Front Cover
 Title Page
 Report of the state plant board...
 Report of the plant commission...
 Nursery inspection department
 Tristeza investigations in South...
 Quarantine inspection departme...
 Grove inspection department
 Entomological department
 Apiary inspection department
 Howard Samuel McClanahan

Group Title: Report for the period ... of the State Plant Board of Florida
Title: Report for the period ... /
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098574/00016
 Material Information
Title: Report for the period ... /
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: 19 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: State Plant Board of Florida
Publisher: State Plant Board of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1950/52
Frequency: biennial
Subject: Plants, Protection of -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: State Plant Board of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 4th (1920/22)- 23rd (1958/60).
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. for 1950/52-1958/60 also called: Bulletin.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098574
Volume ID: VID00016
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10989019
lccn - sn 86033752
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Succeeded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Report of the state plant board of Florida
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of the plant commissioner
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Nursery inspection department
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Tristeza investigations in South America
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Quarantine inspection department
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Grove inspection department
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Entomological department
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Apiary inspection department
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Howard Samuel McClanahan
        Page 42
Full Text

February 1953

Ed L. Ayers, Plant Commissioner

Nineteenth Biennial Report


July I, 1950 -- June 30, 1952

Typical Young Florida Citrus Planting

Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
John F. Seagle Building
Gainesville, Florida

Bulletin 3

Bulletin 3

February 1953

Ed L. Ayers, Plant Commissioner

Nineteenth Biennial Report


July I, 1950 -- June 30, 1952

Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
John F. Seagle Building
Gainesville, Florida


FRANK M. HARRIS, Chairman, St. Petersburg
ELI H. FINK, Jacksonville
GEORGE J. WHITE, SR., Mount Dora
W. GLENN MILLER, Monticello
GEORGE W. ENGLISH, JR., Fort Lauderdale
W. F. POWERS, Secretary, Tallahassee


ARTHUR C. BROWN, Plant Commissioner
PAUL E. FRIERSON, Nursery Inspector
--------- Grove Inspector*
G. B. MERRILL, Entomologist
W. H. MERRILL, Quarantine Inspector
H. S. FOSTER, Apiary Inspector
L. R. HUNTER, Office Manager

* Joe N. Busby was appointed October 15, 1952.


Gainesville, Florida
February 15, 1953
To His Excellency,
Dan McCarty,
Governor of Florida
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the State Plant
Board for the biennium ending June 30, 1952. Please submit
this report to the Legislature.
By: FRANK M. HARRIS, Chairman


The biennial report of the State Plant Board is submitted
herewith for the information of the executive and legislative
branches of the State, as well as the citizens of Florida.
Several changes were made in the personnel of the Plant
Board during the biennium. The terms of Hon. N. B. Jordan,
Quincy, and Hon. Hollis Rinehart, Miami, expired during this
period. Mr. Rinehart was reappointed. Hon. W. Glenn Miller,
Jr., of Monticello, was appointed to fill the vacancy brought
about by the expiration of Mr. Jordan's term. The citizens of
Florida are greatly indebted to Mr. Jordan for the manner in
which he gave freely of his time and talents for the betterment
of agricultural and educational matters in Florida for some
twelve years and through the administrations of four governors.
(It should be stated here that the membership of the State Plant
Board and the Board of Control is identical.)
The membership of the State Plant Board and the Board of
Control was increased from five to seven by action of the 1951
Legislature. Governor Warren appointed Mrs. Jessie Ball du-
Pont of Jacksonville and Hon. George W. English, Jr., of Fort
Lauderdale to fill the newly created positions on the Board.
The membership of the Board at the end of the biennium was:
Frank M. Harris, Chairman, St. Petersburg; Hollis Rinehart,
Miami; Eli H. Fink, Jacksonville; George J. White, Sr., Mount

State Plant Board of Florida

Dora; W. Glenn Miller, Monticello; George W. English, Jr., Fort
Lauderdale; Mrs. Jessie Ball duPont, Jacksonville.
The Board formulates policies and practices, makes rules and
regulations, and supervises expenditures. Regular monthly and
occasional special meetings are held, at which time reports and
recommendations from the Board's executive officers are re-
ceived, considered and acted upon, and instructions are issued.
As in the past, the administrative and field operations of the
Board have been conducted through the Plant Commissioner as
executive officer for the Board.
It was necessary to curtail somewhat the activities of the
State Plant Board during the biennium because of lack of nec-
essary funds. It is hoped that the recommendations of the
1953-55 biennium will receive serious consideration both by the
Budget Commission and the Legislature.
With regard to personnel, the situation is a serious one. Em-
ployees should be graduates of an agricultural college or indi-
viduals who possess a wide practical knowledge of plant pests
and their control, as well as of plants and their culture. In
seeking the services of such individuals, the Board must com-
pete with the United States Department of Agriculture and
commercial agencies whose salary range is much larger than
that of the Plant Board. The situation with respect to Federal
competition is best illustrated by a reference to the Board's
foreign plant quarantine service. The Plant Board has for
years, and properly so, insisted that in Florida the enforcement
of the foreign plant quarantines promulgated by the Secretary
of Agriculture be under the direct supervision of the Plant
Commissioner. The protection of Florida's agricultural invest-
ments is too important, and the strict enforcement of foreign
plant quarantines too essential, to delegate to individuals who
are responsible only to their superiors at Washington. Conse-
quently in Florida, as in California, foreign plant quarantine
activities are performed by State employees, with the assistance
of a few Federal inspectors who operate under the direction of
the Plant Commissioner. Yet the remuneration of the Board's
inspectors is less than that of the Federal employees. At Miami,
four Federal employees are each paid more than the State in-
spector in charge who is responsible for the effective direction
of that important activity.
In the past the Board's field employees were able to devote
their full time to inspectional activities: searching citrus and

Nineteenth Biennial Report

vegetable plantings and nurseries for the presence of new and
destructive plant pests and diseases. In recent years this con-
dition has changed. Now no small part of the time of the
inspectors is required to inspect or fumigate and certify ship-
ments of citrus fruits to California and foreign countries; at-
tend meetings of growers and garden clubs; advise property
occupants of methods of control of pests or diseases of lawn
grasses; and at times go out into the county and control pests
or diseases on private properties. Consequently, the inspectors
are not able to perform the duties expected of them, namely,
careful and intensive search of the State's agricultural plant-
ings for the presence of new and injurious plant pests and dis-
During the biennium the Board lost the services, through
retirement or death, of several old and valued employees. Par-
ticular reference is made to three individuals: J. C. Goodwin,
who entered the Board's employ in 1915, and who served as
Chief Clerk, Apiary Inspector, and Nursery Inspector, retired
on April 30, 1952, having served the State continuously for over
thirty-five years; and H. S. McClanahan, Grove Inspector, who
died on March 4, 1952. Mr. McClanahan served the Board dur-
ing the early days of the citrus canker eradication project, re-
signing in 1917 to enlist in the Navy. He returned to the Board
during the Mediterranean fruit fly eradication campaign in
1929. He was in charge of the citrus blackfly eradication proj-
ect in Key West in the early 1930's. The successful termina-
tion of this activity was due in no small measure to Mr. Mc-
Clanahan's capable direction. Mr. Goodwin was succeeded by
Mr. Paul E. Frierson and Mr. McClanahan by Mr. Joe N. Busby.
Early in 1952 Mr. Arthur C. Brown, Plant Commissioner,
expressed a desire to retire at the close of the fiscal year or as
soon thereafter as his successor could be appointed and become
active as Plant Commissioner.
Mr. Brown has given more than thirty-three years to State
Plant Board work. He was appointed as a field inspector in
1915 and, with the exception of a period of military service in
World War I and three years spent developing muck lands in
South Florida, devoted the remainder of the time to Plant Board
work. During this time Mr. Brown held appointments as Grove
Inspector, Quarantine Inspector, and Assistant Plant Commis-
sioner. In 1943 he was appointed Plant Commissioner.

State Plant Board of Florida

The success of three important eradication projects in Florida
-citrus canker, Mediterranean fruit fly, and citrus blackfly
on the Island of Key West-was due in no small measure to the
guidance of Mr. Brown who at these times held positions of
Subsequent to the period covered by this report, Mr. Brown
retired as of August 31, 1952. Through his years of experi-
ence, Mr. Brown is a recognized authority on plant quarantines,
and as such will be available to various agencies for consultation
on any problems which may arise with regard to plant quarantine.
Mr. Ed L. Ayers, appointed Plant Commissioner August 1,
1952, has a long period of service to the agriculture of Texas
and Florida. He served a few years as Chief Inspector with
the State Department of Agriculture in Texas, followed by a
few years in commercial horticulture and entomological work.
Mr. Ayers came to Florida as Entomologist and Plant Patholo-
gist with the Agricultural Extension Service in 1922 and later
became Assistant to the Director of the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station.
Mr. Ayers went to Manatee County as County Agent in 1924.
From 1926 to 1937 he was associated with Palmer Farms in
Sarasota and with the Federal Land Bank of Columbia. He
resumed work as County Agent in Manatee County in 1937.
Reference to the work performed by the Plant Board during
the biennium is made in the Report of the Plant Commissioner,
which is a part of this Report.
The Chairman and the other members of the Plant Board
take this opportunity to express their appreciation of the ad-
vice, counsel, and support on the part of growers and govern-
mental agencies, both State and Federal. The Board is espe-
cially grateful for the advice and aid furnished by the Governor
and members of his Cabinet at Tallahassee; the Director of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and his associates;
the Chief and Associate Chiefs of the Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine and the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils,
and Agricultural Engineering of the United States Department
of Agriculture; the Chairman and members of the Florida Agri-
cultural Council; and the Collector and Assistant Collector of
Customs of the Florida District.
Respectfully submitted,

Nineteenth Biennial Report

For Biennium Ending June 30, 1952

Gainesville, Florida
February 15, 1953
Honorable Frank M. Harris, Chairman,
State Plant Board of Florida
SIR: I have the honor to present herewith my report as
Plant Commissioner for the biennium 1950-1952.
Plant Commissioner

July 1, 1950 to June 30, 1952
As in the past, the work of the State Plant Board was carried
on through several departments: Grove Inspection, Quarantine
Inspection, Nursery Inspection, Entomology, Tristeza Investi-
gations, and Apiary Inspection. Each department is headed
by a chief who functions under the direct supervision of the
Plant Commissioner.
The State Plant Board was created in 1915 by legislative
action for the purpose of providing a means for the close and
frequent inspection of the State's horticultural and agricultural
plantings. At a later date, 1919, the Legislature enacted the
Florida Bee Disease Law, which delegated to the Board the
responsibility of keeping bee diseases under control.
For a number of years following enactment of the Florida
Plant Act, the entire time and efforts of the inspectional force
were devoted to making regular inspections of citrus and vege-
table plantings and nurseries for the purpose of detecting at
the earliest possible moment the presence of new and destruc-
tive plant pests and diseases. The need for a service of this
kind is imperative in an agricultural state such as Florida which,
by reason of its geographical location and its vast trade and
travel from other parts of the United States and from abroad,

State Plant Board of Florida

is peculiarly exposed to entry of destructive pests and diseases.
In recent years there has been an ever increasing demand
for the services of the Board's inspectors for activities other
than the search for insects and diseases in Florida's groves and
vegetable plantings and nurseries. These demands include the
inspection of shipments of citrus fruits, treatment of pests and
diseases on lawns in city lots and in field crops, and consultation
with farmers about their pest control problems.
During the shipping season inspectors are required to ex-
amine and, in many instances, supervise the fumigation of citrus
fruits destined to points in California and abroad and to certify
that they are moving in accordance with the plant quarantine
regulations of such State and countries.
The inspection, treatment, and certification of shipments of
citrus fruit as indicated in the preceding paragraph must be
performed by Plant Board employees under the provisions of
the regulations of California and foreign countries. This task
cannot be delegated to some other State agency. Inability on
the part of the Board to provide these services would result in
closing these outlets for Florida's citrus fruits. There is no
likelihood that the officials of foreign countries will repeal their
regulations, and thus obviate the need for the services of the
inspectors. It is the opinion of the Plant Commissioner, however,
that the situation with respect to the California regulations
might be corrected, without increase of the risk of disseminat-
ing injurious plant pests or diseases, following a conference be-
tween growers and regulatory officials of the two States, at
which conference both parties should be prepared to give and
The demand on the part of farmers for the Plant Board to
control insects or diseases on their farms is increasing, due, in
all probability, to the policy of the Federal Department of Agri-
culture to extend all kinds of aid to farmers. Federal aid, at
one time apparently inexhaustible, is becoming less and less avail-
able and as a result of this farmers, accustomed to receiving aid,
are turning to their State pest control organizations for assist-
ance in the control of insects and diseases. There can be no
question but that at times farmers are unable to protect their
own crops against real injury. In the case of newly introduced
pests or diseases, eradication, if at all practicable, and not con-
trol is the answer, with the costs being defrayed from State
and Federal funds. If, however, the newly introduced pests

Nineteenth Biennial Report

or diseases are the objects of existing Federal plant quarantines,
the entire costs should be assumed by the Federal Government.
Federal officials are responsible for the promulgation of pro-
hibitions or restrictions regulating the entry of plant material
capable of serving as carriers of injurious plant pests or dis-
eases. The States are without authority to take such action.
Federal officials are responsible for the efficient enforcement
of such quarantines. If destructive pests or diseases slip into
the country as a result of the inadequacy of Federal protective
quarantines or the manner of enforcement, the Government
should be responsible for their eradication. With regard to
outbreaks of the more common pests and diseases on individual
farms, the affected farmers should be held responsible for their
control. Unfortunately, in many instances such farmers are
unable to protect their crops. By reason of governmental sup-
ports and high prices paid for farm products, many farmers
have expanded their operations and along with such expansion
have purchased trucks, tractors, binders, and all other improved
farm machinery-except sprayers or dusters for pest and dis-
ease control. They, themselves, should correct this condition.
Demands for the services of Plant Board inspectors could be
further lessened and the amount of pest and disease surveys
increased if the Agricultural Extension Service would employ
a sufficient number of Extension entomologists and pathologists.
Specialists of this kind are an essential part of any agricultural
extension organization.
Two events of paramount importance to the State's citrus
industry transpired during the biennium. The first was the
finding of a mild form of quick decline by Dr. Theodore J. Grant,
Pathologist, United States Subtropical Fruit Field Station, Bu-
reau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering,
Orlando, Florida. While the form or strain observed in Florida
is apparently a mild one-far less destructive than the type
present in South America-it is nonetheless a most unwelcome
invader and one that has undoubtedly been responsible for the
loss of a number of citrus trees in Florida. A survey of the
entire State disclosed that the disease was fairly well distributed
throughout the citrus producing areas. This would indicate that
the disease has been present for a number of years. It has been
observed on the following varieties and rootstocks: Varieties:
Sweet orange, Temple orange, and lime. Rootstocks: Sour
orange, grapefruit, and Key lime.

State Plant Board of Florida

Plans for coping with this development include careful sur-
veys for the purpose of delimiting the distribution of quick de-
cline in Florida, its host range, and means for making positive
determinations as to the presence or absence of the disease on
suspected material collected by inspectors. It is doubtful if this
last named project can be successfully prosecuted with funds
and personnel now available for the use of the State Plant Board.
Lime seedlings must be used as "guinea pigs" in the determina-
tion work. A plot of land from five to ten acres in extent,
equipped with an irrigation system, will be needed for the
growth and culture of these seedlings. A greenhouse will be
needed to propagate the seedlings, and specialized equipment will
be required to carry on the tests. Fortunately for the citrus
industry, the Director of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station has provided a heated greenhouse at Gainesville for the
use of the Plant Board. This action on the part of the Director
is further substantiation of the value of the close association
between the Board of Control and the State Plant Board-be-
tween the State's research and regulatory organizations.
The second event was the inauguration of a citrus budwood
certification program. The purpose of the program is to assist
nurserymen and growers to grow citrus nursery trees that are
believed to be free from virus and other recognizable bud-trans-
missible diseases. Participation in the program shall be volun-
tary on the part of the nurserymen. Registration shall be vol-
untary on the part of the Plant Commissioner, depending solely
on his sincere conviction as to the qualifications of the tree or
the applicant. Registration shall not imply any warranty on
the part of the State Plant Board or any employee thereof.
Further reference to the certification program is made in
the report of the Nursery Inspector, who will be in charge of
this activity. If the Board is furnished with adequate funds
by the Legislature, it will be able to carry out this program in
a creditable manner and furnish the citrus industry with an
urgently needed service. If sufficient funds are not provided,
the industry will suffer.
The finding of quick decline in Florida, together with the
inauguration of the citrus budwood certification program, im-
posed upon the Board a need for the employment of additional
personnel and the purchase of specialized equipment. The

Nineteenth Biennial Report

Board's funds were not sufficient to meet this need. This em-
phasized the need for and value of an emergency appropriation
similar to the one appropriated by the Legislature each biennium
between 1922 and 1948 for the use of the State Plant Board.
Had this item of $50,000 for the biennium been available this
year, the situation with respect to the progress, or rather, lack
of progress, in disease investigations and the budwood certifi-
cation program would have been much better.
A statement with respect to the Board's resources and expendi-
tures for the biennium, with detailed reports on the activities
of the several departments under the Plant Commissioner's di-
rection, follows:

A statement with regard to the funds available for the Board's
use during 1950-51 and 1951-52, as released by the Budget Com-
mission, follows:

1950-1951 Salary Expense Total
General Revenue Fund:
General Activities ..---- $303,900.00 $104,245.00 $408,145.00
Apiary Inspection 18,840.00 15,070.00 33,910.00
Special, White-fringed Beetle --- --- --- 20,000.00
Special, Tristeza .......------------------ 30,000.00

Total Appropriation ..... .-------------- $492,055.00
10% Reserved by Budget Commission 49,205.50

Total -...-...---- ----- ----- $442,849.50

1951-1952 Salary Expense Total
General Revenue Fund:
General Activities ----- $270,000.00 $ 90,000.00 $360,000.00
Apiary Inspection -- 16,500.00 14,000.00 30,500.00
Tristeza Investigations 17,000.00 9,500.00 26,500.00

Total Legislative Appropriations --------- $417,000.00


Expenditures of the Board for each year of the biennium
are shown in the following tabulations. Expenditures by de-
partments are indicated in Table A. In Table B are shown
expenditures for specific purposes.

State Plant Board of Florida


Department 1950-1951 1951-1952

Grove Inspection ----$139,288.73 $124,362.37
Nursery Inspection 54,989.00 61,780.69
Quarantine Inspection 93,669.62 90,066.92
Office of the Board 3,960.00 4,537.17
Plant Commissioner's Office --- 22,227.88 27,733.62
Entomology --------- -------...- ....- .. 10,454.21 9,221.53
Sweet Potato Weevil ------------- --- 9,030.59 10,961.91
White-fringed Beetle Quarantine .---- 6,074.82 4,078.19
Grasshopper Investigations and Control --- 25,483.65 5,802.90
Apiary Inspection 29,312.69 30,027.59
Special, Tristeza -----. -----.....-- 25,151.70 14,888.24
White-fringed Beetle Control --- 5,540.55
Total -. --. ---------- --- $425,183.44 $383,461.13


Item 1950-1951 1951-1952

Salaries -----------------
Repairs to Equipment -----
Printing and Binding ----------.
Photographing and Blueprinting ----
Heat, Gas, Light ------------
Postage .. --------------------
Telephone, Telegraph -- -----
Freight, Express --------. ----------
Travel Employees ----------
Cleaning, Painting, Waste Removal -
Laundry Service --.--. --.--
Labor ------------------- --------------- -
Parts and Fittings ---------------
Lumber and Wood Products ----
Structural Metals -------
Other Building Material ----------..
Stationery and Office Supplies
Chemicals and Laboratory Supplies
Gasoline, Oil, and Lubricants --------
Agricultural, Horticultural, and
Park Supplies -- -----
Hand Tools and Minor Equipment .------.-
Building and Mechanical Supplies ------
Clothing (Quarantine Department Caps)
Cleaning and Laundry Supplies --
Other Supplies --------
Rental of Offices ----------.----------.--_-----------
Insurance-Buildings and Equipment
Insurance-Workmen's Compensation
Official Bonds ---------------------------. ---
Registrations, Dues, Fees, etc. -----
Household and Laundry Equipment ------
Office Furniture and Equipment -------
Engineering and Scientific Equipment __
Books --.--------
Trees and Shrubs ----------- -- ---
Revolving Fund ---------------- ----



---- - -- - -- -
- - - -- - -




Total ......--------- -. $425,183.44 $383,461.13

Nineteenth Biennial Report


The Plant Commissioner presents herewith the estimates be-
lieved to be necessary and desirable to finance the Board's
activities during each of the two years of the biennium 1953-

Department Salaries Expenses Total

Office of the Board --- $ 4,440.00 $ 1,340.00 $ 5,780.00
Plant Commissioner's Office-- 27,208.00 12,835.00 40,043.00
Plant Inspection --- 242,404.00 103,116.00 345,520.00
Quarantine Inspection 102,144.00 16,812.50 118,956.50
Entomology and Plant Pathology 24,900.00 13,583.50 38,483.50
Apiary Inspection 34,080.00 20,727.00 54,807.00

Total ------- $435,176.00 $168,414.00 $603,590.00


Department Salaries Expenses Total

Office of the Board $ 4,680.00 $ 1,340.00 $ 6,020.00
Plant Commissioner's Office- 27,904.00 9,860.00 37,764.00
Plant Inspection 249,256.00 100,581.00 349,837.00
Quarantine Inspection .---. 105,120.00 16,677.50 121,797.50
Entomology and Plant Pathology 25,500.00 10,813.50 36,313.50
Apiary Inspection .------- 35,160.00 20,727.00 55,887.00

Total -- $447,620.00 $159,999.00 $607,619.00

State Plant Board of Florida

Paul E. Frierson, Nursery Inspector

The nursery industry in Florida continued its upward trend
during the past two years. The State now has under inspection
61 per cent more nurseries, 17 per cent more acreage, and 137
per cent more plants than were under inspection on June 30,
1942. This increase in the number of nurseries and plants to
be inspected has caused a reduction in the average number of
inspections made per nursery from 4.2 for 1941-1942 to 3.2 for
In addition to the increase in nursery stock there was a con-
siderable increase in the volume of vegetable plants, bulbs, cut
flowers, etc., inspected which are not considered nursery stock.
Such inspections are required so that our growers may be able
to comply with the regulations of other states to which plants
are shipped. During 1951-1952 alone, 464 such inspections were
made covering an aggregate of 652,935,830 bulbs and plants.
This tremendous increase in business has been absorbed with-
out materially increasing the personnel of the Nursery Inspec-
tion Department. In 1947 one filing clerk was added to the
office force, and in 1950-1951 one additional assistant nursery
inspector was assigned to the Miami-Fort Lauderdale area. This
situation cannot continue. There is at the present time urgent
need for two additional assistant nursery inspectors for assign-
ment to regular nursery inspection duties in the Orlando and
Tampa areas where the inspectors now assigned have approxi-
mately 500 nurseries each under inspection. The increased
paper work has also created an urgent need for one additional
full-time stenographer and one part-time typist in the office.
The following tabulations will give some idea of the extent
and scope of the nursery inspection activities during the bi-


Acreage Planted to Quantity Nursery
Number Inspection Districts Nursery Stock Stock in State

1942 8 -------- 5,166.26 48,925,737
1952 9 ---------- 6,228.83 115,051,248

Nineteenth Biennial Report


Variety 1949-1950 1950-1951 1951-1952

Orange .. 1,094,368 1,052,560 | 669,216
Grapefruit ... ... 383,641 351,250 209,318
Tangerine 40,729 29,303 18,974
Satsuma 25,537 13,921 18,346
Lemon -12,336 9,117 7,942
Lime 24,373 19,167 22,935
Miscellaneous citrus.-- ---- 50,814 59,475 39,705
Seedlings 947,650 916,780 1,595,127

Total --- 2,579,448 2,451,573 2,581,563


To enable the nurserymen of the State to ship their products
to other states and countries, 433 Nursery Inspection Certifi-
cates were filed with 48 states and one with Hawaiian officials.
Twenty-one certificates were filed with five foreign countries
as follows: Mexico, Colombia, Iran, Burma, and El Salvador,
Central America.


Early in 1952, in anticipation of a citrus budwood certifica-
tion program that would assure growers of citrus trees and bud-
wood free from psorosis, xyloporosis, and certain other citrus
troubles, the Nursery Inspection Department started the train-
ing of personnel to handle such a program. The present Nurs-
ery Inspector was sent to Texas where he spent approximately
ten days with Mr. Carl Waibel, who is in charge of a similar
program in that state. Almost all of the assistant nursery in-
spectors were given training in the diagnosis of psorosis, xylopo-
rosis, and other citrus diseases, at the United States Department
of Agriculture Subtropical Fruit Field Station at Orlando, and
at the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred. These in-
spectors also had a day of practical field work in groves at Avon
Park with specialists from both of the above stations.
As of June 30, 1952, the Florida citrus budwood program has
assumed definite shape. Workable instructions for the admin-
istration of such a program have been prepared and have been


Kind of Stock

Orange --
Grapefruit -- ..--
Tangerine --.....--.
Satsuma --- -....
Lemon -----
Lime -...---
Miscellaneous citrus
Clitrsna Qppdlnogs


1949-1950 1950-1951
Acres Plants Acres Plants

825.23 2,032,631 702.54 1,871,519
256.71 723,567 186.45 420,347
30.23 77,020 24.63 81,731
25.67 126,830 14.02 63,700
5.99 14,127 6.20 9,365
11.75 45,287 11.70 71,935
82.56 163,183 57.08 140,552
3Q20 9 7O 70 OA QiQQ a AQ 6 109


Acres Plant

634.91 1,986,3i
160.38 449,61
19.66 53,9'
9.46 54,7i
5.39 10,2:
13.97 97,8-
82.98 180,3'
00O7 A) 0 Oo70 A.


A <

---- ---- --- ---- --- --- .--. .

Total citrus .................................. 1,558.46 8,978,269 1,402.17 9,094,272 1,314.18 9,206,268

Fern .- _.-----------____.............-. 537.84 21,382,500 350.44 18,877,000 495.99 25,930,000
General and ornamental ...................... 3,896.56 62,366,047 4,036.99 64,667,520 4,418.66 79,914,980

Total non-citrus ................................ 4,434.40 83,748,547 4,387.43 83,544,520 4,914.65 105,844,980

GRAND TOTAL ............-... 5,992.86 92,726,816 5,789.60 92,638,792 6,228.83 115,051,248

JULY 1, 1951- JUNE 30, 1952

Approximate A


Caladium ----
Gladiolus .-----
Easter lily ..............
Hemerocallis ---
Narcissus ..----.--
Miscellaneous bulbs
and plants ..........
Cabbage ----
Tomato ---
Tobacco -



Number Number
Insp. Farms

36 18
53 21
132 25
56 10
24 11
2 1

12 6
8 6
122 25
19 17

464 140

Lggregate Acres and

.ggregate Number
lo. Acres Acres
Certified Refused

260.64 0
205.09 0
3,600.00 50.00
63.75 .25
11.11 0
120.00 0

10.47 0
121.00 86.00
1,312.00 721.50
88.50 0

5,792.56 857.75

Quantities Inspected

Aggregate |




No. Bulbs
or Plants




No. Bulbs
or Plants




Total No.
Bulbs or




State Plant Board of Florida

approved by the Committee appointed by the Florida State
Horticultural Society to get the program started in the State.
The Board has not yet received the instructions for considera-
tion but, no doubt, will in the near future.

During the biennium the Department had several changes
in personnel. On April 30, 1952, Mr. J. C. Goodwin, Nursery
Inspector since 1925, retired after having served the State Plant
Board in various capacities since it was organized over 36 years
Paul E. Frierson, formerly Assistant to the Grove Inspector,
was appointed Acting Nursery Inspector and assumed his new
duties on May 1, 1952. He was appointed Nursery Inspector
July 1, 1952.
J. M. Soowal, who was appointed Assistant Nursery Inspector
in 1951, and assigned to the new nursery inspection district
formed by dividing the Miami district, resigned effective June
30, 1952. Halwin L. Jones, on leave of absence since June 1951
to work towards his Master's degree at the University of Florida,
will be assigned to the position formerly held by Mr. Soowal.

Nineteenth Biennial Report

Dr. A. F. Camp*, Technical Adviser

Florida, in cooperation with the growers of Texas and the
Argentine government, has been carrying on some tristeza in-
vestigation work near Concordia, Entre Rios, Argentina since
December of 1946. It was realized that tristeza was a serious
disease and that the growers of the State would need as much
information as possible should the disease ever show up here.
When it became known that the disease was in Florida, as dis-
covered by Dr. Theodore J. Grant, Plant Pathologist at the Sub-
tropical Fruit Field Station, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils,
and Agricultural Engineering, United States Department of
Agriculture, Orlando, steps were immediately taken toward clos-
ing the laboratory in Argentina and bringing back Dr. L. Carl
Knorr for a continuation of the work at the Citrus Experiment
Station at Lake Alfred, Florida. Plans were also made to set
up a laboratory for the testing of bark samples using the tech-
nique developed by Dr. Schneider of California. Dr. Robert
M. Pratt of the Citrus Experiment Station was dispatched to
California for a thorough study of his methods and sufficient
laboratory equipment was installed for carrying out the work.
Grove inspectors were also called in, trained and supplied with
tools for taking sections in the field for forwarding to the tech-
nicians at the Citrus Experiment Station. Arrangements were
also made with Dr. Grant to test suspected trees by budding
them onto Key limes, as developed by Dr. Grant, and making
observations of vein-clearing symptoms.
The closing of the laboratory in the Argentine has left much
work unfinished, but in the case of some of the more important
experiments, the test plants were transferred to a planting
on the property of the Bovino Brothers, who will take care of
them. One of the most important of these plantings involves
selections of Marsh Seedless grapefruit strains which appear
to be more resistant to the stem-pitting effects of tristeza than
the ordinary strains. This might be of great importance in
the future if one of the strains proves to have outstanding char-
acteristics and it is hoped that these trees can be checked from
time to time by personnel from Florida.
Dr. Camp is Vice-Director of the Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Al-
fred, Florida.

State Plant Board of Florida

Since it had been reported that Florida rough lemon was not
a tolerant rootstock, an experiment was set up to study this
point. Seed from rough lemon trees from 34 localities in Florida
were collected and sent to Argentina and run through the test
plots for comparison with other stocks. All proved to be tol-
erant as compared with sour oranges and other so-called sus-
ceptible stocks. This is an important point since the bulk of
Florida citrus is grown on trees budded on this stock. This
does not mean that the trees budded on this stock will not have
some top effects such as stem-pitting and perhaps stunting,
in the case of grapefruit, but it does indicate it to be a stock
as safe as any we could recommend at the present time.
Work was carried on to find a more satisfactory test plant
than Key lime and also to indicate what species of plants ought
to be excluded from importation on account of their ability to
carry the disease. Aeglopsis Chevalieri Swing. was found to
be an excellent test plant, the showing of symptoms when in-
fected being more consistent than in the case of Key lime. Lack
of a sizeable supply of seeds prevents its use as a test plant at
present. Pamburus missions (Wt.) Swing. and Balsamocitrus
paniculata Swing. were also added to the list of citrus relatives
which may harbor the virus, and should be added to the long
list of citrus relatives, plants of which should be excluded from
Since grapefruit trees budded on tolerant stocks are affected
with stem-pitting and other top symptoms which affect their
growth regardless of stock, some work was done in the older
groves in Argentina to determine to what extent we might expect
trouble with our Marsh Seedless budded on rough lemon and
other tolerant stocks. In the Pindapoy area there are a number
of groves of Marsh budded on rough lemon which are over
twenty years old. These were imported trees which came from
either South Africa or Australia and are believed to be the trees
which brought in the virus. These trees have never produced
fruit of satisfactory size and some of them show extreme stem-
pitting symptoms in both the twigs and the main branches while
others show little or no such symptoms. A series of compari-
sons were made to see whether these pronounced symptoms had
an effect on either the yield or the size of the fruit. In paired
trees, no difference in yield could be established in favor of the
trees without pronounced symptoms. A detailed study of fruit
sizes on 23 pairs of trees showed no difference in the size distri-

Nineteenth Biennial Report

bution. It must be presumed that all trees are infected with the
virus, so the tests evaluate only the effects, if any, of the extreme
symptoms. Some other observation would indicate that the very
small fruit may be related to soil conditions.
Further work on xyloporosis would indicate that this trouble
is more or less concurrent with tristeza in Argentina and that
it would be very difficult to separate the two. Presuming that
xyloporosis is a virus disease, it may be that some of the ex-
perimental results are not strictly the result of the tristeza virus,
but rather a mixture of the two. While xyloporosis is described
as occurring in trees budded on sweet lime and possibly one or
two other stocks, observations indicate that it can probably af-
fect many other stocks. In our experiments, approximately 30
stocks showed xyloporosis-like pitting. A number of diseases
were observed which are unreported in the literature and some
of which appear to be of virus nature. Time did not permit the
detailed study of these.
Attempts to identify tristeza infected trees by means of chemi-
cal tests failed to yield results, but studies involving the electron
microscope are still being continued by Dr. Offerman of the Min-
istry of Agriculture of Argentina. Such a test would be a great
advantage in inspection work.

State Plant Board of Florida

W. H. Merrill, Quarantine Inspector

Because of Florida's geographical location, it is greatly ex-
posed to the entry and development of plant pests from tropical
and semitropical countries. The risk of entry of such pests is
considerably increased by the movement of hundreds of aircraft
transporting thousands of passengers into the State each month
from many foreign countries.
The Quarantine Inspection Department is held responsible for
the prevention of entry of plant pests. The Board's inspectors
enforce foreign plant quarantines. While the Bureau of En-
tomology and Plant Quarantine, United States Department of
Agriculture, is responsible for the promulgation and enforce-
ment of foreign plant quarantines, it is imperative that Florida,
in which production of fruits and vegetables is of paramount
importance, for its own protection perform the major part of the
inspection work. Through a cooperative agreement entered into
several years ago with the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, State Plant Board quarantine inspectors hold ap-
pointments as agents of the United States Department of Agri-
culture. Inspection work is conducted with the full cooperation
of governmental services concerned with the entry of foreign
traffic, namely: Customs, Public Health, Immigration, and
Postal; as well as the many air lines and shipping companies
entering air- and watercraft at Florida ports. The ports of
entry, together with the number of State and Federal inspectors
on duty at each, follow:
Miami .------- 7 State 6 Federal
West Palm Beach .------1 State 1 Federal
Port Everglades .---.. 1 State
Tampa 4 State
Key West- 1 State
Jacksonville .---- 4 State
Pensacola 1 State
Plant quarantine enforcement has developed into a compli-
cated problem. With approximately 75 different air lines and
several different ship lines engaged in foreign trade operating
in and out of Florida ports, this is understandable. The ex-
pansion of international traffic by air is shown each year in
increasing entries, passengers, and cargoes. Control of plant
quarantine problems in Florida is made possible by reason of the

Nineteenth Biennial Report

splendid cooperation of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture, as well
as other Federal agencies, especially the Customs Service, with
the Plant Board. Planes and vessels engaged in foreign com-
merce must comply with certain Federal regulations connected
with their entry into this country, as well as the bringing in of
cargoes, stores, passengers, baggage, and mail at designated
ports under the jurisdiction of Customs, Public Health, and plant
quarantine inspectors. Fortunately, the quarantine laws pro-
vide the Board with the authority to make immediate disposition
of plant materials and products offered for entry by inspecting
and releasing; returning to point of origin; destroying; treat-
ing; or by applying safeguards to any shipment when conditions
warrant such action.
There follow several tabulations depicting the volume of work
performed by the Board's plant quarantine inspectors: (1)
the number of parcels of plants and plant products handled;
(2) the number of air- and watercraft from foreign countries

(Arriving by Ship, Express, Freight, Mail, and Airplane)

1950-1951 1951-1952

Passed _-.............. --------------- 5,327,220 5,463,029
Treated and passed ------- 183 2,775
Cleaned and passed ----- 3,693,519 2,320,690
Returned to shipper--- 197 52
Returned to stores----- -20,457 24,492
Contraband destroyed - 9,904 10,815
Diverted (to Federal Inspection Houses, etc.)-l 325 149

TOTAL------------ 9,051,805 7,822,002


Total Number of Air- Total Total Number of
Year and Watercraft Number Pieces of Baggage
Planes Vessels Passengers Inspected

1950-1951 --- 23,562 4,694 357,306 940,960
1951-1952 1 23,866 5,110 390,101 1,058,350

State Plant Board of Florida

and United States possessions, together with the number of pas-
sengers and pieces of baggage from foreign countries only; and
(3) a list of foreign countries and possessions of the United
States from which plant material came to Florida.


Foreign Countries

1. Algeria*
2. Antigua
3. Argentina*
4. Aruba, N.W.I.*
5. Australia*
6. Austria
7. Azores*
8. Bahama Islands*
9. Barbados, B.W.I.*
10. Belgian Congo
11. Belgium*
12. Bermuda
13. Bolivia*
14. Brazil*
15. British East Africa
16. British Guiana*
17. British Honduras*
18. British West Indies
19. Canada
20. Canary Islands
21. Cayman Islands*
22. Ceylon*
23. Chile*
24. China*
25. Colombia*
26. Costa Rica*
27. Cuba*
28. Curacao, N.W.I.*
29. Cyprus*
30. Czechoslovakia*
31. Denmark
32. Dodecanese Islands
33. Dominican Republic*
34. East Africa*
35. Ecuador*
36. Egypt
37. Eire
38. El Salvador*
39. England*
40. Fiji Islands
41. Finland
42. France*
43. French Guiana
44. Germany*
45. Gibraltar
46. Gold Coast
47. Greece*
48. Guatemala*
49. Haiti*

50. Holland*
51. Honduras*
52. Hungary
53. Iceland
54. India*
55. Indonesia
56. Iraq
57. Ireland*
58. Isle of Rhodes
59. Israel
60. Italy*
61. Jamaica*
62. Japan*
63. Kenya
64. Korea
65. Lebanon*
66. Liberia
67. Luxembourg
68. Madagascar*
69. Madeira Islands
70. Malay States
71. Malaya, British
72. Martinique, F.W.I.
73. Mexico*
74. Morocco, French
75. Morocco, Spanish
76. Netherlands W. I.
77. Newfoundland
78. New Guinea*
79. New Zealand
80. Nicaragua*
81. Nigeria*
82. Norfolk Island
83. Norway
84. Pakistan
85. Panama*
86. Paraguay
87. Peru*
88. Philippine Islands*
89. Poland
90. Portugal
91. Rhodesia, Southern
92. St. Kitts*
93. St. Lucia*
94. Scotland
95. Sicily*
96. Sierra Leone
97. South Africa, Union of*
98. Spain*

Nineteenth Biennial Report

99. Straits Settlements* 109. Trinidad*
100. Surinam* 110. Tripolitania
101. Swaziland 111. Turkey
102. Sweden 112. Uganda
103. Switzerland 113. Unknown*
104. Syria 114. Uruguay*
105. Tanganyika 115. Venezuela*
106. Thailand* 116. Yugoslavia*
107. Tobago 117. Wales
108. Transvaal, South
United States Possessions
Guam Hawaiian Islands Swan Island
Panama Canal Zone* Puerto Rico* Virgin Islands*
* Countries from which insect pests and plant diseases were intercepted.

Records reveal that plant pests transported from distant lands
reach Florida in a live condition. Interceptions of major plant
pests, some of which were cosmopolitan, were made from plant
materials and plant products that originated in 64 of the coun-
tries listed in the preceding Table III.
The bulk of the plant material recorded in Table I under
the headings "Passed" and "Cleaned and Passed" consisted of
bananas, cucumbers, tomatoes, pineapples, and similar commodi-
ties originating in foreign countries where they are not exposed
to attack by major insects or diseases. It is principally in the
material recorded under the headings "Returned to Shipper,"
"Returned to Stores," "Contraband Destroyed," and "Diverted to
Inspection Houses" that injurious insects and diseases are found.
Florida is particularly interested in banning the entry of
fruit fly hosts from countries where these insects are known to
exist. During the biennium, fruit fly larvae were collected
many times in citrus fruits (grapefruit and oranges), and tropi-
cal fruits such as mango, guava, mamey, soursop, cherimoya,
custard apple, sapodilla, lucuma, and two unknown varieties of
fruit from twelve countries.
Orange peel from Japan infected with citrus canker, a disease
once eradicated from Florida, was collected in a storeroom on
a ship. Species of whiteflies, including the well-known citrus
blackfly, mealybugs, and other pests were intercepted on leaves
found in containers of citrus and on or in fruits, vegetables,
and plants.
Several kinds of weevils are always knocking at our door in
or on many hosts. A beetle not reported to be present in this
country, which infests Irish potatoes in Mexico and is consid-

State Plant Board of Florida

ered of economic importance, was intercepted in ship's stores
during the period.
Species of ants, aphids, numerous scale-insects, and many
other insects and diseases affecting plant life are intercepted
A part of the quarantine service that has not been touched
on in previous biennial reports, that of certification duties, is
included herewith because in the last two years the export trade
in plant materials through Florida ports has developed into a
sizeable business, creating additional work. The annual in-
crease in such traffic is due, in part, to the many air lines oper-
ating between Florida and foreign countries or making connec-
tions with other air lines which operate planes to and from all
parts of the world.
Inspection of plant materials in the field, a State function,
supported by a State certificate of inspection reporting the
findings, furnishes the quarantine inspector at the port of
export with the basis for issuing the State or Federal export
certificate required by United States possessions and foreign
countries. When plant materials enter offshore countries prop-
erly certified, delivery can be made in those countries without
delay or added cost to the shipper.
A summary report showing the volume of agricultural prod-
ucts certified for export through Florida ports for one year,
July 1, 1951-June 30, 1952, follows:


Number Certificates
State I Federal

Miami --- 2,182
Jacksonville--.. 152
Tampa ----- 12
W. Palm Beach- 20
Pt. Everglades 5
Gainesville 1

TOTAL... 2,372



Number Containers* Certified
lits and Cut Plants Bulbs,
getables Flowers I Seeds, etc.

35,985 6,700 2,871 11,314
86,185 363 150 804
25,578 -- 360 13,204
6,795 __ 225 979
1 36 173
3,000 .. 2 2

157,544 7,099 3,781 26,303

*Bag, sack, basket, hamper, box, crate, lug.

It has been stated that control of the destructive sweet potato
weevil is essential to the success of the important and expanding
sweet potato industry in the Southern States. This weevil was


Nineteenth Biennial Report

first discovered in South Florida in 1878. In the years follow-
ing, its dissemination into all counties in peninsular Florida has
taken place. In recent years the sweet potato weevil has been
reported from nearly all of the counties in West Florida. It
is present in most southern states.
Quarantines are maintained by the principal sweet potato
growing states in an attempt to prevent further introduction
and spread of the weevil and to assist in its control and eradi-
The present State Plant Board rules and regulations designate
as Infested Area all that portion of the State of Florida lying
east and south of Hamilton, Madison, and Jefferson Counties
where the infestation is of such long standing and wide spread
that the possibility even of control is doubtful. The Control
Area is designated as all that part of the State of Florida lying
west of the eastern boundaries of Hamilton, Madison, and Jef-
ferson Counties, which includes the remaining eighteen counties
in West Florida, where, because the introduction of the weevil
is of recent origin, there is the possibility that control may be
During the past biennium the control methods applied in a
cooperative program, participated in by State and Federal Gov-
ernments, supported by interested parties, have produced fair
results in several counties lying within the Control Area.

|No. Infestations No. PropertieslNo. Infestations No. Properties
County Found Released Dur- Found Released Dur-
7/1/50-6/30/51 ing Period 7/1/51-6/30/52 ing Period
Jefferson 45 7 15 46
Leon 51 93 22 67
Gadsden 56 85 23 36
Jackson .. 49 32 23 58
Madison 1 1 1
Santa Rosa 2 3 3
Escambia 18 3 16
Hamilton 1 -

222 222 86 227

An average of seven inspectors have devoted full time to the
project in supervising control and doing the work connected with
the program. Three State and four Federal inspectors were
assigned to the project with headquarters at Monticello, Talla-

State Plant Board of Florida

hassee, Quincy, and Marianna. One more State inspector lo-
cated in Pensacola assisted in Escambia County at times when
his other duties would permit.
A report on the progress of the work in West Florida counties
in which the sweet potato weevil was reported during the bi-
ennium, with the number of properties found infested, cleaned,
and released in each county, is shown in Table I. 'Table II gives
an accumulative infestation report from 1944 to June 30, 1952.

From 1944 June 30, 1952
Total Infestations
County Total Infestations Cleaned and Total Infestations
Found Released Active

Jefferson ---- 217 I 202 15
Leon 225 195 30
Gadsden ---- 180 151 29
Jackson 119 88 31
Liberty -..-_. 46 46 -
Okaloosa 16 16
Santa Rosa 8 8 -
Escambia .--- 29 24 5
Hamilton 2 2
Madison 2 2
Calhoun --1 1

845 735 110


The Federal Japanese Beetle Quarantine No. 48 quarantines
the states on the eastern seaboard from Maine to Georgia and
as far west as Ohio in an attempt to prevent the spread of the
beetle by regulating the movement of host materials, at certain
times of the year, and some other products throughout the year.
Florida is one of the non-quarantined southern states, where,
for several years, an annual trap survey for the beetle has been
conducted. During the biennium, the Quarantine Department
participated in a Japanese beetle survey with the United States
Department of Agriculture by placing and attending beetle traps
at five airports located in the areas around Jacksonville, Tampa,
St. Petersburg, and West Palm Beach. Other traps were placed
and attended by United States Department of Agriculture repre-
sentatives at Miami, Pensacola, and Orlando.

Nineteenth Biennial Report 29

In July 1951, one Japanese beetle was caught at the Inter-
national Airport, Tampa. In July 1952, one more beetle was
caught in a trap placed in approximately the same location as
was the one the previous year. These were the only collections
reported from the State during the biennium. Since the traps
were placed near the ramp where planes discharge passengers
and freight direct from the Japanese beetle quarantined area in
the North, it is presumed that the collections made in Tampa
were hitchhikers.
Plans have been made to operate, during March and April
1953, an increased number of traps in the vicinity where Japa-
nese beetle collections were made for the purpose of detecting
any possible establishment of the insect.

State Plant Board of Florida

As stated elsewhere in this report, Mr. H. S. McClanahan,
Grove Inspector, died on March 4, 1952. However, the work of
the Grove Inspection Department was under Mr. McClanahan's
supervision during the greater part of the biennium and the
policies as set forth by him were continued.
The citrus industry is without question one of Florida's most
valuable assets. According to the Florida State Marketing Bu-
reau's Annual Report, the 1950-51 season had a gross crop value
of $229,259,000 and the 1951-52 season a gross value of $190,-
123,000. The industry marketed and processed a total of 119,-
100,000 boxes of all kinds of citrus fruit during 1951-52, as
compared to 48,400,000 boxes in the 1941-42 season. In 1941-42,
Florida had approximately 369,000 acres of bearing citrus trees
as compared to 449,000 acres in 1951-52. In June 1952 the rec-
ords of the Grove Department showed 531,300 acres of bearing
and non-bearing citrus in Florida. Planted on this acreage are
more than 37,100,000 trees. This illustrates the tremendous
growth of the industry over the past decade. The Grove De-
partment of the State Plant Board maintains a constant vigil
for new diseases or insect pests that might have invaded Florida.
Grove inspectors continually watch for the spread or increase of
diseases and insect pests, and frequently inform growers when
severe outbreaks are observed. During this biennium, as in
the past, the department was frequently called upon to aid in
other projects. A brief report of its activities during the bi-
ennium beginning July 1, 1950 and ending June 30, 1952 follows:

Even though citrus plantings have increased tremendously
over the past ten years, the personnel of the Grove Department
has remained static. As a result, it was necessary to revise
the system of inspection so that more grove acreage could be
covered. In previous years, inspectors walked the groves two
rows apart. During 1950 they were instructed to separate as
far as four, six, or more, rows depending on the size of the trees
and the density of the planting. Even with this cursory inspec-
tion, it takes the present force approximately one and a half
years to inspect Florida's citrus.
In this biennium the Grove Department inspected:

Nineteenth Biennial Report

July 1, 1950 through June 30, 1951 _20,118,612 trees
July 1, 1951 through June 30, 1952 _26,943,673 trees

Total __ ------47,062,285 trees

The above trees were inspected by an average force of twenty-
five inspectors. A more complete coverage could have been
made except for the fact that inspectors were called upon regu-
larly to render other services during the period covered by this
This phase of the Grove Department's work is time-consum-
ing but necessary. Inspectors made a yard-to-yard survey of
citrus in suburban areas in their search for diseases and insect
pests. These inspections are extremely important in areas
around our ports of entry. The tremendous volume of travel
entering the State from foreign countries increases the probabili-
ty of a disease or insect pest invading Florida in spite of the
efficient work of the quarantine inspectors. The surveillance
of door-yard plantings by grove inspectors represents a second
line of defense which will reduce the chances of a disease or in-
sect pest's becoming established in our commercial plantings.
Present work-loads are such that home plantings can be checked
only once during a biennium. It would be highly desirable to
check door-yard plantings annually near ports of entry.

In September 1950, the Grove Inspector and eight district in-
spectors were sent to the Mississippi delta area of Louisiana to
observe trees in citrus groves affected by quick decline. The
information gathered on this trip and during grove observations
made in South America and California was disseminated to all
assistant grove inspectors. This preliminary training proved
to be timely, as scientists positively identified tristeza in Florida
in June 1952. All inspectors are being further trained to rec-
ognize symptoms of this disease in groves as rapidly as possible.
As soon as laboratory facilities for positive identification of
tristeza are completed, the Grove Department will be ready to
forward samples to the laboratory from trees that show symp-
toms of tristeza. In the event that a tree-to-tree inspection is
deemed necessary, the number of inspectors presently employed
will not be sufficient.

State Plant Board of Florida

Considerable interest in the certification of disease-free bud-
wood for the propagation of citrus trees has been shown by the
industry and research organizations. Several virus diseases
that are transmissible through buds or grafts are known to be
causing Florida growers tremendous losses. Among these dis-
eases are xyloporosis, Cachexia (Orlando tangelo disease), pso-
rosis, and possibly tristeza. Anticipating the adoption of such
a program, all inspectors have been given training in the recog-
nition of these diseases by plant pathologists of the Citrus Ex-
periment Station at Lake Alfred, and the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture at Orlando, Florida.

California and many foreign countries have set up regulations
governing the entry of citrus fruits. The State Plant Board has
been designated as the certifying agency in Florida by California
and by the Government for export. In order that Florida grow-
ers may export to foreign countries and ship to California, State
Plant Board inspectors must certify that the fruit meets all re-
quirements. It is necessary for State Plant Board inspectors to
be present while fruit is being packed and loaded for shipment.
This often means long and irregular hours of work and reduces
the time available for routine inspections. Fruit was certified
for shipment to California and for export during the biennium
as follows:
California Certification
1950-1951 1951-1952
Oranges-- -- 103 boxes 24,062 boxes
Grapefruit---- 7,017 boxes 76,193 boxes
Tangerines -16,574 half boxes 4,264 half boxes
Limes --2,493 half boxes 15,090 half boxes
Limes -1,300 1/ boxes 8,749 % boxes
Limes ----- ------- -- 8,217 4/5 boxes

Export Shipments
Oranges. ----- 1,042 boxes 94,385 boxes
Grapefruit ---- 38,149 boxes 92,619 boxes

From the foregoing figures, it can readily be seen that citrus
fruit certification by the Grove Department has increased more
than four times in the 1951-52 season as compared to the 1950-
1951 season. This sharp increase in export and California fruit

Nineteenth Biennial Report

shipments required service equivalent to two full-time grove
inspectors from October through May.

GRASSHOPPERS (Schistocerca americana (Drury))
A severe outbreak of the bird grasshopper (Schistocerca amer-
icana (Drury)) occurred in Alachua County during the summer
of 1950. A survey of grasshopper damage and population was
made in November 1950 by this department. This survey indi-
cated heavy infestations of 'hoppers in scattered areas. Ex-
tensive damage in the summer and fall caused the farmers to
organize and request help in fighting this pest. As a result of
these requests, the Grove Department was given the task of
controlling the insects in the summer of 1951. Nineteen men
were assigned to this work. Five blower-type spray machines
mounted on jeeps were loaned to the State Plant Board by the
United States Department of Agriculture. Several types of
insecticides were tried, and aldrin was found to be the most
effective and economical. In 1951, about 8,500 acres of grass-
hopper breeding grounds were sprayed. The crews worked
almost five months on this project, and obtained satisfactory
control. The loss of row crops and pastures during this season
was practically nil. The inspectors also endeavored to acquaint
the farmers with the breeding habits of grasshoppers and meth-
ods of control in order that they might handle their problems
without State and Federal aid.
In the summer of 1952, the Grove Department was again called
upon to control this insect in Alachua County. The infestation
was even greater than that of the previous year, while there were
fewer men and machines available for control work. The re-
duced force made it necessary to adopt a different method of
control. Temporary headquarters were established at Alachua
and farmers were asked to watch all crops and breeding grounds
for nymph migrations. As soon as the supervisor for this proj-
ect was notified of such movement, a crew and spray machine
were dispatched to the area. A protective border from 80 to
100 feet wide was sprayed between the row crops and the breed-
ing grounds. This experiment resulted in complete protection
of the crops where farmers gave notice of the presence of nymphs
in time.
The farmers were again warned to prepare to control this
insect pest themselves. It is quite probable that the cultural
practices of this area are favorable to the breeding of grasshop-

State Plant Board of Florida

pers. Lupine fields held over for seed, oat fields held for the
harvest of grain, and "laid-by" or fallow fields make ideal places
for grasshopper oviposition.

WHITE-FRINGED BEETLE (Pantomorus leucoloma Boh.)
One full-time inspector and one part-time inspector cooperate
with the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United
States Department of Agriculture on the white-fringed beetle
control project. This work is largely regulatory, involving quar-
antine and inspection of infested areas. In 1950-51 about 200
additional acres in Jackson County were reported to be infested.

AVOCADO WEEVIL (Heilipus squamosus (Lec.))
Two inspectors were assigned to survey the southern half of
the Florida peninsula to determine the distribution of the avo-
cado weevil (Heilipus squamosus (Lec.)). This work was done
during the first quarter of 1951 and infestations were found in
the following counties: Brevard, Broward, Dade, Highlands,
Hillsborough, Indian River, Lee, Martin, Pasco, and Polk.

In the summer of 1951 a special inspection of mangoes and
other subtropical fruits was made for fruit flies. This depart-
ment is happy to report negative results.

Nineteenth Biennial Report

G. B. Merrill, Entomologist

The primary activity of the Entomological Department con-
tinues to be the identification of insects and other pests which
have been collected by inspectors or collaborators of the Board
during the routine of their inspection duties. Many specimens
are received from laymen and others in Florida and different
The majority of the insects or other pests are determined by
the entomologists of this department. Nevertheless, there are
some insects or pests which are, of necessity, referred to special-
ists of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United
States Department of Agriculture, or other institutions in this
country or abroad for determination or confirmation.
Specimens of insect or plant diseases are referred to plant
pathologists of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station for
determination and recommendations for control.
The personnel of this department is composed of the Entomolo-
gist and Assistant Entomologist, Mr. G. W. Dekle.
Information is given growers and others in response to their
requests for advice relative to the problems they may have con-
cerning injurious or beneficial insects and pests.
Field trips are occasionally made for the purpose of giving
or seeking information relative to injurious or beneficial insects
and other pests. When little is known about the life history or
habits of an insect that is damaging agricultural or horticultural
crops, it is necessary to conduct research work in order to make
control regulations.
The Assistant Entomologist has been detailed to plant bed
inspectional work in certifying tomato and cabbage plants for
shipment to other states whose regulations require freedom from
certain diseases and insects. He has also assisted in nursery
inspection, especially in ornamental nurseries.
During the past two years, the Assistant Entomologist has
spent a considerable amount of time on the American grasshop-
per problem in Alachua and surrounding counties in cooperation
with the Entomology Departments of the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station and the Agricultural Extension Service.

State Plant Board of Florida

A number of plastic mounts of economic insects, as well as
of several citrus diseases, have been made.
Slide mounts of scale-insects have been increased to a consid-
erable extent, especially with reference to the confusion regard-
ing the California Red Scale and the Yellow Scale which existed
in the State.
The Department has continued its endeavor to increase the
library facilities. While there are some needy gaps to be filled
in, it can be said with pride that the Plant Board has one of the
most complete entomological libraries in the South. A number
of serials and books therein are now long out of print.
The Department's insect collection has been growing quite
large and the Schmitt boxes becoming overcrowded. Thirty-six
Cornell type drawers were purchased during this period. The
Cornell drawer has a capacity of about three times that of the
Schmitt box. A cabinet was made to hold these Cornell draw-
ers. They are in the process of being used to place representa-
tive specimens of the different groups or orders into which the
insects are divided. The duplicate material will remain in the
smaller sized Schmitt boxes.
The Department has made over one hundred and thirteen
thousand identifications since its inception in 1915. An identi-
fication may mean only one insect or it may mean several hun-
dred or several thousand insects of the same kind or species in
case of severely infested branches, leaves or fruits, especially
when certain scale-insects are considered.
A master report is made containing data with respect to the
insect, disease or pest and its host, the property and locality
where found, the degree of infestation, infection, or affection
and any remarks thereon. Each identified insect, etc., is given
an accession number.
Cards are made out in triplicate for each identified insect,
etc., from the master report. The original card is filed in the
host file, the duplicate is filed in the insect file and the tripli-
cate in the consecutive number file. The master report is filed
in the locality file under town, state, or country of origin. This
makes for easily accessible information when certain specific
data are needed.
The record of collections and identifications of insects, dis-
eases, and pests for the biennium, by departments, is given in
table form below:

Nineteenth Biennial Report

Department 1950-1951 1951-1952
No. Coll. No. Ident. No. Coll. No. Ident.

Nursery 329 406 696 930
Quarantine 243 368 278 432
Grove .------------ 575 824 270 302
Entomology 15 26 14 64
Others -.. .------ 348 359 72 91
Unaccounted for -..- 13 29





State Plant Board of Florida

H. S. Foster, Apiary Inspector

The apiary industry in Florida is important. This industry,
the production of honey and beeswax, is constantly threatened
with loss as a result of a disease known as American foulbrood
which attacks larvae in the comb. Beekeeping also plays an im-
portant part in Florida's agriculture. People are aware of the
fact that the only source of honey and beeswax is the honeybee.
Few realize, however, that although in Florida the honeybee pro-
duces more than fifteen million pounds of honey and two hundred
thousand pounds of beeswax annually, its most important role is
the pollination of fruits and some agricultural crops, particularly
those that are grown for seed purposes. This transfer of pollen
from flower to flower is so essential that beekeeping must be
carried on in order to maintain a profitable agricultural balance.
Florida occupies a prominent place in beekeeping, in that it is
third among all the states in colonies of bees kept and honey
and beeswax produced. Only California and Minnesota rank
above Florida.
The Apiary Inspection Department has charge of the inspec-
tion of the apiaries of the entire State to determine whether
disease is present in the colonies. If disease is found, the colony
is destroyed by burning according to Rule 41-H of the rules
and regulations adopted by the State Plant Board. The apiary
is placed in quarantine according to Rule 41-B until such time
as it is deemed safe to release it. Regular inspections are made
at approximately thirty-day intervals during the quarantine
There are several brood diseases among bees-diseases that
cause the young larvae or pupae to die in their cells. Some of
these, such as sacbrood and European foulbrood, may affect only
one or two colonies and will clear up under good management.
Re-queening the stock with a strong strain of bees is the best
treatment for either disease condition. However, American foul-
brood, which is by far the most destructive and generally dis-
tributed brood disease, will continue to get worse until the colony
becomes so weak that wax worms take over. The worst feature
of this is that the wax worm does not eat the honey. Bees from
other colonies will rob the weakened one and carry the disease
back to their own hives. By this means the disease is spread

Nineteenth Biennial Report

and soon all of the bees in the apiary are either dead or badly
affected with American foulbrood. The disease is persistent,
and once a colony is attacked it never recovers if left alone.
American foulbrood is caused by a spore-forming bacterium,
Bacillus larvae, which kills the larvae shortly after the cells are
sealed. For this reason the beekeeper seldom discovers the dis-
ease until occasional cells of sealed brood have sunken, greasy-
looking cappings, often with irregular perforations. The dead
larvae vary from brownish yellow to brownish black, according
to the degree of putrefaction. They are always stretched length-
wise of the cell and retain their shape for only a short time after
death. In the final stages of decay, they lose all traces of seg-
mentation and become a flattened mass, the contents of which
are ropy or stringy. If, at this stage, a match stem is used to
stir the contents of a diseased cell and then slowly withdrawn,
the decayed material will rope for a distance of 1 to 3 inches be-
fore breaking. The offensive odor is similar to that of heated
glue. The final remains, or scale, of the larva adhere tightly
to the bottom of the cell. In advanced cases, pupae are also
killed. Remains may be found with the pupal tongue extending
upward, sometimes attached to the top of the cell. These are
usually uncapped by the bees. This disease primarily attacks
the worker brood, although on rare occasions it is found in queen
and drone larvae.
It is also the duty of the Apiary Inspector to enforce the pro-
visions of the Florida Bee Disease Law with regard to the move-
ment of bees under permit from point to point within the State
and the movement of bees and equipment from other states as
set forth under Rules 41A-1, 41A-2, 41A-3, and 41A-4. During
the past years, from forty-nine to fifty-one percent of the dis-
ease found in Florida has been traceable to migratory beekeep-
ing, or bees from other states. Although these bees were brought
in under certification from the state of origin, in some instances
disease has been found within several days after their arrival
in Florida. When this happens, the bees are removed from the
State as required by Rule 41-I of the State Plant Board.
During the past biennium the legislative appropriation has
not been sufficient to enable the Apiary Inspection Department
to do as thorough a job of inspection as is necessary to maintain
adequate disease control. The work has been carried on with
one Apiary Inspector and four assistant inspectors. More peo-
ple are becoming interested in bees and beekeeping each year

State Plant Board of Florida

and more people from other states are retiring and coming to
Florida to carry on their work here or to take up beekeeping
as a worth-while hobby. This has added greatly to the work
of the department.
During the biennium ending June 30, 1952, three out-of-state
beekeepers were fined $100 each for violating the Bee Disease
Law. One company moved a large truck load of empty supers
into Florida without the necessary permit, while the other two
moved colonies of bees and necessary equipment into the State
without fulfilling the requirements of the State Plant Board.
The work of the apiary inspection force for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1951 is summarized as follows: 95,405 colony
inspections were made in 2,872 apiaries in 52 counties. Ameri-
can foulbrood was found in 772 colonies, or .0081% of the colony
inspections. Sulfathiazole was administered to 318 diseased col-
onies and 462 were burned. Some treated colonies were burned
when they failed to clean up.
The total cost of this department for the year was $29,312.69,
or an average per colony cost of approximately .307 cents.
For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1952, 88,206 colony in-
spections were made in 2,836 apiaries in 51 counties. Infec-
tions of American foulbrood were found in 578 colonies, or
.0065% of colony inspections. Sulfathiazole was administered
to only 89 diseased colonies, while 490 were burned. As usual,
some colonies failed to clean up after being treated and were
The total cost of the department for the year was $30,027.59,
or an average per colony cost of approximately .34 cents.


1950-51 1951-52

Number colonies inspected ------------ .-... 95,405 88,206
Number apiaries inspected - -.------------- 2,872 2,836
Number counties in which inspections were made- 52 51
Number apiaries infected with American foulbrood 237 232
Number colonies infected with American foulbrood 772 578
Percentage infected colonies of total colonies
inspected -------------- -- .0081% .0065%
Number infected colonies burned ----- 462 490
Number infected colonies treated with sulfathiazole 318 89
Number apiaries in which new infections of
American foulbrood were found _.. ---- 128 96

Nineteenth Biennial Report


Year Ending

June 30, 1920.
June 30, 1921.
June 30, 1922
June 30, 1923
June 30, 1924.
June 30, 1925
June 30, 1926
June 30, 1927.
June 30, 1928
June 30, 1929
June 30, 1930
June 30, 1931-
June 30, 1932
June 30, 1933
June 30, 1934
June 30, 1935
June 30, 1936
June 30, 1937_
June 30, 1938
June 30, 1939.
June 30, 1940-
June 30, 1941
June 30, 1942_
June 30, 1943-
June 30, 1944-
June 30, 1945_
June 30, 1946_
June 30, 1947
June 30, 1948
June 30, 1949.
June 30, 1950
June 30, 1951
June 30, 1952

Apiaries | Colonies American
Inspected I Inspected Foulbrood

394 16,121 30
753 18,078 16
837 22,522 14
1,016 23,848 18
803 22,806 8
675 21,378 7
676 16,756 5
796 23,791 6
1,248 20,115 18
1,297 32,442 21
2,273 44,645 53
2,374 45,238 37
2,744 44,211 42






State Plant Board of Florida


Howard Samuel McClanahan, Grove Inspector, State Plant
Board of Florida, died on March 4, 1952 at his home in Gaines-
ville, Florida, following an illness of several months.
Mr. McClanahan entered the service of the State Plant Board
on May 1, 1916, and was assigned to the Citrus Canker Eradica-
tion Project with headquarters at Homestead, Florida. He re-
signed in December, 1917, to enlist in the Navy, and was mus-
tered out of service late in November 1918.
In April 1929 Mr. McClanahan returned to Plant Board work,
with assignment to the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Eradication
Project. Upon the termination of that project, he was assigned
to the Grove Inspection Department, and was in charge of the
Citrus Blackfly Eradication Project in Key West from 1934 to
1937. The success of this important project was due in no
small measure to Mr. McClanahan's ability to cope with different
problems in a manner that inspired respect and confidence on
the part of his associates and the public. The next few years
were spent in plant quarantine work at Key West, Jacksonville,
and Miami. In July 1940 he was appointed Grove Inspector,
with headquarters in Gainesville, the position he held at the time
of his death.
The State Plant Board and the growers of Florida have suf-
fered a great loss because of Mr. McClanahan's great loyalty to
his fellow man and his intense interest in the welfare and pros-
perity of the growers of the State. He was a gentleman in
every sense of the word.
Mr. McClanahan was born at Fort Scott, Kansas, May 17,
1891, and came to south Florida in 1912. He attended public
schools in Kansas and the Kansas State Agricultural College.
He is survived by his wife, Mabel B. McClanahan, two daugh-
ters, Virginia McLane and Mary Faye Schiaffo, and six grand-

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