Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The aims of public schools recognize...
 Research has implications related...
 Children are guided to develop...
 The school organizes and administers...
 Schools provide evaluation in moral-spiritual...
 Back Cover

Title: Developing moral-spiritual values in the schools;
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098578/00001
 Material Information
Title: Developing moral-spiritual values in the schools; a teacher's guide
Physical Description: xv. 184 p. : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: California Committee for the Study of Education -- Subcommittee on the Development of Moral and Spiritual Values in the Schools
Publisher: Fearon Publishers
Place of Publication: San Francisco
San Francisco
Publication Date: 1957
Subject: Moral education   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Bibliographical footnotes.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098578
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 00188538
lccn - 56011434


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
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        Page iv
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    Table of Contents
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    The aims of public schools recognize the needs for developing moral-spiritual values
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    Research has implications related to the development of moral-spiritual values
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    Children are guided to develop moral-spiritual values through school and classroom experiences
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    The school organizes and administers a program for the development of moral-spiritual values
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    Schools provide evaluation in moral-spiritual education
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Full Text






A Teacher's Guide

Sponsored by
Berkeley, Californua

Prepared by
February, 1955

Dev eloping



A Teacllher"' Guide


First printing January 1957


3 1262 08645 479 9



It is the belief of this Committee that religious education and
training are the e",clusi'e responsibility of home, church and
synagogues. .\t the ,ame time it should be cleir that an aid
to the teaching of moral and spiritual ,alues \would be ilnde-
quate and incomplete unless it gi\e due emphasis to the role of
religious ideals in inlluelcing moral concepts and behavior.
The major emphasis of this Guide is upon mhllods by which
moral and spiritual ideals may be inculcated through various
subjects in the curriculum It should be emphasized that these
are just some of the means and resources available to the teacher.
It is the hope of the Committee that Ihese means \.ill become
fruitful and effectiXe.

The California Committee for the Stud\ of Education grate-
fully ackno wledges the contribution of talent and time which
%\as so generously made b\ all \\ho served as members of the
Subcomm i.itee on Moral and Spiritual \alues. This publication
of the Guide produced b\ the Subcommittee va\.s preceded by
a limited distribution of duplicated copies. Encouraged by the
critical comments accorded it after the initial limited distribu-
tion the committee directed that the Guide be published and a
copy placed in each public school in California.

Funds to defray the cost of distributing complimentary
copies were made available b\ the trustees of the Deutsch-
Mc\\ illiams Educational Fund of the San Francisco National
Conference of Christians and Jews. The Committee extends
its sincere thanks.

California Committee for the
Study of Education



California Association of Adult Educaton Adninistrators
R \rrn-nd S SjndJer, D,'. id L. Greene. ilerna.,
Calilomria Aociauton of Independent Schools
Ho. .ird II P.alee. \\ dilim Kr.jil lh/erait
California Association o' School Administraiors
Honer H. Corrick.. la.me H Corlon
Calilo.rnia As'ociatlon of S'condar, School Administrator
Robert N. PH,.h. s,,r,.il Editor, Fred L Peteren, Elsie G.bb. Rober .\bbolt
Calitornij Asociation of Secondar. School Curriculum Coordinalors
lol-hn P P..ich:in:in
California Council of Catholic School Superlntendcnts
Ri. Re.. Mon-ni i ,n-ie bro.n: Re%. P:inrck Roche. .lltriwai,'
California Elemenlta School Adnunintraorsi Assocaltnon
Beiirice () Brien. Elmn r R \cnrer: Enoch Dumani .l.-lirut.
California School Super'isors Association
Helen Heffern:n: Greichen \\ulfing. .-Ilurn,a,
Catholic Secondarv School Principals of California. Association of
Re%. MNlrk Hurle ," Re'. I, me, Clinie..-ll ,iate
Junior College Association
\\H rJ H. .\AJiin, I.hI.J Luct.m.inn O r Ediringer, .Althrnat., or
Bjl._ II. Peterson. .-lth ornate
State Colleges
M.1klolm Lo'.e Glenn Kend..il, .triti.nat
State Departmeni of Education
I.j, D Conner. Fr.,a k H LinJd.l' Henr!, \V. MNignii.on
Uniermlt\ of Calilornia
Thomas ljlbs,. Hern in .\. Spind. \\ ilhi.im Bro Drell: Grace V. Bird. .lhertnate
eastern n ColleiCe Association
CornelIus H. Semen,. I me I \\Vt in.i : john A. \eg. 4ltanratc


Llo\d Luckrnann. Chairimni Robert N. Bush, I'ice-Chairman
Herman A. Spindi. SLcretary-Treasurer

At'llebt s-a t-Large

Ward H. Austin

Frank Lindsay


In 1949, the California Committee for the Study of Edu-
cation, recognizing the importance of the development of moral
and spiritual values, appointed a Subcommittee to study the role
of the schools in this significant area of education.
In 1950. a Survey \ as sent out b% the Subcommittee on the
Development of Moral and Spiritual Values in the schools to
find out from educators \;hat k\as being done in the schools
of California relative to the development of values. The sum-
mary of findings at the secondary lexel \xas the basis for a State
Department bulletin entitled: Developinemi of Moral and Spir-
itual Values Throu.h li ilt Culrictm/ulns of California High
Schools. This bulletin \ as prepared b\ Committee on Moral
and Spiritual Values of the California Association of Secondary
School Administrators.

The need for a more comprehensive guide for the develop-
ment of moral and spiritual values at all levels seemed called
for, and the California Committee for the Study of Education
authorized the Subcommittee to proceed in the working out of
further material. The results of their efforts are presented in
this Teacher's Guide.

As of February. 1955. ,lhen the manuscript was completed,
the Subcommittee consisted of the following people:
Mr. Ralph Burnight. District Superintendent. Excelsior
Union High School District.
Mr. Everett B. Chaffee. Principal. University High School.
Los Angeles.
Mrs. Ruth Edmands, formerly Consultant. Elementary Edu-
cation. State Department of Education.
Mr. Leonard Hummel. Curriculum Assistant. Los Angeles
County Schools.

Mr. Ray Imbler. Principal. North Brae Elementary School.
San Bruno.
Dr. Frank \V. Parr. Assistant State Executive Secretary.
California Teachers Association.
Mr. John \\ilson. Principal, Jordan High School, Long
Mr. \\illiam Wool\\orth, Director of Instruction. Albany
Unified School District.
Mrs Erma Pixley. Supervisor. Moral and Spiritual Educa-
tlon. Los Angeles. Chairman.

Pre\ ious members of the Subcommittee included Dr. A. John
Bartk. Stanford University: Dr. Rex HI. Turner. Oakland Pub-
lic Schools. Dr Hubert H. Semans. California State Polytechnic

During the course of the \ork of the Subcommittee. the
follow ing people % ere invited to ser'e in an advisory capacity:
Mrs. P. D. Be\il. President. California Congress of Parents
and Teachers.
Dr. Jesse Bond, Director, Teacher Trainin2. Secondary Ed-
ucation. University of California at Los Angeles.
Dr. Wendell Cannon. Professor of Education and Director
of Teacher Education. University of Southern California.
Dr. Earl Cranston. Dean. Graduate School of Religion, Uni-
versity of Southern California.
Very Reverend Nlon signor Patrick Dignan. Los Angeles
Dr. Sam Dinin. Je \%ish Bureau of Education. Los Angeles.
Dr Charles J. Falk, Associate Professor of Education. Occi-
dental College. Los Angeles.
Dr. J. A. Hockett. Professor of Education. University of
California at Los Anceles.




Mrs. Carol Smallenburg. Assistant Professor. Secondary
Teacher Training, Los Angeles State College.
Dr. Faith Smitter. Director of Guidance. Office of the Santa
Barbara Count\y Superintendent of Schools.
Dr. Vernon Tolle. University of Redlands.

Sincere appreciation is due members of the advisory com-
mittee for helpful suggestions. At the same time the Subcom-
mittee accepts lull responsibility for the content of the pub-
The California Committee for the Study of Education rec-
og)nizes the line work no"% being done in the schools. but believes
that the development of values is so important that further
emphasis should be gi\en in this direction.
It is the hope of the Committee that this Teachers' Guide
may ser'e as an impetus for increased interest in and clarifica-
tion of. the broad subject of moral and spiritual values in edu-
cation. It is the further hope of the Committee that this Guide
\\ill contribute not only to the deepening and enriching of the
lives of the young people of our State but also to the preserva-
tion of fundamental values and attitudes inherent in the struc-
ture of American life-values and attitudes such as faith. loyalty.
integrity, courage. cooperation. good will. reverence.


Prelace ............ ......... ...... .-- v

Callornia Committee tor the Stud% of Educai ti.'n .. ..--.....--- vi

Fore'.ord .... .... .

Introduction ........ ..... ........

A Introductorn Sutar .. ........---
B. Balic Asumptions UnderlT ing the Development of
M oral-Spiratual allies .....................................
C. Definition ot Terms .......
D Broad Aims of Education ... ....... ................
E. Special Aims of Education Teaching Moral-
Spiritual Values. . ............. ....-...- .......
F A Suggcitcd Corc of Moral-Spiritual Values....-
G. Brief (ler\ x e ot Publicatlon...................--

. Introduclo St m ent ............. ....... ...........
B Ciritin Implicatiur'r of Rcscarch Relative to Modi-
fication f A.iitudes and Behai. or.....--
C Some Implications ot Research ALbout the Growth
and De\elopment of Children .
D Some Implications o- Research About Motivation-...
E. The Total Enironneent Is Important in the Devel-
opnm nt ot Moral-Spiritual Values . -.....-.

Introduction ......... ... . .. ...............
Part l- Developing Onc's Best Self.......
.. Gairung a Feeling ot Self-Worth..........
B. Learning Desirable Beha ior Patterns....-
Part 2-Developing a Positlie Relationship Toward
O others ............. ... ... ... ......
A. Learning to \Work \ith Others-...........
B. Beconhig Sensitiie to the Needs of Others


- ......--.......--.. Vii


Chapter 3 1Cointinuied.
Pirt 3-Lindertanding aind Apprecialing Our Amer-
ican H eriitaie ...... .... ... .. .. .. .... 78
A. Le:ninn Aboul Vaiue. and Responsibililies 78--
B. Learning Hio'. Problem' Are Sil\ked in the
.\nmerii n Tradliion ... .. ........ .. 2
C. Participating mi P;lirioic E.pellence ... 94
D. Learning the Inmportance of Religious
Faiih in Our Amlerican Herl.i e .......... yS
Part -I 4- Recognizinng MN n\ Souircec ol In'piration.... ... 103

Chapter THL StIHtL O)r'PG1\NI7E5 NND .' ADcNISTERS Pi;oclRX\
fiR THF DE\EL'O-irMENT o'' NOIc \L -SPIRI 'Li.\i. \ LUE5
(1 i23-135
I. BI ,i C ',in1pti of Adniiru ir.iatin .... .. ... ... ....... 123
A .\ Demci crtiic Approach I, Necc-iar . .. 123
B A )Dc nlorac Philoso-ph r: ol Educ.iioin Mut Pc r-
nimeae ilh Scholl 'l Pro-rani. ... .... .. .... 124
II Procedure, and TechniLque' oi Pl-nnin 1 .. ..... .... 12
.\ The Facult, Plans a Piocim .. ........... 128
B The Coininunit. Plans a Pro.'ranm. ........ ... ... ... . 29
C The Studenit Conlriliie Toward llie Pro2ra.m ....... 130
III Points oc Empha s.. . ... .... 132a
A. ReliiLi'ou. E ipha; .. .. ...... .... ... ..... 133
B Emph.sps Upon Ethical! and Moral \ value . 135
C. The Neces i\ lor ContrinuouL Emph;asi ............... 13

Chapter 5 SCI t')'C LS PROI DE D ..L,-'ATIOh N I| N'I:OR \L-SP'IRITi i.L
EiD c ,TION i 137-163 1
A Int rodui tor'. Statem ent ... .... ....... .. ... 137
B Base- lor E\.alu; tin, M iorail-Spirituil valuess ......... I 3
C. TechniqiFues EFmpl ced in Ev\aluating Groi th in
NM orl l-Spir lual V\alue ..... ... ... .... .. ..... 145
D. SuLnm.irizaTiion. Initerpielaiion, and l e ol Data ...... 156
E Re:.earch E\idencL Pernainn, to Gro:l\th in Mloral-
Spirit.ial De telopinent ........ ....... ........ .... 5S
F Recommend, iin ......... ......................... 161
G Conclusion ... .. ...... . ....... 1 62

.-ppendix .. .. .... ...... ... 165

In d e \ ... ............ ...... ..... ....... . .. .......... .. ........ 16 7


Events of the laist twe\nt\ sears have called for a statement
from the public schools that \ill reveal to tile American people
the position, attitude. accomplishment. and goal of public edu-
cation in the area of moral-spiritual v'altues. The schools of
California are deeply concerned w ith these values Accordingly.
tiis booklet, prepared bh the Subcommitee on the Development
of Moral and Spiritu:l Values appointed b. the Calitornia Com-
mittee for the Stud) of Education, % ill contain :i brief statement
of (a I the philosophy revealed in basic issumptions,. deFinitions
and objectives: Ib the results ot current research: (C ) the
procedures followed in guiding children and southh to develop
moral-spiritual values: d i the principles followed in organizing
and administering such a program; and finally. ie) suggestions
for its e aluation.
The phrase "mnoral and spiritual" caused the committee
much thought and stud.,, a-s it las other committees. The phrase
permits t\\o interpretations: one, it di\ides all positive e\peri-
ences into tvo discrete kinds or categories. One kind is grouped
under the heading "moral." thle other kind under "spiritual."
The second interpretation is that all positi e experiences are
potentially spiritual. \\ whether an experience at a gi en moment
and for a gi en person is moral or spiritual depends on the qual-
ity. i.e.. the richness, depth. and intensity of the experiencing
that is taking place But at M-what moment its quality carries it
beyond the moral into the spiritual is dlfiicult to determine. On"
thing seems to be clear: it is not the kind or category of experi-
ence that makes the differences, but the quality of the experience .
It is what is going on inside the expcriencer that counts.
It seems to the committee that the weight ot opinion and of
its ow n thinkingini indicates that poiitie values cannot be divided
into two separate and distinct categories, one of which is always
moral and the other alwxas spiritual. Nor can one say of a value.


"up to this precise degree of intent\ the experience is moral
but beyond this point it is spiritual." At sea level. %water will not
boil below' 212: on the Fahrenheit scale. Above sea level it \\ill.
We have no such precise scale on moral-spiritual leI els. The
point where the one value merges into the other \\ ill varN between
persons and it \vill \arv for the same individual according to the

The committee, therefore, accepted the second interpreta-
tion of the phrase and decided that the hyphenated w ord -"moral-
spiritual" more nearly expresses the intended meaning than the
phrase "'moral and spiritual." Hence. throughout this work the
compound word "moral-spiritual" \ill be used. The only ex-
ception %\ill be hen reference is made to a committee %hose
actual name carries the phrase.

No work in a field as important and extensive as that of
moral-spiritual values in education can ever be called final.
So it is w ith this publication. Man\ thoughtful people \\ill carry
on from this point, exploring new approaches and fresh pro-
cedures for the discover,. development. and emphasis of values.
If this publication helps to stimulate the thiinkin of thousands
of teachers toward added creative effort in the area of moral-
spiritual values, it \will have se-\ed a good purpose.

It is hoped. however, that this %work will ser\e other pur-
poses as well: that it %\ill gi.e to school people a feeling of
security and a sense of direction: provide them and the public
with evidence of the excellent work being done now: reveal
to everyone concerned that public education is moving forward
to even greater achievements: secure the utmost in cooperation
auong home, community, church, and school; and finally,
assure the \hole public that those great values upon which this
nation \\as founded and by which alone it can be preserved
are and must be the immediate and continuing concern of the
public schools.


"God. gi\vc eiv 'len! .4 ime like itis demands
Strong minds, geit7 hemlis, iruc tailth and ieady hands;
le'n whom Ihe lust of office doev not kill;
il( wi'lhom 1 1Ch spoils o ofticc tinnO buly;
:llen i ho possess opiuionsl and a will:
Allen who Ihave honor: in1 \I whlo will not lic:
A:len who can iand lbefori' a delmago.ult
And ,amn his trcheronut flaiicries without winking!
Tall imenl, stun-cro'\ tied. who live above the fog
In public duty and in pli'ate thinking: . "
-From: God. Gi\c Us Men!
by Josiah Gilbert Holland

Bring me men to match my mountains,
Btiing me men to match my plains,
iAlen wiith empires in their purpose,
.-And new eras in their brains.
-From: The Coming American
by Sam Walter Foss



Chapter One seeks to express the philosophy of public educa-
tion \\iih respect to moral-spiritual \t values through I statement
of basic assumptions. definitions. and objectives. It is hoped that
this st:cement ofl '.hat seem to be the most widely accepted
denomin.tors, of thought in this field w, ill be of assistance to the
profession and to the public in :riiving, at clarit anId comn mon
acceptance of inmeninii s iand ptirposes. The chapters that follow
present the content and procedures b\ v, which the philosophy aind
obiccti\es set up in the lirst chapter become a reality in the lies
of boys and _irls. of \u LII' 1 men and youlngl \omein.


1. General Assumptions
a. A core of accepted moral-spiritual values is essential to
an\ s -cial order. These \'alues should be as:I inclusive as
possiTe. acceptal Me to the social order as a \\,hole and to
each of t1, parts. In our A.merican democracy they should
be in accord V ith our democratic principles.
b. The social order unidergirding our democracy is based
upon a body of moral-spiritual values s ihich are indis-
pensable to the existence and romi\\ th of a democratic cul-
ture at :Ill levels-local. national. xorld.
c. Because inspiration for the good life is derived from many
sources, these \ alues are draxwn from the %\hole culture
fabric: art. history, literature, music, religion. science,
and day to day li\ing. Their e\olkement results from a
Se: the diL.iusion of ihe phrase noril-spiritiu l" in Iniroduciiori.

cooperative effort on the part ol the home. community.
church. and school. and iithin these institutionsw, from
the cooperative elorts of [heir members. These values
must be as broad as the \\ hole culture and organized so as
to suggest deiri4tl directions of conduct. They must
form a cohesive foice in ihe social order.
\d., "l.oral-spiritual values are potential. present in every
personal experience, and are not selectively presented as
abstract eneralizations about \irtues."-
e. Maturation is the goal of the individual life. Each one
should strive. and be urged to strike, to achieve the full-
ness of his potentialities.
f. The organism learns as \a hole. This means mind. body.
and soul haelto be considered in the learning process.
Means and ends. method and content. are inseparable
and must be in harmnon\ ithl democratic philosophy.
The oiranism learns to do by doing. It learns best
i\\ hen pursuing purposes that ha e acceptance. meaning.
a and significance for the learnerr. This rules out authori-
j! rarian philo;oph\.
; The school's program for the development of these values
should be \worked out democratically by the school per-
,onnel in cooperate \\itl the students. parents, and the
\i h. The homic is the fundamental social institution. Its basic
responsibility\ for developing moral-spiritual values is
recognized. The school gives its enduring support to the
i. Children and youngg people are educated by their %%hole
en vironmrent. Home. church. and school in times past
have been regarded as the chief educational influence. In
recent \'ears the influence of other agencies in the coim-
munity ha, become increasingly. potent. Consequenth.
l.,,,! ,!i.J f'-r, ,'t.i!l I',i , a t ,. C. /. ".., I. knriti.liCL E.u]] .,i l>O n, BI ull. lr.,. \Vol.
XXI. No .. I -'coler I1 3. p. 1.S Fr. nk(for. KenllhC.\ D.Lr. -,mlcr., of F.iJi; U ilon.
Common.'c:.11hi of Kertuil ..',. I'5 .


the total communitylli should be concerned with. and held
responsibl-e for. its elTect upon youth.
2. Specific Assumptions
a. The school has a shared responsibility in developing
moral-spii ituail values.
I 1> The American public schools believe in. accept. and
support religion and religious institutions. Tlheyre-
sp-ect all religious beliefs.
2 The public schools recognize religion as one of the
great forces of cih ilization.
3 The public schools recognize that faith in and re\er-
ence for God. and a belief that there is a ,guiding.
direction force in the universe are a basic part of the
Ameerican heritage.
4) The churches and the public schools are coordinate
IlnsItlitItons: each has its separate responsibility for
the education t ou0111 outh. Since they share many
objectives. hol ever. the\ should be cooperating and
51 The American. free. public. nonsectarian school is
the single. unique educational instrument t set up by
our social order as a \\hole for teaching moral-
spiritual values. .A major objective is that these
values become a core of lovalties \lihose formative
and cohesive pov.er reaches to the heart. mind, and
souI of every American. The public school should do
this so effectively that the members of the culture of
v.hich it is a part. both as individuals and as .groups.
are adequate for menibership in the national culture
and in tile world culture no\" developing. \
b. Separation of church and stt.e is a basic American prin-
II "The (school) program should be based upon the
SThe e\prc.i ;or. "Serp r lion of church and slate d'oe4 n Cot mean oppo.iiion Ib-
lil 'ln church tind *ilIt, i.iliher iI mcT Jn diliinctioi and co opcrJain i.Lcci teen huiliC
and 1 Iaic.


strict sep.(r ation ,of i.hutch and state." "One should
neer be used :s ain enginee for any purpose of the
othe:."' This phil' oph', has a iv.o-edged blade. On
the one edge is ?i: itten a prohibition of the school's
teaching or ad ocating an\ sectarian position: on the
othei. all sects or group- ate presented from interfer-
ing \\ith the program iof ihe school. Sa s Justice
Jackson. \\e should plaLe nomi bounds on the
deniands for interference \\ith local schools that \\e
are empov.ered or killingg to entertain. .-\ Federal
Court ma\ intrfc re v. ith local school authorities onl\
\xhen they in, ade either a personal liberal\ or a prop-
ert\ right proteccced b\ the Fedeial Constitution. If
\.e are to eliminiiiie e.er\thing Ifrom the public
school curriculum Li that is objectionable to an\ of
these xarrine sects or incon, itent x\ith any of their
doctrines. \Ve \\ill lea\e public education in ihreds.
\\e must leaxe some lle\ibilitl to meet local condi-
tions,. -some chance to progress b\ trial and error."
Recent history has reaffirmed the x\isdom of our
forefathers, in this matter.
21 The nonsectarian secular) public school.. the same
as the .ccullar sial or secular court. does not and
must not express host ility toward an\ religious faith
or belief. It must be a friendly\ zone \\here an\ reli-
gious creed nma exist in peace. comfort, and security .
3.1 The public school is nonsectaiian. The churches
aie sectarian. This does not i ipl anilmo sit\ or op-
position. It does impl\ different approaches to. and
necessitates some delimitation of. their repectixe
responsibilities. The public schools teach all those
t l .,l p. 6s1.
n.urring op rij nr. .r f lu .Ic FEL. Fr.i ar fuller iln i l'i.'ri,,, *.d.r,i i Eitu-
,a ,,. I33 [iS .-. 21 6. qu i,,r.; Icrcmnih S Black 1i S (Cir" I in-ie C\ i L ld.J.
J in-:i 0. B"hin,, rid EI-hu Ri.i. are qut Ljii.l hn he 1 a.nc end
Fr im i.,r.urrI.iL Opinrl,, .,t Ju.hic Rl<.ti:- \\ x jxc c. ->.rn -i (' ( 1 ,ll,",I J[ -d..
of Id.... .1,1-n, 333 11. S. 21S 0 2 .' .


\ alties accepted by their culture as a \\hole. They are
concerned that. through this teaching. men shall
be able to lile and w\oik together more elTecti\elv in
achieving thle ends of a.1 united in:tion, of a united
c. Democracy is a moral-spiritual_concept.
It carries its om.n cluster of related values:
1) Each individual. each group. e\eryw\here, has certabi
inalienable rights: c..., lire, liberty, happiness. gov-
ernment b\ the consent of the go\erned.
2) The individual and the group has each to learn its
rights, privileges, and responsibilities. They have
to learn, singly and collectimely, to practice their
proper relationship within the democratic orbit
3) Each individual Ihas worth and dignity. He has the
responsibility\ of making the most of himself as an
indi dual and of making his optimum contribution
to society Society is responsible for seeing to it that
his failure \'ill be caused only byit in i operable and
his superable derelictions.
4) Evern indi\ldual should respect the rights of others
and the lav.s of theland. This applies w ith equal
force to majorities and to minorities
5) Freedom from fear and \ant. freedom of worship.
of expression, and of conscience are basic values.
6) The supreme la, is stated in a Constitution estab-
lished b\ the people and changeable only by the
7 The supreme power is vested in the people.
S Each idiildual is a unit ot unique and supreme
value held inviolate, subject only to such provisions
as the people themselves shall make through demo-
cratic procedures.
9 ) Moral-spiritual concepts in our American democracy
\ are expressed in our Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag:


"I pledge allegiance to ite flag of the Uiirted States of
America and to the Republic for which it stands; one na-
tion under God, indivisible. u ith lierty and justice for all."

1. "Value" is that quality in an thing which, if recognized and
understood, causes one to choose it for his purpose. "Values
are wants which have been critically analyzed and found
worthy of choice."6
2. A moral-spiritual value is al~ ts positive and is one that.
among other things, adds to the dignity, beauty. growth.
happiness, and security of men. \\ whether a value at a gi~en
moment is moral or spiritual depends upon the quality-i.e..
the richness, depth, and intensity-of the experiences that
are producing it or being received from it. The acceptance
or rejection of these values provides a basis for determining
right thought and action. These values are the substance of
the "good" life.
3. "Moral-spiritual values" is a comprehensive term. The fol-
lowing statements help to define it:
a. Every attribute of God-truth. life. knowledge. light.
beauty, strength, courage. dignity, love, principle-is
such a value.
b. One might achieve these values by striking for "the true.
the beautiful, the good.":
c. Another approach to understanding the term is to note
the core of values at the center of each creat zone of
thought, such as:
1) Religion-perfect love. perfect understanding. per-
fect reality.
'Kentucky Educational Bulletin. Vol XXI. No S. Ocrolo r. 1953. p. (.s2.
'John S. Brubacher, editor, The PulFhe Scl..Is a., .S.Jr;tlal I ll. s. p. 7. Se'enib
Yearbook of the John Dewey Socici). Ne% Y 'lr:: H.r.-per Bro 19-4.


2) Science-perfect law and order, perfect kno ledge.
3) Music-perfect harmony.
4) Art-perfect design. perfect beauty.
5) Social Science-perfect relationships among and
between men.
6) Philosoph,-perfect unity. perfect oneness.
4. "Democracy"-Our American concept of democracy is. in
the words of Abraham Lincoln. "government of the people.
by the people, for the people." It is a form of government
in which the supreme power is retained by the people and
exercised. either directly or indirectly, through a system of
representation and delegated authority, periodically renewed.
as in a constitutional representative government or republic.
5. "Religion"-Religion is a concept embracing all the efforts
of men to understand the eternal verit\. It is the universal
urge that men have toward determining their proper rela-
tion to God and to each other.
6. "Church"-A church is any organized bod. or group pro-
fessing the same creed and acknowledging the same ecclesi-
astical authority.
7. "Sects"-Groups w which have arisen within the various re-
ligions. each believing it gives a more exact interpretation
of or conformity to the teachings or requirements of the
original teacher, are called sects.
8. "Secular"-Secular as applied to the public schools is not
a negative term. It does not mean "Godless" or "antireli-
gious." It does not mean antisectarian. It is a positive term
carrying ito major meanings:
a. It means that the people support and control their schools
through the state, not through the church.
b. It means the public schools teach moral-spiritual values
in a nonsectarian manner.
Justice Frankfurter, in a recent United States Su-
preme Court decision. expressed the matter very nicely.


lthus: "The secular public school did not impl. indiffer-
ence to the basic role of religion in the life of the people
nor rejection of religious education as a means of foster-
in- it. The claims of religion were not minimized by
refusing to make the public schools agencies for their
assertion. The nonsscicriau or sccultr public chol was
the means of reconciling freedom in general w ith re-
lgious freedom."

while e the moral-spiritual phase of edLucation has certain
specific aims of its \\ n. the general concept of moral-spiritual
\values is inherent in e\ern thLouI'htful and widel\ accepted state-
ment of educational objectives. The broad aims of education
are to enable an indil idual to profit from the entire rang-e of his
cultllre t the extent po..sible for him: to achiiee. as an indi idual
and as a social being, a competence\ and w ell-bein that \\ ill bring
a feeling of harmon\ withl his universe. oneness x\ith his world.
and an understanding, of and loalt to th e democratic social
order of which lie is a part.
These aims have been expressed b3 variouss education groups
and leaders. A fex tl pical examples follow:
1. The ten imperative needs of southh are ;an expression of the
aims of education as developed bN a group of distinguished
a. All southh need to develop salable skills and those under-
standin',s and attitudes that make the worker an intelli-
gent and productive participant in economic life.
b. All southh need to develop and maintain good health and
physical liness.
c. All \outh need to understand the rights and duties of
From [h, o, -uir p: o rpi ;n ,n ', luil I-c lih.' Fr 'rlfua rli c It .'/l .*.ll.*.. 1. Board
r( /-. .......,. :. 33 Li S. '_ 2 i. I t l lah : r'l in on ..ir, .
1.: EJuiJC.it..nla Po'lici,' Clomi,;i'- ion li1 N :i iOr:. d EdiiL; io n .\i:oil.oii.i: and
Ih. .\ni'.ric l .\- ,ci, ion Ofl*). School .AJL -ir lr.lOi io d in ih. public il h al En EJu-
l ... ..l.., ., Ill .. l ,'~, ). ) .., 1 1. I' 4 -1


tlie citizen of a democratic society .
d. All youth need to understand the significance of the fam-
Il for thei indi, idual and for society and the conditions
conducive to successful family life.
e. All southh need to know hol, to purchase and use goods
and services intelligently. understanding both the values
received b\ the consumer and the economic conse-
quences of their acts.
f. All N ,uth need to understand the methods of science.
tile influence of science on human life. and the main
scientific facts concerning the nature of the \world and
of men.
\. All youth need opportunities to develop their capacities
to appreciate beaut\ in literature. art. music, and nature.
h. All southh need to be ab!e to use the eir leisure time xwell
and to budget it \wisel. balancing activities that fieldd
satisfactions to the indiv idual w ith those that are socially
i. All youth need to develop respect for other persons, to
gro\ in their in,,siht into ethical x alLies lnd principles.
and to be able to live and w ork cooperatiuelv with others.
j. All south need to growx in their ability\ to think rationall.
to e,;press their thoughts clearly. and to read and listen
\with understanding.
2. The values and attitudes stressed in .- Friamevirirlk tor Public
Edlicatiion in Calit, iia:. Statement of Purposos in Educa-
tion.'" can be readily seen. This publication contains a rich.
detailed list of fifty-four objectives. subsumed under the
follow ing headings:
a. Civic responsibility.
b. Full realization of individual responsibilities.
c. Human relationships.
d. Economic elliciencv.
'.1 Frii';n.: ,,rl. t.r r',,.-I,. E/, :.'..- Ci ,.** i ,... Bulletin of ihe C.a iforni
Si.it Deparimerin of EJducjitin. \o XIN. No. i. No'.cnmti-r. I5l''


3. The Seven Cardinal Objectives of Education." formulated
by a committee of the National Education Association. have
had a steadily grow ing influence on the aims of education
since their publication in 1918. These objectives, related to
the categories listed below. indicate concern for the general
concept of moral-spiritual values.
a. Health.
b. Citizenship.
c. Command of the fundamental processes.
d. Vocational efficiency.
e. Worthy home membership.
f. Worthy use of leisure.
g. Ethical character (moral-spiritual values)


Moral-spiritual values are not something to be taken out
of the educational program and taught in isolation: rather they
should be a matter of emphasis throughout the whole program.'-
There are. however, certain specific aims which need to be
recognized, such as the following:
1. To identify the core of moral-spiritual values essential to
our democratic social order with its background of religious
2. To secure recognition and acceptance of a core of this kind
of values by all the people of our country.
3. To make clear the responsibility of the public schools in
teaching these values .
4. To show that the \%hole culture makes its contribution to
these values.
5. To show that the concept of separation of church and state
SFornmulati d b) a comnmiiite of the Niaionral EJuc:anor, Aisocialion and pub-
lished b U. S. Office of Education in Hill0tin 35, 1918.
Keniuck Educational Bulletin., Vol. XXI, No. S. October, 1953. pp. 6I1-682.


is itself a spiritual value and supports rather than impedes
the church and school in doing their respective tasks.
6. To show the place and the contribution of religion in the
history of men and of nations. To show that faith in and
reverence for God are a basic part of our American heritage.
7. To try to provide the kinds of experiences that \\ill help each
individual to become the finest person possible for him to
become: to make his optimum contribution to society: and
to learn to li\e and work cooperatively ~ ith others.


There is probably no one best list of these values which
could be set up as itLh core for universal use. although there is
agreement on the general nature of the valuess inherent in our
American democracy ,with its religious background. Within
this framework many school districts work out their own
thoughtful objectives.' This process is valuablee in itself.
The Education Policies Commission has made its contribu-
tion in the statement of a core of values. There %\as general
acceptance on the part of California public school administrators
of the list of twenty suggested objectives for moral-spiritual edu-
cation included in the survey'" initiated by the Subcommittee
on Moral and Spiritual Values appointed by the California Com-
mittee for the Study of Education in 1949. A careful study of
different statements of objectives, together with an analysis of
actual classroom procedures and the study of research, has led
the current committee to accept the following general areas as
Evample- of such *latement, of objectles may be found in the following pub-
lication;' Lo; .-\nele, Cil, School Mforal an1 Sprir iual I'a/i.e' int Ef iiciatii, pp.
9-22. Tentaiiie Edition, 195.4, San Diego CIIo School. Srpirunal I'alius, pp. [-6"7.
Education Policie Comnil ion. Moral und Spiritial I uflic. thri /i Publi'
5, n:l.Is pp. !18-34. W\ shington. D C.- Educaiional Policic4 Commnii;i on of the
National EduciiClion A..scia'lion of the Lin;red State and the American .A;-.'xijuon
of School Admni;n trjior;. [o1I.
Det'vcd pnTii i o Alral uad Spirioal I ldtie Tlihroiih lic Cu hrricalit 'I ot Cali-
fornia Schools. pp. 9-1lM. Bullelin of Ihe California State Department of Education,
\ol. XXI, No. 13. September, 1952.


valuable guideposts in the development of a core of moral-
spiritual values:

I. Developing one's best self.
II. Developing a positive relationship to ward others.
III. Appreciating our American heritage.
IV. Recognizing man\ sources of inspiration.

It will be noted that the first paragraph of this chapter states
the over-all purposes of the \ hole publication. The remainder
of the chapter attempt. to claril\ the meaning and the aims of
moral-spiritual ~ values in American public schools. In Chapter II
some of the research which has implications, for the develop-
ment of moral-spiritual valuess has been summarized briefl\.
Chapter III presents actual classroom experiences related to
the four areas listed above. Chapter IV reveals a desirable
administrative program for bringing all the elements of the
school and its supporting community into an harmonious effort
to achieve the ends sought. Chapter V suggests an evaluation
plan that \\ill enable school and colmmunllit\ to determine w hat
success is being achieved and v, hat adjustments ma\ be desirable.



The purpose of this chapter is to explore some of the find-
ings of current research on the development of attitudes and
behal\ior related to moral-spiritual values.
As indicated in Chapter I. Mlorl-Spiriunl I 'a/lcs ill Edi-
Ciltioni is concerned x ith the follow\ in points:
Dexeloping One' Best Self.
Developing a Positive RelI:tionship Tow ard Others.
Appreciation Our American lHeritag1e.
Recoignizin,2 Ninny Sources of Inspiration.
It is to he noted th tt the available research data apply par-
ticularl', to the list t\v.o points. Before proceeding further, the
reader should note also that certain aspects of moral-spiritual
values cannot be circum scribed b\ res'-alrcll. In other wordss .
the development of character 1 not mechanistic. The creative
element needs to be considered also.' In this connection these
lines from \\ hitman are sienilicant:

"'II '/n [I h/nea l i/t let'lII'd lasro llollft'J.
ifi lt iic /roo it' fi/it t'l ll'i't'. i 'e/n1, a 'd
/il/ ('lllme hl. /ti'ti Jilt'.C
II h '/ I ii s O (\l Iti //I; c 'th ai 1 aitl W liO i tl.i l..ii ,
to (_ddl. divide,. atl m( .'isi'r. theinM,
I 11ra(1/erd i c/ (.'f 1 1iys1e.
illit froll Hil' h) lllt'
Look'l i/l I in pi,'rf' il .'nce at' t til sirs.
Sl.con'In Jl Cjrni chl cl. hi.Ior ,'Ir ali ,,t C u',!J rt '., l..I'.l p. 27. Nc .' Ik:.; :
John \. iI'., ir.d .or Ini I') '-i Ie cor',, ciii iGo_' I
\\jai \\haim.n '\\he.n I H,,rd thJ h L_ rln J A il ono'ei." in L 'of Gi'a.-


In spite of limitations, however. a grot ing body of research
is available to give direction to the development of moral-spir-
itual values.
The school does not x\ork alone in the development of
values. Some of the research reported \%ill indicate the impor-
tance of the role of home, church. and other community agen-
cies in helping young people to develop moral-spiritual values.
The home lays the first foundations. The words s of Arnold
Gesell might well be quoted here:
"The family remains the niosi fuind:iiiental unit of modern cul-
ture. It has been basic throuchuthi the lone hiz.,tr of ni in *
The household scr'o e .is 1a .lltuirjl workshop' for ite transmisn]sion
of old traditions :nd for the creation of ne\W social \ines. '-
The church, the school. and other community; agencies, includ-
ing the law enforcement agencies. \\ork shoulder to shoulder
with the home to develop a high sense of values.

Much research is heing carried on concerning t\ays of modi-
fying attitudes and behavior. Such research is usually indeed
under various related headings, c.'.. character education, child
development, mental hI giene. personal-adiustment counseling,
Research in these fields is not yet definitive, but enough has
been done to point certain directions that \\ill be helpful in
developing values. As stated earlier, most of the research deals
with topics related to "Developing One's Best Self" and "De-
veloping a Positive Relationship Toward Others."
Some pertinent research data are presented herein under
the following headings:
'Arnold Gesell, Ch,ld ID cL.-ltrr .. p 4 Ne... York- HHarp-r .rin. Bro.. 19-4.


The attempt has been made to select some of the items whichh
should prove lmost helpful to our v\ork. Readers \\ho recognize
the value of research may \ ish to u ndertake further and mIore
detailed stud\ related to he modilication of attitudes and be-
havior. A comprehensive survey of research in this field \\ill
be found in the Mllamaul o'f Child P.vyci.n'log edited b. Leon-
ard Carmichael and published b\ John \\ile\ and Sons. Inc..
Ne\ York. 1954.
It \\ill be noted that there is little indication. in the research
reported, of the possible conflicts in values w\ith which one is
sometimes confronted. For e\ample. there ma\ be conflicts
betw een complete honest and kindness, between \\hole-hearted
cooperation and Indiidual moral courage. and between patience
and escape. Sometimes the motive in behavior as \.ell as the
act itself needs to be considered in determining \ values.
In spite of these comple\niies. ho\\e\xer. research is moming
forward in the attempt to find \ ays of helping people to achieve
a high degree of personal development: to make their optimumi
contribution to society: and to x\ork cooperativel\ \ ith others.
Monroe's El/lylo'l0 lia (-I Educat.ional ?R.s arch provides
excellent summaries and critical reviews of research in this
field.4 Unles, otherwise indicated. material in the follo\\ing
pages of Chapter II is adapted from reports contained in the
abo\e-mentioned volume. References from other source's \\ill
be indicated.
General Data.
1. The a:ttitudI s "nd bLeh '.or o'I jn\ ind.iiduIl are tlh restil of both
hcridiiv and eriirolnnieni Dehialior as such is nori nheriled directly.
S\\.lter S. M onroeif ed. ori. Eri ,.. l . I E.i; .. ,' ,.:.' l RI. .,,:',: Ne'i Yori.:
The M.n.cmill.n Comp nr '19. 'i'I ire.i .ed e'iJuoii D i.ta r:fcrred i? in ihi, chapicr
are inlude.ld in ihe folio,.ri g ecillon; of i l-. vorl. "Ch dl De'.%celopm niit." "Chill
Soci:ahrl :ion." ".-\AJoi.c.:ernce." "Characlicr Educ.-illon. "Mnillll 1.iig.erne." 'lui'nile
Delinquency," Frh Farnil! and EducJ i olon,J" .nd "loi;-i llon."


but onll, through a prcdl'poei'ion rcisulti iC Ironm the trunictura; l equip-
mI nL ot O he Ind li.h;ll.'
2 T. Thre Cc1ni5 Lto be winc% shlichi pt.'sille correlkiionl Ie,..cen i11ielliience
and hcha'. io r It i, lot', .nol'u h. hoi'-t'c cer. l t p',rmit oI mIanI e\,icp-
I on% O(ie iheor, regardinci ihi correlation i, thai pt poplC.' lc'cr
Uendi i'n.niLent ir likcl t, ii, .ni unit.r riT r' I rus'.r iioon. in their el iIron-
meni that lead ito zi.re-sstIe. relelli''lus biI-lhaior Accordinc toL V\crnon
J'ies I hicrT re mo1mlie dilini ic nli_ i L ild I1. '1 c itled children in
oLur pr'cr-enti culture rc.' dJ.. clopin2 their supi.'riorlt\ in thois- character
tirjl 111i i kiniii I',r indil lidliJ stiice rather ih:iin in iho,:.i niailinic or
,iti.al rc'ponsihlili', and pro ri.'lc.i : cI ,.'LiaI chanl '. "'
3 .Alnmost ll pcopl. ,-hov, .' r% ing amniitijnt o-t cLharacter qualitie,. '.. which
caLnnoit he catecorizcJ a, an a!l-or-nonc tarii%[ I ndlidual dirt,-r.'ices
m. \ he dJecribed a.s tinllll.lli r.at hr than quJlitjl\i.c In ohth.r
A.ords. nmot pc'oplc .can noLt aicc.cpt tll,. res-pi' lii illi, itn t lI. siiua-
[illn \iith v clich (he\ arc a,,iOciat;d: lc people ho, complete iit -
p[i'tlnsil 'ilii in C'L'I\ 1[U'11li n.
4 Mental ill hcaiith and or bch.i'. or pro-'blmni- aric,, from c'oimple\ caute,'.
A single ,niptoii mni'. haL\,. a numnher ol diftercni cau'c,,. mIalJdiu't-
ilenrt that ae alike imni-, Ih c a \.jri:t ol .illptpioi .

General School Pro-;i ain

Research indicates that the schools most i.cc'essful in devel-
oping moral concepts anld conduct lha\e these characteristics:
The\ cLonsider the individual needs; ot children.
They pro, ide a good guidance program.
They encourage experiences that pro ide for the devel-
opment of social skills and attitudes.
The\y ,ork closely with the home.
The\ pl.ae special emplhsis on character and citizen-
ship training.

Clhssr'ooim .A ciitiies

There is sometimes contro\ers\ as to %\ whether character edu-
Thi. point ii de-.clo'ped in de-.i b, \nric Ki l jrd I -ohn P Foil r in
heir D 'i i ',.- ., '.;l P i, . i ii i. if. t, . ,, G, ,, rL 'IL C: I, i ;.PL c, ...' N e,
' oi k Thi M.C11 m lla .-,mpj,' Ir'' i rc 1 :d cji ..ii n
-inoiI Joes. '( -ar iter De'.Ltopmcnwn in ChlJren-An Ot)ie.' c \ppro.,ih,"
Ch. 1X \ In Lco.ijrj d -jrmii. ha cl. e 1 .1.,.I,..! Cl.,ti t ,.-i,../..'., p '2.


cation shall be direct or indirect. Research throws some light
on the subject:
While the kno\ ledge of moral conduct does not assure moral
beha'\ior. the know ledge cannot be omitted. \Moral concepts 4-
and moral behavior should be developed together. In other
words. research indicates that it is not enough to have experi-
ence in concrete situation, that call for cooperation. respect for
la\,. responsibility. etc.. but that discussion of the meaning and
sihnilicance of the activities is also needed if there is to be meas-
urable improvement in conduct. Experience. plus discussion.
shows slightly\ better gains in conduct than experience alone or
discussion alone. I It is important that "generalized principles
and ideals be gradually built up in accordance with the laws of
learning out of e\periences which are verbalized." Different
classroom approaches are suggested by the following:
Use of reading materials. such as stories, biographies.
plays that emphasize character values .
Use of problems and or conflict situations in eler\day
life as springboard for discussion of character values.
Use of dramatization for insight into problems.
Research b\ children n problem, of immediate concern
to them. The importance of participating in research
I action-research I a, an effective '' ay of modifying
attitudes and behavior is pointed up in Nlorrow.
Living ll'ithout Hate.'
Group discussion and group decision produced a more
significant dilTerence in behavior than the use of
the le cture method of presenting facts and asking
for action.'
Carmichael, op. ~ii.. p. 813.
Alfred J. M arro,.. Lit hi.'e lit o., ilui, : S&.iit'... .1 ,- u.tl ,s i., Hi..- i R.. / R a-
tions, pp. 51-8S and 2-49-260. New York: ILH rper and Bro,. 19!
ST. NM NeA'comb and E. L. Harilcs, Ra.j,/,, in So,.ial P i... i.h l.'%... p. 330. Ne.<
York: Henr Holtl nd Companir, 1947.


Teacher or Adult Leader
The child-teacher relationship is an important actor in the
development of behavior pattern., among children. Frustration
in an autocratic classroom may cause a'gg essie beha ior. (On
the other hand, in some children. it may cause apathy and
More hostility was shown :imong, oldei children in a club
when the adult leader was "autocriratic rather than "democratic."
It is difficult for a teacher to oork; indi iduall\ w ith members
of a large class. Research indicates. hox\\eer. that careful
attention to the study and treatmcn;t of as fe\\ as five children
will produce gains in the whole class. The test, used in the ex-
periment included social acceptance. reading, arithmetic, and
mental maturity.
Better results in conduct are obtained from the teacher's
use of language that is simple, posLii e. directive, and appio) ing
rather than that which is negative. di'appro\ in,. and general.
In other words, a teacher usually does nor t get a good response
from negative directions, such as "Don't be so noisy. ou
ought to know what you are supposed to do today No% let's
get to work." Better results are obtained vi hen the teacher is
calm and says cooperatively: "Tak:e your seat, quietly. Look in
your notebook for our plans for the day."

The influence of companionss is strong in determination of
behavior patterns. Group standards. particularly in adolescence.
are powerful determinants of beha ior. These standard,, ho\\-
ever, quickly fade away, once the group is broken Iup. unless
the group has remained together oier a 1on01 period of time In
other words, it usually takes a long time for standards of be-
havior to become an integrated 'par of one's personality. while e
the influence of companions may be slongi for a whilee if com-
panions change after a brief period. beha' ior patterns are likely
to change also.


Deveiloplmeu of Specific Qualitics
In considering the development o one's best self. the fol-
low ing significant trends are indicated in regard to the specific
qualities listed below :
Cooh(lt.tio,.: A group vw which had instruction and practice
in cooperation show ed measurable differences in group conduct
as compared with a control group To illustrate, a group that
had discussed the meaning of cooperation in terms of behavior
and then had had opportunities to practice it in classroom \work
showed measurable differences in cooperation in contrast \itlh
the control group which h had not had such experiences. The
control group rated just as high in efficiency. that is. in getting
things done: but ellicient production and gro ith in cooperation
are two dillerent values.
Reading and discussing with children a stor\ concerned
,with developing cooperation increased scores on tests designed
to measure cooperation.
Self-co-fidence: Preschool children were helped through a
direct training program to build self-confidence: to develop bet-
ter attitudes tow ard failure: to reduce asserti e behavior.
Reduction o t Lear: These methods ha\e been found elfective
in reducing fear: ( 1 ) association children with other children
\\ho w~ere not afraid: (2) reconditioning through associating
feared object with liked food: i'3) learning skills to meet situa-
Ter'mpi tntrniw' m: Temper tantrurns seen to be handled
most effectively\ through stead\. constructive discipline, freedom
from tension so far as possible, and a sense of humor.
Hoicst'v: Children cheat less when emphasis is placed on
the satisfactions, of learning rather than on marks.
If children are under pressure to achieve certain awards
which the\ tind they\ cannot achieve b~ direct means, they some-
times resort to deceptive practices.


Honesty in school work can be developed by group morale.
but it does not seem to carr\ o\er when the group is later broken
up or sent to different classrooms.

GeneraI'l conidilratii,,is: In an\ consideration of research
in modif\inl attitudes and behavior. there is need for realization
of the complexity of the problems involved and for a humble
attitude toward the progress that has been made.
As \\ as indicated at the begiinnin of this section, research
in this field i, not deliniti\e. The limitations of such research
might include over-generalizations from data; inadequate con-
troil: inadequate definition of conditions: insufficient sampling
of subjects and conditions: interpretations colored by bias or in-
sufficient knowledge. The crealtie nature of growth. with its
man\ ramifications. suggests the complexities, involved in the
modification of attitudes and behavior.
In spite of such possible limitations, however, the steady
increase of research data related to the modification of attitudes
and behavior \\ill be an invaluable aid in learning to provide
the kinds of experiences most faorablet to the development of
moral-spiritual valuess.


Nloral-spiritutal education is included in a cood educational
program: it is not a thilln apart. Only tor clarification and em-
phasis do \ke discuss it as a special phase of education. Having
examined it carefully, we put it back in the total educational
In considering moral-spiritual education. then. let us look
again at our purposes. The\ ma\ be expressed in dilrerent ways.
The follo' ing outline of goals seem to be particularly helpful
for the organization of this publication:
Developing One's Best Self.
Developing a Positike Relationship Toward Others.


Appreciating Our American Heritage.
Recognizingl Man\ Sources of Inspiration.
In planning the kinds of experiences that help to achieve
these purposes. v e cannot be too dogmnatic. W\e can pro\ ide an
'ciioi'imcn.e in \which children and \y1oun people can achieve
optimum development at their various levels of groixth. It is
not possible to gi\ e specific rules for modifying attitudes and
behaliors. What helps one person might ha\e the opposite
effect on another person. It is possible, however, to point up
the kinds of experiences, according to research, that provide the
best environment for the de\elopmen t of values.
In order to provide a favorable environment for the de\el-
opment t moral-,piritual values it i iportat i i r to know' much
about children. \\e need to consider their basic needs. their
characteristic, at dilTerent age levels, the kinds of developmental .
tasks for them at different ame levels. and the kinds of moti\a-
tion that determine beha ior.
The follo. ing references to he grove th and development of
children indicate the kind of knov. ledge needed. Space permits
only at limited treatment: nummaries are of little \1aue without
the thinking th-at preceded them: but it is hoped that this brief
section mayt point tip tile importance of learning more about
children and stimulate to further study those readers v.ho are
not satisfied with their present understandings.

Basic N\ tilc
Thle basic needs of individuals ha\e been described in dif-
lerent v, ays. Phlsioloical, social,. ego. and integrative needs
are mentioned b\ Prescott.'" -\ simple, practical list of needs,
aside from phys-iological, include these: _security. belonging.
affection. recognition. .:nd variety of experiences. These may
be expanded in many wavs, but the\ are threads running through
the fabric of beha\ ior.
D'"D nnij.] A Pr.: Ltt. L ,,-,,,A'' ,i .l I, L,,,.,; i '.,.s.; \VW ahingion. D. C.:
Americjn Council on Edticatlon. I'".,.


Developmental Tasks
Attempts to meet basic needs are related to certain. so-called.
developmental tasks at different age leIels. These tasks vary
with such factors as age, sex. socioeconomic and or ethnic back-
ground. Some of the tasks recur at each level of development:
others are peculiar to certain age spans. The\ ma\ be expressed
in different ways, but an acceptable general list. adapted from
the references below," might include the follow ing:
1. Learning to give and receive affection in keeping v\ith
one's stage of development.
2. Developing a conscience.
3. Developing intellectual skills and concepts necessary for
social, economic, and civic competence.
4. Learning to understand and control the physical world.
adjusting to it when necessary .
5. Making adjustments relative to one's changing bod\.
6. Learning about and accepting one's masculine or temi-
nine social role.
7. Learning to get along \~lth others.
8. Achieving appropriate patterns of independence of par-
ents and other adults.
9. Learning to participate responsibly as a citizen.
10. Preparing for marriage and family life.
11. Developing vocational competence.
12. Building conscious values as a guide to beh.\ ior.
13. Relating one's self to the uni' erse.
Several examples will show the variation in these tasks at
different age levels as presented in Fostirinr 1/l11t/l Hical/l in
Our Schools."l The ability to loIe and to accept loe\ is being rec-
More detailed studies of de'.i,-l.mi :nti I ii m.d, I:i found in t ,he f-ill, in
Robert J. Havighurst, Develo,- .-r.;J i.;sil .;,,! E,!'i..i,...,, NC :. orl Long-
mans, Green and Compan,. I c I.:j
Fostering Mental Health in O.r 5..'; ..1 I':1s Y iIl-.col. o'f the .\ixoci.iori for
Supervision and Curriculum Dc. clopnenierit \ .aih ton r. DC Njinonal
Education Association, 1951.1.
Arthur W Blair and W m. H. Biuri-n. 't:r ... U i,,, D[ l..;r, .,: ,.t ,- P -i. .J. ,.
cent. New York: Appleton(-C .'ii' .r.-Ci li.. inc I
Wm. E. Martin and Celia Burn- Src ,.II r. Cl.l/, Dr, /,. ..,,-', Nc\ York: H.,r-
court, Brace and Compan\. Ir.c.. 1]u3.
12 Fostering Mental Health. 195l. Yajrbi.?k.. pp S4-_7.


ognized as more and more important in development toward
maturity. so \\e shall use thaI as a rirst example:

Developit.g Ie abhilii io 1i've aidiI rcel'e love

Intanc\ :
Earl\ Childhood:

Late Childhood:

Earl\ adolescence:

Late Adolescence:

deelops a feeling for affection
develops lthe ability to givt e affection:
learns to share affection
learns to !gi\e love generots;l\. forming.
friendships x .ich peers
accepts himself as a \,orth-while per-
son. really worthy of lo\e: continues
to form Iriendships \\ith peers
bui lds a strong mutual bond of affec-
tion \\ith a i possible marriage

"De\eloping a conscience" is integrally related to moral-
spiritual education, so x\e shall use that arei for our second

DcLi/clphi, a c0//'ci /Cl'


Earl\ childhood:

Late childhood:

Earl\ adolescence:

begins to conform somewhat to ex-
pectations of others
dceclop. ability to take direction from
others, to obey rules. and in some
cases to substitute conscience for
person in authority
tends to accept as his o\ n the con-
sciences of parencs and teachers
learns more rules, develops the ability
to distin uish between right and
\\ ron. fairness and unfairness in
everyday practical situations
continues development of previous
stage and begins to acquire the abil-
it\ to deal with and to control his

Late adolescence:

learns to perceive and to verbalize
contradictions in moral codes. dis-
crepancies between principle and
learns to resolve such problems in a
responsible way

"Relating one's self to the cosmos" is an important area for
our study. It throws some light on the appropriate :ippioalch to
moral-spiritual education at different age levels.

Relating one's self to the cosmos

Early childhood:

Late childhood:

Early adolescence:

Late adolescence:

develops curiosity about his relation-
ship to the universe
asks questions about God, birih. dearth
and tends to accept adult answers
not much change at this period except
that child is developing a more real-
istic concept of the world
more concern at this stage in relations
with people rather than in their re-
lations to the cosmos-developing
seeks value system in which he can re-
late himself to "eternal trutLhs."
either through religious precept:. or
philosophical principles
At the same time he concerns himself
with abstract problem, of "right
and wrong" and with discrepancies
between expressed ideals and prac-

Characteristics of Children at Different Age Levels
The kinds of experiences most favorable for the gro thl and
development of children are related to children's needs. to their
developmental tasks, and to their characteristics at different age


leIels. Some general characteristics at different age levels
appear. but omer and abo\e general characteristics, children
are indi iduals ith a %\ ide spread of individual differences. The
characteristics listed below t are adapted from material in the
following books:
\\illiam E IMrtin and Celia Burns Stendler. Chil, Development. New
York: H:,rco.iurt. Brace .nd Compan.y. Inc.. 1953.
Glad\s ( Jenkirn. Helen Schacier, Lnd \\n. \. B.iuer, These Are Your
ChildJin Chica.2o: Scoti. Foreisman ind Company, 1949.
Marguerite Malm andj Ohs G. Jam.nusn, .-lil-.s rnce. New York: McGraw-
Hill Book Company, Inc., 1952.
.-Idol/sci ..iC Pnrt I, Forty-third Yearbook of the National Society for the
Stud\ of Educ.ition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1944.

In early childhood children tend to
-have short attention span
-show. naive thinking, inclining toward fantasy
--2ro\ in ability to play in small groups
-en joy dramatic activities and rhythmic activities
-enijo large muscle physical activity
-ha\e great vitality but to become easily fatigued
-shov. curiosity in the world about them
-become increasingly self-dependent
-learn and obey safety rules
In the preadolescent period children tend to
-sho\\ a wide range of individual differences in level
of maturity
-substitute standards of peer group for those of adults
-develop strong attachment for other children of same
a.2e and sex; loyalty to the gang stronger among boys
than among girls
-develop antagonism between the sexes
--sho\ slow physical growth
-develop increased muscular strength and coordina-
tion and resistance to fatigue
-experience uneven growth in different parts of the body
-s-hi\\ increased objectivity regarding world about them
-display greater interest in causal relationships
-develop increased effectiveness in intellectual skills


In early adolescence pupils tend to
-enjoy simple "creature" comforts
-have many interests of short duration
-show differences in rate ot 2ro-ith-period of rapid
growth for some
-seek relationships with peers: experience fear of ridi-
cule and of being unpopular
-enjoy informal social activities
-be full of excitement and physical acti\ ity
-like club activities
-be unstable in emotions
-vary in personality types
-break away from bonds of adult dependency
-be concerned with establishin' their x\orth as indi-
-tend to explore many areas of life. e.2.. intellectual.
sensory, social, moral, religious: eachh for ideals
-show great interest in personal attractiveness
In late adolescence pupils tend to
-be more discriminating in their choices
-have fewer interests but deeper
-seek identification with small. select group
-begin "going steady"
-enjoy more formal social activities: like a variety of
recreational opportunities
-develop insight into human relations
-have decreased interest in or=Janized. strenuous games
-show wide variation in physical and social devel-
-seek mature relationship %\ith parents and adults
-carry on some characteristics of early adolescence
-become more interested in school \orik as it contrib-
utes to their life work
-seek for controlling values around \ which to integrate
their lives

In the light of present knowledge about the needs, the de-
velopmental tasks, and the characteristics of children at dilTerent

RLSL.-AkCil RE: NIOR.\L-rIP IrU L \ \.LUE, 21
agec levels. how can \,e motivate youngg people to satisfy their
needs in socially acceptable \ui"' To make the most of them-
selves as individuals? To make their optimum contribution to
General principles of mnotiation cannot be stated specifi-
cally. \\lut i. motivation for one person might not be for an-
other. Any kind of motivation carried too far might become
negative in its effect.
In the bulletin, Moral and Spiritual Values in Education,
published by the Education Policies Commission, the following
sanctions for right conduct were suggested as types of motiva-
tion: justice, the law, property rights, group approval, author-
ity, guidance, religious convictions.'3
Motivation related to the interest and needs of pupils is
effective. Appeal to the child's spontaneous interest is a high
form of motivation. Through such an appeal help can often
be given in setting up goals with a child. A goal to work toward
is a powerful incentive to action. Interpersonal relations be-
tween teacher and pupil can be effective incentives to action.
Experiencing pleasure as a result of socially acceptable and
ethical behavior, or annoyances as a result of undesirable be-
ha ior, can be a motivating force. Desirable motivation might
include praise or reproof, social recognition, success or failure."
Formerly teachers and parents used personal approval as a
measure oi child control. Research has indicated that this is a
lok level of adult domination and when used as a control is
not conducL c to growth in self-direction. The relative effective-
Tness of praise or reproof as motivation depends on the social
situation the importance of the teacher-pupil relationship, the
feeling a pupil has about himself. The mental hygienist recog-
Educ.I.oir.il Policies Commission, Moral and Spiritual Values in the Public
5,4'."1,' pp 7-48. Washington, D.C.: Educational Policies Commission of the
Na111oni. Educ-.rion Association of the United States and the American Association
of School .Xilministrators, 1951.
'' Sccc!. is usually a stronger motivation than failure, but the degree depends
Lome h 1I on the level of one's self-evaluation. For example, a gifted child may be
'piu~red to gre.iter effort by failure and reproof. The disturbance of the "status quo"
ii ithOuhi 10 ble he motivating force.


nizes the approval or disapproval of people loved by children
as a powerful influence.

Desires such as the following are irceluives to action:
-to investigate nex fields,
-to be with people
-to express and communicate
-to construct and manipulate
-to gain approval
-to maintain social status
-to dramatize
-to display abilities
-to collect and experiment
-to take part in dramatic play
Drives to action may be expressed in such terms as these also:
-desire for security
-need to belong
-need for feeling of self-v.orth
-need for initiative
Motivation can be related to the de\elopmenital takl \. which
children face at each level of their grox\th and development. a
brief discussion of which preceded tills section.

In conclusion
Motivation for moral-spiritual development results v hen xxe
realize that such values
-contribute to happiness,
-help in getting along % ithi people
-increase vitality


-make learning easier
-orient one to himself. to others. and to the Universe
-gi\e puLpose and meaning to life
A strong motivating force is the realization that the so-
called "good" life offers the best opportunity fot a satistling.
creative, happy life.

We have discussed at some length the kinds of school experi-
ences that seem to promote gro' th in moral-spiritual values .
The school does not \ ork alone in this enterprise. hole er.
The home. the church, and other community agencies are part-
ners \\ith the school in the development of alliess.
1. Home environment
The home environment is recognized as the most important
factor in determining the attitudes and beha \ior of children.
Relationshillp wi within the home are increasingly regarded
as more important in determining attitudes and behavior
than the plhsical conditions. A iarm. affectionate. related
relationship between parents and children tends to promote
well-adjusted personalities. Parental rejection tends to cause
different kinds of beha\io:r. c.-., ( I i over-aggressive. hos-
tile behavior, possible truancy. lying, stealing, or ( 2 ) apathy.
or (3 dependence clinging. ingratiating behavior.
A child's behavior also tends to be influenced in a broad
\a\i b\ the general culture in w which he is born. c.g.. socio-
economic background. education, and other family circum-
stances. Different families have different values.
Teachers understand children better when the\ under-
stand the values in the homes from which tlhe come. as
\\ell as the culture from which the\ come. Individual dif-
ferences within a family or group, hol\e\er. are sometimes
greater than differences between families or between dis-
tinct groups.


The family is recognized a; the major factor in meet-
ing the child's needs of security, affection. belonging. recog-
nition, new experiences. The school. ho\\ecer, can strengthen
the work of the home in meeting these needs of the child
at school.

2. Church influence
The church and the home pro\ ide direction it t he religious
thought in a child'\ life. In the church. morality is directly\
related to religious beliefs. Children take part in the %worship
of God, the highest good. They are encouraged to follow w
the example of great religious leaders. \\oodruff ( 10-15 )'
found "that religious experience has an imnport-aint erfect on
the value patterns, of young people."
A few objective studies hi\c been made that indicate
measurable changes. in conduct due to chlurch-school at-
tendance. Hartshorne and lMay\" found that a church-school
group showed a lomew hat more fe fa' rble score on honesty
and helpfulness than a non-church group. MaIler': found that
attendance at religious school increased the honesty ot a
group of Jewish children.

3. Other community agencies
Other community agencies play their part in de\ eloping
moral-spiritual \ values th :rough recreational opportunities.
mass-media of communication, and character-buildirig or-
ganizations. Studies of boyhood delinquency \ary in their
results, but some shovt that
-delinquent boys had poorer school records,
-attended church less regt ularl\
-belonged less to organized groups
-had fewer leisure imne activities
A. D. Woodruff, ciucl in C .-rm;.h i..I. ,p i. p ,~SI
Hugh Hartshorne and \1. \. \1,, ,..,. h ., iH. \ a:."., 'I Ci,.,.i.'t 3 .. j
New York: The Macmillan Comp.ri.,
7 J. B. Mailer, "Char it,.r Uiiov.1 h ,nd .l ..~t Educiliio R?...... ,,.... 'a.
(1930), pp. 627-630.


Other studies also indicate that
-motion pictures are a potential influence for good or
for bad on the beha ior of southh
-cheap novels and magazines haic an unfavorable
ellect on the behavior of southh
and that, on the other hand.
the clinical us-e of carefully\ chosen stories related to
the anti-social behavior of delinquent children offers
promising results
-members of clubs. properlI organized, stand consis-
tentl\ higher in cooperation than non-club members
4. In conclusion
Teachers need to know- the community v-its strengths. its
\\eaknesses-before they can \work ellectiielv in the class-
room. They need to kino the kind of neighborhood in
which their pupils li\e, the kind of homes from \which they
conic. the companions they keep. and the recreational op-
portunities available. The\ need to know\ about the other
agencies in the conmmunil concerned \\ith Noung people.
Out of this knowledge teachers can be helped in proddiing
experiences that \\ill dec\ lop moral-spiritual values .
But e\en more than this, teachers need to be warm.
friendly people with a satiisying personal philosophy and
faith and ith a deep. genuine interest in and lo\e for bo\s
and girls. There is no \ teachers. Perhaps a hitting conclusion for this, chapter
would be:

". 1nd1 no\1' abidetil tailh, hop1't'. eio'. ilh'sc
ti -c: e. filtl t el tlt'tlle. of ilest' is /lo0 e.



This ,ery important chapter has been written bv teachers
of California's children. Through anecdotal records teachers
hate reported their attempts to meet individual and group needs.
These records tell of daily activities wheree\ teachers hate
helped individuals and groups to develop moral-spiritual values
useful to citizens of our American democratic society. The
content of this chapter '\as obtained through the cooperation
of the fifty-eight count\ superintendents of schools M\ho ser'e
the children of the state. Over fi\e hundred replies xwere re-
ceived in response to the request for teachers' statements of prom-
ising practices. In so far as possible. these descriptions are
submitted as the teachers have written them. These stories
present the problem and the steps taken to develop in pupils
an awareness of need and to build in the learners themselves
a desire for change. Each record contains many aspects of the
learning situation, and it has been difficult to categorize the
major implications.
The stories relate to learning for all ages and all grade levels
from kindergarten through senior high. Some learning have
been developed in special subject areas. Some relate to com-
munity needs and projects. Obiously. all of the fine incidents
of growth w which 'were reported to the committee could not be
contained in a small publication, and it therefore became neces-
sary for the committee to select examples in as \\ide a range as
possible. Teachers should find the suggestions most helpful
and should make their owin particular applications of the ideas
presented, according to the maturity level of the child or group
to be guided.


In presenting these incidents, a;s reported, the comnittlee is
well aware of certain limitations in this method, a malor one of
which is that of oversinplification. The reader is \ atined against
the pitfall of believing that the techniques described can be
duplicated exactly in another classroom. To tr to do so would d
be just as futile as attempting the painting of a picture after
viewing the work of a master artist. These tories cannot full\
reveal the long, detailed stud of pupils by the classroom teacher.
and they often fail to tell about previous "trial and error" at-
tempts to solve the problem. The same techniques used under
different circumstances and \\ith other personalities may result
in outcomes that are le, encouraging.' A careful stlud\ of
these records, however. Inma \\ell have these results:

1. Greater understanding and appreciation among teachers
of what they are already doing in this important aspect
of education.
2. Greater understanding and appreciation of \\hat others
are doing.
3. Greater understanding and appreciation of possible pro-
cedures that milht be adapted to their classroom situ-
4. Greater understanding and appreciation among the pub-
lic of the role of the ,school in de eloping moral-spiritual
The material sent iI b\ teacher s ha been organized under
four major headings. each of whichh is directly\ related to the
Part I. Developing One'S Bert Self
Part II. Developin,g a Puoitivc Rcltioiinihipl To\i'ird
Part III. Apprcciatin,, Ou(r A.ne' it anl Heltage
Part IV. Recogn;zii., illanY Soitrcc 4 / lInpn tion

SIt is important to recocrn.:c th.il Ch(_ picr II dIcHJl' J ilh norm il class.i roox'nl 5* 3-
tions, not with clinical cases.


\\hat kinds of experiences help pupils to develop their best
sel\es? As indicated in the general introduction to this chap-
ter and in the discussion of research in Chapter II, there is no
set formula for developing moral-spiritual values. Different
individuals react to experiences in dillerent ways. From study
of research findings,2 from observation, and from reports of
classroom situations, however, the kinds of experience3 that
involve the following procedures or results appear best fitted to
help children and young people to develop their highest poten-
1. Good personal relations are established.
2. Pupils' special needs are considered.
3. Pupils learn the meaning of and the advantages of moral
4. Problems are solved in our American tradition.
5. Pupils learn skills in human relations.
6. Practices are used that promote integrity.
7. Pupils are encouraged in the development of a sound,
\\ wholesome philosophy of life.
S. Cooperation with home and community is practiced.
9. Opportunities for inspirational experiences are provided.
10. Opportunities to learn about religion are provided.
School personnel who provide experiences such as these can
be li ing e\;amples of the values they seek to develop. Associa-
tion \ ith people who have keen insight into values and reflect
them in their personal lives is perhaps the greatest experience
a child or .oung1 person can have.
In man\l situations several different kinds of experiences are
synthesizedd. Part I of this chapter presents examples from class-
SC Ch.ptcr II pp. 12-29.
Los Ari\n le.i Cti, Schools, Moral and Spiritual Values in Education, Tentative
EJd ion, I 5-4.


rooms in the State of California to illustrate some of the various
kinds of desirable experiences in self-de\elopment. The exam-
ples given reflect someichat dramatic changes in attitudes and
behavior. The same general principles, however. are effective
with better adjusted children as they move toward the develop-
ment of their best selves.

Gaining StamtI in Class Develop' a Fteling of Self-ll'orth
Douglas \\as in his second semester of kindergarten and pre-
sented a problem in beha ior. During painting time he walked
around, tearing other children's paintings and stamping on them.
Douglas felt that lhe couldn't paint. Apparently in first semester
he had been forced to try. and the children had told him his
painting \ as "messy and dumb."
Is It Hard,.' Is It Eai'v? by Mary Green %vas the storybook
read to the class. The group talked about who could catch a
ball and Nw ho could paint and w ho had good ideas for play \w ith
blocks. The children all mentioned.that Douglas played ball
well and that lie had the best idea for block play. He was appre-
ciated! As a result of this recognition Douglas changed into a
helpful member of the group. He even painted by request.
though his work continued to be messy. The children appreci-
ated Douglas more after they had been articulate about his

Physical Cleaniincss Is lmporhtnt to One's Self.-Respet'c
Nathan's problem "\as a social one. He had difficulty get-
ting along w ith anyone and refused to apply himself to his work.
He was continually pLnching and kicking the other children.
No matter what approach \\as used, he \\as surly and unco-
A home call revealed Nathan's home to be a small shack
without running w after. He and his father lived alone. The

father wvas uncooperative, too. Nathan did not know \\here his
mother \\as.
When tlie teacher tried talking over a particular incident.
Nathan said: "They called me names." The other boy involved
insisted lie had not said a w ord. Nathan finally admitted the boy
had not said anything but had held his nose v hen he %walked by.
Nathan was unkempt to say t he least. Aid \\as requested of
Mr. \illiams. the custodian, and he helpfully agreed to lix up
a shok\er.
The next da\ the children w\ere informed that Mr. Williams
had a great deal of t\ork to do and that lie would d like a good
qsrong2 bo to help him. After much discussion Nathan \\as
picked as the strongest boy. He tias pleased but did not v.ish
to shomr it. Mr. \\illiams let Nathan help rig up the sho',xer and
told him lie could use it as a special privilege. He didn't accept
the suggestion a it rst but finally decided to try it. Then there
was the problem of clean underwear. Nathan said his father
did not %\ash clothes, but only bought ne%\o ones. The custo-
dian's ife bought lne\ underwear and % washed the old. In clean
clothing Nathan really \ ful place %w ith his classmates. He \%as given a comb. This pleased
him and he used it. The showers became more frequent. The
feeling of cleanliness and the feeling that he belonged d and as
\wanted changed this boy's outlook and attitude tow ard others.

Rccovniilioi of Siall SIccesses Ec('I'/agcLWes Greawt Ef.ort
Tommie \a\s a very quiet boy ,\ho usually kept to himself
and did not %want to participate in group plays or classroom dis-
cussion. He hunI back until asked to join a game. One day.
w hen Tommie had been sent into a game of football. lie caught
an exceptionally hard-to-catch pass. which gaxe him a chance
to make a score His teammates all clapped him on the back
and shook his hand and lie \.as the recognized hero of the came.
The next day. following this experience, Tommie wanted
to know if lie might give a current e cents report.


He continues to be quiet; but from the da\ that Tommie was
recognized by his peers for his success in football lie has tried
to participate with the group in most of their acti\ cities.

Feeling Accepted Helps the Child to Develop Self-Control
Jimmy, born out of wedlock, was ostracized by lthe com-
munity. Parents did not want their children to plaN\ ith him.
The adults in his family were employed, and Jinmmi \as left to
shift for himself during the day. In his home at night there
were three adults each telling him what to do, and e\ en the\ were
not in agreement.
When he entered school at five-and-a-half tears of age. ihe
was too immature to do the work of the first grade. He repeated
that grade. By the time he came to the second grade he "\as
striking out at the world. He frequently had temper tantiumns.
In fact, he was almost totally lacking in self-control. He car-
ried a chip on his shoulder, pouted, fought the children, and
felt that all were against him.
The principal of the school took a special interest in Jimmn
and, as a result, the teachers in the school came to feel a per-
sonal responsibility for helping him. His second-grade teacher
felt and showed real sympathy and affection for him. She taught
the other children to be helpful to Jimmy. Since hlie had con-
fidence in him, he soon began to feel a little confidence in himself.
When the people of the community realized what a strong
desire the teachers had for helping Jimmy and his mother, a
friendlier attitude toward them gradually grew. As school and
community attitudes changed, Jimmy's attitudes and his be-
havior changed. He got along better with others and %%as less
When Jimmy was in the middle grades, his mother married.
"At last I have a daddy," Jimmy proudly told his teachers. The
relationship between father and son is splendid. Jimmy is now
well accepted by his peers. He works diligently in his Scout
organization. He is accepted by the community. He is secure

and Ioed in hi, little world. He is delightedly telling everyone
that he will soon have a baby brother or sister.

Experiencing the Feeling of Being Trusted
Develops Pride and Self-Confidence
A group of boys in a special remedial class for slow learners
felt that they were looked down upon by the other pupils. They
seemed eager to learn, but were suspicious of any extra attention
and stuck together for mutual protection.
Miss Jones, sensing the situation, tried to ease the tension
by conducting a program fitted to their needs. One of the morn-
ing routines was to send the lunch money and a list of names
to the school cafeteria. Catching the eye of Billy, who was the
leader, she said: "Billy, would you like to take the money to
Mrs. Sousa?" Billy looked at her a little startled, glanced over
his shoulder at the others, and then came to her desk. "You
mean me?"
"Yes, wouldn't you like to do it?"
"Sure, I want to," but leaning on his elbow over the desk,
he said in a stage whisper, "Didn't the rest of 'em tell you I steal?"
Miss Jones, smiling, said: "But you don't, do you, Bill?"
"No-not now. I did a little in the second and third grade,
and they still think I do. None of the others trust me. You're
kinda good to us, so I thought you should know about me be-
fore you got into trouble."
He was so anxious to prove himself worthy that before she
could answer he took the money bag, and in no time was back
with a proud look on his face.
To deliver the lunch money was his duty all that week, and
each day was a red letter day for him.
That Friday he skipped the ball game and waited at noon to
talk to Miss Jones. "I never did that before. Just the good girls
got the chance. Was I all right? I came right back. Can I do
it again? Take the money down, I mean?"
"You certainly may, Bill. I saw you selling papers when I


took the train the other da. You have a paper route. Your
boss trusts \yoI \withl the paper money. doesn't he '"
"Sure-and I ha\e S200 sa\ed in the bank'"
"I think \e are the luck\ ones to haie such a busineL-man
as \ou. Bill, to do the job for us." Miss Jones said.
Bill's spirit of self-confidence spread to the other,. \\ho now
stuck together in pride rather than in self-defense.
*Aletiing Individaii l e dl\'s Leiadl to litI
Unfoldmintc of Pelrsonaliy
Jimmy \ as a small ten-year-old \ho had felt nothing but
rejection at home and at school throughout his lifetime. His
father had died from tuberculosis when he \"as a \ountli child.
and his mother had been hospitalized throughout the \ears.
Jimmy had been passed from one relative to another. None
of them wished to bother \with him. At the ace of nine he had
rebelled and had run ana\ from them all. follow inl which lie
\\as placed in a. boarding home along with nine other children.
Acain he did not receive the Io\e and attention which he so
badly needed. Since the children did not accept him at school,
lie \as an outsider wherever he \\ent.
The school recommended that Jimmy be placed in a home
\\here he \would be the only child and ,would not have to share
the allection ot the foster parents with other children. NMo' ing
into a ne\\ home meant attendance at a different school \\here
the principal had been informed of Jimmy's need for security\
and recognition. The foster mother proudly\ took him to school
to register. When they reached the school the principal met
them with his hand extended, s-ying. "'You are just the bo\
we need. Our third baseman left this morning, and perhaps
\ith some help you c would play on the team." Since Jilmmy "\as
not proiliient in throw ing o catching a ball. the principal gave
him special help until el he became skillful enough to play. The
neiy home and an understanding principal effected a turning
point in Jimmy's life. since for the first time he felt v anted, both
at school and at home.

LUnd.rsiandinQ .-i Aother's Position Helps One
io A1lolifv 1 iitii miles
IMaria is a pretty fifteen-year-old girl, who came to our school
four weeks after school started. She was transferred to our spe-
cial school because she had been doing only a little regular class
work. She v.as obl\ iosly very much disturbed. Her mind was
never on the lesson. She just sat looking out into space. One
day I asked her if she would like to stay the following period
and help me to change the bulletin board. She said, "I don't
\hile e e .ere working, I asked her if she would like to have
a piece of material like the sample I was putting on the board.
"Yes. MIiss .... the skirt I have on is the only one I have to
wear to school. Since my stepmother and I have not been speak-
ing. m\ lather won't give me anything," she said. I asked her,
"Don't \ou ish \our father to be happy? You know he needs
companionship just as you need your friends who are your age."
Her repl \ as. I iuess so."
It seemed best to become better acquainted before saying
.jn thiln further. The bell rang, and she was asked to stay
during m\ free period the following day to get her skirt started.
She \\':s pleased to do so and for the first time there was a smile
on her face. Two weeks later her skirt was finished, and Maria
w\as obviously happy with it. She told me that her stepmother
was cettint: her material for a blouse to make. I asked her how
she w.,s getting along at home, and she said, "I like her better."

Pal eils IaV \L''ced Io Be Helped to Help Their Own Child
Da\id Brov.n \ as seven years old, in the third grade, and
.bo\e average in intelligence. His father was a professor at the
college level. working on his doctorate. His mother had been
an actress on Broadway, and was now teaching voice at the
adult education center. The socioeconomic level of this home
"\as abo\e average. Another child was expected before the end
of the year.


David was a definite behavior problem at the lirst of the
school year He would pinch, shove, and trip others, make faces.
mock the teacher, and in every way act like a sho% -oIT. Reading
tests at the first of the year placed him in the lowest reading
Separate conferences with the mother and the father re-
vealed that the father was a perfectionist and expected too much
of his son, beyond the boy's maturity. The teacher diplomati-
cally indicated this point to the parents in the light of what it
might be doing to David.
The boy was given another standard reading test, which
this time rated him above class level. This was an eye-opener
to the teacher, indicating that David might have ability beyond
that he exhibited in his daily work. A mental test indicated
ability above average. Also, the teacher had discovered that
David had a keen sense of humor and possibly did not mean
to be unkind with his mimicking of herself and the children.
On the basis of this information, the teacher decided to try
an experiment with David. When the children came in at noon
and sat quietly to rest and hear the customary story read to them
by the teacher, she said to David, "David, I'm tired. Will you
please read something to the class while we rest?"
David took the challenge. He read and read well!
The teacher asked him, "Why have you been wasting your
time? You can read so well."
"Why did I? Oh, I don't know," he answered, making a
face, but all in good fun as though to entertain the class further.
David's work continued to improve and at this writing, near
the end of the year, his work is most satisfactory and his reading
ability is about sixth-grade level.
The teacher and class enjoy David's wit now because it is
not cruel but just good fun. He has stopped pinching, sho\ ing.
and such unkind acts. He still mocks others, but without impu-
dence or unkindness.
The father came to the school, wanting the teacher to ad-

vance David to the next grade. The teacher told the father all
the reasons for this would be bad for David socially and why
he should stay with classmates his own age. She pointed out
that David was now learning good habits, and that he had im-
proved so much in citizenship that he had been accepted by
this group of children and was in every way becoming a well
adjusted boy.
The teacher explained that it would be best for David to
mature naturally and that while it was good for his father to
show interest in his school work, it would be best not to ask
David about it continually or magnify unduly the importance
of book learning. The importance of regarding David as a per-
son in his own right, aside from his academic work, and the fun
in maintaining a relationship with the boy on this basis were
other points presented.
The father had gained considerable respect for this teacher
in seeing what she had done for his son. His parting remark,
though kind, was reminiscent of his son's style of humor. He
said, "Teacher is the final word, so we bow to your opinion."

Understanding by Adults Is Essential to Helping a Child
Last year a seven-year-old took sweets, candy, cookies from
the children's lunches. The children knew it and after that ac-
cused her of taking anything that was missing in the room.
One day when the teacher saw her taking cookies from a
lunch, the child cried. In the talk that followed it was learned
that with five other children, she boarded with a foster mother.
They had no sweets in their lunches. She also missed her mother,
whom she saw rarely.
The teacher suggested to the child that she would like to
pretend that she was her little girl if she could be sure that she
would ask for things rather than take them from other children.
Every day the teacher took her a treat of some kind. The
child blossomed like a flower. In the meantime the teacher had
a conference with the foster mother. After a few weeks the


habit of taking things \\as dropped. The child \\as happy '\hen
she had the love and understanding that she needed.

Acceptance and Love .-Ire Basic Ncids
One child, ne;, to junior high school. had been having a
great deal of difficult\. Finally one of her teachers, a motherly.
kind person, developed a special interest in her. One day the
child looked up at her teacher and said. "You kno',. Miss . ...
since you started loving me. I seem to be getting along better
with everyone!"

Children Should Lea, / in Face Situatioe'n Reali ticallv
In a senior high school class, a boy \ ho had been born \w ith
only half a right arm became an emotional problem. He had
had difficulty throughout his school experience. His physical
handicap was accentuated by home complications. He told
rather fantastic tales about himself. Against the jludngment of
other teachers, he \%as placed in tile drama class. There he \\as
erratic in his class ork as he had been in ever\ situation. Finally.
when the drama teacher tried tie experiment of giving him a
comedy lead in an assembly pla\. he rose to the occasion and did
the part well. In this part his arm \as no obstacle and he felt hlie
had achieved something before the group. The boy developed
some skill in writing and in cartooning. He graduated in 1942.
Recently he came back to say. "I can't thank you enough for
what you did for me. After that play something happened to
me; I knew I was fooling no one but myself. I realized that to
accomplish something by effort and honest\ gave a real satis-
faction. Also I gained the courage to face tip to things on my
own ability." At the present time he is \rting for several \\ell-
known magazines and has achieved sLcceSs.

Guiding Is Leadin,-' Tow 'ml US 'fiIl Gloal
A tenth grader hummed a tune in ltie classroom \%hen lie
wasn't talking out loud or emplominy .some other method to irri-

tate the classroom teacher. In spite of these annoying habits.
the boy had likeable qualities. By w watching him when he \\as
supposed to be making a history\ outline. the teacher discovered
his "doodlines" \\ere \works of art. Later when asked to be re-
sponsible for some draw ings and sketches for the bulletin board
he %\as curious about how, the teacher knewI he could draw and
\%as a little surprised iwhen she told him that his "doodlings"
had been under observation for some time. For his helper he
chose his best friend, a big clumsy boy who took the greatest
delight in the special privileges w which this assignment afforded.
such as a trip to the art room for poster paper. The pri ileges
were not abused, and the two boys became cooperative members
of the class as they received praise and comment on their attrac-
tie bulletin boards. Their greatest achievement, in the eves of
the school. \,as the arrangement of all the flowers for a tea hon-
oring the mothers of the members of the tenth grade. The floral
display brought the bo`ys the commendation of parents and
teachers. The follow ing summer both boyh s w worked for a nursery.
Through achievement. these boys received attention and praise.
and personal growth \%as a natural development.

Handicaps Can Develop Oilic Steieths
An 18-year-old boy. crippled by cerebral palsy. enrolled in
a high school art-metal class for students in grades 10 through
12. Since the boy \\as ill at ease and insecure at first in a room
full of physically able students, it \\as important to establish
in the class an atmosphere of friendliness and informality.
Without being told. the students sensed the part the\ should
take in helping him. Concerned o\er his safety while he used
Ihe power tools, one or two stood by until he assured them that
he could operate these \without assistance. The\ showed interest
in the originality and good quality of his projects. and worked
a little harder themselves. He frequently brought draw ings of
his inventions, one of which \ as a power-driven \ heel chair for
a boy at the clinic who was more handicapped than he. His


speech became less labored a, the\ patiently listened to his hu-
morous anecdotes. He xwon the respect of everyone for his opti-
mism and independence. In later \cars. hearing the store\ ot
this fine boy has helped to end the practice :among students of
calling each other "you spastic!" as an expression of ridicule.

School Bulletins Can Promote Sit-Decvclopm'uei
Through Discussion
The student council and faculty' in a 1un11or high school
planned and produced a series of bulletins during the spring
term which were distributed to students and teachers. Tuo
issues that proved particularly\ fruitful in promoting significant
discussions are described in the follow ing paragraphs

BULLETIN I-"OFF (TO .\ GOOD S.\RI--\;as introduced
to teachers with the follow ing note: "The follow ing material is
offered not as a bulletin to be read or a speech to be made. but
as a guide for discussion These t\o questions stand out: Ho\\
can each of us make this a successful cl chool \ar ? Ho\\ can %e
help new students to feel that the\ are a part of our school?"
The principal content of the bulletin wa, as follows:
"Aims: (a) To build a iel;n l.' oIf *ecurit folr Lach pLpil. based on
realization that he is part of l .el-planned crganizatoiin set up it ,.c-
complish worthy goals; and i b to sa.; 1\\,lcme. ne'.. tude.lnti! \\e
are glad to have you v.ith us :ind \'.e knon,.,. \ L .ill like \our iiev.
school. We want to help ',ou to succeed."
"New Opportunities The be._'inning ol c~ It;i ncL,. term gies e\cer
student an opportunity to make a iresh start in his school lle. There
are new books, new subject. nef e\penernices in Icarning Ho'.-.etLr.
each term of the past should *;uppIl experience, t['o guide the pupil to
greater success in the term iist staring. No one \.lants to ilmake the
same mistakes twice. Don't .jus for,'et those nI:mrk. v.liich reprL.ient
your achievement of last tern,! Learn something frori themi. Let hein
be a guide to improvement this term.
"What marks in scholarship and citizenship did you receive at the
end of last term? Is it pleasant to remember that last report card? If
those final marks represent your very best efforts and are satisfactory
in every way, then try to repeat your past achievement this term.

Ho i'.'.eer. maiin\ o, ou I .no.. in ,ur he.irt,. Iliat \ou could ha\e. done
much better. Thi, ne.' term furnilieS \OnIr cI11.inCe (0 that I l.'l r ii0/ 'l..
of i'.hl h \..', a i.', .Lii(i /il R Il2t[ rtn .'. is the tim e ti' s_ i' ii iii. ei ills
ii,' t iiiii's i jull l. jt fh /l i l,/ tl .'' l l
")u.r k',_,n Si UJ.,iti. \\e hFe ppromxiiriatel 251.1 ne'A .tudenit.
The\- hai\e talents to adJ t., th,,se -I 'ltudenm, already\ here The,. are
ea-er it, becmnc a part of the larger school i which ih.-\v noi" attend.
W e o': 1 [ lIt t i t I r IIIo make the i feel [tr l', ,elcCiomle. \''e u111.t help
them it, eicrNs .' .a\ '.ce can It i, inJeed j "poor .port .'.- h i .es :ad-
\.intaei the htl. eillo.' o teth. nie',. ituderni t hase hi', iun. Thinie
are really fuin onlt ,'.hen the% are en.'oved hb, all-1.heun ll can laueh
together. Let us h'\ce n. silli jike;s or rude hia .'ine. Entcrin.e stiudenis
hrine' u, ncO. idUa' ne a' athl. lr for our [L.i ,', nie. talent, oiI all ind
W e need tlhi:e ine [Liudenllt. e lie thlein. a:id .., +.' nt hlici t ,-, li' l
Iis. Leti;s mi:ke Ihemi re:ibze the\ are rii'ininire to 10 e tildeiit' her' .

CARDS." issued at mid-term, bore tihe follow in2 Note to lhe
" i h i ei: llttdai e imaterlial. pr irined c':o'.perlIiIel"\ 'tLideni .couini il
and tacult\ Can b1 tisd [or dIsCu '.ii, n d riinl [ile rirt le'o. i nutl e
ot the afternoon home ruoin period at 2 4-in. Tues'd, ,. Mirch 17. Lead-
er r ini the c .ass i ichEt help to lrrinilatjie question, hcih .'. ill siriilate
diL cu ion It the l':i levt iit nlite.s pleI-Ise preenit ihe r.pori card' inj i-
\idually BI, \'-uir Cimmenlet perh.ap. \.,iu can help the tuideni t LO Lalui-
ate hr ii'elt iand ito anall\ze .'. a;< 1- iimpro e, il thi ij ne:es.ar\. \\here
pFlr-ie hli bee earned. generous appmro al i, o'tien a lu rather inspirl oi.
M.entin Hon.or Roll tatus.."

Following a sita ment of the aim of this bulletin-"To e\val-
nate our past vor1k and to plain to improve it for the future"-
the text proceeded thus:
"Each ol u, s'taried oil in Febhruar i to ilke ithi tlie best term s.e'\ e
eoer had. Some are 'ucceedin, Sume aire not doing (u 'A.ell. Re-
port card help yon 1o seC '. hlich ,frotip ,ou Lire in1 It '.our c:ird sho.s.;
*2:i,.,d v...ork- keep it tip! II \our report card -ho\s need for impr,'te-
menPt-L-.'tI / .''
'"It i not possible ,or eeron ie to ,eL .\ in e'cr u 'ubLCet. It take,
people ol dirtering :b'ihiitie' to make up the \\>.,rld. Nattrrall\ .ntie
pupils are better at certain subject than are oiherf. The person \\ho


is good in English may be poor in arithmetic. Perhaps book -ublects
are difficult for you while shop ,sbjectc are ea.\ and interesting \'ha[-
ever your abilities, remember o.'u should al.a~ s make he the ls possible
use of what you have.
"A fundamental belief in our democratic \,\a of life is that all
should have equal opporitinii toJ develop the abilities whichh he has.
That is what our school aim. to oiler :ou \ ih it. \v ide range of subjects
and activities. Do your best in e\er, class There is no reason for failure
though you may not be a leader in ecerthing ou atcnmpi.
"No one should have an unsalistactory mark in citizenship because
satisfactory citizenship is I, itin the riach l; il all I'f ou hate a "L' "
on your card, learn where impro:\ement is needed. Courtesy. coopera-
tion and industry are habits which all can acquire. Yo.u should, by
now, know the requirements in each of sour clascs. (.)\ t i'h riulc
There is lots more satisfaction to be camned b\ inor/i;n, nlh/ your
teachers and fellow pupils than by being unco.,peratite.
"Fortunately, it is possible to start a second time to earn those
satisfactory marks in scholarship and citizenship. Eer' one in atut g:od
marks. Everyone wants to succeed. Some, ho\eccr. "quit" when (ie
work or the effort gets too hard Believe it or not, there is more sat-
isfaction in doing the thing which h is difficult-the job which really tests
your powers. Don't give up Success belongs to those who earn it."



Listening to Stories and Jinies Gives Insigh
Into Desirable Behavior

During story time, the moral values of simple stories are
discussed on the kindergarten child's level. For example, pupils
and teachers talk about \hliy it \\as better for Johnnie to tell the
truth; why Peter Rabbit should ha-\e obeyed his mother. Some
stories are dramatized, and moral values are made more \ivid
as children act the part of story characters.
Better behavior values are learned by singing of little jingles.
such as:

-", Pm/i mother's little helper,
Save her lots of work each day,
When she sends you on an errand
Always do it right away.
Mother has so much to do,
Her work is never done,
You can do so very much
To help out, little one."

"Mickey Mouse is not afraid,
He always says, 'I'll try.'
Mickey always does his best
And so will I."

Being Required to Observe Other Children
Helps to Gain Perspective
Julia, a little girl in a primary classroom, continually ran
to the teacher with complaints about the doings of other chil-
dren. This annoying habit was particularly noticeable when
visitors were present.
One day, the teacher gave Julia her big chair, from which
she could watch all of the activities taking place in the room.
She was told to note everything that everyone did so that she
would be able to relate each incident.
Watching the activities of the entire classroom seemed to
enlarce the child's view and to give her a better understanding
of the activities of others. After thirty minutes of quiet watch-
in,. she was ready to go to her own seat. She had observed
nothing about which she wished to complain. This procedure
helped the child overcome the habits which had been annoying
her parents as well as the teacher.


Learning Responsibility Through Opportunities to
Be Responsible
Fernando had been reprimanded several times for pushing
the primary children on the bus and in the cafeteria line. Other
children who had been guilty, and were talked to about the dan-
gers of that type of behavior, were ready to do what was right,
but not Fernando. After several techniques had been tried in
vain, the problem was solved by assigning to Fernando the task
of seeing that the boys and girls were lined up according to their
grade, and that they were not crowded or pushed out of line
by the bigger children. Fernando took up this responsibility
with enthusiasm. Through seeing the effects of undesirable con-
duct he has become much more responsive to the feelings of
others and has gained an understanding of the role of persons
in authority.

Recognition and Responsibility Awakened Bert
During class time Bert seemed lost in daydreams. Although
he had no hearing difficulty in a physical sense, when spoken
to Bert would not hear at first, and then would "come to" with
a start. He was truculent and inclined to be domineering on the
playground. He was not a happy boy.
A talk with Bert's mother revealed that his father had been
killed in an accident when Bert was three; that he had a step-
father; and that a baby sister was born just at the time when
Bert entered the first grade.
Bert needed recognition and a large amount of kindness
and love. He had been involved in a neighborhood escapade
which had brought on teasing and blame from his companions.
The teacher helped the children to realize that everyone makes
mistakes which, when corrected, are best forgotten. A commu-
nity spirit was developed in the classroom and playground
through group activities in which Bert had his share. He was
given responsibilities within his ability to perform and suc-
ceed. He had a responsible part in a play given by the class.

He was given many opportunities for leadership upon the play-
ground. Every opportunity was used by the teacher to bring
Bert's accomplishments before the other children.
Bert no longer daydreams in class. He is an enthusiastic
student. He is a happy, independent, and cooperative boy. The
other children have participated in this learning situation to the
great benefit of all.

Respect for Property Is Encouraged by Group Opinion
John had no respect for the property of others. He borrowed
pencils and didn't return them; he carved on his desk; he wrote
on the walls of the building. The other boys and girls in the
class would tell John these things were wrong, but because he
could not see why, he continued to do them.
One day, John found his pencil broken in two pieces. He was
upset and hurt. Without any prompting, one of the other chil-
dren spoke up, citing John's case as an example of his previous
actions. The teacher replaced John's pencil for him, explaining
that we should not destroy things belonging to other people,
because, though certain articles didn't seem important or val-
uable to us, they may seem so to the owner.
This didn't instantaneously cure the malady. However, John
began to think when tempted to carve on his desk or tease others
by damaging their belongings.

Better Behavior Patterns Are Learned Through
Class Discussion
A little boy in the class had a fiery temper and one day com-
pletely lost control of himself. The teacher talked quietly to
him until he had gained control and was quite ashamed of him-
self. Later the class had a wonderful discussion and brought out
the effects of temper on other people and on one's self. The boy's
mother told the teacher that he was greatly impressed and had
made up his mind to control his temper. He has become much
more cooperative and self-controlled.

Substituting Understanding for Antagonism Helped Sciinai
Selina was a girl of a minority race who had moved fion
another state to California. She had never been in a school %\ ith
children of another race. This adjustment was difficult for her
to make and she was actually mean to the other girls, thus be-
coming very unpopular.
The teacher asked her to come into the office and they talked
about the school she had attended previously, and compared
it with this new school which she was now attending. Then they
went into the matter of how the children got along, and Selina
said she thought she was disliked because she hated people of
a different race. The teacher discussed with her the need for
an attitude of respect for the worth and dignity of individuals
of every race, creed, and color. Selina gradually began to un-
She went out to the playground resolved to be a different
kind of person. The attitude of the other girls toward her
changed. After several relapses she became a well-liked girl.
She wanted to do right. When she reached the eighth grade, she
was elected class president for one term. During her senior year
she was elected Girl's League President, and proved herself
one of the most popular girls in high school.
Approval of Peers Can Help to Build Values and
Change Behavior Patterns
Tom seemed somewhat foggy as to what his conduct should
properly be among his classmates and even among certain adults
in the community. He was using obscene language and destruc-
tive methods of attention-getting. Tom was a boy of twelve
years without a father, and his mother worked nights. His tem-
per spasms at the beginning of the school year were intolerable.
Efforts to encourage in him the will to do proper things and to
consider the feelings of others about him were quite futile, even
after many private talks between him and the teacher.
Finally, in his class, a discussion period was held which af-

forded the children opportunity to share their ideas, attitudes,
desires, and ambitions. The gioup talked about how honesty
dilfers from dishonestv: about the results of kindness versus
meanness: about lo\e \ersus hate: about tie right versus the
Sroneg x ays of thinking, an:d about loyalty. dependability, and
responsibility. Freiquentl\ the theeacher read brief stories related
to these topics. From the children's discussion and summation
of ideas and evaluations, the group prepared charts and written
statements of standards or best practices.
The opinions and friendly feeling, of the other members of
the class seemed to get "-!,ndei Tom's skin" and soon after the
discussion of honesty Tom came quite sincerely to the teacher
\.ith a conlfessvion ol an act of misconduct. He said he wanted
to rake his connection and that he'd feel better knowing it was
the ,nl\ honest thin: to do. From that time on his conduct
in school impio\ed remarkably.
Another member of the class. Barbara. had an alert mind
but invariably cheated Althouih detected cheating several
times and talked v\ith piii\atel! on a number of occasions, she
had continued clheating to her o\\n di:sadiantage. However,
son :after group discussion periods '.ere s instituted, Barbara's
cheating stopped and her achievements increased.

Utiin ,lttin.gtiul Citurci E''IveIL Tp'ic Enables
SInculeni E\it, ,naTlc TIl ir 0 u'n .5ndSiard/s of Conduct
Just a fek xxeeks after the "-baskerball fix" scandals were
being reported in the Current Events periods, the intramural
softball tournament \ as held. One home room team had reached
the semifinal,. Mlany of these students disliked Team G, another
of the semifinalists In a class meeting. tile day before the first
pla\olT,. the Captain made an eloIllent plea to the class to help
him throww the came'" to team B. on the -round that his team A
stood piacticall\ no chance of w inning thle championship any-
,ayl. Even the normal~ le\el-headed \ounLl;sters were enthusias-
ticall\ in fa\or of the plan to thwtart unpopular team G. At that


point the teacher reminded them that they had chosen the motto,
"Honesty is the best policy," and that they called themselves
"The Honest Abes." It was suggested that they postpone their
vote on the question of "throwing the game" until some of the
Current Events reports could be reviewed.
The secretary opened the News Scrapbook to the clippings
about the "Basketball Fix" scandals. Then speakers for both
sides of the argument were heard. The balloting resulted in a
resolution to play the game to win if possible.

De-emphasizing the Negative and Commending the
Positive Are Effective
Lawrence's failure to do the daily classroom work had
seemed to indicate that he did not have the ability to do it. His
record was one of almost complete failure in scholastic pursuits
and contained a long list of unsatisfactory behavior patterns.
On one occasion when Lawrence was sent to the principal's
office, the principal met him with evident kindness and under-
standing, asking quietly, "What can I do for you today, Law-
rence?" Lawrence proceeded to give his story of why he was
sent to the office, to which the principal listened with patience
and attention, then asked, "Was there any other way you could
have handled the situation?" Lawrence reflected, and he and
the principal discussed more favorable ways to accomplish
desirable results which would include the welfare of both the
class and Lawrence.
Later, Lawrence ran about the playground kicking the
children, yelling and spitting at them. He then ran to the base-
ball backstop and clung to it all noon-hour. The yard teacher
decided to ignore him and the children left him and went about
their play. After the one o-clock bell rang, Lawrence wandered
into his classroom. The teacher had asked the children to help
her to help Lawrence so no special comment was made to him.
Lawrence then walked over to the playhouse and proceeded to
wreck it. He stood with a diabolical grin on his face and laughed

at the children's discomfort.
At that point the teacher realized that Lawrence had not
helped to make the plai\ house, and thus did not share the other
children's attitude of pride in it. Also, Lawrence had not a
single friend in the room. The teacher asked Lawrence to at-
tempt to make a better playhouse than the one he had ruined.
This appealed to him. and lie went to work on a new playhouse
.\ ith a devotion of purIpose that he had not shown toward any-
thing before. Before it '.\aI time to go home he had amazed
e\er\one b\ his ability\ to construct and create. Lawrence's ad-
vanced age (eight years) and his cleverness with his hands aided
him in completing this enterprise with distinguishing success.
His classmates openly expressed their appreciation for his good
work on the playhouse. This was the turning point in his be-
havior. The next noon was a rainy one, and Lawrence suggested
that they play store in the playhouse. He was chosen to be the
storekeeper. Since that time he has never destroyed another
piece of class work.

Recognition of Special Abilities Helps a
Girl to Accept Herself
Sue was a large girl, in both height and weight. She had
moved to this school a month after the opening of school and
had not been accepted by the other girls in any social capacity,
nor had she been included in any committee work or the like
in the classroom. Sue's mother was worried about the girl's
unhappiness and attempted to win some friends for her by hav-
ing a few girls visit at her home over night from time to time. She
also had a party for some of the girls and boys in the class. The
class began to accept Sue to some extent, but her mother visited
the teacher to tell her that Sue was extremely unhappy and felt
that the other students did not really like her.
The school had planned a Thanksgiving program and girls
v ere to try out for solo singing, but Sue felt that she was too
ne\\ at the school and that the class and teacher would not choose


her anyway because they did not like her. All the .irl- v..ho
wished to try out for solo work were told to come to an audition
before faculty and student representatives. At this mcetin_'.
Marian, who had been in the school for several year, jnd xx\ho
had sung many times for school occasions, was chosen to be the
soloist. Sue's teacher prevailed upon her to try out and her
lovely voice was immediately recognized so she was chosen to
sing a solo for the Thanksgiving program.' Sue sang ibeaiLitIi'll
on the night of the program, and in their enthusiasm for her \ voice
the students no longer made Sue conscious of her physical size.
Although she had some minor set-backs, this was the beginning
of a happier attitude on Sue's part and her growth in acceptance
of self was very noticeable.

Values Are Translated into Action
The use of the book, Human Relations in the Classroom, by
Bullis, is sometimes valuable in helping boys and girls to under-
stand values more clearly. The lessons contain excellent sug-
gestions for discussion. One teacher related the following inci-
dent involving this book:
A little girl named Peggy was a member of her present class
group last semester when they were grade B7. She was shabbily
dressed, and she could not get along with the other children.
They teased her and refused to accept her as one of them. At
her guardian's request, she was sent back to elementary school
at the end of the semester.
Early in this semester, word was received that the elemen-
tary school had returned Peggy to our school and that she would
be re-enrolled in the same class, now A7. Before she arrived,
the opportunity was made to remind the children that now they
had a chance to practice what they had learned about friendli-
ness through study of the Bullis stories. The response has been
amazing. There has been no more teasing, no more name call-
H. Edmund Bullis and E. E. O'Malley, Human Relations in the Classroom.
Wilmington, Delaware: Delaware State Society for Mental Hygiene, Course I,
1947; Course II, 1948.

inl. but a genuire sho\A of friendliness. Peggy,' is notx\ one of
the group.

Sociol Co(nIacl CIIa E\tl'rini I 'li I H ri-oi.nl
Some of the misconduct of students comes from pool home
balckground This hlas been o\erconme in some cases by the teach-
er.s initine members oaf the cla s, into their 1home01 for periodic
social aiff its. The w ife of one of t'le :,ience teaches x\xas e-.pe-
cill\ gLracious Js a hostess. After visitingg thei home severall
times, one bo\ expressed himself zs follo',.s: "'You and \our
,-eife get along so %\ ell. Don't Co eer filt."? I thought all
imaried folk f fouLght ull the time." .Another bo\ from a broken
home remaIrked: "Those parties' \\hen are you goingg to do it
again'? Vhat a happ. home life you must ha\e!"

LooI,' i/." Cau s.s Is B necr T!hai .-it cti'i
SnI fiac BDlhliv)'irl
In senior higlh slchlool. many teachers use role-pla ing to de-
\elop self-control and respect for authority. A bo\ \x\ho had
been ejected from a class because of e tmreme discourtesy. \\as
refused readmiiSsion b. tlie teacher until he apologized. This he
refused to do and e\erN one thouchi1t it \\ as because of stubborn-
ness. Counseli;'g '\ithi him re'sealed that he had refused because
he really didn't .:now. iiho to apologize and \\as fright'lned.
Through the cooperation of another teacher. a role-playing' sit-
uation \,as set up and after running through it a time or tmo. this
boy took the part of the teacher and then of himself He found
out \la.1 t \\ x meant by apologizing and. after pla.intg the part.
he found it eas\ to go to tle teacher \\ho had refused to re-
admit him. He made a ,sncere and effective apology and \.ias
able to resume his place in the cla-..

Rep'lahin',:2 Bad PaiiuerIn Ii'// Btitcw OneI's / 17 S,,it PrOt' es
In senior hil-'h school physical education classes,. and on the
athletic teams. constant stress is laid on the importance of self-


control, personal growth, service to the school, and other moral-
spiritual values. One boy who had a particularly bad record for
fighting "made" the football team. In the ninth and tenth grades.
he was ruled out of many games for fighting and for disrespect
toward the officials. The coaches constantly counseled \\ ihthe
boy, trying to impress upon him how he was hurting hilimsel and
letting down his team. In the eleventh grade, the boy seemed
suddenly to realize the meaning of what his coaches had been
telling him. During that year, he was ejected from only one
game. In his twelfth year, his coaches remarked that several
times in one game he walked away from opponents who had
deliberately hit him. Some of the same officials who had com-
plained of his lack of courtesy remarked about his gentlemanly
conduct. During his senior year, he made the all-league team
by unanimous vote, and played in two all-star games.

Discussion About Rules Can Modify Behavior
One high school reported that at the beginning of the term
a bulletin was sent out to be used as the basis of discussion in
The bulletin was built around two main problems:
1. How can we show appreciation to the taxpayers for our
fine buildings and recreation facilities?
2. What cafeteria procedure is desirable in the best inter-
ests of all concerned?
Many suggestions for discussion were included in the bulle-
tin, such as fourteen rules for desirable cafeteria conduct. With
the help of this bulletin, teachers or student body leaders could
easily supplement the suggestions offered by pupils.
The discussion of problems and of possible solutions for
these problems helped every student to see the need for rules,
to understand rules better, and to become a party to the general
acceptance of rules, with the opportunity of improving on them
when such improvement was needed.


What is meant by "developing a positive relationship toward
others"? Certainly it does not mean that one should become
a "doormat" or exhibit continuously harmonious feelings toward
all the actions of others.
It does mean, however, recognizing the worth and dignity
of every person, regardless of race, color, creed, ethnic back-
ground, or socioeconomic situation. It means being able to
work with others toward the achievement of common goals,
appreciating the contribution of others, and at the same time
preserving one's own individual integrity and uniqueness.
The development of a positive relationship with others is
strengthened when one is able to understand how others feel
in a given situation. Vicarious experiences such as those pro-
vided in stories, pictures, songs, and role-playing further such
Many of the kinds of experiences indicated in Part I of this
chapter (pages 35 to 58) are valuable in helping children and
young people to develop a positive relationship toward others.
Similarly, the influence of teachers and of other school personnel
is exceedingly important.
The following classroom incidents reveal procedures which
seem directly related to helping pupils to grow in their develop-
ment of a positive relationship toward others.


Y} oum,, Children Practice and Learn the
Bet I Lays of Working Together
The kindergarten group needs a playhouse. The children
plan and work together, measuring, sawing, hammering, helping,
and discussing. There are only a few tools, so they need to
shaie. take turns; they learn to wait patiently and to help one
another. Discussion follows: new work plans are arranged.


They talk about why what they have done %\as ,'ood, x\hat
made it fun, and what they must remember. The group builds
their own standards of the polite thing to do. or the best \%a\
to work. Friendships develop. The group gro\.: in ability to
express the kinds of behavior that they like and enjo\ The\
adopt and use courtesies and habits which pleasantly relate one
person to another. Children can learn that each has a responsi-
bility to make the classroom, the community and the o\\rld .
safe and happy place for all. The teacher guides the learning
situation so that each child gains satisfaction from good atti-
tudes and habits as he strives to achieve his best performance.
The teacher's positive, kindly attitude of acceptance of and love
for each child sets the pattern and emotional tone of the class-
room, and the living and learning of the second great com-
mandment-"Love thy neighbor as thyself"-is becoming estab-
lished as the basis for classroom relationships and procedures.

Time Must Be Found for Talking About Values
Telling about things we like clarifies our objectives and atti-
tudes. Many times when our class is very busy we don't have
time to listen to interesting happenings, so we stop other activity
and have a "talking time." Many good values come from this.
One day we started talking about our hands and feet and
heads. The group decided that our hands were given to us for
a very useful purpose-for learning and for making things.
They were useful and not just something we happened to have.
We decided that hands were not meant for hurting people, or
destroying things; that if that were not so, our hands would
be like clubs or scissors and not like they are. Now we hear
quite often, "Tommy, your hands are supposed to help you

Loving Understanding by One's Peers Helps to Change Attitudes
"Love thy neighbor" was as foreign to Jack as the kinder-
garten room he entered at the beginning of the school term. It

didn't occur to him that he hurt his new friends, but one thing
v.Js suIre. he didn't intend to be hurt, for he was the strongest
of the kinderiur ten children.
One day Jack %\as ill and the children almost immediately,
upon disL0o\ering his absence, said, "Goody, Jack isn't here.
No fights today." Perhaps the hardest battle was fought when
the children learned that they should help Jack. "You see, boys
and girls, Jack does not have a home like yours. He has not
had anyone to be good neighbors." Seriously thinking over
the remarks made by the teacher, the children finally decided
to try to help him.
Jack came back the next day and soon sensed a different
attitude toward him. A few weeks later while the children were
eating their lunch, Sam said, "Jack is doing better," and Joyce
remarked, "He was nice last Sunday when he started to Sunday
With the continuation of a sympathetically helpful attitude
on the part of his classmates and the help of the school, church,
and foster home, Jack's attitude is gradually but definitely
impro inrg.

.Smidets Learn from the Teacher's Attitude
The best teacher of high moral values or spiritual values is
the one v.ho lives the life that reflects such values. This is espe-
ciall\ noticeable in times of stress or emergency, and in the ways
of handling problems that arise, for example: Student comes
to teacher with remark, "I don't like J- No one likes to work
\\ith her."
The answer that should be given depends on which students
are involved. They have learned at the beginning of the year
that one of the reasons we work in groups is to learn how to
cooperate and how to get along with other people. Knowing the
background of the students concerned, the teacher gave the
follo"x in reply:
"W\\e don't always like all these people and want them for


personal friends, but on the other hand we don't silo: our dis-
like by mistreating them. In fact, we can help them to bccom.-
more likeable by the way we treat them. By accepting .1-
in your group and trying your best to get along x itlh :le. \ouI
may help her to improve. You know we have to learn ilha the
world is made up of many kinds of people-many different per-
Making New Friends Provides Opportunities to
Practice Relationships
Confronted with the problem of suggesting games for chil-
dren of the rural schools, the physical education consultant
realized that children in small schools are unable to play many
of the common games because there are not enough children
of a given age group. It was obvious that in order to give the
pupils some valuable group experience, two or more schools
would have to be brought together. In bringing schools to-
gether for "Group Experience Days" there was opportunity to
provide experiences in other activities as well as physical edu-
Rural children from two to four schools ranging from 32 to
99 pupils each played and talked and sang together for a full
day. For easier working relations they were grouped into pri-
mary, intermediate and upper grade sections. Experiences in
language arts, music and rhythms, and physical education were
provided. Short presentations and discussion periods provided
an opportunity for the boys and girls to learn about children
from other communities, to make new friends, and to become
leaders in new situations. Mingling with children near their
own age in play, in singing and rhythms added to and strength-
ened the social benefits.
Perhaps one of the greatest values of this program was the
opportunity for teachers to observe the children of their schools
in new situations. Several teachers said that they learned things
about their children which they could never have gained from
classroom observation.

Children Learn Resourcefulness as They Work
Cooperatively to Solve a Community Problem
We believe we have created opportunities to learn spiritual
and moral values in our remotely situated school by encouraging
an active democratic program. The children have their own
school club, which they conduct through their own officers.
Through self-imposed controls they have aided in making the
whole school more cooperative.
The need for entertainment here for the children is great as
there aren't any theaters or other forms of entertainment. This
need has been partially met by the activities of the club. They
have received much entertainment, as well as other values, from
16 mm. movies shown every Friday night. Some of the different
experiences they get from their movies are handling money,
meeting and conversing with people, making notices, running
the projector, preparing and cleaning up before and after the
movies, and carrying on correspondence. The funds realized
from the shows are put in a bank account in the club's name.
They make out their own deposit slips and mail all funds to
the bank. Their treasurer pays all bills by writing checks from
this checking account and is responsible for treasury reports.
It has been a very close operation, so they have had to budget
carefully in order to stay within their means. The club members
plan to use their money in purchasing equipment they want for
social purposes.
Another form of activity which they promote very enthusi-
astically is the square dance. This also has done much to bring
about a friendly relationship among the children.
The most recent club project is a combination of a box social
and a square dance for an evening of entertainment with their
parents. They believe they will have even better luck in getting
the parents to participate in this manner by holding the box
social first, then the dance.
We have created a situation that calls for a great deal of
cooperative responsibility wherein the students must possess

integrity if their club is to survive. They have managed to hold
their own against such odds as bad weather and dillicillt heat-
ing problems. They feel that as a result of the team spirit whichh
has developed, their program is progressing sulce'ftll\ and
they freely express satisfaction.

Teacher Guidance Can Stimulate Real Chal'.e' in Pe, social/'
Three years ago, a three-teacher mountain school \\La badl\
out of hand. There were roughness and fightip-n on the play-
ground and noise and disorder inside the rooms.
Looking back it seems that very little was actually done to
correct the situation. Happiness and the pride of worth-while
accomplishments were stressed as of paramount importance in
a school. The teacher held to the belief that no school can be
really bad where these forces are present, or very good if they
are lacking. The problem was to find something of an imme-
diate and definite nature to challenge the pupils' attention and
The children were encouraged in their desire to form a club.
They chose for its purpose school improvement and hobbies.
The school program also allowed special time for hobby activi-
ties. A plan was devised so that the school and individual chil-
dren could make a profit from the sale of things which they made.
The children were encouraged to discuss school problems and
to suggest ways of correcting them. They soon recognized that
their suggestions were not of much value unless the teachers
cooperated to enforce them and that, of course, solved many
The schoolwork was made as interesting and personally
gratifying as possible. Music became a part of the daily schedule.
Team games and association with other schools were encour-
aged. These pupil-selected activities led to the development
of cooperative effort because the group had determined their
own worth-while purposes.

CL \S,,kr_,tIM L\PE |lI \I I S F, \ ELO\ l' '.IOd R L-S IRITIU L ALIVE _,
.-lcriiiici of ui .-livi'unced Draima Class Can
Producc Considterini ion ftor O(flcrk
\\'hen casting the annual play. the students in the ad\lanctced
drama class, \ored b\ sec et ballot as to 'lihich student Nhould
be gi'en definite lead parts in the pl.y. The balloting produced
a near-tle fo'r the imiale le..d. One boy receic ed ten votes, the
other eleven. 1\ aireelment. die bo\ \ ith eleenii \oteN 'aas
selected to pli\ tlie part at the public performance. After cla.s'
this bo\ approached the teacher iti an unll ellh suggests ion.
.-lthouh he had been tr\ingi \er\ hard for the part and had
o' ii that 1e \\ united It. e sled t. e sked tliat (e oilier bo\ hai\e it. N,\'-
ing, "'Did you see his Lce \\hlen he sa\ the results of the \ore?
I think it ieans more to him than it does to me." He pointed
out that he had had more opportunities than the other boy, and
thatt it % as onl,, fair for him to give up the role. His unselfish-
ness \\.as commendeed, but he was assured that his sacrifice was
iunnecessar\ a, the ballot was fair. He said, "In that case, I
refuse the part. Let him have it."

Buildlij;n II 'oij Ftendships Is Part of Daily Procedure
In a high scho:! English class, a student from Mexico was
enrolled \\ho kr, n\ no English. The American students felt that
there \\ias an opportunity to be of service and to give the boy
an appreciation of A.merica. Several of the students came be-
fore school in the mornings to carry on conversations in English
and to wi\e him special help when the teacher was called away.
This x ent on for sc\eral months. The Mexican boy finally grad-
uated from high schooll with many lasting friendships and an
appreciation of America which he has not forgotten.

C'lldrenl Sh5on!ld Be Helped to Learn the Golden Rule
A croup of mentally retarded and slow learners, with few


exceptions, came from extremely poor families. Most of them
received partial or full assistance from public welfare dep.irt-
ments. All but four received free lunches, and some had shoes
and other items of clothing supplied to them. For C'hristma
many were expecting toys and turkeys from the American Le-
gion and other sources. As a result of all this, the children "cere
thinking in terms of what "I" can get, what will be gi\en free
to our family. In such situations there is danger of dependence
upon one hand-out after another.
On the other hand, these children had an abundance of
penny candy, bubble-gum, and penny trinkets. Also, they went
to shows frequently. Upon inquiry as to the source of the money,
it was learned that they got it from selling bottles and walnuts,
and that sometimes pennies were given them.
The Christmas project was launched by telling these pupils
about children in Korea and showing pictures of them, without
homes, food, clothing, or parents. The children began to see
that, poor as they themselves were, others were less fortunate.
The next step was to compile a list of things that the Korean
children would like for Christmas. We discussed how a cold,
hungry child could be made happy by receiving warm mittens
or soup. Then we cut pictures out of magazines of the things
we would like to send, and made a large chart of the labeled
pictures. Interest was high so we decided to save money to make
the Christmas of some Korean child a happy one. Also, we
decided to save money for our class gift exchange. We made a
list of ways to earn money:
1. Do without shows and penny candy
2. Sell bottles
3. Sell walnuts
4. Mow and rake lawns
The money poured in daily, and every day we counted it
and recorded the amount. We set a deadline of December 15 for
contributions. The poorest children gave the most, and penny

candy and bubble-gum w~ere conspicuous by their absence.
A total of $8.20 \\-wa collected b\ the 15th. That day we
made a shopping lit from items suggested by the Junior Red
Cross and then went tto own to buy gifts and also the 15-cent
gifts for our clas'-mates \whose names we had previously drawn.
The children were far more thrilled discussing the Christmas
eift, for the Korean children than those for each other. In the
entire class there \was onl\ one child who did not contribute
anything. The gifts were turned over to the Junior Red Cross
for distribution.
Recently, an effort has been made to channel the penny
candy money into school savings accounts, and Wednesday two
children are opening accounts.

Teacher / Sihonil Build Children's Confidence in Their Parents
.-\ frst grade teacher is contributing to the development of
moral-spiritiul \ clue' by providing an atmosphere which encour-
age:. children to express freely their fears, troubles, likes and
dislikei s.
This fall, just before the presidential election, Sammy came
to school one morning and said with a troubled expression, "My
Nlother and Daddy are funny. Mother is voting for Stevenson
and Daddy is going to vote for 'Ike'." He seemed quite relieved
when the teacher explained that she and her husband sometimes
voted differcntl\ and that it is each person's privilege to vote
as he wishes in America.

Children Respond .Acceptably When Basic Needs Are Met
In a small mountain school, the children of mixed racial par-
entage \were in open rebellion against their world. As a result
ot unfortunate circumstances they had built up the feeling that
the\ ,kere not a., good as others and they could not succeed in
school. One teacher had given up the school in despair at the
end of the preiou.s \ear, and another had left at the end of
the first month of the new term.


Although the new teacher had had very little training. she
loved and respected the children and made them feel they "ere
capable. She set an example of good manners. consideration
for others, fair play, sharing, understanding. iad s\ mpath\.. A
spirit of good will and comradeship has replaced rebellion and
Although each pupil still infringes on certain necessary
rules, each accepts the responsibility and out.conme from his
own behavior like a man because he knox'. hle deserves it.
Within three months the attitudes and behavior of these
children changed to such an extent that they \\ere able to put
on a verse-choir program in a non-denominational church \\ith
much poise and self-confidence. Some of them are doing cred-
itable schoolwork for the first time. Being accepted as persons
of worth and ability, these children are becoming \orthy and
capable citizens.

Children Learn to Treat Others As They .-Ire Tr, aild
A fourth-grade teacher in a large school does outstanding
work in guidance with the entire class by alI ays considering the
individual and group relationships. This teacher gives every
child a feeling of importance; a feeling of freedom to initiate;
a feeling that he must consider others. All of this guidance is a
part of the regular classroom procedure.
In social studies all have opportunities to work on commit-
tees; to make choices; to assume responsibility; to consider the
rights of others; to grow in appreciation of others' contributions
and to realize how dependent we all are upon cooperation and
understanding. The following is an example of a conversation:
"Johnny, why should we be quiet when we are working in our
room?" Johnny replied, "Somebody might come in." The class
discussed this and decided that we do right because it is the
good way of life, not just because someone might see us. This
teacher makes every effort to have beautiful pictures, flowers,
and interesting books in her room. Her voice is well modulated

and sympathetic in tone. She encourages the pupils to make
decisions on right and wrong behavior so that they may become
accustomed to considering or weighing their actions. She utilizes
each opportunity to relate any happenings within the school to
life situations.

Desirable Attitudes Grow Through Recognition
Student members of the Inter-School Council, composed of
the ten high schools in two counties, have developed a Sports-
manship Code. This code of ethics applies to the behavior of the
members of the student bodies of these schools, including their
teams, at all athletic events. The actions of other spectators
are also considered in the rating of schools made at each event.
A trophy is awarded to the school having the highest rating at
the close of the school year.
Member schools report that this student-and-faculty-cen-
tered project is an effective procedure in developing desirable

Morals and Manners Are Presented in Children's Fiction
Before National Book Week, the fifth-grade class had the
privilege of reading new books purchased for the school library.
At first the boys and girls had fun browsing, but nobody seemed
interested in telling about the books. They just wanted to read.
During this time, some books seemed to be popular, others were
The County Librarian suggested that she would appreciate
the help of the class with a radio program to be broadcast for
ten minutes each evening of Book Week. This seemed a tre-
mendous assignment but the children's enthusiasm was not to
be discounted. Opportunity was at hand to satisfy four of their
basic urges to learn: (1) to dramatize, (2) to create, (3) to
communicate and share, (4) to receive recognition.
First, the class gave oral book reports. Later they became
book salesmen, finding all the qualities that would sell a book.


Then they wrote book reports. Some of these were tape-recorded
and evaluated. From these activities certain conclusions \tere
drawn: Hearing narratives could be tiresome; reports needed to
be improved; hearing a dramatization of a part of a story nade
one want to read all of it. This led to the idea of dramatizing
favorite books, and it was challenging to see the eagerness and
spontaneity of the children in their work on the Book Week
One morning the class discussion brought out the fact that
the books had improved our habits of living together. Responses
were eager and surprising.
This activity was very rewarding, leading to the realization
of the infinite variety of sound moral principles that children
can glean from books.
The class members reported the following observations con-
cerning some of the books read during this activity:

The Moon Is a Crystal Ball, by Natalie Belting (Bobbs-Merrill,
1952), "tells about legends that make us think."
The Talking Cat, by Natalie S. Carlson (Harper, 1952), "taught
the lesson not to be stingy."
Jack and the Three Sillies, by Richard Chase (Houghton Mifflin,
1950), "taught us to use our heads when dealing with others."
Henry and Beezus, by Beverly Cleary (Morrow, 1952), "made me
ashamed to be a show-off."
Ginger Pye, by Eleanor Estes (Harcourt, Brace, 1951), "taught
us not to steal."
Smoky, the Well Loved Kitten, by Alice Goudey (Lothrop, Lee and
Shepard, 1952), "made us want to be polite."
Robin and Company, by Marjorie Hayes (Little, Brown, 1952),
"taught us ways to be kind."
First Book of America, by Edith Heal (Franklin Watts, 1952),
"makes us love America even more than we did."
BufJalo Knife, by William 0. Steele (Harcourt, 1952), "taught us
to obey our parents."
Larry's Luck, by Mary Urmston (Doubleday, 1952), "helped us
again to see how silly it is to be a show-off."

Fiiendship Can GIow Out of Service to Others
Our upper-grade children are exchanging art ideas with the
children of Japan. This art and poster project appealed to the
pupils and within three weeks they had greeting cards and post-
ers on their way across the Pacific. The teacher has encouraged
this program, hoping to establish feelings of good will through
starting a service to others.
In appreciation of our exhibit, some of the schools of Japan
are sending a collection of their talent to our school. This serv-
ice can help to build in the hearts and minds of our children a
good will toward children of other lands.
The pupils are very active in Junior Red Cross work. They
have formed committees and have adopted the Polio Ward of the
Women's and Children's Hospital. The work consists mainly
of writing letters and making sketches of the immediate commu-
nity to send to the patients. The children in the hospital are
not able to answer the letters, but the therapists write for them.
Some of the children have been "adopted" by members of my
The filling of the Gift Box is a project carried on throughout
the year. Joke books are made for the soldiers of the Army and
Navy Hospitals and sent to the Pacific Area for distribution.
Children bring much happiness to themselves and to others as
they become thoughtful of others and in turn shape their lives
in the paths of greater service to others.
Our classroom motto is: "Do something kind for someone
each day."

Caring for the Less Fortunate Puts the Golden Rule Into Practice
A new boy came into our class and was doing acceptable
\ ork, but in less than two weeks, he was in bed with tuberculosis.
Our class of exceptionally healthy boys and girls did not realize
at first what that meant. One said, "Oh, well, he does not have
to study-he has all day to play." Since he was a member of
our class, and sick, we decided to investigate. A committee


brought back the report that he was in bed ALL day, in a little.
poorly furnished room and that he had a dozen brothers and
sisters. "In bed, ALL day"-that was bad, very bad, e\en orse
than fractions. Then, from one child, "What could we do? He
is a member of our class-we should do something." A sense
of responsibility was dawning. We called in an older brother to
find out what our boy would like, what things he could use. \\e
wrote a letter to the visiting nurse to find out what w as needed
and to learn if we could visit the home.
By Thanksgiving time, the class and their parents had ntilh-
ered a lot of needed food, a large cornucopia full and several
baskets. We had found a good mattress and bedding; v e painted
the tiny room; we sent pictures, which were changed every week
or so. By Christmas time, we had made and bought many little
gifts, and more food came in. One boy gave his pet chicken for
our invalid's Christmas dinner. Parents cooperated gladly. Our
class developed a tremendous sense of responsibility to the un-
fortunate, and they continued throughout the year to carry
on activities that would make life easier for their classmate.

Learning Results from Discussing and Writing
About Human Relations
Students in one school learned about skills in human rela-
tions through developing a booklet, "How We Do It," subtitled
"Hints for Happiness at School and Home."
One school has developed an outstanding outline of tech-
niques to promote skill in homeroom or classroom discussions.
Another school has discussions in homeroom about etiquette
for teenagers. A mimeographed bibliography of books on teen-
age manners from the school library is supplied to teachers.

Appealing to the Good in Students Helps Them to
Become More Considerate
High school students are sometimes quick to reject new stu-
dents in order to keep their cliques intact. In a corrective speech

clss. a boy of 15 i ho \\a phs% ic:illl unattractive, of a minority
group, and greatly handicapped because of a cleft palate, was
made to feel uncomfortable by the other students, even though
he was an excellent student. He had been raised in a different
environment, and his careful manners annoyed the other stu-
dents. The class members were reporting on Mexico and the
Canal Zone. When the new boy was asked to contribute infor-
mation, he brought in a wealth of first-hand material which was
not obtainable from other sources. Later, while he was out of
the room on an errand, the teacher stated his problem unemo-
tionally to the class. Suggestions for helping his speech were
called for, and the class volunteered that he might make a good
class president. The matter of race prejudice, which had been
evident before, was entirely overlooked and he carried off his
new responsibility with such success that there was no more
thought of intolerance or ridicule.

Learning to Be Responsible for the Progress of
Fellow Members of a Group
In a tenth-grade girls' physical education class, the members
were divided into groups and each group was to make up an
original dance routine. Each girl in the group received the same
grade, in other words, a "group grade." In one group there was
a 'irl '\ho had had several years of ballet training and was
outstanding as a dancer, while another girl in the group was
a-\\ k\\.rd, uncoordinated, and had little ability in physical ac-
tivities. The teacher had stressed the fact that if any girl had
dificulty, she should have the help of her entire group. Nothing
in particular was said to this certain group. They made up a
simple but adequate routine which they taught the uncoordi-
nated girl to do. They were very patient and considerate in
\\orkini with this girl and made her feel that she was one of
them. When their turn came to do the routine before the entire
class. they did it without an error. A sense of belonging, of being
aintied and being able to help was a motivation which the par-


ticular girl had not experienced before and it changed her aiti-
tude toward her work. She never achieved what the gifted
students did, but she improved and became an accepted member
of the class.

Music Teachers Help Students to Overcome Racial
Prejudice Through Singing Folk Songs
Among a group of eighth-graders there was tendency to look
with contempt upon peoples of foreign birth, especially the darker
skinned peoples, so an experiment was made to show these chil-
dren through music that we are "all brothers under the skin,"
sharing the same emotions of love, hope, fear, patriotism, loyal-
ties, triumph, sadness, and joy the world over. They needed
to realize that all peoples share the love of country, of home
and children, the same reverence for their God and have the
same aspirations and hopes and troubles regardless of their lan-
guage, customs, or the color of their skins.
We began with lullabies, for everyone can understand moth-
er's love for the baby in the home. The children came to realize
that the song of the mother in the Philippines, Italy, Germany,
India, Africa, the chanting of the American Indian mother, and
the Negro mother's crooning lullaby all express the same deep
tenderness and gentle, loving care for a tiny baby, no matter
what the language or the tune. A lullaby knows no color, no
country, no creed except the same creed of protective love our
own mothers have for us.
From lullabies, we moved to songs of romantic love; songs
that express the love of beauty in nature; songs of patriotism and
songs of heroism and exploits in battle, songs of triumph and
sorrow and pain, songs of worship, songs of fun and humor, and
many others. These were chosen from the folk music and reli-
gious music of many different countries, with special emphasis
on those from peoples that the children had looked upon as being
"strange" or "inferior."
Before long there was a change in the attitude of the group.

Several became intensely interested in finding out about the
customs and lives of the people in some of these far-away places.
There began to be friendlier treatment of the "foreigners"
among us, an acceptance not before accorded these children.
Incidentally, this proved to be a wonderful "lead" into study of
the United Nations and the understanding of peoples.

Social Awareness Must Be Learned
The development of social awareness within a classroom
situation is of the utmost importance. This development, if
carried through the child's life, will enable him to meet the prob-
lems of the complex social structure that our civilization pre-
sents today. The process of getting this awareness can best be
illustrated by the case of an extreme nonconformist.
This boy showed complete lack of responsibility in matters
concerning honesty and consideration for others. He was un-
dependable and could not seem to function in any position for
very long. He was highly emotional, showing very poor judg-
ment, often acting on impulse. This boy was irritable, had tem-
per tantrums, and was easily elated or depressed. He seemed
incapable of any continuity of effort, but was very demonstrative
and affectionate. His attacks of antisocialness were generally
of an episodic type. In general the boy was disturbing to the
entire class, his outbreaks being unexpected in one sense, and
expected in another. The general feeling was "Oh, that's just

The steps taken to re-educate the boy were as follows: first,
a study was made by the school of his home conditions, past life
in the town, and past school experiences. Contact was then made
with the parents, who were aware of the problem and willing to
cooperate fully. A form of therapeutic discipline was started
it the home and in the school. The controls were simple and
few at the onset, gradually building up as time went by. Gen-
erally speaking the major point at this time was to eliminate
some of the skills of aggression and habits of indulgence of im-


pulse which the child had built up in the past, and to substitute
for them some of the controls which society demands of its
Second, the practice was established of removing an\ and
all protection of the boy from the natural consequence, of hi,
actions, so that he would learn to stand by himself and take the
punishment for any act which his impulsiveness provoked.
Third, it was necessary to form a consistent, well-organized
policy in which impulsive behavior would invariably] be de-
prived of success. To do this it was absolutely essential that the
teacher did not become emotionally involved in the scenes
Fourth, a sense of fairness between this child and the teacher
was established by demonstrating that "no" meant just that,
but that good work was well rewarded enthusiastically.
Fifth, the boy was started on a program of developing social
awareness between himself and the other members of his room.
At first, this was rather one-sided. The class, being used to him
and to his impulsive actions, was not receptive to a disciplinary
action against them as a whole, and made life very hard for him.
However, after a few weeks of this type of action he started
to curb many of his impulsive acts and to think before acting.
This soon gave the class a chance to reciprocate and, knowing
that he was steadier, to include him in many of their activities
which he had been left out of before. This mutual exchange of
social awareness has enlarged his entire outlook, and started
him well on the way to a true social relationship with his fellows.
Lastly, it has been the goal to teach him to forego a present
satisfaction for a future gain. Work along this line is not yet
finished, nor will it be for some time. It has, however, progressed
from zero to a point of awareness on his part of what the prob-
lem is within himself. Up to now this has been expressed mainly
in his citizenship work, where reward and gain are easily seen.
However, it has also been extended to include some of his other
activities. For example, he was unable to do arithmetic with the

C LA~H'Rt'u.I E\I'ERiE i FS DE% Fl IiiL' MI- 'RAL -SPIP I IU.-iL N \ _LUES 77
rest of his group. Because of his refusing to master the multi-
plic nation tables he \\as placed in a lo%\er group and told that
when lie could do i tie ble. hi? w would be retu rned to his original
group. within n t\v.o \\eeks. b\ working \er\ hard. he had com-
plictel mastered the tables.
Many little things. such as the abo\e. are helping this boy
lo become aall re of the comnplexitics of life in a social condition.
He is much happier ind is much better adjusted to conditions
around him. The entire cl.:a.ss has gained in social receptiveness
and social awareness b\ interaction itll this member. The
\\hole spirit of the room has changed for the better An\ action
which increases the social awareness needed by the individuals
of a group in li. ing together for an entire school day is of vital
importance in modern education.

Stfild of ,.Greek Culture Leads to Increased Sensitivity to the
Fcclil's i-,t O liers
During a stuLdy of Greek culture the class was considering
the e\pei iences of two Roman boys who went to Athens to study.
A chapter contrasting the Athenian and Spartan civilizations
was productive of much discussion and interest, as these ways
of life \\ere contrasted and evaluated and eventually compared
\ith examples of totalitarian and domestic states in modern
times. The idea of the worth and dignity of the individual in a
state that e\ists for the people, as contrasted with the situation
in a state in whichh the individual exists for the state, made a
strong imprelsion. Assuredly the reading and discussion brought
about a greater appreciation of the concepts on which our de-
mocract is founded.
Readin, based on a letter which contrasted Athens and
Rome brou eht forth strong reactions concerning race prejudice.
One Roman boy had written home about his life in Athens, say-
ing that lie had many Greek friends and hence did not wish to
criici/e all Greeks, but that the treachery of the Greeks was
well Lnou n. This was a reference to the famous phrase of Virgil


about the Trojan horse: "Timeo Danaos et dona feremcs." I
fear the Greeks even bearing gifts.) He added that the Greeks.
however, speak of the treachery of the Romans. "Interc.t irtim
Romanus an Graecus sis." (It makes a difference whether you
are a Greek or a Roman). This was a springboard for niuch
discussion, leading to the conclusion that there is a great need
for understanding among all peoples, and of tolerance for other
ways of life and belief.

The understanding and the appreciation of our American
heritage involve a knowledge of facts about American history
and government, but they include more than that.
What are the values in American life? What is the essence.
the core, of our American ideals and traditions? How can we
develop greater love for our country-its land, its people, its
accomplishments, its ideals? What responsibilities stem from
the freedoms granted in our Bill of Rights? What is the essence
of the remarkable method of problem-solving which has become
traditional in American life? What part has religion played in
our American heritage? How is it reflected in American life
The experiences recorded in previous sections of this chap-
ter reflect values important in American life; otherwise, they
would have no part in this publication.
In the following pages, however, examples are given of
classroom experiences which bear directly on the development
of greater understanding and appreciation of our American
Growth Toward Self-Discipline Is Encouraged
After a summer of vacation freedom, some students seemed
loath to discipline themselves satisfactorily. To meet the prob-

lem. cjch class held a panel discussion on the subject of class-
room behavior. In the organizational meeting, each of the
elected panel members suggested topics which could be dis-
cussed on D-Day (Discussion Day). Some of their topics were:
What is an ideal classroom? What keeps ours from being ideal?
What part does our action between classes play in our classroom
behavior? Should teachers rule with an iron fist? How can we
improve our behavior? How can we achieve an ideal classroom?
On D-Day, a tape recording was made of the six panel dis-
cussions. When the recordings were played back, the speakers
noted where they needed to make improvements in conducting
future discussions. Some of the statements made by class mem-
bers during the discussion were:
"I don't think it should be up to the teacher to make us
"After all, if we have to be forced to behave, we'll never learn
to depend on ourselves."
As a result of the panel discussions, three of the classes in-
stituted student government to control those who were incon-
siderate of their classmates. After three weeks' trial, the process
of self-discipline is already strengthening the character of these

Young Children Learn Self-Control through Practice
A primary school, kindergarten through fourth grade, has
organized a student council which acts as the steering committee
for this school. One person from each class makes up the coun-
cil. New members are selected every two weeks. Meetings are
held regularly twice a week. The council discusses types of games
and activities for recess and noon play. Rainy day games are
organized. Where an emotional or discipline problem is in-
volved, the problem is discussed, but not the person. The prob-
lem is usually settled by suggestions on how everyone can help
to keep it from happening again.
The council has worked also in health and safety education.


Two weeks were devoted to the care of the teeth. The rcprescn-
tative from each class reports to his group the council's dis-
cussions. This motivates many children to do extra research,
and brings information to their class as well as the council. This
has been particularly good for enrichment of the program for
the bright child. Public relations have been improved by the
contacts these children make with people in the community
when they are looking for answers.
Outside activities have included taking reports to newspaper
office, asking dentist about care of teeth, and asking nurses and
doctors about proper food.
The purpose of the council is being achieved. It was or-
ganized to give everyone in school-children, teachers, custo-
dians, bus drivers, cafeteria workers, and the administrator-
the feeling that "This is OUR school and WE have a responsi-
bility in making it the very best school we possibly can. We
shall share our happiness and help each other with difficulties."

Cooperation Is Learned as the Way of Democracy
The class members were particularly noncooperative and
unwilling to work together on any project. Nearly every activity
meant rivalry and jealousy. We talked about our "group" and
its place in the school and community, and its training for the
future. But still there was no desire to work together; we dis-
cussed the fact that it takes many to do a piece of work and
that it can really be done well when folks plan and work together,
some taking larger parts and others smaller, each worker being
necessary. We happened to be studying the value of parts in
singing. We found out how to play notes together and make
lovely sounds; we also tried the notes that quarreled. The next
day Alden's "The Palace Made by Music" was read to the class".
Almost immediately, discussion began. It stayed on music for
a while, then one boy said, "Maybe working together is like
SRaymond M. Alden, "The Palace Made by Music" in Why the Chimes Rang,
Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1908.

pla. ing music." With \cr\ little guidance on my part, many of
ihe children sa.w the point and suggested ways in which more
"hlarmon\" could be brought into our group. We failed many
times, but there \\as definite progress. By Christmas time we
were \cr\ proud of our desire and w willingness to fit into our parts
in the Chtistrnas program. to recognize the importance of each,
and to- enljo\ and appreciate the neli feeling of cooperation
land harmon.

Stories Carry a Message Regarding the Values of Sharing
Few of the children in our small rural schools attend any
religious service, and as a result, far too many fail to understand
the spiritual meaning of the religious holidays, Easter and Christ-
mas. Because of this, each year, especially at Christmas, the
spiritual aspect of the holiday is stressed.
This past Christmas one of the stories presented to the chil-
dren was "Christmas Express," by B. J. Chute from Adventures
for Readers, Book I. It was chosen because the entire theme
was in the spirit of sharing, and in addition it was written in a
humorous manner. Some misgivings about the selection were
held, since the story was written for older children, and five
of the twelve children in this multigraded rural school were in
the five lower grades. While the story was being read aloud
to the children, a change came about in their listening attitude.
It appeared that the selection hadn't been so unsuitable after
all. The children were very much absorbed in the progress of
the Christmas tree. At the conclusion of the story, they all en-
thusiastically exclaimed that they had liked it. It had strongly
appealed to them because the feeling of good will and under-
standing \\as present throughout. As Jerry, the main character
in the stor\. planned a Christmas for two children on a trans-
continental train, everyone from an army private to a pompous
\\ ashin,'ton official took part in the preparation of the tree. The
children appreciated the climax of the story, when the dignified
colonel offered, as a star for the top of the tree, his Congressional


Medal of Honor. They understood why the colonel's Lift \va.
fitting since the spirit of sharing could be so much a part of this

Developing Desirable Character and Moral Traits
Through a School Club
The Stamp Club, comprised of boys and girls of the fourth,
fifth, and sixth grades, meets every Wednesday morning. We
learn the stories behind our American stamps. This helps to
teach us much of American history, geography, and science as
well as the lives of the important people pictured on our stamps.
Fine character-training lessons are presented by a study of the
lives and deeds commemorated by American postage stamps.

Family Living Courses Are of Vital Importance
The "Family Living" section of senior goals presents excel-
lent opportunities for teaching moral-spiritual values.
For example, one class exercise consists of learning a mar-
riage vow, generally that of the individual's own religious faith.
With this as a starting point, we discuss the sacredness and
gravity of the vow and the responsibility each partner assumes
for the life-long happiness and welfare of his spouse.
We stress to our seniors the grave responsibility of parents
for the moral-spiritual education of their children, noting that
their responsibility in this field is greater than that of school,
church, or any other social agency.
We point out the close relationship of church and home. We
are completely nonsectarian, stressing the points that all churches
are interested in high ideals and that religious experiences will
aid parents in fulfilling their responsibility for the moral-spiritual
education of their children.

Values Are Learned Through Extra-Curricular Activities
1. Since all high school students are involved in the student

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