Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Report for the 1944-45, 1945-46...
 Report of the Superintendent of...
 Appendix A: List of printed publications,...
 Appendix B: California State series...
 Statistical summary of public school...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098241/00006
 Material Information
Title: Report
Physical Description: v. : ill., plates, maps, plans, tables (part fold.) diagrs., forms. ; 22-25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: California -- Dept. of Education
California -- Dept. of Public Instruction
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Sacramento
Creation Date: 1944
Publication Date: 1851-
Frequency: biennial[1863/65-1877/79, 1880/82-]
annual[ former 1851-1862/63, 1879/80]
Subjects / Keywords: Education -- California   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Summary: 1926/28- contains statistical tabulations relative to the public schools of the state (Division of Research and Statistics).
Summary: 1926/28 includes the Thirty-third biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Biennial report of the Director of Education; 1928/30- include the Thirty-fourth biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Biennial report of the State Board of Education.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year irregular.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report for 1896/98 not printed. Cf. A.R. Hasse, Index of economic material in documents of the United States. California, 1849-1904, p. 85.
Numbering Peculiarities: 1926/28- in two parts each year. Part 1 includes the Thirty-third- Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Biennial report of the Director of Education; pt. 2, contains the statistical tabulations relative to the public schools of the state (Division of Research and Statistics).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07919364
lccn - 05040131
System ID: UF00098241:00006


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page i
        Page i-a
        Page ii
        Page ii-a
        Page iii
        Page iii-a
        Page iv
        Page iv-a
        Page v
        Page v-a
    Table of Contents
        Page vi
        Page vi-a
        Page vii
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        Page viii
        Page viii-a
    Report for the 1944-45, 1945-46 Biennium
        Page ix
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    Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction for the 1944-45, 1945-46 Biennium
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    Appendix A: List of printed publications, July 1, 1944 to June 30, 1946
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Appendix B: California State series textbooks distributed to public elementary and junior high schools, 1944-45 and 1945-46
        Page 139
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    Statistical summary of public school attendance and expenditures for the years 1944-45 and 1945-46
        Page 147
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    Back Matter
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Back Cover
        Page 175
        Page 176
Full Text

Bj-znriU rtp:.rt of' Lne
,id if rn -a 2tcte -cp 'T.-rt7-nt :, eauc.;'. )r,



including the

Report of the Cupe-riLntendent of Publ1 ic irFtru.:ticn
and the
Report of the S'tate Boarj of' Lducwtion

For the Schoolr- Years Ernaing June .0O, 1945, and June 30, 1946

Prepared by the Offize of
rhe Superintendent of
Public Instruction

September, 1946

Sacramento, California


R.O YE.-. -.. C ". ., . .LOS ANGELES OFFICE
o c, -.-s :' .. ;, i STACE SUILOING,CIVIC CENTER


September 15, 1946


SH:r.:.rable Earl Warren
'..:vernor of California
a tEt,': Capitol
TS .-nr!.mento, California

Herewith is submitted the biennial rep.:rt --f 'he
< :~alifornia State Department of Education, incluimrr th.: r-r..*.rt
S:.f tre Superintendent of Public Instruction and the r---r-t -f
'he .tate Board of Education, for the school year: 1i14-45 and

These reports are furnished in complier.?e 'iX}L Sc-
1.:n: 117 and 150 of the Education Code.

Respectfully -;.i-.r, ttej,

Superintendent .:-1 Pu.l_

WILLIAM L. EUL-.I, Fi-: : ident
State Board *:.*f r,:ti'i

Ct.LIFOdUiA sr.r: D Pri:rT;Dir OF EDUiATION

State Board of education
1lilliam L. Blair, President, Pasaderna . . . . . .
Byron H. 'itkinaon, Glendale . . . . . . . .
Eugene T. Broderic:, San Francisco . . . . . .
r.alph r. Fisher, Oakland . . . . . . . .
C. J. Hagg'Crty, San Francisco . . . . . . . .
ira. E. T. Hale, Lan Diego . . . . . . . .
Gilbert H. Jertberg, Fresno . . . . . . . .
Joseph P. Loeb, Los Angeles . . . . . . . .
Fred \j. Smith, Ventura . . . . . . . .
Kra, S. K. Strong, Stanfora UniverEity . . . . .
roy E. Simp-son, Secretary and executive Officer
Florence B. hrgall (Mrs.), Assistant Secretary

Term Expires
January 15,
. . . 1948
. . . 1949
. . . 1950
. . . 190
. . ,1949
. . . 1950
. . . 1947
. . . 19 7
. . 1948
S .. 1948

(llnle:3 othmrwiEe indicated all staff members may be reached at Library
and Courts Building, iacramento 11)

Roy E. Simpson, Superintendent of -ublic Instruction and Director of rduoation
1Margaret r:auoh, A.inirnitrative assistant
Alfred E. Lentz, Administrative advisor
Henry 1:. Lynn, Depart;nental Accountant
George ':. Saidl, Fublic Infornation Officer
George E. Hogan, Deputy Superintendent of Public Instruction
Joel ... BurLuan, Aasistant Directcr of education
Franic B. Lind:ay, Assistant Zuperintendent of Public Instructicn and Chief
of Division of Seoondary Education
M. 7ugene NuEhlitz, Assistant Cntei of Division of secondary auctionn
Lawrence B. lihite, nesictont :..ief of Division olf Eecondar:, Education
Vi. Larl Sams, Chief, Bureau of Aviation 7jueation, Poom 733, 1.53 South
Spring Street, Los Angelie 13
Irene Taylor Heineman (t:.), A.--.ista..t tc the Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion, 311 California S.tate Building, Los rngeles 12
Henry t!Enuson, Chief of Divisicn of Tesesron arid statistics
Ralph R. Boyden, Chief of Bureau of Lchool Accounts and tecords.
Helen Hefferran, Chief of Division of elementary Fducation
Lillian B. Hill (1irs.), Chief of Bureau of Me-intel ,,giene, and Chief of
Bureau of Migratory Lducation and attendancee
Della I,. Perrin, Consultant in Early Childhood Education
George C. Lann, Chiaf of Divisicn cf hault and Continuation -aucation, 311
California State Building, Los hngeles 12
Ralph G. Eok'ert, Chief o0 Bureau 01 Parent Lducation, 311 California State
Building, Los angeles 11
Leo Jones, Chief of Bureau of Ccrtinuation Lducation, 311 California State
Building, Los Angeles 12
. ..........., Chief of Division of lhysi:al and Health Lducaticn
linifred Van liagen, Chief *f Bureau cf Physical Education for GirlE
Verne S. Landreth, Chief of Division of 5ecreaticn, 311 California State
Building, Los .nceles 1I
Francis V.. Noel, Chief of Divi:icn of -.udio-Visual Education


Chi.:o State College, Chico
Aymer Jay hamilton, President
Fresno State Ccllege, Fre'no 4
Frank aters Thomas, President
Humboldt State ColleEe, Araata
Arthur S. Gist, President
San Diego State College, San Diego 5
WTalter R. Hepner, President
San Francisco State College, 124 Buchanan Street, Sen Francisco 2
J. Paul Leonard, President
San Jose State College, San Jose 14
r. 11. s:'.uarrie, rres3ident
California Polyteohni. School, San Luis Obispo
Julian r.. ilcphee, President


California joertime academy, fMorrcr Cove, Solano County; P. 0. address:
Carquinez Straits, Vellejo
Capt. Claude B. P'ayo, U.S.t:. (Retired), Suparintendent
California Cohool for the Blind, 5,001 Derb.' Street, Parkeley S
R.ihard S. French, Cuperintendent
California 2.hoo'l for trne Dear, jarinir and Parker Ctreets, Berlkeley 5
Eiwoco A. Stevenson, Superintend-ent


Training Center for r.duit Bland, Z601 Telegraph Avenue, COakland 9
L. C. Copeland, Superintendent
Industrial ..ora::hop for the Blind, 1020 Ssntee Street, Los Angeles 15
George A. Brovn, N ,naCer
State Blind Lhop, 124i T Street, Sar, DEieto 2
R. V. Goodmra, Jr., Hfanser


r.oy C. Simpson, Euperintenden't of Publio In:tructicn
Joel h. Burlb-sn, ;.' -atant Director of 'au.ation
Helen Heffernan, Chief of Di.-ision of Eleaentar,' Education
Ira 1'. Kabby, Chief of Bureau of Busines ECducation
Frank P. Lindsay, Arsistant Surerintenrdent of Publio Instruction and Chief cf
Division of Fecondary Eoucation


Owen C. Coy, Director, 3551 Uni.ersity Avenue, Los Angeles 7


Roy E. Simpson, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Chairman
John F. Brady, Associate Superintendent of Schools, San Francisco
Ruble Burton, teacher, Santa Barbara Senior High School, Santa Barbara
N. K. Cobb, District Superintendent and Principal, Tulare Union High School
Jay D. Conner, Asistant Superintendent of Schools, San Diego
Ray B. Dean, Principal, David Lubin Elementary School, Sacramento
Dorothy Harsin (Mrs.), Assistant Associate Superintendent, Los Angeles Public
H. M. McPherson, District Superintendent of Schools and Principal, Napa Union
High School and Napa Junior College
Peter L. Spencer, Professor of Education, Claremont Graduate School
:. C. Trillingnam, County Superintendent of Schools, Los Angeles


Gilbert H. Jertberg, Freeno, member of California State Board of Education,
C ai rman
John J. Allen, Jr., Oakland, member and president of Oakland Board of Education
Arthur S. Crites, Pskersfield
Mrs. Roscoe J. Grancer, loyon, Shasta County, State officer in the Calijornia
Congre:: of Parente and Teachers, Rural E::t:asi:.t
Ed&.Jrd L. Hardy, San Diego, former president of San Oiego State College
David H. Jones, Auburn, director of California State Trustee- Association
Mrs. Ed.',ard Shearer, Ventura, pasit president Ventura County (12th District)
Parent-Teacher Aszooietion
Walter Wells, Los Angeles, member of Citizenz Advisory Committee on BTeadjustme.ent
Roy E. Simpson, Eupe-rinterdent of Fublic Instruction and Director of educationn


Dr. Aubrey A. Douglass, City Superintendent of Sohools, llodesto
Dr. Frank 11. Freeman, Dean, School of' education University of California, Berkele:
Dr. Later R. He-pner, Preside-nt, San Diego State College
Dr. Luoien B. Kinney, Profeszor .if Education, Stanford Univeraity
Dr. Ediin A.. L.ee, Dean, School of E-duc:tion, University o California, Lo-s txgeles
Hoosignor Jame: r. O'Do":d, Archdioc.5se of aen Franroico, San Francisco
Dr. O-.iman R. Hull, Chairman, Aaministrative Couarittee, Ulni-ersity of California
Wlilliams L. Blair, Fre-:ident, Etote Posrd of Education, Paradena
Dr. Frank U. Thomas, Presient, Fresno State College
Roy E. ESirpson, Superintendent of Public Instruction and Director of Education
Dr. Joel A. Burlm.an, AssiEtant Director of Thucation
R. D. WUad&Jorth, Principal, Univer-ity Senior High Echool, West Los Angeles.
Dr. E. Vlilacn Ly'on, President, Pomona ColleCe, Claremont



Letter of Transmittal . . .. . . . . . .

Directory of the California State Department of Education

State Board of Education. . . . . . . . .

Committee on Accreditation . . . . . . .

State Department of Education . . . . . . .

The Reorganization of the State Department of Educat:

Division of Elementary Education . . . . .

Division of Secondary Education. . . . . .

Bureau of Aviation Education. . . . . .

United States History and Related Social Studie

Division of Adult and Continuation Education . .

Bureau of Continuation Education. . . . .

Bureau of Parent Education. . . . . .

Division of Readjustment Education . . . . .

Division of Health, Physical Education and Reoreatio

Division of Audio-Visual Education . . . . .

Division of Indian Education . . . . . .

Division of Textbooks and Publications . . .

Division of Schoolhouse Planning , . . . .

Diva ion of Research and Statistics. . . . .

CaiLfornia State Library . . . . . . .

C.:.mis.ion for Vocational Education.. . . . ..

Bureau of Agricultural Education. . . . .

Bureau of Homemaking Education. . . . .


s Instruction.

n. . . .
n . .

. . .i ,

. . .

. . ,

Fuceau cC 0".c-upatic.nal Information and Guidance . . . .
































Bureau of Business Education. . . . . . . . .

Bureau of Trade and Industrial Education. . . . . . .

Bureau cf Vocational Rehabilitation. . . . . . . . .

Bureau of Correction of Speech Defects . . . . .. . .

Consultant in Education of the Hard of Hearing . . . . ..

School for the Deaf; Bureau for the Education of the Deaf. . . .

School for the Blind; Bureau for the Education of the Blind. . .

Industrial Workshop for the Blind. . . . . . . . . .

Training Center for the Adult Blind. . . . . . .. . .

State Blind Shop . . . ..... .

The Child Care Program . . . .

Chico State College. . . .

Fresno State College . . . .

Humboldt State College . . . .

San Diego State College. . . .

San Francisco State College. . .

San Jose State College . . .

California Polytechnic School. . .

California Maritime Academy. .

State College Permanent Dormitory Program.

Commission of Credentials. . . . .

State Curriculum Commission. . . . .

State Commission on School Districts . .

California State Historical Association. . . . . . . .



























* .

. .



P t C t ti P am


Appendix A: List of Printed Publications, July 1, 1944 to June 30, 1946.

Appendix B: California State Series Textbooks Distributed to Public

Elementary and Junior High Schools, 1944-45 and 1945-46.

Statistical Summary of Public School Attendance and Expenditures for the

Years 1944-45 and 1945-46,


Report for 1944-45, 1945-46 Biennium

Sacramento, California

September 15, 1946


Walter Friar Dexter

The State Board of Education, at its regularly quarterly meet-
ing held in San Francisco on January 4 and 5, 1946, passed a resolution
of tribute to the memory of the late Dr. Walter Friar Dexter and approved
a recommendation for dedicating in his honor a new building at California
Polytechnic School.

The text of the resolution follows:

The State Board of Education of California, at this its first
meeting since the death of Dr. Walter F. Dexter, pays grateful tribute
to his memory.

As Superintendent of Public Instruction and Director of Educa-
tion from February, 1937, to October, 1945, Dr. Dexter gave loyal service
to the people, and especially to the children, of California, his
idealism, courage, devotion to truth, and rich love of humanity dis-
tinguishing him as a leader in the field of public education,

As Secretary and Executive Officer of the Board, Dr. Dexter
held the respect and affection of its members, who wish to preserve in
the record of their transactions this simple testimony to their loss of
a friend.

In order to give more enduring form to these expressions and
as a permanent tribute to his memory, this Board approves the recommenda-
tion made jointly by the President of California Polytechnic School and
the Superintendent of Public Instruction that the new building being
presently erected on the campus of the California Polytechnic School
be dedicated to the memory of Walter F. Dexter, and that the same be
henceforth known as the Walter Friar Dexter Library Building.



F.eorganization of the ftata Department *-:f Education

The State Board of Educstion, at itr regular quarterly meeting
October 5 and 6, 1345, in aceramentc approved the plan proposed by the late
superintendentt of Public Instruction, alter F. Dexter, for reorganization of
the State Department of Pducation under -ix administrative divisions.

The details of this plan are presented in the report of the State
Department of durationn for the 194-1-46 biennium.

COrcanization of ?e-w Divisions and, Ereaus of the Department

During the biennium the board approved the organization c.f three nev
divisions and three bureaus within the [Department of Eduoation, and established
other educational a-encies as requested by the State Lecisl.- ture, the Govern.or,
or otherwise lay within Its power to act.

Ihe Div-sion of Readjustment 'duoaticn was establiznhd by the board
hucrust 17, 1U4-1, at a special session in 'acraruento to admini-ter the functions
assigned to the department of Education by Chapter 59, Statutez, Fourth Extra
Session, 55th Le;islature, pertair.in: to the education of veterans- in the
public school s:,,stem of California under applicable acts of Cc.ngress.

P. complete report of the El.:rins of this division iz contained in
the biennial report of the Department of -du'cation.

The Division of Fecreation %.as established by the board in Jul:., 1945,
upon recoirmndation of th-e superintendentt of Fublic Instructi..cn "to aid...in the
promotion and development of comriunrity recreatic.n pro-ramr in accor-dance i th
the provision o-f the las*s of the crate of California authorizing -uoh service."

,. full report of the divi:i.:.n': activities is include.. in the
Department of Fduoation'c biennial report.

The Divition of tudio-Vi'zual Eductich ias authorized b:' the State
Board crf education April 17, 1944, arid *urinf 1945 the T'ft:,'-. sixth session of
the California LeUi-lature provided furds for th nsew activity. .1. Chief of
the Division was appointed in april, 1945. e. complete report r.f the division's
activitle. i_ includes in the biennial report of the Departrtent of !'ducatisn.

State Educational Acenc for furplur xroperty.r ',as created follcwn;:
approval by the Le;islature and signature to _-anate -ill e5 by the Governor
March 5, 1946. The Gc.v.rnor named the Superint,.ndent of Fublio Instruction to
administer the program, and officeez ,ere established in Sacramentc., Ean Crancisco
and Los Agnele? to dir-ect the new; prcgram. rhe pro;rar, approved by the State
Board of Education, will ai. rchocol- to --hare equally and full:" ith other
individuals and ajgncies in obtaining benefits and ais. in the federal program
for the disposal of var surplus.

Ijith the approval of the -tate Dc.rd of educationn the Bureau of Farent
Education wa: revived with the appointment of a neu Chief of the ,ureau effect-
ive June 1, 1946. Another nevr bureau ias activated June 1, 1946, with the

appointment of the Chief of the Bureau of Aviation Education. Reports of both
-hese newr bureaus are included in the report of the Department of Education.

Also inaugurated June 1, 1946, was the Bureau of School Accounts and
Records. This office, within the Division of Research and Statistics, will
perform functions concerned with school budgets, accounting, reports and appor-
tionments, including the preparation and distribution of forms for handling
such data.

Then federal support of Child Care Centers was withdrawn early in 1946,
the Legislature appropriated funds to continue the program until March, 1947.
An interim committee on pre-sohool training will report at the 1947 session
regarding permanent plans for a state-sponsored program.

California Community Health Education Project

Funds from the TW. KX Kellogg Foundation to establish an experimental
community health education project in the San Joaquin Valley area were obtained
by the Department of Education, upon approval of the board. A full report on
this project is contained in the biennial report of the department.

PRadio Education in California

The State Board of Education in October, 1944, authorized the Super-
intendent of Public Instruction to take steps toward the establishment of a non-
commercial, educational frequency-modulation radio-broadcast station service
throughout the state.

The superintendent was further authorized to determine the optimum
number, locations, and spacing of educational broadcast stations and studio
facilities, together with point-to-point communication facilities for the inter-
station transmission of programs, for providing the proposed educational-broadcast
service to all parts of California; to employ whatever qualified engineering
counsel might be needed to make the determination; and to take such steps as
necessary to obtain access for the Department of Education to the desired trans-
mitter locations.

The Superintendent was instructed to apply to the Federal Communications
Commission for construction permits and licenses for whatever number of non-
commercial, educational F4 broadcast stations are considered necessary.

b.dopticr. of Textbooks and Teacher's Manuals

During the 1944-46 biennium textbooks for use in the elementary schools
c:' the state were adopted in civics, music and reading; a manual c-n safety educa-
tion as: adopted; and two teacher's manuals approved. A total of 21 titles were

The civics text, You and Your Government, by Homer F. and Vanza ;. Aver,
Harr agner Publicning Company, is for use in either the seventh or eighth grades,
begariring July 1, 1945, for a period of six to eight years.

The music texts are from the A Sinrinr School series by Thereza xArP tage
and others, published by C. C. Birchard and Company, for use in public schools in

which music instruction is not conducted on a graded basis, for use during six
to eight years beginning July 1, 1946. The titles are: Happy Singing, grades
one to four inclusive; and Music Time, grades one to eight inclusive.

The board adopted the following basic and supplementary textbooks in
reading for grades one to five, inclusive, for a period of six to eight years
beginning July 1, 1946.

Basic Textbooks

Learning to Read: A Basic Reading Program, by Nila Banton Smith,
published by Silver Burdett Company:

Our First Book (reading readiness book); Bill and Susan (Preprimer 1);
Under the Tree (Preprimer 2); Through the Gate (Primer); Down the Road
(First Reader); In New Places (Second Reader); From Sea to Sea (Third

The Golden Road to Reading Series, by Helen Heffernan, Vilhelmina
Harper, and Gretchen Wulfing, published by Benjamin W. Sanborn and Company:

All Aboard for Storyland (Fourth Reader).

Easy Growth in Reading, by Gertrude Hildreth, Allie Lou Felton, Alice
Meighen, and Marjorie Pratt, published by the John C. Winston Company:

Looking Forward (Fifth Reader).

Supplementary Textbooks

Crabtree Basic Series, by Eunice K. Crabtree, LuVerne Crabtree WValker,
and Dorothy Canfield, published by the University Publishing Company:

To School and Home Again (Primer); In the City and on the Farm (First
Reader); Under the Roof (Second Reader); Under the Sun (Third Reader).

Easy Growth in Reading, by Gertrude Hildreth, Allie Lou Felton, Alice
Meighen, and Marjorie Pratt, published by the John C, VWinston Company:

Today and Tomorrow (Fourth Reader).

The Laidlaw Basic Readers, by Gerald Yoakam, M. Madilene Veverka, and
Louise Abney, published by Laidlaw Brothers, Inc.:

The World Around Us (Fifth Reader).

Note.--In accordance with Tducation Code Section 11291, effective
,eptember 15, 1945, each basic textbook must be distributed so as to provide one
copy for each pupil in the grade for which such textbook is adopted, except that
school districts may order, in lieu thereof, basic textbooks adopted for lower
grades or higher grades for use by pupils for whom such textbooks would be more
appropriate; and supplementary textbooks shall be distributed in such manner as
the State Board of Education shall determine.
The Board in its adoption of supplementary textbooks in reading pro-
vided for furnishing one copy of each book for each two pupils.


The board in January, 1945, adopted a manual on Safety Education pre-
pared from material entitled "Education for Safety" prepared at the workshop on
safety education conducted by the State Curriculum Commission at Claremont
Colleges during the summer of 1944, and material on "Safety in the Physical
Education Program" from the California Interscholastic Federation, for use in
the elementary schools.

A teacher's manual entitled The Ele.mwtary School Prorram in California:
A Handbook for the Orientation of Teachr .::' U.: >at'o Ca'T ":r-cas in the
Schools was adopted in April, 1945. Twaar". L wa ,p o' p l t by 'it Co'mittee on
Teachers Education of the Califorhnia Sclovl Supervisor's Association at the re-
quest of the Division of elementaryy education.

The board also adopted for use as a teacher's manual in the elementary
schools material entitled Tsachers' Guade to Child Developnont in Rural Schools
prepared under direction of the Division of elementary Education at the request
of the Curriculum Commission.

Calls for Bids for Textbooks

The board, in July, 1945, authorized the issuance of a call for bids
for textbooks in history and geography and related social studies, for use in
grades four to eight. Publishers and authors supplied 116 texts in reply, of
which the State Curriculum Commission recommended 25 for use as basic and
supplementary textbooks in the schools. Final action on the adoption was not
taken within the period covered by this biennial report.

In January, 1946, the board authorized a call for bids for arithmetic
textbooks for grades one to eight, to be issued not later than March 15, 1946.

Textbook actions were taken upon recommendation of the State Curriculum

Approval of Junior Colleges

The board, during the biennium, approved action with regard to the
formation of six junior colleges or junior college districts.

On August 17, 1944, the board approved the request of the Stockton City
Unified School District to establish one or more four-year junior colleges.

In January, 1945, the board approved, under Education Code Sections
8812 and 8819 petitions from the Palo Alto Unified School District and the
Vallejo City Unified School District for authority to establish and maintain
four-year junior colleges in their respective areas.

In October, 1945, the board approved petitions submitted pursuant to
Education Code 4234 for the holding of elections to form junior college districts
as iollcwz:

1. The territory included in the Vista Unified School District, the
Escondido Union High School District, and the Fallbrook Union High School District,
all in the northern portion of San Diego County.


2. The territory included in the Pomona City High School District,
the Bonita Union High School District, the Covina Union High School District,
and the Puente Union High school District, all in the eastern portion of Los
Angeles County.

3. The territory included in the Acalanes Union High School District,
the Alhambra Union High School District, the Antioch-Live Oak City Unified
School .District, the John Swett Union High School District, the Liberty Union
High School District, and the Mount Diablo Union High School District, all in
Contra Costa County.

Approval of Formation of New High School District

The board, in January, 1945, approved a petition prcer-nted pursuarnt
to durationn Code Section 3661 requesting the fcrrmtion in Lo- .-.njele- County:.
of a new union high school district to be known a. the Santa Clarita Union High
School District, and to be composed of the Castaic Union Elementar:y .-'ho.l
District, the Newhall Elementary School District, th. -aug.s Union laer-lementarry
School District, and the Mint Canyon Elementary r.Ditrict, then part of. the
Los Angeles City High School District, and the Sulphur Springs Elementar-,
School District, then a part of the Antelope Valley Joint Union High 7choc-l

Establishment of ROTC and NROTC Units in State Coll-eres

The board in April, 1945, authorized the state colleLes to Mai-e appli-
cation for the establishment of Reserve Officer rraininr Corps units or liaval
Reserve Officer Training Corps units in the colleges.

Rules and Regulations of the State Board of 7'ducFrion

During the 1944-46 biennium numerous change and additions In and to
the rules and regulations of the board were approved by, the members thereol'.
The current rules and regulations governing board action are contained in revised
forn in the State of California Administrative Code, Title 5, Education, printed
by the Bureau of Printing, Documents Division, Sacranento. Iaegister Z of revi-
sions brings the' rules and regulations up to dato i'or the period to [,, 13, li4- .

Brief reference is made here to more rajor addition-s, amenirients and
revisions approved by the board during the bienniu'nn for *in.clu.ion in the rules
and. regulations.

The Board:

1. In Octc.ber, 19-14, amended Eectior. 5 of its reruiLtioncs .ov:rn-
inr state colleges relative to ce mid zion of non-hirh school jradu>t s.

2. In October, 1944, adopted a set of rerulationr relating to
the Accreditation of Teacher -ducati~on Inctitutions for Tea&cher Certification
Purposes. (CoFies on request from the Di-vision of Credentials).

i. in -.pril, 1945, amended Seotaons VII A Z and VII P 2 of its
re_-ulations governingl state colleges pertsininr to requirements for the general
eieirentr:, school credential anJ the LinderEar en-primary credential.

4. Adopted revised rules and regulations in April, 1945, on the
Government of the Public Schools. These are to be published by the Department
of educationn in bulletin form.

5. In April, 1945, adopted a new regulation as Section XVI of
Pt. I of the Rules and Regulations of the board pertaining to petitions relating
to school district boundaries.

6. In July, 1945, amended Section IV of Part I of th.- ruls3 arid
Regulations of the board regarding Suspension and Revocation of Certification

7. In April, 1945, amended Subsection 2 of Section L. of Part
III, relating to Pupil Transportation.

8. Amended Subsection 6 of Section Xil of Part I regarding
Secondary School Credit for Military Service and Trainin,., in April, 1945.

9. In October, 1945, adopted numerous amendcrients to its regula-
tions governing the issuance of credentials, most of riich, hoijever, are not
substantive in nature. (The regulations of all state agencies are being codified
and are to be published by the State Codification Boar.. A bulletin containing
the regulations pertaining to credentials, as amended, of the State tBoarl of
Education will be published by the State Department of educationn folioring
codification and publication by the State Codification 2oard.)

10. In October, 1945, rescinded Section XI.IV of Part I of its
Rules and Regulations, and added a new SectionVI, superseding all other rules
and regulations regarding Evening Schools and Classes for ..dults. Complete
text of the new section was distributed to school officials in the November,
1545, issue of CALIFORNIA SCHOOLS, pp. 228-231.

11. In January, 1946, amended Paragrapns 4 a (1) (a), E 4 a
(1) (b) and E 8 of Section XIV of Part I of its Rules and regulationss, and added
Paragraph E 9 regarding Evening Schools and Classes. (The complete section, with
these amen.ments, was published in leaflet form and is available from the Divi-
sion of Textbooks and Publications.)

12. In January, 1946, upon recommendation of' its Committee on
Acereaitation, addea section C to Part 13, Section iII of its rules and regula-
tions regardinC provision of audio-visual education courses and standards in
teacher eauoation institutions.

13. in April, 19-14, revised its regulations relating to the ac-
creditation of teacher education institutions for purposes of recommending
issuance of cre-ientials authorizing public school service. (Copies of the
revised regulations are cbtainable from the Assistant Director o0 Education.)

14. In April, 1946, revised its regulations relating to tne grant-
ing of emergency credentials, providing that emergency credentials may be issued
at an' time after ,.asy 1 for the ensuing school year, and that certificates of
need signed by the county superintendent of schools or district superintendent
of escoole must accompany each application ior such credential. These regula-
tions were enacted as Zubchapter 3 of Chapter 1 of Title 5 of the California


Administrative Code, to become effective Ray 1, 1946. (Copies of the complete
regulations can be obtained from the Division of Credentials.)

15. Adopted regulations in April, 1946, relating to sabbatical
leaves for members of state college faculties.

16. In April, 1946, amended its regulation relating to the cred-
iting of attendance in evening high schools, formerly Part I, Section XIV, 9,
now Section 122(i) of Title 5 of the California Administrative Code.

Recommendation of Needs for the 1946-48 Biennium: Recommendations as to Changes
in Laws or New Sducato :nal Lgicsation

On June 19, 1946, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Secreti;
and Executive Officer of the State Board, issued an announcement to hIs :arfl
announcing the appointment of a Legislative Committee within the department,
consisting of the Superintendent as chairman; the Deputy SuperintenrI.nt of Tublic
Instruction as vice-chairman; the Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruction;
the Administrative Adviser (legal); the Director of Vocational .duc:,ticn; and the
Chief of the Division of Research and Statistics.

Subsequent to June 30, 1946, the last day concerned in this report,
this committee began a series of meetings and studies to accumulate necessary
information preparatory to an over-all legislative program for e~d-cation withinn
the state.

All members of the department executive staff have been directed by
the Superintendent of Public Instruction to direct their sug>e-tionz cr requests
to the vice-chairman of the committee, and in harmony with the v7ariouL requests
that come to the Department of Education and the State Board of "duceticn from
the many educational interests in the state, an attempt will be nade to ievelcp
an over-all program for presentation to the Legislature in thE next regular
eesnion early in 1947.

The members of the State Board of Education at this tir.m again ,sih
to expreL: reaffirmation of their approval of the Strayer Report (The 'tdministra-
10on, Organization, and Financial Support of the Public School SE.':tea, iStte of
California). Thi: report concerns the study required by Chapter K3', Statute:
oc 1944 (Fourth Extraordinary Session), as submitted to the Leagilature January
22, 1945, upon publication by the State Reconstruction and Reemploy:ment Corinision.


During the biennium ending June 30, 1946, the Committee on Accredita-
tion of the California State Board of Education has carried a heavy schedule of
work. A total of 26 evaluation committees were appointed by the Accreditation
Committee. Each of these committees spent two days at each of the colleges
evaluated and later prepared a report to the Accreditation Committee.

Each evaluation committee conis:tz of zome four or five prominent
e.uivatorz. The total of almost 100 .l'ff'erent educators in the state accepted
a--l.icru.7ents aLrJ worked d on these committee:. The interchanges of e.pericnce anr
ideas among o many educator of the state iZ in it6el f ci si nificant value an
con, ti tutes one cr the deziratle outcomes of the accraeditaticon procedure. The
chief outcome is, of course, a guarantee that the traiinin of teachers in the
ztate t of a hi(-h standard.

The Accreditation Committee in turn analyea andd pa-ze-7 ,pon there
reports and m.a.e recomrrr,,-.ndationr to the St te [.card of Iducaticn. In all cases. ,
a high standard of performance was required for recoraierlndti ori lor accreditt ion.
In cases ,ihera the standard: and work of saL applying inr titution hUF riot been
percnantly esrtalishes, the institutsin .was given tepporrary accreditation. In
other cases, the insti ttions ,ere gi .en regular a-:creditation for the full fire-
year Feriod ailoi-ed in accordance -4 tn the re6ula-tonE of the State Board of
:lucation. E[rinr the tbelnniur, the accreditation regulation: of the ;tate -oird
of- "ducatiou were amended upon a numbe-r of different occasion: in the light of
ex-perience ana changing .conditions.

The Accreditation Corrmittee i.s o:' the opin-ionr that all teacher tririin-
Ehould be based upon u :ignificant core of lit-eral trfininrg. In lire vlth thii
objective, the i.ccreditation Com ittee recorineniel anJ the State Boars of 'duca-
tion approved the aollcirinr f'Ourina ton p:rogrrm as a bazis for cons i lering teacher
oducatiou institutions for accreditation. This framework of basic literal -3uc&a-
tion Is no:. n.riludead in the accre-lltation regular tiron in the following rvores:

"Each teacher education institution to te reliable for ac.creaitation
to give the training ans to male the re.scorendatic.n for Caliiornia state orelen-
tialc aithorizirs public school cer-:ice shall, a-s a ba-ic msnimuwm, maintain
viell-balanc id fc-. rartion programs for all teacher education curricula -,hich -leal
a ith the broader aspects of human culture. 'ach foundation progranr, shall include
provisions designed to produce the folloa,-ing il=l, utilities, Ic-irledges, ond
appreciation :

(a) Democratic ideis and idenl: of government, incluiinr- irtllgLent
comprehenr-onr of social, economic, an politiol condition:
existing ln the rtate -nd nation, and inclujiein development of
respect for the personality of the individual.

(b) ihe t.pes cf z:.rk tnrouch Lhi'h American citizens grin their

(c) The t.a:lc lanVi of mental ani physical health.

(d) Procer.se and 2-zoj.ledie u7se- in effective thinking.; the social
under_-.aning and appreciation of the fine arts.

(e) The role of science in improving welfare.

"Furthermore, each institution approved for the training of teachers
shall provide courses devoted to those elements and aspects of instruction and
training required by the Education Code and the rules and regulations of the
State Board of Education of the State of California, as they pertain to the work
of the teacher of either the elementary or the secondary schools."

The work of the Accreditation Committee has been a significant factor
in improving the teacher education'program of the state. Its work and importance
will, undoubtedly, increase with the passing of time.



Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction

For the 1944-45, 1945-46 Biennium

Sacramento, California

September 15, 1946


The State Board of Education on October 6, 1945, in Sacramento, ap-
proved upon the recommendation of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, a
reorganization of the State Department of Education, consolidating into six
divisions the various functions and services of the department.

Five new divisions were established: The Division of Department
Administration; Division of Public School Organization, Administration and
Finance; Division of Instruction; Division of Teacher Education; Division of
State Special Schools and Services.

The sixth division is the Division of Libraries (the State Library),
which was created by law.

Previously established divisions, bureaus and other subdivisions of
the department--with the exception of the Division of Schoolhouse Planning which
was established by law--were ordered discontinued and their functions and ser-
vices incorporated within the new divisions.

In the reorganization it is contemplated that the Division of Depart-
ment Administration will be under the direct administration of the Superintendent
of Public Instruction and the Deputy Superintendent. The Division of Public
School Organization, Administration and Finance, the Division of Instruction,
and the Division of Teacher Education will each be administered by an Associate

As a consequence of the reorganization, titles of present personnel of
the department and of previously established divisions, bureaus and other sub-
divisions are subject to change by the State Personnel Board.

The following outline indicates the major functions and services, ex-
pressed partly in terms of the names of previous subdivisions of the department,
which are assigned to each of the new divisions:

Division of Department Administration

Office management; fiscal records and accounts; fiscal manag- .rnt .:
the department and state educational institutions and services; porson-.:1 r.-
cords, inventory control; legal services; research services.

Division of Public School Organization, Administration, and Finance

Apportionment of school funds, records and reports from school 1:.-
tricts and counties; pupil transportation; textbooks and publications; r-n!.:.i-
house planning; attendance; readjustment education; issuance of credcn-2.1:;
war surplus property agency; school lunch program; child care center pr.: rrm.


Division of Instruction

Adult education; agricultural education; audio-visual education; busi-
ness education and distributive education; education of the blind; education of
crippled children; education of the doaf; education of the hard-of-hearing;
education of visually-handicapped children; elementary education; guidance and
occupational information; homemaking education; mental hygiene; physical, health
education and recreation; secondary education; speech correction; tradu and
industrial education.

Division of Teacher Education

Administration of state colleges; accreditation of teacher training
institutions; study and development of teacher training program.

Division of State Special Schools and Services

Administration of California School for the Deaf; California School
for the Blind; California Maritime Academy, Cerebral Palsy School, Southern
California; Cerebral Palsy School, Northern California; centers for the adult
blind; vocational rehabilitation.

The organization within the new divisions, involving the establishment
of appropriate subdivisions for carrying out their purposes and function, has not
been determined completely. Plans for such organization are being developed.


Functions of the Division

The work of the Division of Elementary Education in California covers
a broad field. This Division is the instrument by which the State Department of
Education serves the kindergarten and elementary school children of the State
through services to their teachers, the supervisory and administrative staffs of
school systems, and to institutions charged with responsibility for the professional
preparation of elementary school personnel. The magnitude of the problem is
illustrated by the fact that during the school year 1944 1945, California public
kindergartens and grades one to six of the elementary schools enrolled 910,148
children. Approximately 39,000 children secure their seventh and eighth grade
education in the elementary schools of the state. The Division of Elementary Edu-
cation represents the concern of the State Department of Education in some
949,000 children. Obviously, service at the elementary school level when directed
from the State Department of Education cannot to any great extent be conceived as a
personal relationship with the children and teachers served. The Division of
Elementary Education has endeavored to exercise leadership by making available the
techniques, material, and situations designed to stimulate local study of educa-
tional problems and at the same time to coordinate activities in every part of the
state so that all may share in worth-while experiences.

In general, the Division of Elementary Education has been directly or
indirectly charged with responsibility for all areas prescribed by law as sub-
jects to be taught in the elementary school. The following subjects are required
by law: Reading; writing; spelling; language study; arithmetic; geography;
history of the United States and California; civics, including a study of the
Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States; music;
art; training for healthful living; physical education; morals and manners; the
nature of alcohol and narcotics; public safety and accident prevention; fire
prevention. In general, the Division has responsibility for th.:.:ze areas which
contribute to education as a well-rounded experience for the elementary acho.ol
child. Such responsibilities include service to exceptional children; children
of seasonal workers; parent education; research; guidance and psychological clinic
programs, to mention only a few.

Major Activities of the Division

The major activities of the Division of Elementary Zducstion may ce
classified under the following 12 headings:

Curriculum Study as a Technique for Improving Instruction
Ccnferencea a- r ITeans of Improving Educational programss
working g Relationships with Institutions for Training
Profes:ional Personnel
Workshop-, in El-mentary School Supervision
Research in Elementary Education
Schc:.l Visiting
Service on Cred-ntials Commin-sion
Addresses To FrofessionDl and Ly Croups
Stimulation of Special Fields or Interests
Ccrre -po dence
Cooperating Relationships
-1:: -

rmly the briefest elaboration of these activities will be made in this

Curriculum Study as a Technique for Improving Instruction

The importance of the curriculum activities of the division cannot be
overemphasized. These have taken two forms: (1) Stimulation of curriculum study
in local school systems; (2) direction of curriculum study by state-wide committees
resulting in publication of curriculum materials by the Department of Education.

Three publications were prepared and distributed to the elementary
schools of the state during the biennium:

Food and Nutrition. A 160 page bulletin developed in cooperation with the Cali-
fornia Department of Public Health to give teachers guidance in directing
studies of children on the importance of food resources in the history of
civilization as well as nutrition practices essential to the well being of
the individual. An extensive bibliography of materials and actual curriculum
units are included in the bulletin.

Science in the Elementarx School. A 418 page bound volume covering the place of
science in the elementary school program, appropriate content, means of
providing science experiences for children, curriculum units, an extensive
bibliography of all authentic science materials now available for elementary
school children.

The Elementary School Program in California.

A 39 page bulletin listing 50 pertinent questions about the elementary school
program in California was prepared especially as an orientation bulletin for
teachers holding emergency credentials. The questions cover the full scope
of the elementary school program and the answers are presented in non-
technical language. The bulletin has been much in demand for induction work-
shops for new teachers throughout the state. Since the date of its publi-
cation 17,500 copies have been distributed for professional use.

Through the technique of working with large committees of the pr:'fezsIona
organizations and serving to coordinate their activities, on -mount of curriculum
material of recognized merit has teen produced out of all proportion to tne i'mited
staff of the Division of Elementary Education.

The division is working closely with professional c:omitte. *:of super-
visors and dir-ectors .:.f curriculum devo.tinj study.., to the rollo ing as tnhy related
to elementary FJuction topics: Art education, audio-visual aids to. instruction,
curriculum for Ith five-year-ld, music educsticn, the social studies curriculum,
h-alth education.

Recenmly, the division undertook the preparation :.f recommendations to
implement The Frame-jc.i-rk -f tre &:cial Studies in the Elemen irv School. A mime:.-
r:-phed tuiletin n5a teen prepared outlining the place and purpoe.:zs f 1the cial
stul-ez in the curriculum, the relation :.f the social studies to the developmental
needs o f children, and the zp:-cific .icope arnd -equence of learning experiences.
The tulletin define tihe social studies as emt.racing the knoule.de and thought
pertaining to aIll human relationship- and includes, as well, man's relstl-inship to
tne physical envlrornment in awrich ne live- and w.-rks. All that mnicInd has
chie.vd thr,-.Jugh a hundred th:.uszcnd years and m.:.re of striving, experiencing, and


experimenting becomes the basic content from which the social studies curriculum
is selected. The social studies are defined as being primarily concerned with how
man has made his environment satisfy his basic human needs, the customs and insti-
tutions which have emerged in the process, and the problems currently facing man-

Conferences as a Means of Improving Educational Programs

The division sponsors and directs annual state and regional conferences
(1) for elementary school supervisors and directors of instruction and curriculum,
and (2) for elementary school principals and district superintendents. These
conferences cover all aspects of the elementary school program and provide
opportunity to feature outstanding developments in the field.

In addition to the annual statewide conference, regional meetings are
held quarterly with the supervisors in five sections of the state and one annual
regional conference with elementary school principals is held in six sections of
the state.

Plans are under way to devote attention at all regional meetings of these
groups responsible for elementary education to the development of a statement on
The Characteristics of a Good Elementary School. All postwar periods are character-
ized by sharply accelerated social change. All institutions of society responsi-
ble for human welfare have grave responsibility for giving direction and guidance
to such change. The purpose in attempting to secure a statement on the character-
istics of a good elementary school, in the preparation of which thousands of
elementary school principals and supervisors will participate, is to set the sights
of all engaged in elementary education for well-considered progress during the
coming decade. These groups throughout the state are in the process of developing
statements covering the elementary school in a democratic society, child growth
and development, the teacher, the organization of the school, supervision,
administration, building and facilities, guidance, curriculum, health service,
library, nutrition program, school transportation, the 12-month program; preschool
and kindergarten education, parent education, community relations, and articulation
with the next level of the school system.

Plans have been made to synthesize the reports of each section into a
statement of some 20 to 30 pagearto be included as Part I of the California
Elementary School Principals' 1247 Yearbook which will appear under the title:
The Elementary School in the Community.

Working Relations with Institutions for Training Professional Personnel

The division works closely with teachers colleges and the state uni-
versity through consultation and conference with staff members; participation in
annual conferences sponsored by the various institutions, such as the Annual Con-
ference on Rural Education, a unique service of San Diego State College to the
surrounding rural area; assisting in planning workshops, demonstration scho:li,
and special activities for in-service training of teachers. Members of the faculty
of colleges and universities serve on all state-wide committees and are thus in
constant contact with the state program of elementary education.

Certain important activities will serve to illustrate this point. Over a
period of years a committee of members selected from the science faculty of the
atcte colleges v.orklog in the field of elementary science successfully accomplished


through joint effort the preparation of 60 publications in the series, Science
Guide for Elementary Schools, which was published by the division.

At the present time the science faculty of San Jose State College and
Santa Barbara College, University of California are working with the division
in planning two three-week conferences for teachers on conservation education to be
held during the summer of 1947. It is planned to provide a staff of consultants
in all aspects of conservation: Soil and water, forests, mineral resources, and
wild life as well as in the social values of our natural resources, who will work
with teachers through field trips and correlated library and laboratory work in
developing a practical program of conservation education applicable to California

Workshops in Elementary School Supervision

This year the Chief of the Division participated in summer session work-
shops of three-weeks duration on both the Berkeley and the Los Angeles campuses
of the University of California. At the workshop in Berkeley, 80 elementary school
principals were in attendance. At Los Angeles over 100 supervisors were enrolled.
Over 80 per cent of the persons now engaged in elementary school supervision in
California have been enrolled in one or more of these summer workshops in ele-
mentary school supervision, during the past four years. An increasing number of
elementary school principals attend. Outstanding teachers who are looking toward
a professional career in supervision or administration are especially invited.
New personnel in supervisory positions is largely drawn from this group.

The unique feature of these summer conferences is that they are held in
connection with the demonstration elementary school maintained by the University
during the summer session. The guided observation of conference participants
in the school is followed by a critical analysis of the teaching procedures
observed and the development of techniques for supervision. General sessions
cover topics of timely interest to the members of the conference and workshops
provide opportunity for intensive investigation of problems of individual interest.

Research in Elementary Education

At all times one or more research studies are in progress. An extensive
state-wide study on mental deficiency has been completed and will be reported to
the Interim Committee on Mental Deficiency of the California State Senate during
the fall of 1946. This study indicates that approximately 30,000 children require
special class instruction because of lack of mental endowment sufficient for
success in the regular school program. With an educational program adapted to
their needs it is the belief of experts in the field that these children may be
trained to take a useful place in the work of the world.

School Visiting

In order to keep the state program realistically related to practice, a
certain amount of time is reserved each year for school visiting. Conferences to
evaluate the educational program are held with local administrators and superlviors
following visits to school systems. The summer workshops in supervision are In-
variably held in connection with a demonstration elementary school.

Service :.n C.'mlislcon of Credentinl-.

The Chief of the Division has served as a member of the Commission of
Credentials for 19 years.

Addresses to Professional and Lay Groups

Many addresses are delivered at teachers institutes, conferences of lay
and professional organizations, and at collegiate institutions. The requests for
such services continue to exceed available time.

Stimulation of Special Fields or Interests

The division attempts to keep in touch with promising developments in
elementary education and to stimulate local interest in them. Such activities
include radio education, visual education, safety education, library service, speed
education, coordinating councils, clinics, studies in child growth and development,
parent education, public relations.


Correspondence is by no means a routine function in the Division of
Elementary Education. Approximately 200 hundred letters are received each week,
many of which require considerable study and collection of information. The use
of a portable dictaphone has made it possible to give reasonably prompt service.


The division publishes a quarterly magazine under the title:

California Journal of Elementary Education

The publication is now in its fifteenth year. ArtlcltE printed In the
Journal are regularly cited in professional journals and reviewed in eauceatisnal

The following publications are available to elementary s':col teachers:

Handbook for Rural Parent Teachers Activities and

Suggested Couse of Study in Oral and Written
Expression for Elementary Schools

Teachers' Appraisal of Rural School Supervisors'
Ucre in California

Instructional Anlyzic :f Felice Strvice

i;otitln Picture ,pprecieti:n in the ECleme-nt.ry

Selection andj Distribution of Supplement-ary and
Library Bo:,ks in C'lifornrjI C-unties.

No. 12, Sept. 15

No. 15, I!.:,v. 1

No. 16, liov. 15

No. 3, Feb. 1

No. ?, !:y 1

No. 10, Hv I15





Effective Use of Library Facilities in Rural Schools

The Elementary School Principalship in California

John Rodrigues Cabrillo, Discoverer of California

Community Life in the Harbor

Pleasure Reading for Boys and Girls

The Library in the Elementary School

Mark Twain in the West

Source Material for Conservation Week

An Introduction to the Problems of Sight Conservation

The Flag of the United States of America

Speech in Education

Parent Education in California

How the Pioneers Moved Westward

Physical Education in Small Rural Schools

The Vocabularies and Contents of Elementary
School Readers

Survey of Schoolhousing Adequacy in California
Elementary School Districts Not Administered
by City Superintendents of Schools

A Study of the Pueblo Indians

Coordinating Councils in California

California's Natural Wealth: A Conservation
Guide for Secondary Schools

The Education of Physically Handicapped Children

T -crilrg FReola in the SE:cond:iry school

A Study in L'crl1 Frlenidship . DeeirAlnlE a
.ymbol 'or the United Iit:ions


IHo. 1, Augus.t, 1934

11, June 1

19, Oct. 1

14, July 15

16, Aug. 15

17, Sept. 1

18, Sept. 15

21, Nov. 1

2, Jan. 15

3, Feb. 1

7, Apr. 1

9, May 1

17, Sept. 1

1, Apr. 1

2, Apr. 15

No. 3, May 1

No. 5, June 1

No. 10, Aug. 15

No. 11, Sept. 1

Vol. IX, No. 4

Vol. X, No. 12
December 1941

Vol. XII, ITo. 3
March, 194.

Vol. XIII, lc 1
May, 1944

c lume I, 1934-35

- Surcestions tz Teachers for the Science Fro.r"rn In
Elementary Schools, Leo F. Hadsall


















TIo. 2, 3 pternter, 1934

No. 1,

No. 2,

No. 3,

No. 4,

August, 1935

September, 1935

October, 1935

November, 1935

No. 5, December, 1935

No. 6, January, 1936

No. 7, February, 1936

No. 8, March, 1936

No. 1, August, 1936

No. 2, September, 1936

No. 3, October, 1936

! 4, Novemberr, 1936

lio. 5,, December, 19236

1io. 6, January 1937

11o. 7, February, 1937

ITo. E T'areb, 1937

I!._-. 9 & 10, April
'sy, 193,7

Tc. 1, ,acJst, 193"

Iio. 2, Septiater, 19537

ljo. 3, October, 1937

- Pets and Their Care, Harrington Wells

Volume II, 1935-36

- Tide-Pool Animals, Harrington Wells

- Man's Tools, Philip M. Iloff

- Spiders, Gayle Pickwell

- How the Energy of Nature Has Been Harnessed for Man's
Use, Oscar L. Brauer, and others

- How Living Things Get Food, Dyrtle E. Johnson, and

- Mushrooms and Other Fungi, Robert D. Rhodes

- Desert Life, Gayle Pickwell

- Wild Flower Roads to Learning, Carl D. Duncan

Volume III, 1936-37

- Small Wild Mammals of California, Lloyd C. Ingles

- The Earth's Neighbors, Herbert H. theaton

- How Living Things Get Air, A. E. Culbertson

- Ferns, .:-. -ea, Il:bens, and Related Plants, J. Wendell

- Ccraunication, Oca..r L. Brauer, %nd others

- ilarPml- of Circus & Zoo, Edith lict:ard

- Land Fcrms, Fred Puss

- '.Water, Its Cons.ervution and Use, Stanley W. Morse

- N otire and Intrc dijced Cone-Bearing Tre.es, F. Victor
Fetmrs.:.n and o.trers (30 cents ech f.:.r sinle copies)

Volume IV, 1937-38

- Chparral Vesta Hcolt

- 3o11, Its Use 7n4 Conservation, GeC.rge W. Cra7es

- Insects sa Lnenl-- an. -anef.tor: of Maik:ind, Carl D.
Dunc can

No. 4, November, 1937

No. 5, December, 1937

No. 6, January, 1938

No. 7, February, 1938

No. 8, March, 1938

No. 10, May, 1938

No. 1, August, 1938

No. 2, September, 1938

No. 3, October, 1938

No. 4, November, 1938

No. 5, December, 1938

No. 6, January, 1939

No. 7, February, 1939

No. 8, March, 1939

No. 9, April, 1939

No. 10, May, 1939

No. 1, August, 1940

No. 2, November, 1940

No. 3, February, 1941

N 4 .a.,y, 1941

iN..te: Titl

- How Animals Protect Themselves, Leo F. Hadsall

- Orchard and Garden Fruit Trees, John VW. Masten

- Weeds, B. R. Denbigh

- Products of Wood and Similar Substances, Oscar L.
Brauer, and others

Winter Birds, James E. Crouch

Transportation, Philip H. Iloff

Volume V, 1938-39

Climates of California, Peveril Meigs, 3d

Domestic Birds, 0 M. Braun

Large Wild Mammals of California, A. E. Culbertson

National and State Forests and Parks, George W. Graves

Metals and Their Origin, Oscar L. Brauer

Domestic Animals, J. Wendell Howe

Streams and Their Valleys, Fred E. Buss

Experiments with Plants, L. Ernest Herz

Termites, Carl D. Duncan

Common Broad-leafed Trees, Lea Reid

Volume VI, 1940-41

- Seeds and Their Dispersal, Vesta Holt

- Earth Tremors, Carlos S. Mundt

- Marine Food and Game Fishes of California, L. Ernest

Petroleum, H. C. Burbridge

.e o' Tic.. 4 subject to change)

Annu:1 'earboK .:f ,-Cdif.ornil. Element r:. School Principals' Association

The divi3ic.n cc-cperates witn the Yearbook Committee of the Califoric.r
Elemeantary Schr-cl FrincipsIs' .s,:,lati.:n In preparing its annual yearbook. Thi?


group has the distinction of being the only state organization of elementary
school principals to publish an annual professional contribution of this type.
The eighteenth yearbook Education for Cultural Unity published in 1945 was
listed as one of the 60 best professional books of the year by the National
Education Association. The 1946 yearbook on the principal's supervisory responsi-
bilities is now in press.

The yearbook is circulated to 1,400 members in California and is
continually requested by libraries, professional organizations, teacher education
institutions, principals and supervisors throughout the nation.

Service for Cerebral-Palsied Children

A survey of cerebral-palsied children of elementary and secondary
school age was completed by the division in 1944. The 1945 session of the Cali-
fornia Legislature enacted legislation and appropriated funds to implement a
comprehensive program for the diagnosis, treatment, and education of children
afflicted with cerebral palsy. The division was assigned responsibility for
putting this program into operation. Two schools for the care of these children
have been established, one in northern California near Redwood City, and one in
Los Angeles at Childrens Hospital. The staff for these schools has been selected.

Diagnostic and treatment centers under the direction of the University of
California Medical School will operate in conjunction with the school at Redwood
City; the Department of Education has entered into contract with the Childrens
Hospital, Los Angeles to provide a diagnostic and treatment center for a constant
case load of 200 children. In the diagnostic centers, thoroughmental and physical
examinations will be made of each child to determine his educability and to set
up a program of treatment. Referral to the state school for cerebral-palsied
children is made on the basis of this diagnosis.

At these state residential schools each child will undergo a period of
training in all phases of his development. Special teachers, physiotherapists,
occupational therapists, and speech therapists will work under close medical
supervision. When the intensive period of study of the cerebral-palsied children
is completed, they will be returned to their home community with an individual
program of treatment therapy, and education worked out for each child.

Two consultants in the education of physically-handicapped children have
been appointed to work with local school districts in establishing classes in the
public schools of the state in which all orthopedically handicapped children
including the cerebral palsied may have suitable education and therapy.

Through the program set up in the 1945 Legislature it is anticipated that
approximately 70 per cent of California's 7,000 cerebral-palsied children and
youth under 21 years of age may be rehabilitated. In the past, the cerebral
palsied children have been justly classified as the most neglected and at the same
time most severely handicapped of our crippled children.


Coordination of Program for Cerebral Palsied

The program for the cerebral palsied is a pioneer venture in two respects.
First, California is advancing in a new cause. The entire nation is watching this
experiment with the utmost interest and the efforts put forth in California may
ultimately lead to similar service in other states. Second, California is pioneer-
ing in a demonstration of co-operation between departments and services of govern-
ment. In the cerebral-palsy program, the Medical School and School of Education
of the University of California, the Department of Public Health, and the Depart-
ment of Education are jointly responsible for various phases of the program.

As the Department of Education has major responsibility for the project,
the Chief of the Division has inaugurated a plan for monthly meetings to coordinate
the program. Such problems as inter-departmental reporting, types of reports,
policies regarding admission to diagnostic and treatment centers and residential
schools, and education of professional personnel have already been discussed and
operational plans devised.

National Yearbook

The Chief of the Division of Elementary Education served on a committee
of seven of the National Society for the Study of Education to prepare the 1947
yearbook, Education of Young Children, which is devoted to an examination of recent
trends in the education of children of two to six years. The volume treats of the
social scene and its implications for early childhood, philosophies of child
development, implications of research studies of young children, parent education,
the staff and its preparation, organization, administration and finance; sites,
buildings, and equipment, records, reports, and measurement; the rural child and
the exceptional child.

Correspondence between British and California School Children

The correspondence begun during the early years of World War II between
the British and California school children continues to flourish. More than
15,000 letters from British children have been received in the Division of Ele-
mentary Education and distributed to California schools. Judging by reports from
both Great Britain and from the schools of the state the correspondence has resulted
in many warm friendships.

The Outcomes of The White House Conference on Rural Education

In October, 1944, a notable meeting of great importance to our national
welfare was held in the East Room of the White House, ;Washington. History will
record it as the White House Conference on Rural Education. This designation is
unfortunate because city dwellers, school superintendents who determine the edu-
cational destines of urban children and others who see in metropolitan life the
epitome of American culture may not five the findings of the conference the
consideration they merit. The interdependence of rural and urban economy need
to 1 better understc:d; ruril education is not the responsibility of rural people
olohi tut the concern c-f every socially-minded citizen who sees in the quality of
our citizenry the mc.st important resource in our progress.


The magnitude of the rural problem makes rural education a major
enterprise in our national life. Farm people are responsible for the care and
education of 31 per cent of the nation's children and have only 9 per cent of the
national income.

The county superintendents throughout California have cooperated with the
Division of Elementary Education in holding county rural education conferences to
emphasize with professional and lay people the importance of high standards of
educational service to country children. Eventually all California counties will
hold similar rural education conferences.

Scholarships for Prospective Elementary School Teachers

The Chief of the Division has served in an advisory capacity to the
California Congress of Parents and Teachers in awarding 54 scholarships to
prospective elementary school teachers. Each scholarship pays the recipient
300 each year during the period required to complete collegiate work for an
elementary school teaching credential. A total of $86,000 was budgeted for the
scholarships by the California Congress of Parents and Teachers.



The Secondary Schools of California

The secondary schools of the state, according to Section 8702, Educa-
tion Code, are designated as high schools, technical schools and junior colleges.
Section 8703 specifies that the high schools are designated as four-year high
schools, junior high schools, senior high schools, continuation high schools and
evening high schools.

The 614 day secondary schools include: 152 junior high schools, 65
senior high schools; 298 four-year high schools; 53 six-year high schools having
grades seven to twelve inclusive; and 46 junior colleges.

There is an average daily attendance of more than 340,000 in regular
classes in these schools.

The Chief and Assistant Chiefs in the Division of Secondary Education
have the responsibility of giving leadership and guidance to this part of the
California school system. The Bureau of Aviation Education provides consultant
services to schools in this field.

Articulation with the Various Levols of Instruction

During the biennium the articulation of the junior college program with
other fields of instruction has been improved. Through cooperative efforts of
committees representing junior colleges, high schools, state colleges, the
University of California and adult educators marked gains were made in the follow-
ing areas:

1. The development of better mutual understanding between all levels
of secondary and post-secondary education.

2. The coordination of high school and junior college programs, es-
pecially in the semi-professional fields.

3. Coordination of programs of general education between high schools,
junior colleges and the university,

4. The uniform acceptance of a procedure to evaluate military credit.

5. A more satisfactory balance between vocational and general education.

Division personnel have participated actively in semi-annual meetiue
of the Affiliation and Junior College Conference Committees, the state collci
presidents and the representatives of the University of California. Problem:
of ?--riianai-n ind nrti.,uli :-. -r discussed. Three half-day meetings oer.
h, -, *:,, ,. ..ll'. ;..;:iic.: -..S arranged that each level will have an
:., rl h i t. t.:, ,.;t -" t l;"- -' hi =ach of the other three.

I', i 1:1', i -. :-. rati.i with the California Associationi :i J :::i-
Ar.,.*: :,:1 ,ini t -,t:r-, t:: r .' red committees to study secondary,' : :,'':1
ir: t.- n:.

Among problems studied are: The small high schools; practice in guid-
ance procedures; health and physical education programs; reading in the high
schools; youth problems (in cooperation with the California Youth Authority);
clubs, recreation and social life in junior and senior high schools; student
councils; problems of post high school education; the audio-visual program;
junior high school problems; public relations; and attendance and enforcement
of compulsory education laws.

The division has cooperated also with the California Committee for the
Study of Education. As a coordinating committee it attempts to improve balance
and relationships between the various educational units. Subcommittees report
findings in special fields of investigation.

Junior Colleges

During the biennium there were many requests from governing boards of
high school districts for the establishment of junior colleges. Surveys were
made in eight areas.

Recommendation to the State Board of Education for authorization to
establish and maintain a junior college rests on a fourfold basis: 1. A student
population of youth or adults, or both, who need such services which a junior
college can provide and which existing institutions in the area are not in a
position to offer; 2. Employment opportunities must justify post high school
training; 3. The curricula plan must provide adequately for the training needs
of the community; 4. The proposed district must have sufficient assessed valua-
tion to afford the services needed.

Conditions differ so widely in California it would be unfortunate to
limit the expansion of junior colleges to fixed or artificial standards.

During the biennium, on request of governing boards of school districts,
surveys were made in these eight areas:

1. Eastern Los Angeles County, including Bonita, Covina and Puenta
Union High School Districts and Pomona City High School District;

2. Western Los Angeles County, including Centinela Valley and El
Segundo High School Districts and Redondo Union High School

3. Northern San Diego County, including Vista High School District
and Escondido and Fallbrook Union High School Districts;

4. Inyo County, including Bishop Union High School District and Big
Pine, Lone Pine and Owens Valley High School Districts;

5. Contra Costa County, including Acalanes High School District,
Alhambra, John Swett, Liberty and Mt. Diablo Union High School
Districts, and Antioch-Live Oak City and Pittsburg City Unified
School Districts;

6. Palo Alto Union High School District;

7. Vallejo Unified School District; and


8. Santa Barbara City High School District.

The first throe of these areas have voted to form junior college dis-
tricts. Vallejo has a junior college in operation. Palo Alto was given permis-
sion by the State Board of Education to establish a junior college, but has not
taken advantage of this. The electorate of Contra Costa County defeated the
measure by a narrow margin. All of the governing boards of Inyo County have not
yet requested an election.

In 1944 the State Board of Education adopted the following standards
for junior colleges by the authority of Education Code Section 8823:

"The governing board of each district maintaining one or more
junior colleges must, as to each junior college, comply with the
following requirements:

"1. Objectives. The junior college must have stated objectives of
its instructional program and the functions which it undertakes
to perform.

"2. Curriculum. The junior college must establish such programs of
education as will permit the realization of the objectives and
functions of the junior college.

"3. Faculty personnel. The junior college must have an adequate
teaching staff of scholarship, experience, and teaching ability
for each major field of the curriculum.

"4. Conditions of Instruction. The junior college must have a
sufficient number of faculty members to enable students to
receive individual guidance and assistance in learning and
to permit the continued professional growth of the faculty

"5. Standards of Scholarship. The junior college must have :ri ,rar
of scholarship for the continuance of students in junior -:Il
and for graduation.

"6. Library. The junior college must havu adequate working -:11.-
tions of books for each major field of the curriculum an-d r-
which new accessions must be made in accordance with stu':r.t

"7. Laboratories, Shops, and Facilities. The junior college mi,;t
have adequate equipment, materials, and furnishings for :,'::
offered in agriculture, business and commercial oducatio., iii:'
arts, homemaking, industrial training, music, natural ani
physical sciences, and physical and health education."

During 1945-1946 +b- C.alifornia Junior College Federation ani t-1
--L:,:, .r :ra- '. .:.,. I.t t.:. :t up evaluation procedures to provide dr:.i .zt
*:rio:or: i uici ti.: r. .-.: tl-. e.mior colleges with respect to these 'ltmer.
: i, i- i: .....?r :.r ;L-r.r :.:, ,re the following: An adequate junior .:.lii1
F.:r5P12-0 t .i.'r'-

I. In the curriculum

1. Courses of terminal type designed to meet the vocational needs
of the youth of the region it serves.

2. lower division curricula in the more common university majors
and professions.

3. Educational opportunities for informed and responsible living.

4. Publishing a clear and accurate catalog or announcement of
courses, which desor-ibes and indicates curricula available
in both university parallel and terminal fields.

5. Adult classes when not otherwise provided.

II. In guidance

1. A comprehensive counseling program.

2. Coordinating counseling with other secondary schools in the
area served.

3. A standardized testing program, including interpretation of
test results to each student individually.

4. An adequate placement and follow-up program.

III. In physical health

1. A physical examination and follow-up for each student as

2. Physical education designed to meet the needs of all students.

3. Coordination of all factors of the total program that relate
to health.

4. Advising parents or guardians of any physical deficiencies,
requiring the attention of a physician.

IV. In teaching personnel

1. A minimum number of teachers at a ratio of one to thirty students

2. Teacher salaries sufficient to maintain professional status.

3. A faculty commensurate with the lower division of a university
or with the job to be done.

V. In conditions of instruction

1. Adequate equipment, buildings, supplies, janitorial service -,
heating and lighting.

.. Organization of instruction in departments or divisions for
Sr,, .r. ir, but with coordination with total program.

VI. In buildings, equipment, and supplies

1. The necessary library space and study room.

2. Ample shops and laboratories.

3. Adequate office space for administration.

4. Supplies of books, reference materials, and periodicals in
such numbers and variety as the enrollment requires for all
areas of training.

5. The expenditure of at least $2.50 annually per student for
library materials.

6. Instructional space in classrooms, and laboratories in room
sizes designed for maximum utiliation.

VII. In scholarship

1. The maintenance of an acceptable level of scholarship and

2. The application of the same policies to all students in matters
of grading, scholarship, honors, penalties, and graduation.

Secondary Coordination in Counties

Through the county secondary school curriculum coordinators, the Divi-
sion of Secondary Education works closely with the offices of the county superin-
tendent of schools. During the eight years since the position of county curriculum
coordinator has been authorized by law, approximately twenty-six county superin-
tendents have named coordinators.

Counties in which some degree of coordination among secondary schools
has been instituted include: Alameda, Butte, Colusa, Contra Costa, Frcsno, Inyo,
Kern, Los Angeles, Madera, Mendocino, Mionterey, Orange, Placer, Riverside,
Sacramento, San Bernardino, San Diogo, San Joaquin, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara,
Santa Cruz, Siskiyou, Stanislaus, Tulare, Ventura, and Yolo.

In 1946 the Superintendent of Public Instruction appointed a statewide
committee to survey and evaluate the work of the county secondary curriculum
coordinators. An assistant chief of the division is chairman. ll counties
having coordinators are cooperating. A summary of findings with recommendations
should be ready for publication early in the school year 1946-1947.



In Chapter 1440, Statutes of California, 1945, the State Department of
Education was directed to aid in the development and conduct of a program of
aviation education, in cooperation with the Civil Air Patrol. The department
March 25, 1946, entered into an agreement with the patrol, and established the
Bureau of Aviation Education as a part of the Division of Secondary Education
June 1, 1946.

In the agreement the patrol agrees to provide to schools the use of
government-owned aircraft under its jurisdiction as well as aircraft ovmcd by its
members for indoctrination flights for students, and agrees to pilot the aircraft.
The patrol also agrees to allow these schools free use of all government-owned
equipment it controls, to provide consultant services by its members, and to
insure adequately the flying program.

The department agrees to develop and supervise in public secondary
schools a program of aviation education and to provide the personnel, office space
and equipment necessary. The department agrees also to pay expenses incurred by
the patrol in the performance of services as provided for in the agreement.

The objectives of the bureau are as follows:

1. To encourage the establishment of experience-centered courses in
the secondary schools.

2. To develop aviation information and materials for secondary
school courses.

3. To counsel and guide teachers in understanding the impact of
aviation as a social and economic force.

4. To aid in the development of the aviation education program of
the Civil Air Patrol.

The bureau headquarters is in Los Angeles with a branch office in San

The bureau is in accord with recommendations of the California Aviation
Education Conference (developed in 1944) advising each high school to offer a one
year course in aviation for eleventh and twelfth grade students. These purposes
substantiate the inclusion .of this course:

To offer instruction in the science of aeronautics within
the framework of general education;

To assist students in understanding the social significance
of the airplane in war and in peace;

To aid in preparing pupils for active participation in the
aviation industry.

To provide a general aviation background preparatory for
more specialized courses to be taken in the high school
.r ,itn iher institutions;

To assist pupils to prepare for the private pilot ground-
school examination of the Civil Aeronautics Administration.

More is implied in the study o-. Tr the learning of some
facts about scientific principles which explain aviation development. These
facts may be acquired without an appreciation of what they signify for society.
The adult of tomorrow needs to understand the social significance of the airplane
and make use of the opportunities offered him by the air ago.


Citizenship instruction in California high schools has been always a
major interest of the Division of Secondary Education. The California Legislature
of 1945 amended two sections of the Education Code (10051 and 10053) to provide
that all students must pass successfully an examination in American history before
receiving a diploma from any public or private secondary school. Although all
California high schools were requiring study of American history, the amended
law served to bring into sharp focus the problems involved in instruction in
this subject and in related social studies courses.

Several recent reports dealing with instruction in American history
were reviewed carefully by the division staff and comparisons made with the pro-
grams in operation in representative California high schools. The results of
this study were published in the August, 1945, issue of CALIFORNIA SCHOOLS as
four suggestions for more effective instruction:

1. More opportunity should be provided for acr-il .rt: fr.:t i
students in citizenship training activities;

2. Modern techniques of evaluation in this fiela ih:',i .1-* .K-,:i
more extensively;

3. In many schools there is great need for mor, -,. pi.-:,' r,
reading material suited to the various level: *:, i .,,l-
ability of students; and

4. The possibility of dividing the area of Ameri-r I, it,:, .ry
between elementary and high schools in order f.- .:-.1 i .-
desirable duplication should be studied furt i:r.

-Th1 :1- :. -- 11 r ru:.'.':ir -tudy of Amen r :.r. r -t: t '.. -r -
i tr: :.r '', Ii :.rri':. h :'. i: :. I ,'t *., 3 found that -.11 .*:i I', i : 'i "'- :
i-: th- :t.. r i.- r.i r t 1111 -: .r :."I instructic r ai ti : 1- .'tl;:r .
t-i t .:...-t i ,-I .: ti,- :' 1.:..:1 : r.: -i. r.. n :-r .. tl r. this legia i n r i'-,, r,. it. : .1 .
rt i"r i 'rn r,, :-" '.'. i J- -, el -.. i *-:. trwelfth grad: *'r ,r t:.ti,. ,il .:!'
tl, i',;r :h:,:l_*- 1 : -.'. ::. .' : ... ,:,. .:1 -,.,, r.1 1,'.A by the S+ : I..'!.Ar t-i- t :' . I ,..,-
'.i -t, I,, t lh:-re r'..: :,'i'- ,*:' :,1 : i r ,ir._r, r'-'v: g the schc -:-! . ',:- *,*i .h :. .t-
r.,-.:.i:: ,.11- :- :* :., r it.2tr '.,.t : r- ::. Sixty-twc ,'11i r :rt I- .:.,:i ar:
t.. ir . : .1 *.: t -. :, .:.,i .: .. 1-:' :.: :j.;' ,: t'h:f of th e 'h :..- l : el ,l : .-: o-'
i" rt....L.:..-: .*..r. rep-rt: ...' i :: ht .i lI p..?r cent of r1' : i:-:- i

publishing the results of this investigation in the March, 1946, issue of
CALIFORNIA SCHOOLS, the suggestion wE's made that there might be advantages in
securing more uniformity in the use of textbooks, Conferences among high
school teachers and curriculum workers ware hold to discuss this possibility.

On December 10, 1945, the California State Curriculum Commission ap-
proved a Framowork in Social Studies for grades nine to twelve, inclusive, and
requested the Division of Secondary Education to provide an amplification which
could be used by the high schools of the state. The adopted framework is:

Ninth Grade: I. World of Industry (state and nation),
II. Scientific Development,
III. Vocational Opportunities;

Tenth Grade: World History;

Eleventh Grade: United States History and Civics;

Twerolfth Grade: Problems of Citizenship.

The amplification stressed the purposes and desired results of instruc-
tion in each of the grade levels. It was approved, in general, by members of the
curriculum commission who roquestod that secondary school teachers and curriculum
workers be given an opportunity for discussion of this proposed social studies
program. Two such meetings were hold and attended by a large number of representa-
tive high school workers. Following a day of discussion and criticism each
individual was questioned regarding his reaction to the proposed uniform social
studies program for the high schools of the state. The general opinion was that
more uniformity is desirable, that the topics suggested for grades ton, eleven,
and twolvo are quite satisfactory, and that there ought to be further consideration
of the suggested topic for grade nino. The curriculum commission and the division
will continue this work during the coming year.

A study of the social studios program in California junior colleges has
been made, It was found that all of the junior colleges are complying with the
Education Code and the Rules and Regulations of the State Board of Education in
requiring a two credit-hour course in American history and the Constitution of the
United States. Aside from this uniformity, however, it was found that there is
grout diversity of offerings in the field of the social studios. It is also
apparent that most of the courses provided in this area are designed oxclusi-: 1
for the academic student.

There is need for further development of citizenship instruction f:r
the terminal student, for the young men and womon who arc not planning on fulll.!
formal education. The development of such a program is the immediate rospon:ibii'
of the junior colluegs with the active assistance of the Division of Soconda:'-



Under the authority of the California Education Code any high school
or junior college may establish and maintain classes for adults and receive
state apportionment of funds on the basis of average daily attendance. If a
school district has an average daily attendance of 40 or more units, it may,
by complying with certain standards of the State Board of Education, establish
a separate evening high school or evening junior college. During the current
year 1945-46, there were 96 separate evening high schools, 13 separate evening
junior colleges and 253 additional day high schools and junior colleges which
offered day or evening classes for adults.

The Division of Adult and Continuation Education which approves and
supervises these classes and schools is composed of a staff of three persons in-
cluding a Chief of the Division, a Chief of the Bureau of Continuation Education,
and a Chief of the Bureau of Parent Education.

The present organization of the adult education program is in accord-
ance with legislation which became effective on September 15, 1945. (It has
become clear that further legislation will bs required to make the provisions
of this act administratively feasible.)

Purposes and Objectives

The purpose of the California adult education program in its inception
was to provide non-English speaking immigrants with an opportunity to learn
English and prepare themselves for naturalization examinations. From these
early beginnings the curriculum has expanded from two or three subjects to courses
covering every important field of learning. It is now recognized that successful
adjustments in personal relationships and participation in democratic living
require constant and vigorous training throughout adult life. The present ob-
jectives of adult education in public schools are: Education for home, civic,
and vocational efficiency; education for individual development.

The Program in 1944-45

1. Training for War Industry

At the beginning of the biennium the emphasis in adult
education was on "training for war industry". During the
years 1941 through 1943 this program had been very largo
but became a skeleton program in 1944 and disappeared in
1945. There was a gradual transition from the war training
program to education in the reconversion period.

2. Adult Education in the Reconversion Period

In the United States more than 1,000,000 veterans are in
school and 17,000 new applications are received each day.
California must be prepared to supply educational programE


for one-sixth of all the veterans who are securing their
education under the G. I. Bill of Rights. 1What this in-
flux of vto-rans into California moans to adult education
is illustrated by thu increase in average daily attendance
in two Los Angeles evening high schools--one, which had a
normal average daily attendance of 125, increased to 215;
another went from 150 to 250. In the first case the
enrollment increased by 1,350, in the second by 1,500.

Veterans are having a most wholesome influence on trends
in adult education.

The Present Program

During the year 1945-46, there has been general acceptance of the
responsibility to provide education to meet six specific needs of adults.

1. Retraining for jobs both for veterans and for many more who
must change their occupations. The apprentices in both
industrial and agricultural fields are expanding rapidly.
Adult schools in every section of the state are taking part
in this program.

2. Training for business practice to veterans who plan to
enter the small business field.

3. General cultural training. (A natural result of extensi-:
travel of veterans and their families.)

4. Preparation for civil life. Social-civic classes are iir.:r-
ing in quality and increasing in number. Kinety-seven
communities have organized discussion groups on public affair:.

5. The maintenance of a healthy body and mind. Since the cra :-i
the war, there has been marked improvement in the physical
education program in adult schools and classes.

6. Education for family life. Throughout the state, well de-
signed courses in homemaking are offered. The importance
of the whole field of education for family living has be:n
recognized officially in the appointment of a Chief of th:
Bureau of Parent Education.

Size of the Program

Uhen the peak of the war training program was passed, the tctal i ri:ll-
ment in all adult schools and classes in the state dropped from a high .:f1 '-~,
in 1941 to 635,040 in 1944. The enrollment was approximately the same ir. 1.44-,-
as it was at the end of 1944, and remained tho same until January, 1944. ar ti'rat
time the influx of veterans into adult schools caused a steady increase n .:ir:.i-

'T- .'i... 1, 194:, ..-- i'r the Bureau of Parent Education *.. pp:i .

This position, vacant during the war years, was refilled as a result of state-
wide demand for specialized loaders in the field of family living.


Purposes and Objectives

The Bureau of Continuation Education exercises general supervision over
the part-time education programs which are maintained by secondary schools to
provide instruction for pupils under 18 years of age who have dropped out of
school before graduation to accept employment.

The bureau seeks: To obtain compliance with the provisions of the
Education Code relating to continuation education; to explain the application
of such provisions within the local school district; to assist school administra-
tors in organizing and reorganizing continuation programs; to improve the ad-
ministration, curricula, methods of instruction, and teaching materials in
continuation programs; to cooperate with organizations of administrators, coordina-
tors, counselors and teachers of continuation programs in developing a professional
spirit and higher standards of performance among persons working in continuation
education; to provide more adequate teacher training opportunities for continua-
tion education teachers; to approve separate continuation high schools; to con-
sider applications of schools to conduct continuation classes at hours other than
8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. and recommend action by the Governor on such applications;
and to process applications of schools for reimbursement from the state for the
costs of maintaining coordination service.

Progress During 1944-46-

The Legislature in 1945 passed two acts relating to continuation educa-
tion. One provided that continuation high schools be added to the list of
authorized high schools in California. The other required that some type of
educational program be provided by a school district for any minors subject to
compulsory continuation education living within the district. (The law formerly
exempted districts having less than 50 minors.)

Following the enactment of these laws the Bureau of Continuation Educa-
tion conducted a series of state, regional, and county conferences to acquaint
secondary school administrators with the new provisions.

The bureau assisted a section committee of the Association of Califor :.
Secondary School Administrators in conducting a state-wide study of continuation
education. The material gathered will be valuable in formulating additional

The bureau has made state-wide surveys relating to costs of continua-
tion programs, curricula, and counseling and guidance activities in continuation


The bureau has cooperated with the Northern and Southern California
Continuation Education Associations in the preparation and publication in 1945
of a Manual on Continuation Education. A supplement to this manual is in

The Chief of the Bureau planned and organized a "Symposium on Continua-
tion Education in California" which was published in the California Journal of
Secondary Education, February, 1945.

At the request of the bureau, workshops on continuation education were
conducted at the University of Southern California Summer Sessions of 1944 and
1945. Similar training programs at other teacher training institutions are

Opportunities of employment due to the war effort resulted in a con-
siderable increase in the number of continuation pupils. This increase reached
the peak in 1943-44 when 41,200 continuation pupils were enrolled in districts
requesting reimbursement for coordination service. (This constitutes the bulk
of the program.) In 1944-45 there was a slight decline to 38,788; while in
1945-46 there was a sharp recession to 25,369. Many youths formerly employed
are returning to full-time school. This trend is desirable.

There has been an increase of more than one-third in the last three
years in the number of schools maintaining continuation education programs. En-
couraged by the legislation of 1945, many smaller schools have organize. rr-:..r:.-,-.

There has developed a greater diversity in the type of contiru-ti,..r,
programs maintained, In addition to enrolling continuation pupils in a -eprlt:-
continuation high school or in continuation classes in a regular high s-'l'.:'1,
they are frequently enrolled in regular high school classes, day and ev..-n-
classes for adults, Saturday continuation classes, apprenticeship class.: :.1
supervised home study.

While the legislation enacted in 1945 has strengthened the cor, ti..:,t .r
education program, there is need for additional legislation in at least th.
following areas: Cl-rification of the authority of the school district t.- .J:-
peid or revoke work permits; extension of the truancy law to 16 and 17 "-:.r 1.1
minors; adoption of a plan of state financial support which meets the n--:.. :1
the continuation program and is consistent with the total program of st.'.:
support for education.


In the Spring of 1946 the position of Chief of the Bureau of Ture-'
Education was reestablished, at the request of groups of parents througth.:..t ir.:


Th,. br.: Fr- r.;t FJ.cation assumes general supervision ov...r pi r.t
Sj ,.:t i. :ilr, z.: :r-rL:*' J it. -. o.ning high schools and classes for adults. T1
,i,, .: i t ,. .1ura +, h: i..: .: r-.:. es with P-T.A,'s, various community L,L:....,

schools, administrators and parent education teachers, develops suggested parent
education programs for schools and community agencies, and develops curriculum
material for the various specific phases of parent education. He works with
educational institutions in developing teacher training programs. He visits
parent education classes throughout the state for the purpose of giving guidance
and information to teachers on problems such as physical and mental growth, play,
self-expression, and speech handicaps of children. He reviews reports on parent
education classes and conducts research pertinent to the state program of parent

Summary of Activities of the Bureau

The Chief of the Bureau of Parent Education was on duty for only one
month of the biennium, Juno, 1946. In this short time his activities included
interviewing and talking to people regarding the needs in the field of parent
education to which his office might mako a contribution; conferences with the
parent education chairman of the California Congress of Parents and Teachers and
members of the Los Angeles School Welfare and Attendance Department.

The Chief of the Bureau began a series of five workshops with the
California Youth Authority in Chico, Fresno, San Jose, San Diego and Los Angeles,
designed to stimulate community coordination and improve youth services.

A meeting with the Superintendent of Schools in Fresno was attended
by approximately 25 community leaders in the field of adult and particularly
parent education.

Coop ration of Congress of Parents and Teachers

The Congress of Parents and Teachers is continuing its program of
active cooperation with the Division of Adult and Continuation Education and the
Bureau of Parent Education. Its offices have arranged for conference groups in
all P-T.A. Districts for meetings with the Chief of the Bureau, and have joined
in sending him to the National workshopp for Parent Education leaders mooting at
Northwestern University.



Purpose of the Division

The Division of Readjustment Education came into existence through
action of the State Board of Education at a special meeting on August 17, 1944,
when the Board accepted the recommendation of the Superintendent of Public
Instruction that a Division of Readjustment Education be established in the State
Department of Education. Through enactment of Chapter 59, Statutes 4th Extra
Session, 55th Legislature, the Department of Education was given the duty and
responsibility of providing for the education of veterans in California under
applicable acts of Congress and rules and regulations adopted thereunder, and for
the supervision and coordination thereof. For the purpose of discharging the
duties and responsibilities given the Department of Education by said Chapter the
division came into existence.


The objectives of the division have been defined as follows:

1. To approve educational institutions to offer training to veteran's under
Public Law 346.

2. To supervise contractual relations between the State Department of Edu-
cation and the Veterans Administration and on behalf of the public educa-
tional institutions.

3. To develop desired uniformity in evaluation procedures.

4. To coordinate the advisement program in the approved institutions.

5. To disseminate pertinent information on veteran education.


On or about November 1, 1944 Robert R. Hartzell assumed the duties of
Chief of the Division. On January 15, 1945 Ralph W. Mitchell assumed the duties
of Assistant Chief and served with TIr. Hartzell in the Sacramentooffice. These
two men and two clerical assistants served in their respective capacities until
July 1, 1945.

By July 1, 1945, approximately 850 educational institutions had been
approved to offer training under Public Law 346. Included in the list were The
public high schools, adult schools, junior colleges, colleges, and universities
which had been granted blanket approval by virtue of their accreditation by the
State Department of Education and the University of California.

With the exception of the approval of educational institutions the year
1944-45 must be viewed as a formative period. Contractual relations with the
Veterans Administration had been developed to a point where the program was rEly
to move forward. The newness of the program linked with the necessity of securing
opinions from the Attorney General's office had retarded this aspect of the pro-


gram. Likewise the scope of the veterans educational program had been sufficiently
limited to preclude any accomplishment of the last three objectives listed.

On July 1, 1945, Dr. Buel F. Enyeart replaced Mr. Robert R. Hartzell as
Chief of the Division and by the close of the same month Axel C. Jensen had re-
placed Ralph W. Mitchell as Assistant Chief. The office previously established in
Sacramento was retained and an additional office was established in Los Angeles and
designated as the home office for the Chief of the Division. By October, 1946,
two technical assistants had been added to the staff. While one assistant was
assigned the specific field of evaluation and one the field of advisement, both
assistants helped in investigating institutions desiring approval and made recom-
mendations accordingly.

Subsequent dissemination of information from this office and through
other channels, in addition to changes in Public law 346, brought such a rush of
applications from institutions desiring approval that the staff was insufficient
to meet the demands made upon it. Not only did it become necessary to draft more
rigid rules for approval, but the problem of eliminating and refusing unqualified
institutions became acute. It was obviously impossible for the division to either
adequately carry on a complete program or attain the objectives defined for it.
This condition was alleviated by a $50,000 appropriation measure which was passed
by the 1st Extraordinary Session of the 56th Legislature. This measure resulted
in an increase of staff members to a total of eight professional members and seven
clerical assistants.

The duties of the professional members of the staff are as follows:
1) The chief and assistant chief are engaged in the handling of administrative
problems, public relations and the supervision of contractual relations with the
Veterans Administration. 2) One technical assistant devotes full time to advise-
ment and to coordinating the establishment of Veterans Administration Guidance
Centers. 3) One treats with the evaluation of "in service" experiences, the
supervision of the Veterans Information Clearance Center and coordination of the
work of the newly certified list of institutions approved to administer Form "C"
of the General Educational Development Tests. 4) Four devote full time to
investigating institutions desiring approval under Public Law 346 as well as
making subsequent checks on institutions so approved.

Approximately 1,400 schools have been approved. Three schools were
investigated for each one that was approved during the past year and it was found
necessary during the same period to remove 25 schools from the approved list.

It has been necessary constantly to revise the standards for granting
approval. The latest revision became effective July 12, 1946. Late in 1945 3
committee on approval was created, the function of which was to hear appeals of
institutions held by this division to be unqualified to offer training to veterans.
Two cases have been referred to the board.

Contractual relations with the Veterans Administration have, of necessity,
undergone a number of changes. It was obvious from the beginning that man, insti-
tutions with heavy veteran enrollments, especially junior colleges, would be unotale
to do an adequate job on the 60 dollar per semester remuneration basis. Much
attention has been given this matter. The result is that today high schools -nd
stats colleges may bill the Veterans Administration on the basis of $60.OC per
semester while public junior colleges are permitted to bill on the basis cf