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Premarital sexual intercourse : a modified approach to axiomatic theory construction

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Title:
Premarital sexual intercourse : a modified approach to axiomatic theory construction
Creator:
Davidson, John Kenneth, 1939-
Copyright Date:
1974
Language:
English
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xiv, 207 leaves. : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Allied health ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
Human sexual behavior ( jstor )
Inverse relationships ( jstor )
Orgasm ( jstor )
Permissiveness ( jstor )
Questionnaires ( jstor )
Sexual intercourse ( jstor )
Statistical significance ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Sociology -- UF ( lcsh )
Sex customs -- United States ( lcsh )
Sociology thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis -- University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 193-205.
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Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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PREMARITAL SEXUAL INTERCOURSE: A MODIFIED APPROACH
TO AXIOMATIC THEORY CONSTRUCTION














BY

JOHN KENNETH DAVIDSON, SR.


















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1974

































Copyright

1974

































To my wife, Josephine Frazier Davidson, whose steadfast
devotion and continuous encouragement made the task of
graduate school seem a little easier, and to my sons,
John Kenneth Davidson, Jr., and Stephen Wood Davidson, who
do not understand why their father had to be away most of
the time .















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


A formidable task exists with respect to conveying

sincere appreciation to the many individuals who contributed

of their budgets, talents, and time to the success of this

joint sex research project "Sex Attitudes and Behavior in a

Medical Milieu" under the auspices of River City College

and Southern Medical School. From this research project, a

portion of data was used for analytical purposes in this

dissertation. Individuals deserving recognition who imme-

diately come to mind are Joanne Atkins; John M. Chambers;

Richard L. Church; Josephine Frazier Davidson; Carole Earle;

Elizabeth Sikes Evans; Dr. Pierette Frickey; Dr. Robert E.

Frickey; Luetta McLimmons; Gloria Peebles; Robert E.

Reynolds, M.D.; Carmen Johnson Rogers; William A. Scoggin,

M.D.; and Preston Lea Wilds, M.D.

Two code clerks, Neville Riley Hudson and Karen Cross

Pinner,deserve special mention, as does a Southern Medical

School computer programmer, Clarence H. Manly, Jr. Without

their efforts, these research findings would have remained

largely unintelligible.

Sincere appreciation is hereby expressed for the valuable

suggestions provided by Drs. Ruth E. Albrecht and Joseph S.

Vandiver of the Department of Sociology and Mary H. McCaulley










of the Department of Psychology, who served as members of

the doctoral committee. Dr. Felix M. Berardo, in addition

to his efforts as a doctoral committee member, provided

valuable insight into the tedious process of theory construc-

tion in family sociology. Dr. Gerald R. Leslie, chairman

of the doctoral committee, deserves special recognition for

having provided direction, guidance, suggestions, and

valuable support in the writing of this dissertation.

Capable typing for various drafts of this dissertation

was provided by Stella Abner, Pamela Caggiano, and Jana

Agerton Henry. The laborious task of translating the

author's handwriting is gratefully acknowledged.

A debt of gratitude is owed to Joy Graham Osteen and

the Northeast Regional Data Center of the State University

System of Florida for computer services, and for the capable

manner in which the final data analysis was handled. Finan-

cial support provided by the Department of Sociology at the

University of Florida made this final data analysis possible.



















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . .. .. .. .. . . iv

LIST OF TABLES .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. viii

ABSTRACT .. ... .. .. ... .. .. .. xii

CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION .. .. . .. .... .. 1

Purpose .. .. ... .. .. .. .. 1
Definition of Concept . . ... .. 10
Plan of the Dissertation .. .. ... 11

II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .. .. .. .. 14

Current Status of Research .. .. .. 14
Review of the Literature .. . .... 21
Inventory of Empirical Propositions for
Never-Married Females . .. . .... 22
Studies Not Utilized . ... .. . 27
Methodological Problems in Current Litera-
ture .. ... . ... .. ... 28
Some Testable Propositions About Pre-
marital Sexual Intercourse Among Females 33

III. METHODOLOGY . . .. . .. . 38

Background .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 38
The Instrument .. .. .. ... .. 40
Analysis of the Data . ... .. ... 46
The Sample .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 41

IV. THE ANALYSIS OF THE DATA .. . .. ... 55

Description of the Respondents ... 55
The Menstrual Histories of the Respondents 69
The Sexual Histories of the Respondents . 80
Evaluation of Testable Propostions . .. 93
Some Related Findings ... .. .. .. 140












Page


CHAPTER

V. THEORIES OF PREMARITAL SEXUAL INTERCOURSE..

The Methodology of Theory Construction..
Empirical Propositions for Theory Construc-
tion . . . . . . . . .
Derived Propositions...........
Theoretical Propositions...... ..
Two Middle-Range Theories of Premarital
Sexual Intercourse ...........

VI. SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH,
AND CONCLUSIONS..............

Summary . . . . . . . .
Implications for Future Research.....
Conclusions .. .....


APPENDIX

I. FEMALE QUESTIONNAIRE AND ORGASM

Female Questionnaire....
Orgasm Rating Sheet....

II. TABLES . . . . .

REFERENCES ..............

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ..........


RATING SHEET


. . . .

















LIST OF TABLES


TABLE Page

1. Respondents by Sample Group and Sex .. .. 53

2. Age Distribution of Two Sample Groups .. .. 56

3. Class Standing of Two Sample Groups . .. .. 58

4. Dating Status of Two Sample Groups .. .. 59

5. Religious Preference of Two Sample Groups .. 61

6. Church Attendance of Two Sample Groups . .. 62

7. Father's Occupation of Two Sample Groups .. 64

8. Size of Place Where Reared of Two Sample Groups 66

9.Number of Children in Families of Orientation
of Two Sample Groups .. .. .. .. .. .. 67

10. Ordinal Position in Families of Two Sample Groups 68

11. Anticipation of Marriage in the Future of Two
Sample Groups . .... .. .. .. .. 70

12. Age at First Menstrual Period of Two Sample
Groups .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. 72

13. Regularity of Menstrual Period of Two Sample
Groups ... .. .. .. .. ... ... . 73

14. Length of Menstrual Cycle of Two Sample Groups 77

15. Quantity of Menstrual Flow of Two Sample Groups 78

16. Length of Menstrual Flow of Two Sample Groups 79

17. Experience with Sexual Intercourse of Two
Sample Groups .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 81

18. Age at First Act of Sexual Intercourse of Two
Sample Groups .. .. .. ... .. .. 83


V111












TABLE Page

19. Quality of First Act of Sexual Intercourse of
Two Sample Groups . .... .. .. .. 85

20. Frequency of Sexual Intercourse with First Sex
Partner of Two Sample Groups . .. .. .. 86

21. Number of Different Sex Partners of Two Sample
Groups ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 88

22. Experience with Orgasm of Two Sample Groups .89

23. Experience with Petting to Orgasm with Members
of Opposite Sex of Two Sample Groups .. 91

24. Experience with Orgasm While Having Sexual
Intercourse of Two Sample Groups . ... 92

25. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Recommended Age for Marriage o
Females .. ... .. .. .. .~.. .. . 96

26. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse by
Sample, and Age at First Menstruation . ... 97

27. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Age at Learning Where Babies
Come from ... .. . ... .. .. .. .. 99

28. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Attitude Toward Oral-Genital Sex 101

29. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Attitude Toward Masturbation . 104

30. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Attitude Toward Sexual Inter-
course During Menstrual Period . ... .. 106

31. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Ordinal Position in Family .. 108

32. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Employment Plans Following
Marriage ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 110

33. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Number of Children Desired .. 112

34. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and When First Child Desired in
Marriage .. .. ... . ... .. .. .. 113











TABLE


Page


35. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Employment Plans- After Chil-
dren Born .. .. .. .. ... .. .. 115

36. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and for Whom Sexual Intercourse
Pleasurable ... .. .. .. .. ... 117

37. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Experienced Orgasm . .. .. 118

38. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Age at First Orgasm .. .. 120

39. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Petted to Orgasm . .. .. 122

40. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Expressed Dissatisfaction with
Petting to Orgasm .. ... .. . 123

41. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Knowledge About Reproductive
Physiology ... .. .. .. .. .. .. 125

42. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Knowledgeable About Definition
of Female Orgasm ... .. .. .. .. 126

43. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Knowledgeable About Description
of Female Orgasm .. .. .. ... .. 128

44. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Contraceptive Technique
Thought To Be Effective . ... .. .. .. 131

45. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Current Dating Status . .. 132

46. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Academic Class Standing .. 134

47. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Religious Preference .. .. 135

48. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Frequency of Church Attendance 137

49. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Father's Occupation . ... 139











TABLE


Page


50. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Type of Personal Hygiene
Product Used During Menstrual Period .. .. 141

51. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Type of Menstrual Period Experi-
enced .. .. .. ... ... .. . 143

52. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Heard Pros-Cons About Oral-
Genital Sex. . .. ... ... . .. 190

53. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Heard Pros-Cons About
Masturbation ... .. .. . ... . 191

54. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse,
by Sample, and Heard and/or Read About Sexual
Intercourse During Menstrual Period .. .. 192











Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

PREMARITAL SEXUAL INTERCOURSE: A MODIFIED APPROACH
TO AXIOMATIC THEORY CONSTRUCTION

By

John Kenneth Davidson, Sr.

December, 1974

Chairman: Dr. Gerald R. Leslie
Major Department: Sociology

This study is an empirical investigation of premarital

sexual intercourse, utilizing a modified axiomatic approach

to theory construction, to develop two middle-range theories

of premarital sexual intercourse among females. These

theories were grounded in previous empirical research and

existing theoretical frames of reference.

A comprehensive review of all relevant research litera-

ture involving premarital sexual intercourse among females

was made. After review of the available literature, a propo-

sitional inventory was developed from existing empirical

research.

Using this propositional inventory as a guide, a subse-

quent list of 22 empirical propositions about premarital

sexual intercourse among females was .formulated. A number

of previously unreported independent variables, such as

attitude toward oral-genital sex and attitude toward having










sexual intercourse during the menstrual period, were employed

in this investigation of premarital sexual intercourse.

A previously unanalyzed data base of 336 never-married

Caucasian college coeds, in River City, a Southern Metropoli-

tan Statistical Area containing a major medical complex, was

used to test the foregoing 22 empirical propositions to

determine their statistical significance.

The data were treated as two independent samples because

of the considerable difference in the percentages of

Allied Health coeds and River City coeds who reported having

had premarital sexual intercourse.

In the interest of contributing to the eventual elimina-

tion of some myths and old wives' tales frequently, associated

with the menstrual cycle, a description of the medical

menstrual history of the respondents is presented. A

o sexual profile of the respondents is also presented to

provide background information for evaluation of the proposi-

tions.

By use of a significance level of p = .05, 15 of the

original 22 empirical propositions tested were found to be

either statistically significant or with data in the stated

direction of the proposition for at least one of the inde-

pendent samples.

Those 15 empirical propositions found to be either

statistically significant or in the stated direction were

used to develop seven new derived propositions by the


X111











process of retroduction. A reapplication of the process of

retroduction led to the formulation of four theoretical

propositions. Through the utilization of the reference

group theory model and the exchange theory model, two of the

theoretical propositions were further developed in the

cultural milieu permissiveness theory (Theory I) and the

affection theory (Theory II) respectively.

These data suggest several new, unique independent

variables which have strong theoretical implications for

future empirical investigations of premarital sexual inter-

course among females.





CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION


Purpose


Writing in 1959, Goode issued a sweeping indictment of

family sociology for its lack of emphasis on theory building.

He concluded that the task of theory construction has, in

general, been largely neglected in family sociology, al-

though more research reports are published yearly in this

substantive area than in almost any other branch of sociology.

Most family sociologists have seemed content with working

at the descriptive level rather than at the theoretical level

(Goode, 1959:179).

This project focuses upon one aspect of family behavior,

premarital sexual intercourse. There has been a distinct

lack of concern for the utilization and/or development of

theory in most empirical investigations of premarital sexual

intercourse. In the past, most researchers have been in-

clined merely to ascertain the level of lifetime participa-

tion in premarital sexual intercourse among their respondents.

Christensen, in his discussion of theory development

in family sociology, has delineated a typology of scholarly

sophistication used in the study of the family. This

typology can be readily applied to the existing levels











of sophistication in research that is concerned with pre-

marital sexual intercourse (Christenson, 1969:211-212).

This typology can be applied to studies of premarital

sexual intercourse in the following manner:

Argument by assertion. Value judgments are combined

with moralistic impressions as to how things are thought to

exist in reality. Some of the earlier, moralistically toned

research monographs on premarital sexual intercourse, such

as the work of Exner (1915), fit into this category.

Argument by reason and logic. This category can, in

essence,be labeled as armchair philosophizing, with no

attempt being made to: utilize any empirical evidence. A

recent notable example of this approach is Bell's Premarital

Sex in a Changing Society (1966).

Empirical proof-seeking. This procedure attempts to use

empirical evidence to substantiate preconceived notions of,

or existing relationships among, variables. An outstanding

example of this particular procedure is a study by Bromley

and Britten (1938) which acknowledged "the universality of

the current sex revolution across all educational and social

classes."

Empirical truth-seeking. This mode includes a heavy

reliance upon the scientific method. Empirical evidence is

utilized with an absence of bias in the interpretation of

data. Clayton's (1969) investigation of the relationship

between religious orthodoxy and premarital sexual intercourse

may serve as a primary example of this mode.











The publication of Sexual Behavior in the Human Male

(Kinsey, Pomeroy, and Martin, 1948) and, subsequently,

Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin,

and Gebhard, 1953) provided the major impetus for research

on premarital sexual intercourse to move from Christensen's

category of empirical proof-seeking to the category of

empirical truth-seeking. Prior to these publications, most

research on premarital sexual intercourse could be classified

in the category of empirical proof-seeking. Most researchers

attempted only to substantiate their own beliefs regarding

the extent of lifetime premarital sexual intercourse and the

variables found to be associated with participation in pre-

marital sexual intercourse. The following year, Alfred M.

Mirande (1968) published a paper using reference group

theory as a theoretical perspective for the study of premari-

tal sexual intercourse. For the third annual Burgess Award

Lecture in 1968, Harold T. Christensen outlined his newly

developed "theory of relative consequences" for the study of

premarital sexual intercourse. Thus far, the efforts of

Reiss, Mirande, and Christensen have represented the major

thrust in the area of theory building for the study of

premarital sexual intercourse.

Reiss developed a series of seven propositions relat-

ing to premarital sexual permissiveness. These propositions

are as follows:

1. The lower the traditional level of sexual per-
missiveness in a group, the greater the likelihood
that social forces will alter individual levels of
sexual permissiveness. (Reiss, 1967:160)











White females, for example, will be particularly affected by

such independent variables as church attendance, love affairs,

and romantic love.

2. The stronger the amount of general liberality in
a group, the greater the likelihood that social
forces will.maintain high levels of sexual per-
missiveness. (Reiss, 1967:161)

This general liberality trait includes liberality on such

questions as political, economic, and religious issues.

Persons possessing high degrees of general liberality will

be, typically, more receptive to social attitudes that may

encourage and maintain high levels of sexual permissiveness.

3. To the extent that individual ties to the marital
and family institutions differ, individuals will
tend to display a different type of sensitivity of
permissiveness to social forces. (Reiss, 1967 :161)

Males and females will tend to exhibit fundamental differences

in the effect of courtship patterns upon sexual permissiveness.

Women will tend to utilize romantic love as a justification

for a particular level of sexual permissiveness.

4. The higher the overall level of permissiveness in
a group, the greater the extent of equalitarianism
within the abstinence and double standard classifi-
cations. (Reiss, 1967:162)

Increased permissiveness will lead to greater equality be-

tween the sexes with respect to participation in premarital

sexual intercourse.

5. Differences in the potential for permissiveness in
a basic set of parentally derived values are a key
determinant of the number, rate, and direction of
changes in premarital sexual standards and behavior.
(Reiss, 1967:163)










6. There is a general tendency for the individual to
perceive parents' permissiveness as a low point on
a permissiveness continuum and peers' permissive-
ness as a high point, and to place himself closer
to peers, particularly to those regarded as close
friends. (Reiss, 1967:162)

Those individuals who perceive themselves as similar to

parents in values will tend to be low on a scale of permissive-

ness whereas those more similar to peers will tend to be high

in permissiveness.

7. The greater .the responsibility for other family
members and/or the less the courtship participation,
the greater the likelihood that the individual will
be low on permissiveness. (Reiss, 1967:163)

It .follows from this proposition that the more emotionally

involved one becomes with the courtship partner, the less

influence parents will have in the final determination of

sexual behavior.

From the foregoing propositions, Reiss formulated the

following theory of premarital sexual permissiveness:

The degree of acceptable premarital permissiveness in a
courtship group varies directly with the degree of
autonomy of the courtship and with the degree of accep-
table premarital sexual permissiveness in the social
and cultural setting outside the group. (1967:164)

Each person has a biological sex drive which encourages

sexual activity and physical release. In an autonomous

courtship system, a greater likelihood exists that this bio-

logical sex drive will find expression through premarital

sexual intercourse. The youth of today, according to Reiss

(1967), have both a sense of adventure and a general liberal-

ity toward sex. Reiss, however, cautions the reader against





assuming that autonomy of courtship necessarily promotes

promiscuity. Females are known to place certain limitations

on their sexual activity in line with the degree of serious-

ness of the courtship stage.

It is unfortunate .that Reiss has chosen the term per-

missiveness for the development of his theory, as this term

carries value connotations for many persons. Nevertheless,

Reiss has made a major contribution to theory building in the

study of premarital sexual intercourse.

Reference group theory, according to M~irjnaei, suggests

that the behavior of a person will be consistent with the ex-

pectations of the group which the individual uses as a refer-

ence point. Mirande argues that reference group theory should

be applied to the study of premarital sexual behavior in

hopes of promoting further understanding of the various pat-

terns of sexual activity exhibited by college students.

Mirande has hypothesized that "The sexual behavior of an in-

dividual will tend to' be a function of the expectations of

his peer reference group, irrespective of the direction of

the influence" (Mirande, 1968:573). This hypothesis has been

substantiated through empirical investigation using college

students as respondents. One is able to c~onclude from Mirandes

data that students are influenced byt~h~e behavior and expec-

tations of close associates. While persons are influenced

by all their peers, the evidence indicates that they seek out

peer groups which reinforce their own predispositions toward

sexual activity. While this theory seems plausible in light











of the available evidence, much additional research is needed

to justify using the reference group perspective, by itself,

in attempts to explain premarital sexual intercourse.

Christensen's theory of relative consequences consists

of six propositions*, as -follows:

1. Certain relationships among variables in the sexual
realm verge upon universality, while others tend to
be culture bound. (Christensen, 1969:216)

This proposition assumes that cultural norms are viewed as a

confounding variable, that is, operating to alter the behavior

itself as well as the consequences of such behavior.

2. Sexual norms influence behavior, making for essen-
tial consensus and conformity within a given society;
yet there is always some individual deviation, and
this occurs at the levels of both attitudes and
behavior. (Christensen, 1969:216)

In a permissive society one would expect to find permissive

behavior, and in a restrictive society one would expect to

find nonpermissive behavior. One should thus be able to

hypothesize that some persons may exist in the society whose

behavior is out of step with their own standards. In other

words, a value-behavior discrepancy is said to exist-for

such persons.

3. Movement toward greater permissiveness in sexual
norms tends to converge both attitudes and behavior
as between males and females but to encourage the
persistence of certain subcultures. (Christensen,
1969:216)

Females appear to be much more receptive to shifts toward

liberality of attitudes than males. The sexual attitudes

and behavior of females have more and more tended to approxi-

mate those of males, particularly in Scandinavian countries.











In societies where the range of tolerance for sexual behavior

is great, subcultures play a much greater role in the deter-

mination of such behavior than in restrictive societies such

as that of the Mormons in Utah.

4. Deviations from an arbitrarily assumed restrictive
sex standard decrease with restrictiveness in the
culture except where love and/or commitment inter-
vene. (Christensen, 1969:217)

One may expect that approval of premarital sexual intercourse

would increase as the level of love and/or commitment be-

tween potential sex partners increased.

5. Deviations from actual sex norms, as these are pre-
scribed by existing societies and internalized
within their constituent members, increased with
restrictiveness in the culture. (Christensen, 1969:
218)

As the restrictiveness of the culture increases, violations

of one's own standards concerning premarital sexual inter-

course are likely to increase. Christensen has termed this

phenomenon value-behavior discrepancy.

6. Negative consequences deriving from premarital
coitus are positively related to these behavioral
deviations from norms, which means that they in-
crease with restrictiveness in the culture.
(Christensen, 1969:218)

The negative consequences of guilt--the hurried weddings upon

discovery of pregnancy, and later divorce because of pre-

marital' pregnancy--would be expected to be much more frequent

in restrictive cultures.

Christensen derived from the aforementioned propositions

the following theory of relative consequences:

Both the behavior itself and the resulting effects of.
premarital sexual intimacy are in part dependent upon
differing cultural norms, plus the conversion of these










norms into individual values; and the negative con-
sequences are greatest in restrictive societies,
where behavior is most deviant from existing standards.
(Christensen, 1969:219)

In a recent publication entitled A Decade of Family

Research and Action (Cannon and Long, 1971), an intellectual

challenge was issued for the development of further theory

relating to premarital sexual intercourse. After a thorough

and comprehensive review of research reports on premarital

sexual intercourse published during the decade of the 1960s,

Cannon and Long surmised that, with the notable exceptions

of Reiss and Christensen, little attempt has been made to

base research on existing theoretical orientations. Un-

fortunately, many existing propositions lack any integration

and linkage with~propositional statements developed in other

areas of sociology. To this list of theorists in the sub-

stantive area of premarital sexual intercourse, it would seem

appropriate to add the names of Clayton (1969, 1972) and

Mirande (1968).

Later studies have consistently failed to support the

propositions contained in Reiss's theory (Heltsley and

Broderick, 1969; Middendorp, Brinkman, and Koomen, 1970;

Maranell, Dodder, and Mitchell, 1970). However, in rejoinders

to these published reports, Reiss has argued that methodologi-

cal problems in the research designs have resulted in the

propositions not being subjected to adequate testing (Reiss,

1969, 1970). Christensen's theory has, as yet, not under-

gone completely adequate field testing to determine its

theoretical value.











The purpose of this dissertation is to develop theoreti-

cal propositions about premarital sexual intercourse using

the retroduction process as a technique of theory construc-

tion, as suggested by the works of Berardo (1969) and

Zetterberg (1965). This approach is also somewhat comparable

to the work of Bartz and Nye (1970).in studying early mar-

riages. Bartz and Nye listed at least two distinct advan-

tages to this approach in theory building. First, theory

constructed in this manner will be based upon existing re-

search. Secondly, this technique allows easy pinpointing

of gaps in available research (Zetterberg, 1965; Bartz and

Nye, 1969).

This approach, suggested by the works of Zetterberg,

Berardo, and Bartz and Nye, should lead to the development of

one or more partial or middle-range theories (Gibbs, 1972;

Merton, 1957).


Definition of Concept

Premarital sexual intercourse, for the purpose of this

dissertation, will be defined as the intromission of the

penis by a never-married male into the vaginal tract of a

never-married female. The absence of orgasm on the part of

the male and/or female does not preclude the use of this

definition. Any form of heterosexual, noncoital sex is,

however, specifically excluded by this particular definition.

From a semantic standpoint, the use of the term premarital

creates certain terminological problems (Gibbs, 1972;





Zetterberg, 1965). By definition, this term is usually

interpreted to mean that which precedes marriage; yet, not

all persons in an unmarried state who engage in sexual inter-

course with each other eventually marry. The term nonmarital

coitus might seem to be a more appropriate descriptive term.

However, conventionality of usage in the sociological litera-

ture dictates the use of the term premarital sexual inter-

course. Further terminological confusion results when

"premarital sexual intercourse" is used to describe a never-

married person who is having sexual intercourse with a married

person. Conventionality would seem to indicate that for the

former it is "premarital" and for the latter it is "extra-

marital" sexual intercourse. Since we shall be .dealing with

the sexual behavior of the unmarried person only, that

problem need not concern us (Gibbs, 1972).


Plan of the Dissertation

This dissertation will consist of four parts. In the

first part, a thorough review of all reported research

literature relevant to the stated problem will be made. A

comprehensive list of empirical propositions will then be

made using each of the independent variables referred to in

the research literature. It is expected that, in many cases,

empirical propositions will have to be extracted from the

existing reported data, because formally stated propositions

may not appear in the research reports. If more than one










citation is found for the same proposition, a notation will

b~e made as to whether the additional citations lend support

to, or tend to refute, the proposition. Only empirically

based research will be used to pinpoint independent variables

for inclusion in the list of empirical propositions.

The second part will consist of subjecting certain of

these empirical propositions to further empirical test.

An unanalyzed data base of 336 never-married Caucasian

females, which consists of 140 River City College coeds and

196 Allied Health Science coeds from River City College,

Southern Medical School, and River City Hospital's School

of Nursing, is available for this purpose.* These data will

be treated, for the purpose of this data analysis, as two

independent samples. Appropriate statistical techniques will

be utilized to determine the level of significance and the

degree of association between the independent variables and

the dependent variable of premarital sexual intercourse found

in each of the empirical propositions.

In the third part of the dissertation, those empirical

propositions found to be statistically significant will be

combined into theoretical propositions using the process of

retroduction. This process involves the level of abstraction

of the independent variable, thus permitting certain proposi-

tions with commonality of concepts to be combined.


*In the interest of preserving the anonymity of respon-
dents, the foregoing pseudonyms will be used throughout this
dissertation.






13



The fourth part will consist of ascertaining the re-

semblance of these theoretical propositions to any existing

theoretical frames of reference in sociological theory.

"...[T~he goal of theory construction is the creation or

identification of order, and success can be judged by the

predictive power of the theory" (Gibbs, 1972 :305). If any

empirical regularities are discovered, they will be treated

and viewed as the establishment of possible theoretical

perspectives for the study of premarital sexual intercourse,

rather than as models of causation or explanation.







































































~


CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Current Status of Research


Over the years, a number of different independent vari-

ables have been utilized to study the likelihood of partici-

pation in premarital sexual intercourse. Some of the more

frequently used variables will be briefly explored to demon-

strate their relevance for a study of premarital sexual inter-

course.

Age has been one of the most frequently employed vari-

ables. A basic assumption in the use of this variable has

been that the older the person, the more lifetime exposure

he or she has had to the possibility of participating in

premarital sexual intercourse. Early studies indicated

that, as age increased, the incidence of premarital sexual

intercourse increased (Terman, 1938; Kinsey et al., 1948;

Kinsey et al, 1953). Other more recent studies have con-

sidered the age of the individual per se as an oversimplifi-

cation of the possible relationship with premarital sexual

intercourse. A more logical approach seems to be to con-

sider age at marriage. After all, the length of the life-

time exposure pattern is, essentially, a function of the

age of a person at the time of marriage. Chilman (1966),

in using this approach, found that early marriage for females











was associated with a greater likelihood of ever engaging in

premarital sexual intercourse, but that late marriage for

males was associated with a greater likelihood. While this

variable has been used in several studies, no consistent

direction has been established.

Terman (1938j found that early age at menstruation was

associated with a higher incidence of premarital sexual inter-

course among females. The rationale was that early maturing

females would experience physiological desire for sexual

intercourse earlier; therefore they would have a longer life-

time interest and exposure to the possibility of premarital

sexual intercourse. Another possible interpretation of

these data is that females who reach physiological maturity

early change their reference groups, thereby creating the

possibility of having peer group approval for sexual inter-

course prior to marriage.

Individuals who begin to date at a very early age also

were found to have participated in premarital sexual inter-

course in greater proportions than persons who begin to

date at a later age (Bell and Chaskes, 1970). Again, lifetime

exposure to the possibility of sexual experience appears to

be a key element in this finding.

In more recent years, considerable research interest

has been directed toward the theoretical typology of pre-

marital sexual standards constructed by Ira Reiss. Persons

accepting premarital sexual intercourse as a personal stan-

dard of behavior have tended to exhibit higher rates of











participation in premarital sexual intercourse. Females, in

particular, have exhibited a higher incidence of premarital

sexual intercourse if their personal standards included

sexual intercourse before marriage (Christensen and Gregg,

1970).

Many persons opposing the dissemination of contraceptive

information have argued that such information leads to an

increased incidence of premarital sexual intercourse; yet only

one author has chosen to use this variable for research pur-

poses. Davis (1929) found higher rates of premarital sexual

intercourse among females with contraceptive information.

Another variable appearing in some form in much recent

research has been the courtship stage of the respondent.

Numerous studies have indicated that females associate love

and affection with potential participation in premarital

sexual intercourse. As they progress toward more serious and

meaningful relationships with dating partners, they become

much more receptive to the idea of engaging in premarital

sexual intercourse. Using the courtship stage as a variable

in the incidence of premarital sexual intercourse has taken

a.variety of forms. Long engagements have been found to be

associated with a higher incidence of premarital sexual inter-

course for females (Burgess and Wallin, 1953). Courtship

stage was used as a variable in a study reproted by Bell

and Blumberg (1959). As the seriousness of the dating

relationship increased, the incidence of premarital sexual

intercourse among females increased geometrically.











In a later study, Bell and Chaskes (1970) reported that,

as the number of times females had gone steady increased,

the probability that they had participated in premarital

sexual intercourse greatly increased. They also found that

the greater the number of different boys females have dated,

the greater the probability that they have engaged in pre-

marital sexual intercourse. A greater number of different

dating partners increased the likelihood of a serious rela-

tionship developing for females, along with an increase in

the absolute number of emotionally involved lifetime situa-

tions (going steady) in which premarital sexual intercourse

might occur. A variation in the usual findings relative to

the stage of courtship as a variable was reported by Kanin

(1960). He found that a short period of exclusive dating

was more likely to lead to premarital sexual intercourse than

a long period of exclusive dating. The existence of an

engagement versus the nonexistence of an engagement greatly

increased the probability that premarital sexual intercourse

would occur for females (Freedman, 1965).

Presence of strict parental discipline in the home was

associated with a low incidence of premarital sexual inter-

course for females in data reported by Terman (1938:335). It

is of interest to note that, apparently, no other sex re-

searcher has utilized this variable in studies of premarital

sexual intercourse. Based on other nonsexual data, many

researchers would argue that strict parental discipline seems











more likely to increase the incidence of premarital sexual

intercourse among females than to lessen the likelihood of

its occurrence.

The educational level of the respondent has been fre-

quently used as a variable in research cm premarital sexual

intercourse. Some researchers argue that educational level

should not be considered as a variable distinct from that of

socioeconomic status. However, its separate usage can be

justified in terms of its apparent opposite effect for males

and females. Males with low levels of educational achieve-

ment have generally indicated higher participation rates for

premarital sexual intercourse than females with low levels

of educational achievement (Kinsey, 1953:293-296).

Clayton found that male fraternity members had higher

rates of participation in premarital sexual intercourse than

independent males. Sorority members, though, had a lower

incidence of premarital sexual intercourse than did indepen-

dent females (Clayton, 1969:471-473). The sorority members

were very concerned about the image and reputation of their

organizations on the campus where the survey had been conducted.

They had elaborate sets of procedures for handling deviations

from their organizational norms.

Happiness of the parents'. marriage was found to be

associated with the incidence of premarital sexual inter-

course by Christensen and Carpenter. This variable was

significant in the stated direction for Intermountain and

Midwestern University samples only. Students who reported





19



happy parental marriages tended to have lower rates of par-

ticipation in premarital sexual intercourse when contrasted

with students who reported unhappy parental marriages

(Christensen and Carpenter, 1962:67-69). This variable seems

to imply that young people found in unhappy home environments

will likely turn to other sources of attention and affection.

Kaats and Davis concluded from their data that physical

attractiveness on the part of females increased the likeli-

hood that they would participate in premarital sexual inter-

course. Physical attractiveness would appear to increase

the theoretical number of life chances females may have to

participate in premarital sexual intercourse (Kaats and Davis,

1970:395-396).

The variable of religion has been used down through the

years in investigations of the general incidence of pre-

marital sexual intercourse. The traditional religious

breakdown of Protestant, Catholic, and Jew has been employed

most frequently in studying the relationship between pre-

marital sexual intercourse and religious affiliation. Most

studies have indicated the highest incidence of premarital

sexual intercourse for male and female Catholics (Bell and

Blumberg, 1959; Peretti, 1969). With one or two notable

exceptions, Jews have tended to exhibit the lowest incidence

of premarital sexual intercourse (Hohman and Schaffner, 1947).

These findings could possibly be a function of the avail-

ability of eligible dating and marriage partners according

to one's religious preference. Courtship folklore supports





the claim that often Jewish males seduce Gentile females

to preserve the Jewish females' virginity for marriage. The

available data do not permit either acceptance or rejection

of this contention. The data do, however, indicate that

Jewish females' virginity is more often preserved until

marriage, whatever the reasons may be.

Numerous attempts have been made to ascertain a rela-

tionship between premarital sexual intercourse and religiosity.

One of the major difficulties with this variable is the

measurement of the concept of religiosity. Frequency of

church attendance has been-used in many instances as an index

of devoutness in religious faith. Yet, researchers have

argued down through the years that church attendance itself

is a poor index of religiosity. These considerations not-

withstanding, frequency of church attendance has been asso-

ciated with a low incidence of premarital sexual intercourse

(Burgess and Wallin, 1953:339). Using the Putney and Middle-

ton Likert-type scale of religious orthodoxy (defined herein

as religiosity), .Clayton found that high religious orthodoxy

scores were associated with low incidences of premarital

sexual intercourse for independent males and females but not

for male and female members of Greek-letter social organiza-

tions (Clayton, 1969:470-472). Burges-s and Wallin, among

others, also noted that persons with no religious preference

indicated the highest incidence of premarital sexual inter-

course (Burgess and Wallin, 1953:339).





Early researchers used the variable of rural-urban

residence in studies of premarital sexual intercourse.

A higher incidence of premarital sexual intercourse was found

to be associated with an urban background (Kinsey et al., 1948:

455 ). Today, with the gradual diminution of previous

rural-urban differences, this variable is no longer considered

relevant by most researchers.

While considerable variation exists in the particular

technique used in evaluating social class, most researchers

are in agreement that the incidence of premarital sexual

intercourse is much greater among persons from the lower

class as contrasted with persons from the middle class

(Kinsey et al., 1953; Diamant, 1970; Hohman and Schaffner,

1947; Kanin, 1960). Bell and Chaskes (1970), however, have

recently reported that no significant differences exist in

the incidence of premarital sexual intercourse among re-

spondents when using father's occupation and father's educa-

tional level as indices of social class.


Review of the Literature

Beginning with the year 1915, all available empirical

research concerned with premarital sexual intercourse has

been carefully reviewed. This comprehensive review of the

relevant research literature has provided a somewhat lengthy

inventory of empirical propositions. In many instances,

it has been necessary to formally construct empirical propo-

sitions from the independent variables appearing in the











research reports, as many authors chose not to place variables

in a propositional format.

For the sake of clarity, consistency in the wording of

the empirical propositions has been utilized wherever pos-

sible. This structural requirement has led to a rewording

of many existing propositions. Nevertheless, the integrity

of each proposition has been maintained by not altering the

stated direction of the independent variable. The cited

reference for each empirical proposition indicates where

support, and/or lack of support, may be found in the research

literature for a particular independent variable.


Inventory of Empirical Propositions for
Never-Married Females

1. There is a direct relationship between age and having

had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Bergen,

1972; Kinsey et al., 1953; Ramsey, 1943; Vener, Stewart,

and Hager, 1972; not supported by Eastman, 1972).

2. There is an inverse relationship between age at marriage

and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported

by Chilman, 1966).

3. There is an inverse relationship between age at first

menstruation and having had premarital sexual inter-

course (supported by Terman, 1938).

4. There is an inverse relationship between age at first

date and having had premarital sexual intercourse (sup-

ported by Bell and Chaskes, 1970; Freeman and Freeman,

1966).





5. There is a direct relationship between having a personal

standard which includes premarital sexual intercourse

and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported

by Christensen and Gregg, 1970; Freeman and Freeman,

1966).

6. There is, a direct relationship between contraceptive

knowledge and having had premarital sexual intercourse

(supported by Davis, 1929).

7. There is a direct relationship between perceived norms

of sexual permissiveness among others in general and

having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by

Teevan, 1972; not supported by Clayton, 1972).

8. There is a direct relationship between perceived norms of

.sexual permissiveness and having had premarital sexual

intercourse (supported by Freeman and Freeman, 1966;

Teevan, 1972; not supported by Clayton, 1972).

9. There is a direct relationship between involvement in a

love relationship and having had premarital sexual inter-

course (supported by Bell and Blumberg, 1959; Bergen,

1972; Christensen and Gregg, 1970; Eastman, 1972;

Freedman, 1965; Freeman and Freeman, 1966; Kanin, 1960;

Karen, 1959; Locke, 1951; Prince and Shipman, 1960).

10. There is a direct relationship between length of engage-

ment and having had premarital sexual intercourse (sup-

ported by Burgess and Wallin, 1953).





.1. There is a direct relationship between the number of
different boys dated and having had premarital sexual

intercourse (supported by Bell and Chaskes, 1970).

12. There is an inverse relationship between having had

strict discipline in the home and having had premarital

sexual intercourse (supported by Bergen, 1972; Terman,

1938).

13. There is a direct relationship between educational level

and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported

by Bergen, 1972; Kinsey et al., 1953).

14. There is an inverse relationship between grade point

average and having had premarital sexual intercourse

(supported by Bergen, 1972; Freeman and Freeman, 1966).

15. Females enrolled in Colleges of Arts and Sciences are

more likely to have had premarital sexual intercourse

than are females enrolled in Colleges of Education

(supported by Bergen, 1972).

16. Independents are more likely to have had premarital

sexual intercourse than are sorority members (supported

by Clayton, 1969).

17. There is a direct relationship between being estranged

from parents and having had premarital sexual inter-

course (supported by Teevan, 1972).

18. There is a direct relationship between living alone and

having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by

Arafat and Yorburg, 1973).





19. There is a direct relationship between having parents

with an unhappy marriage and having had premarital

sexual intercourse (supported by Christensen and Carpen-

ter, 1962).

20. There is a direct relationship between physical attrac-

tiveness and having had premarital sexual intercourse

(supported by Kaats and Davis, 1970).

21. Protestant females are more likely to have had pre-

marital sexual intercourse than are Jewish females

(supported by Althoff and Nussel, 1971; Arafat and

Yorburg, 1973; Freeman and Freeman, 1966).

22. Catholic females are more likely to have had premarital

sexual intercourse than are Protestant females (sup-

ported by Bell and Blumberg, 1959; Freeman and Freeman,

1966; Bergen, 1972; Peretti, 1969; not supported by

Arafat and Yorburg, 1973; Kinsey et al., 1953).

23. There is an inverse relationship between church atten-

dance and having had premarital sexual intercourse

(supported by Bauman, 1973; Bergen, 1972; Burgess and

Wallin, 1953; Freeman and Freeman, 1966; Kinsey et al.,

1953; Prince and Shipman, 1960).

24. There is an inverse relationship between sex guilt and

having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by

Mosher and Cross, 1971).

25. There is a direct relationship between urban residential

background and having had premarital sexual intercourse

(supported by Bergen, 1972; Kinsey et al., 1953).





26. Females from the East are more likely to have had

premarital sexual intercourse than are females from

the Deep South (supported by Bergen, 1972).

27. Females from the East are more likely to have had

premarital sexual intercourse than are females from

the Midwest (supported by Bergen, 1972).

28. Females from the Far West are more likely to have had

premarital sexual intercourse than are females from

the Deep South (supported by Bergen, 1972).

29. Females fran the Far West are more likely to have had

premarital sexual intercourse than are females from

the Midwest (supported by Bergen, 1972).

30. There is a direct relationship between lower-class

values and having had premarital sexual intercourse

(supported by Kinsey et al., 1953, for females when

using level of education an an index; not supported by

Bell and Chaskes, 1970; Bergen, 1972, for females when

using level of education as an index).

31. There .is an inverse relationship between father's social

class and having had premarital sexual intercourse

(supported by Vener et al., 1972).

32. There is a direct relationship between use of marijuana

and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported

by Arafat and Yorburg, 1973; Bell and Clavan, 1973;

Milman and Su, 1973; Walters, Goethals, and Pope, 1972).





33. There is a direct relationship between use of alcoholic

beverages and having had premarital sexual intercourse

(supported by Bell and Clavan, 1973; Milman and Su,

1973).

34. There is a direct relationship between use of narcotics

(LSD, heroin, etc.) and having had premarital sexual

intercourse (supported by Arafat and Yorburg, 1973;

Milman and Su, 1973; Walters et al., 1972.


Studies Not Utilized


A number of available sources could not, logically, be

utilized for the purpose of extracting empirical propositions

for this dissertation. Among those sources not included was

the frequently cited work of Ira Reiss entitled The Social

Context of Premarital Sexual Permissiveness (1967). This

work was not selected because of the rather unusual stance

that Reiss takes with regard to the attitude versus behavior

dilemma. "Hopefully, by this time in the development of

social science we have discarded the primitive notion that

behavior rather than attitude is more of a 'true' measure of

a relationship" (Reiss, 1967:11). He then proceeds to equate

attitude with behavior, thus assuming that one can ascertain

behavior by asking about attitude.

Several sources were not included because of cultural

variation in the data which make meaningful comparisons with

data from the United States methodologically unsound










(Bock and lutaka, 1970; Chesser, 1956; Hobart, 1972; Slater,

1951; Schofield, 1965). A substantial number of sources

were rejected because no specific independent variables were

utilized in the research designs (Achilles, 1923; Bromley

and Britten, 1938; Cuber and Harroff, 1965; Herz, 1970;

Hughes, 1926; Kanin, 1957, 1969; Landis and Landis, 1953;

Macklin, 1972; Packard, 1968; Peterson, 1938; Robinson, King,

Dudley and Clune, 1968; Robinson, King, and Balswick, 1972).

Still other sources were not used because of the atypical

nature of samples, such as respondents being physically

handicapped (Landis and Bolles, 1942; Merrill, 1918; Schwartz,

1971; Strakosch, 1934).~ Finally, a large number of sources

were omitted from further consideration because of serious

methodological problems such as small "N", absence of statis-

tical tests of significance, or nonrepresentative sampling

procedures (Burchinal and Bock, 1959; Dickinson and Beam,

1934; Exner, 1915; Greene, 1964; Hamilton, 1929; Kirkendall,

1961; Kronhausen and Kronhausen, 1960; Lower, 1972; Luckey

and Nass, 1969; Pearl, '1925; Peck and Wells,1923; Taylor,

1933).


Methodological Problems in Current Literature

Considerable difficulty exists with respect to uni-

formity of definitions employed in gathering and reporting

empirical data on premarital sexual intercourse. Some

authors have questioned the idea of whether fellatio and

and cunnilingus may be appropriately counted as sexual





intercourse since these two sexual techniques are often found

in heavy petting (Freedman, 1965). Should homosexual ex-

periences that have led to orgasm on the part of the respon-

dent (Kinsey et al., 1948) be counted as part of the total

sexual intercourse experience? Is the true incidence of

premarital sexual intercourse somewhat underestimated by

virtue of the exclusion of fellatio, cunnilingus, and homo-

sexual experiences which result in orgasm for the respondent?

The use of the terms virgin and nonvirgin often provoke

a maze-like effect in the research. To report a female as

a nonvirgin after she has had sexual intercourse only one

time as part of lifetime behavior raises some serious theo-

retical questions. Should researchers be interested pri-

marily in current behavior or in total lifetime behavior?

Or should data be gathered on both lifetime and current

rates of participation in premarital sexual intercourse?

If only current behavior is studied, the percentage of

college females reporting participation in premarital sexual

intercourse drops drastically (Clayton, 1969).

There is a general lack of agreement as to the meaning

of the term technical virgin, and thus it is variously used

by many authors. Does it mean (Bromley and Britten, 1938)

caressing the breasts, manipulation of the genital area, or

any and all types of sexual stimulation leading to an orgasm,

except intromission of the penis into the vagina?





Often in the design of the research project, previous

research either has been ignored, or not properly applied,

in the development of the research design. Many of the early

researchers made no effort at all to review the relevant

literature in formulating the research design (Davis, 1929;

Dickinson and Beam, 1934).

Another critical problem in research~on premarital sexual

intercourse has been the inability and/or unwillingness on

the part of researchers to utilize representative samples in

their work. Most of the existing data on premarital sexual

intercourse are concerned with white college students, and

the samples are largely nonrepresentative and nonrandom.

Often one is unable even to generalize the data to other

students at the same college or university, not t'o mention

the prospect of other colleges and universities (Kirkendall,

1961; Kanin, 1960). A recurring problem is that of small

sample size, particularly when the data are categorized and

tabulated. Percentages often are calculated based on small

Ns, with the results being very misleading to an untrained

and unsophisticated reader (Freedman, 1965).

Many of the problems associated with nonrepresentative

and nonrandom sampling .can be attributed directly to the

lack of financial and administrative support from colleges

and universities for research about premarital sexual inter-

course. Consequently, most researchers have chosen to use

whatever sample groups they have immediate access to,





regardless of size and/or characteristics. Thus, the rather

extensive practice of utilizing volunteer subjects in the

gathering of data on premarital sexual intercourse still

exists today. A crucial question (Kaats and Davis, 1970)

then becomes, to what extent are respondents "coerced" into

participating in surveys against their wills? Does a

student in a classroom setting feel compelled to participate

in such a study if requested to do so by his instructor?

Would he or she fear that grade reprisal would occur if they

refused to cooperate?

Additional problems in sampling may be introduced if

students are told to report to a certain location at a par-

ticular time. One could argue that students who spend their

own time participating in a study are likely to be atypical

with respect to interest and/or participation in sexual

activity (Kirkendall, 1961). Peretti suggests that personal

contact be made in the respondent's own social setting,

assuming that anonymity can be preserved (Peretti, 1969).

Some researchers have chosen to pay respondents and the

recruiters of respondents. Bias in the selection process

may be a factor in the data collected under such circumstances

(Luckey and Nass, 1969; Kinsey et al., 1948; Kinsey et al.,

1953). Original respondents have been permitted to recruit

their friends for participation in some studies of premarital

sexual intercourse. Would these recruiters (Hamilton, 1929;

Kinsey et al., 1948; Kinsey et al., 1953) be likely to choose







































































~


other respondents who are similar in terms of their own be-

havior patterns?

A number of researchers have used mail questionnaires in

gathering data on premarital sexual intercourse (Packard,

1968; Davis, 1929; Burgess and Wallin, 1953). The obvious

question of collusion on filling out the questionnaire can

be raised, even though complete anonymity of the respondent

can be preserved using this data-gathering technique. Other

researchers have distributed questionnaires to groups for

completion and later gone back and retrieved them (Reiss,

1967; Exner, 1915).

The interview, eliminating anonymity in one sense of the

word, does make for greater rapport with the respondent,

which should result in more accurate and complete data

(Hamilton, 1929; Kinsey et al., 1948; Kinsey et al., 1953).

Many early studies did not employ any type of statis-

tical tests of significance in reporting the data. The data

were usually reported in percentages and left to the reader's

interpretation (Kinsey et al., 1948; Bromley and Britten,

1938; Dickinson and Beam, 1934; Davis, 1929).

Another frequent problem that has occurred in reported

findings in the literature is that the number of cases re-

ported in the final tabulations differs significantly from

originally reported sample size, without explanation; yet

the original sample size-is what is most often referred to

in reviews of the literature about premarital sexual inter-

course (Packard, 1968; Locke, 1951; Ross, 1950).











The reporting of findings in the literature has often

been confusing and unclear. The reader is, sometimes, unable

to accurately evaluate the author's conclusions (Cuber and

Harroff, 1965; Reiss, 1967). At other times, it is even

necessary to combine categories and calculate descriptive

statistics in order to compare the data with other studies

(Terman, 1938; Kinsey et al., 1948; Peretti, 1969).

As discussed in Chapter I, there has been a general lack

of concern for theory building in the research on premarital

sexual intercourse. Most recent researchers, with the excep-

tion of Christensen, have avoided making statements regard-

ing the utilitarian value of their findings (Christensen,

1969; Christensen and Gregg, 1970).

Research on premarital sexual intercourse has come a

long way since the early days of Exner and Davis. If the

same degree of progress in research on premarital sexual

intercourse can be made during the decade of the 1970s as

during the decade of the 1960s, family researchers will be

able to look with admiration upon the research efforts de-

voted to the study of premarital sexual intercourse.


Some Testable Propositions About Premarital
Sexual Intercourse Among Females

After a careful consideration of all available research

findings, one must conclude that most studies of premarital

sexual intercourse lack a theoretical orientation. The

current state of knowledge in sociology does not permit the











application of some grand theory which would apply to the

study of premarital sexual intercourse in the majority of

societal situations.

The independent variables used in previous research seem

to suggest three different theoretical orientations for

future studies, depending upon the nature of the data. These

three theoretical orientations are: the exchange orienta-

tion; the reference group orientation, which is a component

part of the symbolic interaction orientation; and the struc-

tural-functional orientation. The exchange orientation in-

volves social interaction in which one gives something of

value in order to get something valued in return (Blau, 1964).

The reference group orientation involves groups of which one

is a member and groups of which one is not a member, be-

coming focal points of reference for the shaping of attitudes,

values, and behavior (Merton, 1957:281). The structural-

functional orientation is concerned with the consequences of

any social activity which occurs for the adaptation or adjust-

ment of a given social structure or its component parts

(social actors) (Coser and Rosenberg, 1964; Merton, 1957;

Radcliffe-Brown, 1952).

Through the application of the foregoing three frames

of reference to the existing research literature, and to a

previously unanalyzed data base of 336 never-married females,

the following propositions will be subjected to test:










































































I


1. There is a direct relationship between recommended age

for the marriage of females and having had premarital

sexual intercourse.

2. There is an inverse relationship between age at first

menstruation and having had premarital sexual intercourse.

3. There is an inverse relationship between -the age at

which one learns where babies come from and having had

premarital sexual intercourse.

4. There is a direct relationship between a positive atti-

tude toward oral-genital sex and having had premarital

sexual intercourse.

5. There is a direct relationship between a positive atti-

tude toward masturbation and having had premarital

sexual intercourse.

6. There is a direct relationship between having encoun-

tered a positive attitude toward sexual intercourse

during the menstrual period and. having had premarital

sexual intercourse.

7. There is an inverse relationship between ordinal posi-

tion in the family and having had premarital sexual

intercourse.

8. There is a direct relationship between planning to be

employed after marriage and having had premarital sexual

intercourse.

9. There is an inverse relationship between number of

children desired and having had premarital sexual inter-

course.











10. There is a direct relationship between desire to bear

children later in marriage and having had premarital

sexual intercourse.

11. There is a direct relationship between planning to be

employed after children are born into a marriage and

having had premarital sexual intercourse.

12. There is a direct relationship between viewing sexual

intercourse as equally pleasurable for males and females

and having had premarital sexual intercourse.

13. There is a direct relationship between having petted to

orgasm with a member of the opposite sex and having had

premarital sexual intercourse.

14. There is a direct relationship between expressed dis-

satisfaction with petting to orgasm and having had

premarital sexual intercourse.

15. There is a direct relationship between self-classification

as knowledgeable about reproductive physiology and

having had premarital sexual intercourse.

16. There is a direct relationship between being knowledge-

able about the female orgasm and having had premarital

sexual intercourse.

17. There iis a direct relationship between contraceptive

knowledge and having had premarital sexual intercourse.

18. There is a direct relationship between commitment to a

serious dating relationship and having had premarital

sexual intercourse.





19. There is a direct relationship between college academic

class standing and having had premarital sexual inter-

course.

20. There is a direct relationship between expressed prefer-

ence for a liberal Protestant demonination and having

had premarital- sexual intercourse.

21. There is an inverse relationship between church atten-

dance and having had premarital sexual intercourse.

22. There is an inverse relationship between father's social

class by occupation and having had premarital sexual

intercourse.

If any of these propositions are found to be associated

with premarital sexual intercourse, hopefully theoretical

propositions can be formulated by the process of retroduction.

The subsequent empirical testing of these propositions should,

thus, contribute to the further development of sociological

theory associated with premarital sexual intercourse.
















CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY


Background


In 1968, the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

at Southern Medical School was conducting a research project

concerned with the menstrual cycles of rhesus monkeys under

the direction of Chester B. Martin, M.D., and funded by the

Carnegie Foundation. Martin subsequently became interested

in whether human females tend to exhibit an increased

interest in sexual intercourse during the menstrual period

(Hamilton, 1929; Masters and Johnson, 1966; Terman, 1938).

In an attempt to clarify this question, Martin and Eugene M.

Long, a senior medical student, collected data on the

subject and later published preliminary findings (Martin and

Long, 1969). The total sample consisted of only 25 married

medical student couples, which made the data somewhat limited

in adequacy and applicability. After further analysis of

the preliminary-findings, the scope of this human sexuality

research project was expanded to include a more comprehen-

sive view of sexual attitudes and behavior in a medical

milieu. At this point in time, the author was invited to

become research consultant to the Department of Obstetrics

and Gynecology at Southern Medical School, for the purpose










of giving advice and counsel concerning the sociological

implications of the impending sex research project.

It was decided that a new pilot survey should focus on

three broad questions in the field of human sexuality. These

questions were related to attitudes toward, and the extent

of, participation in sexual intercourse during the menstrual

period; the independent variables associated with premarital

sexual intercourse in a medical milieu; and whether persons

in a medical milieu accept folklore beliefs about human

sexuality.

Available medical evidence appears to indicate that the

peak of physiological sexual desire fluctuates for most women

during the menstrual cycle due to changes in the levels of

progesterone and estrogen present in their bodies. A number

of leading medical authorities in recent years have indi-

cated that, for a number of females, the achieving of orgasm

during the menstrual period can aid in the alleviation of

abdominal cramps often associated with painful menstruation.

Despite the apparent therapeutic value of sexual activity

during the menstrual period for many females, religious

proscriptions against such activity persist in American

society (Birenbaum, 1970; Martin and Long, 1969; Masters

and Johnson, 1966; Larsen, 1965).

Many folklore beliefs also exist in our culture regard-

ing the adverse effects of sexual activity during the men-

strual period, and of human sexuality in general. Given










the availability of scientific knowledge about human sexuality

in a medical milieu, will persons who are members participat-

ing in this milieu subscribe to religious and folklore be-

liefs about sexuality rather than to existing medical knowl-

edge?(Brill, 1939; Burnap and Golden, 1967; Calderone, 1966;

Coombs, 1968; Hastings, 1963; Lief, 1963, 1964, 1965;

McCreary-Juhasz, 1967).

Many males who date nurses and/or nursing students per-

ceive these females as being more willing to engage in

sexual intercourse before marriage than females of other

occupational types. Available evidence suggests that males

with such perceptions tend to behave accordingly on dates

with nurses or nursing students. Does the medical milieu

affect the willingness of these females to engage in pre-

niarital sexual intercourse, or is this suggested difference

merely medical student hearsay?(Ellis and Fuller, 1950;

Skipper and Nass, 1966; Woods and Natterson, 1967).

The Instrument

Description

A thorough and detailed questionnaire was constructed

which contained questions on relevant background variables,

sexual histories, attitudes toward and participation in

sexual intercourse during the menstrual period, attitudes

toward masturbation and oral-genital sexual stimulation,

knowledge about human sexuality, and knowledge about contra-

ception. A cover letter specifying the sponsorship and the





purposes of the study, why the respondent should participate,

and a guarantee of anonymity constituted the first page of

the questionnaire.

The author decided to have two versions of the question-

naire, one for females and one for males, because of ques-

tions concerned with the medical menstrual history. The only

difference between the two versions was that a medical men-

strual history was included for female respondents. When the

data gathering was approximately 9 percent completed, a new

question was added at the end of the questionnaire. This

new item sought a self-perceived evaluation of what happens

mentally and physically when a female achieves orgasm. The

purpose of this question was to determine whether females can

experience orgasm without being aware that it is happening.

Considerable use was made of open-ended questions to

permit freedom of expression by the individual respondent.

In many other cases, it was impossible to ascertain all of

the possible answer categories before collecting the data.

In other cases, closed-form questions were used. A complete

copy of the female version of this questionnaire can be

found in Appendix I.


Pretest

The initial research instruments were drafted during the

winter and spring quarters of 1969 and subsequently went

through two draft revisions prior to being judged' ready for

protesting. The first pretest was carried out during May of











1969 using male and female students from River City College.

These respondents were enrolled in introductory sociology

and sociology of the family courses. They completed the

anonymous questionnaire under the supervision of a student

assistant whose primary duty was to make sure that no ques-

tionnaires, either completed or uncompleted, left the premises

of the sociology laboratory. Upon completion of the ques-

tionnaire, it was placed in a sealed, ballot-type box per-

sonally by the respondent. No record was kept of the re-

spondents, and no identifying marks or labels of any type

appeared on the research instrument itself, thus assuring

complete anonymity for the respondents.

The results of this first pretest were carefully

checked, analyzed, and evaluated. In some instances, the -

intent of the question had been misunderstood, and the sub-

sequent answer obtained was not applicable. The question-

naires were then redrafted, incorporating the changes sug-

gested by the pretest. A second pretest of the questionnaires

was conducted to determine if any additional changes in

wording were necessary or desirable. Again the respondents

were volunteers from introductory sociology and sociology of

the family courses. By this date, the academic quarter had

been completed and a new one had begun, thus providing a

new source of volunteers who would not be repeaters from the

first pretest. An analysis of the results of the second

pretest indicated that only minor changes were needed in











the final versions of the research instruments. These re-

visions were subsequently made, and the research instruments

were ready for administration by August of 1969.

It should be noted that the principal investigator of

this research project resigned from Southern Medical School

to accept an offer from the Medical School of the University

of California at Los Angeles, effective July 1, 1969. After

this untimely development, the author was appointed principal

investigator for the research project.


Administration

In order that absolute control be maintained over the

integrity of the questionnaires and the anonymity of re-

spondents, the principal investigator decided that all

administrations of the questionnaires would be carried out

in group-type settings. For the student respondents, the

questionnaires were administered in the classroom under

supervision of the principal investigator and/or a student

assistant. In the case of wives of medical students

(Medical Dames) and the wives of residents and interns, the

questionnaires were administered at regularly scheduled

meetings of the organizations under the supervision of the.

principal investigator. For licensed practical nurses and

registered nurses, an elaborate schedule for administration

during working hours was arranged with the help of the

director and assistant director of nursing at each of the

respective hospitals included in the samples.











Data collection stations were set up on each floor of

two of the hospitals and operated simultaneously to mini-

mize any discussion of the contents of the questionnaire.

Nurses were then rotated to the data collection stations

during their working hours. These data collection stations

were under the immediate supervision of student assistants

and the departmental secretary, with overall supervision

provided by the principal investigator. In one of these

hospitals, the collecting of data was carried on continuously

for a period of 24 hours to insure coverage of all three

shifts. In the other ,hospital, the data collecting was

carried on for a period of 36 continuous hours to provide-

coverage for all three shifts, plus those persons who had

had a day off on the first shift the preceding day.

The third hospital involved in the research project was

a custodial psychiatric hospital. The foregoing data collec-

tion procedure was both impractical and undesirable from

the standpoint of hospital security. After lengthy dis-

cussions with the director and assistant director of nursing,

the principal investigator decided to set up one centralized

data collection station in the main wing of the hospital.

Nurses were then relieved from their duty stations, accord-

ing to a predetermined plan, to come to the data collection

station. This data collection station was under the imme-

diate supervision of the departmental secretary and/or

student assistants at varying times, with overall supervision












provided by the principal investigator. It was later learned

that at this hospital all nurses had been required to come

to the data collection station and at least look at the

questionnaire. Previous public relations efforts had been

made to fully inform all nursing staffs of the nature and

purpose of the research project and that participation was

to be strictly volunteer. The assistant nursing director

had simply been over-zealous in her attempt to cooperate with

the researchers. Due to the extremely small number of nurses

on duty during the third shift, only nurses on the first two

shifts were included in this sample.

The actual procedure for administration of the question-

naires was the same for all respondents. A brief written

statement was read concerning the nature, purpose, and

anonymity of the responses to the questionnaire each time a

new group of potential respondents was involved. They were

then asked to read the cover letter and to complete the

questionnaire. If, at some point after beginning to answer,

they decided not to complete the questionnaire, they were

told to merely fold their questionnaire like a letter and

deposit it in a box at the front of the room as everyone

else would do upon completion. A sealed, ballot-type box

had been provided for deposit of the completed questionnaires.

As previously stated, no identifying marks or labels appeared

on the questionnaires (Barnett, 1965). Using this approach,

only three questionnaires out of a total of 887 questionnaires










collected could not be used. In all three cases, the re-

spondents were married female nurses over 50 years of age.

The actual collection of data began, in August of 1969,

with students enrolled in the diploma program in nursing at

River City University Hospital and was concluded with female

students enrolled at River City College, in May, 1970.


Analysis of Data

Code Book

A random selection of questionnaires from all subsamples

was taken by the principal investigator to determine pos-

sible answer categories for the various questions. After

recording the different possible answers for each question,

a code book was prepared to permit the data to be transferred

from the questionnaires to data-processing cards. The

column numbers were assigned in such a manner as to permit

additional answer categories to be added as the necessity

arose. Examples were indicated in parentheses after many

of the answer categories for the open-ended questions, to

aid the coders in deciding on the appropriate category.

A female student assistant, who was a senior at River

City College, was trained as a code clerk by the principal

investigator. She had previously worked with the develop-

ment of the questionnaires and subsequent protests and was

well versed in all matters pertaining to the research pro-

ject. A meeting was held daily to determine what problems,

if any, had arisen concerning the coding of answers that











were particularly difficult to interpret. After discussion,

a consensus on the proper answer category would be reached

for each problem response. This code clerk was able to code

about 60 percent of the questionnaires prior to her gradua-

tion from River City College. About three months before her

work termination, she began training another senior female

student assistant to take over her duties as code clerk.

The second code clerk was subsequently trained by the first

code clerk and by the principal investigator. As part of

the training procedure for both code clerks, the principal

investigator would code, independently, randomly selected

questionnaires that had previously been coded and compare

the results. This technique proved to be an effective

training method as well as an aid in maintaining quality

control .

A coding log book was maintained for the purpose of

recording new answer categories that were added, and the

interpretations given to answers in order that they might

be coded. This procedure involved recording the date, the

answer category added and/or chosen for use in a particular

case, and the basis and/or criteria utilized in the decision.

This technique provided a valuable supplement to the coding

process.

A unique aspect of the coding process was the manner in

which questions related to describing the male and female

orgasms were coded. A panel of five female judges, working











independently, was asked to rate the descriptions of the

male and female orgasms as knowledgeable, slightly knowl-

edgeable, or not at all knowledgeable. A composite score

value was then obtained from their ratings and converted

to a coding category. A copy of this composite form appears

in Appendix I. The judges were selected on the basis of the

following criteria: married, 30 to 39 years of age, and

sexually responsive, i.e., orgasmic. All of the judges were

known to the principal investigator and were not utilized

as actual respondents in this survey. The sexual- respon-

siveness of the judges was determined by using selected

parts of the questionnaire and through personal interviews.

To the author's knowledge, no one has ever before used this

particular technique to quantify data about the male and

female orgasm.


Data Processing

The data-processing cards were punched from standard

80-column code sheets especially designed for coding data

of this type. These cards were subsequently verified to

check for punching errors. After the necessary corrections

were made, the cards were edited for coding errors using

an edit program developed by the computer staff of Southern

Medical School. The data-processing cards were then cor-

rected based on the computer output from the edit program.

It is herein acknowledged by the author that an edit











program will only ascertain certain kinds of coding errors.

A second computer run was later made using the same edit

program to check for further errors. Further corrections

were made in the data cards contained in this data base,

using the second edit output. It was then concluded that

the data cards were relatively free of errors after the

second set of corrections had been made.

A frequency distribution program was developed using

COBOL, since Southern Medical School was without a programmer

who could program in FORTRAN. This approach proved to be

both costly and time consuming, but, nevertheless, a work-

able 25,000-card program was devised that would perform the

necessary operations for computing frequencies and per-

centages for each subsample group. These frequency dis-

tributions provided the basis for subsamples to be later

collapsed and for cross tabulations to be performed using

the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) at

the Northeast Regional Data Center of the State University

System of Florida.


SIssue of Nonresponse

It is always appropriate in a survey of this nature to

consider the issue of nonresponse to specific questions. As

was anticipated, the highest rate of nonresponse was for

questions concerning attitudes toward sexual intercourse

during the menstrual period and toward oral-genital sex.

Given the size of the independent samples, it is the opinion











of the author that the overall trends of the data were not

adversely affected by nonresponse. Whenever a significant

number of nonresponses appears, however, the issue will be

explored as it related to the particular variable under

consideration, in Chapter IV.

A well-established premise in sociological research is

that it is exceedingly difficult to gather specific sexual

data with a questionnaire. The procedure of assuring com-

plete anonymity to the respondents greatly aided in minimiz-

ing any potential difficulty in this area (Cowden and Motse,

1970; Ehrmann, 1954; Oppenheim, 1966). The technique of

asking a number of related questions to permit the filtering

of answers for controversial issues was also utilized.

Often, such answers could be cross tabulated to determine

whether a person described the same action or behavior dif-

ferently in different parts of the questionnaire (Young,

1966). The results of such comparisons were, generally,

reassuring.


Statistical Treatment of the Data

Given the nonrandom manner in which the respondents

were obtained in the subsample, their subsequent combination

into two independent samples, and the levels of measurement

utilized, the chi-square test for two independent samples

was found to be the most appropriate method for determin-

ing the significance of the differences between respondents





having had premarital sexual intercourse and respondents

not having had premarital sexual intercourse (Siegel, 1956).

The contingency coefficient,C,was chosen as a measure

of association since it is based on the computational values

of chi square. This statistic is a general purpose measure

of association with wide applicability to quantitative data

(Siegel, 1956).


SThe Sample

All respondents were associated either directly or in-

directly with a major southern medical complex which is

located in a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area of

250,000 population. The respondents constituted the universe

for each of the following groups: licensed practical nurses

and registered nurses from two Veterans Administration

Hospitals and the teaching hospital of Southern Medical

School; students enrolled in diploma nursing programs at

River City College and at River City University Hospital;

students enrolled in five different baccalaureate degree

programs in the health-related professions at Southern

Medical School; the sophomore and junior classes of medical

students enrolled at Southern Medical School; members of

the Women's Auxiliary of the Student American Medical

Association (Medical Dames); members of the interns and

residents wives club; and students enrolled in the bacca-

laureate degree program in nursing at Southern Medical

School. Additionally, female students enrolled in











nonrandomly selected upper and lower division courses in

the Departments of Anthropology and Sociology; Psychology;

Physics; History, Political Science, and Philosophy; English;

Biology; and Education at River City College were surveyed.

The professors in these courses consented to allocate an

entire regular class period for completion of the question-

naire. The total number of respondents found in each sub-

sample category can be found in Table 1.

The categories and figures in Table 1 show that there

were 16 possible separate samples. Most of these samples

were too small, however, for separate statistical analysis.

Therefore, frequency distributions for the variables of age,

size of place in which reared, class standing, dating status,

position of child in the family, number of children in

family, participation in premarital sexual intercourse,

father's occupation, level of education, religious prefer-

ence, age at first menstrual period, and quantity of menstrual

flow were checked by inspection to determine whether all

student samples might logically be combined into one large

sample.

The most glaring finding was that considerable varia-

tion exists between the River City coeds and all of the

other female student sample groups on the dependent variable

of having had premarital sexual intercourse. Consequently,

ali of the student samples, except the River City coeds,

were combined into a single sample hereafter referred to as


















Sex
Male Female Totals
Sample Group Number Number Number
Dental hygiene 0 23 23
Medical illustration 9 1 10
Medical records 0 23 23
Radiologic technology 11 17 28
Medical technology 2 22 24
River City University Hospital
student nurses 0 46 46
River- City College student
nurses 0 20 20
Southern Medical School
Hospital nurses 4 129 133
Veterans Hospital medical
nurses 2 47 49
Veterans Hospital psychiatric
nurses 2 46 48
Southern Medical School
student nurses 2 92 94
Southern Medical School
sophomores 60 2 62
Southern Medical School
juniors 40 2 42
Medical Dames 0 46 46
Residents' and interns' wive's 0 25 25
River City College coeds 0 211 211

Totals .132 752 884


TABLE

Respondents by Sample Group and Sex











Allied Health Science coeds. This factor necessitates con-

sidering the data as consisting of two independent samples

for the purpose of testing the empirical propositions from

Chapter II. It also complicates the evaluation of the

statistical significance of the various relationships under

analysis.

It should be noted here that only four respondents in

the student samples were 25 years of age or older. Interest-

ingly enough, these respondents had not participated in

premarital sexual intercourse at the time of the survey.

The respondent who had participated in premarital sexual

intercourse was in the Allied Health coed sample.





CHAPTER IV

THE ANALYSIS OF THE DATA


Description of the Respondents




The Allied Health sample was slightly older, on the

average, than the River City sample, as reflected in mean

ages of 20.4 years for the former and 19.3 years for the

latter. The data indicated that 64.3 percent of Allied

Health coeds and 43.6 percent of River City coeds were

between the ages of 20 and 24 (see Table 2). This age

variation stems primarily from the fact that a relatively

high percentage of the Allied Health coeds have tradition-

ally transferred to Southern Medical School from other

liberal arts colleges at the beginning of the junior year.

Southern Medical School requires certain freshman and

sophomore liberal arts courses, as prerequisites for its

Allied Health Science curriculum, that are unavailable on

its campus. Since the two samples are to be treated as

independent of each other, this age factor will not affect

the data analysis.


Race

All non-Caucasians were eliminated from the samples

to avoid the possibility of having race operating as an

































.5


.5


100.0


100.0


~


TABLE 2

Age Distribution of Two Sample


Allied Health
No. Percent


67 34.2


126 64.3


Groups


River City
No. .Percent


78 55.7


61 43.6


1 .7


Age


15-19 years


20-24 years


25-29 years


30-34 years


35-39 years


Totals











intervening variable and subsequently creating possible

spurious relationships among other variables (Sutker and

Gilliard, 1970).


Academic Class Standing

The age differences between the two samples were also

reflected in academic class standings for the respondents

(see Table 3). These data indicate that 67.9 percent of

Allied Health coeds were classified as upper-classmen, as

contrasted with only 37.2 percent of River -City coeds. It

should be recalled that those River City College coeds who

were enrolled in the two-year nursing program at River City

College (associate degree program) were included in the

Allied Health sample group. These respondents, however,

comprised only 7 percent of the total Allied Health sample.

Were it not for these students, the percentage differences

for upper-classmen would have been even greater.


Dating Status

The most prevalent dating status category reported was

"casual dating" for both the Allied Health and River City

coeds (see Table 4). The term going steady appears to be

declining in usage among college students who seem to prefer

the term dating steadily. Approximately one-third of the

respondents in both sample groups were either seriously

contemplating marriage or were already engaged at the time

of the survey.











TABLE 3

Class Standing of Two Sample Groups


Allied Health River City
Class Standing No. Percent No. Percent

Freshman 31 15.8 46 32.8


Sophomore 32 16.3 42 30.0

Junior 65 33.2 34 24.3


Senior 68 34.7 18 12.9


Totals 196 100. 0 140 100. 0





TABLE 4

Dating Status of Two Sample Groups


Allied Health
No. Percent

4 2.0


85 43.4


38 19.4


9 4.6


River City
No. Percent


10 7.1


51 36.5


28 20.0


8 5.7


Dating Status

Not dating


Casual dating


Dating steadily


Going steady


Engaged- to- be-
engaged


Engaged


No response .


Totals


15.3


13.8


1.5


100.0


16.4


14.3





100.0











Religious Preference

As might be expected, the Protestant demoninations of

Baptist and Methodist accounted for about two-thirds of the

respondents in both the Allied Health and River City sample

groups (see Table 5). The religious conservatism of both

sample groups was further reflected by the fact that only

a total of three respondents in the two samples combined

gave "agnostic" as their religious preference.


Church Attendance

The continuing interest in religion on the part of

college students was reflected in the finding that only 12.8

percent of Allied Health and 10.7 percent of River City

coeds did not attend church or synagogue at least once per

month. The modal frequency of church attendance for both

sample groups was three to four times per month (see Table

6). The River City coeds were shown to be more religiously

active than the Allied Health coeds. This finding can be

accounted for, in great part, by the high percentage of

River City coeds who were "local girls," whereas the same

was not true for Allied Health coeds. It is thus rea-

sonable to assume that River City coeds received more overt

familial pressure to attend worship services at their

church or synagogue when contrasted with Allied Health

coeds.





ABLE 5

Religious Preference of Two Sample Groups


Religious
Preference

Baptist

Methodist

Episcopal

Presbyterian

Catholic

None

Lutheran

Jewish

Agnostic

Nondenominational
Christian

Christian Missionary

Church of God

Bahai Faith

Church of Christ

Greek Orthodox

Moslem

Unitarian

No response

Totals


Allied Health
No. Percent

79 40.3

52 26.5

14 7.2

14 7.2

11 5.6

9 4.6

6 3.1

4 2.0

2 1.0


River City
No. Percent

57 40.7

33 23.6

12 8.6

11 7.9

12 8.6

3 2.1

4 2.9



1 .7


.5

100.0


100.0













TABLE 6

Church Attendance of Two Sample Groups


Church Attendance Allied Health River City
by Month No. Percent No. Percent

None 25 12.8 15 10.7


1-2 times 61 31.1 35 25.0


3-4 times 74 37.8 42 30.0


5-6 times 20 10.2 15 10.7


7-8 times 5 2.5 8 5.7


9-10 times 0 -- 8 5.7


11-12 times 2 1.0 13 9.3


No response 0 --1 .7


Not applicable 9 4.6 3 2.2


Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0











Father's Occupation

Support was found for two assumptions often made with

regard to the social class backgrounds of commuter-college

students and those of students choosing Allied Health

Science as a career. It has generally been assumed in the

past that most college students from working-class families

attend commuter colleges. These data supported that con-

tention (see Table 7). The most frequently cited occupation

for fathers, among River City coeds, was "skilled."

Many persons assume that females from working-class

families typically view the fields of medicine and the

health-related professions, with their uniforms of white,

as an opportunity for upward social mobility. This point

of view was reflected in the data, as the most frequently

cited occupation for fathers of Allied Health coeds was

"skilled. "

The apparent similarity of the two samples was reflected

in the findings that 21.9 percent of Allied Health coeds'

fathers and 22.2 percent of River City coeds' fathers were

categorized as "professionals." Further support was pro-

vided by the fact that 17.9 percent of the fathers of both

Allied Health and River City coeds were "business execu-

tives."


Size of Place Where Reared

A considerable disparity existed between the Allied

Health and River City coeds with regard to the size of places












TABLE 7

Father's Occupation of Two Sample Groups


Father 's A~llied Health River City
Occupation No. Percent No. Percent

Skilled worker 49 25.0 38 27.2


Professional worker 43 21.9 31 22.2


Business executive 35 17.9 25 17.9


White-collar worker 33 16.8 29 20.7


Small businessman 19 9.7 10 7.1


Semiskilled worker 7 3.6. 2 1.4


Farmer 6 3.-1 2 1.4


Unskilled worker 2 1.0 1 .7


History unavailable 0O -- 2 1.4


No response 2 1.0 0 -


Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0











in which they grew up. A total of 48.0 percent of Allied

Health coeds grew up in places of less than 25,000 popula-

tion as contrasted with only 30.7 percent of River City

coeds (see Table 8). These data further indicated that 54.3

percent of River City and 39.8 percent of Allied Health

coeds grew up in places having 50,000 or more population.

The Allied Health coeds may be expected to be more con-

servative if the rural-urban continuum of conservatism is

still operative.


Number of Children in Family of Orientation

The term family of orientation was defined for the pur-

poses of this investigation as ego, her sisters and brothers,

and her parents (Leslie, 1973:14). Using this concept, little,

if any, variation existed between the two sample groups with

regard to the number of children in the family of orienta-

tion (see Table 9). The most frequently cited family size

was three to four children for both Allied Health and River

City coeds. About one-sixth of the respondents in both

sample groups were from families with five or more children.


Ordinal Position in Family

As was evidenced by the data, 46.4 percent of Allied

Health and 40.7 percent of River City coeds represented the

first child born into their families of orientation. The

data further indicated that 29.6 percent of Allied Health

and 37.1 percent of River City coeds were the second children

born to their parents (see Table 10).












TABLE 8

Size of Place Where Reared of Two Sample Groups


Allied Health River City
Size of Place No. Percent No. Percent

Under 2,500 23 11.7 10 7.1


2,500-24,999 71 36.3 33 23.6


25,000-49,999 20 10.2 17 12.1


50,000-99,999 20 10.2 41 29.3


100,000 or more 58 29.6 35 25.0


No response 2 1.0 4 2.9


Not applicable 2 1.0 0 -


Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0


~_

















Number of Allied Health River City
Children No. Percent No. Percent

1-2 children 70 35.7 51 36.4


3-4 children 85 43.4 67 47.9


5-6 children 28 14.3 19 13.6


7-8 children 5 2.5 2 1.4


9-10 children 1 .5 0 -


No response 7 3.6 1 .7


Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0


TABLE 9

Number of Children in Families of
of Two Sample Groups


Orientation












TABLE 10

Ordinal Position in Families of Two Sample Groups


Ordinal Allied Health River City
Position No. Percent No. Percent


First child 91 46.4 57 40.7


Second child 58 29.6 52 37.1


Third child 24 12.3 23 16.5


Fourth child 8 4.1 5 3.6


Fifth child 4 2.0 1 .7


Sixth child 1 .5 0 -


Seventh child 1 .5 1 .7


Eighth child 1 .5 0 -


No response 8 4.1 1 .7


Totals 196 100.0 140. 100.0






































































II_


Anticipation of Marriage in the Future

Evidently, neither of the sample groups had, at the

time of the data collection, joined the supposedly increas-

ing numbers of college coeds who have renounced marriage as

a way of life. It is noteworthy that 97.9 percent of

Allied Health and 98.6 percent of River City coeds anticipa-

ted marriage at sometime in the future (see Table 11). Sup-

plementary data, not reported in Table 11, indicated that

32.1 percent of Allied ~Health and 26.4 percent of River City

coeds planned to continue working after they had given

birth to children. These data were somewhat behind the

national trend in this direction.


The Menstrual Histories of the Respondents

Given the uniqueness of some of the data collected from

the female respondents in the overall pilot study entitled

"Sex Attitudes and Behavior in a Medical Milieu," a brief

presentation of data associated with the respondents' men-

strual cycles is deemed appropriate. These data should help

to eliminate some of the myths and old wives' tales often

associated within menstrual cycles.


Age at First Menstrual Period

Researchers have generated considerable controversy over

whether an evolutionary trend toward an earlier age for

menarche (i.e., first menstrual period) has come to exist

for American females.






70




TABLE 11

Anticipation of Marriage in the Future of Two Sample Groups


Anticipation of Allied Health River City
Marriage No. Percent No. Percent


97.9


98.6


4 2.1


No response


140 100.0


Totals


100.0











In an early comparative study of southern mothers and

daughters, researchers found that the mean age for menarche

was 14.0 years for mothers and 13.7 years for daughters

(Gould and Gould, 1932:1349-1351). A later publication by

Kroth argued, while reviewing past research reports, that

the menarche usually began between 12.6 to 13.7 years for

American females (Kroth, 1968:801). Auger, in a more recent

study of female graduate students found the menarche to be

12.0 years (Auger, 1967:149).

The mean age for menarche was 12.3 years for Allied

Health and River City coeds (see Table 12). These findings

lend further credence to the argument that American females

begin menstruation earlier than their mothers and grand-

mothers.


Regularity of Menstrual Period

The findings, when recalculated to eliminate nonresponses,

show 78.5 percent of Allied Health and 89.5 percent of River

City coeds were experiencing regular menstrual periods (see

Table 13). The possibility of contamination of these data

could provide a possible explanation for the variation be-

tween River City and Allied Health coeds' data. It was

ascertained that 18.4 percent of Allied Health and 10.1

percent of River City coeds were using oral contraceptives

for contraceptive and/or medicinal purposes at the time of

completing the questionnaire. Thus, this usage pattern












TABLE 12

Age at First Menstrual Period of Two Sample Groups


Age at First
Menstrual Allied Health River City
Period No. Percent No. Percent

8-9 years 1 .5 1 .7


10-11 years 44 22.5 34 24.3


12-13 years 129 65.8 83 59.3


14-15 years 17 8.7 20 14.3


16-17 years 5 2.5 1 .7


No response 0 -- 1 .7


Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0












TABLE 13

Regularity of Menstrual Period of Two Sample Groups


Regularity of
Menstrual Allied Health River City
Period No. Percent No. Percent

Regular 132 67.3 94 67.2


Irregular 35 17.9 15 10.7


Amenorrhea 1 .5 0 -


No response 28 14.3 31 22.1


Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0











could account for a portion of the variation between the two

sets of data. This contention would seemingly be supported

by Auger's data, in which 42.5 percent of respondents re-

ported they were using oral contraceptives (Auger, 1967:149).

For some unexplained reason, 14.3 percent of Allied

Health coeds and 22.1 percent of River City coeds chose to

leave this particular question blank. Yet prior and sub-

sequent questions about the menstrual periods achieved a much

lower rate of nonresponse. For example, a later question

concerned with quantity of menstrual flow had a nonresponse

rate of 0.0 percent for Allied Health and 1.4 percent for

River City coeds. Lack of recall would not seem to present

a plausible explanation, so the question of nonresponse re-

mains unanswered.

The question of menstrual regularity has been a con-

tinual concern for many females, especially if they are

sexually active. A late and/or missed menstrual period is

usually taken as the first presumptive sign of pregnancy.

Data obtained from airline stewardesses concerning their men-

strual periods prior to involvement with air flights indi-

cated that 53.2 percent had been experinecing regular men-

strual periods. These data were secured prior to the wide-

spread availability and usage of the oral contraceptive. More

recent data on menstrual periods may have the usage of oral

contraceptives appearing as an intervening variable (Cameron,

1969:1021-1022). Auger had stated that 87.5 percent of her re-

spondents had regular menstrual periods (Auger, 1967:149).





Length of Menstural Cycle

One of the most potentially disastrous myths asso-

ciated with menstruation is the mistaken impression that a

regular menstrual cycle consists of only 28 days. Many

marriage manuals help to perpetuate this myth in explana-

tions of how the rhythm method of contraception functions.

Typically, a 28-day menstrual cycle has been used to illus-

trate that ovulation occurs 14 days prior to the beginning

of the next menstrual period (Hastings, 1972; Preston,

Bateman, Short and Wilkinson, 1973; Moos, Kopell, Melges,

Yalon, Lunde, Clayton, and Hamburg, 1969). Many naive

readers thus conclude that most menstrual cycles are of a

28-day length and, secondly, that ovulation can be calculated

by taking the length of the menstrual cycle and dividing by

two. Numerous pregnancies will likely occur if this incor-

rect method is relied upon to determine when ovulation may

have occurred.

Israel stated that the normal menstrual cycle for fe-

males was 21 to 35 days in length (Israel, 1967:776-777).

Preston et al. found, in a recent study of 29 airline

stewardesses, the mean length of the menstrual cycle to be

29.0 days if two respondents with highly irregular menstrual

cycles were omitted from the computation (Preston et al.,

1973:440-442). All respondents started keeping log books of

their menstrual cycles upon beginning initial flight duties

with the airline company. Their menstrual cycles had a mean










of 28.1 days. A review'of Auger's data showed the mean

length of the menstrual cycle to be 28.6 days (Auger, 1967:

.149).

A slight variation in length of the menstrual cycel

was found to exist between Allied Health and River City

coeds (see Table 14). The mean length of the menstrual

cycle for Allied Health coeds was 29.0 days and 27.9 days

for River City coeds. These differences were not, however,

statistically significant. It is interesting to note that

the reported data from Auger's study fell midway between

that of the Allied Health and the River City coeds.


Intensity of Menstrual Flow

An analysis of current data finds that 20.9 percent of

Allied Health and 19.6 percent of River City coeds reported

having heavy menstrual flows (see Table 15). The percen-

tage for River City coeds was recalculated to remove two

nonresponses. ~Similar data cited from the Cameron study

indicated a much higher percentage of females, 30.3 percent,

with heavy menstrual flows (Cameron, 1969:1021).

Could this variation be attributed to the fact that

none of the female respondents in the Cameron study were

reported as using oral contraceptives? (Auger, 1967).


Length of Menstrual Flow

Both Allied Health and River City coeds had menstrual

flows for a greater number of days when compared with data

from other studies (see Table 16). The reported mean

















Length of
Menstrual Allied Health River City
Cycle No. Percent No. Percent

22 days or less 6 3.1 64.3


23-25 days 12 6.1 13 9.3


26-28 days 66 33.7 49 35.0


29-31 days 61 31.1 34 24.3


32-34 days 18 9.2 8 5.7


35-37 days 10 5.1 4 2.9


38-40 days 3 1.5 0 .-


41 days or more 4 2.0 5 3.5


No response 14 7.2 16 11.4


Not applicable 2 1.0 5 3.6


Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0


TABLE 14

Length of Menstrual Cycle of Two


Sample Groups


















Quantity of Allied Health River City
Menstrual Flow No. Percent No. Percent


TABLE 15

Quantity of Menstrual Flow of Two


Sample Groups


Light


Median


11. 2


67.9


20.9


7 .2


72.1


19.3


1.4


100.0


Heavy


No response


Totals


100.0

















Length of Allied Health River City
Menstrual Flow No. Percent No. Percent

1-2 days 5 2.6 2 1.5


3-4 days 50 25.5 34 24.3


5-6 days 106 54.1 78 55.7


7-8 days 31 15.8 21 15.0


9 days and over 1 .5 2 1.4


No response 2 1.0 3 2.1


Not applicable 1 .5 0 -


Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0


TABLE 16

Length of Menstrual Flow of Two


Sample Groups











length of the menstrual flow was 5.2 days for Allied Health

and 5.3 days for River City coeds. Cameron reported a mean

length of 4.6 days, while Auger reported a mean length of 4.8

days for the menstrual flow (Cameron, 1969:1022; Auger, 1967:

149). The central issue would again seem to be complicated

by the lack of usage of oral contraceptives by Cameron's

respondents.


The Sexual Histories of the Respondents

Ever Had Sexual Intercourse

Only 34.7 percent of Allied Health and 19.3 percent of

River city coeds had experienced premarital sexual intercourse

(see Table 17). These data would, at first, appear to be

highly inconsistent with other reported research data- about

premarital sexual intercourse among college students. For

example, Bergen found that 49 percent of her total female

sample group had participated in premarital sexual intercourse.

However, only 38.4 percent of the females in the Deep South

were reported as having participated in premarital sexual

intercourse (Bergen, 1972:76). Using data collected at the

University of Maryland in nine undergraduate sociology

classes, Thomas found that 49.9 percent of female respondents

had participated in premarital sexual intercourse (Thomas,

1972:48).

In a recent study at the University of Wisconsin at

Waukesha, only 28.4 percent of female respondents had engaged

in premarital sexual intercourse (Burgess, 1973:127-128). This



















Experience with Allied Health River City
Sexual Intercourse No. Percent No. Percent


Yes 68 34.7 27 19.3


No 128 65.3 113 80.7


Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0


TABLE 17

Experience with Sexual Intercourse
of Two Sample Groups











finding would support th'e contention that at a more "local"

rather than "cosmopolitan" campus a much lower rate of

female participation in premarital sexual intercourse would

be found to exist. Finally, at a major state university

located in the same state as River City College and Southern

Medical School, Robinson et al. ascertained that 37.3

percent of female respondents had participated in premarital

sexual intercourse (Robinson et al., 1972:190).


Age at First Sexual Initercourse

The mean age for first participation in premarital

sexual intercourse was 18.6 years for Allied Health and 17.9

years for River City coeds (see Table 18). It seems some-

what paradoxical that River City coeds would have had pre-

marital sexual intercourse at earlier ages and yet still

exhibit an overall lower rate of lifetime participation in

premarital sexual intercourse than Allied Health coeds.

This variation in the mean ages for first sexual inter-

course between Allied Health and River City coeds would

appear to be attributable to the smaller number of River

City coeds who have had premarital sexual intercourse.

The data for Allied Health coeds coincided with the

data of Bergen, which indicated the mean age for first

participation in premarital sexual intercourse to be 18.6

years for female respondents (Bergen, 1972:76). Earlier

unpublished findings for females at Oberlin College, however,

indicated a mean age of 19.9 years for first participation



















river City
Percent




11.1


44.5


40.T





3.7


100.0


Age at E
Sexual Inte

10-12 years


13-15 years


16-18 years


19-21 years


22-24 years


No response


Totals



aSee TJ


'


TABLE 18

Age at First Act of Sexual Intercourse
of Two Sample Groups


First Allied Health R:
coursee No. Percent No.

1 1.5 0


1 1.5 3


26 38.2 12


; 38 55.8 11


1 1.5 0


1 1.5 1


a ~68 100.0 27



`able 17.










in premarital sexual intercourse (Wachtel, Cooprider, and

Taylor, 1968:10).

Quality of First Sexual Intercourse

The respondents were asked to evaluate their initial

act of sexual intercourse on a continuum ranging from very

pleasurable to very unpleasurable. The possible answer

choices were: very pleasurable, pleasurable, unpleasurable,

and very unpleasurable. Thus, a subjective evaluation was

required on the part of the respondent. Approximately one-

half of Allied Health and River City coeds cited their

initial act of sexual intercourse as pleasurable (see Table

19). A higher proportion of the respondents in both sample

groups rated their first act of sexual intercourse as very

unpleasurable .rather than very pleasurable.

Frequency of Sexual intercourse with First Sex Partner

Of the two sample groups, 17.6 percent of Allied Health

and 18.6 percent of River City coeds replied that they did not

ever have premarital sexual intercourse with thier initial sex

partner again (see Table 20). These findings contrasted

sharply with those of Bergen, who reported that only 7.2 per-,
cent of female respondents stated that they did not ever en-

gage in premarital sexual intercourse with the initial sex

partner again (Bergen, 1972:78). It is of further importance

to note that only 41.2 percent of Allied Health and 40.8 per-

cent of River City coeds indicated having had suxual inter-

course with their first sex partner 12 or more times.


















Quality of
First Sexual Allied Health River City
Intercourse No. Percent No. Percent


Very pleasurable 9 13.2 2 7.4


Pleasurable 24 35.3 12 44.5


Unpleasurable .119 27.9 9 33.3


Very unpleasurable 12 17.7 4 14.8


No response 4 5.9 0 -


Totalsa 68 100.0 27 100.0


aSee Table 17.


TABLE 19

Quality of First Act of Sexual Intercourse
of Two Sample Groups




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UF00098330_00001.mets
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METS:behaviorSec VIEWS Options available the user for viewing this item
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METS:mechanism Viewer JPEGs Procedure xlink:type simple xlink:title JPEG_Viewer()
VIEW2 Alternate
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VIEW3
Related image viewer shows thumbnails each Related_Image_Viewer()
INTERFACES Banners or interfaces which resource can appear under
INT1 Interface
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PREMARITAL SEXUAL INTERCOURSE: A MODIFIED APPROACH TO AXIOMATIC THEORY CONSTRUCTION BY JOHN KENNETH DAVIDSON, SR. A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1974

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Copyright 1974

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To my wife,. Josephine Frazier Davidson, whose steadfast devotion and continuous encouragement made the task of graduate school seem a little easier, and to my sons, John Kenneth Davidson, Jr., and Stephen Wood Davidson, who do not understand why their father had to be away most of the time .

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS A formidable task exists with respect to conveying sincere appreciation to the many individuals who contributed of their budgets, talents, and time to the success of this joint sex research project "Sex Attitudes and Behavior in a Medical Milieu" under the auspices of River City College and Southern Medical School. From this research project, a portion of data was used for analytical purposes in this dissertation. Individuals deserving recognition who immediately come to mind are Joanne Atkins; John M. Chambers; Richard L. Church; Josephine Frazier Davidson; Carole Earle; Elizabeth Sikes Evans; Dr. Pierette Frickey; Dr. Robert E. Frickey; Luetta McLimmons; Gloria Peebles; Robert E. Reynolds, M.D.; Carmen Johnson Rogers; William A. Scoggin, M.D.; and Preston Lea Wilds, M.D. Two code clerks, Neville Riley Hudson and Karen Cross Pinner, deserve special mention, as does a Southern Medical School computer programmer, Clarence H. Manly, Jr. Without their efforts, these research findings would have remained largely unintelligible. Sincere appreciation is hereby expressed for the valuable suggestions provided by Drs . Ruth E. Albrecht and Joseph S. Vandiver of the Department of Sociology and Mary H. McCaulley

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of the Department of Psychology, who served as members of the doctoral committee. Dr. Felix M. Berardo, in addition to his efforts as a doctoral committee member,, provided valuable insight into the tedious process of theory construction in family sociology. Dr. Gerald R. Leslie, chairman of the doctoral committee, deserves special recognition for having provided direction, guidance, suggestions, and valuable support in the writing of this dissertation. Capable typing for various drafts of this dissertation was provided by Stella Abner, Pamela Caggiano, and Jana Agerton Henry. The laborious task of translating the author's handwriting is gratefully acknowledged. A debt of gratitude is owed to Joy Graham Osteen and the Northeast Regional Data Center of the State University System of Florida for computer services, and for the capable manner in which the final data analysis was handled. Financial support provided by the Department of Sociology at the University of Florida made this final data analysis possible,

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . • • • iv LIST OF TABLES. viii ABSTRACT xii CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose 1 Definition of Concept 10 Plan of the Dissertation ......... 11 II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE • • ^^ Current Status of Research 14 Review of the Literature 21 Inventory of Empirical Propositions for Never-Married Females . • 22 Studies Not Utilized 27 Methodological Problems in Current Literature 28 Some Testable Propositions About Premarital Sexual Intercourse Among Females 33 III. METHODOLOGY 38 Background 38 The Instrument 40 Analysis of the Data 46 The Sample 41 IV. THE ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 55 Description of the Respondents ...... 55 The Menstrual Histories of the Respondents 69 The Sexual Histories of the Respondents . . 80 Evaluation of Testable Propostions .... 93 Some Related Findings 140

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Page CHAPTER V. THEORIES OF PREMARITAL SEXUAL INTERCOURSE . . 144 The Methodology of Theory Construction . . 144 Empirical Propositions for Theory Construction . 147 Derived Propositions . 148 Theoretical Propositions 152 Two Middle-Range Theories of Premarital Sexual Intercourse 154 VI. SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH, AND CONCLUSIONS . 157 Summary 157 Implications for Future Research 159 Conclusions 163 APPENDIX I. FEMALE QUESTIONNAIRE AND ORGASM RATING SHEET 165 Female Questionnaire 166 Orgasm Rating Sheet . . . ... . . . . . 188 II. TABLES 189 REFERENCES .... 193 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 206

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LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. 15, 16, 17, Respondents by Sample Group and Sex . . . Age Distribution of Two Sample Groups . . Class Standing of Two Sample Groups . . . Dating Status of Two Sample Groups . . . Religious Preference of Two Sample Groups Church Attendance of Two Sample Groups Father's Occupation of Two Sample Groups Size of Place Where Reared of Two Sample Groups Number of Children in Families of Orientation of Two Sample Groups Ordinal Position in Families of Two Sample Groups Anticipation of Marriage in the Future of Two Sample Groups . Age at First Menstrual Period of Two Sample Groups Regularity of Menstrual Period of Two Sample Groups Length of Menstrual Cycle of Two Sample Groups Quantity of Menstrual Flow of Two Sample Groups Length of Menstrual Flow of Two Sample Groups . Experience with Sexual Intercourse of Two Sample Groups . . . . Age at First Act of Sexual Intercourse of Two Sample Groups .......... Page 53 56 58 59 61 62 64 66 67 68 70 72 73 77 78 79 81 83

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TABLE Page 19. Quality of First Act of Sexual Intercourse of Two Sample Groups 85 20. Frequency of Sexual Intercourse with First Sex Partner of Two Sample Groups ........ 86 21. Number of Different Sex Partners of Two Sample Groups . 88 22. Experience with Orgasm of Two Sample Groups 89 23. Experience with Petting to Orgasm with Members of Opposite Sex of Two Sample Groups .... 91 24. Experience with Orgasm While Having Sexual Intercourse of Two Sample Groups ...... 92 25. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Recommended Age for Marriage of Females ........ 96 26 . Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse by Sample, and Age at First Menstruation ..... 97 27. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Age at Learning Where Babies Come from ^^ 28. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Attitude Toward Oral-Genital Sex 101 29. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Attitude Toward Masturbation . . 104 3d. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Attitude Toward Sexual Intercourse During Menstrual Period ........ 106 31. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Ordinal Position in Family . . . 108 32. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Employment Plans Following Marriage • • l-^" 33. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Number of Children Desired . . . 112 34. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and When First Child Desired in Marriage • * ' ix

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TABLE Page 35. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Employment Plans After Children Born 115 36. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample , and for Whom Sexual Intercourse Pleasurable 117 37. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Experienced Orgasm 118 38. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Age at First Orgasm ..... 120 39. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Petted to Orgasm ...... 122 40. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Expressed Dissatisfaction with Petting to Orgasm . 123 41. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Knowledge About Reproductive Physiology . 125 42. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Knowledgeable About Definition of Female Orgasm 126 43. Experience, with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Knowledgeable About Description of Female Orgasm . 12 8 44. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Contraceptive Technique Thought To Be Effective 131 45. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Current Dating Status . . . . 132 46. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Academic Class Standing ... 134 47. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Religious Preference 135 48. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Frequency of Church Attendance 137 49. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Father's Occupation . . . . . 139 X

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TABLE Page 50. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Type of Personal Hygiene Product Used During Menstrual Period ..... 141 51. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Type of Menstrual Period Experienced . 143 52. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Heard Pros-Cons About OralGenital Sex . 190 53. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Heard Pros-Cons About Masturbation . 191 54. Experience with Premarital Sexual Intercourse, by Sample, and Heard and/or Read About Sexual Intercourse During Menstrual Period . ... . 192

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy PREMARITAL SEXUAL INTERCOURSE: A MODIFIED APPROACH TO AXIOMATIC THEORY CONSTRUCTION By John Kenneth Davidson, Sr. December, 1974 Chairman: Dr. Gerald R. Leslie Major Department: Sociology This study is an empirical investigation of premarital sexual intercourse, utilizing a modified axiomatic approach to theory construction, to develop two middle-range theories of premarital sexual intercourse among females. These theories were grounded in previous empirical research and existing theoretical frames of reference. A comprehensive review of all relevant research literature involving premarital sexual intercourse among females was made. After review of the available literature, "a prepositional inventory was developed from existing empirical research. Using this prepositional inventory as a guide, a subsequent list of 22 empirical propositions about premarital sexual intercourse among females was .formulated. A number of previously unreported independent variables, such as attitude toward oral-genital sex and attitude toward having

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sexual intercourse during the menstrual period, were employed in this investigation of premarital sexual intercourse. A previously unanalyzed data base of 336 never-married Caucasian college coeds, in River City, a Southern Metropolitan Statistical Area containing a major medical complex, was used to test the foregoing 2 2 empirical propositions to determine their statistical significance. The data were treated as ' two independent samples because of the considerable difference in the percentages of Allied Health coeds and River City coeds who reported having had premarital sexual intercourse. In the interest of contributing to the eventual elimination of some myths and old wives' tales frequently, associated with the menstrual cycle, a description of the medical menstrual history of the respondents is presented. A sexual profile of the respondents is also presented to provide background information for evaluation of the propositions. By use of a significance level of p = .05, 15 of the original 22 empirical propositions tested were found to be either statistically significant or with data in the stated direction of the proposition for at least one of the independent samples. Those 15 empirical propositions found to be either statistically significant or in the stated direction were used to develop seven new derived propositions by the

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process of retroduction . A reapplication of the process of retroduction led to the formulation of four theoretical propostions. Through the utilization of the reference group theory model and the exchange theory model, two of the theoretical propostions were further developed in the cultural milieu permissiveness theory (Theory I) and the affection theory (Theory II) respectively. These data suggest several new, unique independent variables which have strong theoretical implications for future empirical investigations of premarital sexual intercourse among females.

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CHAPTER I , INTRODUCTION Purpose Writing in 1959, Goode issued a sweeping indictment of family sociology for its lack of emphasis on theory building. He concluded that the task of theory construction has, in general, been largely neglected in family sociology, although more research reports are published yearly in this substantive area than in almost any other branch of sociology, Most family sociologists have seemed content with working at the descriptive level rather than at the theoretical level (Goode, 1959:179) . This project focuses upon one aspect of family behavior, premarital sexual intercourse. There has been a distinct lack of concern for the utilization and/or development of theory in most empirical investigations of premarital sexual intercourse. In the past, most researchers have been inclined merely to ascertain the level of lifetime participation in premarital sexual intercourse among their respondents. Christensen, in his discussion of theory development in family sociology, has delineated a typology of scholarly sophistication used in the study of the family. This typology can be readily applied to the existing levels

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of sophistication in research that is concerned with premarital sexual intercourse (Christenson, 1969:211-212) . This typology can be applied to studies of premarital sexual intercourse in the following manner: Argument by assertion . Value judgments are combined with moralistic impressions as to how things are thought to exist in reality. Some of the earlier, moralistically toned research monographs on premarital sexual intercourse, such as the work of Exner (1915), fit into this category. Argument by reason and logic. This category can, in essence, be labeled as armchair philosophizing, with no attempt being made to; utilize any empirical evidence. A recent notable exampl:e of this approach is Bell's Premarital j Sex in a Changing Society (1966). Empirical proof-seeking . This procedure attempts to use empirical evidence to substantiate preconceived notions of, or existing relationships among, variables. An outstanding example of this particular procedure is a study by Bromley and Britten (19 38) which acknowledged "the universality of the current sex revolution across all educational and social classes. " Empirical truth-seeking . This mode includes a heavy reliance upon the scientific method. Empirical evidence is utilized with an absence of bias in the interpretation of data. Clayton's (1969) investigation of the relationship between religious orthodoxy and premarital sexual intercourse may serve as a primary example of this mode.

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The publication of Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (Kinsey, Pomeroy, and Martin, 1948) and, subsequently. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin, and Gebhard, 19 53) provided the major impetus for research on premarital sexual intercourse to move from Christensen' s category of empirical proof-seeking to the category of empirical truth-seeking. Prior to these publications, most research on premarital sexual intercourse could be classified in the category of empirical proof-seeking. Most researchers attempted only to substantiate their own beliefs regarding the extent of lifetime premarital sexual intercourse and the variables found to be associated with participation in premarital sexual intercourse.. The following year, Alfred M. Mirande (1968) published a paper using reference group theory as a theoretical perspective for the study of premarital sexual intercourse. For the third annual Burgess Award Lecture in 1968, Harold T. Christensen outlined his newly developed "theory of relative consequences" for the study of premarital sexual intercourse. Thus far,, the efforts of Reiss, Mirande, and Christensen have represented the major thrust in the area of theory building for the study of premarital sexual intercourse. Reiss developed a series of seven propositions relating to premarital sexual permissiveness. These propositions are as follows : 1. The lower the traditional level of sexual permissiveness in a group, the greater the likelihood that social forces will alter individual levels of sexual permissiveness. (Reiss, 1967:160)

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White females, for example, will be particularly affected by such independent variables as church attendance, love affairs, and romantic love . 2. The stronger the amount of general liberality in a group, the greater the likelihood that social forces will maintain high levels of sexual permissiveness. (Reiss, 1967:161) This general liberality trait includes liberality on such questions as political, economic, and religious issues. Persons possessing high degrees of general liberality will be, typically/more receptive to social attitudes that may encourage and maintain high levels of sexual permissiveness. 3. To the extent that individual ties to the marital and family institutions differ, individuals will tend to display a different type of sensitivity of permissiveness to social forces. (Reiss, 1967:161) Males and females will tend to exhibit fundamental differences in the effect of courtship patterns upon sexual permissiveness, Women will tend to utilize romantic love as a justification for a particular level of sexual permissiveness. 4. The higher the overall level of permissiveness in a group, the' greater the extent of equalitarianism within the -abstinence and double standard classifications. (Reiss, 1967:162) Increased permissiveness will lead to greater equality between the sexes with respect to participation in premarital sexual intercourse. 5. Differences in the potential for permissiveness in a basic set of parentally derived values are a key determinant of the number, rate, and direction of changes in premarital sexual standards and behavior . (Reiss, 1967:163)

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6. There is a general tendency for the individual to perceive parents' permissiveness as a low point on a permissiveness continuum and peers' permissiveness as a high point, and to place himself closer to peers, particularly to those regarded as close friends. (Reiss, 1967:162) Those individuals who perceive themselves as similar to parents in values will tend to be low on a scale of permissiveness whereas those more similar to peers will tend to be high in permissiveness. 7. The greater the responsibility for other "family members and/or the less the courtship participation, the greater the likelihood that the individual will be low on permissiveness. (Reiss, 1967:163) It follows from this proposition that the more emotionally involved one becomes with the courtship partner, the less influence parents will have in the final determination of sexual behavior. From the foregoing propositions, Reiss formulated the following theory of premarital sexual permissiveness: The degree of acceptable premarital permissiveness in a courtship group varies directly with the degree of autonomy of the courtship and with the degree of acceptable premarital sexual permissiveness in the social and cultural setting outside the group. (1967:164) Each person has a biological sex drive which encourages sexual activity and physical release. In an autonomous courtship system, a greater likelihood exists that this biological sex drive will find expression through premarital sexual intercourse. The youth of today, according to Reiss (1967), have both a sense of adventure and a general liberality toward sex. Reiss, however, cautions the reader against

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assuming that autonomy of courtship necessarily promotes promiscuity. Females are known to place certain limitations on their sexual activity in line with the degree of seriousness of the courtship' stage. It is unfortunate that Reiss has chosen the term per missiveness for the development of his theory, as this term carries value connotations for many persons. Nevertheless, Reiss has made a major contribution to theory building in the study of premarital sexual intercourse. Reference group theory, according to Mirande,^ sugge^^^^ that the behavior of a person will be consistent with the ex„, pectations of the group which the individual uses as a reference point. Mirande argues that reference group theory should be applied to the study of premarital sexual behavior in hopes of promoting further understanding of the various patterns of sexual activity exhibited by college students. Mirande has hypothesized that "The sexual behavior of an individual will tend to' be a function of the expectations of his peer reference group, irrespective of the direction of the influence" (Mirande, 1968:573). This hypothesis has been substantiated through; empirical investigation^jising college students as respondents. One is able__to cojiGlude from M data that"students are influenced by.jym.,,behavior and expectations of close associates. While persons are influenced by all their peers, the evidence indicates that they seek out peer groups which reinforce their own predispositions toward sexual activity. While this theory seems plausible in light

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of the available evidence, much additional research is needed to justify using the reference group perspective, by itself, in attempts to explain premarital sexual intercourse. Christensen' s theory of relative consequences consists of six propositions, as follows: 1. Certain relationships among variables in the sexual realm verge upon universality, while others tend to be culture bound. (Christensen, 1969:216) This proposition assumes that cultural norms are viewed as a confounding variable, that is, operating to alter the behavior itself as well as the consequences of such behavior. 2. Sexual norms ^ influence behavior, making for essential consensus and conformity within a given society; yet there is always some individual deviation, and this occurs at the levels of both attitudes and behavior. (Christensen, 1969:216) In a permissive society one would expect to find permissive behavior, and in a restrictive society one would expect to find nonpermissive behavior. One should thus be able to hypothesize that some persons may exist in the society whose behavior is out of step with their own standards. In other words, a value-behavior discrepancy is said to exist for such persons. 3. Movement toward greater permissiveness in sexual norms tends to converge both attitudes and behavior as between males and females but to encourage the . persistence of certain subcultures. (Christensen, 1969:216) Females appear to be much more receptive to shifts toward liberality of attitudes than males. The sexual attitudes and behavior of females have more and more tended to approximate those of males, particularly in Scandinavian countries.

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In societies where the range of tolerance for sexual behavior is great, subcultures play a much greater role in the determination of such behavior than in restrictive societies such as that of the Mormons in Utah. 4. Deviations from an arbitrarily assumed restrictive sex standard decrease with restrictiveness in the culture except where love and/or commitment intervene. (Christensen, 1969:217) , One may expect that approval of premarital sexual intercourse would increase as the level of love and/or commitment be'.^ tween potential sex partners increased. 5. Deviations from actual sex norms, as these are prescribed by existing societies and internalized within their constituent members, increased with restrictiveness in the culture. (Christensen, 1969: 218) As the restrictiveness of the culture increases, violations of one's own standards concerning premarital sexual intercourse are likely to increase. Christensen has termed this phenomenon value-behavior discrepancy. 6 . Negative consequences deriving from premarital coitus are positively related to these behavioral deviations from norms, which means that they increase with restrictiveness in the culture. (Christensen, 1969:218) The negative consequences of guilt — the hurried weddings upon discovery of pregnancy, and later divorce because of premarital pregnancy — would be expected to be much more frequent in restrictive cultures. Christensen derived from the aforementioned propositions the following theory of relative consequences: Both the behavior itself and the resulting effects of premarital sexual intimacy are in part dependent upon differing cultural norms, plus the conversion of these

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norms into individual values; and the negative consequences are greatest in restrictive societies, where behavior is most deviant from existing standards. (Christensen, 1969:219) In a recent publication entitled A Decade of Family Research and Action (Cannon and Long, 1971) , an intellectual challenge was issued for the development of further theory relating to premarital sexual intercourse. After a thorough and comprehensive review of research reports on premarital sexual intercourse published during the decade of the 1960s, Cannon and Long surmised that, with the notable exceptions of Reiss and Christensen, little attempt has been made to base research on existing theoretical orientations. Unfortunately, many existing propositions lack any integration and linkage with. prepositional statements developed in other areas of sociology. To this list of theorists in the substantive area of premarital sexual intercourse, it would seem appropriate to add the names of Clayton (1969, 1972) and Mirande (1968) . Later studies have consistently failed to support the propositions contained in Reiss 's theory (Heltsley and Broderick, 1969; Middendorp, Brinkman, and Koomen, 1970; Mar ane 11, Dodder, and Mitchell, 1970). However, in rejoinders to these published reports, Reiss has argued that methodological problems in the research designs have resulted in the propositions not being subjected to adequate testing (Reiss, 1969, 1970). Christensen 's theory has , as yet, not undergone completely adequate field testing to determine its theoretical value.

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IQ The purpose of this dissertation is to develop theoretical propositions about premarital sexual intercourse using the retroduction process as a technique of theory construction, as suggested by the works of Berardo (1969) and Zetterberg (1965). This approach is also somewhat comparable to the work of Bartz and Nye (1970) in studying early marriages. Bartz and Nye listed at least two distinct advantages to this approach in theory building. First, theory constructed in this manner will be based upon existing research. Secondly, this technique allows easy pinpointing of gaps in available research (Zetterberg, 1965; Bartz and Nye, 1969) . This approach, suggested by the works of Zetterberg, Berardo, and Bartz and Nye, should lead to the development of one or more partial or middle-range theories (Gibbs, 1972; Merton, 1957) . Definition of Concept Premarital sexual intercourse, for the purpose of this dissertation, will be defined as the intromission of the penis by a never-married male into the vaginal tract of a never-married female. The absence of orgasm on the part of the male and/or female does not preclude the use of this definition. Any form of heterosexual, noncoital sex is, however, specifically excluded by this particular definition. From a semantic standpoint, the use of the term premarital creates certain terminological problems (Gibbs, 1972;

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11 Zetterberg, 1965) . By definition, this term is usually interpreted to mean that which precedes marriage; yet, not all persons in an unmarried state who engage in sexual intercourse with each other eventually marry. The term nonmarital coitus might seem to be a more appropriate descriptive term. However, conventionality of usage in the sociological literature dictates the use of the term premarital sexual intercourse. Further terminological confusion results when "premarital sexual intercourse" is used to describe a nevermarried person who is having sexual intercourse with a married person. Conventionality would seem to indicate that for the former it is "premarital" and for the latter it is "extramarital" sexual intercourse. Since we shall be dealing with the sexual behavior of the unmarried person only, that problem need not concern us (Gibbs, 1972). Plan of the Dissertation This dissertation will consist of four parts. In the first part, a thorough review of all reported research literature relevant to the stated problem will be made. A comprehensive list of empirical propositions will then be made using each of the independent variables referred to in the research literature. It is expected that, in many cases, empirical propositions will have to be extracted from the existing reported data, because formally stated propositions may not appear in the research reports. If more than one

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12 citation is found for the same proposition, a notation will be made as to whether the additional citations lend support to, or tend to refute, the proposition. Only empirically based research will be used to pinpoint independent variables for inclusion in the list of empirical propositions. The second part will consist of subjecting certain of these empirical propositions to further empirical test. An unanalyzed data base of 3 36 never-married Caucasian females, which consists of 140 River City College coeds and 196 Allied Health Science coeds from River City College, Southern Medical School, and River City Hospital's School of Nursing, is available for this purpose.* These data will be treated, for the purpose of this data analysis, as two independent samples. Appropriate statistical techniques will be utilized to determine the level of significance and the degree of association between the independent variables and the dependent variable of premarital sexual intercourse found in each of the empirical propositions. In the third part of the dissertation, those empirical propositions found to be statistically significant will be combined into theoretical propositions using the process of retroduction. This process involves the level of abstraction of the independent variable, thus permitting certain propositions with commonality of concepts to be combined. *In the interest of preserving the anonymity of respondents, the foregoing pseudonyms will be used throughout this dissertation.

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13 The fourth part will consist of ascertaining the resemblance of these theoretical propositions to any existing theoretical frames of reference in sociological theory. ". . . [T]he goal of theory construction is the creation or identification of order, and success can be judged by the predictive power of the theory" (Gibbs, 1972:305). If any empirical regularities are discovered, they will be treated and viewed as the establishment of possible theoretical perspectives for the study of premarital sexual intercourse, rather than as models of causation or explanation.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Current Status of Research Over the years, a number of different independent variables have been utilized to study the likelihood of participation in premarital sexual intercourse. Some of the more frequently used variables will be briefly explored to demonstrate their relevance for a study of premarital sexual intercourse. Age has been one of the most frequently employed variables. A basic assumption in the use of this variable has been that the older the person, the more lifetime exposure he or she has had to the possibility of participating in premarital sexual intercourse. Early studies indicated that, as age increased, the incidence of premarital sexual intercourse increased (Terman, 1938; Kinsey et al., 1948; Kinsey et al, 1953). Other more recent studies have considered the age of the individual per se as an oversimplification of the possible relationship with premarital sexual intercourse. A more logical approach seems to be to consider age at marriage. After all, the length of the lifetime exposure pattern is, essentially, a function of the age of a person at the time of marriage. Chilman (1966) , in using this approach, found that early marriage for females 14

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15 was associated with a greater likelihood of ever engaging in premarital sexual intercourse, but that late marriage for males was associated with a greater likelihood. While this variable has been used in several studies, no consistent direction has been established. Terman (19 38) found that early age at menstruation was associated with a higher incidence of premarital sexual intercourse among females. The rationale was that early maturing females would experience physiological desire for sexual intercourse earlier; therefore they would have a longer lifetime interest and exposure to the possibility of premarital sexual intercourse. Another possible interpretation of these data is that females who reach physiological maturity early change their reference groups, thereby creating the possibility of having peer group approval for sexual intercourse prior to marriage. Individuals who begin to date at a very early age also were found to have participated in premarital sexual intercourse in greater proportions than persons who begin to date at a later age (Bell and Chaskes, 1970). Again, lifetime exposure to the possibility of sexual experience appears to be a key element in this finding. In more recent years, considerable research interest has been directed toward the theoretical typology of premarital sexual standards constructed by Ira Reiss . Persons accepting premarital sexual intercourse as a personal standard of behavior have tended to exhibit higher rates of

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16 participation in premarital sexual intercourse. Females, in particular, have exhibited a higher incidence of premarital sexual intercourse if their personal standards included sexual intercourse before marriage (Christensen and Gregg, 1970). Many persons opposing the dissemination of contraceptive information have argued that such information leads to an increased incidence of premarital sexual intercourse; yet only one author has chosen to use this variable for research purposes. Davis (1929) found higher rates of premarital sexual intercourse among females with contraceptive information. Another variable appearing in some form in much recent research has been the courtship stage of the respondent. Numerous studies have indicated that females associate love and affection with potential participation in premarital sexual intercourse. As they progress toward more serious and meaningful relationships with dating partners, they become much more receptive to the idea of engaging in premarital sexual intercourse. Using the courtship stage as a variable in the incidence of premarital sexual intercourse has taken a. variety of forms. Long engagements have been found to be associated with a higher incidence of premarital sexual intercourse for females (Burgess and Wallin, 1953). Courtship stage was used as a variable in a study reproted by Bell and Blumberg (1959) . As the seriousness of the dating relationship increased, the incidence of premarital sexual intercourse among females increased geometrically.

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17 In a later study, Bell and Chaskes (1970) reported that, as the number of times females had gone steady increased, the probability that they had participated in premarital sexual intercourse greatly increased. They also found that the greater the number of different boys females have dated, the greater the probability that they have engaged in premarital sexual intercourse. A greater number of different dating partners increased the likelihood of a serious relationship developing for females, along with an increase in the absolute numbfer of emotionally involved lifetime situations (going steady) in which premarital sexual intercourse might occur. A variation in the usual findings relative to the stage of courtship as a variable was reported by Kanin (1960). He found that a short period of exclusive dating was more likely to lead to premarital sexual intercourse than a long period of exclusive dating. The existence of an engagement versus the nonexistence of an engagement greatly increased the probability that premarital sexual intercourse would occur for females (Freedman, 1965) . Presence of strict parental discipline in the home was associated with a low incidence of premarital sexual intercourse for females in data reported by Terman (1938:335). It is of interest to note that, apparently, no other sex researcher has utilized this variable in studies of premarital sexual intercourse. Based on other nonsexual data, many researchers would argue that strict parental discipline seems

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18 more likely to increase the incidence of premarital sexual intercourse among females than to lessen the likelihood of its occurrence. The educational level of the respondent has been frequently used as a variable in research on premarital sexual intercourse. Some researchers argue that educational level should not be considered as a varia:ble distinct, from that of socioeconomic status. However, its separate usage can be justified in terms of its apparent opposite effect for males and females. Males with low levels of educational achievement have generally indicated higher participation rates for premarital sexual intercourse than females with low levels of educational achievement (Kinsey, 1953:293-296). Clayton found that male fraternity members had higher rates of participation in premarital sexual intercourse than independent males. Sorority members, though, had a lower incidence of premarital sexual intercourse than did independent females (Clayton, 1969:471-473). The sorority members were very concerned about the image and reputation of their organizations on the campus where the survey had been conducted, They had elaborate sets of procedures for handling deviations from their organizational norms. Happiness of the parents '. marriage was found to be associated with the incidence of premarital sexual intercourse by Christensen and Carpenter. This variable was significant in the stated direction for Intermountain and Midwestern University samples only. Students who reported

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19 happy parental marriages tended to have lower rates of participation in premarital sexual intercourse when contrasted with students who reported unhappy parental marriages (Christensen and Carpenter, 1962:67-69). This variable seems to imply that young people found in unhappy home environments will likely turn to other sources of attention and affection. Kaats and Davis concluded from their data that physical attractiveness on the part of females increased the likelihood that they would participate in premarital sexual intercourse. Physical attractiveness would appear to increase the theoretical number of life chances females may have to participate in premarital sexual intercourse (Kaats and Davis, 1970:395-396). The variable of religion has been used down through the years in investigations of the general incidence of premarital sexual intercourse. The traditional religious breakdown of Protestant, Catholic, and Jew has been employed most frequently in studying the relationship between premarital sexual intercourse and religious affiliation. Most studies have indicated the highest incidence of premarital sexual intercourse for male and female Catholics (Bell and Blumberg, 1959; Peretti, 1969). With one or two notable exceptions, Jews have tended to exhibit the lowest incidence of premarital sexual intercourse (Hohman and Schaffner, 1947) . These findings could possibly be a function of the availability of eligible dating and marriage partners according to one's religious preference. Courtship folklore supports

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20 the claim that often Jewish males seduce Gentile females to preserve the Jewish females' virginity for marriage. The available data do not permit either acceptance or rejection of this contention. The data do, however, indicate that Jewish females' virginity is more often preserved until marriage, whatever the reasons may be. Numerous attempts have been made to ascertain a relationship between premarital sexual intercourse and religiosity. One of the major difficulties with this variable is the measurement of the concept of religiosity. Frequency of church attendance has beenused in many instances as an index of devoutness in religious faith. Yet, researchers have argued down through the years that church attendance itself is a poor index of religiosity. These considerations notwithstanding, frequency of church attendance has been associated with a low incidence of premarital sexual intercourse (Burgess and Wallin, 1953:339). Using the Putney and Middleton Likert-type scale of religious orthodoxy (defined herein as religiosity) , Clayton found that high religious orthodoxy scores were associated with low incidences of premarital sexual intercourse for independent males and females but not for male and female members of Greek-letter social organizations (Clayton, 1969:470-472). Burgess and Wallin, among others, also noted that persons with no religious preference indicated the highest incidence of premarital sexual intercourse (Burgess and Wallin, 1953:339).

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21 Early researchers used the variable of rural-urban residence in studies of premarital sexual intercourse. A higher incidence of premarital sexual intercourse was found to be associated with an urban background (Kinsey et al., 1948: 4 55). Today, with the gradual diminution of previous rural-urban differences, this variable is no longer considered relevant by most researchers . While considerable variation exists in the particular technique used in evaluating social class, most researchers are in agreement that the incidence of premarital sexual intercourse is much greater among persons from the lower class as contrasted with persons from the middle class (Kinsey et al., 1953; Diamant, 1970; Hohman and Schaffner, 1947; Kanin, 1960). Bell and Chaskes (1970), however, have recently reported that no significant differences exist in the incidence of premarital sexual intercourse among respondents when using father's occupation and father's educational level as indices of social class. Review of the Literature Beginning with the year 1915, all available empirical research concerned with premarital sexual intercourse has been carefully reviewed. This comprehensive review of the relevant research literature has provided a somewhat lengthy inventory of empirical; propositions . In many instances, it has been necessary to formally construct empirical propositions from the independent variables appearing in the

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22 research reports, as many authors chose not to place variables in a prepositional format. For the sake of clarity, consistency in the wording of the empirical propositions has been utilized wherever possible. This structural requirement has led to a rewording of many existing propositions. Nevertheless, the integrity of each proposition has been maintained by not altering the stated direction of the independent variable. The cited reference for each empirical proposition indicates where support, and/or lack of support, may be found in the research literature for a particular independent variable. Inventory of. Empirical Propositions for Never-Married Females 1. There is a direct . relationship between age and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Bergen, 1972; Kinsey et al., 1953; Ramsey, 1943; Vener, Stewart, and Hager, 1972; not supported by Eastman, 1972). 2. There is an inverse relationship between age at marriage and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Chilman, 1966) . 3. There is an inverse relationship between age at first menstruation and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Terman, 19 38) . 4. There is an inverse relationship between age at first date and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Bell and Chaskes, 1970; Freeman and Freeman, 1966).

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23 5. There is a direct relationship between having a personal standard which includes premarital sexual intercourse and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Christensen and Gregg, 1970; Freeman and Freeman, 1966) . . 6 . There is a direct relationship between contraceptive knowledge and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Davis, 1929). 7. There is a direct relationship between perceived norms of sexual permissiveness among others in general and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Teevan, 1972; not supported by Clayton, 1972) . 8. There is a direct relationship between perceived norms of sexual permissiveness and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Freeman and Freeman, 1966; Teevan, 1972; not supported by Clayton, 1972). 9. There is a direct relationship between involvement in a love relationship and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Bell and Blumberg, 1959; Bergen, 1972; Christensen and Gregg, 1970; Eastman, 1972; Freedman, 1965; Freeman and Freeman, 1966; Kanin, 1960; Karen, 1959; Locke, 1951; Prince and Shipman , 1960) • 10. There is a direct relationship between length of engagement and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Burgess and Wallin, 1953).

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24 ^ll). There is a direct relationship between the number of different boys dated and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Bell and Chaskes , 1970). 12. There is an inverse relationship between having had strict discipline in the home and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Bergen, 1972; Terman, 1938) . 13. There is a direct relationship between educational level and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Bergen, 1972; Kinsey et al. , 1953). 14. There is an inverse relationship between grade point average and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Bergen, 1972; Freeman and Freeman, 1966). 15. Females enrolled in Colleges of Arts and Sciences are more likely to have had premarital sexual intercourse than are females enrolled in Colleges of Education (supported by Bergen, 1972). 16. Independents are more likely to have had premarital sexual intercourse than are sorority members (supported by Clayton, 19 69) . 17. There is a direct relationship between being estranged from parents and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Teevan, 1972). 18. There is a direct relationship between living alone and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Arafat and Yorburg, 197 3) .

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25 19. There is a direct relationship between having parents with an unhappy marriage and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Christensen and Carpenter, 1962). 20. There is a direct , relationship between physical attractiveness and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Kaats and Davis, 1970). 21. Protestant females are more likely to have had premarital sexual intercourse than are Jewish females (supported by Althoff and Mussel, 1971; Arafat and Yorburg, 1973; Freeman and Freeman, 1966). 22. Catholic females are more likely to have had premarital sexual intercourse than are Protestant females (supported by Bell and Blumberg, 1959; Freeman and Freeman, 1966; Bergen, 1972; Peretti, 1969; not supported by Arafat and Yorburg, 1973; Kinsey et al., 1953). 23. There is an inverse relationship between church attendance and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Bauman, 1973; Bergen, 1972; Burgess and Wallin, 1953; Freeman and Freeman, 1966; Kinsey et al., 1953; Prince and Shipman, 1960). 24. There is an inverse relationship between sex guilt and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Mosher and Cross, 1971) . 25. There is a direct relationship between urban residential background and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Bergen, 1972; Kinsey et al. , 1953).

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26 26. Females from the East are more likely to have had premarital sexual intercourse than are females from the Deep South (supported by Bergen, 197 2) . 27. Females from the East are more likely to have had premarital sexual intercourse than are females from the Midwest (supported by Bergen, 1972) • 28. Females from the Far West are more likely to have had premarital sexual intercourse than are females from the Deep South (supported by Bergen, 1972). 29. Females from the Far West are more likely to have had premarital sexual intercourse than are females from the Midwest (supported by Bergen, 1972) . 30. There is a direct relationship between lower-class values and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Kinsey et al., 1953, for females when using level of education an an index; not supported by Bell and Chaskes, 1970; Bergen, 1972, for females when using level of education as an index) . 31. There is an inverse relationship between father's social class and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Vener et al., 1972). 32. There is a direct relationship between use of marijuana and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Arafat and Yorburg, 1973; Bell and Clavan, 1973; Milman and Su, 1973; Walters, Goethals, and Pope, 1972).

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27 33. There is a direct relationship between use of alcoholic beverages and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Bell and Clavan, 1973; Milman and Su, 1973). 34. There is a direct relationship between use of narcotics (LSD, heroin, etc.) and having had premarital sexual intercourse (supported by Arafat and Yorburg, 197 3; Milman and Su, 1973; Walters et al., 1972. Studies Not Utilized A number of available sources could not, logically, be utilized for the purpose of extracting empirical propositions for this dissertation. Among those sources not included was the frequently cited work of Ira Reiss entitled The Social Context of Premarital Sexual Permissiveness (1967). This work was not selected because of the rather unusual stance that Reiss takes with regard to the attitude versus behavior dilemma. "Hopefully, by this time in the development of social science we have discarded the primitive notion that behavior rather than attitude is more of a 'true' measure of a relationship" (Reiss, 1967:11). He then proceeds to equate attitude with behavior, thus assuming that one can ascertain behavior by asking about attitude. Several sources were not included because of cultural variation in the data which make meaningful comparisons with data from the United States methodologically unsound

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28 (Bock and lutaka, 1970; Chesser, 1956; Hobart , 1972; Slater, 1951; Schofield, 1965). A substantial niomber of sources were rejected because no specific independent variables were utilized in the research designs (Achilles, 1923; Bromley and Britten, 19 38; Cuber and Harroff, 1965; Herz , 1970; Hughes, 1926; Kanin, 1957, 1969; Landis and Landis, 1953; Macklin, 1972; Packard, 196 8; Peterson, 1938; Robinson, King, Dudley and Clune , 1968; Robinson, King, and Balswick, 1972). Still other sources were not used because of the atypical nature of samples, such as respondents being physically handicapped (Landis and Bolles, 1942; Merrill, 1918; Schwartz, 1971; Strakosch, 1934). Finally, a large number of sources were omitted from further consideration because of serious methodological problems such as small "N", absence of statistical tests, of significance, or nonrepresentative sampling procedures (Burchinal and Bock, 1959; Dickinson and Beam, 1934; Exner, 1915; Greene, 1964; Hamilton, 1929; Kirkendall, 1961; Kronhausen and Kronhausen, 1960; Lower, 1972; Luckey and Nass, 1969; Pearl, 1925; Peck and Wells, 1923; Taylor, 1933). Methodological Problems in Current Literature Considerable difficulty exists with respect to uniformity of definitions employed in gathering and reporting empirical data on premarital sexual intercourse. Some authors have questioned the idea of whether fellatio and and cunnilingus may be appropriately counted as sexual

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29 intercourse since these two sexual techniques are often found, in heavy petting (Freedman, 1965) . Should homosexual experiences that have led to orgasm on the part of the respondent (Kinsey et al. , 1948) be counted as part of the total sexual intercourse experience? Is the true incidence of premarital sexual intercourse somewhat underestimated by virtue of the exclusion of fellatio, cunnilingus, and homosexual experiences which result in orgasm for the respondent? The use of the terms virgin and nonvirgin . often provoke a maze-like effect in the research. To report a female as a nonvirgin after she has had sexual intercourse only one time as part of lifetime behavior raises some serious theoretical questions. Should researchers be interested primarily in current behavior or in total lifetime behavior? Or should data be gathered on both lifetime and current rates of participation in premarital sexual intercourse? If only current behavior is studied, the percentage of college females reporting participation in premarital sexual intercourse drops drastically (Clayton, 1969) . There is a general lack of agreement as to the meaning of the term technical virgin, and thus it is variously used by many authors. Does it mean (Bromley and Britten, 19 38) caressing the breasts, manipulation of the genital area, or any and all types of sexual stimulation leading to an orgasm, except intromission of the penis into the vagina?

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30 Often in the design of the research project, previous research either has been ignored, or not properly applied, in the development of the research design. Many of the early researchers made no effort at all to review the relevant literature in formulating the research design (Davis, 1929; Dickinson and Beam, 1934) . Another critical problem in research. on premarital sexual intercourse has been the inability and/or unwillingness on the part of researchers to utilize representative samples in their work. Most of the existing data on premarital sexual intercourse are concerned with white college students, and the samples are largely nonrepresentative and nonrandom. Often one. is unable even to generalize the data to other students at the same college or university, not to mention the prospect of other colleges and universities. (Kirkendall, 1961; Kanin, 1960). A recurring problem is that of small sample size, particularly when the data are categorized and tabulated. Percentages often are calculated based on small Ns, with the results being very misleading to an untrained and unsophisticated reader (Freedman, 1965) . Many of the problems associated with nonrepresentative and nonrandom sampling can be attributed directly to the lack of financial and administrative support from colleges and universities for research about premarital sexual intercourse. Consequently, most researchers have chosen to use whatever sample groups they have immediate access to.

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31 regardless of size and/or characteristics. Thus, the rather extensive practice of utilizing volunteer subjects in the gathering of data on premarital sexual intercourse still exists today. A crucial question (Kaats and Davis, 1970) then becomes, to what extent are respondents "coerced" into participating in surveys against their wills? Does a student in a classroom setting feel compelled to participate in such a study if requested to do so by his instructor? Would he or she fear that grade reprisal would occur if they refused to cooperate? Additional problems in sampling may be introduced if students are told to report to a certain location at a particular time. One could argue that students who spend their own time participating in a study are likely to be atypical with respect to interest and/or participation in sexual activity (Kirkendall, 1961). Peretti suggests that personal contact be made in the respondent's own social setting, assuming that anonymity can be preserved (Peretti, 1969). Some researchers have chosen to pay respondents and the recruiters of respondents. Bias in the selection process may be a factor in the data collected under such circumstances (Luckey and Nass, 1969; Kinsey et al., 1948; Kinsey et al . , 1953). Original respondents have been permitted to recruit their friends for participation in some studies of premarital sexual intercourse. Would these recruiters (Hamilton, 1929; Kinsey et al., 1948; Kinsey et al., 1953) be likely to choose

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32 other respondents who are similar in terms of their own behavior patterns? A number of researchers have used mail questionnaires in gathering data on premarital sexual intercourse (Packard, 1968; Davis, 1929; Burgess and Wallin, 1953). The obvious question of collusion on filling out the questionnaire can be raised, even though complete anonymity of the respondent can be preserved using this data-gathering technique. Other researchers have distributed questionnaires to groups for completion and later gone back and retrieved them (Reiss, 1967; Exner, 1915). The interview, eliminating anonymity in one sense of the word, does make for greater rapport with the respondent, which should result in more accurate and complete data (Hamilton, 1929; Kinsey et al. , 1948; Kinsey et al., 1953). Many early studies did not employ any type of statis. tical tests of significance in reporting the data. The data were usually reported in percentages and left to the reader's interpretation (Kinsey et al., 1948; Bromley and Britten, 1938; Dickinson and Beam, 1934; Davis, 1929). Another frequent problem that has occurred in reported findings in the literature is that the number of cases reported in the final tabulations differs significantly from originally reported sample size, without explanation; yet the original sample sizeis 'what is most often referred to in reviews of the literature about premarital sexual intercourse (Packard, 1968; Locke, 1951; Ross, 1950).

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33 The reporting of findings in the literature has often been confusing and unclear. The reader is, sometimes , unable to accurately evaluate the author's conclusions (Cuber and Harroff, 1965; Reiss, 1967). At other times, it is even necessary to combine categories and calculate descriptive statistics in order to compare the data with other studies (Terman, 1938; Kinsey et al., 1948; Peretti, 1969). As discussed in Chapter I, there has been a general lack of concern for theory building in the research on premarital sexual intercourse. Most recent researchers, with the exception of Christensen, have avoided making statements regarding the utilitarian value of their findings (Christensen, 1969; Christensen and Gregg, 1970). Research on premarital sexual intercourse has come a long way since the early days of Exner and Davis. If the same degree of progress in research on premarital sexual intercourse can be made during the decade of the 1970s as during the decade of the 1960s, family researchers will be able to look with admiration upon the research efforts devoted to the study of premarital sexual intercourse. Some Testable Propositions About Premarital Sexual Intercourse Among Females After a careful consideration of all available research findings, one must conclude that most studies of premarital sexual intercourse lack a theoretical orientation. The current state of knowledge in sociology does not permit the

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34 application of some grand theory which would apply to the study of premarital sexual intercourse in the majority of societal situations. The independent variables used in previous research seem to suggest three different theoretical orientations for future studies, depending upon the nature of the data. These three theoretical orientations are: the exchange orientation; the reference group orientation, which is a component part of the symbolic interaction orientation; and the structural-functional orientation. The exchange orientation involves social interaction in which one gives something of value in order to get something valued in return (Blau, 1964) . The reference group orientation involves groups of which one is a member and groups of which one is not a member, becoming focal points of reference for the shaping of attitudes, values, and behavior (Merton, 1957:281). The structuralfunctional orientation is concerned with the consequences of any social activity which occurs for the adaptation or adjustment of a given social structure or its component parts (social actors) (Coser and Rosenberg, 1964; Merton, 1957; Radcliffe-Brown, 1952). Through the application of the foregoing three frames of reference to the existing research literature, and to a previously unanalyzed data base of 336 never-married females, the following propositions will be subjected to test:

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35 1. There is a direct relationship between recommended age for the marriage of females and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 2. There is an inverse relationship between age at first menstruation and having had premarital sexual intercourse, 3. There is an inverse relationship between the age at which one learns where babies come from and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 4. There is a direct relationship between a positive attitude toward oral-genital sex and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 5. There is a direct relationship between a positive attitude toward masturbation and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 6. There is a direct relationship between having encountered a positive attitude toward sexual intercourse during the menstrual period and, having had premarital sexual intercourse. 7. There is an inverse relationship between ordinal position in the family and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 8. There is a direct relationship between planning to be employed after marriage and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 9. There is an inverse relationship between number of children desired and having had premarital sexual intercourse .

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36 10. There is a direct relationship between desire to bear children later in marriage and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 11. There is a direct relationship between planning to be employed after children are born into a marriage and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 12. There is a direct relationship between viewing sexual intercourse as equally pleasurable for males and females and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 13. There is a direct relationship between having petted to orgasm with a member of the opposite sex and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 14. There is a direct relationship between expressed dissatisfaction with petting to orgasm and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 15. There is a direct relationship between self-classification as knowledgeable about reproductive physiology and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 16. There is a direct relationship between being knowledgeable about the female orgasm and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 17. There is a direct relationship between contraceptive knowledge and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 18. There is a direct relationship between commitment to a serious dating relationship and having had premarital sexual intercourse. kr

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37 19. There is a direct relationship between college academic class standing and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 20. There is a direct relationship between expressed preference for a liberal Protestant demonination and having had premarital sexual intercourse.' 21. There is an inverse relationship between church attendance and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 22. There is an inverse relationship between father's social class by occupation and having had premarital sexual intercourse. If any of these propositions are found to be associated with premarital sexual intercourse, hopefully theoretical propositions can be formulated by the process of retroduction. The subsequent empirical testing of these propositions should, thus, contribute to the further development of sociological theory associated with premarital sexual intercourse.

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CHAPTER III j METHODOLOGY I Background In 196 8, the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Southern Medical School was conducting a research project concerned with the menstrual cycles of rhesus monkeys under the direction of Chester B. Martin, M.D., and funded by the Carnegie Foundation. Martin subsequently became interested in whether human females tend to exhibit an increased interest in sexual intercourse during the menstrual period , (Hamilton, 1929; Masters and Johnson, 1966; Terman, 1938). In an attempt to clarify this question, Martin and Eugene M. Long, a senior medical student, collected data on the subject and later published preliminary findings (Martin and Long, 1969). The total sample consisted of only 25 married medical student couples, which made the data somewhat limited in adequacy and applicability. After further analysis of the preliminary findings, the scope of this human sexuality research project was expanded to include a more comprehensive view of sexual attitudes and behavior in a medical milieu. At this point in time, the author was invited to become research consultant to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Southern Medical School, for the purpose 38

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39 of giving advice and counsel concerning the sociological implications of the impending sex research project. It was decided that a new pilot survey should focus on three broad questions in the field of human sexuality. These questions were related to attitudes toward, and the extent of, participation in sexual intercourse during the menstrual period; the independent variables associated with premarital sexual intercourse in a medical milieu; and whether persons in a medical milieu accept folklore beliefs about human sexuality. Available medical evidence appears to indicate that the peak of physiological sexual desire fluctuates for most women during the menstrual cycle due to changes in the levels of progesterone and estrogen present in their bodies. A number of leading medical authorities in recent years have indicated that, for a number of females, the achieving of orgasm during the menstrual period can aid in the alleviation of abdominal cramps often associated with painful menstruation. Despite the apparent therapeutic value of sexual activity during the menstrual period for many females, religious proscriptions against such activity persist in American society (Birenbaum, 1970; Martin and Long, 1969; Masters and Johnson, 1966; Larsen, 1965). Many folklore beliefs also exist in our culture regarding the adverse effects of sexual activity during the menstrual period, and of human sexuality in general. Given

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40 the availability of scientific knowledge about human sexuality in a medical milieu, will persons who are members participating in this milieu subscribe to religious and folklore beliefs about sexuality rather than to existing medical knowledge? (Brill, 1939; Burnap and Golden, 1967; Calderone, 1966; Coombs, 1968; Hastings, 1963; Lief, 1963, 1964, 1965; McCreary-Juhasz, 1967) . Many males who date nurses and/or nursing students perceive these females as being more willing to engage in sexual intercourse before marriage than females of other occupational types. Available evidence suggests that males with such perceptions tend to behave accordingly on dates with nurses or nursing students. Does the medical milieu affect the willingness of these females to engage in premarital sexual intercourse, or is this suggested difference merely medical student hearsay? (Ellis and Fuller, 1950; Skipper and Nass, 1966; Woods and Natterson, 1967). The Instrument Description A thorough and detailed questionnaire was constructed which contained questions on relevant background variables, sexual histories, attitudes toward and participation in sexual intercourse during the menstrual period, attitudes toward masturbation and oral-genital sexual stimulation, knowledge about human sexuality, and knowledge about contraception. A cover letter specifying the sponsorship and the

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41 purposes of the study, why the respondent should participate, and a guarantee of anonymity constituted the first page of the questionnaire. The author decided to have two versions of the questionnaire, one for females and one for males, because of questions concerned with the medical menstrual history. The only difference between the two versions was that a medical menstrual history was included for female respondents. When the data gathering was approximately 9 percent completed, a new question was added at the end of the questionnaire. This new item sought a self-perceived evaluation of what happens mentally and physically when a female achieves orgasm. The purpose of this question was to determine whether females can experience orgasm without being aware that it is happening. Considerable use was made of open-ended questions to permit freedom of expression by the individual respondent. In many other cases, it was impossible to ascertain all of the possible answer categories before collecting the data. In other cases, closedform questions were used. A complete copy of the female version of this questionnaire can be found in Appendix I. Pretest The initial research instruments were drafted during the winter and spring quarters of 1969 and subsequently went through two draft revisions prior to being judged ready for pretesting. The first pretest was carried out during May of

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42 1969 using male and female students from River City College. These respondents were enrolled in introductory sociology and sociology of the family courses. They completed the anonymous questionnaire under the supervision of a student assistant whose primary duty was to make sure that no questionnaires, either completed or uncompleted, left the premises of the sociology laboratory. Upon completion of the questionnaire, it was placed in a sealed, ballot-type box personally by the respondent. No record was kept of the respondents, and no identifying marks or labels of any type, appeared on the research instrument itself, thus assuring complete anonymity for the respondents . The results of this first pretest were carefully checked, analyzed, and evaluated. In some instances, the intent of the question had been misunderstood, and the subsequent answer obtained was not applicable. The questionnaires were then redrafted, incorporating the changes suggested by the pretest. A second pretest of the questionnaires was conducted to determine if any additional changes in wording were necessary or desirable. Again the respondents were volunteers from introductory sociology and sociology of the family courses. By this date, the academic quarter had been completed and a new one had begun, thus providing a new source of volunteers who would not be repeaters from the first pretest. An analysis of the results of the second pretest indicated that only minor changes were needed in

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43 the final versions of the research instruments. These revisions were subsequently made, and the research instruments were ready for administration by August of 196 9. It should be noted that the principal investigator of this research project resigned from Southern Medical School to accept an offer from the Medical School of the University of California at Los Angeles, effective July 1, 1969. After this untimely development, the author was appointed principal investigator for the research project. Administration In order that absolute control be maintained over the integrity of the questionnaires and the anonymity of respondents, the principal investigator decided that all administrations of the questionnaires would be carried out in group-type settings. For the student respondents, the questionnaires were administered in the classroom under supervision of the principal investigator and/or a student assistant. In the case of wives of medical students (Medical Dames) and the wives of residents and interns, the questionnaires were administered at regularly scheduled meetings of the organizations under the supervision of the. principal investigator. For licensed practical nurses and registered nurses, an elaborate schedule for administration during working hours was arranged with the help of the director and assistant director of nursing at each of the respective hospitals included in the samples.

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44 Data collection stations were set up on each floor of two of the hospitals and operated simultaneously to minimize any discussion of the contents of the questionnaire. Nurses were then rotated to the data collection stations during their working hours. These data collection stations were under the immediate supervision of student assistants and the departmental secretary, with overall supervision provided by the principal investigator. In one of these hospitals, the collecting of data was carried on continuously for a period of 24 hours to insure coverage of all three shifts. In the other , hospital, the data collecting was carried on for a period of 36 continuous hours to provide coverage for all three shifts, plus those persons who had had a day off on the first shift the preceding day. The third hospital involved in the research project was a custodial psychiatric hospital. The foregoing data collection procedure was both impractical and undesirable from the standpoint of hospital security. After lengthy discussions with the director and assistant director of nursing, the principal investigator decided to set up one centrailized data collection station in the main wing of the hospital. Nurses were then relieved from their duty stations, according to a predetermined plan, to come to the data collection station. This data collection station was under the immediate supervision of the departmental secretary and/or student assistants at varying times, with overall supervision

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45 provided by the principal investigator. It was later learned that at this hospital all nurses had been required to come to the data collection station and at least look at the questionnaire. Previous public relations efforts had been made to fully inform all nursing staffs of the nature and purpose of the research project and that participation was to be strictly volunteer. The assistant nursing director had simply been overzealous in her attempt to cooperate with the researchers. Due to the extremely small number of nurses on duty during the third shift, only nurses on the first two shifts were included in this sample. The actual procedure for administration of the questionnaires was the same for all respondents. A brief written statement was read concerning the nature, purpose, and anonymity of the responses to the questionnaire each time a new group of potential respondents was involved. They were then asked to read the cover letter and to complete the questionnaire. If, at some point after beginning to answer, they decided not to complete the questionnaire, they were told to merely fold their questionnaire like a letter and deposit it in a box at the front of the room as everyone else would do upon completion. A sealed, ballottype box had been provided for deposit of the completed questionnaires. As previously stated, no identifying marks or labels appeared on the questionnaires (Barnett, 1965). Using this approach, only three questionnaires out of a total of 887 questionnaires

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46 collected could not be used. In all three cases, the respondents were married female nurses over 50 years of age'. The actual collection of data began, in August of 1969, with students enrolled in the diploma program in nursing at River City University Hospital and was concluded with female students enrolled at River City College, in May, 197 0. Analysis of Data Code Book A random selection of questionnaires from all subsamples was taken by the principal investigator to determine possible answer categories for the various questions. After recording the different possible answers for each question, a code book was prepared to permit the data to be transferred from the questionnaires to data-processing cards. The column numbers were assigned in such a. manner as to permit additional answer categories to be added as the necessity arose. Examples were indicated in parentheses after many of the answer categories for the open-ended questions, to aid the coders in deciding on the appropriate category. A female student assistant, who was a senior at River City College, was trained as a code clerk by the principal investigatorShe had previously worked with the development of the questionnaires and subsequent pretests and was well versed in all matters pertaining to the research project. A meeting was held daily to determine what problems, if any, had arisen concerning the coding of answers that

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47 were particularly difficult to interpret. After discussion, a consensus on the proper answer category would be reached for each problem response. This code clerk was able to code about 6 percent of the questionnaires prior to her graduation from River City College. About three months before her work termination, she began training another senior female student assistant to take over her duties as code clerk. The second code clerk was subsequently trained by the first code clerk and by the principal investigator. As part of the training procedure for both code clerks, the principal investigator would code, independently, randomly selected questionnaires that had previously been coded and compare the results. This technique proved to be an effective training method as well as an aid in maintaining quality control . A coding log book was maintained for the purpose of recording new answer categories that were added, and the interpretations given to answers in order that they might be coded. This procedure involved recording the date, the answer category added and/or chosen for use in a particular case, and the basis and/or criteria utilized in the decision. This technique provided a valuable supplement to the coding process. A unique aspect of the coding process was the manner in which questions related to describing the male and female orgasms were coded. A panel of five female judges, working

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48 independently^ was asked to rate the descriptions of the male and female orgasms as knowledgeable, slightly knowledgeable, or not at all knowledgeable. A composite score value was then obtained from their ratings and converted to a coding category. A copy of this composite form appears in Appendix I. The judges were selected on the basis of the following criteria: married, 30 to 39 years of age, and sexually responsive , i.e. , orgasmic. All of the judges were known to the principal investigator and were not utilized as actual respondents in this survey. The sexual responsiveness of the judges was determined by using selected parts of the questionnaire and through personal interviews. To the author's knowledge, no one has ever before used this particular technique to quantify data about the male and female orgasm. Data Processing The data-processing cards were punched ' from standard 80-column code sheets especially designed for coding data of this type. These cards were subsequently verified to check for punching errors. After the necessary corrections were made, the cards were edited for coding errors using an edit program developed by the computer staff of Southern Medical School. The data-processing cards were then corrected based on the computer output from the edit program. It is herein acknowledged by the author that an edit

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49 program will only ascertain certain kinds of coding errors. A second computer run was later made using the same edit program to check for further errors . Further corrections were made in the data cards contained in this data base, using the second. edit output. It was then concluded that the data cards were relatively free of errors after the second set of corrections had been made. A frequency distribution program was developed using COBOL, since Southern Medical School was without a programmer who could program in FORTRAN. This approach proved to be both costly and time consuming, but, nevertheless, a workable 25,000-card program was devised that would perform the necessary operations for computing frequencies and percentages for each subsample group. These frequency distributions provided the basis for subsamples to be later collapsed and for cross tabulations to be performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) at the Northeast Regional Data Center of the State University System of Florida. Issue of Nonresponse It is always appropriate in a survey of this nature to consider the issue of nonresponse to specific questions. As was anticipated, the highest rate of nonresponse was for questions concerning attitudes toward sexual intercourse during the menstrual period and toward oral-genital sex. Given the size of the independent samples, it is the opinion

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50 of the author that the overall trends of the data were not adversely affected by nonresponse. Whenever a significant number of nonresponses appears, however, the issue will be explored as it related to the particular variable under consideration, in Chapter IV. A well-established premise in sociological research is that it is exceedingly difficult to gather specific sexual data with a questionnaire. . The procedure of assuring complete anonymity to the respondents greatly aided in minimizing any potential difficulty in this area (Cowden and Motse, 1970; Ehrmann, 1954; Oppenheim, 1966) . The technique of asking a number of related questions to permit the filtering of answers for controversial issues was also utilized. Often, such answers could be cross tabulated to determine whether a person described the same action or behavior differently in different parts of the questionnaire (Young, 1966) • The results of such comparisons were, generally, reassuring. Statistical Treatment of the Data Given the nonrandom manner in which the respondents were obtained in the subsample, their subsequent combination into two independent samples, and the levels of measurement utilized, the chi-square test for two independent samples was found to be the most appropriate method for determining the significance of the differences between respondents

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51 having had premarital sexual intercourse and respondents not having had premarital sexual intercourse (Siegel, 1956). The contingency coefficient, C, was chosen as a measure of association since it is based on the computational values of chi square. This statistic is a general purpose measure of association with wide applicability to quantitative data (Siegel, 1956) . J The Sample All respondents were associated either directly or indirectly with a major southern medical complex which is located in a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area of 250,000 population. The respondents constituted the universe for each of the following groups: licensed practical nurses and registered nurses from two Veterans Administration Hospitals and the teaching hospital of Southern Medical School; students enrolled in diploma nursing programs at River City College and at River City University Hospitalsstudents enrolled in five different baccalaureate degree programs in the health-related professions at Southern Medical School; the sophomore and junior classes of medical students enrolled at Southern Medical School; members of the Women's Auxiliary of the Student American Medical Association (Medical Dames) ; members of the interns and residents wives club; and students enrolled in the baccalaureate degree program in nursing at Southern Medical School. Additionally, female students enrolled in

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52 nonrandomly selected upper and lower division courses iji the Departments of Anthropology and Sociology; Psychology; Physics; History, Political Science, and Philosophy; English; Biology; and Education at River City College were surveyed. The professors in these courses consented to allocate an entire regular class period for completion of the questionnaire. The total number of respondents found in each subsample category can be found in Table 1.. The categories and figures in Table 1 show that there were 16 possible separate samples. Most of these samples were too small, however, for separate statistical analysis. Therefore, frequency distributions for the variables of age, size of place in which reared, class standing, dating status, position of child in the family, number of children in family, participation in premarital sexual intercourse, father's occupation, level of education, religious preference, age at first menstrual period, and quantity of menstrual flow were checked by inspection to determine whether all student samples might logically be combined into one large sample. The most glaring finding was that considerable variation exists between the River City coeds and all of the other female student sample groups on the dependent variable of having had premarital sexual intercourse. Consequently, ali of the student samples, except the River City coeds, were combined into a single sample hereafter referred to as

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TABLE 1 Respondents by Sample Group and Sex 53 Sex Sample Group Male

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54 Allied Health Science coeds. This factor necessitates considering the data as consisting of two independent samples for the purpose of testing the empirical propositions from Chapter II. It also complicates the evaluation of the statistical significance of the various relationships under analysis. It should be noted here that only four respondents in the student samples were 2 5 years of age or older. Interestingly enough; these respondents had not participated in premarital sexual intercourse at the time of the survey. The respondent who had participated in premarital sexual intercourse was in the Allied Health coed sample.

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CHAPTER IV THE ANALYSIS OF THE DATA Description of the Respondents Age The Allied Health sample was slightly older, on the average, than the River City sample, as reflected in mean ages of 20.4 years for the former and 19.3 years for the latter. The data indicated that 64.3 percent of Allied Health coeds and 4 3.6 percent of River City coeds were between the ages of 20 and 24 (see Table 2) . • This age variation stems primarily from the fact that a relatively high percentage of the Allied Health coeds have traditionally transferred to Southern Medical School from other liberal arts colleges at the beginning of the junior year. Southern Medical School requires certain freshman and sophomore liberal arts courses, as prerequisites for its Allied Health Science curriculum, that are unavailable on its campus. Since the two samples are to be treated as independent of each other, this age factor will not affect the data analysis. Race All non-Caucasians were eliminated from the samples to avoid the possibility of having race operating as an 55

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56 TABLE 2 Age Distribution of Two Sample Groups Allied Health River City Age No. Percent No. Percent 15-19 years 67 34.2 78 55.7 20-24 years 126 64.3 61 43.6 25-29 years 1 .5 1 .7 30-34 years 1.5 35-39 years 1 .5 Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0

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57 intervening variable and subsequently creating possible spurious relationships among other variables (Sutker and Gilliard, 1970). Academic Class Standing The age differences between the two samples were also reflected in academic class standings for the respondents (see Table 3). These data indicate that 67.9 percent of Allied Health coeds were classified as upper-classmen, as contrasted with only 37.2 percent of River City coeds. It should be recalled that those River City College coeds who were enrolled in the two-year nursing program at River City College (associate degree program) were included in the Allied Health sample group. These respondents, however, comprised only 7 percent of the total Allied Health sample. Were it not for these students, the percenta;ge differences for upper-classmen would have been even greater. Dating Status The most prevalent dating status category reported was "casual dating" for both the Allied Health and River City coeds (see Table 4) . The term going steady appears to be declining in usage among college students who seem to prefer the term dating steadily. Approximately one-third of the respondents in both sample groups were either seriously contemplating marriage or were already engaged at the time of the survey.

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58 TABLE 3 Class Standing of Two Sample Groups Allied Health River City Class Standing No. Percent No. Percent Freshman 31 15.8 46 32.8 Sophomore , 32 16.3 42 30.0 Junior 65 33.2 34 24.3 Senior 68 34.7 18 12.9 Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0

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59 TABLE 4 Dating Status of Two Sample Groups Allied Health River City Dating Status No. Percent No. Percent Not dating 4 2.0 10 7.1 Casual dating 85 43.4 51 36.5 Dating steadily . 38 19.4 28 20.0 Going steady 9 4.6 8 5.7 Engagedtobeengaged 30 15.3 2 3 16.4 Engaged 27 13.8 20 14.3 No response 3 1.5 Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0

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60 Religious Preference As might be expected, the Protestant demoninations of Baptist and Methodist accounted for about two-thirds of the respondents in both the Allied Health and River City sample groups (see Table 5) . The religious conservatism of both sample groups was further reflected by the fact that only a total of three respondents in the two samples combined gave "agnostic" as their religious preference. Church Attendance The continuing interest in religion on the part of college students was reflected in the finding that only 12. J percent of Allied Health and 10.7 percent of River City coeds did not attend church or synagogue at least once per month. The modal frequency of church attendance for both sample groups was three to four times per month (see Table 6). The River City coeds were shown to be more religiously active than the Allied Health coeds. This finding can be accounted for, in great part, by the high percentage of River City coeds who were "local girls," whereas the same was not true for Allied Health coeds. It is thus reasonable to assume that River City coeds received more overt familial pressure to attend worship services at their church or synagogue when contrasted with Allied Health coeds.

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61 TABLE 5 Religious Preference of Two Sample Groups Religious

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62 TABLE 6 Church Attendance of Two Sample Groups Church Attendance Allied Health River City by Month No. Percent No. Percent None 25 12.8 15 10.7 1-2 times 61 31.1 35 25.0 3-4 times 74 37.8 42 30.0 5-6 times 20 10.2 15 10.7 7-8 times 5 2.5 8 5.7 9-10 times — 8 5.7 11-12 times 2 1.0 13 9.3 No response — 1 -7 Not applicable 9 4.6 3 2.2 Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0

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63 Father's Occupation Support was found for two assumptions often made with regard to the social class backgrounds of commuter-college students and those of students choosing Allied Health Science as a career. It has generally been assumed in the past that most college students from working-class families attend commuter colleges. These data supported that contention (see Table 7). The most frequently cited occupation for fathers, among River City coeds, was "skilled." Many persons assume that females from working-class families typically view the fields of medicine and the health-related professions, with their uniforms of white, as an opportunity for upward social mobility. This point of view was reflected in the data, as the most frequently cited occupation for fathers of Allied Health coeds was "skilled." The apparent similarity of the two samples was reflected in the findings that 21.9 percent of Allied Health coeds' fathers and 22.2 percent of River City coeds' fathers were categorized as "professionals." Further support was provided by the fact that 17 . 9 percent of the fathers of both Allied Health and River City coeds were "business executives." Size of Place Where Reared A considerable disparity existed between the Allied Health and River City coeds with regard to the size of places

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64 TABLE 7 Father's Occupation of Two Sample Groups Occupation Farmer Father's Allied Health River City No, Percent No. Percent Skilled worker 49 25.0 38 27.2 Professional worker 43 21.9 31 22.2 Business executive 35 17.9 25 17.9 White-collar worker 33 16.8 29 20.7 Small businessman 19 9.7 10 7.1 Semiskilled worker 7 3.6 2 1.4 3.1 2 1.4 Unskilled worker 2 1.0 1 -7 History unavailable — 2 1.4 No response 2 1.0 Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0

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65 in which they grew up. A total of 48.0 percent of Allied Health coeds grew up in places of less than 25,000 population as contrasted with only 30.7 percent of River City coeds (see Table 8). These data further indicated that 54.3 percent of River City and 39.8 percent of Allied Health coeds grew up in places having 50,000 or more population. The Allied Health coeds may be expected to be more conservative if the rural-urban continuum of conservatism is still operative. Number of Children in Family of Orientation The term family of orientation was defined for the purposes of this investigation as ego, her sisters and brothers , and her parents (Leslie, 1973:14). Using this concept, little, if any, variation existed between the two sample groups with regard to the number of children in the family of orientation (see Table 9). The most frequently cited family size was three to four children for both Allied Health and River City coeds. About one-sixth of the respondents in both sample groups were from families with five or more children.. Ordinal Position in Family As was evidenced by the data, 46.4. percent of Allied Health and 4 0.7 percent of River City coeds represented the first child born into their families of orientation. The data further indicated that 29.6 percent of Allied Health and 37.1 percent of River City coeds were the second children born to their parents (see Table 10) . ,

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66 TABLE 8 Size of Place Where Reared of Two Sample Groups Allied Health River City Size of Place No. Percent No. Percent Under 2,500 23 11.7 10 7.1 2,500-24,999 71 36.3 33 23.6 25,000-49,999 20 10.2 17 12.1 50,000-99,999 20 10.2 41 29.3 100,000 or more 58 29.6 35 25.0 No response 2 1.0 4 2.9 Not applicable 2 1.0 Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0

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67 TABLE 9 Number of Children in Families of Orientation of Two Sample Groups Number of Allied Health River City Children No. Percent No^ Percent 1-2 children 70 35.7 51 36.4 3-4 children 85 43.4 67 47.9 5-6 children 2 8 14.3 19 13.6 7-8 children 5 2.5 2 1.4 9-10 children 1 .5 No response 7 3.6 1 .7 Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0

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68 TABLE 10 Ordinal Position in Families of Two Sample Groups Ordinal Allied Health River City Position No. Percent No. Percent First child 91 46.4 57 40.7 Second child 58 29.6 52 37.1 Third child 24 12.3 23 16.5 Fourth child 8 4.1 5 3.6 Fifth child 4 2.0 1 .7 Sixth child 1 .5 Seventh child 1 .5 1 .7 Eighth child 1 .5 No response 8 4.1 1 .7 Totals 196 100.0 140. 100.0

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69 Anticipation of Marriage in the Future Evidently, neither of the sample groups had, at the time of the data collection, joined the supposedly increasing numbers of college coeds who have renounced marriage as a way of life. It is noteworthy that 97.9 percent of Allied Health and 98.6 percent of River City coeds anticipated marriage at sometime in the future (see Table 11) . Supplementary data, not reported in Table 11, indicated that 32.1 percent of Allied Health and 2 6.4 percent of River City coeds planned to continue working after they had given birth to children. These data were somewhat behind the national trend in this direction. The Menstrual Histories of the Respondents Given the uniqueness of some of the data collected from the female respondents in the overall pilot study entitled "Sex Attitudes and Behavior in a Medical Milieu," a brief presentation of data associated with the respondents' menstrual cycles is deemed appropriate. These data should help to eliminate some of the myths and old wives' tales often associated with menstrual cycles. Age at First Menstrual Period Researchers have generated considerable controversy over whether an evolutionary trend toward an earlier age for menarche (i.e., first menstrual period) has come to exist for American females.

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70 TABLE 11 Anticipat'ion of Marriage in the Future of Two Sample Groups Anticipation of Allied Health , River City Marriage No. Percent No. Percent Yes 192 97.9 138 98.6 No 4 2.1 1 .7 No response — 1 .7 Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0

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71 In an early comparative study of southern mothers and daughters, researchers found that the meanage for menarche was 14.0 years for mothers and 13.7 years for daughters (Gould and Gould, 1932:1349-1351). A later publication by Kroth argued, while reviewing past research reports, that the menarche usually began between 12.6 to 13.7 years for American females (Kroth, 1968:801). Auger, in a more recent study of female graduate students found the menarche to be 12.0 years (Auger, 1967:149). The mean age for menarche was 12.3 years for Allied Health and River City coeds (see Table 12). These findings lend further credence to the argument that American females begin menstruation earlier than their mothers and grandmothers . Regularity of Menstrual Period The findings, when recalculated to eliminate nonresponses, show 78.5 percent of Allied Health and 89.5 percent of River City coeds were experiencing regular menstrual periods (see Table 13) . The possibility of contamination of these data could provide a possible explanation for the variation between River City and Allied Health coeds' data. It was ascertained that 18.4 percent of Allied Health and 10.1 percent of River City coeds were using oral contraceptives for contraceptive and/or medicinal purposes at the time of completing the questionnaire. Thus, this usage pattern

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72 TABLE 12 Age at First Menstrual Period of Two Sample Groups Age at First Menstrual Allied Health River City Period ' No. Percent No. Percent 8-9 years 1 .5 i .7 10-11 years 44 22.5 34 24.3 12-13 years 129 65.8 83 ,59.3 14-15 years 17 8.7 20 14.3 16-17 years 5 2.5 1 .7 No response — 1 .7 Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0

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73 TABLE 13 Regularity of Menstrual Period of Two Sample Groups Regularity of Menstrual Allied Health River City Period No. Percent No. Percent Regular 132 67.3 94 67.2 Irregular 35 17.9 15 10.7 Amenorrhea 1 .5 o No response 2 8 14.3 31 22.1 Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0

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74 could account for a portion of the variation between the two sets of data. This contention would seemingly be supported by Auger's data, in which 42.5 percent of respondents reported they were using oral contraceptives (Auger, 1967:149). For some unexplained reason, 14.3 percent of Allied Health coeds and 22.1 percent of River City coeds chose to leave this particular question blank. Yet prior and subsequent questions about the menstrual periods achieved a much lower rate of nonresponse. For example, a later question concerned with quantity of menstrual flow had a nonresponse rate of 0.0 percent for Allied Health and 1 . 4 percent for River City coeds. Lack of recall would not seem to present a plausible explanation, so the question of nonresponse remains unanswered. The question of menstrual regularity has been a continual concern for many females, especially if they are sexually active. A late and/or missed menstrual period is usually taken as the first presumptive sign of pre<^nancy. Data obtained from airline stewardesses concerning their menstrual periods prior to involvement with air flights indicated that 5 3.2 percent had been experinecing regular menstrual periods. These data were secured prior to the widespread availability and usage of the oral contraceptive. More recent data on menstrual periods may have the usage of oral contraceptives appearing as an intervening variable (Cameron, 1969:1021-1022). Auger had stated that 87.5 percent of her respondents had regular menstrual periods (Auger, 1967:149).

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75 Length of Menstiiral Cycle One of the most potentially disastrous myths associated with menstruation is the mistaken impression that aregular menstrual cycle consists of only 28 days. Many marriage manuals help to perpetuate this myth in explanations of how the rhythm method of contraception functions. Typically, a 28-day menstrual cycle has been used to illustrate that ovulation occurs 14 days prior to the beginning of the next menstrual period (Hastings, 1972; Preston, Bateman, Short and Wilkinson, 1973; Moos, Kopell, Melges , Yalon, Lunde, Clayton, and Hamburg, 1969) . Many naive readers thus conclude that most menstrual cycles are of a 2 8-day length and, secondly, that ovulation can be calculated by taking the length of the menstrual cycle and dividing by two. Numerous pregnancies will likely occur if this incorrect method is relied upon to determine when ovulation may have occurred. Israel stated that the normal menstrual cycle for females was 21 to 35 days in length (Israel, 1967:776-777). Preston et al. found, in a recent study of 2 9 airline stewardesses, the mean length of the menstrual cycle to be 29.0 days if two respondents with highly irregular menstrual cycles were omitted from the computation (Preston et al., 1973:440-442). All respondents started keeping log books of their menstrual cycles upon beginning initial flight duties with the airline company. Their menstrual cycles had a mean

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76 of 2 8.1 days. A review of Auger's data showed the mean length of the menstrual cycle to be 28.6 days (Auger, 1967: .149). A slight variation in length of the menstrual cycel was found to exist between Allied Health and River City coeds (see Table 14) . The mean length of the menstrual cycle for Allied Health coeds was 29.0 days and 27.9 days for River City coeds. These differences were not, however, statistically significant. It is interesting to note that the reported data from Auger's study fell midway between that of the Allied Health and the River City coeds. Intensity of Menstrual Flow An analysis of current data finds that 20.9 percent of Allied Health and 19.6 percent of River City coeds reported having heavy menstrual flows (see Table 15) . The percentage for River City coeds was recalculated to remove two nonresponses. , Similar data cited from the Cameron study indicated a much higher percentage of females, 30.3 percent, with heavy menstrual flows (Cameron, 1969:1021). Could this variation be attributed to the fact that none of the female respondents in the Cameron study were reported as using oral contraceptives? (Auger, 1967). Length of Menstrual Flow Both Allied Health and River City coeds had menstrual flows for a greater number of days when compared with data from other studies (see Table 16) • The reported mean

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77 TABLE 14 Length of Menstrual Cycle of Two Sample Groups Length of Menstrual Allied Health River City Cycle No^^ Percent No. Percent 22 days or less 6 3.1 6 4.3 23-25 days 12 6.1 13 9.3 26-28 days 66 33.7 49 35.0 29-31 days 61 31.1 34 24.3 32-34 days 18 9.2 8 5.7 35-37 days 10 5.1 4 2.9 38-40 days 3 1.5 — 41 days or more 4 2.0 5 3.5 No response 14 7.2 16 11.4 Not applicable 2 1.0 5 3.6 Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0

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78 TABLE 15 Quantity of Menstrual Flow of Two Sample Groups Quantity of Allied Health River City Menstrual Flow No. Percent No. Percent Light 22 11.2 10 7.2 MediiOT 133 67.9 101 72.1 Heavy 41 20.9 27 19.3 No response — 2 1.4 Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0

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79 TABLE 16 Length of Menstrual Flow of Two Sample Groups Length of Allied Health River City Menstrual Flow No. Percent No. Percent 1-2 days 5 2.6 2 1.5 3-4 days 50 25.5 34 24.3 5-6 days 106 54.1 78 55.7 7-8 days 31 15.8 21 15.0 9 days and over 1 .5 2 1.4 No response 2 1.0 3 2.1 Not applicable 1 .5 Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0

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80 length of the menstrual flow was 5.2 days for Allied Health and 5.3 days for River City coeds. Cameron reported a mean length of 4.6 days , while Auger reported a mean length of 4.8 days for the menstrual flow (Cameron, 1969:1022; Auger, 1967: 149) . The central issue would again seem to be complicated by the lack of usage of oral contraceptives by Cameron's respondents , The Sexual Histories of the Respondents Ever Had Sexual Intercourse Only 34.7 percent of Allied Health and 19.3 percent of River city coeds had experienced premarital sexual intercourse (see Table 17). These data would, at first, appear to be highly inconsistent with other reported research data about premarital sexual intercourse among college students. For example, Bergen found that 49 percent of her total female sample group had participated in premarital sexual intercourse. However, only 3 8.4 percent of the females in the Deep South were reported as having participated in premarital sexual intercourse (Bergen, 1972:76). Using data collected at the University of Maryland in nine undergraduate sociology classes, Thomas found that 49.9 percent of female respondents had participated in premarital sexual intercourse (Thomas, 1972:48) . In a recent study at the University of Wisconsin at Waukesha, only 28.4 percent of female respondents had engaged in premarital sexual intercourse (Burgess, 1973:127-128). This

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TABLE 17 Experience with Sexual Intercourse of Two Sample Groups Experience with Allied Health River City Sexual Intercourse No. Percent No. Percent Yes 68 34.7 27 19.3 No 128 65.3 113 80.7 Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0

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82 finding would support the contention that at a more "local" rather than "cosmopolitan" campus a much lower rate of female participation in premarital sexual intercourse would be found to exist. Finally, at a major state university located in the same state as River City College and Southern Medical School, Robinson et al. ascertained that 37.3 percent of female respondents had participated in premarital sexual intercourse (Robinson et al. , 1972 : 190) . Age at First Sexual Intercourse The mean age for first participation in premarital sexual intercourse was .18^6 years for Allied Health and 17.9 years for River City coeds (see Table 18) . It seems somewhat paradoxical that River City coeds would have had premarital sexual intercourse at earlier ages and yet still exhibit an. overall lower rate of lifetime participation in premarital sexual intercourse than Allied Health coeds. This variation in the mean ages for first sexual intercourse between Allied Health and River City coeds would appear to be attributable to the smaller number of River City coeds who have had premarital sexual intercourse. The data for Allied Health coeds coincided with the data of Bergen, which indicated the mean age for first participation in premarital sexual intercourse to be 18.6 years for female respondents (Bergen, 1972 :76 ). Earlier unpublished findings for females at Oberlin College, however, indicated a mean age of 19.9 years for first participation

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83 TABLE 18 Age at First Act of Sexual Intercourse of Two Sample Groups 16-18 years 19-21 years Age at First Allied Health River City Sexual Intercourse No. Percent No. Percent 10-12 years 1 1-5 13-15 years 1 1 1.5 3 11.1 26 38.2 12 44.5 38 55.8 11 40.7 22-24 years 1 1-5 No response 1 1'5 1 -^ • ' Totals^ 68 100.0 27 100.0 ^See Table 17. '

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84 in premarital sexual intercourse (Wachtel, Cooprider, and Taylor, 1968:10) . Quality of First Sexual Intercourse The respondents were asked to evaluate their initial act of sexual intercourse on a continuum ranging from very pleasurable to very unpleasurable. The possible answer choices were: very pleasurable, pleasurable, unpleasurable, and very unpleasurable. Thus, a subjective evaluation was required on the part of the respondent. Approximately onehalf of Allied Health and River City coeds cited their initial act of sexual intercourse as pleasurable (see Table 19) . A higher proportion of the respondents in both sample groups rated their first act of sexual intercourse as very unpleasurable rather than very pleasurable. Frequency of Sexual intercourse with First Sex Partner Of the two sample groups, 17.6 percent of Allied Health and 18.6 percent of River City coeds replied that they did not ever have premarital sexual intercourse with thier initial sex partner again (see Table 20). These findings contrasted sharply with those of Bergen, who reported that only 7.2 percent of female respondents stated that they did not ever engage in premarital sexual intercourse with the initial sex partner again (Bergen, 1972:78). It is of further importance to note that only 41.2 percent of Allied Health and 40.8 percent of River City coeds indicated having had suxual intercourse with their first sex partner 12 or more times.

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85 TABLE 19 Quality of FiriSt Act of Sexual Intercourse of ;Two Sample Groups Quality of First Sexual Intercourse Allied Health

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86 TABLE 20 Frequency of Sexual Intercourse with First Sex Partner of Two Sample Groups Frequency of Sexual Intercourse

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87 Number of Different Sex Partners One person was reported as the only sex partner by 64.7 percent of Allied Health and 48.2 percent of River City coeds (see Table 21) . Those data support that of Bergen, in which threefourths of the respondents reported having only one person as the sex partner (Bergen, 1972:78). By combining the answer categories for four, five, and six or more persons as sex partners, it is possible to account for only 10.3 percent of Allied Health and 14.8 percent of River City coeds ' responses. These findings seem to support the contention that a large number of females engage in premarital sexual intercourse primarily in the context of a meaningful relationship (Ehrmann, 1959). Ever Experienced Orgasm It is herein assumed that a female can identify the physiological sensations accompanying orgasm and can thus determine if an orgasm has actually been experienced (Clark, 1960; Masters and Johnson, 1966). Given this assumption, 41.1 percent of Allied Health and 43.3 percent of River City coeds reported having experienced an orgasm. New percentages were recalculated to eliminate the effect of nonresponses for this question (see Table 22) . With a total nonresponse rate of only 4.5 percent, the overall direction of this query has not been adversely affected.

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88 TABLE 21 Number of Different Sex Partners of Two Sample Groups Number of Different Sex Allied Health River City Partners No. Percent No. Percent One person 44 64.7 13 48.2 Two persons 7 10.3 6 22.2 Three persons 8 11.8 3 11.1 Four persons 1 1.5 2 7.4 Five persons 3 4.4 1 3.7 Six or more persons 3 4.4 1 3.7 No response 2 2.9 1 3.7 68 100.0 27 100.0 ^See Table 17.

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89 TABLE, 22 Experience with Orgasm of Two Sample Groups Experience Allied Health River City with Orgasm No. Percent No. Percent Yes 77 39.3 58 41.4 No 110 56.1 7 6 54.3 No response 9 4.6 6 4.3 Totals • 196 100.0 140 100.0

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90 Ever Petted to Orgasm with Member of Opposite Sex With the intent of gathering empirical data relating to the concept of the technical virgin, a question was asked about petting to orgasm with members of the opposite sex (Ehrmann, 1959). For the Allied Health coeds, 34.4 percent reported having petted to orgasm, as did 24.2 percent of the River City coeds (see Table 23). It was again necessary to recalculate the percentages to eliminate the effect of nonresponse. The nonresponse rate was 9.0 percent if a mean for both samples is considered. Those data contrasted sharply with that of Shope, who found that 48.7 percent of female respondents had petted to orgasm with a member of the opposite sex. The question of the technical virgin will be explored more fully later in this chapter (Shope, 1966:55). Experienced Orgasm with Sexual Intercourse After eliminating the mean nonresponse rate of 4.7 percent from the presentation of these findings, 60.0 percent of experienced Allied Health and 65.4 percent of experienced River City coeds reported having experienced an orgasm while having sexual intercourse (see Table 24) . It should be recognized that some question exists regarding selfreporting of orgasms given the admission on the part of some females that orgasms are sometimes faked to appease males overly concerned with their virility. However, this

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91 TABLE 2 3 Experience with Petting to Orgasm with Members of Opposite Sex of Two Sample Groups Experience with Petting to Allied Health River City Orgasm ' No. Percent No. Percent Yes 63 32.2 30 21.4 No 120 61.2 94 67.2 No response 13 6.6 16 11.4 Totals 196 100.0 140 100.0

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92 TABLE 2 4 Experience with Orgasm While Having Sexual Intercourse of Two Sample Groups Yes No ^See Table 17. Experience with Orgasm with Allied Health River City Sexual Intercourse No. Percent No. Percent 39 57.4 17 63.0 25 36.8 9 33.3 A ^.8 1 3.7 No response 4 d.o -l Totals^ 68 100.0 27 100.0

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93 question was worded in such a manner as to, hopefully, avoid the false reporting of orgasms by females (see Appendix I) . These findings were somewhat unanticipated because one would have expected Allied Health coeds to be more physiologically aware of their own bodies than River City coeds. It has been demonstrated, elsewhere, that a conscious awareness of the various physiological processes and sensations is a variable in the ability to achieve orgasm while having sexual intercourse among females. In the data previously reported by Shope, only 50.0 percent of the females had experienced orgasm while having sexual intercourse. Thus both Allied Health and River City coeds were somewhat more sexually responsive than Shope 's respondents (Shope, 1966:1920). Evaluation of Testable Propositions Level of Significance In keeping with common usage within the field of sociology, a significance level of p = .05 for chi square (X ) was chosen. This p value will be used as a basis for acceptance or rejection of the null proposition (H^) that no statistically significant relationship exists between the dependent variable and a given independent variable (Blalock, 1972; Siegel, 1956). By using a p value of .05, the likelihood of making a typeI error is one in 20 chances. The chi-square values, p values, and degrees of freedom will appear for each table utilized in the evaluation of testable propositions.

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9 4 The contingency coefficient (C) was computed as a measure of the degree of association between the dependent variable and a given independent variable. Most standard statistics textbooks agree that it is unnecessary to compute a contingency coefficient if the chi-square value does not permit rejection of the null proposition. However, in the interest of maintaining continuity in the data presentation, contingency coefficients were computed for all propositions, irrespective of whether the null proposition was accepted or rejected. These coefficients will appear for each table. It should be borne in mind that the maximum value of the contingency coefficient fluctuates as the degrees of freedom change for the contingency table. For example, a 2 x 2 contingency table would have a maximum upper limit value of only .707 for the contingency coefficient (C) rather than a value of 1.000. Testable Empirical Propositions 1. There is a direct relationship between recommended age for the marriage of females and having had premarital sexual intercourse. This independent variable failed to distinguish, in a statistically significant manner, between those who had and had not participated in premarital sexual intercourse for either sample group. Disregarding the question of experience with premarital intercourse, 78.5 percent of Allied Health and 67.7 percent of River City coeds expressed the opinion

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95 that the most appropriate age for marriage was 20 to 24 years of age. Furthermore, only 2.1 percent of Allied Health and .7 percent of River City coeds gave 25 to 29 years as the recommended age for marriage. The overwhelming preference for 2 to 2 4 years as the most appropriate age at marriage for females made it impossible to find any significant differences between the sexually experienced and inexperienced coeds in either sample group (see Table 25). The age category of 20 to 24 years most likely represents the period in life when college graduation has taken place and the search for the future begun. 2. There is an inverse relationship between age at first menstruation and having had premarital sexual intercourse. Rather than finding an inverse relationship between age at first menstruation and having had premarital sexual intercourse, a statistically significant direct relationship was found to exist for River City but not for Allied Health coeds. Among River City coeds, 74.1 percent of the sexually experienced and only 56.3 percent of the sexually inexperienced reported their age at menarche as being 12 to 13 years of age. Allied Health coeds differed in that 70.6 percent of the sexually experienced stated their age at menarche as being 12 to 13 years of age as contrasted with 63.3 percent of the sexually inexperienced (see Table 26).

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Females who began their menstrual periods at later ages were thus more likely to participate in premarital sexual intercourse than those females who began their menstrual periods at an early age. These findings would seem to negate, at least to a degree, the contention that early curiosity about one's body is likely to result in participation in premarital sexual intercourse. 3. There is an inverse relationship between the age at which one learns where babies come from and having had premarital sexual intercourse. Instead of finding an inverse relationship existing between the age at which one learns where babies come from and having participated in premarital sexual intercourse, a statistically significant direct relationship was found to exist for the River City coeds only (see Table 27). For River City coeds, 16.7 percent of the sexually experienced and 25.6 percent of the sexually inexperienced reported their age at learning where babies come from as being 7 to 8 years. Equal numbers of the sexually inexperienced River City coeds gave 7 to 8 years, 9 to 10 years, and 11 to 12 years as the time frame during which they had learned where babies come from. Small insignificant differences were found to exist between .the sexually experienced and inexperienced Allied Health coeds for the various age groupings . The most frequently cited age for having learned where babies come from was 9 to 10 years for both the sexually experienced

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100 and inexperienced Allied Health coeds. Those River City coeds who learned where babies come from at an early age were thus less likely to have engaged in premarital sexual intercourse. These findings should help put to rest the argument that sex education is supposedly harmful to young children because it encourages sexual experimentation. It certainly seems plausible that the opposite may, in fact, actually be true . The nonresponse rate of 9.2 percent for Allied Health and 15.0 percent for River City coeds could have been attributable to the inability to recall the specific time period necessary to answer the question. There is no e\5idence that the nonresponses are other than randomly distributed among the sample groups. If this assumption is correct, the stated relationship would not be adversely affected. 4. There is a direct relationship between a positive attitude toward oral-genital sex and having had premarital sexual intercourse. While this proposition was not statistically significant for either Allied Health or River City coeds, it was in the stated direction for both samples (see Table 28) . Of River City coeds who had participated in premarital sexual intercourse, 45 percent reported positive attitudes toward oral-genital sex as contrasted with 2 3.7 percent of those who had not participated in premarital sexual

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102 intercourse. As for Allied Health coeds, 26.3 percent of the sexually experienced and 17 . 2 percent of the sexually inexperienced indicated positive attitudes toward oralgenital sex. These findings are somewhat paradoxical in view of the medically oriented education the Allied Health coeds were supposedly receiving. Those females who had not had premarital sexual intercourse tended to report negative attitudes toward oral-genital sex more often in both sample groups. Additional data about oral-genital sex can be found in Appendix II (see Table 52) . The issue of nonresponse for the questions relating to oral-genital sex warrants further attention at this point. These questions received a higher rate of nonresponse than did any other questions in the entire research instrument. This adverse reaction can best be attributed to the extremely sensitive nature of the topic of oral-genital sex. It should be remembered that these data were collected in the heart of the Bible Belt and that a majority of the respondents reported religious preferences as either Baptist or Methodist. Many individuals view oral-genital sex as a form of sexual perversion which should be punished by the courts. It was regrettable that 35.2 percent of Allied Health and 58.6 percent of River City coeds failed to indicate their attitudes toward oral-genital sex. Nevertheless, one can reasonably assume that the nonrespondents are most likely predisposed in the direction of negative attitudes.

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103 5. There is a direct relationship between a positive attitude toward masturbation and having had premarital sexual intercourse. Possessing a positive attitude toward masturbation and having had premarital sexual intercourse proved to be statistically significant for the Allied Health coeds only (see Table 29) . Among Allied Health coeds who were sexually, experienced, 25.0 percent exhibited a positive attitude toward masturbation, as contrasted with only 8.8 percent of the sexually inexperienced. Despite the medical orientation of the Allied Health coeds, 11.3 percent still indicated that masturbation could be harmful to the individual from medical and/or mental health perspectivesThe percentage differences between sexually experienced and inexperienced River City coeds were slight. Over two-thirds of all respondents in both sample groups indicated an attitude of neutrality toward masturbation. Supplemental data on masturbation can be found in Appendix II (see Table 53). Unfortunately, 30.6 percent of Allied Health and 43.5 percent of River City coeds failed to answer this query. It is quite conceivable that the level of significance was adversely affected by this problem. As in the earlier discussion regarding oral-genital sex, logic seems to imply that persons failing to answer a sensitive question about masturbation most likely fall into the negative attitude

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105 category. The Biblical story of Onan has frequently been used as a reference to denounce masturbation as sinful. Onanism is thus, from the perspective of many, considered to be synonymous with masturbation. Leslie, however, has argued that this interpretation of onanism represents a misunderstanding of exactly what the so-called crime of Onan was all about (Leslie, 1973:159). His view is that onanism refers to coitus interruptus as a method of contraception. 6 . There is a direct relationship between a positive attitude toward sexual intercourse during the menstrual period and having had premarital sexual intercourse. The independent variable of positive attitude toward sexual intercourse during the menstrual period failed to distinguish significantly between the sexually experienced or inexperienced for either sample group. The River City coeds did, however, indicate a trend in the -stated direction of the proposition (see Table 30). Two-thirds of all respondents in both sample groups expressed a positive attitude toward having sexual intercourse during the menstrual period. These findings are of special interest since previously unreported data indicate that 47.9 percent of Allied Health and 54.1 percent of River City coeds stated that their least sexual desire occurred during the menstrual period. Supplemental data on information about sexual intercourse

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107 during the menstrual period can be found in Appendix II (see Table 54) . If there had been a higher response rate from River City coeds, a statistically significant variation might have been found. As the raw frequencies indicated, 32.3 percent of River City and 12.5 percent of Allied Health coeds failed to answer this question. For a number of respondents, intercourse during the menstrual may have represented an unnatural act or a "sin against nature." No one really knows whether some nonrespondents may have been traumatized at the mere suggestion of sexual intercourse during the menstrual period. 7. There is an inverse relationship between ordinal position in the family and having had premarital sexual intercourse. A statistically significant direct relationship rather than an inverse relationship, as in the stated proposition, was found to exist for the independent variable of ordinal position for River City coeds and was in the direction of the direct relationship for Allied Health coeds (see Table 31) . Of River City coeds who had participated in premarital sexual intercourse, 61.6 percent stated that they represented second children in their family of orientation as compared with only 31.9 percent of those who had not participated in premarital sexual intercourse. Only 15.4 percent of the sexually experienced River City coeds were first children

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109 as contrasted with 46.9 percent of those who were sexually inexperienced . Among Allied Health coeds, 39.3 percent of the sexually experienced reported that they were first children compared to 5 3.2 percent of the sexually inexperienced. Of the second children in the Allied coeds' group, 36.4 percent were sexually experienced whereas 2 7.9 percent were sexually inexperienced. 8. There is a direct relationship between planning to be employed after marriage and having had premarital sexual intercourse. The independent variable of planning to be employed after marriage was found not to be statistically significant for either of the sample groups. Over one-half of Allied Health and River City coeds expressed interest in full-time employment after anticipated future marriages (see Table 32). Since approximately 95 percent of both sample groups stated the intention to be employed on either a fulltime or a part-time basis after marriage, statistically significant differences were unlikely to be found between the sexually experienced and inexperienced. 9. There is an inverse relationship between the number of children desired and having had premarital sexual intercourse. No statistically significant relationship was found to exist between the number of children desired and having had

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Ill premarital sexual intercourse for either Allied Health or River City coeds (see Table 33) . The preferred family size, regardless of the presence or absence of past sexual involvement, was three to four children for both sample groups. Irrespective of the increasing interest of college students in the concept of overpopulation, only 3.6 percent of Allied Health and 2.2 percent of River City coeds expressed the desire to have no children. In the interest of objectivity, it should be noted that the frequency distributions for both sample groups worked against the stated proposition in terms of establishment of statistical significance. 10. There is a direct relationship between desire to bear children later in marriage and having had premarital sexual intercourse. The data on the relationship between childbearing and premarital sexual intercourse were in the stated direction for the Allied Health coeds but were not statistically significant for either sample group (see Table 34) . The third or fourth year of marriage was viewed as the ideal time for birth of the first child for the majority of both Allied Health and River City coeds. More sexually experienced than inexperienced coeds preferred to wait until the fifth or sixth year of marriage for birth of the first child. This trend may, nevertheless, be questioned because of the small number of responses in the five to six years of marriage category for both sample groups.

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114 11. There is a direct relationship between planning to be employed after children are born into a marriage and having had premarital sexual intercourse. A statistically significant relationship could not be established between planning to be employed after the birth of children and having had premarital sexual intercourse for either Allied Health coeds or River City coeds (see Table 35). About two-thirds of Allied Health and three-fourths of River City coeds planned not to work after giving birth to children in marriage regardless of experience or lack of experience with premarital sexual intercourse. This finding has many interesting implications for administrators of the various Allied Health programs, who are desperately trying to overcome the need for additional qualified personnel in health care delivery. The high percentage of all coeds not wishing to work after the birth of children to a marriage made statistically significant differences unlikely to exist between the sexually experienced and inexperienced coeds. 12. There is a direct relationship between viewing sexual intercourse as equally pleasurable for males and females and having had premarital sexual intercourse. While a higher proportion of coeds, in both sample groups, who had not participated in premarital sexual intercourse expressed the opinion that sexual intercourse was

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116 usually more pleasurable for men, the difference was not statistically significant for either Allied Health or River City coeds (see Table 36). With the supposed medical orientation of Allied Health coeds, it was very surprising to find that 16.2 percent of the sexually experienced and 20.2 percent of the sexually inexperienced stated that sexual intercourse was usually more pleasurable for the male. This seeming lack of physiological sophistication on the part of Allied Health coeds is further .accentuated by the data for River City coeds, in which 11.1 percent of the sexually experienced and 17.1 percent of the sexually inexperienced stipulated that sexual intercourse was usually more pleasurable for the male. 13. There is a direct relationship between having petted to orgasm with a member of the opposite sex and having had premarital sexual intercourse. Those coeds who had participated in premarital sexual intercourse were twice as likely to have actually experienced an orgasm in the first place as their sexually uninitiated counterparts. These differences were highly statistically significant for both Allied Health and River City coeds (see Table 37) . Those coeds who had not experienced sexual intercourse were dependent upon either auto-manipulation or mutual masturbation in attempting to reach orgasm. Thus, their structural opportunities for the potentiality of orgasm were less than those for the sexually experienced coeds.

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119 Allied Health coeds who had premarital sexual intercourse were found to have experienced the first orgasm at a statistically significantly later age than those coeds who had not participated in premarital sexual intercourse (see Table 38) . The differences in age at first orgasm for the River City coeds were not statistically significant. The data indicate that the most frequently reported age for first orgasm was 16 to 18 years for the majority of the sexually inexperienced Allied Health and River City coeds, as compared with 19 to 21 years being reported for the sexually experienced in both sample groups. No specific data were obtained on unsuccessful attempts at masturbation, with successful being defined as obtaining orgasmic relief. It seems plausible, however, that those coeds who have had premarital sexual intercourse may have participated in the hope that it would aid in obtaining physical relief for physiological frustration. it has been reported that females experience abdominal stress if they become sexually aroused and do not experience orgasm (Bronstein, 1974) . This lack of statistical significance for River City coeds may have been a partial function of the nonresponse rate of 32.8 percent for River City coeds. The reason for this nonresponse rate is subject to much conjecture. Could it be lack of recall, particularly, if the first orgasm occurred at a relatively early age . Or did guilt feelings return to the conscious level because of the question?

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121 For River City coeds, the stated proposition concerned with a direct relationship between having petted to orgasm and premarital sexual intercourse was shown to be statistically significant. The difference for Allied Health coeds, while not statistically significant, was very much in the stated direction of the proposition (see Table 39) . Besides the main issue at hand, 29.7 percent of Allied Health and 20.0 percent of River City coeds were technical virgins; that is to say, they had petted to orgasm with a member of the opposite sex but had not had actual. sexual intercourse with penetration. 14. There is a direct relationship between expressed dissatisfaction with petting to orgasm and having had premarital sexual intercourse. No evidence of a statistically significant relationship was found to exist for either sample group between expressed dissatisfaction with petting to orgasm and having had premarital sexual intercourse (see Table 40). Attention is, nonetheless, called to the fact that slightly over one-half of those coeds, in both sample groups, who had petted to orgasm but had never participated in premarital sexual inter-course expressed feelings of dissatisfaction. It would be of interest to know how many of these coeds will eventually succumb to erotic desires and have premarital sexual intercourse. As was discussed earlier, physiological frustration may serve as a possible motivating

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124 factor in the decision to participate in premarital sexual intercourse. 15. There is a direct relationship between selfclassification as knowledgeable about reproductive physiology and having had premarital sexual intercourse. No statistically significant relationship was found to exist for either sample group between having had premarital sexual intercourse and knowledge about reproductive physiology (see Table 41). As was anticipated, the Allied Health coeds were somewhat more knowledgeable about matters of reproductive physiology than the River City coeds. Since the preponderance of respondents was classified as being knowledgeable, the likelihood of finding statistically significant differences between the sexually experienced and the inexperienced was greatly diminished. 16. There is a direct relationship between being knowledgeable about the female orgasm and having had premarital sexual intercourse. The definition of the female orgasm was rated on a continuum ranging from knowledgeable to not at all knowledgeable by a panel of judges, as in the earlier discussion in Chapter III. Using these data as criteria, the stated proposition was shown to be statistically significant for River City and Allied Health coeds (see Table 42) . The judges appear to have rigidly applied the criterion of

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127 knowledge in placing a respondent in the category of knowledgeable about the definition of the female orgasm. This aspect of the coding procedures resulted in a plurality of the sexually experienced and inexperienced in both sample groups being placed in the slightly knowledgeable category. Nevertheless, as the data indicated, over onehalf of sexually experienced coeds were classified as slightly knowledgeable as compared with only about onethird of sexually inexperienced coeds in either sample group, An unanticipated finding was that a higher proportion of River City coeds than of Allied Health coeds was rated as being knowledgeable about the definition' of female orgasm. Among those respondents who had not participated in premarital sexual intercourse, 29.7 percent of Allied Health and 35.4 percent of River City coeds failed to respond to this question. The majority of the nonresponses to this question can be logically attributed to a lack of knowledge, since only a definition was sought rather than information about personal behavior. The narrative description of the female orgasm was found to be statistically significant for the River City but not for the Allied Health coeds (see Table 43). It will be recalled that a number of Allied Health coeds were not afforded the opportunity to answer this query about the orgasmic description. With the resulting smaller N for those Allied Health coeds who had actually participated in

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12 9 premarital sexual intercourse, the possibility exists that a larger N might have led to statistical significance for the independent variable. For Allied Health coeds, a combined total of 45.4 percent of the sexually experienced were classified as having at least some knowledge about the mental and physiological sensation associated with female orgasm, as contrasted with only 36.5 percent of those who were sexually inexperienced. Among River City coeds, a combined total of 33.3 percent of the sexually experienced were classified as having at least some knowledge about the mental and physiological sensations associated with female orgasm, as compared with only 15.0 percent of those who were sexually inexperienced. The evident lack of factual knowledge about female orgasm on the part of River City coeds who had not had premarital sexual intercourse was substantiated by the 60.2 percent of the respondents who did not attempt to answer this question. This lack of response cannot be attributed solely to the intimacy of the question, since only 35.4 percent of this sample group failed to answer the question about the definition of female orgasm. 17. There is a direct relationship between contraceptive knowledge and having had premarital sexual intercourse. The independent variable of contraceptive knowledge was found to be statistically significant for River City coeds

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130 and in the stated direction for Allied Health coeds (see Table 44) . Oral steroids were reported as the single most effective method of contraception for the Allied Health and River City coeds, irrespective of whether they had participated in premarital sexual intercourse. A higher proportion of River City coeds indicated oral steroids as being the most effective method of contraception when contrasted with Allied Health coeds. The sexually inexperienced coeds in both sample groups tended to specify ineffective methods of contraception more often than the sexually experienced coeds . 18. There is a direct relationship between commitment to a serious dating relationship and having had premarital sexual intercourse. A statistically significant relationship was found between commitment to a serious dating relationship and having had premarital sexual intercourse for the Allied Health coeds, and this relationship was in the stated direction of the independent variable for the River City coeds (see Table 45). It is of interest to note that 47.0 percent of Allied Health and 55.5 percent of River City coeds who had participated in premarital sexual intercourse were committed to a serious dating relationship in which marriage could be considered the logical outcome, whereas only 27.5 percent of Allied Health and 31.8 percent of River City coeds who had not participated in premarital sexual intercourse were similarly involved.

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133 These data support the earlier contention that premarital sexual intercourse is more likely to occur in the context of a meaningful relationship for females. 19. There is a direct relationship between college academic class standing and having had premarital 'sexual intercourse. Academic class standing was shown to be statistically significant for Allied Health coeds but not for River City coeds (see Table 46) . River City freshmen were more likely to have participated in premarital sexual intercourse than were River City sophomores, juniors, or seniors. Allied Health seniors were more likely to have had premarital sexual intercourse than were Allied Health freshmen, sophomores, or juniors. These data further substantiate the earlier findings that River City coeds who have had premarital sexual intercourse tended to become sexually active at earlier ages than Allied Health coeds. 20. There is a direct relationship between expressed preference for a liberal Protestant denomination and having had premarital sexual intercourse. While no statistically significant relationship was found between expressed preference for a liberal Protestant denomination and having had premarital sexual intercourse, the relationships for both sample groups were in the stated direction of the independent variable (see Table 47) .

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13 6 The work of Greeley was used as a basis for categorizing the various denominations on a continuum of liberalismconservatism. While some researchers may differ with Greeley as to the appropriate position of a given denomination on the continuum, as well as the use of a joint classification category for some Protestant denominations, his typology does appear to be empirically defensible (Greeley, 1972) . Of the denominations represented in these data, the Episcopalians had a higher percentage of adherents who had experienced premarital sexual intercourse, when contrasted with its adherents not having experienced premarital sexual intercourse, than any other denomination for both sample groups. From the standpoint of data analysis, it would have been highly desirable to have had a larger number of .Episcopalians and Catholics and fewer Baptists and Methodists in the samples (see Table 5) . 21. There is an inverse relationship between church attendance and having had premarital sexual intercourse. An inverse relationship between church attendance and having had premarital sexual intercourse was shown to be statistically significant for Allied Health and River City coeds (see Table 48). These data indicated that the mean number of times for church attendance per month was 2.1 times for those who had experienced premarital sexual intercourse and 3.1 times for those who had not experienced

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138 premarital sexual intercourse among the Allied Health coeds. The contrasting church attendance data for the River City coeds was 2.2 times per month for those who had experienced premarital sexual intercourse and 4.4 times per month for those who had not. In general, church attendance has tended to lessen when college students begin living away from parental influence. This factor would partially account for the variations between Allied Health and River City coeds. 22. There is an inverse relationship between father's social class by occupation and having had premarital sexual intercourse. No statistically significant relationship was found between father's social class by occupation and having participated in premarital sexual intercourse for either sample group. Nevertheless, the relationships were in the direction of being of a direct nature rather than an inverse nature for the River City coeds only (see Table 49) . A higher proportion of daughters of professionals and business executives had had premarital sexual intercourse than any other occupational grouping among Allied Health and River City coeds. These data were contrary to the popular opinion that lower class females are more likely to engage in premarital sexual intercourse than middle and upper class females. River City and Allied Health coeds whose fathers were in skilled, semiskilled, or unskilled occupations were less

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14 likely to have engaged in premarital sexual intercourse than those whose fathers were employed as professionals or business executives. With larger samples for both groups, it is entirely possible that these relationships would have proved to be statistically significant. Some Related Findings Type of Personal Hygiene Product Used Despite numerous appeals to the "Now" generation made by various purveyors Gf tampon-type hygiene products, sexually inexperienced Allied Health coeds were statistically less likely to choose a tampon for use during menstrual periods (see Table 50). River City coeds who had not had premarital sexual intercourse chose to use tampons for menstrual periods 18 percent less frequently than their sexually experienced counterparts. Among Allied Health coeds, the sexually inexperienced coeds used tampons 14.3 percent less frequently for menstrual periods when compared with sexually experienced counterparts. From the medical point of view, tampons are considered to be at least equal to sanitary napkins in their suitability as a personal hygiene product (Newton, 196 5) ; yet, tampons provide a much more carefree method of coping with menstrual periods. So why the variation in the usage patterns? One explanation is that many virgins seem somewhat reluctant to touch and handle themselves "down there." Another explanation is that many

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142 virgins fear that the hymen will be unduly stretched during the insertion and removal of the tampon. Still other women are unable to accept their bodily odors and processes and are more likely to be sexually inhibited (Newton, 1965) . Painful Menstrual Periods For some, as yet unexplained, reason. River City coeds who had experienced premarital sexual intercourse reported experiencing painful menstrual periods significantly more often than those respondents who had not participated in premarital sexual intercourse (see Table 51). While Moos et al. argue that as high as 70 to 80 percent of normal young women experience moderate to severe discomfort during menstrual periods, they fail to account for the statistically significant differences which exist with regard to the pain levels experienced by respondents who have and have not participated in premarital sexual intercourse (Moos et al., 1969; 37) . It is entirely plausible that guilt on the part of some respondents who have participated in premarital sexual intercourse may result in an increased incidence of painful menstrual periods. According to both Edwin S. Bronstein, M.D. , and Preston Lea Wilds, M.D., of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Southern Medical School, feelings of guilt associated with participation in premarital sexual intercourse could serve to produce painful menstrual periods in those susceptible individuals (Bronstein, 1974; Wilds, 1974) .

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CHAPTER V THEORIES OF PREMARITAL SEXUAL INTERCOURSE The Methodology of Theory Construction A modified version of the axiomatic approach to theory construction, as set forth by Zetterberg (1965) , will be utilized to develop theoretical explanations relative to participation in premarital sexual intercourse by females. The following four-step procedure for the axiomatic approach to theory construction has been suggested by Zetterberg: 1. A thorough search of all research literature relevant to the stated problem and a subsequent listing of all empirical propositions should be made. Frequently, empirical propositions will have to be extracted from existing data, because formally stated propositions do not appear in many of the research reports. If more than one citation should be found for the same proposition, a notation should be made as to whether the additional citations lend support to, or refute, the empirical proposition in question. 2. A retroduction of the empirical propositions should be made by raising the level of abstraction for the 144

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145 independent variables. These "new" propositions would subsequently be referred to as derived propositions. 3. A further retroduction should be made using the derived propositions. At this level of abstraction, an attempt would be made to subsume as many independent variables as possible under one empirically based proposition. These newly developed propositions would then be referred to as theoretical propositions. 4. Finally, theoretical propositions could then be utilized to form a general theory of the highest generality possible in such a manner that it would have validity for human interaction in general (Zetterberg, 1965:157-174). This theory construction approach suggested by Zetterberg was modified somewhat for the purposes of this dissertation. After the search of relevant research literature was conducted, a series of empirical propositions was enumerated. From this series, certain propositions were selected for empirical testing. Additional propositions, not found in the search of the research literature, were developed as a part of the "Sex Attitudes and Behavior in a Medical Milieu" research project. Those empirical propositions that were found to be either statistically significant, or in the stated direction of the relationship contained in the

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146 proposition, for at least one of the two sample groups, have been retained for inclusion in the theory construction phase. The existing small N for those River City coeds who had participated in premarital sexual intercourse stemmed, indirectly, from the decision that it was inappropriate from a methodological point of view to combine this sample group with the Allied Health coeds. It was, therefore, necessary that both sample groups be treated as independent samples. Were it not for the small N in the subsamples, it is quite plausible that different results might have been obtained which would have led to a number of additional independent variables possibly becoming statistically significant, rather than being merely in the category of "in the stated direction of." Some theorists may disagree, in part at least, with some of the criteria used for the inclusion of propositions for theory construction. It is, nevertheless, in the best interests of the advancement of family sociology that attempts at theory construction occur whenever the feasibility exists. With the foregoing modifications, the theory construe-: tion technique suggested by Zetterberg and later advanced by the works of Berardo, Bartz and Nye will be closely paralleled (Zetterberg, 1965; Berardo, 1969; Bartz and Nye,. 1970).

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147 Empirical Propositions for Theory Construction A. There is a direct relationship between age at first menstruation and having had premarital sexual intercourse. B. There is a direct relationship between the age at which one learns where babies come from and having had premarital sexual intercourse. C. There is a direct relationship between a positive attitude toward oral-genital sex and having had premarital sexual intercourse. D. There is a direct relationship between a positive attitude toward masturbation and having had premarital sexual intercourse. E. There is a direct relationship between a positive attitude toward sexual intercourse during the menstrual period and having had premarital sexual intercourse. F. There is a direct relationship between ordinal position in the family and having had premarital sexual intercourse. G. There is a direct relationship between desire to bear children later in marriage and having had premarital sexual intercourse. H. There is a direct relationship between having petted to orgasm with a member of the opposite sex and having had premarital sexual intercourse.

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148 I. There is a direct relationship between being knowledgeable about the female orgasm and having had premarital sexual intercourse. J. There is a direct relationship between contraceptive knowledge and having had premarital sexual intercourse. K. There is a direct relationship between commitment to a serious dating relationship and having had premarital sexual intercourse. L. There is a direct relationship between college academic class standing and having had premarital sexual intercourse. M. There is a direct relationship between expressed preference for a liberal Protestant demonination and having had premarital sexual intercourse. N. There is an inverse relationship between church attendance and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 0. There is a direct relationship between father's social class by occupation and having had premarital sexual intercourse. Derived Propositions Through the process of retroduction described earlier, the following derived propositions about premarital sexual intercourse among females were delineated. Derived Proposition 1 Females who perceive norms of sexual permissiveness

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149 in their peer group are more likely to engage in premarital sexual intercourse than females who do not perceive norms of sexual permissiveness in their peer group. Empirical propositions F, G, H, J, K, and M were combined to form Derived Proposition 1. Each of these empirical propositions contains empirical indicators of peer group influence. These peer groups provide a setting for social interaction and value formation. Changes in status such as postponement of childbirth and changes in academic class standing may result in the acquisition of new significant others, with consequent new self-definitions (Broom and Selznick, 1973:239; Hyman, 1942, 1960). The middle child and older children in the family of orientation are very likely to have a set of peers different from those of first and only children. Societal norms, particularly in the South, are moving slowly toward acceptance of the premise that sexual intercourse can and should be pleasurable for women. The influence of peer groups in this regard would appear evident. Women, in a general sort of way, often develop and share sexual attitudes in the context of the peer group. Considerable knowledge about contraception and female orgasm would likely have its origins in the female's peer group. Numerous past studies have established that peers do provide sexual information more often than parents. In the case

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150 of both Allied Health and River City coeds, mothers were much more likely to have told their daughters about having menstrual periods than where babies come from. Derived Proposition 2 Females who are more permissive in their attitudes are more likely to engage in premarital sexual intercourse than females who are less permissive in their attitudes. Empirical propositions C, D, E, and H were combined to form Derived Proposition 2. These four propositions all offer evidence of a liberal attitude toward various types of sexual experiences and social life, in general, as contrasted with a conservative outlook (Reiss, 1967) . Possessing a positive attitude toward having oral-genital sex in a state where such sexual contacts are defined as illegal, even for married couples, would seem to represent a certain degree of liberalism. Petting to orgasm would also involve an acceptance of mutual masturbation which tends toward the liberal end of the conservative-liberal continuum as well. Derived Propositdon 3 Females involved in an affectional relationship are more likely to engage in premarital sexual intercourse than females not involved in an affectional relationship, Empirical proposition L was used to formulate Derived Proposition 3. Females have tended to place more emphasis

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151 on the af factional and tenderness aspects . of sexual activity as contrasted with the emphasis on physical release by the male (Freeman and Freeman, 1966) . Derived Proposition 4 Females will vary in rates of premarital sexual intercourse in accordance with their social class value system. Empirical propositions M and O were combined to form Derived Proposition 4. These propositions were combined because they possess empirical indicators of the concept social class. For example, if religious denominations were ranked on a continuum according to social class. Episcopalians would tend to be in the upper or upper middle class (Reiss, 1967:62). Derived Proposition 5 Among females, there is likely to be an inverse relationship between religious orthodoxy and participation in premarital sexual intercourse. Empirical proposition N was used to develop Derived Proposition 5. Church attendance, has frequently been used in past social science surveys to indicate the degree of religiosity for an individual. Organized religion has been often cited as a source of the guilt sometimes associated with premarital sexual activity among females (Clayton, 1972: 274-276; Reiss, 1967 : 105-125 ) .

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152 Derived Proposition 6 There is a direct relationship between age at first menstruation and having had premarital sexual intercourse . Empirical proposition A cannot be subsumed elsewhere and thus becomes Derived Proposition 6 (Zetterberg, 1965). Derived Proposition 7 There is a direct relationship between the age at which one learns where babies come from and having had premarital sexual intercourse. Empirical proposition B cannot be subsumed elsewhere and thus becomes Derived Proposition 7 (Zetterberg, 1965). Theoretical Propositions A reapplication of the retroduction . process produced four theoretical propositions about premarital sexual intercourse among females. Theoretical Proposition I Females who perceive norms of sexual permissiveness from reference groups are more likely to participate in premarital sexual intercourse than females who do not perceive norms of sexual permissiveness from reference groups. Derived Propositions 1, 2, 4, and 5 were used to formulate Theoretical Proposition I. The rationale for combining

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153 the foregoing propositions is grounded in reference group theory. A reference group refers to any group whose standards an individual takes for his own. Individuals are known to often reject the societal values which their elders support as part of the larger society. Illustrative of such rejected values are those associated with the church, Girl Scouts, and Boy Scouts. White middle class college students, in defiance of their parents, have, from time to time, given their support to Black or Radical Left activities on many college campuses (Leslie, Larson, and Gorman, 1973:196197; Merton, 1957) . Hyman found that the three most important reference group sources cited among college students were, in order of mention: economic, intellectual, and social, Religion was also reported, but it was ranked in the twelfth position (Hyman, 1942:1-94; Hyman, 1960:303-396). Theoretical Proposition II Females involved in an affectional relationship are more likely to engage in premarital sexual intercourse than females not involved in an affectional relationship. Derived Proposition 3 could not be subsumed elsewhere, so it became Theoretical Proposition II (Zetterberg, 1965). Theoretical Proposition III There is a direct relationship between age at first menstruation and having had premarital sexual intercourse.

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154 Derived Proposition 6 cannot be subsumed elsewhere and thus becomes Theoretical Proposition III (Zetterberg, 1965) . Theoretical Proposition ,IV There is a direct relationship between the age at which one learns where babies come from and having had premarital sexual intercourse. Derived Proposition 7 cannot be subsumed elsewhere and thus becomes Theoretical Proposition IV (Zetterberg, 1965). Two Middle-Range Theories of Premarital Sexual Intercourse After consideration of all available data, it was concluded that no single theoretical approach exists which will adequately predict the likelihood of the social phenomenon of premarital sexual intercourse occurring. Secondly, the current state of knowledge in sociology does not permit the formulation of a grand theory of premarital sexual intercourse which would be applicable in the majority of societal situations. With these assumptions in mind, two theoretical frames of reference have been suggested by careful study of theoretical propositions which appear to be especially fruitful. These theoretical frames of reference are exchange theory and reference group theory, which is a component part of symbolic interaction theory. Exchange theory involves social interaction in which one gives something of value in order to get something valued in return (Blau, 1964) .

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155 Reference group theory involves groups of which one is a member, and significant groups of which one is not a member, becoming focal points of reference for the shaping of attitudes, values, and behavior (Merton, 1957:2.81-286). Theory I The participation of females in premarital sexual intercourse will be found to vary directly with the degree to which norms of sexual permissiveness are perceived within the cultural milieu. This theory of middle range was derived by applying the reference group theory model to Theoretical Proposition I, Support for the reference group model was found in Christensen's theory of relative consequences, Reiss's general theory of premarital sexual intercourse, and in the work of Mirande. Reiss's theory appears to be merely the product of all known, statistically significant variables squeezed into a theory that may well result in a methodological dilemma when field testing occurs (Christensen, 1969; Mirande, 1968; Reiss, 1967). Theory II Participation in premarital sexual intercourse by females will be found to vary directly with the degree of affection existing for the potential sex partner. A second theory of the middle range was derived by applying the exchange theory model to Theoretical Proposition

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156 II. An earlier theory expounded by Reiss contains the element of courtship, but one cannot necessarily assume that courtship is a prerequisite for the existence of affection. For this reason, one must reject that portion of the Reiss theory. Support for the use of the exchange theory model was found in the conceptualization of Waller's principle of least interest (Waller, 1938:275), in Nye and Berardo ' s discussion of mate selection in The Family; Its Structure and Interaction (Nye and Berardo, 1973:109-168), and in the discussion of dating by Leslie et al. in Order and Change (1973:61-63).

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CHAPTER VI SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH, AND CONCLUSIONS Summary The primary objectives of this dissertation were to develop theoretical propostions about premarital sexual intercourse among females, using a modified axiomatic approach to theory construction, and to subsequently formulate one or more middle-range theories about premarital sexual intercourse. To facilitate the accomplishment of the stated objectives, this empirical investigation was divided into four component stages. First, a thorough review of all the reported research literature relevant to the study of premarital sexual intercourse among females was made, and a comprehensive list of all empirical propositions was formulated. Second, using this original list of empirical propositions as a guide, anew list of 22 empirical propositions concerned with premarital sexual intercourse among females was developed. A previously unanalyzed data base of 336 never-married Caucasian coeds, in a Southern Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area containing a major medical complex, was used to , determine which, if any, of these 22 propositions about premarital sexual intercourse among females were statistically 157

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158 significant. The medical menstrual history of the respondents was described in hope of eliminating some of the myths and old wives' tales frequently associated with the menstrual cycle. The sexual history of the respondents was also described to provide a basis for the interpretation of findings related to the empirical propositions. Through treating the data as two independent samples and using a significance level of p = .05,15 of the original 22 empirical propositions tested were found to be either statistically significant or with differences in the stated direction of the proposition for at least one of the independent samples. As was indicated in Chapter IV, in a couple of cases, the data were actually statistically significant in the opposite direction of the stated proposition. This direction was observed in the textual evaluation of the proposition. Third, those empirical-, propositions which were found to be statistically significant or in the stated direction of the proposition were developed into seven derived propositions using the process of retroduction. By reapplying the retroduction process, these same derived propositions were formulated into four theoretical propositions. Fourth, two of the theoretical propositions were then related to the reference group theory model and the exchange theory model to provide a theoretical explanation for premarital sexual intercourse among females. Two middle-range

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159 theories of premarital sexual intercourse were then formally stated as the cultural milieu permissiveness theory (Theory I) and the affection theory (Theory II), respectively. Implications for Future Research Serendipity Propositions The process of quality theory construction should, if approached in the true spirit of scientific inquiry, lead to the discovery of new and previously unrecognized propositions (Gibbs, 1972). In the interest of furthering theory building in the substantive area of premarital sexual intercourse among females, the following newly developed propositions are suggested for future consideration by other researchers. 1. There is an inverse relationship between age of first dating alone, where an automobile was used as transportation for the date, and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 2. There is an inverse relationship between age at first wearing a bra and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 3. There is a direct relationship between having engaged in auto-manipulation to orgasm and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 4. There is a direct relationship between the number of times of having been engaged to marry and having had premarital sexual intercourse.

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160 5. There is a direct relationship between residing in a location which is located outside the immediate supervision. of the extended family and having had premarital sexual intercourse'. 6. There is a direct relationship between being overweight and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 7. There is an inverse relationship between the association of guilt feelings with premarital sexual foreplay and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 8. There is an inverse relationship between the perceived availability of dating partners and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 9. There is a direct relationship between restricting; the choice of dating partners to one's own social class position and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 10. There is a direct relationship between membership in a same-sex peer group which exchanges information on sexual behavior and having had premarital sexual intercourse. Other Propositions from Current Literature Which Warrant Further Research Encountered in the research literature were a number of empirical propositions concerned with premarital sexual intercourse among females, for which data were not available for testing in this particular investigation. Those

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161 propositions that appear to warrant further consideration by future researchers in the study of premarital sexual intercourse among females include the 'following: 1. There is an inverse relationship between age at first marriage and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 2. There is a direct relationship between perceived norms of sexual permissiveness and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 3. There is a direct relationship between length of engagement and having had premarital sexual inter. course. 4. There is an inverse relationship between having had strict discipline in the parental home and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 5. There is an inverse relationship between college grade point average and having had premarital sexual intercourse . 6. There is an inverse relationship between sorority membership and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 7. There, is a direct relationship between physical attractiveness and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 8. There is a direct relationship between the use of marijuana and having had premarital sexual intercourse.

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162 9. There is a direct relationship between the use of alcoholic beverages and having had premarital sexual intercourse. 10. There is a direct relationship between use of narcotics (LSD, heroin, etc.) and having had premarital sexual intercourse. Some Further Methodological Issues There have been persons, including college and university academicians and administrators, who have questioned the propriety and legitimacy of sex research. Part of this objection has arisen from the fear of community and statewide repercussions if the general public should become aware that sex research was being conducted at a taxsupported college or university. Another aspect of this objection has stemmed from the somewhat biased opinion that persons who want to study sex must have some sort of hidden psychological problem relating to their sexuality. Some sex researchers have even come to be viewed with suspicion by some colleagues in their own academic community. Future researchers need to develop new concepts to replace the emotionally laden terms permissive and permissiver ness . These terms are interpreted by today's college coed to mean that an individual engages in indiscriminate premarital sexual intercourse; yet these same terms are used by some researchers to describe both premarital sexual

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163 intercourse with and without the existence of an affectional bond. Christensen and Reiss have each used these terms in this broad context while engaging in theory consti^uction about premarital sexual intercourse. The existing research reports contain many unwarranted assumptions about premarital sexual intercourse which need further empirical clarification. For example, the current sexual revolution, which is so commonly misinterpreted to mean the widespread occurrence of frequent sexual orgies by college students, has not been adequately studied or evaluated, Other such assumptions include the relationship between premarital sexual intercourse and marital sexual adjustment; the relationship between premarital sexual intercourse and a shift toward situational morality in the religious outlook of many; and the relationship between premarital sexual intercourse and later participation in extramarital sexual intercourse. Conclusions The time has come for family sociologists to stop wasting time making excuses for the absence of adequate theory in the substantive area of premarital sexual intercourse. Unless testable theories are formulated, of what vlaue is a mere series of repetitive, unrelated, and unlinked propositions? While the popularity of premarital sexual intercourse as an acceptable research topic continues to grow, the

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164 research literature still abounds with reports of data which fail to specify a conceptual frame of reference. This practice would seemingly be unacceptable by today's standards for scholarly work in the field of family sociology. The cultural milieu permissiveness theory (Theory I) and the affection theory (Theory II) have been proposed in this dissertation. It is hoped that other researchers will choose to subject these theories to further empirical test. For, as Zetterberg has stated, "No specific amount of supporting or contradictory data automatically makes us accept or reject a theory" (Zetterberg, 1965:151-152).

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APPENDIX I FEMALE QUESTIONNAIRE AND ORGASM RATING SHEET

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FEMALE QUESTIONNAIRE CONFIDENTIAL F FORM SEX ATTITUDES: A SCIENTIFIC STUDY The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Southern Medical School and the Department of Sociology of River City College are conducting a scientific study of attitudes associated with sexual behavior and reproductive physiology. Medical education is in need of such information to increase knowledge in these areas of human development. Your participation in this survey will make a significant contribution toward the advancement of medical education. This questionnaire will require only a minimum amount of your time since most questions appear in tabular form for your convenience. ALL information obtained with this questionnaire will be held in the STRICTEST CONFIDENCE. These data will be reported on a group basis; therefore, you as an individual will remain unidentifiable. Participation in this survey is completely voluntary. You may refuse to participate by returning this 166

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167 questionnaire unanswered. There is space for your comments at the end of the questionnaire. Thank you for your cooperation in this endeavor. J. Kenneth Davidson, Sr. Principal Investigator Assistant Professor of Sociology River City College W. A. Saogginj M.D. Medical Consultant Chairman, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Southern Medical School

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168 Respondent Number (Do not write in this space.) J Marital Status (CHECK ONE) i 4 Single Married Widowed Divorced Separated J IF MARRIED: How long have you been married? (PLEASE SPECIFY) IF NOT MARRIED: What is your current dating status? (CHECK ONE) 0. Not dating 1. Casual dating (playing the field) 2. Dating steadily (same person — very frequently) 3. Going steady 4. Engaged-to-be-engaged 5 . Engaged Age (CHECK ONE) 0. 15-19 years 1. 20-24 years 2. 25-29 years 3. 30-34 years 4. 35-39 years 5. 40-44 years 6. 45-49 years 7. 50 years and over How many brothers did you have? How many sisters did you have?_ In your family, you were the of _ (PLEASE SPECIFY) _(PLEASE SPECIFY) children. (Example: 3rd of children. )

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169 What is your occupation? (CHECK ONE) 0. Unskilled worker 1. Semiskilled worker (garage attendant, bench hand, farm hand, etc.) 2. Skilled worker (automobile mechanic, toolmaker, draftsman, policeman, fireman, enlisted military, licensed practical nurse, etc.) 3. White-collar worker (file clerk, typist, salesman, secretary, bookkeeper, clerk, etc.) 4. Small businessman (retailer, garage operator, etc.) 5, Professional worker (teacher, minister, doctor, lawyer, artist, musician, military officer, registered nurse, etc.) 6. Business executive or professional administrator 7 . Farmer 8 . Housewife _9. Student Are you presently employed for salary/wages? . (CHECK ONE) _0. Yes 1 .No 2. Other (PLEASE SPECIFY) What was your father's last occupation? (CHECK ONE) 0. No employment history 1. Unskilled worker 2. Semiskilled worker (garage attendant, bench hand, farm hand, etc.) 3. Skilled worker (automobile mechanic, toolmaker, draftsman, policeman, fireman, enlisted military, etc.) _4 . White-collar worker (file clerk, typist, salesman, secretary, bookkeeper, clerk, etc.) 5. Small businessman (retailer, garage operator, etc.) _6 . Professional worker (teacher, minister, doctor, lawyer, artist, musician, military officer, etc.) 7. Business executive or professional administrator. 8 . Farmer 9. Not applicable (brought up in institution) IF MARRIED: Is your spouse presently employed for salary/ wages? (CHECK ONE) _0. Yes _1. No • 2. Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)

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\ 170 J IF MARRIED: What is your spouse's occupation? (CHECK ONE) 0. Unskilled worker 1. Semiskilled worker (garage attendant, bench hand, farm hand, etc.) 2. Skilled worker (automobile mechanic, toolmaker, draftsman, policeman, fireman, enlisted military, etc.) 3. White-collar worker (file clerk, typist, salesman, secretary, bookkeeper, etc.) 4. Small businessman (retailer, garage operator, etc.) 5. Professional worker (teacher, minister, doctor, lawyer, artist, musician, military officer, etc.) 6. Business executive or professional administrator 7 . Farmer , 8. Student ^ What was the last level of schooling completed by you? (CHECK ONE) 0. Grades 5-7 1. Grades 8-10 2. • Grades 11-12 3. 1st year of college _4 . 2nd year of college 5. 3rd year of College 6. .4th year of college 7 . Post-graduate degree 8. Vocational school 9. Other (P LEASE SPECIFY) IF ENROLLED IN SCHOOL: What is your current program of" study? (CHECK ONE) 0. Medical school (M.D. program) 1. Nursing-University Hospital 2. Nursing-Medical College of Georgia 3. Nursing assistant-Augusta Tech 4. Medical technology 5 . Medical records 6. Medical illustration 7. Radiological technology 8. Other__ (PLEASE SPECIFY) IF ENROLLED IN SCHOOL: What is your current class standing? (CHECK ONE) 0. Freshman ^1. Sophomore 2. Junior 3 .. Senior 4. Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)

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171 IF MARRIED AND SPOUSE IS ENROLLED IN SCHOOL: What is your spouse's current program of study? (CHECK ONE) _0. Medical school (M.D. program) 1. Nursing-University Hospital 2. Nursing-Medical College of Georgia __3 . Nursing assistant 4. Medical technology 5. Medical records 6. Medical illustration 7 . Radiological technology 8. Other (PLEASE SPECIFY) 1 IF MARRIED AND SPOUSE IS ENROLLED IN SCHOOL: What is your \| spouse's current class standing? (CHECK ONE) 0. Freshman 1. Sophomore 2 . Junior 3 . Senior 4, Other (PLEASE SPECIFY) .^^ What is your race? (CHECK ONE) _0. Caucasian (white) 1. Negro 2. Other . (PLEASE SPECIFY) 's^ What was the size of the place in which you consider that \ you grew up? (CHECK ONE) 0. Under 50 1. 500-2,499 2. 2,500-9,999 3. 10,000-24,999 4. 25,000-49,999 5. 50,000-99,999 6. 100,000-249,999 1. 250,000 or more \ What is your religious preference? "-^ (PLEASE GIVE A SPECIFIC DENOMINATION) How many times per month do you attend worship services? (CHECK ONE) 0. None 4. 7-8 times ^1. 1-2 times 5. 9-10 times 2. 3-4 times 6. 11-12 times 3. 5-6 times 7. 13 or more times

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172 At what age should a FEMALE be before you would recommend that she get married? ^years (PLEASE SPECIFY) At what age should a MAliE be before you would recommend that he get married? ^years (PLEASE SPECIFY) \ IF UNMARRIED: Do you anticipate that you will marry some\\ day? (CHECK ONE) i 0. Yes \ 1 .No 'i vj IF YES AND PLAN TO MARRY: Do you plan to be employed before marriage? (CHECK ONE) \ 0.

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173 J; Ideally, how many years apart should children be spaced? ^ (CHECK ONE) 0. Less than one year 1. One year 2 . Two years 3. Three years ^_4. Four years 5. Five years 5. Six years 7 . Seven years 8. Eight years 9. Nine years or more li Do you plan to be employed after children are born? ^ (CHECK ONE) 0.

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174 I To your knowledge, are you pregnant? (CHECK ONE) 0. Yes 1. No i 2. Possibly -% Have you ever had a pregnancy terminate before the birth of a child? (CHECK ONE) 0, Yes 1. No t IF YES: How did the pregnancy terminate? (CHECK ONE) 0. "Miscarriage" (spontaneous abortion) 1. Induced abortion (performed in place other than licensed hospital) 2. Therapeutic abortion (performed in licensed hospital). 3. Other ^ (PLEASE SPECIFY) Have you experienced menopause ("change of life")? (CHECK ONE) 0. Yes 1. No 2. Currently going through the "change" IF YES: Did the menopause ("change of life") occur: (CHECK ONE) 0. Spontaneously (naturally) _1. Surgically (oophrectomy , hysterectomy, etc.) 2. Drugs . (PLEASE SPECIFY) 3. X-ray or radium {•^ IF YES, HAVING MENSTRUAL PERIODS: Would you classify your .^t menstrual periods as usually: (CHECK ONE) . Regular 1. Irregular 2. Other_ ___^ (PLEASE SPECIFY) |;; How many days apart do your menstrual periods usually occur? (PLEASE SPECIFY — For additional comments use reverse side of paper.) % How many days does your menstrual flow usually last? (PLEASE SPECIFY)

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175 I ' A Would you classify your menstrual flow usually as: (CHECK ONE) 0. Very painful 1. Painful 2. Slightly painful 3. Not painful i I Do you have to go to bed or miss work or miss school because of menstrual pain? (CHECK ONE) _0. Always (every menstrual period) 1. Frequently 2. Seldom 3. Never I Do you take medicine (other than oral contraceptive) because I of menstrual pain? (CHECK ONE) 0. Always (every menstrual period) 1. Frequently 2. Seldom 3 . Never % For your menstrual period, do you usually use: (CHECK ONE) 0. Sanitary napkins (Kotex, etc.) 1. Tampons (Tampax, etc.) 2. Both tampons and sanitary napkins 3. Other_ (PLEASE SPECIFY) In matters of reproductive physiology, do you consider your, self to be: (CHECK ONE) ^ 0. Very knowledgeable _1. Knowledgeable 2. Slightly knowledgeable 3. Not at all knowledgeable With regard to the different positions of sexual intercourse, do you consider yourself to be: (CHECK ONE) 0. Very knowledgeable 1. Knowledgeable 2. Slightly knowledgeable 3. Not at all knowledgeable At what age did you first learn where babies came from? (PLEASE SPECIFY)

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176 How did you FIRST learn where babies came from? (PLEASE BE SPECIFIC) At what age did you first learn that females have menstrual periods? (PLEASE SPECIFY) How did you FIRST learn that females have menstrual periods? (PLEASE BE SPECIFIC) \ If a female WANTED TO BECOME pregnant, when during the menstrual cycle, would be the "best" time to have sexual intercourse? (CHECK ONE) 0. During the menstrual period _1. Right after the menstrual period 2. Halfway between the menstrual periods t 3. Right before the menstrual period .| If a female WANTED NOT TO BECOME pregnant, when during the menstrual cycle, would be the "best" time to have sexual intercourse? (CHECK ONE) 0. During the menstrual period 1. Right after the menstrual period 2. Halfway between the menstrual periods 3. Right before the menstrual period \ i What has been your BEST source of information about the role ^ of menstruation in female reproductive functioning? (PLEASE BE SPECIFIC) '\ Do you ever wish that females did not have menstrual periods during the child-bearing years? (CHECK ONE) 0.

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177 What factor (s) caused you to arrive at the view expressed in the above question concerning females having menstrual periods? (PLEASE BE SPECIFIC) What is an orgasm (climax, "cumming") for the female? (PLEASE BE SPECIFIC) What is an orgasm (climax, "cumming") for the male? (PLEASE BE SPECIFIC) Do you think that sexual intercourse under ideal circumstances is more pleasurable for: (CHECK ONE) 0. Men usually "l. Women usually "2 . Equal for both men and women "3 . Other (PLEASE SPECIFY) Would you indicate each stage of activity that you have EVER participated in with a member of the opposite sex? (Place an "X" in each appropriate category. Use as . many categories as necessary.) 0. No physical contact or only holding hands 1. Kissing and hugging 2. Male fondling the female's breasts with his hands outside her clothes 3. Male fondling the female's bare breasts 4. Male fondling the female's genitals through her clothes 5. Male fondling the female's uncovered genitals 6. Female fondling male's genitals through his clothes 7. Female fondling male's uncovered genitals A Have you EVER experienced an orgasm (climax)? (CHECK ONE) 0. "1. Yes No

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178 IF YES: How old were you the FIRST time you experienced an I orgasm (climax)? (PLEASE SPECIFY AGE) % IF YES : What were your feelings and/or reactions after having experienced an orgasm (climax) for the first time? (PLEASE SPECIFY) ^1 Have you EVER experienced an orgasm (climax) while petting with a member of the opposite sex? (CHECK ONE) 0, Yes f; 1. No I' IF YES: How often have you experienced an orgasm (climax) while petting with a member of the opposite sex? (CHECK ONE) __0. Always 1. Usually 2. Occasionally 3 . Rarely IF YES, EXPERIENCED ORGASM (CLIMAX) WHILE PETTING: Are/were you satisfied with this level of intimacy? (CHECK ONE) 0. Yes _1. No _2. Other (PLEASE SPECIFY) IF NO: Why are/were you NOT satisfied with this level of intimacy? (PLEASE SPECIFY) \ Have you EVER had sexual intercourse? (CHECK ONE) 0. Yes 1. No ^ IF YES, HAD SEXUAL INTERCOURSE: How old were you the first time you had sexual intercourse? years (PLEASE SPECIFY)

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/ 179 Would you classify your first sexual intercourse as: (CHECK ONE) 0. Very pleasurable 1. Pleasurable 2. Unpleasurable 3. Very unpleasurable 4. Other (PLEASE SPECIFY) What were your feelings and/or reactions after having experienced sexual intercourse for the first time? (PLEASE SPECIFY) \ I After your first sexual experience, how many times did you "^ have sexual intercourse with that person? (CHECK ONE 0.

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180 IF YES : How often during sexual intercourse do you experience an orgasm (climax)? (CHECK ONE) _0 . Always 1. Usually 2. Occasionally 3. Rarely 4 . Never Have you ever experienced an orgasm (climax) either PRIOR TO or JUST AFTER sexual intercourse? (CHECK ONE) 0. Yes 1. No 2. Other (PLEASE SPECIFY) IF YES: How often do you experience an orgasm (climax) either PRIOR TO or JUST AFTER sexual intercourse?. (CHECK ONE) . Always 1. Usually 2. Occasionally 3. Rarely 4. Never Have you ever heard and/or read anything about having or not having sexual intercourse during the menstrual period? (CHECK ONE) ' 0. Yes 1 .No IF YES , HEARD AND/OR READ ABOUT SEXUAL INTERCOURSE DURING THE MENSTRUAL PERIOD: List all the sources from which you have heard and/or read about having or not having sexual intercourse during the menstrual period. Indicate what each said about sexual intercourse during the menstrual period. (PLEASE SPECIFY) Were you ever, personally, advised about, having sexual intercourse during the menstrual period? (CHECK ONE) 0. Yes 1. No

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181 \ IF YES, ADVISED ABOUT SEXUAL INTERCOURSE DURING MENSTRUAL PERIOD: Who advised you about having sexual intercourse during the menstrual period? (PLEASE SPECIFY) J What were you advised about sexual intercourse during the menstrual period? (Place an "X" in each appropriate category. ) 0. All right if you desire it 1. Abstain for religious reasons 2, Abstain for health reasons _[ 3. Abstain because it's messy 4. Abstain because it's painful to the female 5. Abstain because you can get disease 6. Abstain because it's abnormal to want sexual intercourse during this time 7. Go ahead, sexual intercourse will be better for the female 8. Other_ __( PLEASE SPECIFY) \ IF YES, HAD -SEXUAL INTERCOURSE: Have you ever had sexual intercourse during the female's menstrual period? (CHECK ONE) 0. Yes , 1. No IF YES: How often do you have sexual intercourse during the menstrual period? (CHECK ONE) 0. More frequently than at other times during the menstrual cycle _1. Just as frequently as at other times during the menstrual cycle 2. Less frequently than at other times during the menstrual cycle 3. Rarely 4 . Never ^^^ IF YES, HAD SEXUAL INTERCOURSE DURING THE MENSTRUAL PERIOD: In your own experience, is sexual intercourse during the menstrual period: (CHECK ONE) 0. More enjoyable than at other times 1. The same as at other times 2. Less enjoyable than at other times because of hygienic reasons 3. Less enjoyable than at other times because of pain or discomfort 4. Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)

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4 182 IF YES, HAD SEXUAL INTERCOURSE DURING MENSTRUAL PERIOD: What has been your partner's reaction to having sexual intercourse during the menstrual period? (PLEASE SPECIFY) IF YES, HAD SEXUAL INTERCOURSE DURING MENSTRUAL PERIOD: Would you advise someone to have sexual intercourse during the menstrual period? (CHECK ONE) ^0. Yes 1. No IF NO: Why would you NOT advise someone to have sexual intercourse during the menstrual period: (PLEASE SPECIFY) DURING MENSTRUAL PERIOD, IF NEVER HAD SEXUAL INTERCOURSE: What would be your reactions to EVER having sexual intercourse during the menstrual period? (PLEASE BE SPECIFIC) When do you have the STRONGEST sexual desire during the menstrual cycle? (CHECK ONE) 0. During the menstrual period 1. Just after the menstrual period 2. Halfway between the menstrual period 3. Just before the menstrual period 4. Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN) When do you have the LEAST sexual desire during the menstrual cycle? (CHECK ONE) 0. During the menstrual period 1. Just after the menstrual period 2. Halfway between the menstrual period 3. Other (PLEASE EXPLAIN)

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183 IF HAD SEXUAL INTERCOURSE: How often do you currently have sexual intercourse? times per _(PLEASE SPECIFY) Are you satisfied with the current frequency that you have an orgasm (climax) with sexual intercourse? (CHECK ONE) 0. Yes _1. No IF NO: Why, in your opinion, does an orgasm (climax) not occur more frequently for you? (PLEASE SPECIFY) Are you SATISFIED with the current frequency that you have sexual intercourse? (CHECK ONE) 0. Yes 1. No J IF NO: Do you desire sexual intercourse: (CHECK ONE) 0. More frequently 1. Less frequently ^IF SEXUAL INTERCOURSE DESIRED MORE FREQUENTLY: Why, in your opinion, does sexual intercourse not occur more frequently for you? (PLEASE SPECIFY) Have you ever heard and/or read of ANY reasons for/or against self -masturbation (self -stimulation) by males or females? (CHECK ONE) 0. Yes 1. No ,IF YES: List all reasons for and/or against selfmasturbation (selfstimulation) by males or females (PLEASE SPECIFY)

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184 If asked, what advice would you give a male or female about engaging in self-masturbation (self-stimulation)? (PLEASE SPECIFY) ' Have you ever heard and/or read of any reasons for/or against oral-genital sexual relations ("69," "French style") between a male and a female? (CHECK ONE) . Yes 1. No IF YES: List ALL reasons for and/or against oral-genital sexualrelations ("69," "French style") between a male and a female. (PLEASE SPECIFY) If asked, what advice would you give a male or a female about engaging in oral-genital sexual relations ("69," "French style")? (PLEASE SPECIFY) Name all the different EFFECTIVE methods of contraception that you know. (PLEASE SPECIFY) Do you now or have you ever in. the past, used contraceptives? (CHECK ONE) 0.

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185 i Have you ever used an oral contraceptive ("the pill") NOT to avoid pregnancy but for medical purposes only^^ (CHECK ONE) 0. Yes '1 . No Which contraceptive do you consider most effective for preventing pregnancy? (PLEASE SPECIFY) Which contraceptive do you consider MOST ACCEPTABLE to you' (PLEASE SPECIFY) Why is this particular contraceptive MOST ACCEPTABLE to you? (PLEASE SPECIFY) / Would you recommend this contraceptive that you consider the MOST ACCEPTABLE to a friend or relative? (CHECK ONE) 0. Yes _1. No IF NO: Why would you NOT recommend this contraceptive to a friend or relative? (PLEASE SPECIFY) What primary effect would the permanent ABSENCE of a father , have on the children of a family? (PLEASE BE SPECIFIC) How important do you consider the presence of a father, in the home, when there are children? (CHECK ONE) 0. Very important 1. Important 2 . Unimportant 3 . Very unimportant

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186 COMMENTS ON QUESTIONNAIRE

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187 Describe, in your own words, what typically happens to the female physically and mentally when she has an orgasm (climax, "cumming") . THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION

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188 (U u U (0 QJ U G C w o

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APPENDIX II TABLES

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c

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191 o

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192

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REFERENCES Achilles', Paul Strong. 1923. The Effectiveness of Certain Social Hygiene Literature . New York: American Social Hygiene Association. , Adams, Bert. 1971. The American Family . Chicago: Markham Publishing Company. Adams, Clifford Rose. 1953. An Informal Preliminary Report on Some Factors Relating to Sexual Responsiveness of Certain College Wives. Unpublished paper. Althoff, S. A.; Nussel, E. J. 1971. Social Class Trends in the Practices and Attitudes of College Students Regarding Sex, Smoking, Drinking, and the Use of Drugs. Journal of School Health 41:390-394. Anderson, Edith. 1965. Who Wants to Know What About Menstrual Health. Nursing Outlook 13:47-50. Angelino, Henry; Mech, Edmund V. 1955. Some First Sources of Sex Information as Reported by Sixty-Seven College Women. Journal of Psychology 39:321-324. Arafat, Ibithaj; Yorburg, Betty. 1973. Drug Use and the Sexual Behavior of College Women. Journal of Sex Research 9:21-29. Ard, Jr., Ben Neal. 1962. Sexual Behavior and Attitudes of Marital Partners . Ph.D. dissertation. University of Michigan. Auger, Jeanine Ann Roose. 1967. A Psychophysiological Study of the Normal Menstrual Cycle and of Some Possible Effects of Oral Contraceptives . Ph.D. dissertation, the University of California at Los Angeles. Barnett, Larry D. 1965. Responses to Questionnaires Completed Inside and Outside the Classroom. The Family Coordinator 14:10-32. Bartz, Karen Winch; Nye, F. Ivan. 1969. Alternative Models for Constructing Family Theories : From Empirical Family Research to Substantive Family Theory. Unpublished paper. 193

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194 Bartz, Karen Winch; Nye, F. Ivan. 1970. Early Marriage: A Propositional Formulation. Journal of Marriage and the Family 32:258-268. Bauman, Karl E. 1973. Volunteer Bias in a Study of Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior. Journal of Marriage and the Family 35:27-31. Bell, Robert R. 1966. Premarital Sex in a Changing Society . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Bell, Robert R. ; Blumberg, Leonard. 1959. Courtship Intimacy and Religious Background. Journal of Marriage and Family Living 21:356-360. 3ell, Robert R.; Chaskes, Jay B. 1970. Premarital Sexual Experience Among Co-eds, 1958 and 1968. Journal of Marriage and the Family 32:81-84. Bell, Robert R. ; Clavan, Sylvia. 1973. Settings and Techniques in Marital Sexuality. Unpublished paper. Berardo, Felix M. 1969., From General Sociological Propositions to Substantive Family Theory. Unpublished paper. Bergen, Marcelene Betsy. 1972.Sexual Attitudes and Be -, havior of Selected University Students . Ph.D. dissertation, Kansas State University. Birenbaum, Arnold. 1970. Revolution Without the Revolution: Sex in Contemporary America. The Journal of Sex Re search 6:257-267. Blalock, Jr., Hubert M. 1972. Social Statistics , Second ' Edition. New York: McGrav/-Hill Book Company. Blau, Peter M. 1964. Exchange and Power in Social Life . New York: John Wiley and Sons. Bock, E. Wilbur; lutaka, Sugiyama. 1970. Social Class, Mobility and Premarital Pregnancy: A Case of Brazil. Journal of Marriage and the Family 32:284-292. Brill, Abraham A. 1939. Sex and the Physician. , The Urologic and Cutaneous Review 33:750-756. Bromley, Dorothy Dunbar; Britten, Florence Huxton. 1938. Youth and Sex: A Study of 1300 College Students . New York: Harper and Row. Bronstein, Edwin S. 1974. Personal interview. Medical College of Georgia.

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195 Broom, Leonard; Selznick, Philip. 1973. Sociology , Fifth Edition. New York: Harper and Row. Burchinal, Lee; Bock, Elmer W. 1959. Religious Behavior, Premarital Pregnancy, and Early Marriage. Alpha Kappa Deltan 29:39-44. Burgess, Ernest W. ; Wallin, Paul. 1953. Engagement and Marriage . New York: J. B. Lippinco'tt. Burgess, Jane Menzel. 1972. The Influence of Family Rela tionships on the Sexual Behavior of College Students in Norway and the United States . Ph.D. dissertation, Kansas State University. Burnap, Donald W. ; Golden, Joshua S. 1967. Sexual Problems in Medical Practice. Journal of Medical Education 42:673-680. Calderone, Mary S. 1966. Sex Education in Medical Education. Marquette Medical Review 32:64-66. Cameron, R. Graeme. 1969. Effect of Flying on the Menstrual Function of Air Hostesses. Aerospace Medicine 40:1020-1023. Cannon, Kenneth L. ; Long, Richard. 1971. Premarital Sexual Behavior in the Sixties. In Broderick, Carlfred B., Ed. A Decade of Family Research and Action . Minneapolis: National Council of Family Relations. Chesser, Eustace. 1956. The Sexual, Marital, and Family Relationships of the English Woman . London : Hutchinson. Chilman, Catherine S. 1966. Dating, Courtship, and Engagement Behaviors of Married, Compared to Single, Undergraduates, With an Analysis of Early-Marrying and LateMarrying Students. Family Life Coordinator 15:112-118. Christensen, Harold T. 1969. Normative Theory Derived from Cross-Cultural Family Research. Journal of Marriage and the Family 31:209-222. Christensen, Harold T. ; Carpenter, George R. 1962. ValueBehavior Discrepancies Regarding Premarital Coitus in Three Western Cultures. American Sociological Re:view . 27:66-74. Christensen, Harold T.; Gregg, Christina F. 1970. Changing Sex Norms in America and Scandinavia. Journal of Marriage and the Family 32:616-627.

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196 Clark, Alexander Logie. 1960. A Study of Factors Asso ciated with Wives' Sexual Responsiveness . Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University. Clayton, Richard R. 1969. Religious Orthodoxy and Premarital Sex. : Social Forces 47:469-474. Clayton, Richard R. 1972. Premarital Sexual Intercourse: A Substantive Test of the Contingent Consistency Model. Journal of Marriage and the Family 34:273-281. Clayton, Richard R. 1973. Rejoinder to David Grimes and Roger Libby. Journal of Marriage and the Family 35:12-13. Cloward, Richard A.; Ohlin, Lloyd E, 1960. Delinquency and Opportunity: A Theory of Delinquent Gangs . Glencoe, 111.: The Free Press.. Coombs, Robert H. 1968. Sex Education for Physicians: Is It Adequate? The Family Coordinator 17:271-277. Coser, Lewis A.; Rosenberg, Bernard. 1964. Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings , Second Edition. New York: The Macmillan Company. Cowden, James E.; Motse, Edwin L. 1970. The Relationship of Defensiveness to Responses on the Sex Inventory. Journal of Clinical Psychology 26:505-509. Cuber, John F. ; Harrof f , Peggy B. 1965. The Significant Americans . New York: Appleton-Century-Crof ts. Davis, Katherine B. 1929. Factors in the Sex Life of 2,200 Women . New York: Harper and Brothers. Diamant, Louis. 1970. Premarital Sexual Behavior, Attitudes, and Emotional Adjustment. Journal of Social Psychology 82:75-80. Dickinson, Robert Latou; Beam, Lura. 1934. The Single Woman. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. Eastman, William F. 1972. First Intercourse. Sexual Behavior 2:22-27. Ehrmann, Winston W. 1954. Non-Conformance of Male and Female Reports of Premarital Coitus. Social Problems 1:155-159. Ehrmann, Winston W. 1957. Some Knowns and Unknowns in Research into Human Sex Behavior. Marriage and Family Living 19:16-22.

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197 Ehrmann, Winston W. 1959. Premarital Sexual Behavior and Sex Codes of Conduct with Acquaintances, Friends, and Lovers. Social Forces 38:158-164. Ehrmann, Winston W. 1964. Marital and Nonmarital Sexual Behavior. In Christensen, Harold T. , Ed. The; Handbook of Marriage and the Family . New York: Rand McNally. Ehrmann, Winston W. 1959. Premarital Dating Behavior . New York : Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Ellis, Albert; Fuller, Earl W. 1950. The Sex, Love and Marriage Questions of Senior Nursing Students. The Journal of Social Psychology 31:209-216. Exner, Max Joseph. 1915. Problems and Principles of Sex Education: A Study of 948 College Men . New York: Association Press. Farrel, Barbara; Allen, Margaret F. 1973. Physiological and Psychologic Changes Reported by United States Air Force Female Flight Nurses During Flying Duties. Nursing Research 22:31-36. Finger, Frank W. 1947. Sex Beliefs and Practices Among Male College Students. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 42:57-67. Freedman, Mervin B. 19 65. The Sexual Behavior of American College Women: An Empirical Study and a Historical Survey. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 11:34-48. P'reeman, Harrop A.; Freeman, Ruth. 1966. Senior College Women: Their Sexual Standards and Activity. Journal of National Association of Women Deans and Counselors 29:136-143. Gibbs, Jack. 1972. Sociological Theory Construction . Hinsdale, 111.: The Dryden Press, Inc. Goode, William J. 1959. The Sociology of the Family. In Merton, Robert K.; Broom, Leonard; Cottrell, Leonard S., Jr., Eds. Sociology Today; Problems and Pros pects . New York: Basic Books. Goode, William J.; Hatt, Paul K. 1952. Methods in Social Research . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Gould, Harley N. ; Gould, Mary Raymond. 1932. Age at First Menstruation in Mothers and Daughters. Journal of the American Medical Association 98:1349-1352.

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198 Greeley, Andrew M. 1972. The Denominational Society; A Sociological Approach to Religion in America . Glenview, 111. : Scott-Foresman . Greene, Gael. 1964. Sex and the College Girl . New York: Dial Press. Grimes, David W. ; Libby, Roger W. 1973. Clayton's "Premarital Intercourse: A Substantive Test of the Contingent Consistency Model" Revisited. Journal of Marriage and the Family 35:9-11. Hage, Jerald. 1972. Techniques and Problems of Theory Construction in Sociology . New York: John Wiley and Sons. Hamilton, Gilbert V. 1929. A Research in Marriage . New York: Lear Publishers. Hastings, Donald W. 1963. Impotence and Frigidity . Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Hastings, Donald W. 1972. A Doctor Speaks on Sexual Ex pression in Marriage , Revised Edition. New York: Bantam Books. Heltsley, Mary E.; Broderick, Carlfred B. 1969. Religiosity and Premarital Sexual Permissiveness: A Reexamination of Reiss' Traditionalism Proposition. Journal of Marriage and the Family 31:441-443. Herz, Sylvia. 1970. Research Study on Behavioral Patterns in Sex and Drug Use on College Campus. Adolescence 5:1-16. Hobart, Charles W. 1972. Sexual Permissiveness in Young English and French Canadians. Journal of Marriage and the Family 34:292-303. Hohman, Leslie B.; Schaffner, Bertram. 1947. The Sex Lives of Unmarried Men. American Journal of Sociology 52: 501-507. Horton, Paul B.; Hunt, Chester L. 1972. Sociology , Third Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Company. Hughes, W. L. 19 26. Sex Experiences of Boyhood. Journal of Social Hygiene 12:262-273. Hyman, Herbert. 1942. The Psychology of Status. Archives of Psychology 269:1-94.

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199 Hyman, Herbert. 1960. Reflections on Reference Groups. Public Opinion Quarterly 24; 303-396. Israel, S. Leon. 1967. Normal Puberty and Adolescence. New York Academy of Sciences 142:773-778. Johnson, Paul. 19 63. Are Virgins Obsolete? New Statesman 65:8-9. Kaats, Gilbert R. ; Davis, Keith E. 197 0. Dynamics of Sexual Behavior of College Students. Journal of Mar riage and the Family 32:390-399. Kaniri, Eugene J. 1957. Male Aggression in DatingCourtship Relations. American Journal of Sociology 63:197-204. Kanin, Eugene J. 1960. Premarital Sex Adjustments, Social Class, and Associated Behaviors. Journal of Marriage and the Family 22:258-262. Kanin, Eugene J. 1967. Reference Groups and Sex Conduct Norm Violations. Sociological Quarterly 8:495-504. Kanin, Eugene J. 19 69. Selected Dyadic Aspects of Male Sex Aggression. Journal of Sex Research 5:12-28. Karen, Robert L. 1959. Some Variables Affecting Sexual Attitudes, Behavior and Inconsistency. Journal of Marriage and Family Living 21:235-239. Kelley, Robert K. 1972. The Premarital Sexual Revolution: Comments on Research. The Family Coordinator 21: 334-336. Kinsey, Alfred C; Pomeroy , Wardell B.; Martin, Clyde E. 1948. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male . Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. Kinsey, Alfred C; Pomeroy, Wardell B.; Martin, Clyde E.; Gebhard, Paul H. 1953. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female . Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. Kirkendall, Lester A. 1961. Premarital Intercourse and Interpersonal Relationships . New York: Julian Press. Kirkendall, Lester A. 1965. Evaded Problem: Sex on Campus. The Family Coordinator 14:20-24. Kronhausen, Phyllis; Kronhausen, Eberhard. 1960. Sex Histories of American College Men . New York: Ballantine Press.

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200 Kroth, Jerome A. 1968. Relationship Between Anxiety and Menarcheal Onset. Psychological Reports 23:801-802. Landis, C. ; Bolles, M. M. 1942. Personality and Sexuality of the Physically Handicapped Woman . New York: Hoeber . Landis, Judson T. ; Landis, Mary G. 1953. Building a Successful Marriage . New York: Prentice-Hall. Larsen, Virginia L. 1965. College Students and Menstrual Facts. Journal of the American Women's Medical Association 20:557-559. Leslie, Gerald R. 1973. The Family in Social Context , Second Edition. New York: Oxford University Press. Leslie, Gerald R. ; Larson, Richard F.; Gorman, Benjamin. 1973. Order and Change . New York: Oxford University Press. Lief, Harold I. 1963. What Medical Schools Teach About Sex. Bulletin of The Tulane Medical Faculty 22:161-168 Lief, Harold I. 19 64. Sexual Attitudes and Behavior of Medical Students: Implications for Medical Practice. In Nash, Ethel M. ; Jessner, Lucie; Abse , D. Wilfred, Eds. Marriage Counseling in Medical Practice . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Lief, Harold I. 1965. Sex Education of Medical Students and Doctors. Pacific Medicine and Surgery 73:52-58. Locke, Harvey J. 1951. Predicting Adjustment in Marriage ; A Comparison of a Divorced and a Happily Married Group . Boston: Henry Holt and Company. Lower, George H. 1972. Feelings of Regret Involved in Premarital Intercourse . Edinboro, Pa.: United Campus Ministry. Luckey, Eleanore B.; Nass, Gilbert D. 1969. Comparison of Sexual Attitudes and Behavior in an International Sample. Journal of Marriage and the Family 31:364-379. Macklin, Eleanor D. 1972. Heterosexual Cohabitation Among Unmarried College Students. The Family Coordinator 21:463-472. Maranell, Gary M. ; Dodder, Richard A.; Mitchell, David F. 1970. Social Class and Premarital Permissiveness: A Subsequent Test. Journal of Marriage and the Family 32:85-88.

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201 Martin, Chester B. , Jr.; Long, Eugene. .1969. Sex During the Menstrual Period. Medical Aspects of Human Sexu ality 3:37,40,43,46,49. Masters, William H.; Johnson, Virginia E. 1966. Human Sexual Response . Boston: Little, Brown and Company. McCreary-Juhasz , Anne. 19 67. Sex Knowledge of Prospective Teachers and Graduate Nurses. The Canadian Nurse 73:48-50. Merrill, L. 1918. A Summary of Findings in a Study of Sexualism Among a Group of One Hundred Delinquent Boys. Journal of Juvenile Research 3:255-267. Merton, Robert K. 19 57. Social Theory and Social Struc ture . Glencoe , 111.: The Free Press. Middendorp, C.-P.; Brinkman, W.; Koomen, W. 1970. Determinants of Premarital Sexual Permissiveness; A Second Analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family 32:369379. Milman, Doris H.; Su, Wen-Huey. 1973. Patterns of Illicit Drug and Alcohol Use Among Secondary School Students. Journal of Pediatrics 83:314-320. Mirande, Alfred M. 1968. Reference Group Theory and Adolescent Sexual Behavior. Journal of Marriage and the Family 30:572-577. Mirande, Alfred M. ; Hammer, Elizabeth L. , 1974. Premarital Sexual Permissiveness: A Research Note. Journal of Marriage and the Family 36:356-358. Moos, Rudolf; Kopell, Bert S.; Melges , Frederick T.; Yalon, Irvin; Lunde , Donald T. ; Clayton, Raymond B.; Hcimburg , David A. 1969. Fluctuations in Symptoms and Moods During the Menstrual Cycle. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 13:37-44. Mosher, Donald L. ; Cross, Herbert J. 1971. Sexual Experiences of College Students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 36:27-32. Newton, Michael. 1965. Feminine Hygiene. The Canadian Nurse . 61:802-804. Nye, F. Ivan; Berardo, Felix M. 1966. Emerging Conceptual Frameworks in Family Analysis . New York: The Macmillan Company.

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202 Nye, F. Ivan; Berardo, Felix M. 1973. The' Family; Its Structure and Interaction . New YorkT The Macmillan Company. Oppenheim, A. N. 1966. Questionnaire Design and Attitude Measurement . New York: Basic Books, Inc. Packard, Vance. 1968. The Sexual Wilderness; The Contem porary Upheaval in Male-Female Relationships . New York: David McKay. Pearl, Raymond. 1925. The Biology of Population Growth . New York: Knopf. Peck, M. W.; Wells, F. L. 1923. On the Psycho-Sexuality of College Graduate Men. Mental Hygiene 7:697-714. Peretti, Peter 0. 1969. Premarital Sexual Behavior Between Females and Males of Two Middle-Sized Midwestern Cities. Journal of Sex Research 5:218-225. Peterson, Kenneth Martin. 193 8. Early Sex Information and Its Influence on Later Concepts. Unpublished master's thesis. University of Colorado. Preston, F. S. ; Bateman, S. C; Short, R. V.; Wilkinson, R. T. 1973. Effects of Flying and Time Changes on Menstrual Cycle Length and on Performance in Airline Stewardesses. Aerospace Medicine 44:438-443. Prince, Alfred J..; Shipman, Gordon. 1960. Attitudes of College Students Toward Premarital Sex Experience. In Cavan, Ruth Shonle, Ed. Marriage and Family in the Modern World . New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company. Radclif fe-Brown, A. R. 1952. Structure and Function in Primitive Society . Glencoe, 111.: The Free Press. Ramsey, Glenn. 1943. The Sexual Development of Boys. American Journal of Psychology 56:217-233. Ranker, Jr., Jess Elwood. 1967. Attitudes Toward Sex in Marriage and Patterns of Erotic Behavior in Dating and Courtship Before Marriage . Ph.D. dissertation. University of Southern California. Reiss, Ira L. 1967. The Social Context of Premarital Sexual Permissiveness . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

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2Q3 Reiss, Ira L. 1969. Response to the Heltsley and Broderick Retest of Reiss 's Proposition One. Journal of Marriage and the Family 31:444-445. Reiss, Ira L. 1970. Coirunents on Middendorp's "Determinants of Premarital Sexual Permissiveness." Journal of Marriage and the Family 32:37 9-380. Robinson, Ira E.; King, Karl; Balswick, Jack 0. 1972. The Premarital Sexual Revolution Among College Females. The Family Coordinator 21:189-194. Robinson, Ira E. ; King, Karl; Dudley, Charles J.; Clune, Francis J. 1968. Changes in Sexual Behavior and Attitudes of College Students. Family Coordinator 17:119-123. Ross, Robert T. 19 50. Measures of the Sex Behavior of College Males Compared with Kinsey's Results. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 45:7 53-7 55. Schofield, Michael. 1965. The Sexual Behavior of Young People . Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Schwartz, Ronald Alan. 1971. The Sexual Behavior of Obese Women. Ph.D. dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology. Shope, David Francis. 1964. A Comparison of Virginal and Non-Virginal College Girls. Master's thesis. The Pennsylvania State University. Shope, David Francis. 1966. A Comparison of Selected College Females on Sexual Responsiveness and Nonresponsiveness . Ph.D. dissertation. The Pennsylvania State University . Siegel, Sidney. 1956. Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Skipper, James K. ; Nass, Gilbert. 1966. Dating Behavior: A Framework for Analysis and an Illustration. Journal of Marriage and the Family 28:412-420. Slater, E.; Woodside, M. 1951. Patterns of Marriage . London: Cassell. Strakosch, F. M. 1934. Factors in the Sex Life of Seven Hundred Psychopathic Women . New York: State Hospitals Press.

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204 Sutker, Patricia B.; Gilliard, Rickie S. 1970. Personal Sexual Attitudes and Behavior in Blacks and Whites. Psychological Reports 27:753-754. Taylor, W. S. 1933. A Critique of Sublimation in Males: A Study of Forty Superior Single Men. Genetic Psychology , Monograph 13, Number 1. . Teevan, Jr., James J. 1972. Reference Groups and Premarital Sexual Behavior. Journal of Marriage and the Family 34:283-291. Terman, Lewis M. 1938. Psychological Factors in Marital Happiness . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. Thomas, Lena B. 1972. A Study of the Relationship Between Selected Personal and Religious Background Factors and the Premarital Sexual Behavior of a Sample of Undergraduate Students at the University of Maryland . Ph.D. dissertation. The American University. Tiktin, Morris. 1966. Menstrual Tensions and Marital Satisfaction . Ph.D. dissertation. University of Oregon. Udry, J. Richard; Morris, Naomi M. 1970. Frequency of Sexual Intercourse by Day of the Week. Journal of Sex Research 6:229-234. Vener, Arthur M.; Stewart, Cyrus S.; Hager, David L. 1972. The Sexual Behavior of Adolescents in Middle America: Generational and American-British Comparisons. Journal of Marriage and the Family 34:696-705., Wachtel, Alan; Cooprider, Lee; Taylor, Barbara. 1968. Re. port on the Findings of the Women's Health Questionnaire of the Student Health Committee of Oberlin College. Unpublished paper. Waller, Willard. 1938. The Family, A Dynamic Interpreta tion . New York: The Dryden Press. Walters, Jr., Paul A. ; Goethals , George W. ; Pope, Jr., Harrison G. 1972. Drug Use and Life-Style Among 500 College Undergraduates. Archives of General Psychiatry 26:92-96. Wilds, Preston Lea. 1974. Personal interview. Medical . College of Georgia.

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205 Woods, Sherwyn M. ; Natterson, Joseph. 1967. Sexual Attitudes of Medical Students — Some Implications for Medical Education. American Journal of Psychiatry 124:323-332. Young, Pauline V. 19 66. Scientific Social Surveys and Re search , Fourth Edition. Englewbod Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Zetterberg, Hans L. 1965. On Theory and Verification in Sociology , Third; Edition. Totowa, N.J.: The Bedminister Press.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH John Kenneth Davidson, Sr. , the son of Mr. and Mrs. Larcie Charles Davidson, was born in Augusta, Georgia, on October 25, 1939. He was graduated from Evans High School in 1956. In 1959, he received a two-year diploma from Augusta College. He graduated from the University of Georgia with the degree of Bachelor of Science in Education in 1961 and was elected a member of Kappa Delta Pi." He was awarded a graduate assistantship in the Department of Sociology at the University of Georgia and, in 1963, recieved the degree of Master of Arts with a major in sociology. He was subsequently elected to membership in Phi Kappa Phi. From 196 3 to 196 7, Mr. Davidson was an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology and Sociology at Armstrong State College in Savannah, Georgia. He served as project director for the Armstrong State Union Bag Corporation Athletic Association recreational survey. He was an assistant professor in the Department of Anthropology and Sociology at Augusta College in Augusta, George, from 1967 to 1974. He has been research instructor and has served as research consultant to the Department of Obstetrics and 206

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207 Gynecology at the Medical College of Georgia. He was the principal investigator for a study entitled "Sex Attitudes and Behavior in a Medical Milieu." Mr. Davidson has also been employed as a research associate and research consultant in the Department of Pediatrics at the Medical College of Georgia while serving as associate director for a research project entitled "Children and Youth Project Impact on Health Care Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP)," funded by a federal grant from the Child and Maternal Health Service. Additionally, he has served as research consultant to the Department of Community Dentistry in the School of Dentistry at the Medical College of Georgia. In 1971, he was awarded a graduate teaching assistantship in the Department of Sociology at the University of Florida. Since that time, Mr. Davidson has been engaged in graduate studies leading toward the degree of Doctor of Philosophy with a major in the sociology of the family and a minor in the sociology of social organizations. He was elected a member of Alpha Kappa Delta and has since been elected a member of the national executive committee. In the fall of 1974, he became an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology at Indiana University at South Bend. Mr. Davidson holds memberships in numerous civic and professional organizations. He is listed in the 196 9, 1971, and 1973 editions of Who's Who in the South and Southwest . He is married to the former Josephine Frazier of Hattiesburg, Mississippi, and is the father of two sons, John Kenneth, Jr. , and Stephen Wood.

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and i.s fully adequate,, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. aid R. Le^sl; _-e/ Gerald R. Leslie, Chairman Professor of Sociology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as' a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Ruth IT/ Albrecht Professor of Sociology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. ^elix M. Berardo rofessor of Sociology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. ^'k^yj/ 7;i^^aa^^'^7 Mary^^lH. McCaulley ,^ Assistant Professor of Psychology

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. ^^i'.^^^'^^ Jcfseph S. Vandiver Professor of Sociology This dissertation was submitted to. the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Sociology in the College of Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. December, 1974 Dean, Graduate School