
same rate for a generation or two, the determination of school policy
would pass definitely out of the hands of the sex which has controlled
formal education in the past. However, before general conclusions and
interpretations of this character are formulated, the data at hand should
be subjected to further analysis.

Number of
Population 1920 1926 NBards

5,000- 10,000........... 8.1 T2.9 113
10,000- 25,ooo........... 7.6 13-3 156
25,000- 50,000 ........... 6.8 I6.o 60
50,000-100,000........... 11.3 13.5 35
I00,000 or more........... 11.5 22.1 22
All classes of cities..... 8.2 14.6 386

Have the changes with respect to the representation of the two sexes
on the board of education progressed equally in cities of all sizes? The
answer to this question is found in Table XVIII, and, for the most part,
it is an affirmative answer. In each of the five groups of cities for which
facts were secured for the two years the increase in the representation of
women on the boards is conspicuous. In no one of the groups did the
movement mark time during the period. Yet in the rate of change there
were some important differences. The change which took place in cities
having populations between 50,000 and 1oo,ooo was relatively small, while
that which occurred in cities of from 25,000 to 50,000 inhabitants was
relatively large. The impression conveyed by the table is that the grow-
ing strength of women on boards of education is general.
Aside from reporting the changes which occurred during the years
from 1920 to 1926, Table XVIII reveals certain significant relations be-
tween size of city and representation of women on school boards. The
position of woman seems to be somewhat stronger in the larger cities than
in the smaller cities. This is characteristic of the situation in both years


for which facts are available. Nearing found the same c:'nliti:.n ii Ini,..
He classified his 104 cities into three groups on the bais ,':f iop: ulatini In
the first group he placed the cities having populations l.cir'.i.n 4':.,oo'
and 1oo,ooo; in the second, those having populationri L.tc iccr irc 100,:c'.
and 500,000; and in the third, those having populations ,:f' m:,orc than
500,000. The percentages of women on the boa rd of ilua 'i;:n in the-ce
three groups of cities were 5, 8, and 12, respect I Thel. l Th. .l.main :'n
the part of women for a larger r61e in social an.l polit,.al affair ajpprc:iar
to center in the great cities. The complex metrolpolitan con'nmunities rep-
resent the most extreme departure from that simple rural -licit\ :of t he
past which was based on the patriarchal family.
IN 1920 AND IN 1926-CITIES CLASSIFIEr. .-\.:.:..il,';

Geographical Division 1920 I J: m

New England .............. 7.8 ] i
Middle Atlantic ............ 5.6 ; 4 4
South Atlantic.............. 3.1 :- i
East North Central......... 9.9 ] 4
West North Central........ 8.2 :- 7
South Central ............. 5.1 i 4
W estern............ ...... 14.5 1i
All divisions ........... 8.2 : i .,

An examination of the data secured from thre :i:. trl ge. raphical
divisions raises certain doubts regarding the s-.,eeing cJiaractcr io the
changes in the representation of the sexes which :too:lk pla,:e leat\ieen 'i-,
and 1926. The facts for the seven great groups -f: stats arc gi,. en in
Table XIX. Attention will first be directed to the -itati;ronr as it exi-it-.l
in 1920. In that year conditions in different parts .:i tht- couniry \'ere
very uneven. The Western states were apparently air in ai\rance of tlht
other geographical divisions. In this section 14.5 per c':.nt if the- mmcnlbeis
of city boards of education were women. The ineare-t riial of the \\est
in this respect was the East North Central area, in n hiich hi- ,:,. res-,:rn.l-
ing percentage was 9.9. At the other extreme acre tlie So:utl .\tlanlic
and the South Central divisions, with percentg-'r: of ;.i and 5 i. r,:-
spectively. In general, the more conservative areas 'ereC :.iiii.l in the-
East and the South; the more progressive, in the \W 't ani the :Northi.
SScott Nearing, op. cil., p. 90.


Si.: \cars later the s[,tu.:t;.n -a. almost wholly transformed. The geo-
graphi.kal dJ isi,:,i :occupyinig I ;rt place in 1920 held the next to the last
p!:i:e :,nly I:' a nr:rr... 'rgin i in 1126. In this western area the percent-
:ie i.. i.l i.i ln .i..n I...arJis I. ci.J.lcati,)n actually decreased during the six-
year pern,_ I from 14 5 t'. :.'.I.. Only in the South Atlantic states did the
women have a smaller representation than in the West. The states which
appeared extremely conservative in 1920 have witnessed an extraordinary
advance, but the progressive states of that time have experienced no
corresponding change. With the exception of New England, the situa-
tion is now fairly uniform throughout the nation. In the case of New
England an increase in the percentage of women from 7.8 to I8.1 places
this geographical division in first place. Taken by itself, this fact sug-
gests that within thirty or forty years the New England boards will be
controlled by women. An examination of the remainder of the table, how-
ever, gives rise to serious doubts regarding any such possibility.
What position woman will occupy on the boards of the future cannot,
of course, be foretold. Some of the evidence presented here, however,
suggests the operation of certain checking influences. A consideration of
the detailed facts from particular boards indicates that the growth of
woman membership during the six-year period under investigation is
traceable largely to the inclusion of a woman member on a board where
previously women had not been represented. There seems to be no
tendency for women to increase their membership on individual boards.
A community without a woman on its board may feel that it is a bit be-
hind the fashions, but, after securing one such member, it seems to feel no
great impulsion to secure another. Probably the country is already ap-
proaching a condition of equilibrium with respect to this matter. The
ordinary board will possibly have one woman member, and the ordi-
nary community may come to regard it as desirable for the feminine
point of view in the population to be guaranteed a hearing on the board,
but that we are moving in the direction of a strictly feminine board is
hardly sustained by a critical examination of the data here presented.
No attempt has been made here to evaluate women as members of
boards of education. Such an evaluation must await the formulation of
some fundamental conception of the social function of the board. The
interest in the foregoing pages has therefore been to present a picture of
the existing situation. However, in concluding this discussion, reference
hii.'uld perhaps be made to the wider issues involved. Quite regardless of
thc: personal qualifications of women, the thesis might be defended that
women should be given representation on the board of education to the

46 SOCIAL COMPOSITION (' BOA13 R':. o AR r-.[i[ i \-ON

degree to which they represent a si ci.'l rnterr:-r ill s A.:..Cit \ the 'ant,
time the composition of the board h-l.miii insurr a. hearing tic. ti,: r:l uirn-
ing great social interests. On the other I-han il t.the ll l:. .cte d'i .hich ihe
interests of women change and bec.ni as .art .,] -. thl- ir-tr,:ts .,if ril..
they might be expected eventually ti reIrrs_-! t I n.,I i:nl\ .hat ha' l.cfen
known in the past as the "femini:i.: inrl't" l[.i t .in,. .:.rl i.-r kIgitimnLt
social interest with which they might ha] ..:. t. ltli.-,.ri.c .il.'ntfir..l.

The extent and nature of the if:-ri:al clu.lti.:in r:-:. i e [ [1.....ar.l
members must be a matter of gri.:l inipurtanr'e Tht intluince -f tili.
school at its various levels on thc.e .I h, atterl.l it nutit LI.. ma I,:'.,:rlL
factor in giving to them their particular j..:,-int '. vire-i, c',-teii' i:l \:lr!uLe,
and social philosophies. Long year' at ichl:n:lI ar ar !-i:., i ,: iL..:t:,1J t,: Ilc':cl i[
the insight into life, the breadth f -,.,cial un'Ilerstan.line, tile Irc::.i.m
from narrow bigotry, the tolerance ,: -Otr:rnge. idJ,.i.ta, iarni tlie lo:\.lt, lr :-
the common good which are essential t:, the i'r:iir.r ii Inci i:!linl. ,.l a L..tirl
of education. This power of the sclh..l ha;i Il:n lIeer rcL.,gni,-;er bFI, tu-
dents of education; its wholly beneficent in fllu.iice I:T i:h. .l-I..'am rdJ nr-n -
bers has usually been assumed. ThLus, C'hancell: r ,..:i :c the *'Lini]ri ':Lr tlint
"uneducated and unlearned men': -eld,:-IJ: i!inl: g:..,: l bocja.l nmnilt. r-.'
To this assumption, however, though it .renm-i an .,[.vi,\ H. [ilati.tul.,:, On:,rl
may conceivably take exception. MI.uch 'iJ.Ic.nr ...n I.rnc' C-:inc,[.t;:in ,:I
the function of the board of education It micht I.:- i 1.,is:i ,., 13',,: tiL,,S
body composed entirely of persons .heo ha. ,:_.[icrirnleJ lI:onig eir'.s .,t
attendance at school. Let us turn lr:.m sectilatiii: t. i .I aIi.;n mlat l,,' ii :I
the facts.
Data for the members of the ':.or tl:, is I....;arl- in., Si'.tiAt.l :are
summarized in Table XX. An undcrat. ling :of' hi. talbIe rm,- luir:-- a n..: ird
of explanation regarding the educati'n..l i-atI:g.ri i nI..lr,. Fhe lI.,.iirl
members are classified into three grtl_-.. A fin:-r :la:int-ati::i:n mi.;il.l'] [,.r-
haps have been made, but this thrct..t:,l]d cI;-.!ica.ti..n lc-cicmJd .i.lu'lti.i[t:V
for the purposes of the present invcL-tglt....in. Tih rn,.a-l.ir,; : ..: r ial I...u-
cation achieved by those placed in thc-': thrit-ee gri:up- i uigguC-tC' .I I', tl-h
three descriptive terms used in the tal.,l., nam:irl., "cm:-n:rltniirv." '-.i..ii.J-
ary," and "higher." A board men-iler wvh'li, -a:i no:t a:ttrin..l. anr tIi'irm
of secondary school or college is plac:emd in tIli I'r:t gri.,. : i..'in ,. hL., lI-i.
passed beyond the elementary sch,:,:l .a and iiii.t: tih ic:lll'.l:ll, ih.: h:! [it t
has not attended any higher institute l:ii 1I 'I:l.cJ in thi: D.i.lec 'ii gr.-p,l a. n
I William Estabrook Chancellor, op. ci: p. i3.


rr'ir- r.-h h .a:I.a .I ..1. .'ii.n thEi secondary school and attended, for how-
v.er shirt a perii..:l. elritlr i:.liege, university, or professional school is
jplacL. in th,: thirdJ gr.u.ip. Th'.i, according to the table, 61 per cent of the
nraiiletri': Il btliI r t, i j s .f bI-ards combined have gone beyond the
-C.:.ndJar., -ch : ..,I ii thi:ir i,.-rnl:l education; 20 per cent have reached the
-ecrn.:lary scli.Il iut iav.e pi-rn no farther; and 19 per cent have not
p-,ar':,] L:'y..l.ll t he- rlemeintar, -clool. These facts indicate that, from the
Itan.,ip. int O:f tie i ..Ilu:ati.inal opportunitiese s which they have enjoyed,
h.:,h,.1-l-Li..a rli memcnLer- are .cey highly selected.
Table XX further shows that the educational qualifications of board
members vary greatly with the type of board. In this respect the county
board clearly stands at the foot of the list. However, if data had been

Elementary Secondary Higher Total Number

County boards ............... 42 24 34 1oo 326
City boards ................. 23 31 46 Too 2,757
State boards................. 7 io 83 Ioo 213
College and university boards.. 6 14 80 Ioo 277
All boards .............. 19 20 6r 100 3,573

gathered from district boards, a still lower standard of formal education
would undoubtedly have been found. Forty-two per cent of the members
of the county boards have not passed beyond the elementary school, and
only 34 per cent have attended college or some form of higher institution.
This type of board stands relatively close to the people. At the other
extreme are the state and the college and university boards. The educa-
tional qualifications of the members of these two types of boards are al-
most identical. Only very rarely does an individual with but elementary-
school training find membership on either board. Indeed, membership is
almost entirely confined to those who have attended, if they have not
graduated from, some institution of higher learning. The city boards
S...t:: 1.', a middle position; yet here almost one-half of the members have
lh. l i:l.lerg experience.
ThE.-. facts indicate quite explicitly that a particular board of educa-
tolin reitcrlts more or less faithfully the conditions which surround it. The
cl.:i'-r the I.oard is to the people in origin and function, the more the board
Ltak-: it- i:.lor from the people; conversely, the more remote the board is


from the people, the more the board takes its col .r fr. iii ci.e c:ii.(al
group or class. This statement of principle sho:uldl I..,. c..rr.ci.d [., ih,.
statement that the board always shows some bias t Ir.'..ar he ii.-re inluein-
tial and powerful classes. For example, the court l....I.r'J, trI..ugh nl..rc;
democratic in its membership than any one of Lthc .ilt.-r I:.ar, I, it
composition seems to be disproportionately sensiti.i t.., tL.: iii..re F.i..r,:.l
elements of its constituency.
That the tendency is somewhat stronger in thi. lirgi r ..hti .- tlria in
the smaller cities to choose as board members :Iii i.iijs Ili- I.:, l.i.. en-
joyed unusual educational opportunities is show I.. I'.l.I, XXI. IFl:r
are presented comparative data on this question Ir.:.ni tl!,: six gr.:u:'i, :.f


Population Elementary Secondary HigL'..r T..,Il ',...r..

2,500- 5,000........ 26 35 3'- i*:**: 4-4
5,000- o10,000........ 26 30 44 i.:: '.4-
10,000- 25,000 ........ 22 32 4'' i.:.- .,* I
25,000- 50,000........ 23 25 5: i:'-
50,000-100,000 ........ 21 31 4' I': -.
ioo,ooo or more........ 8 25 6: i .: i. 4
All classes of cities.. 23 31 4',*:: -.i "

cities. While thereare some exceptions to the rule., tili. [:rC:i-Itii, : :,I I.-r, Ir
members having no more than an elementary-s.-: -,..I c.ucui.at.iln '..irii : in-
versely as the size of city. In the proportion of i nmiil.>,.r i .l. : IHr :A t-
tended college the reverse relationship seems to Il.,i. Ihe rrI.rccIntati..I[
of members of this type increases with the siz.: .4f tih. cit.. F11. rc.'ic-r
should observe, however, that in both instances there i a g.1 l:iin, e l.hr.il:
in the series between the cities of less than ioo.,.c.:, iil.lta.iirtI a.nd ti
cities of more than ioo,000 inhabitants. Apparetil!\ n lthei rel.ittin.ri'l"r
the population differences which separate the 1,.i.er fi?.: gr..ul.[- ..f Cit:li
are not particularly significant. The very large cilit :, Ih:.i,:,. er, 0C:l' t,-. L
in a class by themselves. In the cities having ijii!..11ii. ..-if I,- i ,hii'
5,000 each of the three levels of educational atitallinillnt c1 r'-thler ..-cll
represented. In the case of the very large cities, .,n the i'th:r hbani., Iilth
percentage of members with only elementary-sih...:.!1 trainrirni, is ., .hile
the percentage of members having attended sonie fi.rni .-t higher institli-


tion is r.;. Again, the fundamental proposition may be advanced that the
larger ilhe population area involved, the less likely is the board member-
ship t.. reflect the characteristics of the masses of the people.
The extent of the education of the board members varies somewhat
with geography also. The facts are summarized in Table XXII. Accord-
ing to this table, three of the great geographical divisions are rather close
competitors for the honor of having the most highly educated boards of
education. Among the Western states only 14 per cent of the board
members have not gone beyond the elementary school. The corresponding
percentages for the South Atlantic and the New England states are 15
and 17, respectively. On the other hand, in the percentage of members


Geographical Division Elementary Secondary Higher Total Number of
New England........... 17 30 53 1oo 527
Middle Atlantic......... 32 28 40 ioo 646
South Atlantic.......... 15 34 51 TOO 159
East North Central...... 23 32 45 100 667
West North Central..... 24 28 48 1oo 332
South Central.......... 24 31 45 Ioo 227
Western................ 14 36 50 0oo 199
All divisions........ 23 31 46 too 2,757

having enjoyed college privileges, New England leads with 53 per cent,
and the South Atlantic and the Western states follow with percentages of
51 and 50, respectively. These three groups of states would seem, there-
fore, to be tied for first place and rather distinctly in the lead of the other
four divisions. At the other extreme, in undisputed possession of last
place is the Middle Atlantic area. In the states of this territory 32 per
cent of the members of boards of education have not attended high school,
while only 40 per cent have received the benefits of college experience.
The Central states, both north and south, occupy an intermediate posi-
The evidence presented in Tables XX-XXII shows quite clearly that,
in so far as educational qualifications are concerned, school-board mem-
bers represent a rather high degree of selection. The first and natural
reaction to this situation is favorable. No doubt, many persons regard
this condition without question as extremely desirable. Within limits,


much certainly can be said in defense of such a point of view. Should not
those citizens who have enjoyed unusual educational privileges be expected
to make the best school-board members? The obvious answer to this ques-
tion would seem to be affirmative. Yet, if intelligent men and women
can be found in the community who have not attended college or even
the secondary school, they might be expected to bring to the deliberations
on educational policy a certain freshness of point of view which would be
helpful. When all the members of the board are to a large degree prod-
ucts of the same educational system, they are likely to manifest a uni-
formity of outlook which will make difficult the adjustment of the pro-
cedures of the schools to the changing needs of society. They will show in
their own persons the bias and tradition of the schools. In all probability,
they will be inclined to place an inordinately high appraisal on the work of
the upper divisions of the system. To them the sacrifice of the interests of
the lower schools in favor of the interests of the higher schools will seem
altogether fitting and proper. Moreover, so long as formal education at
the upper levels remains selective, the graduates of the higher institu-
tions will not only tend to exhibit alike the stamp of the schools but also
tend to engage in the same narrow group of occupations and thus to form
an educated class, a class apart from the masses. Their interests will con-
sequently appear to conflict with the interests of the great majority of
the people, and they will be tempted to defend their own interests in the
development of school programs.

The occupational data are perhaps the most significant findings of
the present investigation. That the occupation is a central fact in the life
of the ordinary individual, no one would deny. It is obviously of critical
importance in determining the economic status and financial securityof the
individual. So fundamental is the economic factor in a pecuniary civiliza-
tion that the occupation thus indirectly, and within limits, determines place
of residence, educational advantages, recreational opportunities, the inti-
mate associations of friendship, and social standing in the community.
It also is instrumental in shaping one's social philosophy and in fixing
one's loyalties in those bitter economic and industrial conflicts which
characterize the present age. As a consequence, data on the occupations
of board members provide a peculiarly valuable measure of the breadth
and variety of interests and points of view represented on boards of educa-
In order to organize the detailed facts regarding occupation, some


su~ .:. .':.i i.. a ii...l cI la.;_il.tir. ..hn ..hich would be significant was found to
I. tihe !irit ni,.:':si:.. Ti: I:. .i,: .f classification desired was one which
. .1u .1 l i- .. I. i, m: ]iiC;i in i..'. small number of groups each of which
i...ul. l...Li, i .. si. .l r -Iil i,-i -'1:,.ire of economic and social homogeneity.
Aftlr sumic cxpclmnicitltiun t a;as decided to recognize the following large
occupational divisions: proprietors, professional service, managerial serv-
ice, commercial service, clerical service, manual labor, and agricultural
service.' Although these terms are supposed to be descriptive, a word of
explanation regarding the composition of each of the seven classes will
not be out of place.
In the group of proprietors are included bankers, brokers, druggists,
hotel owners, laundry owners, lumbermen, manufacturers, merchants,
mine owners, publishers, and many others. With the exception of farmers
and certain shopkeepers who combine a skilled trade with the commercial
function, all owners of enterprises in whatever field are placed in this
group. Because of its great economic power, it is without qualification
the most influential occupational group in any American urban com-
munity. Its members constitute the backbone of chambers of commerce,
industrial associations, and numerous taxpayers' organizations. In a so-
ciety based on private property, they occupy the seats of power since they
have direct control over the economic resources of the community.
In the professional service are included architects, authors, clergymen,
dentists, civil engineers, journalists, lawyers, physicians, surgeons, teach-
ers, and so on. This is a rather homogeneous group and requires little
comment. Its membership ordinarily constitutes the most highly edu-
cated element in the American community.
In the managerial service are included all persons, except those in-
cluded in the first group, who occupy managerial or directing positions in
either public or private enterprises. In the ordinary industrial organiza-
tion this means all forms of service from foreman to superintendent.
Contractors, managers, and officials of all kinds are placed in this group.
In the commercial service are included all persons, except those classi-
fied in the first group, who are engaged in buying or selling. Buyers, com-
mercial travelers, insurance agents, real-estate agents, salesmen, and
others are found in this group.
In the clerical service are included all those engaged in clerical,

SW;t.h some slight modification this classification was taken from the author's
inm.n"g'i qi on The Selective Character of American Secondary Education, pp. 21-25.
Supplementary Educational Monographs, No. 19. Chicago: Department of Education,
University of Chicago, 1922.


secretarial, and accounting activities. Particular groups cl.-ilei.ed under
this division are accountants, bookkeepers, cashier-, clhrl:s. aind thllI:r-:.
Under the category of manual labor is placed a greLt var ietVy O:f c: u u-
pations. It includes all persons engaged in any form :of nl:nri.'l lal:.or
except agriculture; consequently, in the ordinary Amieriwan cit' it it I ..1
far the largest of the seven divisions. It includes skilkli, n:nmi-skild.l.. an.
unskilled labor. It embraces members of the building trade. machine
trades, printing trades, and all other trades found ii tih. n',nLuflacturirn


District County City ie '.:.le~
Occupation Boards Boards Boards .n .., i .. .*

Proprietors .............. 2 18 32 i.
Professional service....... I 22 30 4
Managerial service........ 5 14
Commercial service ...... 3 6 "
Clerical service ........... 2 6 I
Manual labor ............ 4 8 :
Agricultural service....... 95 44 2 :
Ex officio ................ 2 *
Unknown ................ i o 2 :
Total ............... too oo i0oo .:c : o:
Number of members.. 2,545 299 2,943 :- I .
Number of boards .... 974 58 509 .' .'

At least one member was reported for this occupation, but the rei .ul .-, ... .:i ,ll I.. : h.-
in this table.

and mechanical industries. It likewise includes per-uon- ,lngag':d in l..bi
railroad and street transportation, public service, personal antd d.. mestic
service, mining, lumbering, and fishing.
The seventh and last group-agricultural ser'.ii:---inciidlil:s ll per-
sons actually engaged in any sort of agricultural enterpr;c-. Among thi:
occupations placed in this group are dairying, farnmingi. frit gro:..lng,
gardening, and ranching. While not important in the great indi.itlriIl
cities, in many of the states in the South, the MiddleJ \\ert, a.l,:l th,: far
West agriculture remains the great economic intere-t f tlhe people.
This description of the occupational classification cniplioycd ill [rol..-
ably make Table XXIII somewhat more intelliglile thin it other. ive
might be. In this table are presented in summary form ll O:Lculi.atII.nal
data brought to light in the investigation of the menl.erl-ip .i fl, e t: pei
of boards of education. According to this table, ltw.o out of L vry :llr


huni..Ie.lI ,:f the 2:.4 inrnlti.:r- .of the ..litrict boards included in the study
are cnigagtIl .1t ["r:[rri t 'r-,i. inr, in ; s sort of professional service, none
inr niariactril s*rti:. and .o :i. 1 lie remainder of the table will be un-
Jderst,:,,IJ ii rea.d in tlih ;anr: v.,,. .\n examination of the last column
sh-.,'v n th,. ninltes i.i te r:lf tehe e r.l- be drawn for the most part from
three occupational groups, namely, proprietors, professional service, and
agricultural service. In fact, these three groups provide 80 per cent of
the membership of the five types of boards investigated. The other occu-
pations have but slight representation.
The several types of boards show great variation in social composi-
tion. The district board is made up almost exclusively of farmers, 95 per
cent of the men on these boards coming from this single occupation. The
county boards, likewise, serving as they do an essentially rural popula-
tion, draw very heavily from the agricultural service. Forty-four per cent
of their members are farmers. Unlike the district boards, however, these
boards have large representations from the proprietors and professional
service. The city boards show a somewhat greater measure of hetero-
geneity. In fact, the city board has a more varied composition than any
of the four other bodies included in this study. No one of the different
occupational groups is wholly without representation, and no single group
possesses sufficient strength to dominate the board. Nevertheless, the
city boards are drawn for the most part from three very closely related
groups, namely, proprietors, professional service, and managerial service.
The state board shows still another tendency. The professional service
furnishes more than one-half of its membership. There is also a large
representation here that holds office ex officio. The college or university
board is composed predominantly of proprietors and professional men.
Here also an important proportion of the members serve ex officio, but
the university board differs from the state board in its recognition of the
farming population. Another fact of some significance regarding this
board is that it is the only board on which labor is wholly without direct
A significant contrast may be drawn between the district and county
boards on the one hand and the other three types of boards on the other.
The former probably represent the older tradition in the development of
the American public school. These boards have been intimately asso-
c:iatel .itil the masses of the people in their struggle for educational op-
I.i.irtlunit;i. The intimacy of this association is clearly reflected in the
mnuem::rhi[:i of the county and district boards. These boards are com-
posed largely of individuals chosen directly from the ranks of the people.

54 SOCIAL COMt',ll.TI'N OF L.O i 's O4 1'.; \ ION

Attention was clri;c:t~ I l t i,- tlh if. t i .n .111 Larlir ':!,nLcti,:,i I'Clen 11.:
education of bo.id m niL nmbcr: '.' .In rrlr c'.inll nratiln lire *-.th i tliirc
types of boards si,..:. : i, :lier. nt i...,n liti'.r TII... i...:a .. tlicr Iri ni-
bers to a very lar g .k1rLi_ fr.:.m v. it .'i i. ci t I.c :lc-:r i-.l :is tiht fLa...! .I!
elem ents in soci.: t Even in t :iic- .h IL the !aIl.,..rin:' .lat--: ,:,:n-
stitute well ovei ,.:. pI-L I' .:i t Ic- p:-.puiil,:t :.,Il per cent *,i r!h,
members of the i:,'.:ir,: :,f e,.lii:iatli ir _ii,-a. il ,n ii nua.! !l..:ir. TIIhu:,
only on the rural L. : IIi ; iii.e ii l,.r:hip- .]r:,i. ri lirctl f ir. .i thi..
occupations in whi:h t!.l- gr, : t ini :t':.rit .-, the f l-. n..'..it 11.i. rtLpri.-
sentation of labor .-in tlie .l te I ir.t i- _-.. -.- m ll ai i .:I I..- .iimin.. irn. i .lc,
while on the colIei. :r uni r. r; i. I:.:.iard, as \e Ilu e a!r.c.l .-I'-r[ .i.. it
is wholly absent.
Does this situ.ti.-ni n.l. .-i!'.Lr : i p.I rtl i.: i i.tlp, .. n cIf thI gi er erai
opposition on th.. parti : tl rnral p, ,piia!ti.' n t. th r nIL i..Ji .at: lii :! l
district system arn tl hed *I, -. i.i i :. .f lIar:l. r uhi ft:.r :!'.:.il nii .,f.-tt .It 1nl
administration? D.:. th[ rural iilhabl:.ii.a n' -ir ii tlh [t -_i. Ii .t hu.,.li in
the educational s' zt,_ili Iic', i: the irnii'. ial .f lthItI 2 :: l r::- f t' tl,,ir t:loe t
control? The heaiiinr, in N .. Y.:.rk '-.u i : :M c '. *c .ar .g ...n thi lill t lt
was planned to tui. i:l.!cr i, tl aland.-niii r t ri.-ii th i Li tre.i t i -h ].:..:l i.lt-
cated the existen t, I.f -.nroi suj.h fL ar. Tin: pitr-:. l, t L ti.. -sh.'.. that thI 'r
is undoubtedly a I.a:l ; iii i: t fi:r th ii f'elr,4 .\s thi unlt rI.'r i t e- c,:i-
trol of the board iit.: r, a e- in tIi inil. ..rL i ,a,_l ,:':, l_:.i t.t ell rli- riits
in the population fr.rr, l..i i.h in imi l:i...ri n 1. ,-I i av n i .ti.-i r in.. m .ran
m ore restricted ain l a .ifr'ie t it,1 i- f t.ii-cl i i :i: tr.i : li. ir. iice ..n
the board. That tl5- inci<- f:aril i.m nani .1 1 up~rl.:i r n t pi. .1't li' iit;izn ...i.l
be diffi cult to p-..: ", T.:. the stilir nt ,.-f I-. luI .-.Ii .-.n. I II: n,.- :i i -, :,. I. c-
cause he has enj. -. ici I 'i.r[ipti.iin t l ,ii lu,.ati:iiiii l .A.l L a. s .i l lc .iau ,i- h[:
follows an occup.'aticr 1..t hi.h :arrit: an iurn:.-inmin'in 'Ia ur L :l.! sI::,iI
prestige. H is int:ll; 1 ,.:, ,:.nt i rt i-: -1r..- ,al.,!. : .: -:i ,.l r.:,I, I., : hf-. .e t l i
average. W heth.-r thi- ju l .I .nt i. :,,, .l :,r n- :.t i: : .:1 Ir-ti.n ..j J li ...ill
be discussed in a lati: r .:lr:i iL:r. Thle i..-,int t[-. iw nFii.] lI: rc 4 iric, el\, t.h t,
as the unit of sch: .I almni .-t.iii n i.l haiig, ltI: :':rit t ,i if iii u it i II.; a,
pass out of the hand: :.,l :.ii.: : anI rt-i, ithe lari.] :.f .i.:.itl-ir. 11 .,
would seem to be I iiattcr -.1 the tiit ri 1rtanc.ii -t ii n e tilit -.-uld
receive further c'ith .,l ltud. ..
This discussi:.ii, l-.rl njatir.ill'. I,- thei c I -n-iil.r ati:. ii .: -nc ad' it.i ri.nal
fact which is rexv ati in 'al..lk. XXIII U ,li. 2 per nt -i til hi m -i.-. rc
of the state board. ar.t cl.si-ifie reFpr-r_ LInting .tl' I.ri>Cult'itral -er vici .
That all the m erikl -. L laI- I .! rial!, !:tli,:, .. tfl- f u[ .t. i-.n .lf iii ir I-
the detailed repo i n1 1 l11 c. L r.,._.l:. .l.,-Iu .tful, .\I[ app .- .. Ml;. .:. eic 6-' tlln.ni


Lai pIic.l,:cJ in il- ; :il. iL;i:.,ar;l.n b., rhe grace of wealth accumulated in
!,,1[, ruineii rart r c,:.alllrin thr.:.ughl .- hi;h they are enabled to satisfy an
:.,,, .Li.:.t 'l it l Iri. i tiI .l 6r iltIIre. 1;ut let the classification stand un-
,:i:lll:inge:-.:l t F. N.o:thin 1ri :'ild !:ow more emphatically and con-
:lu-i'.il l- il..ti. al,, i 11 !.] i, -.trial .:l,.n.anation of American civilization.
Practically the entire lay membership of the state boards of education is
chosen from the population of the city. In many of our great agricultural
states educational policies are determined by boards on which there is not
a single representative of agriculture. In fact, farmers are found on but
four of the thirty-nine boards included in this study. That the state school
systems should consequently fail to grapple courageously and effectively
with the problems of rural education is precisely the result to be expected.
If the educational interests of the rural population are ever to receive
adequate consideration, intelligent representation from the farm must be
secured on the state board of education.
A study of the detailed facts regarding the occupations of board mem-
bers brings out certain significant aspects of the situation that are not
revealed by the data presented in Table XXIII. The table gives the
representation of the great occupational divisions; knowledge of the repre-
sentation of particular occupations is equally illuminating. An examina-
tion of the facts shows that the board membership is drawn not only from
a few occupational divisions but also from a very small number of occupa-
tions. For example, 486 of the 2,943 city board members included in the
study are merchants. This occupation has the largest representation. The
lawyers come second, with 335 members; the physicians third, with 266
members; the manufacturers fourth, with 183 members; and the bankers
fifth, with 180 members. Except for shifts in the relative positions of the
several occupations, the situation is much the same in the other boards.
If the heavy representation of the agricultural service on the county board
is disregarded, the merchants are found to occupy first place on this as on
the city board. By displacing the lawyers, the physicians hold second
place instead of third place. As will be shown later, the relation between
these two occupations is interesting. On the less powerful boards, the
boards which are closest to the people, the physicians tend to hold the
stronger position. On the other hand, on the more influential boards, the
boards in which membership carries considerable prestige and power, the
1. *:-,, .! rr found in greater numbers. On the state board the educators
i'r.. I I.. f ir the largest occupational representation. In fact, 79 of the
-52 nemi.:r ,rs involved are drawn from this single group. This strong in-
.lrnI.,l ..[r r the part of the state board is to be accounted for almost en-


tirely in terms of specific legislative enactment. \V\I.. th: .Ari.ri;:ran ":..-
pie have so generally adopted the practice of ir:luJing in th>e -.ta.i i1:.-i r,
such a large number of persons who follow .:-i:.icail:.ri ti.1 .r._..l-i..n \ic-
mains to be explained. With respect to other I.,."ar.i i'.hi:h -vli.[pe eoJi -:'-
tional programs, they have pursued a different I;li:.. .\ fi.irhr :riill' ,'
of the state board is of interest. After the cJi.,tr ,.,.:t th l, t Ii..
The merchants occupy third place; the bankurr:. ,..i.rth [.l:'..;, anr thc
manufacturers, fifth place. The physicians, wl.l ;:i all tI le rtrni.irtlng
occupations, have a very meager representatil.n thi I:..llt e -indi ni-
versity boards the lawyers occupy an overwhellini, i r I,;:!.- .:.i!iui t ..itL rn.
One hundred and one of the 351 members .-.I thL.f-i- ...ar. in-re !Lr ..-.r.r.
Merchants hold second place, bankers third, farnl,.ri I'....rth, I.m n u-
facturers fifth, physicians sixth, and educator. -.. r Tihe ic u1i ti...Ci il
affiliations of the other members are very scjUttirt_, I.i-.t ih, i ':t; -.ul i
not be obscured that this board is dominated i. I-, ei. l.i'.:, cr. I!i :ll..ilJ-
ing this study of the particular occupations ifr,.m! .. hi:h thie ninil-.-r- .
the several boards are drawn, the statement ;ir, l. :. i-i, a.k that. r h-ere t h._
rural population has lost its hold on the scho .l~, the I,-.tr.i c \;r:. lariel.
in the hands of merchants, lawyers, physicians. I.,ni.itr-, njan.l:l. turcr-,
and persons in positions of executive respon.-illrIi..
The status of the clergy on boards of edu:ti l...n dJ Iticr r.\ u ii'-. i: c c l.-
ment. All the evidence which has come down fr, mi tihe l;:t ri !.li:cit,.1 that
in the early history of our country the contr.-.l ,f oluc.-.r .ri. ,.i in tlie
hands of the clergy. Even after the separat-i .:.f :h.iur,:h and. i,.h,....l th,.
minister apparently continued to exercise gic tIl nrluen.: in Ietl.,-irniirint
educational policy. In the meantime, a fundamn. nal tran-Il'rmu.tin'ri ha:-
taken place. On the public boards of educ.ir.n t.lai. .:ierh nic.i ar.e
practically without representation. Among th. :.,04- !iti-lr .c :i t.
boards of education for whom data were secure r, -. tle ri,: "r it in : : I! rL., -
men. The dentists, an occupational group whi-h I- .i thi.ui the tr.liit.,.n
of social leadership and which is not ordinarly. rt;.ar,.l J :i ha'. ing .Jn:
special interest in public affairs, have sixty-ninrc h..inar, in ,,ni.r, mi.,re
than twice as many as the clergy. Engineering, an._r h-Er ...i the nr-,.. r [-.r.-
fessions, has thirty-one representatives. On t hi ibLh, r i. cl'e- : i:. .a rl tiht
situation is the same. Everywhere the minist,:r i. ..'ith,.i.,t -tr' iig ._r ..n
modest representation. Whether this decline ith: I-, p:..:.cr oi0 tl, cler.;"r
over the school merely reflects the decline of t h .:hurc :r :L a-..... il inti tu-
tion or whether it is to be traced to the rel;igh-..i :onI.. -i :tari:1n Ieteri.-
geneity of the American people is a question fi-r -fi.-.:ul tii.n. I h ,.int
to be emphasized here is that, with the de'. .li. 'inirt .:.i ,.itr itirJ.-triil

Ii_ [,\L O.'O.II'l" II IN '' iF W"1.\ r: ) OF EDUCATION

c1 !, tilin, thi ..riii trl I ,i ldIt.i.ri *- I' Fa.-4;ed from the ministry. This
.l]iit ...... r Ifr.'im :ic r ., tC-. I i',, i. n-i r-s '. .- the most significant changes
v.lhich l.ve a.I-,:t,.1 .-\,rri,.:an .lucati:i. tn in the course of a century. This
iangir al..n .* ith iII. hil.. hfit ,..f :.. er fr.:.ni ti. farm to the city, marks the
birth ot a new civilization, a civilization dominated by the interests and
ideals of industry, commerce, and finance.
In a number of the states the colleges of agriculture and mechanic
arts are separated from the state universities and are provided with their


College Agricultural-
Occupation University Colege
Proprietors..... ....... .............. 33 32
Professional service .................. 44 28
Managerial service .................. 5 2
Commercial service ................. 2 o
Clerical service..................... o
M anuallabor...................... o o
Agricultural service. :............... 6 26
Ex officio .......................... .o 12
Total ....................... . oo 0oo
Number of members.............. 286 65

At least one member was reported for this occupation, but the representation
is too small to show in this table.

own boards of control. A comparison of the social composition of these
boards with the social composition of boards that govern the state uni-
versities is of interest. The facts are found in Table XXIV. According to
this table, some conscious effort has been made to adjust the membership
of the board to the type of institution to be served. Thus, on the boards
cnntrnllinc the agricultural colleges, more than one-fourth of the mem-
I.. r..hlp is Jr.:.'.' from the agricultural service. In the case of the state
uni. .:ir-it- there situation is quite different. Here, although in a number of
;ritance.- tii. Institutions have agricultural colleges or departments, the
rural P[.:.Ir pulatI.l is provided with very meager representation. Contrast
lthe [.-. i- ,.'f controlling bodies. Whereas 26 per cent of the members
i:. Ii agr;itilluiral-college boards are farmers, only 6 per cent of the
in..nil....-r .4. t.hi university boards come from this occupational group.

58 SOCIAL COMPOSITION Or .l .\i:Is,. rF rllJUC.\11T:'N

The only other difference between II- I:..l.ard Ir_.n ithl. it:il-.J..int ..i
social composition is found in the pr.If..-,,iul .:r. i .... Thr i.'l,,L.itac-
for the state universities and the t4rii.lti[r.ilT .ic. :.r,. J44 .ian -.
respectively. This seems to mean that i]n -..n-- ti.lin', thin .i ii.ir-i- ili.-i
control the agricultural colleges a -:rl:ln Ii iii l, r o:.I La -n,. r.- .i.l'-
stituted for a like number of lawyers..\ 'pp'-ar.i' -i i rI- i. [h.'.izhi I:
have some special rights or interest i.Li r:l-.- .:L 1t: lt ... :.! tir...lI .. the
agricultural college, but in the contiilI .,I ..t-hI ti n-!l ..( -liu,.:.ilt.l i-,,'
are assumed to have neither rights r....r int. ri.t.. I hi- .:..n.Jiti-n n1.. .l..-1 i

OCCUPATIONS OF MALE MEMBERS -t I-I' 1;.. i i.- .. I ii.: iIr.-
CITIES CLASSIFIED ACCol ii .. 1.: Ir.....F .! .11. ,[
DIVISION (FACTS Gr r in It i'i '..ri .-r:

OCCUPATION Nwr i. [r t
New Middle .:.. .r, ,
England Atlantic ,'in. , . ... "....t..r,

Proprietors ............. 21 26 : : .
Professional service ...... 40 28 .
MNanagerial service....... 15 17 i i 4
Commercial service ...... 7 4
Clerical service.......... 6 9
Manual labor ........... 7 i
Agricultural service ...... 2 1i 4
Unknown ............... 2 4 .

Total.............. too 1 00 : :: i :: : : i :
Number of members. 585 669 i ,.;,. ,. -... i ,.

*At least one member was reported for th. ..... lr... t r i n. r -i : .r i ..... ..r I .i h
show in this table.

reflects the aristocratic tradition of hi-hi r .-di..li:ti:n C- :...ni .i; -lth tlh:
curious psychology of a complacent .-:ol inei r- Ii ii i ,I L !'-,..
A more detailed study of the oc.:ru.,ir.i -.I thli. n.i--rd. r- ,..I th. t:it.
boards of education will now be ni:idl-. 1,I i :ii.i- XXV\ ir. i...':i th
facts regarding the occupational coni. --il .i--I .I .:itl. z.:h:t..l lI..:irJ i in lh
different geographical areas. An ex.iim:,ti.:,!ii .-:! thi: i.ii-e sir -,.' ti ..n
the whole, the boards are very mu .h .il :il! -.i.r -.! i. IiUniLt] 'Ilt t..i.
Everywhere the boards are compos:d :,, il:,-i I'htrily f :.i Ir-r.,- d.r.i,-i
from the favored social and econorii .:1.--,..-. .-: ,:,.rtin n 1ii,...r il'l'r-
ences may be observed. In New E:n,L.,in., i..,r tI'..iiIIi ili [r.r,.li.t. i',i
service occupies a peculiarly strong .. -i ..n ..n ,i I-, ...irl- .-.I : al:l ti...
On the other hand, in these northeast rii -i:i.. It- .m'iii- thril iz L til


_r,-.rir.t,:.rs tihan n .tIi:. tih:r area. This tendency of New England to
Il.:,:- tru.-t in thi. '.:.lII.:. :-r .4. the professions, particularly the lawyers,
r.athe.r ti i i t, i I .i.ri t. ir, particularly the merchants, is perhaps the
most significant departure from the general practice on the part of any
great geographical division. Another fact of interest in this connection is
that only in these states of Puritan ancestry does the tradition of clerical
control of education survive at all. Twenty of the thirty-two clergymen
found on the city boards of education were serving New England com-
Each of the other great geographical divisions shows more or less
variation from the country average, although the West North Central
and the Western states approximate this average very closely. In the
Middle Atlantic area the boards exhibit the greatest social heterogeneity.
Here the proprietors and the professional service combined have their
smallest representation, while the managerial service, the clerical service,
and manual labor show the greatest strength. On the other hand, in the
South Atlantic states the opposite condition seems to exist. In these
states the proprietors and the professional service combined show a
strength not found elsewhere. The combined representation of these two
groups amounts to 70 per cent of the entire board membership. The other
groups, particularly manual labor, are given but slight recognition. In
harmony with the findings in other departments of this investigation,
these facts indicate that in the control of education the South Atlantic
states follow what may be called the "aristocratic tradition." The pecu-
liarities of practice in the other geographical divisions are so small as
scarcely to merit discussion.
Between the social composition of the board of education and the size
of city which the board serves, there seems to be some consistent rela-
tion. The data presented in Table XXVI shows this to be the case. An
examination of this table reveals two tendencies which appear to be
mutually complementary. The representation from the professional serv-
ice varies more or less directly with the population of the city. Thus, in
cities of the smallest size, cities with populations between 2,500 and 5,000,
only 20 per cent of the board members are drawn from this occupational
group. At the other extreme, in the cities of more than 1oo,ooo inhabi-
tants, this percentage rises to 47. Moreover, with each advance in the
size of the city, the representation from the professions increases. In the
largest cities almost one-half of the board members are chosen from this
small occupational group. These facts would seem to be in harmony with
the educational data already presented.


The other clear-cut tendency is one that might not havl l.-in antici-
pated. The representation of manual labor seems to:. va t: in cr:.- ..l,' thI hii
size of the city. One might expect the laboring clas;..r t1... ih:'a t h,-ir great-
est strength on boards of education in the great Inrlistrial ilitil, \.hIr-r.
labor organizations are powerful. Such an expec;.iti:rn is l..-arl',- nr..t u[I-
ported by the facts. Nowhere is labor represented in pr1. i,,rt.ri, to: iti
numbers in the population, but its percentage of l::i1ird. rinil..er:; ;< t. L io
as great in the smallest cities as in the largest citi. A pparrentl.', succe:,-
ful candidacy for board membership in the great cili-: Ce..4uirc- .1 .i:jrr
range of contacts and acquaintanceship than a la.iring man i:,...-.--


2,500 5,000 I0,000 25,01. : : : : : :
to to to to I. :.r '.ii.
5,000 o0,000 25,000 50,0c. *::.: 51: .
Proprietors.............. 41 27 32 2 .,. :
Professional service...... 20 26 30 3; 4
Managerial service ...... 12 i6 14 It .
Commercial service...... 8 7 5
Clerical service.......... 7 9 7 ;
Manual labor........... Io 10 8 (.
Agricultural service...... 2 3 i i
Unknown .............. o 2 3
Total............... Ioo ioo I oo oc .: i.:.:. ..
Number of members. 375 679 1,013 43:- :4 i : 4

The existence of powerful opposing employers' an.l ti::.a.er- .-rgani.1-
tions which control the organs of public opini!:n Ir,,i.al..il'. ni..i.- tni.i
counterbalances the strength of labor's own orginri.atonr: On! in thl
small communities is the selection likely to be bals-.l i..n per..nal In.n..i I-
edge of the candidates.
No other equally distinct relations between tlh,- s.'ial i:i..m[-itiin I
the board and the population of the city are reve.ia l I... thei t.l..l:k. H.... -
ever, there are certain additional tendencies which, thr..i.ph -i.niwclh:,t
obscure, merit passing notice. The clerical servi, I: :-i t.. I lilli:.A tlli
same course as manual labor by showing less str(nrith in the larger itirc
than in the smaller cities. That the group of proprk tir tL.ei.i it-,e in Inila
fashion, the table would appear to suggest; but on tliIs [,-.,rnt the e'% i-,l.nrm
is by no means clear.


Ain -:ami1t:inatI :., the original data reveals certain interesting facts
regarding spc-illU uLLIupuiuns which are obscured in the summary pre-
sented in the table. Thus, among the proprietors, bankers and manu-
facturers tend to displace the merchants in the larger cities. In cities of
more than 100,000 inhabitants the bankers and manufacturers combined
just equal the merchants, while in cities of less than 5,000 inhabitants the
former have only about one-half the representation of the latter. Within
the field of the professional service also certain significant shifts may be
observed. The contrast between the lawyers and the physicians is of
special interest. In the group of smallest cities these two occupations
have the same representation, but in the largest cities the lawyers show
almost double the strength of the physicians. These facts support the
conclusions derived from an examination of the composition of the differ-
ent types of boards.
The earlier investigations by Nearing and Struble reveal, so far as
they go, the same relationships discovered in this study. Consider Near-
ing's findings first. Since his occupational categories differ somewhat from
those used here, it is difficult to make the comparison between the two
studies complete. There is one point, however, at which the comparison
can be made. The category of professional service carried approximately
the same connotation in both investigations. Nearing studied only cities
of more than 40,000 inhabitants. In presenting his data, he classified his
104 cities into three groups. In the first he placed those with populations
between 40,000 and ioo,ooo; in the second, those with populations be-
tween ioo,ooo and 500,000; and in the third, those with populations of
more than 500,000. The percentage of board members drawn from the
professions rose from 35 in the first group to 41 in the second and to 46
in the third.' These percentages agree fairly closely with those presented
in Table XXVI for cities of corresponding size.
Struble did not classify his cities according to size, but he states at
one point that he included in his study of 169 cities a number of communi-
ties of less than 2,000 inhabitants and but two of more than 250,000.2
This suggests that the average for his cities was somewhat smaller than
the average for the cities of the present investigation. Since he reported
his findings in detail, a full comparison with the results of this study can
be made. Of the 761 male members of boards of education for whom he
secured occupational data, 41 per cent were drawn from the proprietors,
25 per cent from the professional service, 12 per cent from the managerial
Scott Nearing, op. cit., p. 90.
2 George G. Struble, op. cit., p. 48.

62 SOCIAL COMPOSITION OF BO.\r.i-. F "' I- (..i A I''.N

service, 5 per cent from the commercial ser.ii:. 4 pI:r cnt I i.:r!, ti' e :lerii .I
service, 6 per cent from the agricultural scr'.,ic, .andI ; i-:.r C,:n I r.:iin the
laboring classes.' These percentages co: rz:i: ,, lI r. thl r :!:.-l, l.:. th...s:
for the group of smallest cities in the pres..nt ii r, ii.-;e:i':.n. -I..i.r- 1, [he
relatively heavy representation of farmer- '-..:-i th.ia the '.rag> i :
of his cities was rather small.

Occupation i' C
Lawyers................. .
Professional service (total).... 4 .
D entists................... .4 .
M anagerial service........... ... 4
Physicians ................... 4
M manufacturers ............ 4 .
Bankers.................... .
Proprietors (total) ...........
M merchants ...................
Commercial service.......... .
Clergymen .................. ..
Engineers ................ i
Clerical service .... .... i.:.
Agricultural service .......... :
M annual labor ............... .

All occupations .........

The discrimination against certain oc0:u( at;i:.i! gFr..''u. i: I lunrher re-
vealed by a study of the occupations of ti: I.,rt.iid'ntJ o:r the .:iit. L.,ail-
of education. As the selection of the boardl erinl.ers te.ea-l i!,: L.e1i.: :.i
the electorate or of the selecting power, .,i th l.....:c ..i thr I,,:.ar.J r.r-i-
dent reveals the bias of the board itself. il<- :lrit: preiet-i.' ii [il..e
XXVII. In this table is reported for ea:lh .1 certain *:4f trhe nilre in i.,:r-
tant occupations or occupational division thi.: r.ti.: L ...... n i. n!i.L...r- :ii.l
presidents. The ratio was computed b,, ,iliii-lg t ti:c t.rtal riil.L.r ..I
board members from a particular occupation L.. th.. iLur .. l l.-r .:.,ri. l :ii
from the same occupation. The lawyers a're .IPlparei -li nOi:. o i .:,redc
occupational class. In proportion to their i.iuiiL..r- i LliI.. [pr.. i. .1 I.[Lr.r
George G. Struble, op. cit., p. 48.


r,~Inr. I.Lr ':*pr i I' r. .-, ins i.i n i,- either group. Thus, the ratio of 3.5 means in
thiw c:,fe tl-t fi..r ,3., L ,... r serving as board members one occupies
the position of president. Professional service as a whole comes second,
dentists third, managerial service fourth, physicians fifth, manufacturers
sixth, bankers seventh, and so on. Perhaps the most significant fact in
the table relates to the position of representatives of the laboring classes.
They furnish but few board presidents. Their actual ratio of presidents
to members is but I to 13.9. In general, the table indicates that those
classes which are least well represented on the board are least likely to
have their members elected to the office of president.
Another measure of the influence of the various occupational groups
is found in the tenure of office. Since the authority of a board member
must be determined in part by the extent of his experience on the board,
the question of tenure would seem to be important. This problem was at-
tacked by making a study of the tenure of the labor members of the
city boards of education. A rather striking condition was discovered. On
the average, the tenure of a labor member is one year less than the tenure
of members drawn from other occupational groups. Thus, whereas the
median tenure of office for all board members is 4.1 years, that for the
labor members is but 3.1 years. These facts suggest again the rather pre-
carious position which the laboring classes hold on boards of education in
American cities. They seem to experience difficulty in securing member-
ship on these boards, and, after securing membership, they experience
the same difficulty in retaining it. From every standpoint the more fa-
vored classes appear to dominate the board.
The thought has sometimes been expressed that there is some rela-
tion between the method employed in the selection of board members and
the social classes from which they are drawn. The extent to which this is
found to be the case within the limits revealed by the present study is
shown in Table XXVIII. In this table the 2,943 members of city school
boards are classified according to method of selection. As an earlier table
shows, there are but four methods employed with sufficient frequency to
be considered in this comparison, namely, election at large, election by
wards, appointment by mayor, and appointment by council. The other
seven methods employed in the cities included in the present investiga-
tion are grouped together under a single category.
While the evidence is far from conclusive, Table XXVIII suggests
that boards composed of members elected either at large or by wards rest
on a somewhat wider social base than those which are appointed either
by the mayor or by the council. The story is told for the most part in the


representation given to the clerical service and t.:. m'itiu1 l al...:r. In b-'dth
of these instances the data show clearly that, f.:.r Ite : ;ties stuIIId., ::r;.ial
workers and manual laborers have somewhat t': ttr i.hain.e-:4 ... e, it.ng
membership on elective boards than on appoiriti'.c :.iardl. If ti. ripr.-
sentations of these two occupational groups are ..nmlii,-, the F..r, erit-
ages of the elective boards are 15 and 16, whilk ti'. p,.r..r..tagn :. th.:
appointive boards are 8 and 5. Apparently, _arni.it,- fri .:,n' th le Ic ifa-
vored classes are more acceptable to the peopk than L ..... .lhr t[he ,i,...r
or the council. An examination of the combinael rerpre.eiIt:,ii.:in .:i ther
two great groups, the proprietors and the prof i:si...nal is r ,I. rt'i al' th,:


Occupation Election Election Appoi. .r '
Occupation ent ,.,-. r P.:
at Large by Wards Mlay: ... I ..r.:,: ': .-

Proprietors .............. 28 34 41 4 4:
Professional service ...... 31 26 31: :
Managerial service........ 15 13 10 i i: 14
Commercial service ....... 6 8 8 -
Clerical service ........... 7 7 3 r
M annual labor ............ 8 9 5 .
Agricultural service....... 2 2 0 i -
Unknown................ 3 I 2
Total ............... oo100 oo00 100 : : i:: :.:
Number of members.. 2,108 448 190 .4 .

other side of the picture. On the boards wh .i', rnil..,.rs ari: el:it.1l at
large the percentage drawn from these two .:'.I-upFat.:.nil: gr.:.%i'j. ij -
The corresponding percentage for members ick I.t.l I ', ard.' i. no. 'rOn
the other hand, where members are appointee 1:I thle i c- .a:r, lnis prienrt-
age is 72; and where the members are appointeol I .''. '.h r ....un.il, ;,-. IhuL,
while the evidence is not wholly convincing, thl, i:::l|lii'::.li !i', IF..Ie iheld
tentatively that the method of selection empl.:.ye.-l i; oi t.:.r .,, ...fi..n i. :r-
able importance in determining the social comni.'j.sit,.'i ':' i. .:.lf r, I[:* .:I I i:;Ia-
tion. The appointing agents are apparently iI liI'-d ti ali'l.. ith':r ap-
pointments from members of their own social .in.1 .n.. r. gi r...ik p.. Sii.::
they are commonly drawn from the more favor,-, I li.s-;s, tll'ir app.:.rinte-.
are predominantly members of these same cla. ._.
Another question which has received son, aLt t ci!.:.0 in e .lu;i a ti.:.1. i
discussions pertains to the relation between th-i' ...nm.enr:..at[in i. f n,:nm-


L .:-rs: and t1I.l i l :.:.nr..:.i t,.:.n .:.If Il..:irds of education. The state-
iiil n itthai l..r.i.,r. i bi...n nmale that, di o-.mpensation is provided, an in-
f:ri,,r L!.-s- ill tle i.tractedil t.:. riii'e erlhtip on the board. So simple has
I..:,n ih: litnt. ..iL ri.-as-lIir;ng irn s-u[pi.rt .i, i tlis view that it has practically
g. ine i.in:h. Iclln':edl. H.: e'. er,. I :.!r. :*. ,.a.iniiiing the argument, we should
n...<. lihat iI thli rmrin, f th,-,e vi. I-,- '.e made this statement an inferior
nil,-l ., rship lineli;s, Lt. : crtairi J'.!g ri. at least, a membership drawn from
thi I':-s a. -.r..J 'il. :!:ise Tli.t Li' .I doubtful criterion for judging
the quality of board members will be pointed out later, but let this as-
sumption rest for the moment. The a priori argument in favor of this posi-
tion, like most a priori arguments, appears to require little defense. That
the association of compensation with board membership will attract indi-
viduals who are drawn by the thought of compensation seems so obvious
a principle that it scarcely needs to be stated. Since the compensation
provided by the city for this service is almost certain to be meager, it will.
attract only those persons who are in somewhat straitened economic cir-
cumstances. Hence, the course of wisdom is to provide no compensation
and thus to insure the extension of board membership to persons who have
no ulterior motive but who are willing to serve because of interest in, and
devotion to, civic affairs. Moreover, the presumption is that such per-
sons will come from those classes which, because they enjoy an economic
security resting on private enterprise, will not feel the urge of the eco-
nomic motive in their public relations.
In order to throw some light on this question, the members of city
boards were divided into two classes. In the one were placed all those
who receive no compensation whatsoever and in the other those who re-
ceive some compensation, however meager. Since the practice of com-
pensating board members in our cities is far from common, this second
group is relatively small. In fact, only 213 of the 2,943 members for
whom occupational data were secured receive compensation. In some in-
stances, as a re-examination of Table XI (p. 30) will show, the compensa-
tion received is almost negligible. Yet the comparison of these two types
of boards from the standpoint of social composition will be interesting
and suggestive, if not convincing. The facts are presented in Table
An examination of Table XXIX indicates that the conventional line
of reasoning may be faulty. If a good school-board member is defined as
one who is drawn from the more favored social and economic classes, pro-
'. isii ior compensation would seem to improve the quality of the mem-
l.er-hlip[ iT,-. differences in the occupational distributions for the two


types of boards should be noted. In the first l i:t., h.F- rr i rri:.,rr :iirpe ir
to exhibit an unusual sensitiveness to conr.,.ri.t-i...nt. I ...rt, *.i .iI.r c.rnt
of the members receiving compensation are .irr.i n fr.-in tih- .<::i tI ii.:.r:Il
group, whereas only 30 per cent of the memi..s.: .i th-. i.li-.:..n1,.,.i-.t..,
boards are proprietors. In the second place, tli I ..,:. re t i- : .:.re,. icr.:.l].s
in this classification, the clerical service arnd Ili.ni. n, :Il ilI..r, ha < nic:h
larger representations on the non-compens t-.I i..-..i-.l til'hi:.in tI., ? .:.ni-
pensated boards. A satisfactory explanati.,r, .f.I tih- Itutil.ri i.'- dlificu lt
to discover. The differences are altogether t h,... I.'r,-: i... I.. r iir.:i'r, l. \t
one hesitates to ascribe them to the present: -.r :,Il.-eni 'c .,ni i. r,.ni.ti; i

EDUCATION WHO SERVE WITH COMPEL '.- T 1...?i \.rL ,..r F .' I Ei u :.

Occupation i..- ..., i. . .,

Proprietors......................... 4 .
Professional service ............... : .
Managerial service. ................ 4 4
Commercial service ................ 7
Clerical service ................... .
Manual labor. .....................
Agricultural service ................
Unknown......................... i
T otal ......................... .. i..
Number of members ............ :

At least one member was reported for this o .., .i ... Lt .[r .. .. tA i '. ..,
is too small to show in this table.

In order to uncover, if possible, some...l r f i.: l:r :r r rin.i:pr.- .if
explanation, the data were subjected to fu:rt'lhr in.l;, . 1 he h., [.,.plth,:-i-
seemed at least tenable that the difference rnihir 1.. di. u t..- til *:,p,: r:ril.:-n
of certain selective influences which were rn.:,re ,:.r Ies iic.ir:e:iled in th.-
tabulation of the data. The first thought v.is Ihat th.: fitr,-I,'. ..... n-
sated boards might be confined to certain :,r,::i- :r 1:. ,:it--e ,it certainn
size. Since the composition of board member..iF hi- I., -.rin h.. n t.. a.ry
somewhat with geography and with the sizte th.. ,:it., ith.: retiriis ..;,-re
examined for the purpose of testing these lI:i I..th'lii lh,- t..-.iri.il:ti..n
showed that the compensated boards were .Ir,,..n i rn.-r I.it :--i : all ;:,"-
but that they were confined to a few state-. Ie i. ir,-iI riirl.,r w.:- r,:-
ported from Indiana. In fact, all the board, ir. 11 i.lu i:...r ,..h:hi f.ict


:".ere scuri:,l 4..ri .I tl ci '. [i... The only other states represented with a
,:..rnIi.. :ted t.,.a rJ ,.enr,: ( .li'..rnia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michi-
.an...' MIa N ....i i, Nc. .- H.lmp Ihire, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Utah,
\\.:. \ irgiria, idl \\ ik ..,nin.
In order to eliminate the factors of size of city and location, the fifty-
five compensated boards were compared with fifty-five non-compensated
boards which were matched as closely as possible with respect to these
two factors. The factors of organization were also matched where feasible.
The fruits of this attack on the problem are reported in Table XXX. A


Members Members
Occupation Receiving Receiving No
Compensation Compensation
Proprietors ........................ 44 33
Professional service ................. 29 29
Managerial service. ................... 14 11
Commercial service ................. 6 7
Clerical service..................... 2 8
M annual labor...................... 4 9
Agricultural service ................. *
Unknown .......................... I I
Total .................. ....... 100 00
Number of members.............. 213 290

At least one member was reported for this occupation, but the representation
is too small to show in this table.

glance at this table reveals a situation almost identical with that por-
trayed in the preceding table. Apparently, the differences between the
compensated and the non-compensated boards are not to be explained in
terms of the operation of the chance factors of geography and size of city.
When the two sets of boards are matched in these respects, the members
receiving compensation for their services remain a relatively highly
selected group. Where no financial considerations are attached to the
office, the board exhibits a relatively large representation from the less
favored groups, particularly from the clerical workers and the laboring
Before concluding that the provision of a decidedly modest, if not a
nominal, compensation for services on the board has a pronounced effect


on the social composition of the membership, I!t nl ,:..j1ni!,i ori- o:th-r
possibility. The compensated board seems t.., I..,. ..rn th,. -.vr.ieQ- .in ex-
tremely small board. According to Table -XXX, thier: w: r :,,, male
members serving on the fifty-five non-comp,.riitsat I.l.r. .ard-nd ..n t i. r '.
serving on the compensated boards. If the total niiiul-,-r .:.f r...s"'.ti mrn:-m-
bers, both male and female, is computed for th.: t\>,, _-t[ ..4i b..lard, ...n the
basis of the number of members provided .. lawi, th: -...rrr .-:..iding
figures are 317 and 235. The medians are 5.-7 al,] ..', rc[t-.-i.:'.:l'. 1 hl

FIFTY-FIVE CITY BOARDS OF EnUCAri..r. \\'ri..F Mlb Ib, i
EDUCATION, MATCHED AS TO LOCAT] .. *..* '..l- i.'.

Boards tI .' i .: r 1 i rI .-
Number of Members embe ....: :1... ,... r .
Comper. 0..-,

3 . ...... .. ............... ... 3
4 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . '
6 ...........................
71 ...........................
8 ............................
9 ...................................
IO ........................ .. i
12 I ......................... ...I
16 . .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .

Total ....................... 5 :

means that the compensated board ordinarily. h:i.s i..... rml,.. r- k. tha r
the non-compensated board.
These differences seem to be so significant that thI i .ktail-t I faL.tl r'.-
garding the number of members for the two t.."- ': I:. ari .-'ri: [Ipr;--,-int
in Table XXXI. According to this table, thirl. -Ftv, -f th. rif t. -i.,.- ....m-
pensated boards have but three members eac h. Oi, ti, .:.tli-r h1anl. in tl.,
case of the boards whose members serve with'-.-t i...nmi[:: -ti..', the- rn'i.-
frequent practice is the five-member board. ITli .i.l1c lJi'. :r:!,:ec e::i- t
in spite of the fact that in the selection of th: rift'. -I'i. l ni..r'n-:i- it-f tt t-d
boards an effort was made to match the conl S,-,lte.]- i,,: .r.l. i.i-t i!I.. iii
location and size of city but also in number of nm,,ml..:r. 1l. thrt--nit in-
ber boards of the former type simply could n,.it .Iec I,.u.!ii I l..Ir thI:- -.'iie ir>a:t


:i.ii! l I..r :6i., i o [ippr., .ii i l.l. th,. -. tme population. However, that the
,:T..ifrt. t I m.itlh th : I. ..t .r.[ ir. tli' req, t..ct was not wholly unsuccessful is
re' i-.ale.1 iv th,_ mri.in riumLb, I .f iI'rmibers on the 474 non-compensated
l...:]r.l in :nlu.lk.1 in thli: iuI.. T -ha median is 6.6. If the median of 3.8
fir Ilte corl, ,p.:-[i, ..-.,- It.',,tr.i i i .. mi.' r,, with the median of 6.6, we have
Sthiic tit :: ,i iure .t Iti,:,Jilf r,. ni,: in -i;. between the two types of boards.
Of '..h.t ii:Iil..ani,: c- i- thiZ : i t in -.'plaining the greater degree of social
-Ii:Ol: 'tv.*.-: i 1 i; : It.iril..i. ... ~. the compensated board? A considera-
t1. ,': ,i 1t ".1 1 -,l, _ti..n ,. ill he ,-4 i i tlrl r t
I h, I..jri!t'ilI"iir:n i: 1..- ll i qi .. -ii ple. The compensated board is
raLu .l!; : ia -iijl t.'tii.:1, inJ .It ni1 l ard is naturally a highly selected
I....r .J lh ::ni.ni -.' .] Ir... .'.Lr.1 tlii .l to be a small board for economic
r.:at:,i ns. ,, Il..,; :i; t -le ii:..niiniii i; "ible to secure the services of board
nIlc!r i ,r .'ri.t, it is ni.. !il. .l rit. -.. he wisdom of having a small board;
tint, .1- ..ri *i: I t II ri. :.:n iir iiiii. :i ik,:d to pay for the services rendered,
it experiences an improvement in its vision and it sees quite clearly that a
small board can perform its work just as efficiently as a large board. The
small board is a highly selected board because each position on the board
carries great power and influence in the control of the schools. As a con-
sequence, competition for membership becomes keener, and only repre-
sentatives of the favored and dominant groups in the community are
likely to be successful candidates for office. So long as the board is large,
these dominant elements will have no objection to the inclusion on the
board of one member from some less favored group; but, as soon as the
number of members is reduced, let us say, to three, the situation under-
goes radical change. On a board of three one member is very powerful and
may cause trouble, whereas on a larger board a single member, unless he
is a very extraordinary type of person, can have but little influence. Thus,
according to this line of reasoning, the factor of compensation operates in
an indirect rather than in a direct fashion to produce a board whose mem-
bership is somewhat selected from the standpoint of social composition.
That this explanation is not derived wholly from speculation is
shown by another type of evidence secured. The 529 boards included in
the investigation were grouped into three classes on the basis of the num-
ber of members. In the first class were placed the 79 three-member boards;
in the second class, the 354 boards having from four to seven members;
and in the third class, the 96 boards having more than seven members.
Occupational data for the male members of these three groups of boards
are presented in Table XXXII. This table shows at a glance that the
iii'. itiership of the three-member board is rather highly selected and


selected as that of the compensatt:.l t...orl i: d l,.:irl "-'...'t', -tI'.... p.r
cent of the members are drawn froni, tl. Ir r.,iri.t.,r: ian.I Lith. pr,'I -s.. tl I
service. On the other hand, the '....i irnl.r.. r iprrst I'iItt :i ...Il th. .... nI
mercial service, clerical service, m .it'.Il .ii-..r oii r .t i Arii.u .Lti i1 .,r I.:c -
but 13 per cent. Contrast with th<.t. it. i-t.l In .lir t1...r the lI....;r.l Jith
from four to seven members. The a i.. rr.i. ..ri.li r,'. nrt. g i I I-.! 11 Iii.',
two combinations of occupational cr..p.- :iir, i...l . r,._.-z....l. .
However, the very large boards d.. ir.'.t lI....: rl. til!l crc'r:tr r,'lpre-r.rl -
tion expected of these less favored r... .Aeni'T.'ir. iit thei- ;i ..lue r. thli
fact that these large boards are ct..ildr..,.l i.r tih. ni..I p rrt 1[.. lit, li[.r

OCCUPATIONS OF MnALE I rEMBE! ,.,i Ci';. B..- ..tr [i.. kiiI.-
BOARDS CLASSIFIED ACCOr i'.: I 'iii .Fr -., M I LL[-
(FACTS GIVE i i i. I '. i. .

Occupation Three Memt., r ,. L i , i

Proprietors................ 39
Professional service ........ 33 -' '
Mifanagerial service... ... .. 15 i
Commercial service........ 3
Clerical service............ 4 -
M annual labor............. 5 .
Agricultural service ........ i
Unknown................. o i
T otal ................ 100 i :.
Number of members. .. 211z I .:: ,

cities and in these cities certain c._it r.itr int _r ii 'in: r ;:....r: '. li.
have been discussed in an earlier s,',: ti.:I. I, t, i r Lr't url.Ari ci.rr'i TII
capitalistic and professional class'.- :ini .. .l..ni, ii t '.-1i "il' LLi.li i -
they do not in the smaller comm-,rnl'!ts. N.'. .rt h.k li. th l t!- h- ir..l
although it is ordinarily found in ti ni i r..rn-li;. .i [i.iit:s, ': .0:..id..r.fill
smaller degree of social selection tlhan .ji...: tIh<. tri-t.i.-nii. l r ir'l Ti..
association of compensation with -li i .'i ll l... I r.J '..'il.l --.. i .i, th,. rf..i I
to be the most probable explana i'.i ..i thll r.itri..l .:h .iiIr ..f tih.
membership of the compensated b....ir..|. li., .:.r- tine i in iri.lir%,t
fashion, the provision for compen-.i iii', iin,. i.it.r i. ,i ii r t r. lu>... ,
result the exact opposite of that wiI: Ii it *-.. i. : .It.. .i I'ri...ri LcI iun. Ij.
Before leaving this study of tli-. ..... pii. n r- ,i l1..'f iii.n-ii,..I:r., l it
us examine comparative data frorn : .:rt ii ,.ith,.r L r..,.Il,. uh. ,:..In,-
parison should show us whether in it- -..I.i.il ....i"l.lr:it..' It :- i-..ir.-I .


.. I.,...in ..:.:ul-i',..- a timIi, ie place among legislative bodies in American
s-i:;i ..-r ... i(hi.r it iz i,:rely representative of the fundamental trends
in ..ir i;i ili..t i.i li ii .ire available for certain state legislatures and
1.:.r tl,,I Ill ,i.ii- ..'. congress. Occupational data for the state legis-
!..lir..-, u'!.,., lrii, tl,. study by Haynes,' are summarized in Table
XXXIII. 1.I,. 1..- i ,:ti. : were gathered and presented by another in-
'.,.~ri,.it.r, 'l-._' ...iii.1 n-tr be thrown into precisely the same form that
lii I.:., ii-'i:., ii, the present investigation. In reporting his findings,
Haynes recognized specifically but four occupations, namely, farmers,
lawyers, merchants, and manufacturers. Legislators drawn from all other
occupations were placed in a single group.


Occupation Senate Lower House
Farm ers........................... .9 34
Lawyers ........................... 36 18
Merchants.......................... 17 15
Manufacturers...................... 6 8
Miscellaneous....................... 22 25
Total .......................... T1oo 100
Number of members............ I,021 3,556

While the unanalyzed character of the data severely limits the num-
ber of comparisons that can Le made, the general impression conveyed
by this table is not unlike that conveyed by the tables on the occupations
of board members. Both the state legislature and the board of education
are composed largely of members of the more favored social groups. As
one might expect, the senate is a more highly selected body than the low-
er house. In the latter is found, for example, a much larger proportion
of farmers and a much smaller proportion of lawyers than in the former.
Data not presented in the talle make possible a study of the representa-
tion of the several occupations in the different geographical divisions.
Such a study reveals certain rather pronounced differences Thus, in the
cistern states the farmers show but little strength, whereas the merchants,
mni.nufacturers, and managers are represented in rather large numbers. In
Slie southern states the most striking fact observed is the large hold which
SGeorge II. IIaynes, "Representation in State Legislatures," Annals of the Ameri-
.. Academy of Political and Social Science, XV (March and May, 1900), 204-35,
4:.-.-25; XVI (July and September, 1900), 93-119, 243-72.

72 SOCIAL COMPOSITI.lN ''i IO'.\I : Or 1 lil..\1 I .IN

the lawyers have on the legil'-h tur Ii IIn II!.- .:Inr.! .I i. .Itrli ta
position somewhat intermedit. -ii: .... II tha:t .i tlh, East F.ns .:l] th.. South
is found. These generalization, rri: e ir:ig thi-i .h ra itI: risi;cs of, the- lzik -
latures in the different areas '.il'..ap r t.n applI., air.-.st -,'lll. tI... ih-: s: ia-
tors and the members of the lI.,.-r I.:.s,.
In his study of the occu.pat:io;- I, th.: f n.n:i r .. :ili- Ic .latur;i : in
Vermont, Ohio, Indiana, and .lici.:.iri, irth' r:( ..rt'. .J hi' ...t..I in tfLi-
cient detail to m ake possible Ia ini.i: i c; ,-rr ,:o.!,aIri.:.!i, *'..i th tih: rn.liin_
of the present investigation..\ A ilniarry ,.,1 hir -lat. I, ...[.Iare.1 *.ji.lI I.

COMPARISON OF OCCUPATIONS or A M i M '!i t i T i T ..:. Fi.-. **r
EDUCATION (SEE TABLE XXIII \t ;.'c:.rrc II,: .,i in . ... I. ,.:. i i.T
OF VERMONT, OHIO, INDIANA, Wr. ? .i ::.'i.iT' I ,._I: I.-i :. : ['r L'r'i ,.- I

Occupation Sen I 4i .i- I.'.- r H .i.. I T H.. : .i . 1 I .

Proprietors ......... ..... :. :
Professional service ....... .. 41
M anagerial service.. ....... . .. .
Commercial service ........ r
Clerical service. ............ c t
Manual labor.............
Agricultural service ........ i 4
Ex officio................. -
Unknown................. : .
T otal ................ ..:. i.: i
Number of members... i1; .. ,. -...
Adapted from Samuel P. Orth, op i -.
t At least one member was reported I..r tl.i .. ui I ... L I t 'lle i ..rr. ..i i .. T.ll 1. ..
in this table.

average for five types of board ~i.i il:i.at'hI-n. r,-i i [i,-m in Iii i HI. XXXI\.
An examination of this tabl, -b.:'.'. i that i ..n: ...f th: .i.:.:u[l. ti.l.n.l I -iti-
gories, namely, managerial scr. i:c, .I.hih i:is imip[h:,.' eL:- i thle li tul, I,.
school-board membership, d..- i-...-t a[.'t:ar rin il: I :hl.,-.in..t;1I f.. tIlh
occupations of the legislators. it tLhre r'..r:- mn.' ri:ri:sit' i.i. :. ihs
group in the legislatures of thI: f-LuLlr st't:lis s:.ir-i- iinl:ik.-lI,. 1 hi: icii:ij
of this group in the table is railiEmr .:Ii.- ii.i. lfil'ti.s it fitting, Orth'i t .ijL
into the classification employi.. h:r.:. 1I, I r..l. l r1 i,-r..rt-I lnriin, [i I.r.:.i:
engaged in managerial service- bIcu in:: Iri-er air,'l .,lh-:r as r...i.' is .n: Is.
The ex-officio group also, and I..r ..l.i ic-.- re-.'.n-,.,. a; n.-t i.-.uiMl .ri,,ng i -,he
legislators. At other points thi ,ic.:, :|l:i;::ti..n ;r.- ii l.'r. .int.
I Samuel P. Orth, op. cit., pp. ...,


Accor'JinL t!,: T;11.1,: XXXIV,\, th.: Ic.gslators in the four states in 1904
i,,: r,:- :dr.I. r' i I ei:t i r.hle .i c i:< p optional classes as the members of
,:,'r. j ,:,i ei d'J.ucitiL: n in ..jr.. lTe -enators are somewhat more highly
lr.!eii: th:in the menl.er; t.i it. I,....':r house, but the two groups com-
iirn ..l I: ni:l: niu..h lil:i. thic ;chi..l.-l.i..arI membership. The chief differences
are- the, ..licAm; i[t larger re[:reentnl.. il.n i.fi the professions (and this means
I.i'.y.ir- I irn ith: li.'iltIire-,an tin he [ .:.miewhat larger representation of
n.Imanger;., ;.ile:uiien, :iJ clerk,. :n thl: school boards. Manual labor shows
Sl. it ni...re -itrngh in ih.: IcgislatUire; than on the boards. The table
rndl s,::ite .t L: er, thr: cls.si s .: .l h dominate our boards of educa-
lI..rn are :ili. the ci: c;; ..hich rule i:.ur state legislatures. The rural

i .\,I.h X'XV
I l.-.-ir ...:.. .* ~~Ir 'ii r i :.- r i Li.-rED STATES CONGRESS, 1926
IF tr (.I. . I'I CENTAGES)

.,Senate House of
Senate Representatives

Proprietors..... .................. 24 15
Professional service. ................. 70 72
M anagerial service.................. o 3
Commercial service ................. 2 5
Clerical service ..................... o
M annual labor ...................... o
Agricultural service ................. 4 3
Total ................... ....... Ioo oo
Number of members............. 95 406

population continues to wield considerable power, but the growing
strength of the financial and professional elements characterizes our
Occupational data for the members of the United States Congress for
the year 1926 were also secured. The results of this aspect of the study are
reported in Table XXXV. In this table, in terms of the occupational classi-
i ti.:;,l ii ui-d elsewhere in the study, the senators and representatives are
c.-ni[,m rel In the social composition of their membership, the two housesof
Ct.ringre;: :re very similar and are not unlike the more influential boards
,-i e.c:li:tii...n. If the ex-officio members of the state boards and the uni-
v'.rlit I ..,-Lrl; are disregarded, these bodies are found to approach the
natil: lel gi-lature very closely in this respect. The membership of Con-
r~ i-. iL Jri..n almost exclusively from the proprietorial and the profes-
si:.]aiil claJCe-. The less favored occupational groups are almost without
li;re..t i..i'. in the national councils. The House of Representatives, with


its somewhat smaller delegation from the proir.ri':-tii .nl l it ..m-l hat
larger delegation from the managerial service, L'.',.n! r: i'.'i I r. 'u.. i. r:. i.t
service, and manual labor, is a degree closer to h, t":- I11-: i li t I ie i .i i ,-. ,
but the differences are too small to merit emph-i-.
The fundamental fact, however, regardin-' i,: I,..I-(ul ti, .:.l thi
members of Congress which has often been allulI..l it.. I., ..I hi.r ini. :.t:-
gators is not shown specifically in Table XXXV. I:ler!rrii.- i.I i,.J- ..:.
the dominating position of the lawyer. In a cr. ii -'..n-.,lh. thc tlI:,.
Congress is a convention of lawyers. Practical!, tlh. : inir. rI:'r.:rii;It a..
from the professional service is drawn from thi, .-iir-: c.lup I-.l i r.. iri.
In this respect the Senate and the House of R'.rL.-LI.ntlalt;. ..:- ;h,.,. .lrm.-t
no difference. The actual percentages for the-ie t"..:. I,:...i;:; :ir ..:, : 1i..I
62.5, respectively. These facts are in complex; .I.... ,I .rth the 6n. ng-
of the present investigation. The more important and influential the
board, the greater is the representation of lawyers. That the power of this
group should find its point of culmination in the halls of Congress is to be
expected. Apparently the profession of law holds with a strong hand the
political institutions of the nation.
The outstanding conclusion to be drawn from this study of the occupa-
tions of the members of boards of education is that the control of educa-
tion and the formulation of educational policy are intrusted very largely
to representatives of the more favored classes. To this statement excep-
tions may be made for isolated city boards here and there and for the
boards in the smaller districts and rural communities. The important
boards are dominated either by those who control the economic resources
of the country or by those who are associated rather intimately with the
economically powerful classes. In other words, the ordinary board is com-
posed, for the most part, of merchants, lawyers, bankers, manufacturers,
physicians, and persons in responsible executive positions. The present
investigation, therefore, supports the findings of the few earlier and less
comprehensive studies that have been made. Consideration of the social
significance of these facts will be reserved for the final chapter.

According to an ancient tradition, parents rather than chlJk-i Ipr-
sons and parents having children in the public schools rather rh. ., ..i r.n
having children elsewhere should be chosen for membership ...r, I...,i r-I I..1
education. In Norway the education law definitely stipulai,:4 "tl.it .t
least one-half of the members on the school board must be pari. .i h.I ing


c:lilrc,!,i in i.:!i.,.l i"t t'c tii'. L L their term on the board."' Lying back
-4 i hi t r i.:loi.:.n irppareniI.' i- the thought that only persons who have
Ih.i :hill.Jri:n r I'".- th i..1.1. ri. i:e necessary to guide the public instruc-
., ,,i i -, i;. '.i: [rl!:n. iltrc i' the second assumption that the parent
..li.. h- .hililr, rI hn n iil..li: s'cIool at the time he serves makes a better
[ I..- MI. I d il. ir i l-h.n .: ; -.n .-,: .,1:l:a- this relationship with the school. The
-pr:-,.n,.: ...1 his .*' n :hliljl.rn iii the school is assumed to influence the
l..,..ir nmi m-i i:r I.- mIn 'ntli.ii -.ilal interest in the work of the school.
I[I.. t.. .ri]n IIn.-L. ,r.-:.luviti ..i .ar. we have no means of knowing. If they
are sound, one would be justified in contending that they should apply
to teachers as well as to board members.
Somewhat meager data on this question were secured for the members
of the county and city boards of education. For the district boards the


County Boards City Boards
Members having children in the public schools........... 60 53
Members not having children in the public schools...... 40 47
Total..................... ..................... oo ioo
Number of members ............................ 291 2,871

data could not be obtained without great difficulty, and for the state and
the university boards they would hardly be significant. A summary of
the findings is presented in Table XXXVI. An examination of this table
shows that in both the cities and the counties more than one-half of the
board members have children attending the public schools. The percent-
age is somewhat higher for the county boards than for the city boards.
For example, of the members of the former, 60 per cent are reported as
having children in the public schools, whereas for the members of the
latter the corresponding percentage is 53. This difference perhaps can be
accounted for in terms of birth statistics. The fact is well known that the
birth-rate is somewhat higher today in the rural community than in the
urban community. Among the farmers the birth-rate is particularly high;
and 44 per cent of the male members of these county boards are farmers.

I Gabriel Loftfield, "Teachers in Norway as Members of School Boards," School
.* .. Society, XXI (April II, 1925), 441.

76 SOCIAL CO'MlP'OSI TI N '"' I' i p, .: 1 ili Ei.DUCATl ['N

Yet that other factors ma\, I:e I. it .r: ;.r i i- -ti I., tlrh :. r si. f the
data from the cities.
There seems to be a rel.ti..l I. .t..t: tendency to select as mc(n-i .ri -f the .:.ir.l I :f ei-Ju'.itti:n i.i:r-.it-i h..,l
have children in the public: s:hl: .\n : .I rnintLi..n ..f Tlahle XXXVII
shows this to be true. Thu,., in the lma:llerz .-:itiez: Li I:' ri:rctii. i..1 ,I I.i,-
bers having children in the s;:h:..:.l i- r.4. In th:.-i. I. .n,,I'ii.,iiti the repre-
sentation of parents is e.irn hi,hrr I.tan it ih. c,:rOu..i : .\t th:h .th:r
extreme are the cities of n,:.r1 th n i-*,.::*:* ir, lha it iin, liti ., FercerIt:..i'-
of 41. As a general rule, thr -Ir ..\ .:.i i: ar.nti.- ..rr the I,..Mrl .ic lin:-
with the increase in the si-- ..'l tht .it. I e ir .:': i..n t t! ge rcril'.:-
PROPORTION OF MEMBERS **r I'i i. L f ... i I[,. NTi.:, H-F'.i. 'I!'. i i.,r iL':
IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLs--C'ilii: Cti ii ._ \ ..i. i!. r.:. r'.: ii. I.-**
(F A.,. G l. i i i i F ii . r- I

Members having children in lti
public schools............ r.4 4 4
Members not having children ;r,
the public schools.......... .. : : :,.i 4-
T otal ............... .:.:. . :.:. i .:.: ::
Number of members.. 4.' 4. ::4 .'- 1 : -

tion is found in cities of imterii..Jia.. :I:. In .i..nmuni11tieZ c:f It th. in
Io,ooo inhabitants and in .. imn nitiesi : .: ii or,- lhii har .::.,.: inh.aita.4t-,
the relation seem s to be pril..n..,.i.i : -,, ILu t l.t.. ii ee l. i..-,: limits the
differences in size of city .irp.iren.li Ia.. n... g nii.iritni. IL..c..:r, th.t
there is a negative relaticn : t. 'cn I -i i r-ni.i reprires nr t'ii[:i :n :1 h.. I.:..i: rJ
and the population of the .:iI. c:.': harJ.l, t.c .le :ti..ne.l.
The explanation of this r tl.tii:i :t .ilt..g.-:th, r k..t.ir. .\ 1..ii.i:iIl.
explanation can, of course, I.... eiily, in'.riitc., l.1, %.ht.ler S:uih flu
explanation is genuine or n.:ri, :ie :.itiit :.i H. ,.. :r, hi:r is an
explanation which has the ul.,l ...rt .. ..thcr ,li.lings :i tli Zl.,.J',. Ii .,'.oi.ul
be in harmony with those lii-liL ,. in.-i tz:- it.ii ihat in thhI. -rI.allcr ,.itic- ti.i
more intimate personal data ri..'Iarllh e tl .:'1n.l.. ,:.- r l.ix:,rJ n :rli l..r-
ship are known to, and are 'cinsiJieri: I,., thi: ..-t.,r t'. In the Ir:er
cities facts of this charact-.r V ri. nim u h s- Iit elI l :. i li i:..n t,.. tI : '...i t :.rs.


I h.i.,. p..-:il.',I in th.: sn'.ill .: immunity the parental relationship of the
ia:.Ln.:1.:llil: i a f'.l':t1. in Ili- choice of members because it falls within the
rang.. ._i .:..nmni:rnr kr,:..'. 1.,..:. whereas in the large cities such a fact would
1.I rrIlat..'y l .n.n r.-, ti h electorate. In the great urban center the
I.nr.... I...l .chkih ith. .:.m rin:ir voter obtains regarding any candidate for
i.'.ili': .*ilL- ra:l:h-: lir.i, indirectly through imperfect news-gathering
g.-Ficri:. an.i '.iari..'ui: dlnn,.l of propaganda. Such knowledge is seldom
of :i ..lIr-t in.!l r;r.-.nal! .:liracter. The voter sees the candidate only
fr:.n, a di itn.ir.. and thr.iugh the medium of spectacles which present
ilL:h iL-d an.l .i is li-rle.r i i,:- ..,1 the object of vision.

I'i.i .. i.n.,.t- --_i'! !: I.' .i- IFIED ACCORDING TO GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISION

East West DIVI-
: middlee South North Nesth South este SlONS
i ..- il antic Atlantic central Centr Central
'. l r:, Ce L- ,:!..JrCentral

,., h,. ..bl,..: l ,.......l i 51 53 51 68 68 59 53
.[ ri ,,L.-r : ,,.., h .r ,= .-, .hi -
dren in the public schools 59 49 47 49 32 32 41 47
Total ............ 00o oo 100 Too oo I TOO 100 0oo
Numberofmembers 553 653 176 714 316 251 208 2,871

anotherr explanation is found in the relative conservatism of the
I mi II: r community. Our civilization is being transformed in the city. The
I ri.]ltion that the school-board member should have children in the pub-
lii. m. hool, if there has been such a tradition, is a part of the rural heritage.
\\ ith the development of the complex industrial city, with its varied and
c.-inflcting interests and groups, new issues arise and new factors appear
.:.n Lh::' scene. As a consequence, the criteria for the selection of board
Ilnmlers change. In this new situation the question of parenthood as a
. uL ililication for membership seems unreal and smacks of sentimentalism.
For the city electorate other questions move into the focus of attention.
Among the several geographical divisions also there are some rather
striking differences in the representation of parents on school boards.
Ili.-ie differences are reported in Table XXXVIII. The reader will ob-
r.r' : that New England is at the foot of the series. In the cities reporting
fr.:.m this area only 41 per cent of the school-board members have children


attending the public s:l..I...!~ T li..Jk- .\tlinitic ;tiateis in.J i. LEjt
N orth Central states I..I.... it! a i'er ,: nt. e ...I \\ ith a ,:I-.ri,:s-p...i.J-
ing figure of 53, the S..i.tih .Atl: t,,. t at..l.s iall in .' [.r:ti ll:.!',- ti .. sjrri.
category. Then con-.. tlr \\.strn i.it.c with i a i rc,.-ltagr .:. ;,,..
Finally, at the top c tlie Irki ari. th'. \\I- t Nirth Ciiintrl tit.. a:i'l
the South Central state. il.h 1a per:cet.i1L. .I ,..S. L:,.tr ...i n ith I N,,.. E[wA -
land states on the on.. hian] .tiii th.i .tat.i s ;ii (ii l.lst i t... J;. ,_i...n ..n tle
other, there is indeed :I '..;id r.!i .e.
As in the case of tlii. i:tk. ,, th,- euvirl:ai, ti:.ij hI .r. l s :1. in: i~ i i. n le ir.
On the surface, there s l-Ce t i ..z I. '.,-.. rclatl, .n I. l, rt.eei i i re..:ti...n .:.i th.-
comm unity to this qur iti.:.n in.: thli e-:.ielit ...I li.Ju.-tr aliT-' i...n Ii il.
more highly industriali:x. ar.rca tlhe r.[.ri.'.rntatl..nLi .4 [-.il.arL t ..i thl
board is much lower than it i4 inr thl.:.ie Ji. i ..i: .:. t c..intr'- thi. t li.
clung to the rural cixili.ati...ii C('rtair, it i haur mi tie cr.at agrictiltura.
areas, in those section, it .i !Ia: !'. .t l'.i. n gr.a tl\ itIruerric ,d I, in-iir' Lra-
tion and the developinlm,. t ,..i ir-lili,: ri:.- thl-r p:lr-: ist a .tr L.. tenr.:l :i,
to elect as m embers (.of ~i '.-h :. I ..ar.. [ni .r _..n i I- tie ci.-r oiiin .I it. It. h itCr
children attending tic r il'!: c: h.:.I. .\:p :irriitl., withl tl-i a.:l' .,iii.:. ...
the newer industrial ,:n.r., ti, tHa.liti.i. A.,:t erhi.

T IiE T 'i [ D- i L r i iI i. ri.h i ii ,
Let us assum e n.\, that ith. t i. i- a i:.l .-\Ir> iii cllh......l L iar- l ,i I-:,
described in term s of ith: l.Jiliji., ', .ra ..r crii.r.l[ t-i.idJ .i ji: -
sented in the forego:ilr [,age.. Tlt.it this ] ..... a cL.rtjin 'vi..Ie e n,: .:, th.
facts in some instance i aiiIJ ,...rtrai. .: h. .. .I. .i rd t ; .J.:.Irn fl...in in
the flesh, the writer is prel-,r,:-r J t,.., .J'it. tY.. met hn.-.. wi i ... ii....
to the reader a fairly r- !i.1.h i I . iurc Ih 'i in I raI! ituati.in iand ll ..it
the same time, focu i attdI ni..n '..ni li. ITi'n:.r i.lir,.laineiiil l.a.t.rs aiiI.
tendencies. A t the v:r'.- l,:i; .. it .. iII rsr: t ..i l .. .. I I t[I. !!'.,lre ir i' il'ti: il
findings of this invest t ,i r. -r in a i...rr, ., l. i,.i:n:t .in.J j ...It .ii that the't
may be easily graspe :arli ui!i. :rst......
As the reader kn.. th ,]. it: *e':urd f.:.r :-rti;n i...:.1 r. .. mii :iii
more comprehensive i t.l. t' i ata i.ur- i ...r ...tlIe inr.:,l. 1 ...' I.,ta -r
was the inform ation eiathl. r, l -i li- l :istri:t I.l..,iar tll it ni.. itt.:r [ai t '.,il!
be made to describe 'hil I.-...ar. in -, ts t..j'l.i l i M..lr .All e k[.:.i: J tih t it
is ordinarily com pos .I .:.i thr.- ni :i,,i ers .1li. that th'..,i tlir,.-. Irnnl il.er
follow the occupatio:i .A (i 'rnung. I i.r. ...rt.n hIe ,:.. l. ,:l t .-ns. ...
the data at hand each ...I th. r l Lr i-...,irl .- .. ill n..-.. i c- .le;,:rihc, ,i.:-
cording to the method -_i;..:.t !. F.r thi; ,l is,:rirti,:.i :1 siglI: ii ii,'rai[h
will be adequate.
The typical couri.\ l.,...ar.l .I :dtciiat. ii.n ii ilnth liliit'J tat. is cB...-'i-


[,:,.i:J ,if -\ ienil.er?. Tlie; le ni.elers are elected by the people for a
t-i rin ..I' f ...r ..ir.. irin: .t i lth: -i: members is a woman, who follows the
,:*.:iju,.tii:.n ,:, ii..u:- ..ife. O tihe fI'.e men, three are farmers; one is a
ilir.rth:int, r l and : ; ..i p[hi,...n. Four of the members have children
.-lI.tncing Ite ipul.'lc :chI..:,l I. l.i1 thI :'iiunty. From the standpoint of formal
etu_.-.lu in. thi-, r: rltt:[ .- I. l t lxi .. ,-rably the attainments of the citizens
:,i tle :..nii.nnii.ii Tihrc. I.dt ri',.mibers are products of the elementary
cl,.....I ni : ..ne Ih.; :iiiteni-:i thle secondaryy school; and two have en-
j.1':',:'l .'.'II. i ir iniLr-iL., [ii'. ilgt.-. In age, they exhibit a range of ap-
ir,:,i\ini.ttel. tlirP. ,eari-, o:r i r:nin from thirty-five to sixty-four years.
Thi r'.ri:;rIrne i, f:ui riln i i: r .!I: li-tiributed between these two extremes
it iIg[ 5 ,:e in..r.',-oi, tiei .. i. --i', ilty, and fifty-six years. In length of
..lr.ic: *.n i the- I.i.Ar, th,:v Il:.,. .,: ;.how considerable diversity. At the
.'ie e.tremrI _i i ..'.. i. v.hi... iH :r. nig his first year, while at the other is
. i ctir. .Iv. i., al .il-l gi,--.i. lice te:r n years of service to the board. The
:,il.r.; sh... .. i r c .I. .. 'l', t...i ti. .:., ltiree, five, and six years, respectively.
iOn ihl- 'vr.-le. t il-.-se nr!ilieri- .l. .te approximately forty-six hours a
i..iar l': I. .'-:r.l .li'r:. IF.r tils ..:vice they receive financial compensa-
Liiin U Lh r'ite l i t rc:- .Jl,:l r- -i di .
lihe it i',i:Cil il [,.irlI : -,l u,-,i. .n in the United States is composed of
-ti'. in i.nr.-. r. 1 n.iC i I .r .k i r Il'. ted at large for a term of three years.
In-i .i th i-n ni ii,:ll. r-, i -i .vi:.iin ,vho follows the occupation of house-
'.iiI. OILf til11 I'. ti rn, .-.n ;i ..t r-r plant; one, a lawyer; one, a physician;
.-ie., .1 I -i:nker, m-iiill L Ltliier, r..r -u i-ness executive; and one, a salesman,
L.k rk, r l-i....ic-. I hree ..if th,- i.it-bers have children attending the pub-
lit --h....Is ..1i tIle .t:.. I r*..ii tlih -tandpoint of formal education, they
I..nrililiIte. i.i, nri.f.irpri-n ith the .:ity population as a whole, a highly
-l.,..i.l r,:'up. L LBuit :.rn: ...- three members is a product of the elementary
:l i:.l. :.nl,: t ..: h.A'. e .ittnri.Jlc. thL. secondary school; and three have en-
j:i\c.l i:...ll-.r ...r uni.,errit.. p.ri', ig~i In age, they exhibit a range of
tiA'.'i.', --i.. ', iart, .:r r:ingL ir.ni thirty-seven to sixty-three years. The
rein Lulir fi',ir limemter- ire .listribl:ted between these two extremes at
thl ..ig- .i -I ...r-,., fi.ri -i.:, liift:, and fifty-four years. In length of
i i,:e ,nii lthe I:,..-Trd. the, Il:i i.;t. how considerable diversity. At the
onn. : ttrL ri, :- n i e'- ,i. h-' i =er ing his first year, while at the other is a
.leti.r \h w... h\% ilr.-l;.' gi in I'littila years of service to the board. The
. th, r< I', (n Ithe .I r.i'.et, th,-. nrnmIl.It c evote approximately fifty-one hours
a ie.ir ti. t.:'ir.l ditiet Fo:r thii :n:rvice they receive no financial com-
! h. rin in ni i .
le tl fi,:a! ist.u,. l....,i rI .,f iL.,ii. : tiion in the United States is composed


of seven members. With the exception cf1 l'.-. .....-. lii.;, rnic -lcrrc, tihI-.
are appointed by the governor for a term .f f r cir.. O,1u. .If tih. mi'rrn-
bers is a woman, who follows the occup'ti-.ii i ..I iv.li. Oi tile _i'.
men, one is the state superintendent of pul.ini: i itruictrii: ..'n i' .I i
secretary of state; one is a superintendent '.i .ch'.I I.i- .'i l ur!miritlv
president; one is a lawyer; and one is either i imr.:iiarI ..r .ar I.,Lr. Ir. Ii
the standpoint of formal education, they c...!i.ttui.ie,. In .: .-ii.ri... r.i .. 'ith
the general population of the state, a very hirli! :!I.: i.l r.' i.. N ot i,:ir
of the members is a product of the elemerilir. 'h.I:.:l : an;,i I..ut ..:in
advanced no farther than the secondary _F-cl ...... D'h.l i::; .i\> r i.:. eJ
college or university privileges. In age, tl.,, c':hil.I. i r.-,::!: .. 1 tlhirt,.-,-,n.
years, or a range from thirty-nine to sev.rni ,t. ar T he r.- ".'il1i lW e
members are distributed between these t. ,: Itr.:n- at t lic 1;- I:,f
forty-six, fifty, fifty-four, fifty-eight, and ; ,i.t -ilhrk e .'er. In ii:r:i I I
service on the board, they likewise show :.! .r..l .ral.'l. 1;:'-r.-ii r t t It i-
one extreme is a novice who is serving his nrrt i. ar, ., ilil .I tih ....ll rr i
a veteran who has already given eighteen .. .l -r ...e t:r I. iL'- l....-r:
The others show tenures of office of two, ltree. ti'.,:, :-.:. -ii dJ Iire '.c.ar'.
The typical board controlling the state .:.i ll.i: r uii',:r; r-it., in [tl
United States is composed of ten members. \\'Vh t! e Il::.::[-li...n ...l ..r.
ex-officio member, they are appointed by tlle .,- ..rn .r f.,r -L tcrmi :i i'.
years. One of the members is a woman, ,.li... ,...IlA.\L: Ith. 4.., housewife. Of the nine men, one is the ..t.pte Cui'Cri!,i.cii.:liit :f Iui..ic
instruction; three are lawyers; one is a m..rr.h.[it. .n.-. i'iil:Lr, I-..e
farmer; one, a manufacturer; and one, a pi. .-it:l ii. Fr...ir tih :i. l-..int
of formal education, they constitute, in I.'.,'ali'-io with i.he 'rr,'cnrl
population of the state, a very highly selec:-ted .-rii., B;u ...n. i 1 .L:- i.ri
is a product of the elementary school only-. arl i:.n- ;:l'..in-.:l !i:. fairt.hr
than the secondary school, while eight ha'. i: ni i.'.'l i:..t I' .:. r u.irn'. ;er:t.
privileges. In age, they exhibit a range ofi Il;rr., :, eir.;. >..r fr..,'i, i:.rt i.:.
seventy years. The remaining five member- ire l1i.trI i. t I l.ei ,.-tn tl h.Le
two extremes at the ages of forty-five, fcrt .- .i.'.i, t ill-. *...i.1. tillt -threi-.
fifty-five, fifty-eight, sixty-one, and sixty-f i U:r ;':ar;. In Ilrii h .n-i .:rc ;,-
on the board, they likewise show consideralile 'li'. trtt'. \t th,. in. ".-
treme are two members who are serving tLeir !ir' It :I' i, .[ilr, i l i- i :eti Icr
is a veteran who has already given twent. :.-:ir .if .cLr icL t tihe l.... ar.l.
The others show tenures of office of two, tlirei, i'...r. !It. ,i:. ii'.e. it, !!i
fifteen years, respectively. On the average, the:-. ri-,irl.'i...rs 'I-c'..,te .i-
proximately fifty-one hours a year to board .Jlit-s. Ari.- fr'..m tralr.eliig
expenses, they receive no financial compeir.atio..n it.r thii. ir. io.


I1i.-i. l.-:.cri.[ti lt.Cti.rrn.nlt.. show that the American people have
I..I!:, e.l n,.. :in;gl!e ..tt.-rii. ill tih dJ.:velopment of those boards through
vhi.:h thl.. .I. iL p...-i.. t... c:.i[rrci their will on educational matters. In
I.,ri;As .:of :orc !a:tionili .J mit h'itJ i..'E procedure, these boards show great
,li. ..rt.[. I'r..i .Ih. .I ar ieajrnri-n, from the various experiences, this
i.lA.ui0,il iz :1 Ilt 1 l...i: I...r l.liittions rather than otherwise. W ith re-
[.I '.: t. Ihr ...c:l I:.,mi ""-' i.. ., f I .particular board of education, a some-
'. hat .ll riit sitii atii..an is fi.r..lnrl.. .\i certain points here the study reveals
a rii.r.:'rniari. ri ..ir h,. .-ir.! 4 .. various interests and groups. In the case
.." a,,., f'.'r ...iimi].'It, thI *..r'] l:ri I., lard is drawn from a fairly wide range.
r.1I.hI lhe .i:,.Iii;gecr iand.l i: Ili r m,-inbers of the mature generation are
rl[.r t.i.r nt:.. \\';h !i.-icl t... s.:.:. I.lucation, and occupation, the board
h:... a t -J i .. : ..: I., 1.rr,:i!', .lective. It is composed, for the most
Ipit, -...f I.ll .-l aln I ,ilc-t nrico who occupy favored positions in
i..i,: :t.. Th. ,J:.mirianrit :lai's ii .... r society dominate the board of edu-
catj.In. Ih.: : [ ..:il .i.I :.,lIj.:aii..aii j significance of this fact will be con-
sIJk r>..l in th. [ f.illt i g l ,: hati[.t r.


i f I.i.1' i I:1.IL i)F Lbl_; \ r i ON
T his finr.i! -.cipier ..ill i., ,li:. .t...i t.. ..... r i er.,ti,-,r. i lbh I. aLin .
of the present in -.:igaiti .n. ,n . trhe i' i.. 11. .iin iilt.i t" e, l .:.i ti. t-i l
problem s- ihe .r.,ilI ,. r .:..itr-l. 1 h,. ni tur'- ..I ti h, s h:l,,., I m ul t in-
evitably refkL,.t th.. t.i a.. th.t ... t r.:l it. .\A f...iuni in ...m .,t ri:, hiih.r
than its sour>,:,, -in a i:i i.t. ii i i.imi -ii ,,r. ', I .... .. mi, t.e l I .
exhibit a qu !it\ hil, I i 1. In-el ..i the a i.,m ,-n1 i...i,,| ill ,, th .:i. h.,.
fashion its l.,.tlar;ir .5. IlI.n .<, .ilcih r lie .!i .]. thi.....Lir r 'ir lltig
the nature, *.,, ; -r, lr, in l e el.:, -,:,. 4., i iu.. ti.r.n trr r' er i.: rI, I!;L,.,1
depends in ii. ;niin .l m ..a -urr .,n ilthe e iti.l.ltin,. rtal t..nri .ii..,ninc i tili-
ences. N o t,.i >,tiin.1! lth...-r. i. Lsz f .uit in 1 s,., .1!.-l .a,,,,m it it ;4 t..
assume e the li. -,n i..rm it n, ii i l !. I itg ;n. _.. .. ....i-l ,I, ir.:. ir n,-nit.
This enviro iin.t.rt rtaiiri- th.. a t.. i l l- i.. i trrr it a .i' l th,-,s. hi,.li
quicken its ,r... tl (. trinl ., rni:h ..I i th uil ', hult i. I i':h.rattr-
ized educati. .iial th uihl i..,: |h, in, ..' rl.... I,..n ti th, r i ei_:nc i
traceable dire,:t'. t:- its I liur.. t.' 1.. Jr di .. -in .. .. he h. .. his l tii i
is traceable n..t t.. thr i ir, j ..in lic ..I itS .l....: itr I.r l.ut r.Itlir i., i: ir.-
hospitable rc:TI.ii...n iat i.. hin.l; ..f ti: f,,r,:-:e c. .tr.ili;ng .ii.at .n.
M moreover, i ltt II .r lt llt iit i ] LCI. 'i t- i. il .t i it- [A I .'liin:li
the school ,. n.t,.,n_, th.r- i little i r .-. .,i r i-: .ii,. rig ti hit [hpic tni
scientific atuitL .in .Iljni t.i .' iill iit I..- ,*-iiia l'. ;t ;rile. Oil., a: th..
conditioning a.,_n fi. i dr-i fr.-'- ire it'.,l t i t.. Sti[ ... t .I .1 lIi:I .ln.-
creative typ. : : l ciL at .n ill1 the h. ,,i I r Ie .r c l.le n .l ...nit,..
contributior,- rt i tr.i i he reci,:Li ilrtl.n.t th.. ini.b i. ti.-il ..r ti i r,: .i- iri : -
tion of sock i. .
W hat ligl ,.1i : the i.i t: i : .r:z t.. in thi. f. .i r, C .,1 th r.:.i .n tli.
question of t ,. _.,.ii al ...n r. .l .,f e.-in ,iii.:.i' H ...'. %%..[I .- i] ililh l .ai i lihe
m em bers of it : .\', rci. ri i l....i i iii .li-i rce th \ t r, l :-.i' ',
responsibili',_s ,h ,.-h ..li,_. ,hi.,:,: .,i th,_ni? 1 Ii. -itm ,, ti.t.
for the most parti, ti.,> atL .ir ,:r. m the .i .r, .1 ,..r:.- ec.:.r..:. i ri
social classes. 'h,. are .i-.,, ,r: i.h.. ha. i. ,.. t ,n'.-' ,i |....-
tional advantac.. S. 1. th,. g, r.i li t i.,.ns, e:, i.ii. .nr i.:.ul.J 1.] I i il.
in varying -.. r ,: t.:.r I l.- tri:L i .iI .... ir., t .. ...unt, I..-, 1 ari l [h,-
board in th,. :r |all,.r i.t .in ...,_, nin t,. H t{.,,e\er, l.,r th,: l....,ir. ,.,1... ar
great indusinr -il ,:tiirz. I.:.r tih l.,.,art. tli t ,t. t. i th ,. ,.. '.. l


.. .!_ 4 ..-i, ,ir -. iIt: ., .1nd fi.. t ",h: i.tri. that control our state colleges and
iiI, ert-:i i t ':-i. L I..'' 'r.111 I : i .:.i r,-,: i rl c little qualification. The persons
Sh al l.: i. n*n tIr rni,: ml.i:r-,hip 'n i h. n-ire powerful boards of education
.tri- th.l:-' h!.. Ii. aill '.l.'.k- .:r :i e :c "dary schools and colleges and
'..-i..'i. I h I. i i.il :.1 ii .s 't.ii. i. in -..L.iy. The occupations which they
nr,..-. lr :I..ti' ti.. r, r''i i .it th,:.,:i ..1i the merchant, the lawyer, the
I',,nl:t IIi tk r'iImuIIlr i-, .ii. the i;-.;ician. From the ranks of the less
I1 ,,,r,'r.I ,:l.-->',' r ir; il n-,,-1|, r' ,r,- ,'.c:-. rll
\\I':ht i, i h~., ih ri.:.Al signir i..tnc ,if this condition? Do these facts
l.i. r .i-. rel tii. I,.. thii' flinid. i ni'ii tal I:,r..il. em of the control of the school?
1 i.it th. Lh [ri- il. C i-.:. r.1 nil cr-hip r.'vn from precisely those elements
i1 th. .-: ,.il>atl...I:. :-' I1.'il i l: I..'. rnit..rc, training, and opportunity to
,,rniiih Irii.lr lli;,-rt .,.4,: l I,'d, .d ir-r. I)r.l inarily, the board member is a
i-i.t-n r.'h, hha 1i.c.i-. iJ in th1 ...'ripi ition for those rewards which our
...:it recr.l-I '. 1 i H Ili- re:,- .ed the benefits which flow from
iinriuiiil ,1, 1i.:n.il j.1'.diri.t-',.I, Ii. i' been ambitious; he has acquired
i.-.i'-er t I, hPi. . .,., il .itJ '.i....']..i ic standing; he has exercised au-
ii ril t.- i .1 '..r.I a.:,ii:.. Iiri, l ', c:uirrnrt standards, he is a success. His
p I.r-.akl ....ni ".Icrn.' is l... ..rd 'iii ...n. Surely, with citizens of this
t I'" i- it--i -i, iter, i ..i it ..: il, o -Ai to be unusually well constituted
tL. -c '., l I: t: irirt:r :- *., --...-f c I .
\\ ith ihb- ii-., ii iiin ,I -..'ir r... I i i'.-rous and thoughtful students of
; ,:,,,,:, [-|ri, ',- i itc in *h:,rI l.II I-ied, dissenting voices from within
Ihe i. .ri --i' 1 n .r i.: ,1, ,rn h..-JI. (Qu.i.ti ins from two outstanding figures
iii i.h;- rle-l, ,.l,: hae.- I, ,-rI i-' i ion I,, ..n the development of education-
.l ih. .r, 'J.iiir;u rh-,c [-r,.-prcit eL'iti. 'rattui. will suffice to represent this pre-
S. ._ ,[uiu n..,. \\'riti' Iii I..:.4. I-'haii:llor issued a pronouncement on
thcr ,' r.urI! il.,ti, it.i.. ..f h .:ird rnIrnbers so unequivocal and cate-
:.'..ri tal. a .ri ; ii liil ...... ri. rn.ii.', that ii has scarcely been challenged by
*iil'-l.ep ei' r w'riirs-. .tA-:cor-:rili i.: liii l. .he following classes of persons
Im 1 l'I. 1 .[:t. I ..'- tl. 1 .ij4 I .. 2 1 board members:
1:i .l'i t.i ru,.l s :.ii ..,i ...,.l .. Ir iii with bodies of men and with im-
i**r .it hel: ;: Ir.i r' .: i ii ', l. llit l I Ire amounts of money and of prop-
r '.' niiI :,r'-- n,.. irLlir. ri I I..Ir.I ,:.i..: nd at the totals of annual appro-
i.I I ...r.' ih. I. n.... ii, ,t I h..i,,lr .l th'..i i nd dollars can be spent as honestly
i r n I.:. r r
". M I. I. ri t_, -. .I tri;:r.t.r, haiuil.r :i i .1 other men of large affairs. A board
'.1l c..li .r.i.;I '' .i'iiiu r .1 I'hi i, :i .. aril .!.I! *.ith the business side of education.
.. i'l :i..i !ii. ii ir -ii.,.. --I' ii I ..:. They are too busy to worry over
.-I. l ,i r.. .I1 i .- i Ir...l..I:i.. .I (.,-. ....[- l .-.i i'i ll affairs. At the sam e tim e, their
tiritr._-i ii h'-,' ii I, i t 'it ri 1ra ii .i.Iile. Their success evidences a sound,


natural judgment, and their wide knowledge ..i !Ii, t[.I lI: ..... I..- .:. .c.iii:,i..n
4. College graduates in any walk in life i h... .ir. imn:i:it--ul iiin tiir ....r
affairs remember what education has done for th-en Th... u;:ia!l. uirII.r:tl r..l
the rights of children and adults to the inherit -m,:. *.-i ti,. rai.- ;ri !;I.:r ii'ir.:,
art, industry, as well as in the three R's. W :1.i, hi.. L .r, .u-h .r .li.t..' dI.:
not properly appreciate culture, they are pect ld rl .. l ic.r. .. r. : th.: .:-Ju::
tional welfare of the community.'
On the other hand, Chancellor contende- l rthr lthe fi:,ll.....iii '::li -1 .: ..i
persons seldom furnish valuable board me:il..-r:.
i. Inexperienced young men, whatever bc i!ei;r c lil,'
2. Unsuccessful men.
3. Old men retired from business.
4. Politicians.
5. Newspaper men.
6. Uneducated and unlearned men.
7. Men in subordinate business positions.
8. Women.2

These views of Chancellor have appai-rntl., r,_:(e.'-..l biu. litl.
criticism. Twelve years later Cubberley, wring li.ht h.as p[..el r' l I.
the most widely read and influential book (c! ::Ih....I -iliiiis trat;.,'i !.f i.i.,r
generation, borrowed directly from his pre .'c,-s...r Ii, I.J li -tt-.l
views as follows:
To render such intelligent service to the sc h:. :.1 ..t i-Of :i :i t. a h;a l I-....
indicated requires the selection of a peculiar t..i .- l:itl .i i,,r ,:l i. I--l,..ir.l
member. In many respects it calls for a higher iial i,-.r itiil Il-,.iii 1..i: .:.I
community service than is called for in any oth, r 1,r iniih I..i iiii--. I .r. Kl .:.. .-
membering that it is the function of a school t,.:.,arl t.:. s:-let e-i .-.e i theil
executive work, and to govern by deciding up..--r tlh.: ij:..r imatit:r- r ..I Fp,.. ,.
expansion, and expenditure, and not to admw;it,:r, ;I iili.' .I.i i, it .....
system under their control, we can deduce the I.. [.,- i.i t-i i...: !Ik.I. l ..,. i-ri... t.
useful as a member of a city board for school :.:-it r. :.
M\en who are successful in the handling -:i.1 rcL bu.;n-: uilI:rt.l.ini--
manufacturers, merchants, bankers, contractor:, a-li -r.r-f!':: i'.,;l it.. i ..,I l rge
practice-would perhaps come first. Such mI.., ir.. i-. :u.n,...I tL.. I,!lliiig
business rapidly; are usually wide awake, san .in-1 Ir.r..gr .- . Ir. ri...I .Ii r.
to spend money intelligently; are in the habit ..I ..l.i.I.:n.ln;- ii'.:.rn : [.p:rt I.:.r
advice, and for the execution of administrative d:t.,ii, a.'inl ha.c th.: .L:t .iI .
S'W illiam Estabrook Chancellor, Our Schools T... I.,.- .'..,: ;.. ., '. -
vision, pp. 12-13. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co., ig'i |Ir' ri.J.
2 Ibid., p. 13.

TiHE Ci'NT' 1[. 'F -IDUC.\T[I oN

pic: : '. ir r ,' n..:c I t.:. L'Ci tl r,. ni.:'.t et'l.:i-rnt ; cr' ,,:te .:.it of everybody from
tih -,up.erintritra d .it J. .. S: m:nl i t.i .:, thiiik .:.r themselves, can resist
p[re'iurc :,iriJ ,:.,ii : '..l nii th.. r.: i-.n- (f.r thii r [,:ti.ii-. College graduates who
irr. ..:':c- iul ii tlinir lJu-ii : ..i r pr.. :-.i r.jal ilT,;r.-,. atever m ay be their
Ir..ILt i .. I r r c:,.uj. li n .. i -. ... u' r u ll.' ,rr I 1 iI.. . 1 l..r.l] i:m bers, provided their
, 1111: Iti. n h-. I. c,.. Il li;.iL ,:r.lugh .I 1.. I.. IIh: t h.rn tn uI ri..lerstand properly the
C lU rI L r .d Id -h Al.,I,, ,.,.u ,ti,,n
'.ini th: ..th tr h in.I. th,. 1;. t .:.f th..ic h.:. sIu.ll., .1.:. iot m ake good school-
I.,riJ ITtmbnerr i: niu.:h I l.r:r I:.lpcririi:c.,J ,.u!; ,in..n, unsuccessful men,
*:.ld ii.n I i. h.:, .'. ri tlird irl i l i. t -; ..-, I .,l;Ith:; ]in:, iI .. r-keepers, uneducated
.:.r rrl.i l isr. r ron t rn.il. it rnin...r I.u-in,.-:- i..L-;Ltons, and women, are
i-uiull., ..i-ii. Ir- ,l I: urh. il, L ...r 1 ir, n ..ml:r:hi[. All such persons tend
I.1 ..! [1.ii niut:h ith .i.. d.i t, i ... : the Irlip[..: rt -in:' .:.i large points of view ,
ir'.l, tn,.l tI. .:-iurn. .. .c iti. uth..rit. '1en jr. I. hr,: they should not. Per-
1ii ': till n,,.-.r: .: :j,.i:ti;:.ni bl. th.'an '. -I thll c ..ri: pit'lp.I of any class or either
: .. '.. h.:. *l- ir, tl. rid..- iii .li -:tic., l i .l l .r tii,-c -.h o wish to get on the
I,:l...,l [L..ird t.. r,:'. ..-iu it :.. thin : I1'. C:r il. ith. lh .. ., -rider, or the extreme -
1it -li'.ul.l l.'. Lr 1, I.- u .-, .. I. iri- '1 .',If .i-I.. \\h it i, wanted is a sane, an
: .,.'d I,.il.ii :.: i, In,. r n ll-.ar.:.in.. .i.!,i, li; 'tr.l i.:.n .. t h.: schools, leaving the
.l:t i1: ..t 1.lri'nrlitr.t;.:-n t,. th. :,-. h,1 C- n h.0 .ll_ I l i. -i .-l .2st.i
If th,: vii,.. 4 th- l:-i-; tl.,' nt: r .ir .r a a,. lt'1 as sound, the present
tii' rii'.:'r, ..ilt regard t:. i.:..ir. nnil:.r-r li I..a' .' little to be desired. To
a .'. r', rg\ : i,: L'r:: tl','-:i t' .-It'.n c ih.-. I haLctell,'-.r aind Cubberley regard
a vell :i.ihi ei..eJ l...r this It, pi ..f ..r' ic. ci-.ntr I ..ur boards of education
'-.l3 T he-. ,-.mli_. i..iil.Il th ri! f.:.ti:r e lpi p,: r t.:. h, properly constituted
.r ithl: Lci'.riit Jischar..ri. 'If lth. ir 'i.fn:Ct;in lrni I. rtain other quarters,
hl-ir.'.e r t'r.:ii. i.:. ,r- : l hih, I'.:.r lit e i.:.i part, lie ..utside the profession
*..I" v uci- ti..i, ,r, .. trai r .ini ..n .. r .. c i.ir ll', ..1- anced. Particularly
fr..nll i thi r,.iil.: .:[ .:.r'ealr :-:<.I ,.l:i.r are ]i..,IIbt: tlh t ill is well on boards of
:I.!i:.t i.at,'.i ':ii: Ir :.'r-:'..:'.i T h1 : '.. II..-. iri t..it i. ni:nt from the official
.r't i. ,i i-iini,.r lI'::'r *..rg ni.:.ii i... r,.;v'.i l a dJi:trust of capitalistic influ-
i:tf:. In [hr : 'n r,,l *',f e, Ijlu 'Lri
OIut ''I' i\t t- :'. t:: ,hi h a.. rrpli;Jd t:i quii: tionnaire addressed to
i..liic :.:.4 :itr :I 4:...: .:..: ..r 'r,:atr p.-.pilitii.n L.., til New York Teachers'
U ,ni- .ii .11i .ii ii.h I ': 1i I. ..' Il r r.lr. .-rC it ..s o. I.s on their boards of
.. : ti.' i. ,r ,. i-I.r th t. .... i -t i: r. ,i i m measure at least safe-
i'ri ir ..i. In th.. r:n iLritn lit ti ,: .:, th.: l entire t..ii:., ...: ..f education are m ade
utp :' *: p' : rtir 1 -i ,: pit |l :ni S -
In ius:, h. n r.rgjanii-,:' I... r ..s lsl.. iig 1r i.nsiderable interest in
I' ll. :,:.I P. CuL.L. rl- .., i',''. S'. .l.j ..,.., ,',.. *,. pp. 124-25. Boston:
S[ll ,.: ht,.r, .M .tIth r. .L" i,, l ,.
S '. titi.: H. I..l...:.r .:.i n ....ar.I ... E!LZ,..ii..i..," I/, gear W orker, IV (No-
* U:TiL r : i, i .j .


the organization of its own schools and colli-,c the .r,-.. rig. iii EI. I r.l itiri
of Labor in an interesting statement summ.l ritr iLt- it in r .1 ..ill i ti.:. i .LI
policies issued a pronouncement on the sigi'i!: -inc' 4 i I I,,,r r i.r.'-. i, i-
tion on boards of education. The relation I.,i. .., :r i-u>.h r.ri-r r i' Hr ti.t
and the movement for labor education was inli.-alr. I -i- 1..11.-.'- :
To summarize its general conclusions, your, i.iwriII,:.. r..... n.iii..r.. thi it
central labor bodies, through securing represer.i li., ii ., I.....,r.!i -! I.:l,:t.:n.
and through the presentation of a popular dei,.,Ir! i..r ;. rI .1-... I tI.[,i ...r
adult education, make every effort to obtain Ir...ni th.. pil.... ........: i;.. rail
conducted classes in English, public speaking, i1rli.anrtrt.r. I ..... ,;,.
industrial legislation, history of industry, an(! ...It' l: i tri it -: iii... ii t... .' 1 r,
and any other subjects that may be request..I L. i :. '-li wi niu .r. -is. l
classes to be offered at times and places whic- .. ..i. I nI. Il:,. i.r .'uil it.I.. tI..,
workers. If the public school system does not sh.. .lII,, t .........., r l.: ,i
offering appropriate courses and type of instri.:tl...rh. th,: .:..n tt I I il..r I...1'.
should organize such classes with as much co-o.pi..r Ll-..i Ir-...!i tr i.t-.I.: :.. .1I-
as may be obtained.,
In the latter part of this pronouncements Fi iii-,.; Uti, li m:,i,: ih.ii
organized labor might find it necessary to ~.t -l.i-h -.hh.,..l: .irIl .:l~:>.
of its own for the purpose of teaching ceri aii ..lI ti,: -... iiil ,iir.- ItI
view of the fact that the laboring classes c.:.nitrilii.i-l I .:li, tI... h. it -
cessful issue of the Nineteenth-Century -i.ri-.''l. I .r ir,.,: s!:!,,:.i t.hil
attitude of suspicion toward the public scl,.,:,- i I: ,llf i. iim.,ir .\p-
parently, they are beginning to distrust th, .,r, ir -tr;t iii., ..rI!-h hc_,
helped to create. They are beginning to f'.ar lh.i. tl i.>:n:: thr..u'lt
which they aspired to freedom may become i .'-i"ni ti.' ..1 'i.-ii'-i
them or an instrument whereby some rulin-_ a:i n,.. -I I, :. I, ,, [Ith. in
in bondage. This lack of confidence in the p ilik -I .i I. i th,[i i r...triJ 1.1 .I
it is under the control of the great capitali--tl: :ni n'l >l,!...., ir,' i tilr--t- i-
further revealed by the utterances of varioi- ] I.altr: .I, .r rii-ii .l .I.,r
James H. Maurer, president of the Penr.; I nia 'ut.i. 1". ,:i|rri',.., ,I
Labor and one of the leaders in the orgaril-.it..n :nI.l tll rl'l in,1 '.iii. *.
labor schools and colleges, has expressed thl .I-i: rt i t i. h I i.:i ir [...V r
in the following statement.
It is exceptional to find an opportunity ir, th, ,.st ll-hl,.-i .;F,...l- I.,r Ir...
and open discussion of the social and economic ii .:st....AIi it F r.: i :.r .1 t itl i. r. -i
to workingmen .....
In one Pennsylvania city, where we askc.I l...r th.: i. ... I i '1 l_.h.:--:h....,I
room for one of our labor education classes, ... '..r.. !.*.,! i s (t il.: I,.-r., l ...I
education would gladly give us the use of a root I.r..'.' J'..I ': .-,i11 ....'i. i-t 11[:
SEducation for All, p. 2t. W ashington: Amer.. in I'm -l,.ri; .. L.il....r i.,:.

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