Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Table of Contents
 Title Page
 List of documents
 Part I: Communications from the...
 Part II: Communications from...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: Publications of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Division of International Law
Title: Diplomatic correspondence of the United States concerning the independence of the Latin-American nations : volume 1, documents 1-320
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098564/00001
 Material Information
Title: Diplomatic correspondence of the United States concerning the independence of the Latin-American nations : volume 1, documents 1-320
Series Title: Publications of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Division of International Law
Physical Description: 3 v. : ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Manning, William R ( William Ray ), 1871-1942
United States -- Dept. of State
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1925
Subject: Foreign relations -- United States -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Foreign relations -- Latin America -- United States   ( lcsh )
History -- Sources -- Latin America -- Wars of Independence, 1806-1830   ( lcsh )
Relations extérieures -- États-Unis -- Amérique latine   ( rvm )
Relations extérieures -- Amérique latine -- États-Unis   ( rvm )
Histoire -- Sources -- Amérique latine -- 1806-1830 (Guerres d'indépendance)   ( rvm )
Relations extérieures -- Sources -- États-Unis -- Amérique latine   ( ram )
Relations extérieures -- Sources -- Amérique latine -- États-Unis   ( ram )
Histoire diplomatique -- Sources -- Amérique latine -- 1806-1830 (Guerres d'indépendance)   ( ram )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: selected and arranged by William R. Manning.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098564
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 00806763
lccn - 25019089


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Title Page
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    List of documents
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
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    Part I: Communications from the United States
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    Part II: Communications from Argentina
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Full Text



Crzrneeic* Endowmrcnt

Publications of the
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Division of International Law



PART I.-Communications from the United States............. I
PART II.-Communications from Argentina .................... 317


PART III.-Communications from Brazil ....................... 667
PART IV.-Communications from Central America ............... 869
PART V.-Communications from Chile ....................... 893
PART VI.-Communications from (Great) Colombia ............. 1141
PART VII.-Communicafions from France ...................... 1369

PART VIII.-Communications from Great Britain ................. 1429
PART IX.-Communications from Mexico ...................... 1591
PART X.-Communications from the Netherlands .............. 1709
PART XI.-Communications from Peru .................. ..... 1717
PART XII.-Communications from Russia ....................... 1849
PART XIII.-Communications from Spain ........................ 1889
PART XIV.-Communications from Uruguay ..................... 2173

Each volume contains a detailed list of the documents included therein.







Division of Latin-American Affairs
Department of State



"' ' ''





. "" / 2 ,

x,. '


The proposal for the publication of the Diploiwatic Correspondence of the
United States coiicernin'lg Ithe Independence of the Latin-1 merican Nations was
made to the Director of the Division of International Law by Dr. Alejandro
Alvarez. Ihen and now a distinguished publici-t of Chile, in a memorandum
under date of May 12, 1910. He thus explained the need for a publication
,of this kind, suggesting both its content and the service which it would
render on the Americas:
One of the necessities most strongly felt by all students of the inter-
naiional law and diplomatic hi.toryi of our continent is the knowledge
of the ldorument- relative r.t. Ihe glorious period of the emancipation :of
the Latin-American nation-. Among those document., rhe foreign
paper- ofr paper, of a diplomatic character in the filesof the Department
oif State of the united State-. a3 well as the correspondence of the -tate-
mien ". ho then had the honor of conducting the foreign relation of said
country. occupy a preferent place. The importance of those precedents
ari.e- ftroImn the acti.'e and efficient part which the United States took in
the mof\ement :f einanci Miati, n o, the Latin-American states and froni
the careful repo:rt. uhich, upon the political, economical and social
situation of these sti es werre ;ent to, the Department at Wa\hington by
the agents \\ hihli the former credited to the latter.
Thi; of coiursi-e is equivalent to saying that in the d iles of the Depart-
ment -of State of the .United State. there i. a considerable quantity of
material for the diplomatic, political and economic history of Latin
While many of rhe-e d',cument- ha-d been publi'lhed in "American
Slate Papers, Foreign Relation'" a great portion of them remain still
unpublished and therefore are unkn,,on to historians.
In our estimratio-n the Carnegie Endowment \vould accomplish some-
thing of far-reaching effect, of scientific results and ran-Anmerican
appro\iiation, ii if it should decide to pay the epenses which the printing
,of all such documents should demand, and if it should solicit the
acqutiesccen of the (Glovernmlent iof the IUnited States of America for the
The documents hereinbefore referred to are all those between Sio.
in which the emancipation moI,\ement of the old Spanish colonies wa-
initiated, and 183o, the date of the di--tsolutiin of Great 'Colliombia' and
in v.hich the ter. recent Pan-Americaniimn began to die away in order
to revise with greater momentum and energy during the latter part of
the 13st century
In order that the work in respect to which the patronage of the
Carnegie Endowment i: requested, will fully meet the high aims which
will be pursued by it, it will be necess;-ary to proceed previously to a
proper and methodic selection, arrangement and classi-icaticon of the
docullen ts which are to be published.

Several members of the Governing Board ol the Pan Ameri:;iar l.nion
to whose consideration we have submitted tlie idea herein tatced Lby u.,
not only have welcomed it with enthusiasm and with mrinifletratjion- o
approval, but they believe that in carrying it int, effect, ihe Carnegie
Endowment will once more win the gratitude of Latin America.
While the work in question must comprise sc\eral volume. ve do not
hesitate to assert that the benefits which it will render will greatly
compensate the expenditure which its arrangement and printing may

The proposal was approved by the Executive Committee within the
course of that year, and the Director was authorized "to arrange with
William R. Manning, professor of Latin-American history in the Univer-
sity of Texas, for the collection and preparation for publication of the
official correspondence and documents of the United States concerning the
emancipation of the Latin-American countries."
Professor Manning agreed to select and arrange these documents for
publication and came to Washington for this purpose in the fall of 1917.
On April 6, 1917, when the United States entered the World War the De-
partment of State, as a consequence thereof, closed its archives to the public.
Professor Manning was therefore obliged to limit himself for some time
to the designation for republication of pertinent documents already pub-
lished by the United States. However, in 1922, the archives of the Depart-
ment were opened to the enterprise and he was enabled to continue his
investigations in the Department, where he had since 1918 been employed,
and bring the undertaking to a close.
It is the earnest hope of the authorities of the Carnegie Endowment that
these three volumes containing documents of priceless value, which enable
as they do the Latin-American countries to trace the painful steps of their
emancipation, will be accepted by them as an evidence of the friendly feeling
of the people of the United States of North America; and that in carrying
the project into effect the Endowment has accomplished, to quote Dr.
Alvarez, "something of far-reaching effect, of scientific results and Pan-
American approximation "-something for which it really will, as prophesied
by members of the Governing Board of the Pan American Union, "win the
gratitude of Latin America."
May 13, 1925.


An teffrt h;it been made to include in thi. ciollectionn all of the more
important dipl-'matic correspondence of the United Statle regarding the
independence of the Ljtin-A.'merictan ountries. Very flew document- earlier
than 181u and none later than 1830, with a single exception which reviews
events .-,f the latter year, have been selected. Geographically the compila-
tion will be found to include correspondence not only with the Latin-Ameri-
can countries whose independence was an accomplished fact before the latter
date and with which frequent communication had been established but also
\nuh certain European countries where the Latin-American emancipation
movement elicited especial interest.
The documents which have not previously been published, comprising
by far the largest portion, have been copied from the original manuscripts
preserved in the archives of the Department of State of the United States.
In the selection of the pertinent documents and the pertinent portions of
documents only partially devoted to the subject about four hundred and
thirty bound volumes of manuscripts have been carefully examined. For
various reasons, chiefly because of inevitable human limitations, it is
probable that some important documents have been overlooked. In a few
instances series of papers which there is good reason to believe should have
reached the Department have not been found. Some such gaps are said
to be possibly attributable to the destruction of portions of the archives in
connection with the brief occupation of Washington by British troops during
the second war with Great Britain, although in this connection it should be
stated, concerning the most important missing series, that, in accordance
with instructions of President Monroe, Daniel Brent, the Chief Clerk, on
September 26, I818,' forwarded to Joel Roberts Poinsett, his manuscript
Journal No. I, together with all the letters received from him which were
then in the files of the Department of State.
To prosecute this exploration of the archives a fortuitous circumstance
made it possible for the editor to avail himself of the services of Mr. T. John
Newton, who had for forty-eight years been connected with the Bureau of
Indexes and Archives of the Department of State and is more familiar than
any other person with the older portion of the archives. He had, in accord
with the Civil Service pension rules, retired from the Departmental service
less than a month before this work was begun. For eleven months he de-
SSee letter of this date from Daniel Brent to Joel Roberts Poinsett, MS. Domestic Letters,
XVII, p. 212.


:ored his time to it: and much of the credit for its thoroughness is due to
him. In cases of doubt whether a particular paper or portion of a paper
should o:r should not be included, and when he could not conveniently con-
sult the editor, it wav his practice to err, if at all. on the side of inclusion.
In reviewing and arranging the transcripts for publication the editor found
textual reference to mnan, other papers arnd had them added. And although
lie has rejected a considerable number of documents a:nd portions ,of docu-
ments believed not to be sufticiently aprop'-.s, there are ;till to be found some
documents aind many brief portions of documents w hose pertinency will be
questioned Thius is due t t he lact that the editor ,IlQo has. striven to err.
when he might err in this regard. *,:n the side of inclusi',-n. In some case-
\ hollk unrelated sentence- or brief paragraphs have been permitt'.d t, stand
merely because it was con.idere-d unnc:e-(-iry, or undesirable to break the
continuity :of the papers b\y uch -mall omissions A few entire documents
which are onl.I remotely relevant ha.e been all,'-wed to remain because of
their inherent interest.
The editor has permitted rrmot of the idi-. ncrasie- ot rf the rierf these
documents to stand. making correction ,:nl. in case ,oif manifest and in-
advertent error, where the correction could in nowise aftect the sense. Strict
stylists will be able to discover not only blunders but inconsistencies in spelling,
grammatical construction, punctuation, and capitalization throughout the
volumes. A casual examination will reveal the fact that to have dressed all
of the documents in comely State Department style would have required a
practical rewriting of many of them, especially those coming from consular
appointees, who at this early period were frequently selected from the few
available, usually not highly educated, practical merchants already resident
in the communities to which they were accredited. Some of the special
agents and even of the regular diplomatic appointees will also be seen to
have been far from perfect in matters of grammar and spelling.
Neither has an attempt been made to eliminate all indiscreet or undiplo-
matic language, which if published contemporaneously might have given
just offense to foreign governments or officials or have proved embarrassing
to the writers, although some obviously improper statements have been
deleted where their deletion could not materially alter the sense of the
documents. The latest of the papers being nearly a hundred years old, it is
believed that none of the governments mentioned or the living relatives of
their officials or of the writers will take offense at the publication now of
indiscretions due to the passions or prejudices of a century ago. Their
retention enables the reader of the present better to get into the atmosphere
of the past and therefore enhances the historical value of the publication.
The documents printed in the old American State Papers, Foreign Relations
which are pertinent to the present collection have been reprinted not only
because of the desire to have the collection complete in itself, or as nearly so


as it has been feasible to make it, but also because the former publication,
being out of print, is rather inaccessible to the public at large. Some of the
documents will also be found in other publications, e-pecially contemporary
periodicals, in Congressional documents, and the printed correspondence of
officials who drafted the papers, and a few have been quoted in diplomatic
and historical treatises. Few citations have been made, however, except to
American State Papers, Foreign Relattons, and to the volunles of manuscripts
in the archives of the Department of State. Since the documents contained
in the publication named were also copied from the archives of the Depart-
ment of State, especially since they were officially prepared and printed,
much labor in preparing the manuscript for the present publication,and some
space in the publication, could ha\e been saved by omitting all citation, of
sources except this prefatory explanation; but in order to facilitate the uee ,f
the present publication as a work of reference it has been con idered worth
while to incur the additional expense invo,,led in citing individually the
source of each document.
In some of the footnotes will be found brief reviews of the diplomatic
careers of the more important writers or recipients of the document' t, which
they are appended. These ret iews are taken from the Register of the Dt-
partuenl of Sltat printed in March 1874 of w which Part 1I, entitled Histori-
cal Register," contains the recordss, from 17;69 to that date. of the
Department's officials, its more important diplomatic agents to foreign
countries, and the head of foreign missions in the United States. The in-
tention has been to append the record to the document where the name
of the individual concerned first appears.
It will be observed that the documents hate been arranged in fourteen
parts, each designated by the name of the country in which the papers
included therein originated. Part I, entitled "Communications from the
United States," contains not only the Department of State's instructions to
its representatives in foreign countries but also its notes to the representatives
in Washington from those countries; and in additi-,n to these, which alone
are ordinarily understood to be included in the designation "diplomatic
communications from the United States", there have also been included the
more significant messages or portions thereof from the President of the
United States to Congress, commenting upon the Latin-American struggle
for independence, and a few such papers originating in Congress. The
communications from foreign countries are arranged in alphabetical ordtr,
according to the countries of origin, and the Part designated by the name of
each contains not only despatches from the representatives of the United
States in that country and correspondence between them and the officials of
that country, but also the notes from that country's representatives in
Washington to the Department of State.
For access to the archives, and for the prot vision of space and other ci,,i-


veniences for carrying on the work, acknowledgments are due to the late
Mr. Alvey A. Adee, Second Assistant Secretary of the Department, t.' the
late Dr. Gaillard Hunt, Chief of the Division of Publications, and to Mr.
David A. Salmon, Chief of the Bureau of Indexe- and Archives. For per-
mission to supervise the work while continuing his regular departmental
duties the editor's personal acknowledgments are due to Mr. Francis White,
Chief of the Division of Latin-American Affairs, and to the former Seond
Assistant Secretary.




Robert Smith Sl
of State


Sa me

Sj inll

James Monroe, Sec. of








cr.n John XArmiroung.
II. q. Mini-ter o,
1 bin I la Sni iUrr. .r
1 S Nlll er, r I.
I.i ? Mintlr to lPor-
lULUt.:te t Ourt ini
W\illiam Pikne\h Li S
.l1 iii :, r to tc re.t
.xl Poberti- Poinett. aip-
r.<.iiitcd Special Agenr
of the I11 S to, South
Gen lohn Arm nrorne.
I_1 SS Minii-'tr t).

\\ illiam Shaler, li. S
Agent for S-amen an.r
TCo )ninrce. Habana
\\ ili.am P.nkrn,, Ii. S
Minister o r,, ent
l-iri tal .
Joel Roberts Poinsett,
U. S. Consul General
at Buenos Aires
John Quincy Adams,
U. S. Minister to
Joel Barlow, U. S. Minis-
ter to France
Samuel L. Mitchell, U. S.
Representative from
New York
Talisfero de Orea, Com-
missioner of Vene-
zuela to the U. S.
Alexander Scott, U. S.
Agent to Caracas
M. Palacio, Agent of
Cartagena to the U. S.
John Quincy Adams, U. S.
Minister to Great

April:'7, 1ibi

M a:. i. ,i,:..j
Aug i. i.oj-

June 13, i 10

lun,: b, ISlo.

N , Ii I i,'j

N..' 2. iSio
No' 6, i lo

.a-n : ,. 1411

April 30, 1811

Nov. 23, i811

Nov. 27, I811

Dec. 9, Iz8l

Dec. 19, 1811

May 14, 1812

Dec. 29, 1812

Dec. to, 1815



Doc. From To D:,tl I J

James Monroe, Sec.
of State












James Monroe, Sec.
of State
Richard Rush, Sec. of
State, ad interim

James Monroe, Presi-
dent of the U. S.

Luis de Onis, Spanish
Minister to the U. S.
John Quincy Adams,
U. S. Minister to
Great Britain
Levett Harris, U. S.
Charge d'Affaires in
William Eustis, U. S.
Minister to the
Luis de Onis, Spanish
Minister to the U. S.
George W. Erving, ap-
pointed U. S. Minister
to Spain
Luis de Onis, Spanish
Minister to the U. S.
Christopher Hughes, Jr.,
U. S. Special Agent to
Albert Gallatin, U. S.
Minister to France
William Pinkney, U. S.
Minister to Russia
Jos6 Rademaker, Portu-
guese Charge d'Affaires
in the U. S.
Luis de Onis, Spanish
Minister to the U. S.
George W. Serving, U. S.
Minister to Spain
Luis de Onis, Spanish
Minister to the U. S.

Charles Morris, Com-
mander of U. S.
Frigate Congress
Joel R. Poinsett of
Charleston, South

Jan I., 1- i.

Feb. 2, 1816

Feb. 2, 1816

Feb. 2, 1816

Feb. 21, 1816

March II, 1816

March 13, 1816

March 20, 1816
March 25, 1816

April 15, 1816

May io, 1816

May 27, 1816
June 5, 1816

June 1o, 1816

July 20, 1816

July 30, 1816

March 28, 1817

April 22, 1817
April 25, 1817

April 25, 1817




Rilhard Ru'h Sec. of
Stjte, ad interim

Inhi Qujni,:y Alam-
Scc ..-I Sr.ite

Sa nit

S.1 ii.;

53 lit

James Monroe, Presi-
dent of the U. S.
John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State








Joi. Corre i .- Serra.
Prr uu e='- Brazilian
Nlinl-:i.r to the II. S.
Thlrniom Sumtir Jr .
IU. S. WM ir i-t,.r t.. ['i.r.
lutlc-_e Couu in [.ri:il
Cae. ar Ri. dneii jr..J
Jr.hr' 'r. h am. Special
Co:mmizl.rjn,'r .I thc
IU S r,:. Sou-th ,\merici
J..hn .. PrI-' -. t. Srp'..:i.al
A.- ent oIf th,: Il S I,.
buirnf. .irn-,, Chldernd

.,,.rc.; \\' Er,.nLc 1. S
Nlhnj'c r t'., !I irn
Thma- Sumt.:r, .LI. S
Mlir',,trr c. I',.irtugui:-
(SC'''rc in [n-j/z,I
Ci::jir A R,:.Jnri., John
Iriham lr..J "Th c' d..-
rick Bland, Special
Commissioners of the
U. S. to South America
Message to Congress

G. Hyde de Neuville,
French Minister to
the U. S.
Thomas Sumter, U. S.
Minister to Portuguese
Court in Brazil
G. Hyde de Neuville,
French Minister to the
Baptis Irvine, Special
Agent of the U. S. to
President Monroe, for
transmission to House
of Representatives
Manuel H. de Aguirre,
Argentine Agent at
George W. Erving, U. S.
Minister to Spain
Luis de Onis, Spanish
Minister to the U. S.

Ma., .2. ij I7 4'

Jul., is. IS7i

l ul:, 1', I8 1.-

S.pt -'4. 1 7.

N.:. I1. i' i 7

Dec. 2, 1817

Dec. 5, 1817

Dec. 30, 1817

Jan.27, 1818

Jan.31, 18i8

March 25, 1818

April 1I, 1818

April 20, 1818

April 22, I8I8



No. From To Date Page

John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State












President Monroe
John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State





Luis de Onis, Spanish
Minister to the U. S.
Albert Gallatin, U. S.
Minister to France
Richard Rush, U. S.
Minister to Great
Luis de Onis, Spanish
Minister to the U. S.
George W. Campbell,
U. S. Minister to
Richard Rush, U. S.
Minister to Great
Albert Gallatin, U. S.
Minister to France
George W. Campbell,
U. S. Minister to Russia
Luis de Onis, Spanish
Minister to the U. S.
Manuel H. de Aguirre,
Argentine Agent at
Thomas Sumter, Jr., U. S.
Minister to the Portu-
guese Court in Brazil
Joel R. Poinsett, ex-Con-
sul General of the U. S.
at Buenos Aires
Luis de Onis, Spanish
Minister to the U. S.
Message to Congress
Lino de Clemente, Agent
of Venezuela in the
U. S.
David C. de Forest,
Agent of the United
Provinces of South
America at Georgetown
Richard Rush, U. S. Min-
ister to Great Britain
David C. de Forest, Agent
of the United Provinces
of South America at
President James Monroe

April 25, I818

May 19, I818

May 20, 1818

June 2, 1818

June 28, 8188

July 30, 1818

Aug. 15, 1818
Aug. 20, 1818

Aug. 20, 1818

Aug. 24, 1818

Aug. 27, 1818

Aug. 27, i818

Oct. 23, 1818

Oct. 31, I818

Nov. 16, 1818
Dec. 16, i81S

Dec. 31, 1818

Jan. I, 1819


Jan. 28, 1819




N From T,: atL rPc,

I rv nint Jam-. T .

John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State.


Same -




President James
John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State






UI S lloui: ucf Repre-

John Forsyth, U. S. Min-
ister to Spain
Luis de Onis, Spanish
Minister to the U. S.
John Graham, U. S. Min-
ister to Portuguese
Court in Brazil
Smith Thompson, Sec.
of the Navy
George W. Campbell,
U. S. Minister to Russia
William Lowndes, Chair-
man, Foreign Relations
Committee, U. S. House
of Representatives
Gen. Francisco Dionisio
Vives, Spanish Minister
to the U. S.
U. S. House of Repre-
Charles S. Todd, Confi-
dential Agent of the
U. S. to Colombia
John M. Forbes, Special
Agent of the U. S. to
Chile or Buenos Aires
John B. Prevost, Special
Agent of the U. S. to
Buenos Aires, Chile
and Peru
Henry Hill, Vice Consul
of the U. S. at Valpa-
John M. Forbes, Special
Agent of the U. S. to
Chile or Buenos Aires

Jan r, 2 Il I ;
iLOllin turitcd
March 8, 1819

March 16, 1819
April 7, 1819

April 24, 1819

May 20, 1819

June 3, 1819

Dec. 21, 1819

April 21, 1820

May 3, 1820
May 6, 1820
May 8, 1820
May 9, 1820

June 5, 182o

July 5, 1820

July 7, 1820
July ro, 1820

July ii, 1820

July II, 182o

July 12, 1820



Doc. From To Date Page

John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State

President James

John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State

Daniel Brent, Chief
Clerk, Dept. of State
John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State
President James

Report of Committee
on Foreign Affairs of
the U. S. House of
John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State

President James
John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State





President James

John James Appleton,
U. S. Charge d'Affaires
at Rio de Janeiro
Message to Congress


Manuel Torres, Colom-
bian Agent in the U. S.
Charles S. Todd, Confi-
dential Agent of the
U. S. to Colombia
John M. Forbes, Agent of
U. S. at Buenos Aires
President James Monroe

U. S. House of Repre-

Congress of the U. S.

Joaquin de Anduaga,
Spanish Minister to
the U. S.
President James Monroe
U. S. Senate

Richard Rush, U. S. Min-
ister to Great Britain
David C. de Forest of
New Haven, Conn.
Manuel Torres, Colom-
bian Agent in the U. S.
Col. Charles S. Todd,
Confidential Agent of
the U. S. to Colombia
Pedro Gual, Sec. of State
for Foreign Affairs of
Richard Rush, U. S. Min-
ister to Great Britain
Message to Congress,
communicated to

Sept. 30, 1820

Nov. 15, 1820

Dec. 3, 1821;
Dec. 5, 1821
Jan. 18, 1822

Jan.28, 1822

Feb. 19, 1822

March 7, 1822

March 8, 1822;
March 8 and
April 26, 1822
March 19, 1822

April 6, 1822

April 25, 1822
April 26, 1822

May 13, 1822

May 23, 1822

May 23, 1822

July 2, 1822

July 2, 1822

July 24, 1822

Dec. 3, 1822



Doc. From To Date Page

John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State
President James

John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State










President James

John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State



President James
John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State

John Forsyth, U. S.
Minister to Spain
U. S. Senate

Robert K. Lowry,
appointed U. S. Consul
at La Guayra
Hugh Nelson, U. S.
Minister to Spain
Thomas Randall, Special
Agent of the U. S. in
Caesar A. Rodney, ap-
pointed U. S. Minister
to Buenos Aires
Richard C. Anderson,
appointed U. S. Minis-
ter to Colombia
Jos6 Maria Salazar, Co-
lombian Minister to
the U. S.
Baron de Tuyll, Russian
Minister to the U. S.
Richard Rush, U. S.
Minister to Great
Heman Allen, appointed
U. S. Minister to Chile
Richard Rush, U. S. Min-
ister to Great Britain
Message to Congress,
communicated to
Jos6 Maria Salazar,
Colombian Minister to
the U. S.
Minister of State and
Foreign Relations of
James Brown, appointed
U. S. Minister to France
U. S. House of Represent-
Joaquin Barrozo Pereira,
Portuguese Charg6
d'Affaires in the U. S.

Jan. 3, 1823

Feb. 25, 1823;
Feb. 26,1823
April II, 1823

April 28, 1823

April 29, 1823

May 17, 1823

May 27, 1823

Aug. 5, 1823

Nov. 15, 1823

Nov. 29, 1823

Nov. 30, 1823

Nov. 30, 1823

Dec. 2, 1823

Dec. 5, 1823

Dec. 12, 1823

Dec. 23, 1823

Jan. 12, 1824

June 9, 1824



Noc. From To Date Page

John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State


Daniel Brent, Sec. of
State ad interim

President James
Henry Clay, Sec. of









Daniel Brent, Acting
Sec. of State
Henry Clay, Sec. of



Richard C. Anderson,
U. S. Minister to
Jos6 Maria Salazar,
Colombian Minister to
the U. S.
Hilario de Rivas y Sal-
mon, Spanish Charg6
d'Affaires in the, U. S.
Message to Congress

Joel R. Poinsett, ap-
pointed U. S. Minister
to Mexico
Jos6 Silvestre Rebello,
Brazilian Charg6
d'Affaires in the U. S.
John M. Forbes, U. S.
Charge d'Affaires at
Buenos Aires
Condy Raguet, appointed
U. S. Charge d'Affaires
in Brazil
William Miller, appointed
U. S. Charge d'Affaires
to the United Provinces
of the Centre of America
Alexander H. Everett,
U. S. Minister to Spain
Henry Middleton, U. S.
Minister to Russia
Rufus King, appointed
U. S. Minister to Great
James Brown, U. S. Min-
ister to France
Baron de Tuyll, Russian
Minister to the U. S.
Richard C. Anderson,
U. S. Minister to
Rufus King, U. S. Minis-
ter to Great Britain
James Brown, U. S. Min-
ister to France
Rufus King, U. S. Minis-
ter to Great Britain

July -, 1824

Aug. 6, 1824

Sept. 22, 1824

Dec. 7, 1824

March 26, 1825

April 13, 1825

April 14, 1825

April 14, 1825

April 22, 1825

April 27, 1825

May 0o, 1825

May I1, 1825

May 13, 1825

May 23, 1825

Sept. 16, 1825

Oct. 17, 1825

Oct. 25, 1825
Oct. 26, 1825



Fri ,,

l,: ir., CLay, S-,.. of





President John Quincy
Henry Clay, Sec. of










H Il ri,., .JI.],: %, 1 a N alI-r.:,n
p[',ili] ( h rc. .r
d'Affaires in the U. S.
Jose Maria Salazar,
Colombian Minister to
the U. S.
Baron de Tuyll, Russian
Minister to the U. S.
Henry Middleton, U. S.
Minister to Russia
John M. Forbes, U. S.
Charge d'Affaires at
Buenos Aires
U. S. House of Repre-

Jos6 Maria Salazar,
Colombian Minister to
the U. S.
Alexander H. Everett,
U. S. Minister to Spain
Henry Middleton, U. S.
Minister to Russia
Baron de Maltitz, Rus-
sian Charg6 d'Affaires
in the U. S.
Jose Maria Salazar,
Colombian Minister to
the U. S.
James Cooley, appointed
U. S. Charge d'Affaires
in Peru
Baron de Maltitz, Rus-
sian Charge d'Affaires
in the U. S.
Jos6 Maria Salazar,
Colombian Minister to
the U. S.
Francisco Dionisio Vives,
Governor and Captain
General of Cuba
Daniel P. Cook, U. S.
Confidential Agent to

I5 I ? 2-3.

lec. 0V, 1 2L

Dec. 26, 1825

Dec.26, 825

Jan. 9, 1826

March 29, 1826

March 30, 1826

April 11, 1826

April 13, 1826

April 21, 1826

May 26, 1826

Oct. 25, 1826

Oct. 31, 1826
Nov. 6, 1826

Dec. 23, 1826

Jan. 9, 1827

Jan. 15, 1827
Feb. 12, 1827

March 12, 1827






Henry Clay, Sec. of









Daniel Brent, Chief
Clerk of the Dept.
of State
Henry Clay, Sec. of




Martin Van Buren, Sec.
of State

Francisco Dioni..i V\i, ;.,
Governor and Captl-I,
General of Cul.j
Jos6 Maria Salaar.r.
Colombian Mini-r.r
to the U. S.
Pablo Obregon, N i;cin
Minister to the U. S
Hilario de Riva. S.l-
mon, Spanish Charg6
d'Affaires in the U. S.
Chevalier Francisco Ta-
con, Spanish Minister
Resident to the U. S.
John M. Forbes, U. S.
Charge d'Affaires at
Buenos Aires
J. Rafael Revenga, Co-
lombian Secretary of
State for Foreign
Francisco Tacon, Spanish
Minister Resident to
the U. S.
Pablo Obregon, Mexican
Minister to the U. S.
Francisco Tacon, Spanish
Minister Resident to
the U. S.
Alejandro Valez, Colom-
bian Charge d'Affaires
in the U. S.
F. I. Mariategui, Minister
of Foreign Affairs of
Samuel Lamed, U. S.
Charge d'Affaires in
Xavier de Medina, Co-
lombian Consul General
at New York

Joaquin Campino, Chil-
ean Minister to the

M.irch 14, I ;27

,lirclh -`'., 1 -'7

N131 21. I :;

JunM 1.1827

Oct. 31, 1827

Jan. 3, 1828

Jan. 30, 1828

April II, 1828

May I, 1828

Aug. 2, 1828

Sept. 20, 1828
Oct. 14, 1828

Dec. 30, 1828

Jan. I, 1829

Feb. 9, 1829

May 6, 1829

May 26, 1829


2 5
















F rorm

NM. lin \'n B ,urn.




Corneliu, r. \V r Ne",.
p .-:,rrit.:d Li. S M rinli-
cter to Sp.,nr
Anthony Butler, ap-
pointed U. S. Charge
d'Affaires in Mexico
Cornelius P. Van Ness,
U. S. Minister to Spain
John Hamm, appointed
U. S. Charge d'Affaires
in Chile


Doc. From To Date Page

Governing Junta of the
Provinces of the Rio
de la Plata
Cornelio de Saavedra,
President of the Gov-
erning Junta of the
Provinces of the Rio
de la Plata, Domingo
Matheu and I others
Cornelio de Saavedra,
President of the Gov-
erning Junta of the
Provinces of the Rio
de la Plata
W. G. Miller, U. S. Con-
sul at Buenos Aires
Constituted Assembly
of United Provinces
of the Rio de la Plata
W. G. Miller, U. S. Con-
sul at Buenos Aires
Gervasio Antonio de
Posadas, Supreme
Director of the Unit-
ed Provinces of the
Rio de la Plata

President James Madison



James Monroe, Sec. of
President James Madison

James Monroe, Sec. of
President James Madison

Feb. II, 181I

Feb. 13, 1811
June 6, 1811

June 26, 1811

April 30, 1812

July 16, 1812
Aug. io, 1812
Aug. 18, 1812
July 21, 1813

Aug. 1, 1813

March 9, 1814

[ rt.:I

Oct. 16, 1829

Oct. 13, 1830

Oct. 15, 1830

Pj ge









N 199






Doc. From To Date Page











Z 215


Joel Roberts Poinsett,
U. S. Consul General
at Buenos Aires
Thomas Lloyd Halsey,
U. S. Consul at
Buenos Aires
Ignacio Alvarez, Su-
preme Director of the
United Provinces of
the Rio de la Plata
Thomas Lloyd Halsey,
U. S. Consul at
Buenos Aires
Ignacio Alvarez, Su-
preme Director of
the United Provinces
of the Rio de la Plata
Thomas Lloyd Halsey,
U. S. Consul at
Buenos Aires
Juan Martin de Pueyr-
red6n, Supreme Di-
rector of the United
Provinces of South
Thomas Lloyd Halsey,
U. S. Consul at
Buenos Aires
Juan Martin de Pueyr-
red6n, Supreme Di-
rector of the United
Provinces of South
Thomas Lloyd Halsey,
U.S. Consul at
Buenos Aires
Juan Martin de Pueyr-
red6n, Supreme Di-
rector of the United
Provinces of South
Thomas Lloyd I alsey,
U. S. Consul at
Buenos Aires

James Monroe, Sec. of


Thomas Lloyd Halsey,
Consul of the U. S. at
Buenos Aires

James Monroe, Sec. of

President James Madison

James Monroe, Sec. of

President James Madison

James Monroe, Sec. of

President James Madison

James Monroe, Sec. of

President James Monroe

Sec. of State of the U. S.

June 14, 1814

Feb. II, 1815

May 5, 1815
May o1, 1815

July 17, 1815

Jan. 16, 1816

April 20, I816

July 3, 1816
July 24, 1816
Aug.20, 1816
Jan. I, 1817

Jan. 30, 1817

Jan. 31, 1817

March 3, 1817

March 5, 1817

March 26, 1817

















Doc. From To Date Page


Juan Martin de Pueyr-
red6n, Supreme Di-
rector of the United
Provinces of South
Don Jos6 Francisco de
San Martin, General
of the Army of the
Juan Martin de Pueyr-
red6n, Supreme Di-
rector of the United
Provinces of South
W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Buenos
Aires, Chile and

Manuel H. de Aguirre,
Agent of the United
Provinces of South
W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Buenos Aires,
Chile and Peru
Manuel H. de Aguirre,
Agent of the United
Provinces of South
America to the U. S.
W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Buenos Aires,
Chile and Peru
Juan Martin de Pueyr-
red6n, Supreme Di-
rector of the United
Provinces of South

Commission to Manuel
Hermenegildo de

President James Monroe


John Quincy Adams, Sec.
of State

Gregorio Tagle, Sec. of
State of the United
Provinces of South
President James Monroe

Gregorio Tagle, Sec. of
State of the United
Provinces of South
John Quincy Adams, Sec.
of State


President James Monroe

March 28, 1817

April 1, 1817

April 28, 1817

Oct. I, 1817

Oct. 4, 1817
Oct. 6, 1817

Oct. 29, 1817

Oct. 30, 1817

Dec. 16, 1817

Dec. 26, 1817
Dec. 29, 1817
Jan. 6, 1818
Jan. lo, 1818

Jan. 14, I8t8








No. From To Ciart Fpje'








. 239




John Quincy Adams, Sec. Jan. I ;.
of State

W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Buenos Aires,
Chile and Peru
Manuel H. de Aguirre,
Agent of the United
Provinces of South
America to the
U. S.
W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Buenos
Aires, Chile and
Juan Martin de Pueyr-
red6n, Supreme Di-
rector of the United
Provinces of South
Manuel H. de Aguirre,
Agent of the United
Provinces of South
America to the
Juan Martin de Pueyr-
red6n, Supreme Di-
rector of the United
Provinces of South
W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
United States to
Buenos Aires, Chile
and Peru
Thomas Lloyd Halsey,
ex-Consul of the
U. S. at Buenos
Theodorick Bland, Spe-
cial Commissioner of
the U. S. to South
Joel Roberts Poinsett,
ex-Agent of the
U.S. to South




President James Monroe

John Quincy Adams, Sec.
of State

President James Monroe

Statement [to Dept. of

John Graham, Special
Commissioner of the
U. S. to South
John Quincy Adams, Sec.
of State




Jan. In. i iSi

Jan. 21, 18r8

Jan. 31, 18r8

March 29, 8r88

April 5, z818
May -, r818

July I, r818

Aug. 21, 18r8

Aug. 26, 1818
Nov. 2, 1818

Nov. 4, 1818



Fr om


John GC ihaIm, Specl.il
Cmnim,i:~ioner of the
U S ;to Sou'th
C.,-.: r A I-c.dn .,. Si. -
cL I CoCn, I : iot ner o
the U. S. t:, South

D, vid C d. F r,',
Acenr ol the Un ited
Pra ;nco Sc urh
Am i. c :. -. tr

WC G D \ orthingron
Special A ent :I th.
U. S. t.o BRue,- Aie'.
Chile ani Peru
John B Pre.,o:p, Spe.
cial Agent of the
U. S. to Buenos Aires,
Chile and Peru
W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Buenos
Aires, Chile and Peru
John B. Prevost, Spe-
cial Agent of the
U. S. to Buenos
Aires, Chile and Peru
W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Buenos Aires,
Chile and Peru
John B. Prevost, Spe-
cial Agent of the
U. S. to Buenos
Aires, Chile and Peru
John M. Forbes, Spe-
cial Agent of the
U. S. at Buenos Aires


.john Quincy Adam-,,
Seo.. o, State












Dec 12. Isis
jan.8 I I1
M, rch -. I.I,

Dec 1, I' ly

Feb.14, 1820
March 9, 1820
March o1, 1820

March 20, 1820

April 8, 1820

April 30, 1820

May 24, 1820
June 8, 1820
Sept. 28, 1820
Dec. 4, 1820

March o1, 1821

Nov. 5. i 1i 4 -.



Doc. From To Date P'ge











John M. Forbes, Spe-
cial Agent of the
U. S. at Buenos Aires
Same [Minute of con-
ference with Ber-
nardo Rivadavia]

Bernardo Rivadavia,
Minister of Govern-
ment and Foreign
Relations of the
United Provinces of
South America
John M. Forbes [Min-
ute of a conference
with Bernardo


Bernardo Rivadavia,
Minister of Govern-
ment and Foreign
Relations of the
United Provinces of
South America
John M. Forbes, Spe-
cial Agent of the
U. S. at Buenos Aires

John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State


Bernardo Rivadavia,
Minister of Govern-
ment and Foreign Re-
lations of the United
Provinces of South
John M. Forbes, Special
Agent of the U. S. at
Buenos Aires

ISec. of State]

Bernardo Rivadavia,
Minister of Govern-
ment and Foreign Af-
fairs of the United
Provinces of South
John Quincy Adams, Sec.
of State
John M. Forbes, Special
Agent of the U. S. at
Buenos Aires

John Quincy Adams,
Sec. of State



April I, 1821

July 3, 1821
Aug. 5, 182i

Sept. 2, 1821
Sept. II, 1821
Sept. 14, 1821

Sept. 15, 1821

Sept. 17, 1821

Sept. 22, 1821

Sept. 28, 1821

Oct. 6, 1821

Oct. 8, 1821

Oct. 26, 1821
Nov. 8, 1821
Nov. 13, 1821
Nov. 16, 1821
Dec. 12, 1821



Dor. r-,

John M. Forbes, Special
Agent of the U. S. at
Buenos Aires


John M. Forbes, Sec.
of the U. S. Legation
at Buenos Aires
Bernardo Rivadavia,
Minister of Govern-
ment and Foreign
Relations of the
United Provinces of
South America
John M. Forbes, Sec.
of the U. S. Lega-
tion at Buenos
John M. Forbes, Act-
ing Charg6 d'Affaires
of the U. S. at
Buenos Aires

Bernardo Rivadavia,
Minister of Govern-
ment and Foreign Re-
lations of the United
Provinces of South
John Quincy Adams, Sec.
of State

Caesar A. Rodney, U. S.
Minister at Buenos

John Quincy Adams, Sec.
of State



May 23, 1822

June 5, 1822

July o1, 1822
July 18, 1822
Aug. 21, 1822
Aug. 23, 1822
Aug. 24, 1822
Sept. 2, 1822
Oct. 16, 1822
March 2, 1823

April 30, 1823
June 2, 1823
June 22, 1823
July 5, 1823
Sept. 12, 1823
Nov. 5, 1823
Jan. 3, 1824
Jan. 24, 1824
Feb. 12, 1824

Feb. 22, 1824

July 5, 1824

Aug. 13, 1824











John M. Forbes, Act-
ing Charg6 d'Affaires
of the U. S. at
Buenos Aires

John M. Forbes,
Charge d'Affaires of
the U. S. Legation
at Buenos Aires


Manuel Jose Garca.
Minister of Fcre-ien
Relations of Bueno-
John Quincy Adamni.
Sec. of State

Henry Clay, Sec. of

Martin Van Buren, Sec.
of State


L0:.- 6, I 2:4

-D. ,c I .-24

lar. 2,3, Ii: q
May 2, 1825

Sept. 18, 1825
Nov. 29, 1825
Feb. 9, 1826
June 17, 1826
July 15, 1826
Aug. 3, 1826
Sept. 5, 1826
Oct. 25, 1826
March 8, 1827
April 12, 1827
July 18, 1827
May 2, 1828
Sept. 13, 1828
Feb. 13, 1830

Dec. 25, 1830


The idiosyncrasies of spelling, punctua-
tion, capitalization and grammar of the
original manuscript stand uncorrected in
this print, except in case of manifest and
inadvertent error, where the correction
could in noise affect the sense.



RI'birt Smith, Secretary of State, to General John Armstrong, United States
Minister to France
WASHINGTON, D. C., April 27, 18o9.
Thi: p:llic,' or the pride of the new Spanish Monarch 2 or of the Emperor
influenciing him, may, in the event of a resistance to his authority, in South
Amcric-:,, insist, as was done in the case of St Domingo,3 on our prohibiting
all trade therewith from the United States. It will be of much importance
that ;such :, dn: and be averted, as the right to make it cannot be admitted
and the attempt may endanger the peace of the two Countries.

R,.brl Smitl,. Secretary of State, to General John Armstrong, United States
Minister to France 4
SIR: I herewith send to you copies of letters that have recently passed
between Genl Turreau and myself. The one from him indicates what he
knows or presumes to be the sensibility of his Government as to the relations
of the United States to the Spanish Colonies. My answer will enable you
to meet its suggestions with an assurance that the conduct of this Govern-
ment will be regulated in that respect, as it invariably has been, by the
principles of good faith and by the rules prescribed by its neutral character.
It is, however, not to be understood, that the United States will be restrained
I MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VII, 42. Robert Smith, of Maryland, was
commissioned Secretary of State by President Madison March 6, 1809; was asked by Presi-
dent Madison to resign; resigned April I, 1811. John Armstrong, of New York, had been
commissioned minister plenipotentiary to France June 30, 1804. He left Paris September
14. 16i10. Mr. .\rmstrong and James Bowdoin, of Massachusetts, who was then minister
pklnip.:,tcr[tiir,, at Madrid, were commissioned commissioners plenipotentiary and extraor-
dirnar.,. March 17, I806, to treat jointly and severally with Spain concerning territories,
wronglul c- pturis, condemnations, and other injuries. Armstrong did not go to Madrid,
but conducted negotiations at Paris. The negotiations were unsuccessful.
2 Joseph Bonaparte, who had about a year earlier been placed on the Spanish throne by
his brother Napoleon, the French Emperor, after the forced abdications of the Spanish
'When that former French colony revolted against France.
SMS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VII, 43.


from int-rpos:ing in ,,iin manner th t mnay Ibe Ic.,es-;ary tto prevent the Ter-
ritory c:lnime.d Lundtr the, Cont\enition from bein reduced un der the po-:'es-
sion of another bcllicerent p[ovcr.
There is reason to apprehend that the -uspicions of Ge.nl Turreau have
been particLuli:rly incited by the incidentil circuin'stince of iG;nl \\ilkins,:-n
lih,\ in,: tourhed at the lHavana in hii pa:sage to Newx' (rlLans. The candid
e.':plar alion is. tih t llith:' no formal iiin tructionS were given to (_Genl \\'ilkin-
i-:in, it \wa intended that he ;houlri aail himr-ll s f every proper occ a-ion:n to
remot'n e the impr'r-'ssii'n-, nmade, L', our Embarcc- la\\ that the llliiinted States
\\er( in hc:'tile cooperation agairnit lthe Spanish Colonite.-; t>:. o\bviate morc-
over, attempts that might bie made to draw theniem into a lo-tile, ollision with
the 1irnited Stati ; and c:.nerally. to cy lti vatle -uch dispo:siiti.:,on tci\.ari; the
United State a bc,,:ime Our xistiin pacific and legitimate_ relati-ns.
Ncith:r C.-enl \\ilkinson, nor an\ other person hi ji blIen instructed or ju-
thI:,rized to take any step or hold Iny c,':mmuni,:ati':a n that could inteLrmcddle
in tIli remoi.tet de;re'e \ith tihe internal affairs of the Spanih Empire, or
that could tend to a violationn of the strict ncutrality profc-;td Lby the
UnitCd States.
From the policy and pretension which had led to the demand heretofore
made on the United States to interdict our commerce with St Domingo, it
is not impossible, should Spanish America refuse to acknowledge the new
dynasty, that a like demand may be meditated. Altho' it may not be proper
to anticipate such a demand, yet if a purpose of the kind should be clearly
manifested, it is desirable to obviate it by frank and friendly explanations.
And it is only necessary to add, that it would, at this time, be as
difficult to effectuate such a prohibitory regulation, as it would be unreason-
able to require it, and that the measure is regarded by the President in
such a light as that no countenance is to be given to any hope of attaining it,
even by an offer of arrangements otherwise satisfactory, with respect to the
Floridas and the Western boundary of Louisiana.
I have the honor [etc.].


Rober! S.itlh, Slcrelary of Sl/ate, 10 Timonas S.i', e,, Jr., Unild Sitcs t Min-
is/er /0 //li.' P .t!i.,uiiCse COl/ir ; ['! -tl:/ .
Ic ir,.\cTI
\\'.\EsI:GTON, .-lI:s/ 1, ISo,).

You tilli not fail to communicate the earliestt information of all the ma-
terial occurrence- in Spanish America, which ma\ have been produced b'
the prceS-nt contest in Spain. And v.hatev'.er man, ultimately tbe the form
of Govcrnnment there estaLbili-hed it is our policy to be in harmon., v.-tli it.
You will ho\wec,:r at the same time keep in mind that in an\ Iconlict; that
ma' arise we will faithfully pIrescr\c our neutral character.


Ro!-ctl Sm lih, .S-,crciary .tf St.,/le o 'illizn i tnk,.'-y, UnitcJ Silie: Miist'er
I.. Gre a! Britain

\\'AS.HINGTON, J.t'e C 7s, ISIO.

SIR: Accordin rto present appearances a crisis is approaching which
cannot fail to. di olei the Colonial relatic.ri of Spani-h America to their
parent Countr, It i- the duty therefore of the iUnited States to turn their
attention particularly to the caue of the two Floridao in \whhose destiny tlie-y'
have so near an interest. Besides that \vhich r-eults from Gecographical
poitiion thie United State s consider themtel\es as holdinZ a lecal title to the
greater part of \V'et Florida under the purchase made bL the Convo-ntion
with France in the year i I. And they have a fair claim of another kind,
which would certainly not be m.:re than satisfied b-' the acquisition of the
residue of: th,- \West and the whole oi Ea-t Florida. Under these circum-
stancs: it ma\ be proper not to conceal from the British Government (wliich
may orherwnse form \ie\.s towards these territories incon-instnt with the
(A\entual ones entertained lb the United Stateili that any -teps on the part
I In I i;o." the P'oritug ii, Court, ir. or,' r to eo:cpe fro:n- NIpoklon. fled iron Liisbon andi
took refugee in [.raz:., here ic remairi-,n l until i1,21.
2 ?, I Istru rti'w.o; to UnitEd itate Minisiter., \V II. 5 Tho:rnm Sumt.rr, Jr., o, S.ouh
Cairoliln .. j co miii o.li r-.ionIl mlnitiiir plcniporertijary to Portuiiil. Mlrc :h 7, 1 .)o,) bur.
accr.dit'Z. t'. the l'Portugue .- .urt. rcsiding in Br _i'l He t.--k I.~. c J lu-' 24, 1-').
3115 Iniitrcti.r.i. to r Unit:d ..tatei iniitcrz. VI i. q Jmcs Mlonroe, of \ irginia. and
\ illiiam P'il cv. of MN ar'.'1-il, were j.intl\ and Er c c ralv ,,.m ini i,:.rail., ,la 12 i .6, .
ci'isiisi ioilerts for rhi: c rrtliniicnt o d;I'icrcncc w.ith C-rcE.r [ririan and :rtabl-.hiiii conl-
incr-c. Mr. MNinroc: to:k leav'.'e i th,. Brut.h c:..urr, Oct'-:bcr 7. 5i7;, and Mr. P'mlnki
MN :" 7, 1i Ii. Thi laIttr A -s aIlso iTmini tecr plcfnipot'Citiatr,' 1i o Grc.t [BritaIrn frorm c 1 l 12,
I ',. until M av -, [' i 1.


of i;rtvat Dritain iintcrflriing with rhese, will nre -.aril bc rnr':lard'lI ai- Iini't
anI infrin,.-ll ,, ani, a- l..ring to co:lli-i nm, which ir miut bh thr int-r-t
if .h,.th nation- t,:, :A., id
Tlis in-triuteirn m .h> Pr>..i,-l>nt i- _i'.:u.n ti. \.o u ( the t-upp.-Siti.n that
their c-rinnit.-ion of .Great Rri r-in \irh Spain n%'I hi: b:een tterninrIateL- by
e'. .nt: Ill L ur.-.pe. Y.-,u will I-'f c,:'ur.e lf':rl.Lcar ,. -.rC tt- it in .t difft.rc l
-atare of th;ine. AndJ in cchting it -iu V.ill be c:arefdlil t.: :athorizi:
inftrEnc: \ ith re prect t-, rhr iritt-nti-'in-.- 'I thi: i_',,-.. rnmint in ,-c .ns i-st-nt \w th
the principlrl- if ju-ti,-e and ncltrralit ',n h hch th p-ulicy *f the lUnited
St.tu:.. i-. f,:,un,:l:td.
\Vitlh s rrri t re -prCt |l:tc.].

Ro,'trl .5Th'l, ..cr "'rv ,.' S. te. t ,o Jol Ro, '! Poi'. ,t' o S.o'itl I Cjro, ii,a
a [P.'I l:' J Sp:IC.;Ul .4 -: e,: 'of tl U l ito d Sn A' to S.,.' : .41 i 'a
SIR: As a crisis is approaching which must produce great changes in the
situation of Spanish America, and may dissolve altogether its colonial rela-
tions to Europe, and as the geographical position of the United States, and
other obvious considerations, give them an intimate interest in whatever
may effect the destiny of that part of the American continent, it is our duty
to turn our attention to this important subject, and to take such steps, not
incompatible with the neutral character and honest policy of the United
States, as the occasion renders proper. With this view, you have been
selected to proceed, without delay, to Buenos Ayres. You will make it
your object, wherever it may be proper, to diffuse the impression that the
United States cherish the sincerest good will towards the people of Spanish
America as neighbors, as belonging to the same portion of the globe, and as
having a mutual interest in cultivating friendly intercourse: that this dis-
position will exist, whatever may be their internal system or European rela-
tion, with respect to which no interference of any sort is pretended: and that,
in the event of a political separation from the parent country, and of the
1 House Report No. 72, 20th Congress, 2d session, p. 7. The original of this document was
not located in the archives of the Department of State. In the printed source from which
it has been taken the heading reads "Extract of a letter from Mr. Monroe, Secretary of
State, to, etc."-an obvious error since Monroe was not Secretary of State until April 2,
181x, and Robert Smith held the post until April 1, 1811.
Joel R. Poinsett, of South Carolina: In addition to this special mission to South America
was commissioned envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Mexico, March 8,
1825. He was also commissioned envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to
Congress of Panama, which was to reassemble at Tacubaya, February 12, 1827. Took
leave of Mexican government, December 25, 1829.


establishment of an independ.--nt s'-tenim c:f NL;ti:nal Governmnt, it will
coincide with the -entiments and policy _f the TUnted States 1t: prnoote the
mo-t fricndl. relations. :1id the nlmo t liberal intier,,c urse. Ietv.een the in-
habitantL ofi think hemisphere, a- having all a common interest, and as kling
under a co,_mmon obligation to mainralin tlat iVyte m :of peace, ijuticc, and
cood will, wluhh is the only source of happintcs for ination.i
\Vhilt yii-u inculcate these as the principles and dispositions of the United
Stit ., it will bi no less proper to ascertain those on the other side, not only
tcXwardc the United States, but in reference to the great nations of Europe,
and to the commercial and other connexions with them, respectively: and,
generally, to inquire into the state, the characteristics, and the proportions,
ia toi number-, intelligence, and wealth, of the several parties, the amount of
population, the extent and organization of the military force, and the pecu-
niary rtoources of the country.
The real as well as ostensible object of your mission is to explain the
mutual advantages of commerce with the United States, to promote liberal
and stable regulations, and to transmit seasonable information on the sub-
iect. In order that you may render the more service in this respect, and
that vyo:u may, at the same time, enjoy the greater protection and respecta-
bility, 'you will be furnished with a credential letter, such as is held by sundry
agents 'of th, United States in the West Indies, and as was lately held by
one at tha i Havana, and under the sanction of which you will give the requi-
site attention to: commercial objects.

Roi-'rt S,'i.,h, .Se.retary of State, to General John Armstrong, United States
Minister to France1

Si-n: You will avail yourself of the first proper opportunity to bring to the
\vici of tlih- French Government the trade with Spanish and Portuguese
America which the British Government is at this time pushing thro' every
a\ enue which its power and policy can penetrate. This monopoly not only
affords tI. Great Britain the means of furnishing the people of that Country
altogether with British manufactures, but it moreover enables her to main-
tiin :i con-nrruIini; political ascendency over them which has already shewn
itself, igamt lth.- neutral commerce of the United States in the late Com-
mercial arrangement of her Agent at Caraccas, to be seen in the newspapers
1 MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VII, 121.


nf:\ii siu n \ou. To' cuulnterac:t the tendency in f lch iani e'c:-ILIu\se trade,
n'.thinZ could ati thli time e be more effectual than thle openingg Of all the
C.liha iel of a fre,:,, ic n er:tial cmrni unlicainiL n betr.. -enr tlh- [Inited State- and
France and her alhb- B\ sluch freedom of adnimtss-on and thie abojlition I .f
all I\e,.aniuc' restrictionir, France and the Nati on Coliected -\with her w\-,uld,
tl-iro' theI nii,.din of .Amn-rica:ii ci ntrprinz and na. iiaation, obtain a vent for
a lar-e portion of their produce andl manufacture. chich in no other way
can find a market in the purrt. of Spani- anid FI-rtuguese America.

Roe, l Siilti, .Set'tlr ofy .at SlItc, to Greciil .oh .-Ju i Arnslron, UlnilJd Sitates
.1 ,,I's tr to France I

\WASHINGTO'N, .o:' tt:tr 2, iSio.
The recent tran iactliuno in Spain ha,.ing produced in her American
Colonies a sensation trnding tn a change io the old e-.tablil-hed polity, the
;,o',,ern m n -t if the Uini ted Str t,:- cu Id not remain a u nconcerned s plcrator
of tlhe icculrrence o:f u-,h i mpn-rtant eve nt.- in c.ur o\\n in -mcdiate neiliibor-
hi:od. So long, ho\\ev\r, a- the lliirc:tutiton o: cpir, ioni and policy did not
actually interfere with the jurisdiction of the United States, or place in
jeopardy the security of any of their territorial rights, the President confined
within the limits of a necessary vigilance his attention to the incidents that
had become public. But the late proceedings of the inhabitants of West
Florida having indicated in form and in fact a total overthrow there of the
Spanish authorities and a great uncertainty prevailing with respect to the
shape which affairs in that quarter might assume if left to the uncontrouled
current of a revolutionary impulse, the President has been compelled for the
maintenance of the just rights of the Union to take the necessary measures
for occupying the Country of West Florida as far as the River Perdido.
From the enclosed copy of the President's proclamation you will perceive his
determination to take possession of this Territory, and the considerations
which have constrained him to resort to this measure. In this posture of
affairs the Government of the United States will be ready to meet and discuss
the question of the right of Sovereignty to the Territory thus occupied.
This act of occupancy, which is merely a change of possession and not a
change of right, will, it is hoped, be viewed only as the natural consequence
of a state of things, which the American Government could neither foresee
nor prevent.
1 MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VII, 123.


Ro.ert .,Smithi, Sec5tltia -y f Stale, It 1I'il;Jani .Shale7t. U(I;t J i, t..l t. : .- '1 t ,: r
Sc,2' moii/1 Ihd C. 'Ii.'l rct, HIbIta b :a
WASHINGTON, November 6, I8io.
SIR: Your Letters of the 5, 9, 18, 22, 25, 29, June & 2 July have been duly

[TI he second paragraph of this is identical with the above from Smith to
Armnitrong No:\ember 2, 18io.]
Under the var. ing aspect of the affairs of Spain, it has been the anxious
endeavor of the Pre.sident to regulate his conduct by the rules of the most
c.x.ct neutrality. This disposition has been manifested in the prompt sup-
pr Ision of unlawful enterprises carried on by certain Privateers bearing the
French Hlag clandestinely fitted out in the Ports of the United States, and
calculated to annoy the Trade of the subjects of Spain in the Gulph of
Me-\ico and elsewhere and in the remonstrance against these illegal Equip-
mentn m-ade to the Government of France, through the American Minister at
Pari, a Copy of whose Letter to the Duke of Cadore is herewith sent to you.
These representations will enable you to give at Cuba and elsewhere
any explanations that may be necessary.
In tlhe enclosed Gazette you will perceive an official Declaration of the
British Government respecting Spanish America which is transmitted to you
as an evidence of the policy and views of the British Government, in relation
as well to old Spain as to Spanish America. This in your hands may be
tl~," fLI.
I am [etc.].

Robert Smithi, Secretary of State, to William Pinkney, United States Minister
to Great Britain
SIR: You will herewith receive copies of two acts of Congress, which have
been rass-ed with closed doors and which have not yet been made public.
\'O:u will thence perceive that the United States are not disposed to acquiesce
in the occupation on the part of any foreign power of any part of East or
\\Vst Florida, and that Congress have provided under certain contingencies
for the temporary occupation of the said Territory.
Th-e .ame, mutatis mutandis, with the exception of the first paragraph, to William K.
Lour', Caracas, and to Joel Robert Poinsett, Buenos Aires. See doc. 115 below addressed
ti: Robert K Lowry commissioning him consul at La Guayra in 1823. It is possible that
the; ac.. tliih same. The records of the Division of the Department of State do not include
special agents.
SMS. Dispatches to United States Consuls, I, 352.
SIS. Instructions to United States Ministers. VII, 140.


Thiz prrcueedinc i.s. c:iI the part .f the UnitedI StateL ju-tili-ld Ly national
intere-t ,.tind L,. national p'liu::- an i ntrc-r -t ,:fo ndedt upon a rer:. ,'nized
thl:iugh iunliqitidate,-d ,:im *-n Span IF-.r indemnitie., and a tpolic inmp:-ra-
thiel prL-criL,,:-d by a legitimiate pritncipl e -o tell prucervati ,n.
At C: perin-.d prior 1:, tlhe puurcha e -4 L,-uikiana the .ittentiio:n of thi-. Go'-
errinment had b(:e-ii direct-d t.-, the I-eaceaLle a:Jcqui;.ti-n i'f the Flridla. Ifr.m
Spain. trha purch,.e-L, \whil-t it diminiihid- the 2gC:graphical ,-tenilt o'I
\\'etr FI.riJd, jnd l-c ened thle '.aluL e if tIhe- .Spanih ,- e . onei,:n in that
quart-er, lhai incrtease- tht sUi:t itude Olf- the United State I for thie- S:\ o-rein ty
I. a tract of Co unitr \., e i -.ntiuti i re ndic-nrd it \it:ll' iiimp-rrt.ant in a
military na\.al and ,c,-rmmeicial point ,74f vie\,w. Mingled with c,:.nlsi:lerati:,nlS
r1 tlhi. nature, are cljimu wlhilch this Cioernmicit ha- ilIrl, miaintainii,
again-t Spain, th- finil aidju.-tmrent ofl which, it \va. a eli.ced, milt be-
facilitate-d b .-i purcha-se for a a'- ir price, to all the Turritcory :f Flic-rit- Ea;t
of the Ri\er PernJid:. The ae :teof a propr--o:itrhio tI- rhiz effect haud n.-,t L-ecn
Lde: idcd: when the present r, oluti:in co-immencedI il Spain, the fur, *-fI which
haws ettrnitd to andl co'ir ul ed hr American [-':lu:nie-, ha w\eaLkened in then
the au th.-riti:,f the parent l-:intdoi. and ifn -.ime instance. ha- pro:duuced a
di-OluiiL.In .-.1 the -.I, form :,f Gi ,, ernment an.] theI inU titutit7n Of independent
State=. In thi;- o:ctndirtin uti the Spanit-h Enimpire, with the antItntt :-.:tem
of Goucrnnicnt expiring, new Aystemin of Rule gro\.,ing up in her pro:'vin :e-
and exposed to events which the vicissitudes of a political and military
revolution render incalculable, what more natural, what more conformable
to justice, than for the United States in a spirit of friendly moderation to
seek security for those indemnities not disowned by Spain herself, but the
payment of which has been so long delayed? Should a new Government be
established in Spain under any auspices whatsoever and declare itself ab-
solved from the payment of the debts of the old Monarchy, to what source,
except a pledge in possession, could the United States recur for remuneration
for so many losses which their Citizens have suffered from the effects of the
laws and the policy of Spain?
This motive of national interest is supported and strengthened by the
obvious policy of the measure. Altho' this Government does not wantonly
seek an extension of Territory, it frankly avows the pursuit of an object
essential to its future peace and safety upon honorable and reasonable terms.
The United States cannot see with indifference a foreign power, under any
pretext whatever possess itself of the Floridas. The prospect of danger to
the Union from such a step would be too imminent, the real object too ap-
parent for them either to disguise their sentiments or to hesitate a moment as
to the conduct which they would be inevitably compelled to pursue. This
explicit declaration, uttered with sincerity and friendliness ought to ad-
monish the British Government (should it unhappily yield itself up to such
improper desires) to check all inclination of gaining a footing in the Floridas.

rDOCULiME' i I: \PF:IL 30, [FI I

The CG_,.-rnment _.If France \\ill also le immediately apprized of thi
declar.-uion io n the p.rt of the Liniti:e State'.
The,-e ,_bservations, \ul ich at an earl da v and .-n a uitalk; ,_,ccasi-ion
you are tC' preilent in sub.tance- t':, the Briitil G t:,ie rniment arc applicable t.-.
the t Wro contingcnnci 'ion t mpla te byl the acc'mpianying act- l Cong re .
In either of these cases,. h.\i '.cer, the United StateS, you may' add, intend
nothing more than thei Fpr:sr eriation of the peace and quiet of the Territory,
the prevention of anarchy, and the exclusion of all external interference;
and in this posture to await the re-establishment of a state of things, in
which all matter. in dispute may be amicably and satisfactorily adjusted
upon principle; -.f right and equity with the competent authority.
In making the communication to the British Government now confided
to ,your di-creti.-'n, you will of course, be fully sensible of the importance of
d,_ini it in a manner that will guard as much as possible, against irritating or
precipitating it, into the measure to be obviated; and you will lose not a mo-
ment in transmitting intelligence as to the temper in which the communica-
ti'n maiy be received, and as to the effect likely to be produced by it on the
policy f:,( that Cabinet.
I have the honor [etc.].

Jam,'es Mo,.!roe, Secretary of State, to Joel Robert Poinsett, United States
Consul General at Buenos Aires
WASHINGTON, April 30, 18II.
The instructions already given you 2 are so full, that there seems to be
little cau.,e to add to them at this time. Much solicitude is felt to hear from
v,-'u -'n all the topics to which they relate. The disposition shewn by most of
th.:- Spa nih provinces to separate from Europe and to erect themselves into
independent States excites great interest here. As Inhabitants of the same
Hemipherc, as Neighbors, the United States cannot be unfeeling Spectators
of ii: important a moment. The destiny of those provinces must depend on
thhnem.:lve.. Should such a revolution however take place, it cannot be
do ubled that our relation with them will be more intimate, and our friend-
ship stro,_nger than it can be while they are colonies of any European power.
I h.:i c [ctc.].
1' D,.:. ,rchesto Consuls, I, 365. James Monroe, of Virginia: Commissioned Secretary
,of S.ie I., I'r.:sident M adison, April 2, 1811; was appointed Secretary of War, September 26,
I 14, a J .:onilr med by the Senate, September 27, 1814: continued to serve as Acting Secretary
of State also. President Madison offered the position to Daniel D. Tompkins, September 28,
1814, who declined it. MIr. Monroe was again commissioned as Secretary of State by Presi-
dent Madison, February 28, 1815, and retired, March 4, 1817, on becoming President.
2 See above, doc. 5, Smith to Poinsett, June 28, i8io.


\ir"-;'#ihlr : ..' t ~:ij '

\\'.xIIGION, ,\', ',hVc ch : .; .
\ariou c,:,nsidera. tion whlici:I, will rI ac I ily rs.:iI i st thenIie cl:,- I t. : l u,
have in'duced tin- e GFo:,rrcnient t.:. lck with a f verable F e t':, a Revoltion
u\vich I= no:rni, taki nf plaIc in South America. Several f- the Pro,\ lince:- ha't
sent DLepoutier t hia CoLritr t,:o ,.-irn Ifoun:- r cO:mIpl:.e lu and theL: ipproi;.h 1' it in oithir-, but as ;et a formal rthci i t,nii:n ,l' 1t Mnister
froin neither lta l:cn inadCle, rno:'r iha: it Ler.n tirI,-d.

Janmed' .1t,,,, Sc:retarv .'f .Stalkot, t. J, Bar!e, Uli'itr, iS/ioe; aliii ucr
l. Fra. --

\\ \SHI:'E .T,-,N, .'V,-:*' l;t,,,* ,'t/ Il il.
Sib; : A Rem solut ion in the Sp.tni;h lPron incre, S:uth o the i rited [States.]
is nmking i rapid progr:.-:. The Pr,.I ces ': \'rrnzuiicla ha\e declared
tilLh,:ii,I l.z iridtle- ndent a.nd : non.ii:ci d tit--: i \ ril to tli- Ci' O\.rnllmillt. T ile
sam i -teip it i. said, will s:o ,n b, thalKen at HBuenr i Ayr' and in ether quarters.
The.- Pro n:\ irn,:,- \ ncii,z Ii:l hl \ t: ir,:p[, I-.'] 1, tlhe Pr(c idtent the r'co.izTnitionr
of their independence, and reception of a Minister from them; and altho'
such recognition in form has not been made, yet a very friendly and con-
ciliatory answer has been given to them. They have also been informed
that the Ministers of the United States in Europe, will be instructed to
avail themselves of suitable opportunities to promote their recognition by
other powers. You will not fail to attend to this object, which is thought to
be equally due to the just claims of our Southern Brethren, to which the
United States cannot be indifferent, and to the best interests of this Country.
1 MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VII, 179. John Quincy Adams, of Massa-
chusetts: Commissioned minister plenipotentiary to Russia, June 27, 1809. Took leave,
April 7, 1814. Commissioned (with others) minister plenipotentiary and extraordinary,
January 18, 1814, with power to negotiate and conclude a treaty of peace and a treaty of
commerce with Great Britain. Commissioned envoy extraordinary and minister plenipo-
tentiary to Great Britain, February 28, 1815. Took leave, May 14, 1817. Commissioned
(with others) envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary, April 17, 1813, with power,
jointly and severally, to conclude a peace with Great Britain. Commissioned Secretary of
State by President Monroe, March 5, 1817; retired, March 4, 1825, on becoming President.
A circular identical with the first paragraph of this letter was sent to the United States
Ministers to Great Britain, Russia and Denmark.
I MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VII, 183. Joel Barlow, of Connecticut:
Commissioned minister plenipotentiary to France, February 27, 18 1. Died at Zarnowice,
December 26, 1812, on his return to Paris from Vilna.


In -:c doing -you \ill be careful not to conipr omnit the pacifickl relations ub-
sisting bct\e.en the United State- and other pov.'-rr.
A, Iate coillnlluniication from NMr Ru -sell,' suupported bI one mn.adi t.:,l ,l
by Ilr Serurier : b the order fIi hi-: GU.ocmrnn-ient shc\w that France ;
di-pc.o:ed to harmoni-se on thi- great -ubject. with die poli,:c. which has been
adopted tb the UniteJ State-.
I haWe the honor [etc j


Jooes Mloniroe, Sacretary of Slate, to Sa ,til c L. Mitclill, LU.'led Siatis
Rc pr.:t tiait' it, N, a,'lr,.r 3

\\'A.SHiNGTON, Dteci',bt .Sil.

SIR: I have the honor to transit to you. in compliance within tie request
contained in your letter of the 5th inst ,' a iopyv of the declaration of in-
I [r,nirhin Ru:ell of Rhoe lilirid: Char'zL dl'-i6rares, t.) Fr.nc:, Left iiin harge of
leI'a ion. 'e.,prei.mb er 14, 1 4 w Left Pirio in N-.ent.enir. if'll. Appointed chlargc diJ'lanc
at London, Jul;, 2, 1.11 le n re.: ed to. the i ,rirtih o.*, crnincet, No..embher Iz., li, i.
Reccin'.ed F:l. ort, i:t lhi requ't-:t, cpt emt i r ., 1I Co' minii i J mini-tcr fleniF ren-
tiary a' dJ i\traorijirnar, ith othlcis.i, lanuary. I. 1 14., itrh t.o.-:r to negr.,riate and
Co'i-.luJe : treat. of :ca-.C andJ a tr-a'\ of *riTimiirc'' '.irh ir'ir britain Conmr i--siori,.d
miri.te. r [lenipote.nrtiar. to u'edc- n irni Nora.'.a Janua r: I. 14 Tool-: lij'.. Iicih o er
16. I i'.
I Mr. -'ruriier, inO' ex.triorir ar, nd mrn-icer firnipfotent i-r, from Fr'nr-n:- Pre-
rcrited cr:.dinrti s at.out Fel-ru ir: 21, 1. I I. Took k"- ,, Januriir 2 I.- i6.
S.ini.:ric.n 5t.,e P. p '., F're. i, Pe. ...' n:, ill, .')
SThe Iltter of th: nrh instant from thre irHo n .Smuel L. Mlirihl'ill io e'ir t]ir, .lonr
a- the follo., inc. :opi'd fr-on thn e -nme page
H.o:utSE oF RE rPFEENTATI"VE. DeT.',-l.r q,. I T.
Sir.: In behalf of the c:ommiittee apipo.ritd o1 conr dir -o nmui.' h ol the F'res.rt's --
meriau ofi the rh No'.emler i- rcnt, u to the Spianlh American pro. inc: I b .lea.e
to inquire -h,~rh.:r it i- krnon co or (,Go ernmrenit Ihat l(in olt tho-m:- pror.in:nei h.,.e
dec.lared thenm-slic irnd-pendent. or [hat niateri-l ch irge- h- e taken pl::e- in their
polir ic rdlition Ir ii not e pec'red, ho:e.in'er, that nmr re.4que-t will l.b unider:sl'od to
c ind to t.ho-e -:on'nimurni.:,rin-n v.hiich, in the opinion of the EL\cc:uti.-, it .uuld Li,
improper Io. d',:lo-:e.
Be ple.i -td, -ir, tor., -c:',ep let.: I
Th, committee iu.mittned to the Hous.e the followirln r-.,:onimmn-ndatiii:
HOLi E *-r RrrR0 i- NTApirlV .S. DR.: :,,.r i,.0, I.'11
The commatii eIC to rnhocm i.a= rtflrrid so much of the Pre'idenrt' mit ;'-n: asi relic ti
to the Spa.niah Americ iri colonial h ne, in r,,ediencre to the order of he H: ou-: dehlier-
atel, conrs.idred rhe- -wulict before the., arn. direc.red 1 report, in part, to t.- -ubrnitted
to the coriidcra iion of the Houw.e, in the lorm of .1 publi,: delaration. a- lollu.o :
ii ..'.. iA% tr-l of [he An-ri,::,n Spirnish pro'. ince- hW,.-e re.rienrc. tno the lnitrcd
Ltar,-: that it has .I,:,n found .r.edieint for them to associate and lorm federal ,Cotr n-
m:rt upor-on the elect,.e ind rep-r'.ntratirte --plin, and to dJ :l.ar [hem- el.en free ,rind
indidepenrent: Therefore bI--i ir
A.: .-!' bt-y S'o.: S i, ;ce II. ,:.t R p.' 1 -iain .:: .-,f t0 L'itc Stu!' : 4 it.e'iC.i iin
C.'.t.,e : ,.-a :.ent.,'.e. That the.- t-chold ..ith friendly\ inter. Ithe esr r-blih. nrinrt of
ind i-nirdent ioi -o, reigrtic to. th'. Spi n -ani h pro.i rnce in Amen;ri.:.i. con-iequiior upon rhe
iciru l ;nre of rh.e mion.arehi to \h-:h the, Lbelonei.r h.-ir .- rniichtor- aind irilih blir.itn
of the -..iie i.mi-pher', the LUitel d States feel ce.rc solihi-rude for their i elf .l r: and
that v hen tho. pro".rice- a ,alI ha'.c attained the conditionn of niaronri. :., the juE-
\iexercie oi their ri ht. th,. Sen:it-'- and Houw of F.,:Pre:e r.irarnies ,ill unite unrh the
Execurti..e in establ.] ir in '.mnth them, a-n s oti reiLn rnd irlnerer.der, t State. auch ar,-
cal-hlI relations and commer-:ifl irit,:rcour.e ajs m.ay require their kgislati .e auihornir


dependence made- bi the pr:-i\inc-i. of \'enzuela. This act wv.- com mnri-
cated to this Go'.i ernml:-nt by order :of th,: _-:,LTr,:-, comnlpoI:eJ o:f d. putii. -
from those prc\ in :e-, a-.;rnml'ed at Caracca. It i[ n,,t a.:icrtain'-d that an\
other of the Spanir h pro inc.- a e, a :, ,.t, cntr,.J into r similar J.i:la ra ti n- :
but it is know:i th't m *.-t, it nort all ,:of thri i, c-n the ci-,ntinrnit, :re in ar t.i o-
lutionary state. TI.i, pri:,r l.- a m Jad in that dirt.ctio:'n L'y -iurm. i-4 them will
best appear in t hI dl:: iiiirnenr hic.hli ha\ :lr.ii been c: m u i niicai t: d t :' \ :Iu.
I have the honor [erc.|.

James Monro _5cretariy o.( Slath, to T'!lis'fet.. de Orca, Cot':,issiioIirr -'1
\'rii tI': I ti o i/c' Uit' Ic.i 5ita'c I

f\V.\ iIIN,_,T,:;, D tL'C ',,1.,cr ic', .S./i .
SIR: I have already had the h-n-r t.-' inform ycu th.it I had laid L.:fore
The President the c,-py ,:p f the de-:.laration of I, d :pe-d::n,:e eintc-red into' b-\
the Provinces of Venezuela, which yoUL presented to me, and that he had
received it with the interest which so important an event was calculated
to excite.
Of the interest which The President takes in this important event, and in
the welfare of the inhabitants of all the Spanish Provinces South of the
United-States, you have had an unequivocal proof in his remarks on that
subject, in the message to Congress at the commencement of the session.
And by the report of the committee to whom that part of the message was
referred, a strong indication is given, that the legislative branch of our
government participates in the sentiments which have been expressed by the
chief Magistrate.
I will add, Sir, that the Ministers of the United-States in Europe have been
made acquainted with these sentiments of their government, and instructed
to keep them in view in their communications, with the Courts, near which
they respectively reside.
I have the honor [etc.].
James Monroe, Secretary of State, to Alexander Scott, United States Agent to
WASHINGTON, MIay 14, 1812.
SIR: Having sometime since apprised you of your appointment to the
Caraccas, I have now to inform you that the President wishes you to proceed
there without delay, in discharge of the duties of the trust confided to you.
MS. Notes to Foreign Legations, II, 17.
2 House Report Number 72, 20th Congress, 2d session.

DOCUME.Ni 15: M.\\ 1.4, 1Sl2 15

You will obtain a pa'ss;a.1: in c:ie of the vessels l:,v which thi pro:.i iins pro-
cured, in coriipliaice with a lat,. act of Coni*res, for the Government of
Venezuela, will be lforv:ardJed
I Ca,1nnot Lettcr ''roniv t,,o you an idea of the duties. whi h \ou .%ill have
to perform with the Go'iernment of \cni you a copy of thle inrtructi*ons which vwere given to the .-\gent of the Uinited
States at Buenos Ayres. The independence of the Provinces of Venezuela
forms an css.ntial difference between their situation and that of the other
Provinces of Spain in America; but still, until their independence is more
formally acknowledged by the United States, it cannot materially affect
\ our duties. Until such acknowledgment may be made, your agency will be
of a character suited to the case; for which you will receive herewith creden-
tial letters, such as are held by the Agent of the United States at Buenos
A principal motive in delaying to recognize in greater form the inde-
pendc nce of the Government of Venezuela proceeds from a desire to ascertain
hnow far those Provinces are competent to its support; by which is to be un-
derstood the intelligence of the people, and their union and decision in its
favor. If the people are resolved to maintain their independence, their suc-
cess -eem- to be inevitable. The United States take a sincere interest in it,
from f',n.-:irous sentiments, and from a conviction, also, that, in many ways, it
will prove reciprocally advantageous. France favors it, and Great Britain
Sill not long oppose it, if she does at all, by force, or by exposing herself
to ,war. Nothing, however, would be more absurd than for the United
State: to acknowledge their independence in form, until it was evident that
the peo:pl.- themselves were resolved and able to support it. Should a
counter-revolution take place after such acknowledgment, the United States
would sustain an injury, without having rendered any advantage to the
A friendly communication may, in the mean time, be preserved, with the
s..ame ad.3antage as if their independence had been thus formally acknowl-
udc id. The United States are disposed to render to the Government of
Ven-ziicla, in its relations with foreign powers, all the good offices that they
may- be able. Instructions have been already given to their Ministers at
'aris, St. Petersburgh, and London, to make known to those courts that the
United States take an interest in the independence of the Spanish Provinces.
It will -- your duty to make yourself acquainted with the state of the
public mind in the Provinces of Venezuela, and in all the adjoining Provinces
of Sp:tin, their competence to self-government; state of political and other
initlligence, their relations with each other; the spirit which prevails gen-
erally irmong them as to independence; their disposition towards the United
States, towards Old Spain, England, and France: and, in case of their final
See above, doe. 5, Secretary of State to Poinsett, June 28, I8I0.

r.\1,[ 1: C(,;',I.'UNICA\TIh'N- FKO'f liVE I. TEiN D Ct.\TECS

di nmi:nil:irnicnt from the parent ccu-'ntry,. w-hat I:bon will lher-eaitr exi-t
between them: what form it will taLk_-, ho:iw nm:ln co'nflederation= will
prob-itly i-be formed. and what -pecie- of internal g,'iernment i- lil.el to
pref\iil. \'Yu will be -_-n-iblle that the_ Ilnritred State- cannot f-ail to take a
deep int.L-rt in the e;tabl;hnient of a R:rpublician GCoernmintci iin tho.e
Pro inrce-, from a b'.-liifI that tl:he pe':ple will be happier under it. and the
-reater conlfidnce \ihich nmut c.xi-t, in co1n-eqlucnclCe of it, Ib-et\vucln ii
You \ill al-o e pjrt;cula .rl attenti',e u to the protection o fl ur coninmerce
. ih the th,-'\ or:\ rrment of \'cnezuels. to0 -et that it en nj oy'- all their it\ i antage
'ihicli mn"\ be fairly claimed anid ,ou will furni'-h ill u'cLul Infr~oration rel.-
t'. r to their ex por t._. and im ,:portL:.
You are already Vppri ecd of the supplicir, which ha\e bet:-n procured, in
compliance wii th .An act of Crion r,--, for the Go(l erni mri t ':t \ienezuela. in n n-
se(qunnc:_ (lof tihe di-trc- ociCaioined by the late dreadful e.rcliquak- threri-.
T'h--c- suppllie_ will be fiorwarJ.d I.by e-i-el-: from Baltino re. Philadelphia,
and New York, and ar,- int:-nd:-d to be pre-ented. on the part of -thi- Gc' ern-
mLnt, to thalt c Venezuela, for th rclif f th Pe ple. ou will rec-i e
w ith thi- letter a copy *'A tlh:- act of Congrcr- %. which %% ill i-e your guid,:- in com-
niniciting thel nmi-ure ttha t ht Go' ernnimnt. It i. hoped that you v ill ar-
rie- it -- in time to take char.Z_'e of all the-C- .supplie-, iLbut a- it i. po-_ille
that this may not happen, a conditional instruction will be forwarded to
Mr. Lowry, to act in the business in your absence.
You will not fail to intimate, in suitable terms, that this interposition for
the relief of the distressed people of Venezuela is a strong proof of the friend-
ship and interest which the United States take in their welfare.
I have the honor [etc.].

James Monroe, Secretary of State, to M. Palacio, Agent of Cartagena to the
United States 1

WASHINGTON, December 29, 1812.
SIR: The United-States being at peace with Spain cannot take any step
in relation to the contests between the different sections of the Spanish
monarchy, which would be of a character to compromit their neutrality.
At the same time it is proper to observe, that as inhabitants of the same
hemisphere, the government and people of the United-States take a lively
interest in the prosperity and welfare of their neighbours of South-America,
and will rejoyce at any event which has a tendency to promote their happi-
I have the honor [etc.].
1 MS. Notes to Foreign Legations, II, 51.

Jatmes Moptr't, Sccrelar'y o0 .5/' ( t' S! ,, oe J in I t'h i v .11,a.i'n, (.'1ilcd S/air,'s
ltiu set'r to Gr.'ail Briltit I
\V\', il .'-,TO:,, Decebtr 1in, i q.
SIR: Rep.-,rts cntinrI tl circ, ulate th t the Sp-ani-h ir,\:,rirnminnt h;:
ce-J t.o Great Brirain the Fl.-rida- and l.-uirn It i.: al-,-. stated that
measures are taken, for the equipment of an expedition to that quarter, to
consist of so large a body of men, as would not be contemplated, if it was the
intention of the British government, to preserve the existing friendly rela-
tions between the two countries. Ten thousand men, it is said, are likely to
be sent from Great-Britain and Ireland; and it has been intimated, that
some foreign troops, will be taken into British pay and employed in the
exp\ediition. The Prussian troops, near the channel, are spoken of.
If the British government has accepted a cession of this territory from
Spain, an'] is taking measures for its occupancy, her conduct must be con-
sidcrcd a- decidedly hostile to the U. States. As well might the British
g'-.vernment send an army, to Philadelphia, or to Charlestown, as to New
Ori.an:, or to any portion of Louisiana Westward of the Perdido, knowing as
it d-, ,:- Ith just title of the United States to that limit. To send a consider-
,-ble if-rce to East-Florida, even should the British government state, that
it had accepted the cession of that province only, could not be viewed in a
irienIdl light. Why send a large force there, if Spain has ceded, and is
rfadv, to surrender the province, unless the British government has objects
in \ie\w. unjust in their nature, the pursuit of which must of necessity,
pr'odice "ar with the United-States? East-Florida in itself is comparatively
nothing; but as a post, in the hands of Great-Britain, it is of the highest
importance. Commanding the Gulph of Mexico, and all its waters, includ-
ing the Mississippi with its branches, and the streams emptying into the
Mobile, a vast proportion of the most fertile and productive parts of this
Uni.-.n, -1n which the navigation and commerce so essentially depend, would
Kb~ subject to its annoyance, not to mention its influence on the Creeks and
Cothr nrighbouring Indians. It is believed if Great-Britain has accepted the
ce:s,..n of East-Florida, and of it only, that she has done it with intention
to e-tabli-hl a strong post there, and to avail herself of it for all the purposes
ah:'.e -:uggested. If the cession has greater extent, the design is more ap-
pa rLent.
Th,: Prci-dent desires that you will bring this subject before the British
gA\ ern ment, without delay, in a friendly and conciliatory manner, and ascer-
tain, if it i disposed to give the information, whether such cession has been
made, and if it has, to what extent. If none has been made, the British
government, will, it is presumed, take an interest in removing the impression,
MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VIII, 13.


which these reports, coming from s,, mni,.a quarter., ci-'u,1 not fail t, make.
If a cession has been made, it is prolbabk ll: it 4he will c-e.plain its e\tLnr
and her future views in regard to it, ,ts frank and open puli;: is mIst
becoming a great nation, and if her poilc:y i- ptCaCt:t, mIn':t likely t': pr',er\ r it.
If she acquired it in war, be the extent r', it W-hait it nay, it mnay lihatV hcn
obtained, as an instrument to su'.4ir,.e th, purp'.-.scs -,If that pt1ri':,.l ,unly;
peace having since taken place on c:.ondii':on.' -ati.':tla:'ry t., bth parties.
her views in regard to that territory, m11i1, have un,-dcr.ine!lt a s-.iilar c:hangc.
In this case she may be willing to rid liLrsllf f .a prop'ert2,, which li s may
reasonably anticipate, will never be ad'antagCouu to her, and may be pro-
ductive of much harm. If a cession has been made to Great-Britain of East-
Florida, and her views in regard to it have undergone such a change, it will
be agreeable to this government to obtain it of her, at a fair equivalent, as
you may suggest, in your conferences on the subject, should circumstances
justify it.
The revolution which is making rapid progress in South-America, becomes
daily more interesting to the United-States. From the best information
that we can obtain, there is much cause to believe, that those provinces will
separate from the mother-country. Several of them have already abrogated
its authority, and established independent governments. They insist on
the acknowledgment of their governments by the United-States, and when
it is considered that the alternative is between governments, which, in the
event of their independence, would be free and friendly, and the relation
which, reasoning from the past, must be expected from them, as colonies,
there is no cause to doubt in which scale our interest lies. What are the
views and intentions of the British government on this important subject?
Is it not the interest of Great-Britain that the Spanish provinces should
become independent? Will her government promote it, at what time and
under what circumstances? In case of a rupture, between the U. S. & Spain
at any future time, what part will Great-Britain take in the contest, it being
distinctly to be understood, that we shall ask, in regard to the Spanish
provinces, no privileges in trade which shall not be common to other nations?
Spain has been long unfriendly to the United-States, and done them positive
injuries, for which reparation has been withheld, and her government still
assumes a tone, which, in other respects, is far from being satisfactory. The
part which the United-States may act hereafter, towards that power, must
depend on circumstances. Should the Spanish government persevere in its
unjust policy, it might have some influence on our measures, and it would be
advantageous to know the views of the British government in these respects.
The President has agreed, on considerations which have been thought
sufficient to justify it, to waive objections of a personal nature, and to receive
Mr. Onis, as Minister from Spain.
Before entering into any communications with the British government,

tDOCuLMr, T I : JANUARY 1t'), iSI('

relating to the part Grcat-Gritain will take towards the Spa.nish pro\inces in
South-America, who have declared them-selve independent, or may here-
alter, y:'Lu will satisfy youricl that the British gorcrnment p.uts a just value
on the existing relations between the United-States and Great-Britain, and
will not convert the communication which is a proof of amity, and intended
to be confidential, into an instrument for promoting hostility between Spain
and the United-States. Your communication, in any view, had therefore
better be informal, and apparently proceeding from yourself only.
I have the honor [etc.].

James Monroe, Secretary of State, to Luis de Onis, Spanish Minister to the
United States
WASHINGTON, January Ig, 1816.
SIR: I have had the honor to receive your letters2 of the 30. of December,
and 2. of January and to submit them to the President.
You demand that your Sovereign shall be put in possession of West-
Florida; that certain persons whom you have mentioned, shall be arrested
and tried on the charge of promoting insurrection in the Spanish provinces,
and exciting citizens of the United-States to join in it; and thirdly, that the
flags of Carthagena, the Mexican Congress, Buenos-Ayres, and other revolt-
ing Provinces, shall be excluded from the ports of the United-States.
You demand next that Mr. Toledo and others whom you mention, charged
with promoting revolt in the Spanish provinces, and exciting citizens of the
United-States to join in it, shall be arrested and tried, their troops disarmed
and dispersed.
You intimate that troops are levying in Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana,
and Georgia, for the invasion of the Spanish provinces, of whom one thousand
are from Kentucky, and three hundred from Tennessee, to be commanded
by American citizens, but you do not state at what points these men are
collected, or by whom commanded, and as to the forces said to be raised in
Louisiana and Georgia, your communication is more indefinite. The in-
formation recently obtained by this Department, from persons of high con-
sideration, is of a very different character. It is stated that no men are
collected, nor is there evidence of an attempt or design to collect any in
Kentucky, Tennessee, or Georgia, for the purpose stated, and that the force
I MS. Notes to Foreign Legations, II, 121. This letter is printed in American Slate
Papers, Foreign Relations, IV, 424. The record shows Luis de Onis as envoy extraordinary
and minister plenipotentiary of Spain from October 7, 1809, to May Io, 1819.
2 See below, pt. xiii, does. 1o37 and 1038.


said to be assembled under Mr. Toledo:, i- \cry inconidera-Ible, and c:mp'-tiJ
principally of Spaniards and Frenchmen. 11 -ny p,'.rtion 1f- it, conciztc -f
citizens of the United-States, thur c.'n duct i unauth'iri7'-Id and illei.l.
This force is not within the settled p-rrt- of: L,'uiki.-na, but in the \hilderners.
between the settlements of the Unittd'-Stati and Spain, b operation of our laws. I have to request that uou will have the guudncss to
state, at what points, in Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia and Louisiana, any
force is collected, the number in each instance, and by whom commanded.
If such force is collected, or collecting, within the United-States, for the
purpose suggested, or other illegal purpose, it will be dispersed, and the
parties prosecuted according to law.
This government is under no obligation, nor has it the power, by any law
or treaty, to surrender any inhabitant of Spain, or the Spanish provinces, on
the demand of the government of Spain; nor is any such inhabitant punish-
able by the laws of the United-States, for acts committed beyond their
jurisdiction, the case of pirates alone excepted. This is a fundamental law
of our system. It is not however confined to us. It is believed to be the
law of all civilized nations, where not particularly varied by Treaties.
In reply to your third demand, the exclusion of the Flag of the revolting
provinces, I have to observe, that in consequence of the unsettled state of
many countries, and repeated changes of the ruling authority in each, there
being, at the same time, several competitors, and each party bearing its
appropriate flag, the President thought it proper, some time past, to give
orders to the Collectors, not to make the flag of any vessel, a criterion on
condition of its admission into the ports of the United-States. Having taken
no part, in the differences and convulsions, which have disturbed those
countries, it is consistent with the just principles, as it is with the interests
of the United-States, to receive the vessels of all countries, into their ports,
to whatever party belonging, and under whatever flag sailing, pirates ex-
cepted, requiring of them only the payment of the duties, and obedience to
the laws while under their jurisdiction; without adverting to the question
whether they had committed any violation of the allegiance or laws obliga-
tory on them, in the countries to which they belonged, either in assuming
such flag, or in any other respect.
In the differences which have subsisted between Spain and her colonies,
the United-States have observed all proper respect to their friendly relations
with Spain. They took no measure to indemnify themselves for losses and
injuries; none to guard against the occupancy of the Spanish territory, by
the British forces in the late war, or to occupy the territory to which the
United-States consider their title good, except in the instance of West-
Florida, and in that instance, under circumstances, which made their inter-
position, as much an act of accommodation to the Spanish authority there,
as of security to themselves. They have also prohibited their citizens, from


taking any part in the war, and the inhabitants of tlhe colonies and other
foreigner_ ic.nnected with them, from recruiting in the United-S'tteas for
that purpose. The proclama tion %which have- been i'-lied L'b the GoCernor.z
of some of the S.tare' and Terr;toriis, at the in-tance .of the President, and
the Proclamation latcci. iS'uedt b\ the President IirmtflJ, are not unknown to
'.our government. This conduct, under such circumrn.t.nces, and, at tuch a
timr, is of a character too marked, to ILe rmi-takeln L\ the impartial world.
What will be the final result of the civil war, which prevails, between Spain
and the Spanish provinces in America, is beyond the reach of human fore-
sight. It has already existed many years, and with various success, some-
times one party prevailing and then the other. In some of the Provinces, the
success of the Revolutionists, appears to have given to their cause, more
stability than in others. All that your government had a right to claim of
the United-States, was, that they should not interfere in the contest, or
promote by any active service, the success of the Revolution, admitting that
they continued to overlook the injuries received from Spain, and remained
at peace. This right was common to the colonists. With equal justice,
might they claim, that we would not interfere to their disadvantage: that
our ports should remain open to both parties, as they were, before the com-
mencenment of the struggle: that our laws regulating commerce with foreign
nations, should not be changed to their injury. On these principles the
United-States have acted.
So much have I thought proper to state respecting the relations existing
between the United-States and Spain. The restoration of the diplomatic
intercourse between our governments forms an epoch which cannot fail to
be important to both nations. If it does not produce a result, favorable to
their future friendship and good understanding, to your government will the
failure be imputable. The United-States have at all times been willing, to
settle their differences, on just principles and conditions, and they still

James Monroe, Secretary of State, to John Quincy Adams, United States
Minister to Great Britain
WVASHINGTON, February 2, 1816.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit to you a copy of a late communication2
with the Minister of Spain, on subjects highly interesting to the United-
States. You will I am persuaded see strong proof of the justice and modera-
1 IS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VIII, 23.
SSee above, doc. 18, Monroe to Onis, January 19, 1816.


tion of this government, as well in what reglird- the liutLire j[ the p:,-t, in
the reply to his letters.
A strong suspicion is entertained here by many that the Spanish govern-
ment relies on the support, of the British, if it is not instigated by it, to
make those demands. It will be very satisfactory, and is indeed highly
important, to ascertain what the views of the British government are in
these respects. You have I presume received my letter of the Io of Decem-
ber,' which suggests enquiries much connected with the present one. .

James Monroe, Secretary of State, to Levett Harris, United States Charg6
d'Affaires in Russia2
WASHINGTON, February 2, 1816.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit to you a copy of a late communication
with the Minister of Spain, on subjects highly interesting to the United-
States. You will I am persuaded see strong proof of the justice and modera-
tion of the United-States, as well in what regards the future as the past, in
the reply to his letters.
It is important to be made acquainted with the views of the Emperor of
Russia, respecting the independence of the Spanish Provinces. In former
communications we had reason to believe that he favored it. It will be
highly gratifying to find that he still entertains that disposition. You will
doubtless have no difficulty in ascertaining his sentiments, which I shall be
glad to be apprized of without delay. The anxiety to possess this informa-
tion, is increased by a presumption, that the Spanish government would not
make these extraordinary demands, if it was not countenanced in them
by some other power.
1 See above, doc. 17.
2 MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VIII, 24.
3 See above, doc. 18, Monroe to Onis, January 19, 1816.

D1ilCUiMENT 22. rC.RL;U \R 21, IS I6

JI2 I i s r'to .Sc re'ta ry ofl State, I I 'Iilli i a E!, c! is, I 'Iited I'sh .I ftI ".'hr
to the 'cthulia.nd L

WASHINGTON, February 2, 1816.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit to you a copy of a late communication
with the Minister of Spain, on subjects highly interesting to the United-
States. You will I am persuaded see strong proof of the justice and modera-
tion of this government, as well in what regards the future as the past, in the
reply to his letters.
I have the honor [etc.].

James Monroe, Secretary of State, to Luis de Onis, Spanish Minister to the
United States3

WASHINGTON, February 21, I816.
SIR: It is represented that many American Citizens have been made
prisoners at Carthagena, by order of the Commander of the forces of His
Catholic Majesty, and that they are treated with the greatest severity. A
number of these persons are said to have been seized on the high seas, on a
charge of having violated the blockade of the port, or on pretexts of other
kinds; others to have been decoyed there after the place was captured; some
who were resident merchants; and it is possible, that some may have been
engaged, as parties, in the civil war, between Spain and her colonies.
With respect to all those, first above mentioned, it is presumed, that they
will be discharged, as soon as the circumstances of their respective cases are
known. With respect to the last class of prisoners, such of our citizens as
may have been taken in arms, I flatter myself that you will not be less ready
to interpose your good offices to obtain their discharge. In such commo-
tions, individuals of various nations, often find themselves, in that situation,
and it is as contrary to the Law of nations as it is to humanity, to treat them
otherwise than with the lenity due to prisoners of war.
The President intends to send immediately a public vessel to Carthagena,
for these persons, and it will be very satisfactory to commit to the Officer,
who may be charged with his commands, a letter from you to the Governor
SA circular identical with this was on the same date sent to Jonathan Russell, United States
minister to Sweden and Norway, to Thomas Sumter, United States minister to Brazil, and
to Henry Jackson, United States secretary of legation in France acting as charge d'affaires
ad interim from April 22, 1815, to July 9, 1816.
2 MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VIII, 25. William Eustis, of Massa-
chusetts: Commissioned envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the Nether-
lands, December 19, 1814. Took leave, May 5, 1818.
a MS. Notes to Foreign Legations, II, 131.

of'the Province, or other person in nuthorit,. th-re, I:nt rablle 1o0 the objicct
of his mission.
I have the honor [etc.].

James 3Monroe, Secretary of State, it' Ge,''.'i 11i. Er:'.i';, aLi/' /tpn'i Uni''d
States Minisi, t 't, .Spaii
\\'.\SurINcTN, I[.VTri:?, ii, ,_Sl,.
SIR: You will set out in discharge of tit: duii.:- rl ,our mirnlion t:, Spain as
soon after the receipt of this letter na circ,-mr tancs-_- will pI:rlmitl. -r re-
lations with that country are, from many c:acL i-, :-i:ominnd daily, more and
more interesting. They will require your assiduous and zealous attention
as soon as you are recognized by the Spanish Government.
The restoration of the diplomatic intercourse between the two countries,
long interrupted by causes well known to you, presents a favorable oppor-
tunity for the settlement of every difference with that Power. The Presi-
dent has already manifested his sincere desire to take advantage of it for
that purpose, and hopes that the Spanish Government cherishes a similar
The primary causes of difference proceeded from spoliations on their
commerce, for which Spain is held responsible, the justice of which she
admitted by a convention; and from the refusal of the Spanish Government
to settle on just principles the boundaries of Louisiana, and to compensate,
on like principles, for the injuries arising from the suppression of the de-
posite at New Orleans in the breach of the treaty of 1795. The grounds of
these differences have been so often discussed, and the justice of our claims
so completely established in the instructions heretofore given, and in com-
munications with the Spanish Government, that it is thought unnecessary
to enter into them in this letter. Other injuries have likewise been since
received from Spain, particularly in the late war with Great Britain, to which
it may be proper for you to advert. I shall transmit to you, herewith, such
papers relating to our claims in every instance, as will place their merits in a
just light.
In a conversation with Mr. Onis, shortly after the late correspondence with
him, he intimated that his Government was sincerely desirous of settling
these differences, and that it might be willing to cede its claim to territory
on the eastern side of the Mississippi, in satisfaction of claims, and in ex-
1 American State Papers, Foreign Relations, IV, 433. George W. Erving, of Massa-
chusetts: Commissioned secretary of legation in Spain, November 22, 1804. Acted as
charge d'affaires ad interim from January 12, 1805. (Direct and official relations with Spain
were broken off in 1808 and not renewed until 1814. Mr. Erving, however, remained until
February, 1810.) Commissioned minister plenipotentiary to Spain, August o1, 1814. Took
leave April 29, 1819.

DOCUITiENT 2"4: .MARCH 13, In.Il 25

change for territory on the w.es tern side. He e-.prets.ed also a deir that the
negOtiation might rak, place at NMadrid, rather than in this city. It uas
e\pectcd that he had been already furnished with full po-\ers to n,:gotiate
su.:h a treaty, and it \would be more agreeable to conclude it here il he had
such powers, or might soon procure them, provided there was any ground to
hope an early, termination of it. But, from the, c\perience we ha\e alr,-ady
had, it may be fairly apprehended that a negotiation here would lead to
very e\.traordinary delay-:, \ which it is \iished to avoid.
The President will soon decide on the whole subject; after which, you shall
be duly instructed of the course to be pursued, and of the measures to be
taken. These instructions shall be forwarded to you at Madrid by Mr.
Henry B. Smith.

James Monroe, Secretary of State, to Luis de Onis, Spanish Minister to the
United States'
WASHINGTON, March 13, iSs6.
SIR: I have the honor to inform you that the President has decided to send
Christopher Hughes Esqre., late Secretary of Legation at Ghent, in the
frigate Macedonian, to Carthagena, to make application, to the Commander
of the Spanish forces there, for the restoration of such American citizens as
may have been made prisoners within the dominions of Spain under his
command, relative to whom I lately addressed you.2 Mr. Hughes will have
the honor to deliver you this letter, and I have to request that you will have
the goodness to give him the letter to the proper authority promised in yours
to me of the 26. ultimo.
Altho' you make a distinction between the prisoners to the disadvantage
of those engaged in the contest prevailing between Spain and the Provinces,
yet as the latter are entitled by the law of nations, as well as by humanity,
to be considered and treated as prisoners of war, I flatter myself, on recon-
sideration of the subject, that you will include them likewise in the benefit
of your intercession.
Orders will be given to the Commander of the Macedonian to bring home
all the citizens of the United-States, who may be thus discharged.
I have the honor [etc.].
MS. Notes to Foreign Legations, II, 132.
2 On February 21, I816. See above, doc. 22.


James Monroe, Secretary of State, to Luis de Onis, Spaniihl .lir:isr:r to ihe
United States
WASHINGTCON, .1l1i .ih JO. ISt6.
SIR: I have had the honor to receive your letter of M1arch 2J. announcing
the continuance of a blockade of the Spanish coast, in Sourth-Aimri,:a, from
Santa Marta, to the River Atrato, inclusive of the latter, by rhe Commander
in Chief of His Catholic Majesty's forces, and that if any ve,-.el i- mot Souith
of the mouths of the Magdalena, or North of the parallel cl Cape Tibur,n on
the Mosquito Coast, and between the meridian of thc-e point,. he -lhall! be
seized and condemned as prize, whatever may be her dr cumrent, or dcctina-
tion. You state also that the ports of Santa Marta and Pr-tor-Bello arc left
open to neutrals.
I have to state that this proclamation of General Morillo, is evidently
repugnant to the law of nations, for several reasons, particularly the follow-
ing, that it declares a coast of several hundred miles, to be in a state of
blockade, and because it authorizes the seizure of neutral vessels, at an
unjustifiable distance from the coast. No maxim of the law of nations is
better established, than that a blockade shall be confined to particular ports,
and that an adequate force shall be stationed at each, to support it. The
force should be stationary, and not a cruizing squadron, and placed so near
the entrance of the harbour, or mouth of the river, as to make it evidently
dangerous for a vessel to enter. I have to add that a vessel entering the port,
ought not to be seized, except in returning to it, after being warned off, by
the blockading squadron, stationed near it.
I am instructed by the President to state to you these objections, to the
blockade, which has been announced in your letter, that you may com-
municate them to your government, and in confidence that you will, in the
mean time, interpose your good offices, and prevail on General Morillo, to
alter his proclamation and practice under it, in such manner, as to conform
in both respects to the law of nations.
In stating to you these well founded objections, to this blockade, of
General Morillo, I have the honor to observe that your motive for communi-
cating it, is duly appreciated.
I have the honor [etc.]
1 MS. Notes to Foreign Legations, II, 134. The same is printed in American State Papers.
Foreign Relations, IV, 156.

DOCULiMENT 26: MARCH 25, I1SI!6 27
.1I0' s M, :roe, S~cctc'rii y1 State. t' ClriopItlr Hit hcs, Jr., Spe,:ial ..lgcnt
oj the U'nil/ States to Ciriltap ia
\ .\'.\?i cIN:roN, ,I'Tcl1 25., 1,S16.
SIR: In discharge ,of the trust rep,:rred in %you, bIy th Presid--nt, you will
embark on bo.rd the Frigate. Kle.cedotnian, at Bnoston. and proci'd \withIout
dilIy to Carthagena.
You will receive with this, a letter to the Commander in Chief of the
Spanish forces, or other person in authority, informing him that you are in-
structed by the President to request the discharge of such of our citizens as
may have been taken and detained as prisoners there, or elsewhere within the
sphere of his command, with their property and to bring them home. It is
presumed that General Morillo is the officer to whom the letter ought to be
addressed, but it is given to you, blank, that in case the authority should be
vested in another, you may direct it to him.
My letter to the Chevr. de Onis, of February 21,2 states the causes, so far
as they are known here, for which these persons have been made prisoners.
By his reply, it may be inferred, that the objections entertained to the dis-
charge of all who have not borne arms, on the side of the Revolutionists, may
be, without much difficulty, surmounted. If a difficulty exists with respect
to any of either of the first classes, it must apply, as is presumed, to those
who are charged with having violated the blockade. That that should have
been made a pretext, even had the blockade been legal, is cause of surprise,
since the forfeiture of the property is the highest penalty recognized by the
law of nations for such an act. But the blockade is not legal, for the reasons
stated in my letter to the Chevr. de Onis, of the 20 instant,3 to which I have
not yet received an answer. The illegality of the blockade vitiates the whole
proceeding, and is an additional reason for an accommodation in that and all
similar cases.
The claim to the discharge of such as have been confined, for joining the
Revolutionists, is considered, fully sanctioned by the law of nations. The
war between Spain and her provinces, is marked with all the circumstances
which characterize a civil war. It has been of long continuance: govern-
ments regularly organized, are established in the provinces, by whom troops
are raised, and the war is carried on. Very different is the situation of the
Spanish provinces from that of an ordinary popular movement, which is
called an insurrection or rebellion. Nor does the contest take the character
1 MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VIII, 40. Christopher Hughes, Jr., of
Maryland: Commissioned secretary of legation to Sweden and Norway, September 26, 1816.
Acted as charge d'alfaires ad interim from the middle of April to December 10, 1817. Was
left in charge by Mr. Russell on retiring, October 16, 1818, and remained until he received
a commission as charge d'affaires, January 20, 1819. Retired, July 15, 1825, having been
appointed charge d'affaires to the Netherlands.
2 See above, doc. 22.
'See above, doc. 25.


of a civil war, from the manner of its terminal ion, as is kno.e n II, tI example
of our own revolution. Till the peace of 178.3, tie tforturile :li the wa\r i\ : nor
settled; notwithstanding which, the rights of .iar were I:b.ehr\vcd on boIth
sides, flags passed between them, discussions cook pla,:.;. cairtcel were settled
and exchanges made, from the commencement. Just principles, as well as
example, require, that these humane usages should be observed in the war
between Spain and her colonies, and if yielding to a more vindictive spirit,
they be disregarded, the consequences will excite the horror of the civilized
world. Should either of the parties disregard these rules in respect to the
other, it does not follow that it has a right to do it, with respect to the
citizens or subjects of other powers. As to the latter, the character of the
war, is still the same, and the United-States have a right, that the protection
secured by the law of nations, be extended to them. In the war of our
Revolution, foreigners in our service, were not only exchanged, but treated
with marked attention by the British authorities.
We have seen a Proclamation in the Gazettes, imputed to General Morillo,
of the vindictive character above described, which, as the Spanish Minister
has not announced it, may possibly be, a fabrication. In the project of a
cool and deliberate massacre of prisoners, for various offences, which it
avows and threatens, it appears that our citizens and the subjects of other
powers, are equally comprized, with the inhabitants of the Provinces. It is
hoped that this is not the act of General Morillo, and that he will disavow it.
It would be a cause of deep regret, if it be his act, that it should be carried into
effect, against any citizen of the United-States.
The restoration of the property is supposed to be a necessary consequence
of the discharge of the persons to whom it belongs. The Blockade being
unlawful, and the whole proceeding against our citizens of the same charac-
ter, authorizes the expectation that a conciliatory spirit will be manifested,
even in cases of doubtful right, should there be such, in deciding on this
It is believed that no example can be adduced, in such a contest, under all
the circumstances attending it, where the inhabitants of a neighboring
country, have participated so little in it. This neutrality and impartiality
of the United-States, will, doubtless, be duly appreciated by the Spanish
The application which you are instructed to make for the restoration of
our citizens with their property, rests on the ground of right. It will
nevertheless be proper, while you enforce it on that principle, to mingle in
your communications with the Spanish commander, in the manner, a spirit
of friendly conciliation.
I have the honor [etc.].

DOCCLME,.i S: M.\V 10, 1i16 29
JansI,,.:s lnrotc, Se'cret,'ry ,'f Stiat, ,'. .-\li''Irt Gaintn, Un'ithd Statl .11Miister
to Fri-, i '
\\'.,A liI\>:l o.' .-It p !1 i 816.
Y aru are ,:quainted v. itl'h our -itu ition with Spain, rand \\i th th, rate of her
contest v.ith her Americ.an province. It is believed tci be the interest ol
mofit, if n:,t all the other powers ul Europe thdit the prove rinceiu should i et.bli-h
their Independence. It is very uncertain what part England will take in
this contest, on which much will depend. If she aids the parent country, the
colonies may fail. Equally uncertain is it, what part France will take. An-
other attempt will be made to settle our differences with Spain, on the most
liberal conditions, but, reasoning from the past, it is impossible to foresee a
sati;actory result. Should this fail, and a brilliant success attend the Span-
iih operations against the colonies, its effect will probably be felt in our
negotiations with the Spanish government. It is therefore important to as-
certain what the views of the French government are, respecting the Inde-
pendence of these Provinces, and the differences existing between the United-
States and Spain, and generally what the connexion is between France and
Spain, and the support which the latter may derive under any circumstances,
from the former. It will be your duty to promote such views as may be
favorable to the United-States.

James Monroe, Secretary of State, to William Pinkney, United States Minister
to Russia2
WASHINGTON, May IO, 1816.2
To the general policy of Russia with other powers, your attention will be
very properly directed. It is particularly desirable however to ascertain it,
MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VIII, 45. Albert Gallatin, of Pennsyl-
vania: Commissioned with James A. Bayard and John Quincy Adams envoys extraordinary
and ministers plenipotentiary, April 22, 1813, jointly and severally empowered to negotiate
a treaty of commerce with Russia. The Senate, on the 19th of July, 1813, assented to the
appointment of Messrs. Adams and Bayard and rejected Mr. Gallatin. Mr. Gallatin ad-
dressed a note to the chancellor on November 2, 1i81, stating that he was no longer a member
of the Mission. Messrs. Gallatin and Bayard left St. Petersburg, January 25, 1814. Com-
missioned, with others, minister plenipotentiary and extraordinary, February 9, 1814, em-
powered to negotiate and conclude a treaty of peace and a treaty of commerce with Great
Britain. Commissioned envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to France,
February 28, 1815. Left Paris, May 16, 1823, on leave. \as associated with Richard
Rush, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Great Britain, May 22, 1818,
to conclude treaties for the renewal of the convention of July 3, 1815, and for commerce with
Great Britain.
I MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VIII, 52.


in regard to the contest now existing between Spain and her c,.,inini in
which, the latter are contending for their Independence. To the result :4
this contest the United-States, from a variety of considerations, cainn._-t be
altogether indifferent. The government of Spain has long m:-inilfctcd a
jealousy of the growth of the United-States, and in several instances. done
them serious injury, for which it has hitherto refused to make repar.,irl:n.
An attempt will soon be made to adjust these differences, on fair c_.nditi..ns,
but such has been the conduct of the Spanish government, that much de-
pendence cannot be placed on a favorable result.

James Monroe, Secretary of State, to William Pinkney, United States Minister
to Russia
WASHINGTON, May 27, I8z6.
SIR: As the letters 2 of Mr Onis to this Department which were published
during the last session of Congress, may have excited some interest in Europe,
I have deemed it proper to put you in possession of the enclosed copy of a
communication 3 to me from the Attorney of the United-States for the Dis-
trict of Louisiana. It will enable you, should occasion require it, to place the
conduct of this government and its agents, in relation to the contest between
Spain and her Provinces, in a proper point of view.
From this communication you will see that the statements of Mr Onis, as
respects both the military movements and the conduct of the local authori-
ties in Louisiana, are entirely groundless. I need scarcely add that what he
has said about the collection of large bodies of armed men in Kentucky &
Tennessee, for the purpose of invading the possessions of His Catholic Maj-
esty is equally so.
I have the honor [etc.].
1 MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VIII, 70.
2 See above, doc. 18, Monroe to Onis, January 19, 1816, first paragraph.
'See below, pt. r, doc. 31, note 4.

D3OCUIilENT 31 JL'NE i0, iSi 6 31

Ja .'.: Monrti', Sc,,',lry l .l" Slale, to .Jos' R.id.l ,a'ke'r, rot/,a _'.cs,i C/atcg
d'.A [T:1!rcS !1/ !i, {'l. llh,] !i'l'
\\r.c-ll[N'',T'.iY, Jl.,iit .' I l.S1'>.
SIR: I have received the letter which you did me the honor to address to me,
with a copy of the order or law, by which your Sovereign has erected Brazil
into a Kingdom, and annexed it to his Kingdoms of Portugal and Algarves,
so as to form one and the same political Body under the Title of the United-
Kingdoms of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves.
Having submitted these Papers to the President, I have it in charge from
him to assure you that the measure adopted by your Sovereign is seen with
great satisfaction by this Government, as it cannot fail to promote the pros-
perity of his dominions, and may probably strengthen the ties of friendship
and good understanding which have long happily subsisted between the two
nations. Both these objects interest the United-States and any measure
calculated to promote them will be highly acceptable to them.
You will be pleased to communicate these sentiments to your government
and to accept the assurances of the great respect with which
I have the honor [etc.].

James Monroe, Secretary of State, to Luis de Onis, Spanish Minister to the
United States2
WASHINGTON, June IO, 1816.
In adverting to the parts of your letter which relate to the revolted Prov-
inces of Spain in America, and the aid which you state, the revolutionary
party have derived from the United-States, I cannot avoid expressing,
equally my surprise and regret. I stated in my letter to you of Jan. 19:3
that no aid had ever been afforded them, either in men, money or supplies of
any kind, by the government, not presuming that the gratuitous supply of
provisions, to the unfortunate people of Caraccas, in consequence of the
calamity with which they were visited, would be viewed in that light, and
that aid to them from our citizens, inconsistent with the laws of the United-
States and with the law of nations, had been prohibited, and that the prohi-
1 MS. Notes to Foreign Legations, II, 139. Jos6 Rademaker, consul general of Portugal
in the United States: Acted as charge d'affaires ad interim.
2 MS. Notes to Foreign Legations, II, 146.
See above, doc. 18.


bition had been enforced with care and attention. You st.-lted in :,,-ur letter
of Jany. 2d,1 that forces were collecting in different part O-f our \e-tern and
Southern country, particularly in Kentucky, Tennc ess and Louioana fi:1r tlic
purpose of invading the Spanish Provinces. I stated to :'yCu in replyI that
I knew of no such collection of troops in any quarter, and that frm inl norma-
tion derived from the highest authorities, I was -aitidhed that none such had
been made. I requested you to state, at what point th,~-c tro":op- %cre col-
lected, and who were the commanders. You have sen t me in reply ex tracts
of letters from persons whose names are withheld, v\.llch c-ta[_Llill none o:1 the
facts alleged as to the raising of troops in the Unit,:d-Sta- te, but rec.ite ony',
vague rumours, to that effect. I have the honor to transnit to >o'II a copy'
of a letter on this subject from Mr Dick,4 the Attorney of the United-States

1 See below, pt. xmII, doc. 1038.
2 See above, doc. 18, Monroe to Onis, January 19, 1816.
3 See below, pt. xmi, doc. 1039, Onis to Secretary of State, February 22, 1816.
4The enclosed letter from Mr. John Dick to the Secretary of State, above referred to,
which follows, is reprinted from American State Papers, Foreign Relations, IV, 431:
NEW ORLEANS, March I, 1816.
SIR: I have just had an opportunity of perusing the letters of the Chevalier de Onis,
envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of His Catholic Majesty, addressed
to you under dates of the 3oth of December and the 2d of January. As these letters
dwell largely upon transactions affecting the neutrality of the United States, which are
said to have occurred, and to be still occurring here, and as they charge the public
authorities of this city with giving, in the face of the President's proclamation of the Ist
of September last, protection and support to the enemies of His Catholic Majesty, I
think it not improper to address you in relation to these charges.
It is affirmed by the Chevalier de Onis, "and it is," says he, "universally public and
notorious, that a factious band of insurgents and incendiaries continue with impunity,
in the province of Louisiana, and especially in New Orleans and Natchitoches, the un-
interrupted system of raising and arming troops to light the flame of revolution in the
kingdom of New Spain. All Louisiana," he continues, "has witnessed these armaments,
the public enlistments, the transportation of arms, the junction of the insurgents, and
their hostile and warlike march from the territory of this republic against the possessions
of a friendly and neighboring Power."
No troops at present are, or at any former period were, openly raised, armed, or
enlisted, at Natchitoches, or at New Orleans, or at any other point within the State of
Louisiana. Arms have been transported from this place, by sea and otherwise, as
objects of merchandise, and probably have been disposed of to some of the revolutionary
Governments of New Spain. It has not been supposed here that there was any law of
the United States, any provision by treaty, or any principle of national law, that pro-
hibits this species of commerce. It was considered that the purchasing and exporting,
by way of merchandise, of articles termed contraband, were free alike to both bellig-
erents; and that, if our citizens engaged in it, they would be abandoned to the penalties
which the laws of war authorize.
What is said, too, about the junction of the insurgents, and their hostile and warlike
march from the territory of the United States against the possessions of Spain, is un-
founded. In the summer of the year 1812, a band of adventurers, without organization,
and apparently without any definite object, made an incursion into the province of
Texas, as far as San Antonio, by the way of Nacogdoches. No doubt many of the
persons belonging to this party passed by the way of Natchitoches, but separately, in
no kind of military array, and under such circumstances as to preclude the interference
of the civil or military authorities of the United States, or of the State of Louisiana.
What could be effected in this respect was done; twice in the years 1811-'I2, parties
of adventurers, who had assembled between the Rio Hondo and the Sabine, (the neutral
territory,) were dispersed by the garrison of Natchitoches, their huts demolished, and
their whole establishment broken up.

DOCu.iMEI.T 31 J.UNE io, 1816 33

Ifr the districtt of Loutisiana, by which you will i-c ho,. attentlm\: the public
authoritie- there ha b c been to the e\cutin n i:f the L.i\aw of the Uni ted-StatUI .
The part rhat n-,ar..'.- upi n 'an A .ncr:i a-:..rr bl.kld Lt, the ..:t or the v at.ine.
L.C-',:nd *h, ,p-r -t i ur lai -'. anil from theni:: carried on thI..r opi-r- ton: S.i ar
I'r,oni roopr. upon thii *.*..asi.in, a. nbhlin: at d,l'r:it point. loirmin; : jun.-rio-i
,.,rhin rthr. rir orti.. *t rh Unit.ld rait-. and marn-hinc rhl nc-. I ai .--irt.,. b,
\ -rioui and ni, r rc.ilpr :tiabli utc h -,,rt. that. alrh..u:h it ~~j txenerarll:. uni.j.rr: i
at Natchitoches that some enterprise was on foot, it was extraordinary to see two of the
persons supposed to be engaged in it together. The officer commanding at that time
the United States troops at Natchitoches (Major Wolstoncraft) offered his services to
the civil authorities in aid of the laws, and to preserve inviolate the neutrality which
they enforce.
In consequence, several individuals found with arms were arrested; they alleged that
they were hunters; and there being no evidence to the contrary, or rather no proof of
their being engaged in any illegal undertaking, they were, of course, discharged. So
well satisfied, indeed, were the Spanish authorities of the adjoining province that
neither our Government nor its agents gave succors or countenance to this expedition,
that, during the time they knew it to be organized, or organizing, they applied to the
garrison at Natchitoches for an escort to bring in some specie, which was immediately
Toledo, who, at the time of its defeat, commanded the party that penetrated to San
Antonio, came to this city in the autumn of 1814, when he was immediately arrested,
and recognized to answer, at the succeeding term of the federal court, to a charge of
setting on foot, within the territory of the United States, a military expedition or enter-
prise, to be carried on from thence against the territories or dominions of the King of
Spain; six months having passed, and no testimony whatever appearing against him,
his recognizance was delivered up.
After the discomfiture of the party under Toledo, no enterprise destined to aid the
revolutionists of New Spain appears to have been set on foot from the vicinity of the
United States, until late in the summer of last year, when it was rumored that a party,
under a person of the name of Perry, was forming for that purpose somewhere on the
western coast of Louisiana. Upon the first intimation that this enterprise was medi-
tated, steps were taken here to frustrate it. Nothing occurred to justify prosecutions
or arrests; a large quantity of arms, however, supposed to be intended for this party,
were seized on the river, and detained at the custom-house for several months; and
Commodore Patterson, commanding naval officer on this station, instructed the officers
under his command, cruising in the neighborhood of the suspected place of rendezvous,
(Belleisle, at the mouth of Bayou Teche,) to ascertain the truth of the rumors in circu-
lation, and, if verified, to use the force under their respective commands in dispersing
the persons assembled, and in frustrating their illegal intentions. In obedience to these
orders, the coast, as far as the Sabine, was examined, and no persons discovered. It
is now ascertained that Perry, Humbert, and their followers, inconsiderable in number,
passed separately through Attakapas, and assembled about two leagues to the west of
the Sabine. Thence they embarked for some place on the coast of Mexico, were
wrecked, dispersed, and their plans, whatever they were, totally defeated.
I have, in the foregoing detail, sir, given, partly from information entitled to perfect
confidence, and partly from my own knowledge, a brief and hurried outline of two fruit-
less attempts of a handful of restless and uninfluential individuals, stimulated by the
desire of aiding the cause of Mexican independence, or that of bettering their own
fortunes. These are the only military enterprises against the dominions of the Spanish
Crown that have drawn any portion of their aid or support from Louisiana: in both,
the mass of adventurers was composed of Spaniards, Frenchmen, and Italians. I need
not say that these enterprises, whether in aid of the revolutionists or merely predatory,
were not only feeble and insignificant, but that they were formed under circumstances
which forbid a surmise of their being sanctioned or connived at. Every man acquainted
with the state of public feeling throughout the southern and western sections of the
United States knows that had our Government but manifested the slightest disposition
to sanction enterprises in aid of the revolutionists of New Spain, the condition of these
provinces would not at this day be doubtful.
It is said that troops have been recently enlisted, and that expeditions have been
preparing, or are prepared, in this city to invade the dominions of Spain. The enlist-
ing of men and the preparing of enterprises, or the means for enterprises, of the kind


and to the orders of their government, and how little they h iv e deerv ed the
charges made against them.

spoken of, cannot be accomplished without means, or be carried .:.n irn rtle l.Jir .,I a
populous city in solitude and silence. Yet it is known, in the f.ir pl:c,,. irhI, nilithr
Mr. Toledo nor Mr. Herrera had or have pecuniary means for ci:h pr'p.:-"- aiid,. ,i
the second, so far as negative proof can go, or so far as the absen.:.i .:.l. tlin Il imfl.l.'
another, it is most certain that no enlistments have taken plac-., and l.thr nr -.r.,..i-
tions, or the means of expeditions, have been prepared or are prl.pjriL lIl-r.
A regard to truth makes it necessary to say that what is alleg,:J r.-pF.:lilrL tl air1i-
ing and fitting out of vessels within the waters of Louisiana, :.. : iipl:.. in th.
service of the revolutionary Governments against the subjects or I.r..Ih-r. .I Nl. IUiL
of Spain, is unfounded. At no period since the commencement of thl: tiruLcl- L-. .: .en
the Spanish colonies and the mother country have vessels, to be ei lc-..l ii.1 r.i: i,. r. :.;
of the colonies, been permitted to fit out and arm, or to augment rth.r I .rc t l N-'.
Orleans, or elsewhere within the State of Louisiana.
On the contrary, it is notorious that to no one point of duty hax.: rh .. I uI a mili;r -y
authorities of the United States directed more strenuously, or it i tl... I-. mr...r:
successfully, their attention, than to the discovering and suppres- n .-.1 all Ia rr-rrml. t-
violate the laws in these respects. Attempts to violate them by litinng uur and arm-
ing, and by augmenting the force of vessels, have no doubt been frequent, but certainly
in no instance successful, except where conducted under circumstances of concealment
that eluded discovery and almost suspicion, or where carried on at some remote point
of the coast beyond the reach of detection or discovery. In every instance where it
was known that these illegal acts were attempting, or where it was afterwards discovered
that they had been committed, the persons engaged, as far as they were known, have
been prosecuted, while the vessels fitted out, or attempted to be fitted out, have been
seized and libelled, under the act of the 5th of June, 1794; and when captures have
been made by vessels thus fitted out and armed, or in which their force was augmented
or increased within our waters, where the property taken was brought within our juris-
diction, or even found upon the high seas by our cruisers, and brought in, it has been
restored to the original Spanish owners, and, in some instances, damages awarded
against the captors.
An enumeration of the cases in which individuals have been prosecuted for infringing,
or attempting to infringe, our neutrality, in aid of the Governments of New Spain, and
in which vessels have been seized and libelled, under the act of the 5th June, 1794,
together with a list of the vessels and property restored to the original Spanish owners,
(confining the whole to the operations of the year commencing March, 1815, and ending
February, 1816,) will show more conclusively, perhaps, than any thing else can, how
totally without foundation are the complaints of Spain on this head.
The names of individuals presented in the district court of the United States for the Louisiana
district, during the year 1815, for violating, or attempting to violate, the neutrality of the
United States, in aid of the Governments of the United Provinces of New Granada and of
the United Provinces of Mexico
Josh Alvarez de Toledo, Romain Very,
Julius Caesar Amazoni, Pierre Scemeson,
Vincent Gamble, Bernard Bourdin.
John Robinson,
List of vessels libelled for illegal outfits, in aid of the same Governments, during the same
Brig Flora Americana, restored. Schooner General Bolivar, discontinued.
Schooner Presidente, condemned. Schooner Eugenia, alias Indiana, condemned.
Schooner Petit Milan, condemned. Schooner Two Brothers, restored.
Enumeration of vessels and property brought within the Louisiana district, captured under
the flags and by the authority of the Governments of New Granada and of Mexico, libelled
on the part of the original Spanish owners, and restored upon the ground that the capturing
vessels had been fitted out and armed, or had their force augmented, within the waters of
the United States
I. Schooner Cometa, restored April, 1815.
2. Schooner Dorada, proceeds restored 16th May, 1815, $3,o50.
3. Schooner Amiable Maria, proceeds restored 16th May, 1815, $3,850.

DOCLOMLNT 32- JULY 20. 1Si6 35

As I ca-nnot doubt that v.,you ha.i taken crroncuOs immprei'-n. Ifrom the
mirLFp'reSi'entarL; ion, of p.rti-l or m iniflormed indl idu.llal, Ind tlii.t ,, ou ha\.-
c'-mmurnicatedd th'.- -ajrie to .our ie,, urnmenut I rely on your ,:andour to
adopt u]tich [ii'-: iilre, : ma\ .ipprir t., you be- t cal ':ulatILUd to place the whole
Subject b,'ore it, in -. Irue light. It i. rmpnurtant that the effort ihich The
Pre si cnt i1 nov. making to al.idjut -olir di litrernc \ w ith Sp.airI, huul hae Ili
disir(d r.-.ul[, .3an It I- prestumanhi c that a correct knowvledgc of the cinducr
of the United-States, in these circumstances, would promote it.
I have the honor [etc.].

James Monroe Secretary of State to George W. Erving, United States Minister
to Spain'
WASHINGTON, July 20, i816.
SIR: You have been apprized already of a similar measure which was taken
in regard to the vessels which had been seized at Carthagena, and the citizens
of the United States, who, under various pretexts, had been arrested and
imprisoned there. I have the pleasure to state that the application 2 suc-
ceeded as to our citizens, though it failed as to the vessels. You will inter-
pose directly with the Spanish Government in favor of the latter; documents
respecting which shall be forwarded to you, either by the present or some
other early opportunity.
I American State Papers, Foreign Relations, IV, 157.
2 See above, doc. 26, Monroe to Hughes, March 25, 1816.

4. Schooner Experimento, restored 3d August.
5. The polacre brig De Regla and cargo, proceeds restored I8th December, 1815,
6. Schooner Alerta and cargo, being the proceeds of the capture of about eighteen
small vessels, restored i8th December, 1815, $62,I50.05.
Damages awarded to the original owners against the captors in the two foregoing
cases, $55,272.97.
7. The cargo of the schooner Petit Milan, restored February, 1816, $2,444.31.
8. The cargo of the schooner Presidente, February I, 1816, $10,931.15.
9. Schooner Sankita and cargo, restored February I, 1816, $37,962.94.
The preceding account of Spanish property restored to the original proprietors, after
being in possession of the enemies of Spain, is defective, inasmuch as it does not com-
prehend the whole of the cases of restoration that have taken place within the period
to which the detail is confined; the very hasty manner in which I have made this enu-
meration did not admit of a more accurate statement. The principal cases, however,
are included in it. In several other cases, where the property was claimed for the
original Spanish owners, the claims were dismissed, because it did not appear that any
violation of our neutrality had taken place.
The capturing vessels were not armed, nor was their force augmented within our
jurisdiction; nor had the captures been made within a marine league of our shore. The
principles that guided the decisions of the court, as well in restoring the property cap-
tured, where our neutral means had been used, as in declining all interference where
that was not the case, manifest, I think, a disposition to, and an exercise of, the most
rigid neutrality between the parties.
I have the honor [etc.].

James Monroe, Secretary of Stae, to L,,is de 0,is, Spa ,ish .11i/i.is/1r It tIe
U ni/ed S.tates
WA.MHINGTON, J1dy 1 I, lij.3.
SIR: I had the honor to recei t y,-lur Letter of the 3d. in-t int.
As the discussion of the subje-cts to % hich it principal relatce-, lhas b.,cn
transferred to Madrid, I shall conline m\ reply tro hi:tr parr oIl it in which,
after manifesting your satisfaction at the n-a- ur, that had Ib: n ;ad:loptrd at
New Orleans, as detailed in the Letter ol the DIi;tricr Arrr,-ne of which I
had the honor to transmit you a i:c:'oy,' you c'. pri -- rcgriet that like mL.i-urct
were not adopted in other port .- the ITinired-Stare; :Ird .r.-re, rl.at htie
vessels had been armed in the port i f Bal ii more, bi. a company '.,f merchants
residing in different parts of the I inii-n, and that one %wa- no\w arming in rhe
port of New-York, all of which were C' L: -ent It cruize off the p'rrt of Ca.[z,
under the flag of Buenos-Ayre:, fi.r the p.irpo-e rf inrertiepring \e,--l-
belonging to the subjects of Hi& CathI:,hl: a1lltje-,..
As such a proceeding would ha; e been inconsi rent with rhe l.aw- I f ihe
United-States, and with what i- d:luc t:o the gitrrinment of l-li- Catholic
Majesty, I considered it proper t comnimunicate the statement you had made,
to the officers of this government, whose duty it was to act upon it. I
accordingly wrote to the Collector of the Customs at Baltimore, and to the
Attorney of the United-States at New-York. I have now the honor to
transmit you the answers I have received in relation to the vessels named.
From these you will perceive that there is no reason known to these officers
for supposing that either of the vessels was destined to cruize against the
commerce of your country. It appears however one of them was so em-
ployed, having changed her character and destination after she left the port
of Baltimore, and that measures the most prompt and efficient were immedi-
ately taken for her arrest and detention. Her Crew are now in confinement
under a warrant from the Judge of the Court for the District of Virginia,
and orders are given to prosecute the owners for a violation of our laws.
Had you given me the facts on which your allegations as to the other
vessels rested, they should have been particularly enquired into; but until
this is done, I cannot doubt that you will be perfectly satisfied with the
steps already taken, more especially as you will find that one of the vessels
you have named is not known to have been in the port where you state she
was fitted out, and that two of the others have been sold to your govern-
ment, and are now employed to protect that commerce upon which you had
supposed they were destined to commit depredations.
I have the honor [etc.]
MS. Notes to Foreign Legations, II, 157.
See above, doc. 31, Monroe to Onis, June Io, 1816, and note 4.

DOCUMENT 34 MAR.\CH 2S, iS17 37
Richard R i,:h, .5ecrclaar;v of Si'a ad i,,' i, I'. to L.i: .i O(2 i:, .CarSpin: .lWiniwr
to li .t UnicdJ S I/c"

\WAi INC T,_O), Mlarlch 2S. 1i .j
SIR: 1 have had the honor to receive )your .two notes,' dated the 26thof this
month, stating that you have been informed that two armed vessels, which
have been committing unauthorized depredations upon the commerce of
Spain, have recently arrived at Norfolk, and that a third, liable to the same
charge, has arrived at Baltimore; thus bringing themselves within the reach
of those laws against which, in the above, and in other ways, it is alleged
they have offended.
Conformably to the constant desire of this Government to vindicate the
authority of its laws and the faith of its treaties, I have lost no time in writ-
ing to the proper officers, both at Norfolk and Baltimore, in order that full
inquiry may be made into the allegations contained in your notes, and ade-
quate redress and punishment enforced, should it appear that the laws have
been infringed by any of the acts complained of.
I use the present occasion to acknowledge also the receipt of your note of
the i4th3 of this month, which you did me the honor to address to me, com-
municating information that had reached you of other and like infractions
of our laws within the port of Baltimore; in relation to which I have to state,
that letters were also written to the proper officers in that city, with a view
to promote every fit measure of investigation and redress. Should it prove
necessary, I will have the honor to address you more fully at another time
upon the subjects embraced in these several notes. In the mean time, I
venture to assure myself, that in the readiness with which they have thus
far been attended to, you will perceive a spirit of just conciliation on the
part of this Government, as well as a prompt sensibility to the rights of your
I pray you, sir, to accept [etc.].
SAmerican State Papers, Foreign Relations, IV, 190. Richard Rush, of Pennsylvania:
Acting Secretary of State from March II, 1817, to September 22, 1817; commissioned envoy
extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Great Britain, October, 1817; confirmed,
December 16: took leave, April 27, 1825. Albert Gallatin, of Pennsylvania, envoy extraor-
dinary and minister plenipotentiary to France, was associated with him, May 22, 1818, to
conclude treaties for the renewal of the convention of July 3, 1815, and for commerce.
2See below, pt. xim, does. 1058 and 1059.
'The i th? See below, pt. xmi, doc. 1o56.


Richard Rush, Secretary of State ad interim, to Luis de Onis, Spanish Minister
to the United States
WASHINGTON, April 22, 817y.
SIR: By direction of The President I have the honor to ask, whether you
have received instructions from your Government to conclude a Treaty for
the adjustment of all differences existing between the two nations, according
to the expectation stated in your note to this Department of the 21st. of
February. If you have, I shall be happy to meet you for that purpose. If
you have not, it is deemed improper to entertain discussions of the kind in-
vited by your late notes.2 This Government, well acquainted with and
faithful to its obligations, and respectful to the opinion of an impartial
world, will continue to pursue a course in relation to the civil war between
Spain and the Spanish Provinces in America, imposed by the existing laws,
and prescribed by a just regard to the rights and honor of the United-States.
I have the honor [etc.].

Richard Rush, Secretary of State ad interim, to Charles Morris, Commander
of the United States Frigate Congress"3
WASHINGTON, April 25, 1817.
Having performed this service, it is the desire of the President that you
extend your cruise to the Spanish Main. It is important that this govern-
ment should possess correct information as to the progress of the revolution-
ary movement in the Spanish Colonies, and of its probable result. It is
specially with a view to this object that you will cruise along the Main,
endeavoring to obtain, in every practicable way, all the information that can
be had upon this subject. It is thought best that you should go as far to the
east as Margarita and thence proceed westwardly as far as Carthagena,
looking in at Cumana, Barcelona, Caracas, Guayra, and any other ports or
places as you coast along. The design however being to obtain as much and
as precise information of events as may be, comprehending not only the
actual posture of the countries in that quarter in relation to Spain but their
known or probable dispositions, you will not consider yourself as restricted to
I MS. Notes to Foreign Legations, II, 223. The same is printed in American State Papers,
Foreign Relations, IV, 197.
2 Regarding Spanish American privateers in ports of the United States. See below, pt.
xim, does. 1046 to 1054.
3 MS. Dispatches to United States Consuls, II, 27.

DOCUILME I 37: A. r.:L 25, iS1;

the above limitl .:.r places Yi'c. will be at Iberty t'l:o debate Iro:im them an
\,:,iir :.in iiidgient, acting upc.in circumnltanciz and looking to rhe speciall
,-,lbect in view. may point out. \Vherever \:i. may t,'uch, \ :i will take care
to, res pec tc the exi ting aJ thority, the I.inite. State- hc ldIng a neutral attitude
bLeteen Spain and the col,-,nie'.
I have :'nlv' tr. add, that the 're-idcnt h,-a icrea cr,nfidencet in the dliscretion
and ,lIToect, so I'ar a' the latter may be I'und praCt:icable, with %which y','u will
full the initructii:nll cii en to you.
With great respect [etc.].


James Monroe, President of the United States, to Joel R. Poinselt of Charleston,
South Carolina'

WASHINGTON, April 25, 817.

DEAR SIR: The progress of the Revolution in the Spanish Provinces, which
has always been interesting to the U. States, is made much more so, by many
causes, and particularly by a well founded hope, that it will succeed. It is of
I MS. Dispatches to United States Consuls, II, 29. Poinsett declined the appointment
and it was conferred on others. See below, pt. I, docs. 40 and 44, Rush to Rodney and
Graham, July 18, 1817, and Adams to Rodney, Graham and Bland, November21, 1817. The
following letter from Poinsett to the Acting Secretary of State contained suggestions for the
guidance of the Commission (MS. South American Missions, I):
CHARLESTON, 23d. MAay 1817.
DEAR SIR: In compliance with the President's request contained in your letter of
the 15th. inst. I have the honor to enclose to you some letters for the Spanish Colonies,
which will, I hope, prove useful to the gentleman entrusted with this commission.
As far as my information extends, there is no government in Mexico, and no reason-
able hopes of success can be entertained from the disunited efforts of the present com-
manders, who act independently, and who would rather sacrifice the safety of the cause
they are engaged in, than resign their command. They support their followers by
plunder, and the better class of Creoles are united against them, and in some instances
have volunteered their services to preserve order. Should the Liberales, who are
numerous in Mexico, and the Creoles of that city unite, the revolution would be speedy
and effectual. It would spread rapidly from the Capital to the extreme provinces; but
I much doubt the success of a revolution, which begins at the extremities of a Kingdom,
and has to work its way to such a capital as Mexico.
In Caraccas there is no government, but the forces are united under the command of
Bolivar. It would be important to know the connection existing between this Chief
and the authorities of San Domingo; and the number of negroes in arms.
In Buenos Ayres it will be well to ascertain the stability of the existing government,
and the probable policy of their successors. It is rare that the same party remains in
power two years. It will be necessary to enquire, particularly, into the extent of their
Authority, as many of the provinces have established separate and independent govern-
ments. All the Commanders, both civil and military, will be found extremely jealous
of their dignity, and it will be useful to observe a great deal of form and ceremony in
treating with them.
With regard to a revolution in the Brazils, I have always been of opinion that to be
permanent and successful, it must arise from the interior, where the strength of that
country resides.
I have the honor [etc.].


the highest importance to obtain correct information, o:'f it: actual tate, in
the principal sections of the country, and through an organ, hosee talents
and character, will facilitate, enquiries in the colonies, and give weight to his
report to this Government, throughout the U. States, in case their Independ-
ence should be acknowledged.
To obtain the desired information, it is decided, to send an agent of the
prominent character stated, in a public ship, along the coast, as far at least as
Buenos Ayres, with instructions to communicate with the existing govern-
ments, at different points, in order that all the light practicable, being
derived, on the progress and prospect of events, this Government may be the
better enabled to determine on the part, it may be proper for it to take. No
one has better qualifications for this trust than yourself, and I can assure you
that your acceptance of it will be particularly gratifying to me. Your
compensation will be put on a liberal footing. As a public Ship, will be
ready for this service in a few weeks, I shall be happy to receive your early
answer to this Letter.
I am Dear Sir [etc.].

Richard Rush, Secretary of State ad interim, to Jos6 Correa de Serra, Portu-
guese-Brazilian Minister to the United States
WASHINGTON, May 28, I8i7.
It appears that the notification of the blockade of Pernambuco and the
coast adjacent, inserted in the National Intelligencer of Thursday last, was a
measure taken by you on full deliberation; and that, on grounds which you
have particularly explained, you feel yourself called upon to justify it.
It is with great regret I have the honor to state, that, on a careful examina-
tion of these grounds, this Government is not at all able to view them in the
same light. Settled and approved usage, founded upon reasons too familiar
to be dwelt upon, required, that whatever communication you had to make
relative to the alleged blockade, and upon whatever foundation it rested,
should have been made, if at all, to this Government, not promulgated with-
out its knowledge through the medium of a news-paper. Had you been
pleased to communicate it to the Government upon any intelligence or
grounds less than the highest, it would have remained with itself to judge, on
its own responsibility, whether or not to make it known to its citizens. The
illustrations deduced from the merit of timely warnings, on the approach of
1 MS. Notes to Foreign Legations, II, 229. Jos6 Correa da Serra, minister plenipotenti-
ary of Portugal to the United States. Transmitted copy of letter of credence to the Secretary
of State, July 22, 1816. Announced intention to leave United States, November 9, i820.


natural peril,. if .-,f for,:c und.Jr an,.' iew,. are not su, ppl.Iosd t: h old ulp juist
analogie- to -: well regulated a pr:,ceeding between nations as th!i notifica-
tion Ao a blockade It i- obvious, that if the MNniLstr of a foreign po~- er can
pass by the G,overnment and addre-s himself to the count tr, in a ca.e like the
present, hen mia d:, E,. in any' other. Equally obv\ioii are the con-equences to,
which such a departure from rult- long sanctioned in their application to
public Mlinisters might lead.
Nor is the justilicatiuon pcrenivcd in the inmputed delay in answering %our
note of the I3th of this month. The intervening space from that date until
the 22d lays no ground for the charge, keeping in mind that other engage-
ments may be supposed to press upon the time of this Department. I add,
that I had the honor to inform you verbally of its receipt, and that it had
been submitted to The President. But most of all I have to remark, that
the note itself, as well as the one from you of the 20th of this month, to
which mine of the 22d also replied, treated of matters in relation to which
none of the duties of this Government rendered it necessary to take any act,
or express any opinion. An answer was not, therefore, to have been looked
for as of official obligation; nor is it seen how the anticipation of one, of
whatever character, could justly have coupled itself with the step taken.
That which I had the honor to transmit, was founded in the spirit of con-
ciliation which this Government, is ever desirous to cultivate between the
two nations, and which it has always been happy in occasions of manifesting
towards you personally.
As you now not only communicate to this Government, the existence of
the blockade in question, but also candidly declare, that it is not founded
upon any order or intelligence derived from your Government, the informa-
tion will naturally be respected as resting upon your own responsibility alone,
without the instructions of your Sovereign.
I have the honor [etc.].

Richard Rush, Secretary of State ad interim, to Thomas Sumter, Jr., United
States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil'
WASHINGTON, July 18, 1817.
SIR: This letter will be delivered to you by Caesar Rodney and John
Graham Esquires, who are visiting several parts of the coast of South Amer-
ica in the capacity of Commissioners, and are directed to call in the first
instance at Rio de Janeiro. The objects upon which they go are interesting
MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VIII, 142.


and they will unfold them to you in person with all the fulness that i.
necessary. You will doubtless enter cordially into them and feel a di;pi.-i-
tion to advance them in every way that you may find in your power. You
cannot fail to derive from an intercourse with these gentlemen while at Rio
de Janeiro, as much gratification as they anticipate from seeing you. I
also beg leave to commend to your kind notice and attentions their Secretary,
Mr Brackenridge.
The events which took place at Pernambuco in March last gave rise to
some correspondence between this government and the Minister of Portugal.
Copies of all the Notes that passed are enclosed for your information. The
correspondence closed with the note from this Department of the 28th of
May.1 Altho' Mr Correa's conduct was deemed irregular and unjustifiable,
yet it has not been thought necessary to take any further notice of it than
that which is presented in the note last mentioned, and none other than
harmonious intercourse continues to exist between the Government and
himself. The blockade and other events at Pernambuco, which have be-
come subsequently known, are not supposed to alter in any degree the views
that have been taken of the Minister's conduct.
The President is still engaged in making a tour through part of the
United States, for the interesting nature and progress of which I must refer
you to Mr. Rodney and Mr. Graham, from whose conversation upon all
subjects you will not fail to derive great pleasure.

Richard Rush, Secretary of State ad interim, to Caesar A. Rodney and John
Graham, Special Commissioners of the United States to South America2
WASHINGTON, July 18, 1817.
GENTLEMEN: The contest between Spain and the Spanish colonies in the
southern parts of this continent has been, from its commencement, highly
interesting, under many views, to the United States. As inhabitants of the
same hemisphere, it was natural that we should feel a solicitude for the
1 See above, doc. 38.
2 MS. Dispatches to United States Consuls, II, 34. Caesar A. Rodney, of Delaware;
John Graham; and Theodorick Bland: The two former instructed as commissioners, July 18,
1817, to visit Buenos Ayres and Montevideo for obtaining accurate information respecting
the conflict between Spain and her colonies. Bland added to the commission, November 21,
1817. Caesar A. Rodney: Commissioned minister plenipotentiary, January 27, 1823, to
Argentine Confederation. Accredited to Buenos Ayres. Died at his post, June o1, 1824.
John Graham, of Virginia: Commissioned minister plenipotentiary to Portugal, January 6,
1819. Accredited to the Portuguese court, residing in Brazil. Left Rio de Janeiro on ac-
count of illness, June 13, 1820. Died in the United States, July 31, 1820. They were pre-
vented from departing at the anticipated time but were sent later. See below, pt. I,
docs. 42 and 44, Adams to Erving, November 11, 1817, and Adams to Rodney, Graham and
Bland, November 21, 1817. The last is a supplementary instruction.

.-e rar i: cf th,:- :olIii:,n i t waI n,:%crrth'c1_- I our duti to i m iin :iini the
neutral :har-ii-t,-r % ith impartiality'.' anid :llo:iI of n: prli ilcge : of any kind to
on..- party, whi%:h i ,:r,: inct extend tto, the other. The pi':%\rnmencnt cf 'Sp:in
vic, .iin c thi-- colonies i-_ in a -at-l rIof r,-l hllion, lii.: *-nrldc i orL :J to:, impo:'e upon
fo-rei._n plower- in tl,;ir intitrcour '- with thi .m, the ionditioni.s rpplicablM to
such 3 ._te T'hiz pr'?t[.nM ion il, ,a : n lot b:n :I':,:cd' d to I%,,, thi (,%rrnm,_nt,
which has considered the contest in the light of a civil war, in which the
parties were equal. An entire conviction exists that the view taken on this
point has been correct, and that the United States have fully satisfied every
just claim of Spain.
In other respects we have been made to feel sensibly the progress of this
contest. Our vessels have been seized and condemned, our citizens made
captives and our lawful commerce, even at a distance from the theatre of the
war, been interrupted. Acting with impartiality towards the parties, we
have endeavored to secure from each a just return. In whatever quarter
the authority of Spain was abrogated and an independent government
erected, it was essential to the security of our rights that we should enjoy its
friendship. Spain could not impose conditions on other powers incident to
complete sovereignty in places where she did not maintain it. On this
principle the United States have sent agents into the Spanish colonies, ad-
dressed to the existing authority, whether of Spain or of the colony, with
instructions to cultivate its friendship and secure as far as practicable the
faithful observance of our rights.
The contest, by the extension of the revolutionary movement and the
greater stability which it appears to have acquired, becomes daily of more
importance to the United States. It is by success that the colonists acquire
new claims on other powers, which it may comport neither with their in-
terest nor duty to disregard. Several of the colonies having declared their
independence and enjoyed it for some years, and the authority of Spain
being shaken in others, it seems probable that, if the parties be left to them-
selves, the most permanent political changes will be effected. It therefore
seems incumbent on the United States to watch the movement in its subse-
quent steps with particular attention, with a view to pursue such course as a
just regard for all those considerations which they are bound to respect may
Under these impressions, the President deems it a duty to obtain, in a
manner more comprehensive than has heretofore been done, correct informa-
tion of the actual state of affairs in those colonies. For this purpose he has
appointed you commissioners, with authority to proceed, in a public ship,
along the coast of South America, touching at the points where it is probable
that the most precise and ample knowledge may be gained. The Ontario,
Captain Biddle, is prepared to receive you on board at New York, and will
have orders to sail as soon as you are ready to embark.

DOC 11 M F 4'. J ULN' 18, I<, 17


It is the Pri-eident's de-ire that \uA go- first to tih RIi\':r la Plate. vi;sting
Buenos Ayres and NMnt- \'id.l:. On ',or v:j thither, \au \\ill call .at
Rio Janeiro deliv ring t' Aur minitr ni t trttr co t t clrt the Ji at rhe- hicrh will
be committed to- \oAururlan. On ir return from Buero Are-. ', 'u
will also touch, -choiuld rciImcust:nc :- willoww it. ,t St. Sal aIor ..ain' P'rrarnm-
buco. You will thernct pr,.iced to the Spani;h Main, gQriin. tN Mlar.-rett.;,
Cumana, Barcel-,na, C('rac.v; and ._- lfir w\,t-w\ard a: Caiarh,.mgicna, hli'king.- in
at any other coi nvnient p F-rts o*r pliice;- i \,i, ,'ii:Ciast il:,n.
In the diff:.rcnt pr- r--inc:e- ':or t'l n- which iu \viit. \oiur attention \ill tL.
usefully, if r.,.t primarily drai\.'n t,. th, fillwnI~ g o:bj':ict .
I. The fo-ni :'f cetenrnmtnt i:-talli-ht>d, 'ith the .inmount ,f piprulation
and pecuniary re-_uLircez and thlt- state ilnd pr:opoi.rti:in :a tr:, number- intelli-
gence and wealth of the C,.,n tnn-ling p['rtie,., v. h-ri- _cr ai cnteat r'-ists.
2. The extent -ind :,.r-.niiarati'n I-. tie military ,''rce on t ac -, id,. \itih
the means open t ca:h ., kl;t-in,. it up.
' 3. The name- .-ind cliarcter ,:, of kIadlin mnin. wlethier in Livil lil' or as
military chiel-;. ho-se i:rnduc:t -inl -.piniion- ched .in influence uip.-n event-.
4. The dispI:i-iti''ns tI lit Fprvail 3imonng the pubOlic iiUtlilhrities anrd p[eipl,-
towards the United State- aind tL'wiard t- the great n tiouns 'f Eur'-pe,, with
the probabilt\ of c':li o:mnri:rcial or other co:nn.ecti ,n:- bi-in.g n- n ,foot, i: r lesired.
with either.
5. The principF.l irtiLl' .-' c,:, l ommlircte, regarding the export and, import
trade. What articles fr.om thle Uinited Sta-tez find thli be-Lt niarket? \V\]It
prices do their pr t.idcti in-i, mi:- t us:;eul in th,: United StL te, uuaill\ bear?'
The duties on et.ports i-ndi import-: aire, all naitionr cliar.zed the a-.me?
6. The principal p...rts and hartrb-or, with the -,rk-. o dtielnce.
7. The real pro:rsp-ct, o, far iz ,:eem- juitl\ inferrabl fr:im eiJtin .; ients
and the operation i- C-IL c-t. asi well nioril ias phyic:al in all the pri.-\ inices
where a struggle is g:oin on, :4[ th i- final and permanent i ,:ti.
8. The probable iuribilitc -f the go-,vernments that h.;ie ilre.aldl been
established 1i th their crid,;t. and th>e :.xtent of their authority, in relation
to adjoining pro: inc-e I hi. r':marl: \ill b eepeci.lli pplicible to Bueno-
Ayres. If there bt- an reas irn tO. think, that th, E-g\r-,rnnient -staLblished
there is not likely t:o b pcrmniii:nt.. a- tc:' wt.hichl ni:o pinionn i- hei-re ex\pr ised,
it will beconmei de;iriblr to asiert.in th, probable character antl palic. ol
that which i rp':ct,: t: t utcce:dT it.
9. In Caraca.s it is undlerto,:iod that there is, at pre-ent, nt- cw rvernnitnt,
but that the Iorc- .are uinit,:d iunde:r .:ene-rl Boliv,.;r. It miglt ,i useful to
know, whether .an, and il hat --.-.nnecti';,.n exists t_-t. .-een thi- c:hil', ind the
chiefs or rukrs at St. Don-mgo, al: i, tlc.: nutmbe-r ol n,:groe- in arms.
Your sta3 at i%:ah plate .-ill not be Il:nger tl in i nreci-s: siry to lair
accomplishment I-I tli'- object- lield ii. YOu will et: Fr,-.'pripet, in all
instances, of -IiO\v.iing r,-_ctc e t- t th, i existin- auth.'ri t', or go',t.rnn ii:nt of

[.OCI-'L.IENT 41: CSEI TETFI E 20, 181-7 45

, hatrcver kind it nmav be, and of minir, in a conciliator', demeano r \with a
Utrict :LJ,c?- rLfani c of all e.taibliheliv'd uIiac:JL .
The track marked oui foir \our v\'-oage ha bi-cn ]deemited the nmot eli ibll;
but 'you \\ill not consider \ ours-:'lv\ :i: p:i l.ti.el\ restricted to. the, limit- or
pI'lce. .pciLficd. Yonu will be Iree t' de'.'itt and touch at other plac.C a.;
'your ov.n juirdgmnnti, actin';g uipon '-iricumstanc. i and l::ikinrig t:i tic oibje cts
in \ v.:-., m ., point oit In thii r-epect the cnommandcr of the ship v.ill have
c'r, ler n to conforn ti such direc tion; as ,.i m.3, think fit to give hin. You
will however call first at Rio Janeiro, and not go further south than Buenos
Ayres. At this point it is hoped that you may be able to command the
means of obtaining useful information as respects Chili and Peru. You
will also not fail to go to the Spanish Main, returning to the United States
at as early a day as will comport with the nature and extent of your mission.
Your observation and enquiries will not be exclusively confined to the heads
indicated, but take other scope, keeping to the spirit of these instructions,
as your own view of things upon the spot may suggest.
It only remains for me to add, that the President has great confidence in
the ability and discretion with which you will execute, in all things, the
tru:t :conrmitted to you, and that he anticipates from your report to this
department such a statement of facts and views as may prove highly useful
to the nation.
I have the honor [etc.].

John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State, to John B. Prevost, Special Agent of
the United States to Buenos Aires, Chile and Peru
WASHINGTON, September 29, 1817.
SIR: Circumstances having occurred to suspend for the present the execu-
tion of the purposes upon which you were instructed on the 20. of July last,
to embark in the Corvette Ontario, Captain Biddle, upon a voyage from
New-York to Buenos-Ayres, and thence to proceed by land over the South-
American Continent to Chili and Peru:--The President has seen fit to give
that vessel another direction; to point out for you a different mode of con-
veyance, and to commit additional trusts to your charge.
In pursuance therefore of directions from him, you are now instructed to
embark as soon as possible in that vessel; to touch at Rio Janeiro, and there
deliver to Mr. Sumter the despatches for him which will be delivered to you
by the Collector of New-York-Thence to proceed in the same vessel round
Cape Horn, and afterward, to touch at the principal port in Chile (Callao)
and at Lima in Peru. At each of these ports the vessel is to make a short
MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VIII, 148.


stay to afford you the opportunity of writing t._' thi- Depirtmn nt, 'for wlinch
it is hoped you will be enabled to find some n.-it o(- cin evince Ifr yPjr
letters. . The ship is then to return ti.- r.l lUiiitel-St i -t 1 trppini
at Lima, where you are to disembark, and to r m.iiin there and in the .iljc irn-
ing Province, to act under the instructions from tcli Dcirarl,:nt IerIt:'l':r,:
given, and now in your possession.
I have the honor [etc.].

John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State, to Ge.r-., II' IEr.ii UL,'iJ .Staic.,
Minister to Spain I
WAsHINGION, NoV6bWtbr 11, 1817.
Early in the course of the last Summer Mr Caesar A. Rodney and Mr
John Graham were appointed 2 by The President Commissioners, to pro-
ceed and touch at various places on the Eastern Coast of South-America, to
obtain and report to this Government, correct information with regard to
the real state of affairs in that Country; to explain to the existing Authorities
wherever they might land the principles of impartial neutrality between all
the contending parties in that region which this Government had adopted
and should continue to pursue, and to make reclamations in behalf of citizens
of the United-States who had suffered in their persons or property, by the
agency of persons possessing or pretending authority from the various exist-
ing Powers whether derived from Spain or from the Provinces in revolt.
Circumstances of a private nature in the family of one of the Commissioners
prevented them from sailing at the time that had been intended. They are
now on the point of embarking together with Mr Theodoric Bland, appointed
the third Commissioner, and will proceed in the Congress Frigate from
Annapolis to Buenos-Ayres. The measures above noticed in regard to
Amelia Island and Galvezton, have formed additional motives to The
President for directing their immediate departure-To the end that they
may give such explanations and make such representations of the views of
this Government in adopting those measures, as the circumstances may
require. The subject will be noticed in The President's Message to Congress
at the opening of the ensuing Session; and if any reference to it should occur
in your communications with the Spanish Government, you will explain it
upon these grounds which it is not doubted will prove satisfactory to them.
The Ontario Captain Biddle sailed some weeks since, with Mr. J. B. Prevost,
going on a similar mission round Cape-Horn.
I am [etc.].
'MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VIII, 170.
'See above, doc. 40, Rush to Rodney and Graham, July 18, 1817.

DOC)CLUM.LM 44- NOV'E\IRER 21, rS17 47
Johin: Qiii:y ij s .4 .)"i.'cteIlar.%' f .Sliate, to Ti ',i i' ,h S m let, liiI .',,a',s
M il.'si' .'/ 1 to '1 Porn,.Wes" Co ln I Para:,,i c

Thi-.c Gcritl,;inen [ le-:_r-_ R,-,,n:- G-,raham and ,: lllind, \:l\h,. L,,,.n ap-
pointed Commissioners, to proceed to various parts of South-America, upon
objects which they will particularly explain to you. They are specially
recommended to any assistance which it may be in your power to give them,
in executing the purposes of their mission. Among these purposes is that
of explaining where it may be necessary, the views of this Government, and
its policy in relation to the contest between Spain and the South American
Provinces. In this respect they will enable you to give it is presumed a
satisfactory answer to the Note of 19 March, from the late Count da Barca,
founded on a complaint from the Governor of Madeira; unless you shall
before their arrival have already given an answer.

John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State, to Caesar A. Rodney, John Graham,
and Theodorick Bland, Special Commissioners of the United States to
South America2
WASHINGTON, November 21, 1817.
GENTLEMEN: In reviewing the Instructions to you from this Department
of 18 July,3 a copy of which has been furnished to Mr. Bland, the President
finds little in them, which subsequent occurrences have rendered it necessary
to alter, but he thinks that some additional observations to you, relating to
the execution of the trust committed to you, may be not inexpedient.
Since the circumstances occurred, which prevented the departure of
Messrs. Rodney, and Graham, at the time first contemplated, another desti-
nation has been given to the Corvette Ontario, and you are now to embark in
the Frigate Congress Captain Sinclair, which has been ordered to Annapolis
to receive you.
You will as before directed proceed in the first instance to Rio de Janeiro,
& there deliver the despatches committed to you, for Mr. Sumter. From
thence you will go to Buenos Ayres, but without touching at St. Salvador
or Pernambuco. On your return you will visit such places of the Spanish
SMS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VIII, 174.
2 MS. Dispatches to United States Consuls, II, 72.
3See above, doc. 40, and note 2 thereto.

Main, as you shall ,.,ur:'lv, u deem erpedient hth'_ut h1ing restricted to
any of the place m:-ntic nrcJ in \'.iur former InstririitionIs.
Among the ol'jict., to .' lichi it is desired thl t you \\ill call the attention
of the existing re.:,olutionary authoritie-, with \. horm ,ou may lave Ia cca sicn
to enter into communication, will b ther:- irrcgulir, in1Jriu-,. :,nd it iF hopedi
unwarranted usE: o:f their Ilag4 :ind _of CI'omnmi4ionu real or pr,-t,:ndled deri\ ed
from them.
You have been i made r-cu:-intelh through tie public chann cls .i iinfirrma-
tion, with thelodngmcnts which separate and ucce-CCi\e band-, ol hrec ad\.:n-
turers have made,- t Amiinl. I land -n at G.al\eston. At thu I,_.rmnr,
possession was fhrt t.Lkcn earl' in tih co:ur:e of las sumnmr, I:, a party,
under the command ol4 a Briltilhi suhlct n;tmend 1M'Gregor, pretLun.ing au-
thority from V':cnizuel. Ie as ;:ucciedd 1:\ p-er.on digraciin and
forfeiting by such act: the character ol Citizen; ol tile I_ nite.l .Statet, and
pretending authority. irom sunmc prUtended cGo( rnmcnt of Florida; and
they are now by the last accounts received, sharing the fruits of their dep-
redations, and at the same time contesting the command of the place with
a Frenchman having under him a body of Blacks from St. Domingo, and
pretending authority from a Government of Mexico. In the mean time the
place from its immediate vicinity to the United States, has become a recep-
tacle for fugitive negroes, for every species of illicit traffic, and for slave-
trading ships by means of which multitudes of African Blacks are surrepti-
tiously introduced into the Southern States and Territories, in defiance of
the Laws. The Revenue, the Morals, and the Peace of the country are so
seriously menaced and compromitted by this state of things, that the Presi-
dent after observing the feeble and ineffectual effort made by the Spanish
Government of Florida, to recover possession of the Island, and the apparent
inability of Spain to accomplish that recovery, has determined to break up
this nest of foreign Adventurers, with pretended South American commis-
sions, but among whom not a single South American name has yet appeared.
The settlement at Galveston is of the same character and will be treated in
the same manner. Possession will be taken of Galveston as within the limits
of the United States; and of Amelia Island, to prevent the repetition of the
same misuse of it in future, and subject to explanations to be given of the
motives for the measure to Spain. Should you find that any of the Revolu-
tionary Governments with whom you may communicate have really au-
thorized any of these foreign Adventures to take possession of those places,
you will explain to them that this measure could not be submitted to or
acquiesced in by the United States; because Galveston is considered as
within their limits, and Amelia Island is too insignificant in itself and too
important by its local position in reference to the United States, to be left
by them in the possession of such persons.
You will at the same time remonstrate to them in the most serious

DCOCUME':i 144- ',NVEci iE 21. I.-i

manner agali''- thi practicI it- ,ll i-.S:-uiii: indli.criminat.- C:,mmiii- in tr-,
[h a, Lia n.i riie ain d:p,,1 rate :hiaractcers of -11 ,: th ,r nationo.. 'l. : I c ri o I Lects
in lfning tl:i r .authilnri\ and tlhuir lag-Q, ar ri not t' prim.ite the '.IauL e :- the-ir
Liberv an.Jd nd. p,-end'-nce. butr m-r> l,> toi, annie'i.. piind'.r Ior thrmlelve.s
\'Y:u .A ll iinlcirm t i rnim that .: -itIz-; n .:, the I.iiit,:,l S'tate.- cainn11 t accept and
ac>t iundl r Iuilch .a conllmissi'-ln, wi[(li iut jt i I : vio:aii, tin. the Law.- _f Inhi
country, id !i:.rlf:itini hi rihi'iLt: an] charac-t,:.r .asa C:iti :n. That the fitting
out of privateers in our Ports, to cruize either for or against them is pro-
hibited by our Laws; that many such privateers have been fitted out in our
Ports, (unknown to this Government) and though manned and officered
entirely by people of this country they have captured the property of na-
tions with whom we are at peace, and have used the flags sometimes of more
than one of the South American Governments, just as it suited their pur-
poses to be Officers of Buenos Ayres or of Chili, of Caraccas or of Venezuela.
That if these clandestine and illegal armaments in our Ports have been made
with the sanction and by the authority of those Governments, the United
States have just cause to complain of them, and to claim satisfaction and
indemnity for all losses and damages which may result to them or to any of
their citizens from them; and if they have not been thus authorized, it would
be but justly reasonable that those Governments should not only publicly
disavow them, but in issuing their commissions and authorizing the use of
their flags, subject them at least to the restrictions conformable to the Law
of Nations. That the licentious abuse of their flags by these freebooters, of
every nation but their own, has an influence unpropitious to the cause of
their freedom, and tendency to deter other countries from recognizing them
as regular Governments.
It is expected that your absence from the United States will be of seven
or eight months. But if while in the execution of your Instructions at
Buenos Ayres you should find it expedient, or useful with reference to the
public service, that one or more of you should proceed over land to Chili, you
are authorized to act accordingly. Should only one of you go, he will there
co-operate jointly with Mr. J. B. Prevost, whom it is probable he will find
already there, and a copy of whose Instructions is herewith furnished. The
compensation which the President has thought proper to fix for the perform-
ance of the service assigned to you is of six thousand dollars to each of you;
from which it is understood you are to defray all your expenses while on
shore. Stores have been provided for you, for the passage, both outward
and returning. You will communicate with this Department, by any direct
opportunity that may occur from any of the Ports at which you may touch.
I have the honor [etc.].


Message of President James Monroe at the commencement of the first session
of the Fifteenth Congress of the United States L
December 2, 1817.
It was anticipated at an early stage that the contest between Spain and the
colonies would become highly interesting to the United States. It was
natural that our citizens should sympathize in events which affected their
neighbors. It seemed probable, also, that the prosecution of the con-
flict along our coast, and in contiguous countries, would occasionally inter-
rupt our commerce, and otherwise affect the persons and property of our
citizens. These anticipations have been realized. Such injuries have been
received from persons acting under the authority of both the parties, and
for which redress has, in most instances, been withheld. Through every
stage of the conflict the United States have maintained an impartial neu-
trality, giving aid to neither of the parties in men, money, ships, or muni-
tions of war. They have regarded the contest, not in the light of an ordinary
insurrection or rebellion, but as a civil war between parties nearly equal,
having, as to neutral Powers, equal rights. Our ports have been open to
both; and every article, the fruit of our soil, or of the industry of our citizens,
which either was permitted to take, has been equally free to the other.
Should the colonies establish their independence, it is proper now to state
that this Government neither seeks nor would accept from them any advan-
tage in commerce or otherwise which will not be equally open to all other
nations. The colonies will, in that event, become independent States, free
from any obligation to or connexion with us, which it may not then be their
interest to form on the basis of a fair reciprocity.
In the summer of the present year, an expedition was set on foot against
East Florida, by persons claiming to act under the authority of some of the
colonies, who took possession of Amelia island, at the mouth of the St. Mary's
river, near the boundary of the State of Georgia. As this province lies
eastward of the Mississippi, and is bounded by the United States and the
ocean on every side, and has been a subject of negotiation with the Govern-
ment of Spain as an indemnity for losses by spoliation, or in exchange for
territory of equal value westward of the Mississippi, (a fact well known to
the world,) it excited surprise that any countenance should be given to this
measure by any of the colonies. As it would be difficult to reconcile it with
the friendly relations existing between the United States and the colonies, a
doubt was entertained whether it had been authorized by them, or any of
them. This doubt has gained strength, by the circumstances which have
unfolded themselves in the prosecution of the enterprise, which have marked
it as a mere private, unauthorized adventure. Projected and commenced
with an incompetent force, reliance seems to have been placed on what
1 American State Papers, Foreign Relations, IV, I29.


might be drawn, in defiance of our laws, from within our limits; and of late,
as their resources have failed, it has assumed a more marked character of
unfriendliness to us; the island being made a channel for the illicit introduc-
tion of slaves from Africa into the United States, an asylum for fugitive
slaves from the neighboring States, and a port for smuggling of every kind.
A similar establishment was made, at an earlier period, by persons of the
same description in the Gulf of Mexico, at a place called Galvezton, within
the limits of theUnited States, as we contend, under the cession of Louisiana.
This enterprise has been marked, in a more signal manner, by all the objec-
tionable circumstances which characterized the other, and more particularly
by the equipment of privateers which have annoyed our commerce, and by
smuggling. These establishments, if ever sanctioned by any authority
whatever, which is not believed, have abused their trust, and forfeited all
claim to consideration. A just regard for the rights and interests of the
United States required that they should be suppressed, and orders have been
accordingly issued to that effect. The imperious considerations which
produced this measure will be explained to the parties whom it may in any
degree concern.
To obtain correct information on every subject in which the United States
are interested, to inspire just sentiments in all persons in authority, on either
side, of our friendly disposition, so far as it may comport with an impartial
neutrality, and to secure proper respect to our commerce in every port, and
from every flag, it has been thought proper to send a ship of war, with three
distinguished citizens, along the southern coast, with instruction to touch
at such ports as they may find most expedient for these purposes. With the
existing authorities, with those in the possession of and exercising the sov-
ereignty, must the communication be held; from them alone can redress for
past injuries, committed by those persons acting under them, be obtained;
by them alone can the commission of the like, in future, be prevented.

John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State, to Mr. G. Hyde de Neuville, French
Minister to the United States
WASHINGTON, December 5, 1817.
SIR: In reference to your Letter of the 12. September2 last, and the com-
munications to this Department with which it was accompanied, I have the
MS. Notes to Foreign Legations, II, 261. G. Hyde de Neuville, envoy extraordinary
and minister plenipotentiary of France to the United States: Forwarded his letter of credence
from New York, June 18, 1816. Took leave, June 29, 1822.
2 Not printed in this collection. The note of about six pages and enclosures of about
thirty report a supposed plot by Napoleonic exiles from France to start an expedition in tl'h
United States to seize control of Mexico and there proclaim the restoration of Joseph Bona-
parte as King of Spain and the Indies.


honour to inform Ny-ci tit they \ -it r,_ r-ei- I\-i b:, Thi, Pr-e ,J.-inr \.irth ; ju-t
sensibility to the disposition friendly to the Peace and tranquility of the
United-States, with which they were made-That immediate measures were
taken by the Government to ascertain whether any levies of men were mak-
ing within the United-States, such as those which you apprehended, and to
repress any project of unlawful combination which might exist for purposes
of hostility to the foreign Provinces bordering upon the United-States. I
have much satisfaction in assuring you that no such levies of men have been
carried into effect, and that whatever absurd projects may have been in the
contemplation of one or more individuals, nothing is to be dreaded from them
in regard to the Peace of the United-States and the due observance of their
I pray you, Sir, [etc.].

John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State, to Thomas Sumter, United States
Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil
WASHINGTON, December 30, 1817.
SIR: Your letter of Ist July, with its enclosures, relating to the extraor-
dinary controversy between the Russian Ambassador Mr. Balk Poleff and
the Portuguese Government, or rather with the late Count da Barca, has
been received since I had the honor of writing you last. As the measure of
furnishing Credentials with the highest diplomatic rank, to a Minister al-
ready residing at the Court with a character of the second order, was
ostensibly complimentary, and for the express purpose of doing honor to the
King of Portugal, it is natural to infer that the coolness with which it was
received and which appears in the first instance to have given offence to the
Russian Minister, was occasioned by some cause, not apparent upon the face
of the papers communicated by either of the parties. It is remarkable that,
while these indications of misunderstanding between Portugal and Russia
have been exhibited to the world, the appearances of more than usual good
intelligence have been manifesting themselves between Russia and Spain.
If the object of Mr. Balk Poleff's new Credentials had simply been to give
additional dignity and solemnity to the Emperor's compliments to the King
upon his accession to the throne, it is hardly to be imagined that it would
have been so uncourteously received-As a mere question of courtly etiquette
this dispute can be of little interest to us; but if, as appears probable, it was
connected with affairs of business between the two Governments, it would
be very acceptable to have information more particular concerning it.-
MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VIII, 302.

DOculMI:N 4.. JANUJAR' 27, ISI 8

Thi v. .ill be -till mr.,re du-irable, il, az haj been reprt-ented bIy ";mn .of the
public: !IOurn.-il- abrad, Mr. Balk iipo:n arrivini in Eur,_-pe, and pr_'-ceedinc
tcW.iarl- St P'Lrc.burlirdi .ai; rippedd on hi- '.s.y b', an ord,1-r from the Em-
peror to turn -ack and rr;:urn to: Ri'o: de janeirl: -an 1'rd,-r, if tht. new- L,.
au rhcntic:, either ofI c\irinlie di;approbatiohn ;ie" the- nlnAmba'adr r' cond ucr(, or
i:,f iniltirnc doi '.inci t the urt uO whiche Ilha thu- Lbeen if'nrced L.ack-
There are r. the -amni tinme1 mo.vemlen t of miliIar,, and naval f':rce- between
Ru-Lia; and Spain, which hav\- gi%, :n ri.e to:' mnii-h speculation in Europ'-,, and
of which South America, if not even Brazil, has been conjectured to be the
ultimate object and destination-In that event (for we are as yet left con-
cerning it to the wide field of conjecture) we hope to receive early and
authentic intelligence from you.-

John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State, to G. Hyde de Neuville, French Min-
ister to the United States1
WASHINGTON, January 27, 1818.
SIR: Your Notes 2 to this Department of 20 November, and of 15 and 22
December, and of 17 January have remained until this time unanswered,
only with the view of communicating to you the result of the measures taken
by the Government of the United States, in regard to the subjects to which
they relate.
In the civil wars which for several years past have subsisted between Spain
and the Provinces heretofore her Colonies in this Hemisphere, the policy
deliberately adopted and invariably pursued by the United-States has been
that of impartial neutrality. It is understood that the Policy of all the
European Powers, and particularly that of France has been the same.
As a consequence from this principle, while the Ports of the United-States
have been open to both the parties to this war, for all the lawful purposes of
Commerce, the Government of the United-States both in its Legislative and
Executive Branches, have used every exertion in their power warranted by
the Laws of Nations, and by our own Constitution, to admonish and restrain
the Citizens of these States from taking any part in this Contest, incompati-
ble with the obligations of Neutrality. If in these endeavours they have not
been entirely successful, the Governments of Europe have not been more so,
and among the occupants of Amelia-Island, for the piratical purposes com-
plained of in your Notes, natives or Subjects of France have been included no
less than Citizens of these States.
It is known to you Sir, that the Leader of the Party which first occupied
'MS. Notes to Foreign Legations, II, 278.
2 Not printed as insufficiently apropos. Their purport is evident from this reply.


Amelia-Island in the course of the last Summer, was a British Subject.
From the time when that Event was first made known to this Government, it
was perceived that its immediate consequences would be very injurious to the
Laws, Commerce and Revenue of this Country; and measures of precaution
adapted to the circumstances were immediately taken, the effect of which was
partially to give the protection necessary to the Commerce of Nations at
peace with the United States, endangered by that establishment as well as
our own. Those measures however not proving effectual while a Port in the
immediate vicinity of the United States, but not within the reach of their
Jurisdiction continued to be held by the persons who had wrested the Island
from the possession of Spain, this Government after having seen the total
inability of Spain either to defend the place from the assault of the in-
significant forces by which it was taken, or to recover it from them, found it
necessary, to take the possession of it into its own hands-Thereby depriving
those lawless plunderers of every Nation and Colour, of the refuge where they
had found a shelter, and from whence they had issued to commit their
depradations upon the peaceful commerce of all Nations, and among the rest
upon the French vessels mentioned in your Notes-the Confiance-en Dieu,
the Jean Charles and the Maly.
It is hoped Sir, that this measure will prove effectual to prevent the,
repetition of such outrages upon the commercial Vessels of France frequent-
ing our coasts. An intimation in your Note of the 20 November, that due
attention had not been paid to the demand of the Agent of the French Consul
at Savannah in regard to the seizure of some of the Merchandize captured in
the above mentioned Vessels and introduced into the United States, is
believed to have arisen from misapprehension-The restitution of the
property could by the Nature of our Institutions be effected only through the
prosecution of their claims by the original owners or their Agents before
the ordinary Tribunals-The illness of the Judge of the District Court of the
United States in Georgia, and that of the District attorney are circumstances
to be lamented, as having necessarily caused some delay; but which it is
presumed you will consider as occasions rather of regret than of complaint.
By your Letter of 22 December it appears that the Captain and another
man, belonging to the crew of the Privateer which had taken the Maly, were
at the instance of the French Consul at Charleston arrested upon a charge of
piracy; but that the Consul has thought proper to desist from the prosecution
of this charge, upon the advice of legal Counsel, founded upon a supposed
defect in the 8th. Section of the Law of the U. States in which the crime of
Piracy is defined-I have had the honour of observing to you, that the
opinion of this defect, has not received the sanction of the Supreme Court of
the U. States, the only authority competent to pronounce upon it in the last
resort-That the crime of Piracy has been more than once prosecuted, and
punished, under the Section of the Law to which your Letter refers, and that

LcCUM:.IE:T 49: J.\IANUR 3', 18 IS,5

if the Conn ul h..a- tli.:.ghL prOrp r in dielerenc-- to the ,d .h ie ei'.en him, ti,
..ibLn':.,:.n the pro.-ecuiv 'n of rhe per-.' n .'. hi:, liad capture-d the M.l.,, it
c:.inni't he inlerreJ that. he :,nld hl \e filede d 1:, :,lrtain their cL'ln\-ill:'on, ii he
had perIt-iLod in hui pur-uit for thle .c\ ,ti,:ln :f th.- Lai .
Be pl.a -ei, Sir, 1t: ..:cept. [etC: I.

John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State, to Baptis Irvine, Special Agent of the
United States to Venezuela'
WASHINGTON, January 31, i8.8.
Among the papers of which copies are furnished you, is a communication'
rec'd at this dept. in July last, by the course of the mail from Baltimore, and
appearing to have been transmitted from the Island of Jamaica. It is in
official form, and announces the re-establishment of the Supreme Govern-
ment of the Venezuelan Republic, consisting of the Provinces of Barcelona,
Caraccas, Cumana, Margarita, Merida, Truxillo & Varinas; mentioning Don
Jos. Cortes Madariaga, as the person charged with the correspondence with
foreign Governments. This act appears to have been consummated in the
Island of Margarita, and one of the parties of it is Admiral Brion. No other
communication has however been rec'd from them, and if credit can be
given to the very imperfect information from that country which reaches us
thro' the medium of the public Prints, General Bolivar has refused to ac-
knowledge this Government, and another constitutional organization has
taken place, by which the Executive authority is vested in a Council with
General Bolivar at its head, & of which Brion himself is a member. To the
Supreme authority, recognized by Brion, however constituted and whereso-
ever residing, you will make application for the restitution or indemnity due
to our citizens in these two cases. You will pursue this object with all that
discretion, moderation, & conciliatory deportment towards the existing
authority, which would be due to any Government firmly established &
universally recognized. But with every proper & respectful deference in
point of form, it is expected you will maintain with firmness, and it is hoped,
with effect the rights of the injured sufferers, committed to your charge.
You will at the same time take suitable occasion, to ask explanations, and
to make known the sentiments of this Government, with regard to certain
other proceedings, in which the name of the Venezuelan Republic, has been
used, & a pretence of authority from its Government, set forth, it is hoped
altogether without foundation, and in a manner deeply affecting both the
MS. Dispatches to United States Consuls, II, 95.
2 See below, pt. vi, doe. 577, the President of Venezuela to the President of the United
States, May 21, 1817.

P.AI- I. C-I1MM'I.'.i .\1] l,'Ns I 1iOM1 HE UN I ED r. 5I.L .

ri-ht-:i c iihe inti rc i.: :l ih,. Li iou will rpr:-,inrt tht ,i G.ineral M '-
Gr:;.:r ini- tc- thi' c iunrry, & eni >e.t-I it hI-,-pirality a- an inli'idu.-l
l,-,rir i ln r: th-l't \w hi lI,:r,:, %Vsill,:,,l. 1.h(_0 p rm -ilt-ron oI i hi '-O; '._rn i,: L, -,:,n-
trary to the laws of nations, and in violation of those of the U. S., he is
believed to have prepared and fitted out a military expedition against the
territories of a nation with which we are at peace; to have levied a force,
and enlisted men within our jurisdiction, and by their means so far to have
accomplished his purpose as to take forcible possession of Amelia Island,
situated close upon the borders of this country, and the occupation of which
for the purposes intended by him, could not but be in a high degree noxious
to the interests of this Union; that while in possession of the Island, he
issued public proclamations declaring the purpose of taking possession of the
whole and of both the Floridas; and issued commissions to vessels secretly
fitted out and armed in our ports and officered & manned by our citizens, to
cruize against a nation with which we are at peace; that finding himself
unable to maintain possession of the Island he abandoned it to some of his
followers, after which it was occupied by another armed force, under a pre-
tended authority from Mexico, & became a seat of disorders of a character
so directly hostile to the U. S., that the President found himself under the
necessity of taking possession of it in the name of the U. S. It is not ex-
pected either that the proceedings of M'Gregor, here referred to, will be
avowed as having been authorized by the Government of Venezuela, or that
any dissatisfaction will be manifested by them at the occupation of the
Island by the U. S. Should it however prove otherwise, you will have no
difficulty in demonstrating that the conduct of M'Gregor was an infraction
of our neutral rights, of which we have serious cause to complain. Besides
the Laws of the U. S., for the preservation of our neutrality, I refer you to
the correspondence between Mr. Jefferson & the Ministers of France &
Great Britain in the year 1793, in the first volume of the American State
Papers, for a full and luminous exposition of the rights and obligations of
neutrality then recognized by this Government and applicable with en-
creased force to the present occasion, from the sanction of our practice then
given to the principles generally admitted by the usages of civilized na-
tions.1 With regard to the Floridas the Messages of the President to
Congress during their present session, & the Acts of January 1811 & Feby.
1813 now published will enable you to explain the views & the policy of the
United States in relation to them. You will give it distinctly to be under-
stood that the dispositions of this Government are as friendly towards the
South Americans, as can be consistent with the obligations of neutrality;
but that the United States have been for several years in negotiation with
Spain for the cession of all her remaining rights in those Provinces to them;
I See American State Papers, vol. I, pp. 71, 8I, 92. (140. Vattcl, bk. 3, sec. o14, Wolff 1174;
Vattel, bk. 3, sec. 15) pp. 142, 143, 149, 150 154. These citations are in the manuscript.

FPOC IiM E.T 41 : JAN. I A RN 31, I IS

that it lha been long an c-,tabli-lh,:d part of our L.,a n,:t[ to permit them 1nto-
pa t h int. th, handle of in'. other Potv.r; and that rlic,~. LawV muLIt receive
their tx.cutiL on.
Since tle upprerr-sin 1: the e.=tibli-dhm nt at An; ilit-Illand, attempt. haI\,:
bie- n m:n k io illipre:- upo.n l pi.ibli r hc iin thu t cluntr. the cl, i':f that tlhe
GoC ernnii enr of" the Uinirrl Sitate- %kere aclqu3ainr,:l .ith (and even pri t.-,
th- design ,of Mac ',ri-or up:.n that place, before irt \i carriWd into e* -.:u-
ti:n. l M :: Gr:c'g:r him ell ai aeli- tr, ari,-,u [e-r>-on hlier, il-at le had
UcIi l3 tl-irn in 'Ilont.nlpl[arlton, 3a d that it \%JS Li1uL COmlmiUnicaLtd a- 3
proji:ct .:'f iad(l.nturc, Lt: p'eri'oni co:nnecte.-l r il th re :-d miiinisnration nimay l be
true. But it was never disclosed as a subject upon which their approbation
was desired or their opinion consulted; nor was it ever stated as involving a
violation either of the neutrality or the Laws of the Union. No communica-
tion was ever had between the Government of the U. S. and M'Gregor, and
if he or those with whom he connected himself here gave obscure & illusive
hints of his purpose, in order to ascertain for his information the moment
when their unequivocal illegality, ascertained by the Government, might
draw upon him the active enforcement of the Laws, such ambiguous intima-
tions, far from evincing the connivance of the Executive in his plan, would
only prove their ignorance of his real designs, and his consciousness of the
opposition to them which he must encounter, if they should be explicitly
made known. The same suggestions which imparted his project, to a person
in the confidence of the President, at the same time led to the idea, that it
was concerted with the concurrence and favor of the British Government.
Thus one deception was laid as the foundation for the superstructure of
another; and while the exposure to this Government of the object, was, in a
point of view concealing its illegal features, their attention was studiously
averted from the means of execution, involving the violation of the Laws,
towards others against which neither direct resistance, nor immediate prep-
aration could be made. Neither M'Gregor nor his partizans made it known
either that the authority by which he was to act, was assumed to be given
him within our jurisdiction, or that the force with which he was to operate,
would be levied, within our limits. Had either of these circumstances been
divulged to this Government, its resistance to them would have been as
immediate, as its duty to make such resistance would have been indubitable.
Should any intimation be given to you of a desire that a formal acknowl-
edgement of the Venezuelan Government should be made by that of the
United States, you will observe that in the present stage of the conflict,
that step would be a departure from that system of neutrality, which the
U. S. have adopted, and which is believed to be as much the interest of the
South-Americans themselves as of the U. S. You may add that without this
formal acknowledgement they enjoy all the advantages of a friendly &
commercial intercourse with us, which they could enjoy with it; and that


the effect of such a measure might probably be, without benefiting them,
to entangle us in disputes with other powers. You may take occasion at
the same time, in a friendly & respectful manner to suggest that such irregu-
lar proceedings as those of which you are deputed to complain, as they could
not be justified by any established and recognized Government, cannot but
operate as a discouragement to the U. S., and to all other nations of the
disposition to recognize a new power, in whose name, and under the pretense
of whose authority such practices are pursued; that they cannot claim the
rights & prerogatives of independent States, without conforming to the
duties by which independent States are bound; that the usurped exercise of
Sovereign authority by individuals, is the essential character of lawless
power; and that the practices of pirates are inconsistent with the obligations
of every constituted State.
The situation of the country to which you are to proceed, and the state of
the respective parties to the war, render it uncertain whether you will find
it expedient to make more than a very transient residence in any one place;
or to remain long without returning to the U. S. The determination upon
this subject, will in the first instance be left to your own judgment & discre-
tion. After obtaining a definitive answer, upon the two claims of restitution
& indemnity with which you are charged, and making the representations
herein directed, there may be no public interest of adequate importance to
require your continuance there any longer; in which case, you will take as
early an opportunity to return as may be convenient. In the mean time,
you will collect & transmit to this dept. the most correct information that
you can obtain, respecting the real state of the country; the relative situation
& prospects of the Patriot & Royal forces; the present effects & probable
consequences of the emancipation of the slaves; the population & resources
of the Provinces in the Venezuelan Confederation; their views & expectations
in relation to the other South American Provinces; their commercial situation
& prospects, especially with reference to the U. S. & to our commercial
intercourse with them; and generally whatever may fall under your observa-
tion, and the knowledge of which it may be interesting to us to possess.
I am [etc.].
Irvine's reports to the Department fill a manuscript volume of several hundred pages,
about a third consisting of correspondence between him and Bolivar at Angostura chiefly
regarding rights and claims of United States merchant vessels in view of the pretended
blockade and his transmitting dispatches to the Department. The rest consists of "Notes
on Venezuela," a detailed description written after his return. Though interesting, his
papers are not sufficiently apropos to warrant printing in this collection. An injudicious
though not entirely incorrect response to his cordial reception, to the effect that the United
States had "in effect" recognized the independence of Venezuela gave rise to a false im-

JoA/Ut II1[,t' .ldd ,? S. '. r,'tnr v, "." ,l,', '*, P1 r': ,,,',,.! .V '.,i, >. f t,2' ,j i;,,2 .ss .I',lL
lto ti.e Ulllr: S,,Jte:lI' i .,,c 'o Reptc:f' ,i/lJ l."
\\'.\-Iil CTO',, Mul. i!l 255, /,.-S.
The Secrer 'r':. ,I1 cI trc, t.:, wh,_im I ij been referr' d i.hi r1 : .. tii in ,:r i the
Hii-e ofl R.pr,:,nrati\.L-': t lh 5th LD ce'ml ie r, h.s the h,:nr,.ir uo uLinit1i ii
the documents herewith transmitted, as containing the informauon possessed
at this Department requested by that resolution.
In the communications received from Don Manuel H. de Aguirre, there
are references to certain conferences between him and the Secretary of State,
which appear to require some explanation.
The character in which Mr. Aguirre presented himself was that of a public
agent from the Government of La Plata, and of private agent from that of
Chili. His commissions from both simply qualified him as agent. But his
letter from the Supreme Director (Pueyrredon) to the President of the
United States requested that he might be received with the consideration due
to his diplomatic character. He had no commission as a public minister of
any rank, nor any full power to negotiate as such. Neither the letter of
which he was the bearer, nor he himself, at his first interviews with the
Secretary of State, suggested that he was authorized to ask the acknowledg-
ment of his Government as independent; a circumstance which derived ad-
ditional weight from the fact that his predecessor, Don Martin Thompson,
had been dismissed by the Director Pueyrredon, for having transcended his
powers, of which the letter brought by Mr. Aguirre gave notice to the
It was some time after the commencement of the session of Congress that
he made this demand, as will be seen by the dates of his written communica-
tions to the Department. In the conferences held with him on that subject,
among other questions which it naturally suggested were those of the manner
in which the acknowledgment of his Government, should it be deemed
advisable, might be made; and what were the territories which he considered
as forming the state or nation to be recognized. It was observed, that the
manner in which the United States had been acknowledged as an independent
Power by France was by a treaty concluded with them, as an existing inde-
pendent Power; and in which each one of the States then composing the
Union was distinctly named; that something of the same kind seemed to be
necessary in the first acknowledgment of a new Government, that some
definite idea might be formed, not of the precise boundaries, but of the
general extent of the country thus recognized. He said the Government of
which he desired the acknowledgment was the country which had, before the
American State Papers, Foreign Relations, IV, 173. By a letter of the same date the
President communicated this and its enclosed documents to the House of Representatives.

E,-O:.1':IC: 51 0: M.PRCl1 2,5, Il '-*1


re\v:ilurion, ht-e n the ',iiero.-; lty of: Li Piai.'. It \\a. then :i-ked whether
that did notl inrcliudi alnte video, a.nd the ternt.-ryr occuiieii d by the Pt.,rtu-
guL :.t- ; ihe I .ind:n OQ-ri ntail, unch. r:tiod t,: bUL under the P:,'.',rnnIni t ,:f 'tn .ic r'l-
Arig;.i, ;ind :e:.ral pr:iine -till in the und fiputibid po--e-on -I th
Sp ii-n i o., i irnfe-n He said it did; but ob-erved l th- Artie i-, tlri:ouch in
hoi-,tilit v. itli tlhe (Go'.erninent :r BEiien,:-. A\ret:, sriippoirted, ho-wevr.er, the
cause of independence against Spain; and that the Portuguese could not
ultimately maintain their possession of Montevideo. It was after this that
Mr. Aguirre wrote the letter offering to enter into a negotiation for concluding
a treaty, though admitting that he had no authority to that effect from his
Government. It may be proper to observe, that the mode of recognition
by concluding a treaty had not been suggested as the only one practicable
or usual, but merely as that which had been adopted by France with the
United States, and as offering the most convenient means of designating the
extent of the territory acknowledged as a new dominion.
The remark to Mr. Aguirre, that, if Buenos Ayres should be acknowledged
as independent, others of the contending provinces would, perhaps, demand
the same, had particular reference to the Banda Oriental. The inquiry was,
whether General Artigas might not advance a claim of independence for those
provinces, conflicting with that of Buenos Ayres, for the whole viceroyalty of
La Plata. The Portuguese possession of Montevideo was noticed in
reference to a similar question.
It should be added, that these observations were connected with others,
stating the reasons upon which the present acknowledgment of the Govern-
ment of La Plata, in any mode, was deemed by the President inexpedient, in
regard as well to their interests as to those of the United States.

John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State, to Manuel H. de Aguirre, Argentine
Agent at Washington1
WASHINGTON, April 11, i18S.
SIR: I have had the honour of receiving your Note of the 5. instant. You
suppose me to have stated in the Report to The President, communicated to
Congress in his Message of 25 March,2 that you had said General Artigas
supported the cause of the Independence of Spain-But as the Cause of
Spain in South-America, is not Independence, that would have been an
absurdity which I neither understood you, nor have represented you as
asserting. The Cause of Independence of Spain in South America, is not the

' MS. Notes to Foreign Legations, II, 318.

2 See above, doc. 50.

D UC I M L T 52: \N'bm1. 2.,. i ,IS 61

C:tuse -f Srpain' Inde-prndenr- e, hut the( C u .i [. ri c i n n t p.ai ; an
that i tihe C lule %hich-, under:':d '. u t: '.- ., t neral Artea-u j uLp E t ed,
t1lliilc h I:.iineg at ithe -:me rime in ho rilir. V. ih the I". ernr lent -if R~u net--
A.,, re=
\\'ith r g"ir':l t l:, tlh meiritC I the .'.-ntr rvirit-: bet v.. n th. 1 r. ernmicnt i:i
Bueno, -Ay, -, .r and G-.nIral .Arte-ci:, I cert.,inlv, ni\.:,r :-x[.,r--::eJ, nor dc, I
rc:c llh:ct thli t ,o .,u r ,['r-:z ,d ti i m an ,-r pinif:,n. I undler-t.o--,' d -u t: a ',
that s,, far .1i rlAtd t the O: pp[:.:ii n Co' Spain, the Ci :\ nirnLf o Ri :no:-
Ayre: and G-neral .1rt.z\ar e.re ,r'r. piprni -i c on(iii C- AU.ILie.
I I.:irl'ear to- nctiLe tiui r-nm, 1rks- in i\ lur Note, prec,-.rli the quor.,irit.n
from the Report of the passage which you have understood as conveying an
idea, directly contrary to that which I intended; being persuaded that you
also have used expressions, without intending to convey the exceptionable
meaning of which they are susceptible.
I have the honour [etc.].

John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State, to George IV. Erring, United States
Minister to Spain
WASHINGTON, April 20, igi8.
From the complexion of the Debates in the House of Representatives
during the Session of Congress which terminates this day, you will infer the
great and increasing interest felt in this Country with regard to the Events
occurring in that part of the American Hemisphere. The part pursued by
the Government of the United-States in this contest, has been unequivocal
Neutrality. None of the Revolutionary Governments has yet been formally
acknowledged; but if that of Buenos Ayres, should maintain the stability
which it appears to have acquired since the Declaration of Independence of
9 July 1816 it cannot be long before they will demand that acknowledgment
of right-and however questionable that right may be now considered; it
will deserve very seriously the consideration of the European Powers, as
well as of the United States, how long that acknowledgment can rightfully
be refused. Since beginning this letter I have received your Despatch No.
60 of 26 February,2 enclosing the Memoir of Russia,3 on these South Ameri-
can affairs.
MS. Instructions to United States Ministers, VIII, 179.
2 See below, pt.'xmi, doc. 1079.
See below, pt. xii, doc. Ioli, under date, November 17, 1817.


John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State, to Luis de Onis, Spanish Minister
to the United States 1
WASHINGTON, April 22, i818.
SIR: William Davis Robinson, a Citizen of the United-States, landed in
the Month of April 1816 on the Coast of Vera Cruz, at a place then in the
possession of the Revolutionists-He proceeded to the city of Tehaucan,
where he remained Several Months, without ever bearing arms, or accepting
any Military or other Commission. He left that City the last of July of the
same year, with the intention of reaching the Sea-Coast, and of embarking
to return to the United States-Having by various incidents been prevented
from accomplishing this intention; on the 12th of September 1816. he volun-
tarily gave himself up, at the Village of Playa Vicente, to the Commandant
of the Royal Troops-claiming the benefit of the Royal Amnesty, or Indulto,
which had then recently been proclaimed and offered to all persons without
distinction who had been connected with the Insurgents, upon the condition
of surrendering themselves. He delivered to the same Commandant, a
Certificate of his birth at Philadelphia, and his Passport as a Citizen of the
United-States, and claimed the benefit of the Royal Indulto, which was
promised himself explicitly by the Commandant. He was nevertheless sent
under a guard of Soldiers to the City of Oaxaca-was there confined several
months in a Cell in the Convent of St. Domingo-Then transferred to Vera-
Cruz and imprisoned in the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa-The Government of
the United States, having in July last been informed of these Circumstances,
an Instruction was sent to the Minister of the United States at Madrid, to
make application to your Government for the release of Mr. Robinson-Mr.
Erving received assurances from Don Jos6 Pizarro, that no information had
been received in Spain of Robinson's imprisonment, and he was afterwards
told by a person from Vera Cruz that Robinson had been allowed the benefit
of the Indulto, and was to be sent to the United States to be delivered up by
you to the Government of the United States.
This Statement was not correct-Mr. Robinson, was embarked as a
Prisoner in close confinement on board the Spanish Frigate Iphigenia, at
Vera-Cruz, to be sent to Spain-That Ship having by stress of weather
been compelled to put into the Port of Campeachy, and having been there
condemned as unseaworthy, Mr. Robinson, was landed there; and on the
4th of March last, was still kept as a Prisoner, to be sent by some other
conveyance to Spain.
I have the honour therefore, to ask your good offices, that such appli-
cation shall be made as may obtain if possible the release of Mr. Robin-
son, at Campeachy-a sufficient motive for which will surely be found in
I MS. Notes to Foreign Legations, II, 321.

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