Citation
Ceramics, molluscs, and sedentism

Material Information

Title:
Ceramics, molluscs, and sedentism the late archaic period on the Georgia coast
Creator:
Marrinan, Rochelle Ann, 1944-
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1975
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xv, 263 leaves : ill., maps ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Anthropology thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Saint Simons Island (Ga.) ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Anthropology -- UF ( lcsh )
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Georgia ( lcsh )
Tick Island ( local )
Decorative ceramics ( jstor )
Excavations ( jstor )
Middens ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 253-262.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Rochelle A. Marrinan.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
025619424 ( AlephBibNum )
03101655 ( OCLC )
AAU4353 ( NOTIS )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 11 MBs ) ( .pdf )

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_128.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_173.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_001.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_pdf.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_200.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_226.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_087.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_047.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_188.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_219.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_182.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_261.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_016.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_103.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_045.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_025.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_267.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_165.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_178.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_097.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_231.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_063.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_020.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_092.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_195.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_068.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_209.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_085.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_076.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_109.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_006.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_234.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_164.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_148.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_048.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_225.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_113.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_110.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_250.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_159.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_192.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_077.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_196.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_214.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_222.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_211.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_064.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_099.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_106.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_069.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_247.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_101.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_108.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_145.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_223.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_011.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_066.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_107.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_057.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_072.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_080.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_155.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_259.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_169.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_150.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_125.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_030.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_269.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_229.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_121.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_158.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_254.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_086.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_018.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_134.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_027.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_104.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_100.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_191.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_163.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_176.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_180.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_098.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_142.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_056.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_122.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_007.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_156.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_181.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_251.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_168.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_202.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_262.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_244.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_194.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_079.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_272.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_203.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_130.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_161.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_129.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_095.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_149.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_022.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_114.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_093.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_144.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_091.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_175.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_279.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_061.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_170.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_256.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_071.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_123.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_088.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_073.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_172.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_009.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_052.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_039.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_220.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_013.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_162.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_201.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_124.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_062.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_060.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_264.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_255.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_242.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_026.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_131.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_102.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_270.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_111.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_033.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_232.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_136.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_239.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_221.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_153.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_054.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_193.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_257.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_015.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_273.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_213.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_008.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_241.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_065.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_154.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_067.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_187.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_246.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_035.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_204.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_133.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_094.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_266.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_021.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_233.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_183.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_190.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_205.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_265.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_053.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_271.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_280.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_014.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_034.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_147.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_023.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_167.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_075.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_059.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_206.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_263.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_112.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_037.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_179.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_207.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_083.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_199.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_278.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_276.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_078.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_003.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_115.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_138.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_028.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_002.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_017.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_118.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_216.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_032.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_140.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_166.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_227.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_260.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_236.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_268.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_005.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_277.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_157.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_042.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_245.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_029.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_198.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_004.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_174.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_119.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_230.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_126.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_152.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_120.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_218.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_151.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_082.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_132.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_051.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_210.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_274.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_253.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_177.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_238.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_249.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_212.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_143.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_049.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_070.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_185.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_084.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_248.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_228.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_050.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_040.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_105.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_135.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_197.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_186.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_275.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_171.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_160.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_217.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_031.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_044.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_038.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_146.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_141.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_046.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_058.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_116.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_024.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_137.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_041.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_127.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_224.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_036.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_089.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_096.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_055.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_235.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_043.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_240.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_252.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_243.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_237.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_090.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_074.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_139.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_081.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_215.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_010.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_012.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_189.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_258.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_184.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_117.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_019.txt

ceramicsmolluscs00marr_Page_208.txt


Full Text










CERAMICS, MOLLUSCS, AND SEDENTISH:
THE LATE ARCHAIC PERIOD ON THE GEORGIA COAST









By

Rochelle A. Marrinan


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1975















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Although some research efforts may be individual undertakings, archaeo-

logical investigations characteristically are not. Many factors--the site,

quantities of material to be processed, techniques used to gather informa-

tion, and the usually public nature of excavations--preclude the possibility

that a single person can accomplish the field research singlehandedly.

During the four field sessions spent gathering data which make this disser-

tation possible, over 30 students were provided field research experience.

Their participation in the University of Florida Department of Anthropology

Archaeology Field Schools made possible the excavation of materials pre-

sented herein. It is with gratitude that I acknowledge the following field

collaborators:

Summer, 1973. Nain Anderson, Roberta Lemlich, Leonard Roberts, Sandra

Sampson, and Mary Turpen.

Spring, 1974. Chris Birdsall, Mark Brooks, Marion Drescher, Leslie

Gresh, Steve Hamburg, Lynne Jackson, Tim Kohler, and Hugh Prine.

Summer, 1974. Richard Atwood, John Barksdale, Debbi Baukney, Bill

Christofferson, Robin Futch, Jean Gearing, Elizabeth Hill, Brenda Lavelle,

David Lawrence, Maureen Lineaweaver, Karen Malesky, Harvey McKenzie, Janet

McPhail, and Rebeca Quintana-Garcia, Connie Welsch, and Joy Willard.

Winter, 1975. Nain Anderson, George Edwardson, Sandra Forney, Tim

Kohler, and Mary Turpen. Robin Futch, Elizabeth Hill, Roberta Lemlich,

Janet McPhail, and Rebeca Quintana-Garcia volunteered many weekends of

assistance which added needed time to field work.











Analysis of excavated materials involved the assistance of many

specialists. I should like to thank Dr. Fred Thompson, Malacologist,

Florida State Museum, for aid in identification of the molluscs; Dr.

Pierce Brodkorb of the University of Florida Department of Zoology for

assistance with the intricacies of avian osteology, and Dr. David

Hubbel, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of

Florida, who made possible the processing of soil samples. Dr. William

R. Maples, Chairman of the Department of SociaLSciences, Florida State

Museum, aged the few human'skeletal elements recovered. Dr. Robert L.

Stephenson, Director of the Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology,

University of South Carolina, made copies of preliminary work on South

Carolina ring sites available. Dr. E. Thomas Hemmings, West Virginia

Geological Survey, made available copies of manuscripts in preparation

and preliminary field analysis.

Special thanks is extended to Chester DePratter, University of

Georgia, for his continued interest. His knowledge of the Georgia

coastal area provided numerous insights. Charles Pearson, University

of Georgia, shared his knowledge of sites within the project area. Mr.

Pearson first reported the Marsh Ring site in 1972. Dr. Donald L.

Crusoe, Southeastern Archaeological Center, made available copies of

manuscripts in preparation and discussed his research findings.

Preliminary paleobotanical identification was made by Timothy A.

Kohler using the facilities of the University of Florida Herbarium

and his own collections. Mr. Kohler was twice a field crew member and

any expression of gratitude of his contributions would be insufficient.

ili










George Edwardson and Lynn Cunningham (University of New Mexico)

spent considerable time with illustrations presented. Roberta Lemlich

provided the photographs of lithic and shell artifacts. Dr. William

R. Maples kindly made the photographic equipment of the Department of

Social Sciences, Florida State Museum, available.

Sea Island Properties, Inc., made this project possible and it is

impossible to thank them sufficiently. However, I would specifically

like to thank Mr. William A. Jones, Sr., Mr. William A. Jones, Jr.,

and Mr. J.D. Benefield, Jr., for their kindness and cooperation. I am

very grateful that the opportunity to conduct research in such an

interesting and extremely beautiful area was mine.

To the members of my committee, I extend thanks for their continued

academic and personal support. Dr. Dickinson spent considerable time

editing this manuscript. Dr. Patton generously provided information

and encouragement. Dr. Milanich provided advice, field assistance, and

editorial time. Dr. Wing has been a great help to me since I first

came to her for assistance with a field school project as an undergraduate.

Since that time and particularly since 1973, she has made space available

for work, comparative collections, and invaluable information on almost

a daily basis. I have greatly profited from this contact.

Dr. Fairbanks initially interested me in this research topic and

continued financial support for field and analytical work. Four field

sessions constitute a major outlay of funds. I am particularly grateful

for the confidence, the personal contact, and the direction he has will-

ingly given. In the final analysis, Dr. Fairbanks is responsible for pro-

viding the opportunity to undertake this research.

iv












There are probably others to whom an expression of gratitude is

due. I apologize for any oversight and wish to point out that while

the above-named individuals have provided information from their

special competencies, I am responsible for its presentation in this

manuscript.


~















PREFACE

This dissertation is a study in the application of hypothesis for-

mulation and testing to archaeological investigation of an early prehis-

toric aboriginal culture. It is presented chronologically in order to

document the considerations and observations in perspective. To do other-

wise would create an artificial impression of smoothness and correctness

that is not real. Further,'this study is seen as an exploration of the

application of more systematic methodological techniques in field exca-

vation. Analysis of data thus collected to an long-standing problem in

southeastern United States prehistory generates very interesting results.

Finally, it is intended to be a contribution to the status of knowledge

on the subject of southeastern shell ring sites. To this point, it is

a compilation of data presently available in the archaeological litera-

ture as well as a presentation of data resulting from field excavations

on Cannon's Point, St. Simon's Island, Glynn County, Georgia. It is

believed that such data be used for comparative purposes by investigators

considering the same or similar problems.















TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . ii

PREFACE . . . . . . . .... . . . . . vi

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . x

LIST OF FIGURES. . . . . . . . ... . .. xi

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

CHAPTER 1: SHELL RINGS IN SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

ARCHAEOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . 1

Introduction . . . . . . .. . . . . . I

The University of Florida St. Simon's Island Archaeological

Project . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Southeastern Shell Rings . . . . . . . . . 3

Previous Investigations and Interpretations . . . . 9

Chronological Assessment . . . . . . . . .. 13

The Cultural Phenomena . . . . . . . . .. 15

CHAPTER 2: EXCAVATIONS ON CANNON'S POINT PART 1:

SUMMER 1973, SPRING 1974 . . . . . . .. 19

Present Environment . . . . . . . . 19

Excavation Strategy: Objective and Techniques . . .. 24

Summer 1973: Excavation Summary . . . . . . .. 25

Spring 1974: Excavation Summary . . . . . .... 28

Preliminary Observations . . . . . . . .... 32











CHAPTER 3: EXCAVATIONS ON CANNON'S POINT PART 2:

SUMMER 1974, WINTER 1975 . . . . . . 37

Formulation of Hypotheses and Test Implications . . . 37

Summer 19749 Excavation Summary . . . . . . 39

Winter 1975: Excavation Summary . . . . . 41

Summary of Excavation Findings . . . . . . .

Evaluation of Hypotheses and Test Implications . . .. 45

CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS OF EXCAVATED MATERIALS . . . . .. 48

Radiocarbon Dates . . . . . . . . . 48

Cultural Remains . . . . . . . . .. . 51

Faunal Materials . . . . . . . .. . . 67

Floral Remains . . . . . . . . . . 78

Other Analyses . . . . . . . .. .. . 80

Consideration of Methods and Techniques . . . . 82

CHAPTER 5: THE LATE ARCHAIC OCCUPATION OF CANNON'S POINT . 89

Prehistoric Environment . . . . . . . .... 89

Techno-environmental Adaptation .. . . . . . . 91

Seasonality and Sedentism. ... . . . . ... 96

Extra-areal Relationships . . . . . . . . 102

CHAPTER 6: POST-EXCAVATION ASSESSMENTS OF THE LATE ARCHAIC . 105

The Cultural Phenomena . . . ... . . . .. 105

Relationships to Other New World Sites . . . . .. 109

Summary and Conclusions . . . . . . .... .116

APPENDIX 1 . . . . . . . . . . . ... 119

APPENDIX 2 . . . . . . . .... ... . 130

APPENDIX 3 . . . . . . . .... . . . . 131

APPENDIX 4 . . . . . . . . ... . . . . 134

viii












APPENDIX 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

APPENDIX 6. .. . . . . . .... . . . . 201

APPENDIX 7. .. . . . . . .... . . . . . 206

APPENDIX 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

APPENDIX 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

APPENDIX 10 . . . . . . . ....... ......... .225

APPENDIX 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

APPENDIX 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

APPENDIX 13 . . . . . . . . . . . 248

APPENDIX 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

REFERENCES CITED . . . . . . . . ... ...... 253

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264














LIST OF TABLES


Table 1. Site Distribution . . . . . . . . . . 6

Table 2. Ring Dimensions in Meters . . . . . . . . . 8

Table 3. Chronological Summary . . . . . . . .... .16

Table 4. Radiocarbon Dates for Ring Sites . . . . . ... 35

Table 5. Radiocarbon Dates for Other Fiber-Tempered Sites. . ... 50

Table 6. Ceramic Distribution for the Cannon's Point Ring Sites . 56

Table 7. Ceramic Distribution for the Marsh Cultural Level . . .. .57

Table 8. Total Recovered Ceramic Material . . . . . .. 58

Table 9. Composite Molluscan Species List 9GN57, 9GN76 . . ... 69

Table 10. Faunal Lists: 9GN57, 9GN76, and Marsh Cultural Level . . 71

Table 11. Dietary Contributions of Selected Species . . . ... 75

Table 12. Seasonal Availability of Identified Flora . . . ... 79

Table 13. Human Skeletal Material . . . . . . . .... 83

Table 14. Contribution of Screening by Weight of Processed

Material 6S, 15E . . . . . . . .... . 85















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure 22 . . .


Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4 .

Figure 5

Figure 6 .

Figure 7

Figure 8

Figure 9

Figure 10

Figure 11 .

Figure 12

Figure 13

Figure 14

Figure 15

Figure 16

Figure 17

Figure 18

Figure 19

Figure 20

Figure 21


S 5

. 20

. 21

. 26

* 31

S 132

* 133

. 202

. 203

S. 204

. 205

. 218

. 219

. 226

. 227

. 228

. 229

. 230

. 231

. 237

. 238

. 244













List of Figures continued

Figure 23 ... . . . . . . . . . .. 245

Figure 24 . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . 246

Figure 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



CERAMICS, MOLLUSCS, AND SEDENTISM:
THE LATE ARCHAIC PERIOD ON THE GEORGIA COAST

By

Rochelle A. Marrinan

August, 1975

Chairman: Charles H. Fairbanks
Major Department: Anthropology

Previous researchers have contended that during the Late Archaic Period

(circa 2500-1000 BC), human groups on the present-day coast of South Caro-

lina and Georgia practiced a mollusc-centered subsistence strategy. The

abundance of molluscan resources has been viewed as evidence of a rela-

tively permanent residence pattern. This stable pattern of residence was

thought to have been instrumental in the innovation of fired clay pottery.

Today these former habitation sites exist as annular rings and amorphous

middens of molluscan debris.

Recent archaeological investigations on Cannon's Point, St. Simon's

Island, Georgia, in such habitation sites indicate that although molluscan

resources were obviously an important contributor to prehistoric subsistence,

crustaceans and vertebrate fauna (particularly fishes) also were critical

nutritional supplements.











Fiber-tempered ceramics, to date the earliest type of earthenware

reported in the United States, are present in all of the Late Archaic

Period sites excavated. Affiliations between Georgia fiber-tempered

ceramic decorative motifs and motifs associated with Orange pottery from

the St. John's River drainage in Florida are noted. This finding supports

the previous observation of Holder and others for the St. Simon's Island

area. The Georgia coastal ceramic tradition is considered influential

in the development of Orange ceramics.

Reconsideration of the generally accepted belief that decorated fiber-

tempered ceramics are later than plain ceramics is urged based on the findings

from the excavation of two shell ring sites (dated by radiocarbon at 2240-

1815 BC and 1910-1665 BC). Decorated ceramics occur in these sites at all

levels, dating coevally with plain specimens. Reconsideration is also urged

for Waring's contention that the Bilbo-style engraved bone pins are a stylis-

tic development. Both of the two bone pin fragments recovered in the Cannon's

Point excavations were from a sub-shell stratum.

In the marsh surrounding the largest ring site, a cultural deposit was

exposed 0.5-1.0 meter beneath the present surface. The association of cul-

tural materials (ceramics, worked bone, lithics, flora, and fauna) with tree

stumps suggested that environmental change is evidenced in the immediate

vicinity of the ring sites. When deposited, the Marsh Ring accumulated in

a forest environment. Ceramics from this cultural deposit are both fiber-

tempered and grit-tempered; however, the manner in which deposition occurred

is unclear. Radiocarbon dates indicate that environmental change in this

area occurred after 835-820 BC.

Permanence of residential pattern cannot be fully evaluated at present.

Evidence suggesting a Spring-Fall occupation of the Cannon's Point sites

xiv











is considered tenuous at this time. Investigation of inland riverine sites

having fiber-tempered ceramics is needed to evaluate the relationship of

these biotopes to the coast.

Excavations in the Cannon's Point shell ring sites have demonstrated

that more systematic methods and techniques must be applied to data reco-

very. Perceptions of coastal cultural developments have been framed in

terms of cultural inventory and artifact attributes. Development of a

research strategy to investigate the articulation between human culture and

physical environment is urged to provide an understanding of cultural events

during the Late Archaic Period.















CHAPTER I

SHELL RINGS in SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES ARCHAEOLOGY

Introduction

For thousands of years prior to the founding of European colonies

in the New World, native American populations experienced remarkable

variety in cultural complexity, geographical distribution, and in their

use of environmental resources. Today archaeological sites are monuments

to this diversity of prehistoric lifestyles. Just as the strangeness

of such people and places promoted early Europeans to attribute unusual

origins and abilities to native peoples, the intricacies and apparent

inexplicabilities of human cultural remains still encourage some to

speculate novel derivations of human artifacts. It has been the task

of archaeology to attempt to demonstrate causality in the adaptability and

flexibility of mankind. To the student of prehistory change is perhaps

the most obvious fact and the one most challenging to explain. Plog

(1974:8) considers explanation of change to be the primary undertaking

of productive archaeological research. The methodology employed in

explanation is a critical issue in archaeology today for it is not

sufficient to simply ... tie data to cultural phenomena ..." (Plog

1974:4). Recovering significant archaeological data from field research

strategies having the objectives of hypothesis formulation and testing

affords the opportunity to investigate parameters germain to explication and

explanation of cultural processes (Binford 1962; Watson, LeBlanc, and Redman

1971). As a result of these objectives, contribution to the corpus of











anthropological knowledge may be achieved.

The present study demonstrates the use of archaeological data to

explain cultural phenomena. It proceeds from a review of the pertinent

archaeological literature to recognition of specific needs and problems

requiring further study within the research area. Hypotheses are generated

for field testing using excavation techniques selected to maximize data

recovery. Hypotheses, it should be noted, do not spring forth at the need

of the investigator. Rather, they are usually the result of continuing

research. In this study, it should be made clear that the status of

information regarding the research topic was not sufficient enough to

support more than very general hypotheses at the outset. As excavation and

more importantly analysis progressed, data suggested direction for

inquiry. Hypotheses were generated to structure excavation strategy and

future analysis. Working hypotheses will be explicitly stated in Chapter

2 and 3.

The University of Florida St. Simon's Island Archaeological Project

Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks and Dr. Jerald T. Milanich of the University

of Florida Department of Anthropology were approached in 1972 by Sea

Island Properties, Inc., regarding a proposed archaeological survey of

Cannon's Point, St. Simon's Island, Glynn County, Georgia. Several sites of

known archaeological interest were in areas scheduled for development

promoting the landowners' concern for recovery and preservation of

prehistoric and historic materials. Ruins of the Couper Plantation were

listed in the National Register of Historic Palces. Excavations in the

extensive shell heaps on the property had been made by Preston A. Holder

during the late 1930's. Human skeletal remains were frequently exposed

in plowed fields. A shell ring site was identified by a site survey

team in 1972.











A grant (#GB-37889) to support excavations was awarded by the

National Science Foundation (Fairbanks and Milanich) in 1973. Field

research began in that year. Investigation of the changing relationships

between man and his environment during the period 2000 BC and AD 1865

was the organizational theme of the project. The presentation and

discussion which follows concerns the Late Archaic aspect of the project

(circa 2000-1000 BC). Field research and analysis were also supported

by funds from the Sea Island Foundation.

Southeastern Shell Ring Sites

Structures of unusual size, location, composition, or configuration

have been popular subjects for study and speculation: pyramids, henges,

and earthen effigy mounds are but a few examples. Accounts of early

travelers, proceedings of learned academies, and personal letters

document the interest in such sites. William McKinley of Milledgeville,

Georgia, wrote of circular shell heaps on Sapelo Island, Georgia, in 1872.

His letter to the Smithsonian Institution is included in the Annual Report

for that year (McKinley 1873: 422-428). Apparently this is the first

mention of a shell ring site. The first excavations at Sapelo were some

twenty years later. Clarence B. Moore and field party conducted excavations

within the largest shell enclosure (1897: 71-73). As a result of Moore's

coastal investigations, two other shell ring sites were reported (1899).

However, because large quantities of artifacts were not forthcoming, Moore's

group shied away from further excavations in ring sites. Fifty years

later, the first scientific investigation of a shell ring was headed by

Antonio J. Waring, Jr., in the largest Sapelo Island ring (Waring and

Larson 1968: 263-278).

Circular accumulations of shell dot the barrier islands along the










4

coast of South Carolina and Georgia. Shell ring sites are located on the

first barrier island, or as is more commonly the case, on islands in the

lagoon and estuaries between the initial barrier and the mainland.

Ring sites are frequently located in salt marsh environments. At this time,

known distribution is limited to the states of South Carolina and Georgia.

South Carolina reports twenty-two; Georgia has at least half that many.

Table 1 summarizes published distributional information. It is possible

that two additional shell ring sites exist in Florida (Talbot Island,

Jupiter Island). The cultural inventories of these sites do not exhibit

any similarity to Georgia and South Carolina sites. Oysters (Crassostrea

virginica) are the most abundant constituents, but other species are

present, particularly clam (Mercenaria sp.) whelk (Busycon carica), and

ribbed mussel (Geukeysia demissa). While most species are estuarine,

several terrestrial forms are observed. In addition to molluscs, sediment,

vertebrate remains and human cultural materials are present.

Dimensions of the shell rings are extremely variable (Table 2).

In general, diameter ranges from 37 to 46 meters. Height also varies

considerably, a result to some extent of time and weathering. All

measurements are given in metric. While a few rings have a complete

circular contour, most are incomplete in some aspect. Erosion, shell

borrowing, and initial construction design may account for this.

Speculations regarding ring function began with McKinley's (1873)

suggestion of use for games, ceremonials, or torture. Since that

time, additional hypotheses have been offered. Moore (1897), as

another possible explanation, considered fortifications. Waring and

Larson concluded that the Sapelo Island rings were public in nature and




























































FIGURE 1. Shell Ring Site Distribution.





Table 1: Site Distribution, South Carolina and Georgia


Site Designation Location Source


Sewee

Stratton Place

Buzzards Island

Crows Island

Yough Hall (Auld)

Hobcaw

Lighthouse Point

Hanckel Mound

Horse Island

Fig Island 1

Fig Island 2

Fig Island 3

Murrays island

Chester Field


38CN45

38CH24

38CH23

38CH60

38CH41

38CH46

38CH12

38CH7

38CH14

38CH42

38CH42

38CH42

38CH61

38BU29


South Carolina
Bull Bay

Leeward of Capers Island

Leeward of Capers Island

Leeward of Capers Island

Leeward of Dewees Island

Charleston

James Island

Wadmalaw Island

Leeward of Seabrook Island

Edisto Island

Edisto Island

Edisto Island

Edisto Island

Port Royal Island


Guerard Point 38BU21


Edwards 1965

Hemmings and Waddell n.d.

Hemmings and Waddell n.d.

Hemmings Field Map

Crane and Griffin 1964:9-10

Hemmings and Waddell n.d.

Hemmings and Waddell nd.

Hemmings and Waddell nd.

Hemmings and Waddell n.d.

Hemmings Field Map

Hemmings 1970a, 1970b

Hemmings 1970a

Hemmings Field Map

Flannery 1943:147-153
Griffin 1943:159-167

Hemmings and Waddell n.d.


Okatee River





Table 1 Continued.


Site Designation Location Source


Large Ford Ring

Small Ford Ring

Sea Pines Ring


Pagelson Ring

South Ring

Ring near Skidaway

Oemler (North)

Sapelo Ring 1

Sapelo Ring 2

Sapelo Ring 3

A. Busch Krick

Bony Hammock

Ring at Cannon's Pt.

West Ring


38BU8

38BU8

38BU7


9CH 15

9CH77

9CHl11

9CH14

9Mc123

9Mc123

9Mc123

9Mc187

9GN53

9GN57

9GN76


South Carolina
Hilton Head Island, north

Hilton Head Island, north

Hilton Head Island, south

Georgia
Skidaway Island

Skidaway Island

Skidaway Island

Savannah

Sapelo Island

Sapelo Island

Sapelo Island

Creighton Island

St. Simon's Island

St. Simon's Island

St. Simon's Island


Calmes 1968:45-48

Calmes 1968:45-48

Calmes 1968:45-48


DePratter n.d.

DePratter n.d.

DePratter n.d.

Waring 1940:182

More 1897

Waring and Larson 1955-60



Crusoe and DePratter n.d.

DePratter n.d.

Marrinan 1973

Marrinan 1975


--





Table 2: Shell Ring Dimensions (in meters)


Approximate Surface
Site Diameter Height Base Width Area Excavated Source


Fig Island

Chester Field

Large Ford

Small Ford

Sapelo I

Sapelo 2

Sapelo 3

A. Busch Krick

Bony Hammock

Cannon's Point

West Ring

Skidaway South

Pagelsen Ring

Ring near Skidaway

Oemler North


38

30

49

42

46-53

28

15x27


.9-1.5

.9-1.5

1.8

0.6

3

.9



1.2-2.1

1.5-2.1

1.3-1.75

0.65-0.45

3-5

.3

1.5

1.2-1.5 (west)
.3-.6 (east)


9-12

7.6

15

15

9

6







11,5

12


76.7 m2

24.18 m2





108.7 m2





7.53 m2

1.67 m2t

49 m2

8 m2


Hemmings 1970

Flannery 1943

Calmes 1968

Calmes 1968

McKinley 1873





DePratter n,d.

DePratter n.d.

Marrinan

Marrinan

DePratter n.d.

DePratter n.d.

DePratter n.d.

DePratter n.d.









9

represented some ... ceremonial or social arrangement ... (1955-60:

273). After excavations in the Sewee Mound ring in South Carolina,

Edwards concluded that the site represented the remains of an aboriginal

fishtrap (1965). Refuse debris from internal pile dwellings is another

suggestion (Caldwell as quoted in Crusoe 1973). Unpublished sources

have contended that these sites were supports-for structures built

directly on the midden accumulation or protection fot dwellings

located within.

It should be mentioned at the outset that some argument exists

regarding ring origin as being of natural construction rather than

human. Proponents of the natural origin view contend that redeposition of

naturally occurring oyster bars and human cultural debris by storms and

currents is responsible. Clarence B. Moore was convinced of their

human origin but interested himself in determining them to be aboriginal

rather than English. This study suggests human construction responsible

for ring sites. Data supporting this contention will be presented

in Chapter 3.

Previous Investigations and Interpretations

An examination of the results of four shell ring site excavations is

made at this point since information from these sites comprises the foundation

for existing interpretations of prehistory during the Late Archaic.

The relevant sites are Sapelo Island Ring Number 1 (Waring and Larson 1955-60

263-278), Sewee Mound (Edwards 1965), Hilton Head Island Rings (Calmes

1968), and Fig Island (Hemmings 1970a, 1970b). Because the following

comments are general considerations, the reader is referred to Appendix 1

for a detailed summary of information available for these sites.








10

Previous excavation strategy followed two basic approaches. Waring and

Larson and Hemmings excavated 10-foot wide trenches from approximate

ring center through the shell deposit to the exterior edge. Edwards and

Calmes selected a smaller sampling size (5-foot square units) and

tested more locations within the site.

Excavation techniques varied significantly. No use of screens is

reported by Waring and Larson or Calmes. Hemmings used 1/4-inch

screen as a standard at Fig Island and relied on window screen for separating

material recovered from features. After observing the quantities of

faunal material lost through 1/4-inch screen, Edwards changed to 1/8

inch. Additionally, he used water separation in the screening process.

Location of sites presented some logistical problems for investigators.

Hemmings and Edwards experienced tidal innundation during excavation

because of low elevation above sea level. The higher elevation of the

Sapelo Island sites precluded such problems with tidal water or elevated

ground water levels during excavation.

Reporting of information is sketchy. Waring and Larson's (1955-60: 263-278).

report appears in The Waring Papers, published in 1968. Until a few

years ago, this report was considered a rather thorough job. In comparison

with more recent archaeological research, it lacks information on many

relevant questions. Calmes (1968) brief paper comprises the total

published information on the Hilton Head Island sites. Oriented

toward establishing chronological placement of the sites on the basis of

ceramics, it offers very little else. Edwards' (1965) report is

entitled "preliminary." No further analysis has been made public.

Information on Hemmings' Fig Island excavations are contained in two

papers dealing very generally with that site. Faunal information for


~











this site is available from the Zooarchaeology Laboratory, Florida State

Museum. The Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology of the University of

South Carolina has graciously made their copies of Hemmings' artifact

analyses available.

Data are variously interpreted. The following discussion summarizes

interpretations of excavators and other southeastern prehistorians;. The

origins of human inhabitants of the coastal area during this time period

(circa 2500-1000 BC) are obscured by the fact that there is no solid

evidence for an inland-coastal cultural continuum. Sites dating within

the time span circa 4000-2000 BC are absent in the coastal plain.

Waring (1940:191) posits an inland cultural development for coastal

peoples based on lithic technology. Since no lithic material is

naturally available in the coastal strand, Waring and lately Crusoe and

DePratter (n.d.:15), agree that previous cultural development in an inland

area is probable. The extensive shell heaps in the states of Tennessee,

Kentucky, and Nothern Alabama are offered as examples of possible

sources of a cultural tradition that later adapted to the lower

Atlantic coast (Stoltman 1972:53). Basic similarities in riverine and

coastal subsistence are also offered as further substantiation of the

riverine origins of these peoples. Riverine mollusc gatherers are

believed to have made the adjustment of estuarine mollusc procurement while

fishing and hunting techniques required only slight reorientation to.the

new environment.

Analysis of the cultural remains rests on three important artifact

classes: pottery, projectile points, and worked bone. Shell tools, a

common component of cultural inventories in coastal sites are not

distinctive enough for the purposes of tracing cultural affiliations.








12

Ceramics appear early in this geographical area and are very distinctive

In the United States, ceramics initially occur in the southeast and are

dated at circa 2500 BC (Stoltman 1966:872). These ceramics are fiber-

tempered; a typological distinction based on the inclusion of vegetal

material as a tempering agent. A plain ceramic horizon preceded decorated

ceramic types (Waring and Larson 1955460; Hemmings 1970b; Milanich 1971).

Evidence for this progression is observed at Bilbo, Sapelo Island, and

Stallings Island (located at the Fall Line on the Savannah River near

Augusta, Georgia). Ceramics are variously termed: Stallings, Bilbo, St.

Simons. It should be noted here that the type site for fiber-tempered

ceramics is the Stallings Island site (Claflin 1931). It is riverine

in orientation. Subsequent reports of fiber-tempered ceramics in Georgia

and South Carolina were lumped under the Stallings nomen. Decorative

types included incision, punctation, combinations of these techniques, and

drag and jab (frequently called linear punctation). Ceramics are

apparently hand-molded as no evidence of coil fracturing is observed.

In South Carolina, ceramics are primarily sand-tempered and typed

Awendaw, Horse Island, or Thoms Creek (DePratter, Jefferies, and Pearson

1974). Radiocarbon dates indicate that sand-tempered and fiber-tempered

ceramics are at least partially contemporary in occurrence with the latter

occurring first. It is possible that Awendaw and Horse Island are coastal

variants of the Thoms Creek type which is identified for inland

contexts. Ceramic types overlap geographically. Fiber-tempered types

are reported from as far north as the Edisto River drainage in South

Carolina. Sand-tempered types are reported along the Savannah River

drainage from the coast inland.

Lithic artifacts associated with fiber-tempered ceramic sites (rings

and middens) are large, triangular stemmed projectile points usually








13

termed Savannah River Stemmed. It has been noted that recovery of any

quantity of lithic material from ring sites is not usual. These sites are

especially non-productive of lithic debris and worked examples. Bilbo,

a non-ring midden site located near Savannah, Georgia, yielded large

quantities of lithic artifacts (Waring 1940: 152-197). It is contended

that this feature is unusual in the coastal area (Crusoe and DePratter

n.d.; Marrinan 1973).

Bone tools include both crude and sophisticated workmanship. Some

forms are consistent and stylized enough to be described and given type

names. The long bones of deer were fashioned into several types of

artifacts, but the most distinctive one is the Bilbo-style bone pin des-

cribed by Waring (1940: 165-171). This artifact is made from a split

section of the deer metapodial and frequently retains a portion of the

proximal articular surface. Incised designs are occasionally present on

the surface. Geometric motifs are the usual decoration; naturalistic

designs are unknown. Waring contends that the style changes from a

"nail-head type" to an "expanded-headed type" (1940-42: 254). Thus the

latter pin style indicated a later chronological placement to Waring

(1940-42: 254).

Chronological Assessment

Radiocarbon dates for fiber-tempered sites (both ring and midden)

fall within a 2500-1000 BC time range. This period has been termed

Stallings, St. Simon's, Bilbo, Sapelo-St. Simon's, and Fiber-tempered.

Chronological designations are categorical conventions used to organize

information, artifacts, and sometimes intuition. Using such a structure,

prehistory is examined and interpreted. At times, these exercises

become particularly cumbersome as the chronological dilemma of fiber-

tempered sites aptly exemplifies.








14

Understanding Late Archaic cultural developments on the Georgia

coast is complicated by the assignment of several typological names

derived from distinct geographical locales (e.g. Stallings, Bilbo, St.

Simon's). There is a lack of consensus regarding just what criteria

should be used in developing these designations: artifacts or adaptations.

There is also a tendency to use attributes of a single artifact as the

basis for developing typological levels.

Waring (1940: 160) observed that Stallings nomen cannot be applied to

the coastal sites since there were too many dissimilarities. These observed

differences were ceramic: vessel shape and thickness, execution of a

punctated design, presence of crude simple stamping on vessel bottoms

(1940: 160). He proposed a bipartite Bilbo nomen: Bilbo I with plain fiber-

tempered ceramics and Bilbo II with decorated fiber-tempered ceramics and

elaborately decorated bone pins. Williams (1968: 320-321) presented a

Stallings Island Culture composed of a Stallings Island Phase, a Bilbo

Phase, and a St. Simon's Phase. This structuring encompasses the geographical

aspect but considers little else.

Milanich (1971: 119-128) expressed dissatisfaction with the equating

of Stallings Island and the coastal cultural traditions. He developed a

bipartite division for the coast: Sapelo Phase and St. Simon's Phase.

The Sapelo Phase is associated with shell ring sites but temporally overlaps

the midden-related St. Simon's Phase. These phases mark the beginning of what

Milanich called the "Coastal Tradition" and are based on radiocarbon

dates, differences in subsistence orientation, distinct settlement types, and

artifact inventories. Crusoe (n.d.: 4-10) presented a four-part

division (Stallings 1-4) articulating the Georgia area with Bullen's









15

(1954: 47) Orange chronology for Florida. The criteria for these divi-

sions are primarily changes in manufacture and decoration of fiber-tempered

ceramics. It is rather obvious that no consensus exists. Table 3 summa-

rizes the different chronologies.

The Cultural Phenomena

At this point, it is pertinent to summarize the cultural phenomena

peculiar to the coast as exemplified by fiber-tempered ceramic sites in general

and shell ring sites in particular. The explication and explanation of these

cultural developments are the tasks to which this study is addressed.

A. Reliance on molluscs is the most obvious characteristic. This

subsistence strategy is held responsible for influencing settlement pattern

and allowing more sedentary existence. Lengthy settlements are inferred

from the extensive and deep deposits. Habitation areas during the time

period circa 2500-1000 BC are of two types: ring and amorphous midden.

Both are primarily composed of shellfish refuse. Some researchers consider

coastal inhabitants derived from inland riverine shellfish gatherers (e.g.

Tennessee River Valley Archaic people).

B. Ceramics first appear in the United States at this time. The

inclusion of ceramics in a site inventory once lent credence to claims

of sedentism (as well as horticulture). A nomadic existence was said to

be ruled out by the problems of transporting ceramics. In Georgia

and extending to the Edisto River drainage of South Carolina, fiber-tempered

ceramic types are recovered. For the remainder of the area of distribution

of shell ring sites (to the Santee River in South Carolina) and with some over-

lapping at the coast and inland in the Savannah River drainage, sand-tempered

types occur.

C. Cultural inventories are sparse and quantities of recovered arti-

facts vary with location. There is also some suggestion that inventories





Table 3: Chronological Summary.


Waring Williams Milanlch Crusoe


Bilbo Period
Bilbo I
Bilbo II


APPLICATION Inland and
coastal sites









CRITERIA Bilbo Period
duration of
fiber-tempered
ceramics
Bilbo I
plain fiber-
tempered cer-
amics
plain or simply
decorated nail
head bone pins
baked clay objs.
large, stemmed
equilateral tri-
angular projec-
tile points


Stallings Culture
Stallings Is. Phase
Bilbo Phase
St. Simon's Phase

Stallings Is. Phase
Stallings Is. and
nearby inland
sites
Bilbo Phase
coastal Savannah
River area
St. Simon's Phase
Mclntosh and Glynn
counties

Not developed


Coastal Tradition
Sapelo Phase
St. Simon's Phase


coastal sites










Sapelo Phase
Georgia and South
Carolina ring
sites
St: Simon's Phase
Coastal Georgia
non-ring fiber-
tempered ceramic
sites


Stallings Period
Stallings I-IV



coastal and inland sites for
duration of fiber-tempered
ceramics








Stallings
I -absence of decoration
II -punctated and incised
decoration
Ill-grooved designs and
rims introduced
IV -pottery began to be made
with other tempering
agents





Table 3 Continued.


Waring Williams MTlanich Crusoe


CRITERIA Bilbo II
decorated fiber-
tempered ceramics
expanded head elab-
orately decorated
bone pins

DATES 2000-1000BC Sapelo I 2500-1800 BC
1000-500 BC St. 11 1800-1500 BC
Simon's Phase III 1500-1200 BC
IV 1200-100 BC

SOURCE Waring 1968:254 Williams 1968:320-1 Milanich 1973:51-53 Crusoe n.d.:4-10
1971:119-28












vary with type of site (i.e. middens may be more productive than ring

sites). Sites nearer the Savannah River contain more lithic material.

Bone pins are a very important diagnostic artifact but their function

is uncertain. Cultural inventories are composed of subsistence-

oriented items made of locally available materials.

D. At approximately 1000 BC there is an end to this lifestyle.

Molluscs decline in subsistence importance, new ceramic types

utilizing different construction and tempering techniques appear, and

cultural inventories change.

This then was the cultural problem to be archaeologically

investigated and interpreted. A better explanation of the particular

adaptation made by the occupants of the coastal area was obviously a very

real need considering both the data base available for archaeological

interpretation as well as the interpretations generated.














CHAPTER 2

EXCAVATIONS ON CANNON'S POINT PART 1: SUMMER 1973, SPRING 1974

Present Environment

The Atlantic mainland is protected by barrier islands along the

majority of its extent. These islands are characteristically elongated in

contour and result from deposition of water- and wind-borne sediments.

Width is usually limited to several kilometers, but length may exceed 160

kilometers. St. Simon's Island is one of the southern barrier islands

along the Georgia coast. Located between Sapelo and Jekyll Islands, it is

approximately 57 kilometers from the Georgia-Florida border (Fig. 2).

The northern end of St. Simon's Island is divided into two points of

land: Butler Point on the west and Cannon's Point on the east (Fig. 3).

These points are separated by an expanse of salt marsh through which Jones

Creek meanders. The archaeological project area comprises the entire

eastern point. To the north, the area is bounded by the Hampton River;

on the south by a property line fronting on Lawrence Road. Little

St. Simon's Island forms a protective barrier to the north against the

Altamaha River and against the Atlantic Ocean on the east. Consequently,

the Cannon's Point area is sufficiently distant (3.8 km) from the first

barrier that vegetational wind forms produced by increased salt content in the at-

mosphere are observed only in a very marginal fringe along the marsh edge.

Extensive changes in the floral cover of Cannon's Point have been

affected since the Plantation Period by land clearing for cultivation of

commercial and staple crops and by free ranging cattle and pigs. In a



















































FIGURE 2. St. Simon's Island and Adjacent Islands.





























































FIGURE 3. The Cannon's Point Project Area.









22

very limited way, this practice is continued today. During the Plantation

Period, a lane of oaks was planted along the main access to the planter's

home. John Hamilton Couper whose family owned the Cannon's Point Plantation

from 1794-1861 was an ardent amateur naturalist who introduced many

different plant species (Lyell 1849). Land clearance probably left few

areas of Cannon's Point untouched. In some-areas, live oaks (Quercus

virglnlana) are all the same size and pines are heavily concentrated in

other areas (it Is not clear if this condition represents planting of pine

or regrowth of a previously cleared area).

Floral cover of the Marsh Ring site (9GN57) is presently dominated by

cedars (Juniperus virginiana) which evidence wind forms and stunting. A

few oaks are observed. The understory is sparse but yaupon (Ilex!vomitori )

and marsh (Iva sp.) elder are present. Yucca (Yucca alterniflora) grows

on the highest elevation of the ring. Because the ring is open on its

northeast arc, a marsh vegetation composed primarily of Spartina

alterniflora grows within. Outside the ring stretches an extensive salt

marsh dominated by Spartina and Juncus romerianus, interrupted only by

meandering tidal creeks. Presently, the closest tidal creek is located

at approximately 160 meters distance. Nearest high ground is 35 meters

southwest, the edge of which is fringed by palmetto (Serenoa reopens ,

yucca, oak, and cedar. The West Ring (9GN76) Is located some 85 meters

southwest of the marsh ring on high ground. On its south arc, this ring

erodes into the marsh. Oaks, magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), cedar,

hickory (Carya), and hackberry (Celtis) are common in the floral cover of

this area. Yucca, palmetto, Smilax sp., yaupon, and grapes (Vitis)

contribute to a rather dense understory in the immediate ring environment.

Spanish moss is found within the forest margin.








23

In the Hampton River, the average annual tidal factor is guaged at 2.1

meters (United States Commerce Department 1954). At periods of high tide,

the marsh ring is completely surrounded by water and the center innundated.

Fiddler crabs (Uca spp.) abound in and around the marsh ring. A species

of land crab Is frequently observed in the trees atop the marsh ring but

incidence drops as one progresses Into the forest. Salicornia virginica

a common marsh plant is frequently observed in the moist areas near the

land edge (Carlton 1975:13). A small freshwater stream possibly the result

of ditches constructed during the plantation period empties into the marsh

west of the ring sites. Water is caught in a shallow depression inland

and flows easterly into the marsh during wet periods. Flow is minimal

during dry periods. Although topographic maps show several artesian

wells in the area of Cannon's Point, none are presently free-flowing.

Terrestrial animals seen in the vicinity of the rings include birds,

mammals, and reptiles; both native and introduced forms. Deer, raccoons,

and opossums have been observed during daylight hours and after dark.

Feral pigs, cows, and horses are presently free in the area. Marsh

hawks (Circus cyaneus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo Jamaicensis), are the

largest predatory birds seen. Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) are

frequently observed. Wood ibis (Mycteria americana) and herons (Ardea

herodlas and Hydranassa tricolor) are common shore birds. Red-winged

blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura),

pleated woodpeckers (Hylatomus pileatus), painted buntings (Passerina

ciris), and blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) are frequently observed in

the immediate surroundings. Diamond-back terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin)

and musk turtles (Kinosternon sp.) were observed on the ring sites.









24

Several snakes were present: black racer (Coluber constrictor), indigo

(Drymarchon corals), and corn snake (Elaphe guttata).

Excavation Strategy: Objective and Techniques

A review of available shell ring literature initially suggested the

following problems for investigation:

a. ring function
b. subsistence reconstruction
c. radiocarbon dating for southern distributional extent

Determining the manner by which the site was deposited offered the

most plausible means of approaching the question of function. Utilization

of large, adjacent excavation units was thought to provide the most

efficient means of examining stratigraphy, changes in contour, or features

related to structures on or in the ring. A 3 x 3 meter excavation unit

size was selected. Additionally, systematic mapping of cultural and

subsistence material was planned to overcome the difficulties of excavating

a shell site.

Screening was considered imperative to reconstructing aboriginal

subsistence strategies. Past reports had all too casually dispensed with

this aspect. One-fourth inch screen was selected for standard screening

with additional reliance on flotation of material from features. Quantities

of faunal material were anticipated, but recovery of floral remains was

considered particularly important. Flotation was intended to provide the

means of recovering floral material.

Radicarbon dates were similarly considered important. The Cannon's

Point excavations represent a southern extreme of shell ring distribution.

On the basis of the nearest similar site, a relative date of circa 1500 BC









25

was selected as a working date. The Sapelo Island Number 1 Ring had an

average radiocarbon date of 1750 BC and primarily plain ceramics. The

marsh ring was known to have decorated sherds from a surface collection made

in 1972 by the author.

Summer 1973: Excavation Summary

Field crew members numbered five persons for the ten week session.

A section of the south arc of the marsh ring was selected for excavation

because of the absence of tree cover. A transit station (ON,OE) was

established on the southwest arc and tied to a benchmark on the nearest

high ground (Fig. 4). A surveyor's stake from the 1970 property survey

was located and a large cedar next to this stake became the benchmark.

An east grid line was set out with stakes at 3-meter intervals. From

this line, a north-south stake line was set out at 15E and 18E. The area

included a 3-meter wide cut across the ring from south to north. Originally,

excavating a north-south trench across the ring was planned.

The matrix encountered in the south arc was a sticky, chocolate

colored clay. It was impossible to separate material in the screen.

Midway through the field session, a pump was secured allowing water

separation of material. This procedure facilitated processing of excavated

midden material and undoubtedly increased recovery. Water was obtained

from two reservoir sumps dug in the marsh floor south of the ring. While

digging the second of these pits, considerable aboriginal cultural

materials were exposed at a depth of 0.6-0.7 meters below the present

marsh surface. Additionally, the stumps of two trees were observed but

no shell deposit was seen.



















































FIGURE 4. The Marsh Ring (9GN57) and Marsh Excavation Units.









27

In the midden excavation units (a6S, 15E and 09S, 15E), removal of

material proceeded in 15 cm levels; actual midden removal was accomplished

by 5 cm layers. Initially three and four prong rakes were used but

these were discarded since it became apparent that they posed problems for

vertical control as well as the trauma to midden inclusions. Trowelling

was a slower but more precise means of removing material.

Tests were begun in the ring center (OON, 15E and 03N, 15E). Stripping

of superficial marsh grasses was done by hand. Initially, screening was

attempted but this proved productive only in areas where midden was

projecting into the excavation units (in DON, 15E only). Finally, a

I x 1 meter sondage was made prior to leaving the field. This test

revealed a sandy deposit below the marsh grass and was virtually sterile.

Excavation units in the ring midden provided quantities of faunal

material. In addition, a sizeable ceramic sample was obtained. Sherds

were all fiber-tempered. Plain ceramics were more frequent than decorated.

Motifs included punctation, incision, and combinations of these. Several

sherds suggestive of Orange Series motifs were recovered. Shell tools,

basally blunted and having holes near the spire, were infrequent midden

inclusions. Several examples of worked bone were recovered but none were

decorated beyond circumferentially incised lines. Neither of the units

opened in the ring midden were completed.

Excavations below the marsh surface (027S, 18E and 0275, 21E) exposed

fiber-tempered ceramics in association with grit-tempered sherds. Faunal

remains were present but minimal. A few nutshells (Carya spp.) were

recovered. These findings suggested a now-drowned cultural deposit made









28

at a time when the environment in the vicinity of the marsh ring differed

significantly.

Testing in the ring center was not extensive and revealed no features

suggesting either structures or disturbance. In the excavation of oON,15E,

the extent of midden deposit contracted perceptibly toward the ring

evidencing slump. This indicated that the ring was higher and basally

thinner than its present dimensions.

Spring, 1974: Excavation-Summary

The field crew numbered nine people for the ten week session. Of

initial concern was the completion of the two opened units on the south arc

of the ring. it soon became evident, however, that this pursuit was an

impossibility given the tidal conditions. Ground water levels were too

high and continuous pooling of muddy water forced abandonment of this

area. Attention was turned to the area of highest elevation on the north

side of the ring. The grid system was extended northward and two adjacent

units (ol8N,OE and I18N,3E) were opened in the area of maximum height.

These 3x3-meter units extended along the apex of the ring.

As a direct result of our 1973 findings, changes were made in both

excavation techniques and In processing. Excavation preceded by 5 cm.

levels to allow observation of changes in cultural material, flora, and

fauna. A 30 cm.2 column sample area was reserved in each square to allow

qualification and quantification of midden constituents. Screen size was

reduced to 1/8-inch. This change was motivated chiefly by dissatisfaction

with previous floral recovery. Two standing screens having 3/4x3/8-inch

expanded mesh upper screens and 1/8-inch detachable underscreens had been









29
constructed. Use of flotation sampling was again planned for features and

areas of high humic content.

A sump was dug several meters off the north edge of the ring. Again,

ceramics were exposed associated with the remains of trees. No aboriginal

flora or faunal materials were recovered. The grid was extended to enclose

this area (041N,12E) and the finds were mapped in place. The original

intention in digging the sump was to allow processing of excavated

materials on the north side of the ring. Wheelbarrows were used to

transport excavated midden to the screens on the marsh floor for processing.

This practice eliminated problems from backdirt.

In addition to the sump excavation unit (ahlN,12E), two additional

units were opened In the marsh north of the ring (o54N,12E and c80N,12E).

A small quantity of ceramics and one historic or modern fencepost were

recovered. The post was cedar and had bark adhering to the exterior.

As the distance of excavation units increased from the vicinity of the

Marsh Ring, the incidence of cultural material decreased.

A superficial scattering (0-10 cm.) of grit-tempered sherds was

observed in the north ring excavation units. No decorated ceramics were

recovered during this field session. One-half meter of midden material

was removed and processed from each square. One shell disc bead and one

bone point were recovered in the screens. Faunal recovery was heavy;

flora, particularly Carya and Celtis were frequently observed in the matrix

and in the screens.

Because the excavations in the marsh north of the ring had shown no

concentration of cultural material, attention was turned toward the south

marsh. Two adjacent 3x3-meter units were opened (033S,15E and 033S,12E).










Both squares proved productive far in excess of our expectations.

Excavation proceeded by shovel until cultural material was encountered.

Usually fragments of carbonized wood were exposed Immediately above the

cultural deposit. Once cultural material had been exposed, trowels were

used. Cultural materials and features were mapped in place for future

study of distribution and associations. A Igrge stump, apparently burned

in place was an interesting feature. Adjacent to it was a large cedar

root burned only on the side next to the stump_(west).

Attempts to return to the two south excavation units in the ring

proper continued to be frustrated by high tides. A new unit (030N,3E)

opened on the north arc of the ring at the intersection of midden and

marsh met with the same problems. It was possible, however, to note that

slump in this area had been more gradual than that noted in the south ring

interior (oON,15E).

A second ring site was identified by testing during the Christmas

holiday in 1973 (Fig. 5). The West Ring (9GN76) was located on land

southwest of the marsh ring. It was incomplete on the south side where

intersection with the marsh occurs. Presently the site is located beneath

a substantial humic layer from hardwoods and thick understory. A 2x2-meter

unit (Test 1) had been opened on its north arc and screened using 3/4x3/8-inch

expanded metal screen. Fifteen centimeter levels were used but time did

not allow completion of the test. After the unit had been excavated to

45 cm. below the surface, only the southern 1x2 half of the square was

excavated to sterile (65 cm.). Sand-tempered sherds and one possible

complicated stamped sherd were recovered in the first level; below this













*--Z- N


FIGURE 5. The West Ring (9GN76) Diagrammatic Representation.


'''''~ Li
I 1 ' '' '.'r ?
*. -.
'0 i 7 .*Is.L9 .'..cf1



'-~.4 ' *

'J*& r'. 'C'
..r ~~~ I *, :;I:-1
II C



-I: *. -i "& .4'$.t *! I* ,
.1.. L.~r:~'37
4'L'


'I..,~ 'I ** *' 71

It .' I:''".










decorated and plain fiber-tempered sherds were collected. Harsh

periwinkle (Littorina irrorata) shells were recovered In greater frequencies

In this test than in the marsh ring. Their use as food items was indicated

by the consistent removal of the spires of each shell.

During the Spring 1974 Field Session, the unexcavated northern 1x2

meter half of Test I was excavated and processed using water separation

over 1/8-inch screen. The results presented in Appendix 2 offer a strong

case of the value, in terms of recovery, for use of fine screens in shell

sites. A second 2x2 meter test (o5S,30E) was opened on the east side of

the ring. Material was removed in 5 cm. levels. The unit was not completed

prior to the close of this field Session.

Preliminary Observations

After the first two field sessions, numerous observations were

stated preliminary to formulating hypotheses by which to structure the

following Summer Field Session excavations. There were many interesting

aspects of excavation findings to consider for more vigorous testing. An

assessment of these observations follows.

A. Environmental change: The presence of a cultural deposit below

the present marsh surface suggested an instability in the marsh in this

area. Evidence of the continuing changing relationship of marsh and high

ground on the east side of Cannon's Point is observed by the marginal

area of dead and dying trees along the marsh edge. The marsh was thus

perceived as a dynamic factor in the Cannon's Point environment. The

fact that the ring, at deposition had stood in a forested area indicated

that the "fishtrap" hypothesis was not valid.









33

B. Ceramics: A plain to decorated ceramic continuum seemed to be

indicated by preliminary findings from the south ring at excavation units.

Decorated ceramics were confined to the upper three levels (0-45 cm.).

Below that, to the depth that excavation had progressed (90 cm.), only

plain ceramics were recovered. A cultural level having fiber-tempered

ceramics and grit-tempered ceramics located 0.5-1.0 meters below the

present marsh surface suggested an occupation following the ring-

building inhabitants and not associated with mollusc midden debris. While

flora, fauna, and cultural material were recovered, no mollusc concentration

was exposed beneath the marsh surface. Some contact with the St. Johns

River area of present day Florida was indicated by the presence of Orange

Series ceramic motifs. These are illustrated in Appendix 3. Evidence

of this contact had been initially observed by Holder (1938) and noted

again by DePratter (n.d.) at the Bony Hammock site on St. Simon's Island.

C. Lithics: An increased amount of lithic material, slight though

it was, in the marsh cultural level and the West Ring indicated an

availability and use not demonstrated in the Marsh Ring. This suggested

a change related to the increased amounts of deer present.

D. Subsistence: Marked differences in faunal recovery were obvious.

For example, fish remains were numerous in the Marsh Ring faunal assemblage

but the lower levels of the West Ring provided evidence that use of fish

had far greater importance (both by number of species identified and number

of individuals) to the Inhabitants of that site. Marsh periwinkles,

small marsh-dwelling gastropods were found in the West Ring midden used as

food items, suggesting a need to utilize less productive resources.









34

Periwinkles have far less food value to offer for the time expended in

gathering and preparation. The midden deposit was much thinner (0.65 cm)

in the West Ring than in the Marsh Ring (average 1.3 m). Appendix 5 clearly

shows that faunal elements present in the marsh cultural level were higher

in numbers of deer and small mammals. Reptiles were noticeably more

frequent. Fish, while present, were not numerous.

E. Dates: The working date, selected from a comparison of the Sapelo

Island Ring (Number 1) suggested a 1000 year-time span (marsh ring, West

Ring, and marsh cultural deposit). Because grit-tempered ceramics

included no check-stamping, a later decorative trait, a terminal date of

750 BC was selected. The working time range was then 1750-750 BC. Table 4

lists radiocarbon dates for shell ring sites.

After considering these points, an hypothesis based on marsh change

to account for the observed differences in faunal procurement offered a

point from which future excavations could be directed and analysis structured.

Test implications supporting such an hypothesis basically depended on

continuing support for the observations noted above. The proposed 750 year

time span did not seem unreasonable given the three cultural entities.

Length of debris accumulation was estimated from Hilton Head Island sites.

Calmes (1968) reported that the Sea Pines ring had two feet of deposit and

totalled approximately 300 years. On Hilton Head Island, Calmes (1968: 45-58)

obtained radiocarbon dates for the Ford Rings (Large and Small) representing

a total deposition time in excess of 800 years (eight feet and two feet of

midden deposit respectively). Test implications would be examined through

extending excavation in the West Ring and marsh cultural deposit.





Table 4: Radiocarbon Dates for Shell Ring Sites.


Site Date Material/Significance Source


Yough Hall

Large Ford Ring


Small Ford Ring

Sea Pines Ring


Sapelo Island


A. Busch Krick


Cannon's Point
Ring
(Marsh Ring)

West Ring


1820 BC:3770 + 130 BP (M-1209)

1635 BC:3585 + 115 BP (1-2850)
1170 BC:3120 + 110 BP (1-2849)

1940 BC:3890 + 110 BP (1-3047)

1450 BC:3400 + 110 BP (1-2848)
1160 BC:3110 7 110 BP (1-2847)

1650 BC:3600 + 350 BP (M-39)
1850 BC:3800 350 BP (M-39)

1265 BC:3215 + 80 BP (UGA-226)
1520 BC:3470 T 85 BP (UGA-227)

1815BC:3765 + 90BP (UM-521)
2240 BC:4190 + 90 BP (UM-520)


1655 BC:3605 + 110 BP (UM-523)
1910 BC:3860 + 90 BP (UM-522)


Oyster: Upper level

Charcoal: 56-57" (Level 9)
Oyster: 27" (Level 4)

Charcoal: Basal level

Clam: 20-26" (Basal level)
Conch: 0-6" (Upper level)

Oyster: Dates early ceramics


Conch: 5.7-6.0 ft.
Charcoal: 4.6 ft.

Oyster: Dates upper level
Oyster: Dates lower levels
human cranium

Oyster: Dates upper levels
Oyster: Dates lower levels


Williams 1968:330-331
Calmes 1968:47






Williams 1968:329


Crusoe and DePratter
1972:13-19

Eldrldge 1975









36

Completion of all opened excavation units in the marsh ring would end

excavation at that site. Analysis would be oriented at reconstruction of

the aboriginal environment.















CHAPTER 3

EXCAVATIONS ON CANNON'S POINT PART II: SUMMER 1974, WINTER 1975

Formulation of Hypotheses and Test Implications

Information from analysis was at this point adequate for the evalu-

ation of research directions. Each of the previously stated observations

was carefully considered. Overall, the most concrete and interesting

aspect of the excavation was the indication that a change in resource

usage occurred. Using the marsh ring as a base, change is reflected in

the West Ring and the marsh cultural level. The question of cause was

posed. The approach then taken considered the possibilities that such

a finding could have cultural cause, environmental cause, or a combination

of these factors could be responsible. It was decided to pursue causal

statements within the ecological realm since the cultural status of these

populations was not sufficiently developed (i.e. social organization, popu-

lation density, population size, etc.).

Several hypotheses were generated and suitable test implications

were formulated.

Hypothesis I

Ho: No perceptible change in resource usage is evident
among the Late Archaic sites in the Cannon's Point
area.

HI: A perceptible change in resource usage is evident
among the Late Archaic sites in the Cannon's Point
area.

Test Implications

11: Inter-site vertebrate inventories are comparable.

12: Inter-site molluscan usage is comparable.

37


~








38

This hypothesis offered the ability to objectively test the observation

that a change in resource usage was in fact observable and repeatable

through new excavations.

Hypothesis 2

H : During the period of occupation (ca. 1500-750 BC) no
changes in the marsh occurred.

Hi: During the period of occupation, marsh encroachment
and silting occurred.

Test Implications

I1: Submarsh shell midden having fiber-tempered ceramics
is not found.

12: Changes in the marsh occurred subsequent to the
occupation.

This hypothesis was offered both to suggest causality and establish the

time of the proposed ecological change.

Hypothesis 3

Ho: Marsh silting and land encroachment would have no effect
on molluscan and vertebrate fauna availability.

HI: Marsh silting and land encroachment would have an effect
on molluscan and vertebrate fauna availability.

Test Implications

IY: No effect can be documented in the literature.

12: No effect can be demonstrated in excavation findings.

These hypotheses offered a framework within which to structure the

Summer and Winter Field Sessions. Specific excavation goals were devised.

Extended excavations of the marsh were planned. Excavations in the marsh

north of the marsh ring indicated that the cultural concentration evident

on the south side of the ring was not present. Four units had been opened

in the marsh south of the ring and at least six more were planned to allow









39
testing of areas between the marsh ring and land. Determination of the

limits and focal areas of the cultural deposit was a goal. Testing east

of the ring was planned. If time allowed, additional testing of the West

Ring was planned. However, the investigation had been initially committed

to a strategy of collection of deep stratigraphic samples of floral,

faunal, and cultural materials from the marsh ring and no reason to aban-

don these priorities was seen.

Recovery techniques would continue in the same manner. Trowelling

of exposed material in the marsh excavation units was believed to be com-

parable to removing the material in a level. Mapping of in-place finds

was particularly important in determining the depositional nature of the

marsh cultural level.

Summer 1974: Excavation Summary

Only six weeks were given to excavations in the Late Archaic component

of the project locale during this field session. Work proceeded on the

north marsh ring units. Three additional units were opened in the marsh

south of the ring (l15S, 6W; 030S, 3W; 030S, 12W). Several levels of the

remaining uncompleted West Ring unit (1SS, 30E) were processed. Crew mem-

bers numbered between 12 and 15 persons daily.

Approximately one meter's worth of midden material was processed from

the north ring units (Gl8N, OE; 018N, 3E). Of special interest were two

features: Feature #18 (l18N, 3E) and Feature #21 (318N, OE). Feature #18

had initially been defined during the Spring 1974 session as an area of

increased incidence of floral and faunal material with a high humic content.

The feature was sampled for flotation on several occasions. A large crab

concentration (Callinectes sp., approximately 100 individuals represented)

was exposed during the Summer Field Session. Feature #21, also initially









40

defined during the Spring Field Session, was observed to be an area of

dark brown soil within the shell deposit. As excavation progressed, a

level of cemented shell was encountered. The most visible aspects of

this feature were the numerous hackberry seeds and the ashy condition

of the shells. This feature was assumed to represent a hearth. No decora-

tion was obvious on any of the ceramics recovered from the north excava-

tion units to this point.

One south ring unit (a65, 15E) was reopened but tidal problems con-

tinued. A well point was positioned in the southern (and lowest area)

portion of the square against the baulk, but problems with pump availa-

bility prevented continuous use of this means of water evacuation. The

unit was again closed after the identification of Feature #23, an area of

blue-grey sand believed to represent submidden soil mixed with obviously

weathered oyster and clam shells.

The marsh excavations were notable. Each unit contained several

lithic fragments, most of which were worked. Additionally, some worked

bone was recovered. Deer antler was a more common item than previously

observed. Ceramics continued to be exposed in the same associations.

While carbonized material was recovered in each unit, no large concentra-

tions of tree stumps or roots were encountered.

A I x 1-meter test (o6N, 8E) was opened in the shell projection in

the center of the marsh ring. The object of this test was determination

of ceramic contemporaneity of this deposit. Ceramics were all plain fiber-

tempered sherds. Sterile was reached at 0.75 meter below the present sur-

face. Material was removed by trowel and hand rake and processed through

3/4 x 3/8 inch mesh using water.











Winter 1975: Excavation Summary

With the exception of a brief look at submidden sterile in a 1 x 1-

meter test (06N, 8E), commitment to a rather laborious processing of

midden material resulted in uncompleted excavation units. An overriding

objective of the Winter Field Session was the completion of excavation

units. Crew members numbered six for the 10-week session. Weather was

expected to be problematical but fortunately was mild.

The first good look at submidden sterile-came one month into this

field session when O18N, OE was completed. Submidden was reached at 1.65

meters below the surface. Two features (#26, #27) were defined in the

interface. Both were pottery concentrations having plain fiber-tempered

sherds with the exception of one curvilinear incised and punctated fiber-

tempered sherd. A human cranium was recovered at 1.3 meters below the

surface, well within the midden deposit. A human pelvis was found at

approximately the same level but was three meters distant from the cranium.

Another remarkable feature (#24) was identified within the shell deposit.

This feature had a very high faunal content and was reminiscent of the

remains of a dumped cookpot.

Elevation of sterile was higher than anticipated. The midden deposi-

tion was apparently made in an area having a slight sandy knoll. It is

interesting to note that decorated ceramics were encountered below one

meter in depth. Decorative motifs were combinations of punctation and

incising.

Considering the time required to process midden material, it was

decided to excavate only one half of the remaining north excavation unit

(018N, 3E) to sterile. The southern half of this square was selected








42

because it contained Feature #18, an area of increased fauna and flora.

Sterile was reached at 1.65 meters. Decorated ceramics were encountered

at I meter and below. A projectile point and an elaborately engraved

bone pin fragment were recovered from the interface.

On the south side of the ring,Q6S, 15E was finally completed. Again

the interface was a highly productive area. A plain bone pin, a worked

lithic specimen, and a quantity of ceramics were recovered. Decorated

ceramics were recovered in this unit in Levels 1-3 (0-45 cm) and Levels

7-9 (90-135 cm). Sterile was reached at 1.3 meters below the present

surface. A well point was successfully used to evacuate water from this

unit. A human molar was recovered from the interface.

When the human cranium was recovered inDlSN, OE, no additional human

skeletal material could be observed. Since very little skeletal material

had been recovered from shell ring sites, examination of the area behind

(west) the baulk was indicated. A 1.5 x 2-meter excavation unit was

opened (019.5N, 2W) to expose the adjacent area. After removing 1.75

meters of shell overburden, no additional material was observed. No

screening was used, but a visual collection of flora, fauna, and cultural

material was made. Excavation of this area added a 2-meter expanse for

observation of the interface. More ceramics were recovered from this

area than in the midden. All ceramics were plain fiber-tempered.

Four excavation units were opened in the marsh: three south of

the ring (0455, 15E; 024S, 24E; o42S, 24W) and one east of the ring (oON, 58E).

In the east excavation unit, only three raccoon (Procyon lotor) teeth were

recovered after 0.75 meter of excavation. Instability of the floor (spon-

giness) forced a premature closure. The physical conditions encountered

in the unit were unlike any of the south units.









43
Each of the south marsh excavation units was remarkable in the quan-

tity of cultural material recovered. The southernmost, and least produc-

tive, square excavated in the marsh was 045S, 15E. The most westerly

and moderately productive was a42S, 24W. Additionally, below the cul-

tural level, white sand was exposed. This unit is closest to present

high ground. In the vicinity of the original marsh sump excavations of

1973, 124S, 24E was opened. A fragment of human cranium was recovered

from this unit along with the cultural and subsistence assemblage. It

should be noted that during this field session, an attempt was made to

screen material excavated from the marsh units. This proved unfeasible

because of the added water problem created by the water-screening.

There was too much additional seepage generated. If the screening could

have been done at some distance from the opened excavation unit, it would

prove more acceptable.

The West Ring excavation unit (a5S, 30E) was completed. In the basal

midden deposit, numerous potsherds were recovered. Sherds were plain and

decorated fiber-tempered ceramics. The decorative motifs were unusual

in comparison with those previously recovered. Combinations of puncta-

tion and incision in curvilinear and rectilinear designs were unlike the

primarily horizontal application usually observed. Quantities of fish

otoliths were recovered in the lowest levels of this unit in the same

manner as Test 1.

Finally, the last excavation unit to be opened in the vicinity of

the marsh ring wasdl2N, 15E, positioned in the center of the ring. The

location of this unit offered the ability to check the extent of the pro-

jection of shell in the center of the marsh ring. Previous testing had









44

revealed that it was contemporaneous to the surrounding midden on the

basis of ceramic constituents. However, as the overlying marsh accumu-

lations were removed, the projection was seen to extend into the center

much farther than indicated on the surface. Probing of this area revealed

that the situation with regard to extent of the projection is unclear.

Overlying marsh would need to be removed to make an assertion of extent

or absence in an area.

Summary of Excavation Findings

In terms of material excavated and information gathered, the Winter

Field Session had been one of the most profitable sessions. Excavation

units in the marsh ring had been completed providing an observation of

the condition of the submidden deposit. A second unit in the West Ring

and five additional marsh excavation units had been completed. All of the

previous conceptions of the progression of cultural events on the coast

were questionable in light of the information gathered. The working date

no longer inspired any confidence. Chronological placement by radiocarbon

dating could conceivably assign these sites early or late dates. Some

findings worthy of discussion follow.

Interface

The interface proved to be a particularly productive area. More

cultural material was concentrated in this area than any level of the

midden deposit or any feature. Elaborately engraved bone pin fragments,

supposedly a late cultural feature were recovered from the base of the

midden deposit. Decorated ceramics and two examples of lithic artifacts

came from this area of the site.


1











Ceramics

Plain and decorated ceramics occur in these ring sites without

stratification. Thus, a plain to decorated ceramic continuum could not

be supported by the findings. The fiber-tempered ceramics from the

north excavation units contained a perceptible amount of grit-tempering,

not observed in the ceramic samples from the ring sites. This suggested

a situation of transition in ceramic manufacturing techniques to grit-

tempered types.

Skeletal Material

Human skeletal material, though scanty, was not recovered in the con-

text of an articulated burial, but scattered throughout the midden deposit.

Construction

Further evidence of the forested nature of the environment prior to

ring deposition suggested that the site was constructed by human inhabi-

tants rather than natural forces. The fact that the interface represented

such a heavy concentration of human cultural remains was considered evi-

dence that the midden had begun to accumulate as the result of human

subsistence practices or intentional placement.

Evaluation of Hypotheses and Test Implications

As the Summer and Winter Field Sessions progressed, it became evident

that one hypothesis was unprovable given the extent, direction, and capa-

bilities of excavations and a second unsupported by excavation findings.

An examination of these hypotheses is made to point out the problems.

Hypothesis 3: Null Hypothesis Marsh silting and land
encroachment have no effect on molluscan and verte-
brate faunal availability.









46

While an effect upon molluscan and some vertebrate fauna by increased

amounts of sediment could be documented as possible (Buck 1956: 249-261;

Galtsoff 1956: 408-419), our excavation findings did not demonstrate such

evidence. No relict oyster beds were defined. While a probable margin

of inundated land can be observed from aerial photographs of the area,

no direct correlation between silting and encroachment could be demonstrated

for local molluscan fauna. The Null hypothesis, while not acceptable, is

similarly not rejectable either. This is a situation in which reformula-

tion and a new excavation strategy are required prior to acceptance or

rejection.

Hypothesis 2: Null hypothesis During the period of
occupation (circa 1500-750 BC) no changed in the
marsh occurred.

Discernible changes in the marsh in the vicinity of the ring sites

occurred subsequent to the fiber-tempered occupation. Radiocarbon dates

indicate that inundation of the south marsh cultural level occurred after

835-820 BC. No submarsh midden deposit having fiber-tempered ceramics

was exposed by excavation supporting Test Implication 1. No molluscan

fauna was exposed in association with any material from the marsh cultural

level. Argument for accepting the Null hypothesis is felt to reflect the

findings at the site.

Hypothesis 1: Null hypothesis No perceptible change
in resource usage is evident among the Late Archaic
sites in the Cannon's Point area.

In the analysis of faunal material from the three cultural deposits

in the Cannon's Point area, consistent differences in faunal inventories

are observed. This involves molluscan and vertebrate faunal components.

Appendix 5 lists the results of the faunal analysis from the Late Archaic









47

occupations. Intersite vertebrate inventories are not similar. The West

Ring demonstrates a higher reliance upon fish. Analysis of fauna from

the marsh cultural level reveals an increased use of mammals and reptiles.

Intersite use of molluscan resources is not similar. The West Ring indi-

cates a subsistence use of periwinkle, an incidental mollusc in the

marsh ring. The marsh cultural level demonstFates no use of molluscs.

Therefore, neither of the test implications are supported. The Null hypo-

thesis must be rejected for lack of supporting evidence and the Test hypo-

thesis accepted.















CHAPTER 4


ANALYSIS OF EXCAVATED MATERIALS

Radiocarbon Dates

Radiocarbon dates were not available untjl May, 1975, well after

the close of the Winter Field Session. Material for dating was sub-

mitted to the University of Miami Radiocarbon Dating Lab.

Apparent age was calculated relative to 0.95X NBS
oxalic acid radiocarbon dating standard. Quoted
precisions are one standard deviation and include
only the counting precisions of the unknown sample,
background, and modern standard. (Eldridge 1975)

A discussion of the six samples, their proveniences, and significance
follows.

The Ring at Cannon's Point (Marsh Ring): 9GN57

Two samples were submitted from the north excavation units. Since

these units were located in the area of maximum depth of deposit, material

for dating from this area was desirable.

1815 BC Sample taken from (18N, 3E at approximately 13 cm
3765+90 BP below the present surface (1.13 m below datum).
UM-521 Sample consisted solely of oyster shells (Crassos-
trea virginica). This sample dates the upper levels
of this deposit and was removed just below the humic
zone. Sample is from Shell Sample #118, Field Speci-
men #848.

2240 BC Sample taken from al8N, OE west baulk at a depth of
4190+90 BP 1.46-1.58 m below the surface (2.09-2.21 m below
UM-520 datum). Sample taken from the immediate vicinity
of human cranium. Sample of oyster shell exclusively.
Sample dates the lower midden levels and the human
cranium. Sample is from Field Specimen #663.











The West Ring: 9GN76

Two samples were submitted from the east baulk of Test 1 with the

intention of dating the upper levels and the basal levels of the deposit.

1655 BC Sample consisting solely of oyster shells (Crassos-
3605+110 BP trea virginica) taken from approximately 19 cm be-
UM-523 low the surface (1.86-1.97 m below datum). Sample
dates upper levels of midden. Removed just below
humic zone. From Field Specimen #83, Shell Sample
#15.

1910 BC Sample taken from the lowest level of midden deposit
3860+90 BP at approximately 46 cm below the surface (2.24 m
UM-5T2 below datum). Shell Sample #16 comprised only of
oyster shells (Crassostrea virginica). Field Speci-
men #84.

Table 5 provides radiocarbon dates for non-ring fiber-tempered sites.

Marsh Cultural Level

Two samples were submitted from separate proveniences on the south

side of the marsh ring (9GN57). The first sample was collected during

the summer of 1973; the second in the spring of 1974. Dates from these

proveniences were felt to be requisite for determining the age of the

fiber-tempered/grit-tempered ceramic associations. Additionally, some

indication of the length of time represented by the marsh build-up would

be given.

820 BC Sample collected from o27S, 18E and consisted of wood
2770+95 BP taken from a tree stump associated with floral, faunal,
UM-5T9 and cultural materials. Ceramics were fiber-tempered
and grit-tempered. Depth of the sample was approxi-
mately 61 cm below the present marsh surface (3.21 m
below datum). Field Specimen #40. Dates demise of
tree--probably at time of marsh encroachment.

835 BC Sample taken from 033S, 12E at a depth of 76-87 cm
2785+80 BP below the surface (3.36-3.47 m below datum). Field
UM-5T8 Specimen #279 consisted of carbonized material from
a carbon concentration associated with faunal remains.
Sample dates the fiber-tempered/grit-tempered cultural
association.





Table 5: Radiocarbon Dates for Fiber-tempered and Related Sites.


Site Dates Materlal/Slgniflcance Source


Rabbit Mount


Clear Mount

Stallings Island


Bilbo






Dulany

Daws Island


Refuge

Cannon's Point
Marsh


2515 BC:4465 + 95 BP (GXO-345)
2500 BC:4450 + 135 BP (GXO-343)

920 BC:2870 + 110 CGX01752)

1780 BC:3730 + 150 BP (M-1278)
2500 BC:4450 + 150 BP (M-1277)

2165 BC:4125 + 115 BP (0-1047)

1870 BC:3820 + 125 BP (M-11ll)

1780 BC:3730 + 125 BP (M-1112)

1750 BC:3700 + 125 BP (M-1109)

1820 BC:3770 + 200 BP (M-236)

1445 BC:3395 + 100 BP (GX-2281)


970 BC:2920 + 200 BP (M-267)

820 BC:2770 + 95 BP (UM-519)
835 BC:2785 80 BP (UM-518)


Charcoal: 18/B11 1.2-1.8 ft.
Charcoal: 15/Bl1 1.3-2.4 ft.



Charcoal: Pit 4, base of pottery
Charcoal: Pit 2, below pottery

Charcoal: 5.5-6.0 ft. (dates
lowest pottery)
Charcoal: 5.5-6.0 ft. (dates
lowest pottery)
Bone: 5.5-6.0 ft. (dates
lowest pottery)
Charcoal: 3.0-3.5 ft.

Oyster: Dates pottery

Oyster: Dates pottery,burlal


Shell: Dates refuge ceramics

Wood: Dates cultural level
Carbonized wood: Dates cultural
level


Stoltman 1966:872


Peterson 1970:80

Bullen and Greene
1970:10-12

Williams 1968:329-
330





Williams 1968:329

Brockington 1971:
128

Williams 1968:329

Eldridge 1975









51

Correction factors based on dendrochronological analysis is pre-

sented here to provide an indication of realistic dates. All dates are

given as date range from Ralph, Michael, and Han 1973: 1-20.

Radiocarbon Date Dendrochronological Correction Range

1815 BC+90 years 2180-2070 BC
2240 BC+90 years 2910-2580 BC
1655 BC+110 years 2110-(1750-1710) BC
1910 BC+90 years (2410-2340)-2140 BC
820 BC+95 years 1010-800 BC
835 BC+80 years 1010-810 BC

Cultural Remains

Cultural inventories reconstructed by archaeological excavations in

shell ring sites are not elaborate. Based on the raw material utilized

in construction, four categories are recognized: ceramic, bone/antler,

lithic, and shell. It is pertinent to remember that cultural items made

from plant resources constitute a potentially diverse category no longer

recoverable. In sites where conditions of preservation have been favor-

able (e.g. caves or bogs), the contribution of plant resources is impres-

sive. The absence of cultural items constructed from plant materials

generally creates a rather lopsided view of aboriginal technology.

Although occupational debris in the marsh cultural level was covered

by a considerable deposit of muddy silt, no examples of culturally modi-

fied wood or fiber were recovered from aboriginal contexts. This would

seem to indicate that inundation occurred so slowly that deterioration

of any such material was completed prior to submergence. Similarly, no

impressions of basketry, matting, or twining were observed on fiber-tem-

pered sherds.











Ceramics

Ceramic typology mirrors the lack of consensus previously noted in

consideration of cultural chronology. Claflin's report (1931) of the

Stalling's Island excavations introduced the terms Stalling's Island

culture and Stalling's Island pottery. Unfortunately, Claflin did not

recognize the ceramics as being fiber-tempered or propose any relation-

ship to known vegetal-tempered ceramics from Florida (Wyman 1875). Holmes

(1894) had more succinctly described vegetal-tempering in aboriginal cera-

mics. Holder (1938) noted vegetal tempering in the ceramics in his

collections from St. Simon's Island, Georgia. As a result of his fin-

dings, a St. Simon's Fiber-Tempered type was recognized. This type,

however, was never formally described, and Holder's work has been pub-

lished only recently (Chance 1974).

That this ceramic type existed and was used is documented by Caldwell

and Waring's application (1939) of the nomen in their description of

Chatham County, Georgia, pottery types. The Bilbo site report, written

in 1940 but not published until 1968, uses the terminology. Griffin (1943)

defined the Stalling's Island types and applied the Stalling's nomen to

fiber-tempered ceramics from the Beaufort, South Carolina, area estab-

lishing a relatedness, almost an equivalence between the ceramics of the

Stalling's Island and coastal Chester Field sites. He reiterated this

point in a subsequent paper defining the Orange ceramic types of Florida

(1945).

The attempts to check unwarranted creation of ceramic types resulted

in the inclusion of all fiber-tempered ceramics in one of three regional

categories. This scheme was formalized by Sears and Griffin in 1950.









53

Regardless of any consideration of attributes other than ceramic ones,

ceramics were identified on the basis of the geographical location of

the find. That is, if the ceramics were excavated in Florida, they be-

longed to the Orange Series; in Alabama and Tennessee to the Wheeler

Series; in Georgia to the Stalling's Island Series.

It was not until the Bilbo site excavations that Waring began to

have second thoughts (ca. 1940). He then devised a Bilbo period chronol-

ogy which he introduced in a paper written around 1952 (1955-60: 253-255).

Williams (1968) lists the report of the Sapelo Island shell ring excavation

as being written between 1955 and 1960. In this report (1955-60: 265-280),

Waring adhered to the St. Simon's type with no mention of Bilbo classifi-

cation. More recently, Crusoe and DePratter (n.d.) have redefined the Bilbo

chronology and urged its usage. Crusoe (n.d.) in a paper written subsequently

proposes a four-fold classification returning to the Stalling's nomen and

articulating with Bullen's (1954) five-fold Orange period classification.

Since 1940, the status of excavations and particularly analysis of

sites on the Georgia coast has been that of very little public communication.

This is especially true for fiber-tempered sites. Excavations have consisted

of small tests with interest continuing in a ceramics-to-chronology orienta-

tion. No adequate site survey of the Georgia coast has been done during

this time. The situation in 1975 is not appreciably improved.

Proposal of a new typology, adherence to an old one, or consolidation

of several is not intended here. Coastal sites are significant in more

meaningful ways than ceramic motifs or attributes of ceramic manufacture.

Milanich (1971) takes a refreshing direction in proposing a Coastal









54

Tradition based on subsistence strategy, total artifact inventories, and

settlement type within a frame of radiocarbon dates. This is one of the

first attempts to understand cultural developments on the coast in terms

of a lifestyle and not in terms of viewing the people as possessors of

distinct artifacts.

The greatest problem to researchers is the absence of a systematic

body of data from excavated sites in either riverine or coastal environ-

ments. As many times as the Stalling's Island-rite has been excavated

or tested, interest in this site is primarily that of its unique ceramics

or ceramic change (Claflin 1931, Bullen and Greene 1970, Crusoe and

DePratter n.d.). The notable exception is Fairbanks' (1942) assessment

of the cultural traits represented by excavation findings. Too often

discussions of subsistence strategy in archaeological reports are obvi-

ously based on impression and not the result of analysis of food remains.

Riverine information is augmented somewhat by Miller's (1949) Lake Spring

site report and the paper by Phelps and Burgess (1964) on the White Mound.

The state of information reflects insufficient analysis and publi-

cation upon which to build a coherent structure of chronology or ceramic

typology. Until this data base is available, a moratorium on further

classification and categorization is urged to allow objective and impar-

tial collection of information. This should not be construed to propose

information gathering today and theorizing tomorrow. Rather it is recog-

nition that the framework within which the Late Archaic situation in

Georgia, as now perceived, is insufficient support. It is additionally a

recognition that the quality of the Cannon's Point collections precludes

their comparison with any extant collection. For these reasons, no new

scheme will be offered.











Before interpretive presentations of human development in the

Georgia coastal area are made, prehistorians must be willing to inves-

tigate the adaptation as a totality, not one or two traits.

A portion of this study is a contribution to such a data base.

Ceramics have been a major concern for archaeologists since their unique

ability to reflect cultural development was recognized. To this end,

a ceramic analysis is provided for each excavation unit giving level

distribution and totals. Many recovered decorated sherds are illustrated

with their respective proveniences. Illustrations of decorated ceramics

and rim forms may be found in Appendix 3 sherdss having Orange series

motifs) and Appendix 6. Additionally, distribution by level is provided

in Appendix 7. Illustrations of grit-tempered ceramics are included as

Appendix 8.

Ceramic fragments recovered from excavation units in the ring sites

were overwhelmingly fiber-tempered. Table 6 lists the distribution of

fiber-tempered and grit-tempered sherds for both ring sites. Table 7

lists ceramic distribution for each excavation unit in the marsh. Table 8

presents totals of ceramic material recovered from the three contexts.

It should be mentioned that fiber-tempered sherds tend to fragment upon

removal from the midden and as a result of excavation trauma. A sherd

is here defined as a ceramic fragment having both an interior and an

exterior surface intact. A paste fragment is defined as any ceramic frag-

ment lacking either one or both surfaces. Such a distinction reduces

sherd counts appreciably but is felt to be more representative of the

material reocvered. Weights are included to provide an indication of

paste fragment contribution to the total ceramic sample.





Table 6: Ceramic Distribution for Ring Sites (9GN57, 9GN76).


Provenience Fiber-tempered Sherds Grit-tempered Sherds

Plain Decorated Body Rim Total Weight Plain Decorated Body Rim Total Weight

9GN57

o6S,15E 169 25 156 38 194 3696.2 g 1 1 1 2.0 g

a9S,15E 64 4 59 9 68 948.3 g

al8N,OE 231 8 225 14 239 3274.9 g 2 2 2 11.5 g

a18N,3E 79 4 67 16 83 1831.0 g 3 3 3 8.1 g

DON,15E 2 2 2 67.3 g 3 2 1 3 20.0 g

03N,15E

030N,15E 4 3 1 4 106,5 g
o6N,8E 28 28 28 184.1 g

al9.5N,2W 21 20 1 21 333.3 g
9 Units 598 41 560 79 639 10441,6 g 6 3 8 1 9 41,6 g

9GN76

Test 1 45 2 44 3 47 808.9 g 17 5 22 22 69.9 g

35S,30E 33 12 34 11 45 687.0 g 2 1 3 3 3.5 g
2 Units 78 14 78 14 92 1495.9 g 19 6 25 25 73.4 g





Table 7: Marsh Ceramic Distribution.


Provenience Fiber-tempered Sherds Grit-tempered Sherds

Plain Decorated Body Rim Total Weight Plain Decorated Body Rim Total Weight


0 27S,21E

0 27S,18E

0 41N,12E

S56N,12E

a 80N,12E

a 45S,15E

c 42S,24W

p 24S,24E

a 30S,12W

o30S,3W

a15S,6W

a33S,12E

D33S,15E


4

2 5

1 3

2

1

9 43

3 14

10 49

3 35

2 46

9 103

11


295.8

283.5

115.0

79,2

62.9

395.6

312.4

756.7

626.4

671.9

1593.7

382.2


5.0 g

146.1 g

15.3 g







271,4 g

130,6 g

199.1 g

224.9 g

86.0 g

700.8 g

364.2 g


13 Units 289 27 277 39 316 5293.1 g 234 80 275 39 314 2143.4 g





Table 8: 9GN57 and 9GN76 Total Recovered Ceramic Material.


Total
Total Total Paste Paste Paste Total Total
Provenience Sherds Weight Fragments(ft) Weight Fragments(gt) Weight Fragments Weight Ceramic Weight


3.4 g

34.8 g


DC27S,21E

j 27S,18E

141N,12E

o 56N,12E

0 80N,12E

a45S,15E

a42S,24W

024S,24E

E 30S,12W

a30S,3W

ac 15,6W

033S,12E

033S,15E

06S,15E

09S,15E


5.0 g

541.9 g

298.8 g

115.0 g

79.2 g

62.9 g

667.0 g

443.0 g

955.8 g

851.3 g

757.9 g

2294.5 g

746.4 g

3698.2 g

948.3 g


1

9




1

16 24.9 g 71


5.4 g

11.1 g

6.1 g

5.7 g

1.0 g


525.1 g

262.2 g


3.4

34.8





6.8

133.8



192.4

77.5

72.6

168.5

1.0

525.1

262.2


545.3

333.6


69.7

800.8



1148.2

928.8

830.5

2463.0

747.4

4223.3

1210.5


6.8 g

108.9 g


187.0

66.4

66.5

162.8





Table 8 Continued.


Total
Total Total Paste Paste Paste Total Total
Provenience Sherds Weight Fragments(ft) Weight Fragments(gt) Weight Fragments Weight Ceramic Weight


Ol8N,OE 241 3286.4 g 970 407.9 g 970 407.9 g 3694.3 g

1a8N,3E 86 1831.9 g 621 234.3 g 621 234.3 g 2066.2 g

tON,15E 5 87.3 g 8 22.7 g 8 22.7 g 110.0 g

a3N,15E 1 2.0 g 1 2.0 g 2.0 g

a30N,3E 4 106.5 g 78 41.6 g 1 2.2 g 79 43.8 g 149.8 g

06N,8E 28 184.1 g 36 33.8 g 36 33.8 g 217.9 g

al9.5N,2W 21 333.3 g 30 70.1 g 30 70.1 g 403,4 g

Test 1 69 878.8 g 98 102.2 g 9 8.6 g 107 t 110.8 g 981.0 g

05S,30E 48 690.5 g 363 194.4 g 363 194.4 g 884.9 g

24 Units 1395 19864.0 g 3576 2532.9 g 50 57.0 g 3626 2597,9 g 21820.6 g








60

Several observations regarding the ceramic collection from the

Cannon's Point Late Archaic sites are pertinent. The term fiber-tempered

is used to designate those sherds in which vegetal paste inclusions have

resulted in post-firing vermiculation and channeling. Grit-tempering

(grit in the form of visible quartz inclusions) is present in all ceramics

that are not fiber-tempered. While fiber-tempered sherds excavated in

Georgia should be typed Stallings, the situation for grit-tempered sherds

is either simple stamped or cross-simple stamped (Appendix 8). Radio-

carbon dates (820-835 BC) place these ceramics within the Refuge Phase

(ca. 1100-600 BC) as defined by Peterson (1970: 76-81).

Waring (1968: 198-208) first described this phase after excavating

the Refuge site, a shell midden located on a tributary of the Savannah

River in South Carolina. Distinction between Refuge and the later Dept-

ford phase was based on ceramic attributes. A coarser, thicker paste is

reported for Refuge sherds. This phase is best known from the Savannah

River drainage and its coastal affiliations are not clear. Peterson

(1970: 76-81) notes a distinct change in environmental usage in terms of

exploited resources and area of habitation. This information comes from

the excavations headed by Stoltman at Groton Plantation, Allendale County,

South Carolina. Peterson contends that Refuge sites are situated in the

uplands. When the swamps are used, occupation is not associated with

mollusc gathering since Refuge phase sites on Groton Plantation yield no

molluscan debris.

In the Cannon's Point project area, the marsh cultural level simi-

larly reflects no mollusc association. It is true that in this cultural

level, the majority of grit-tempered sherds were recovered in association

with fiber-tempered sherds, but it is in the latter sherds that an interesting











change is noted. In the fiber-tempered sherds from the ring sites, only

an occasional grit inclusion is observed. Fiber-tempered sherds from

the marsh cultural level, however, evidence a very high frequency of

grit inclusions. The tempering of the grit-tempered sherds from this

provenience were admittedly coarse, but assignment to a Refuge type may

be premature. As Stoltman observes (1974: 22) Waring's Refuge typology

was subjectively developed and may not be accurately reproduced by

another investigator. Perhaps the event occurring in the marsh cultural

level is one of development from predominantly fiber-tempered to grit-

tempered types--a pre-check stamped Deptford situation. Unlike fiber-

tempered ceramics, coil fracturing is frequently observed on these grit-

tempered sherds. Ceramic decorations continue to be distinct, however.

No incised or punctated motifs appear on grit-tempered sherds: no stamping

is present on fiber-tempered sherds. Decorative motifs on fiber-tempered

ceramics from St. Simon's Island shell ring sites are highly variable.

The typical Stallings motif, linear punctation, does not occur in this

sample and is generally not a common coastal decoration.

Waring (1955: 219) notes that Orange Incised, a Florida type, appears

to extend as far north as St. Simon's Island, Georgia. Excavations in

both ring sites substantiate this point (Appendix 3). Of particular

interest are sherds from the West Ring, particularly proveniences 59,

62, and 67. These sherds are nearly identical to Griffin's (1945) examples

of Tick Island Incised (see Griffin's Figures D-1). The sherds are from

basal levels of the east arc of the midden (the basal levels of the west

arc are dated at ca. 1910 BC). In the Marsh Ring, sherds having Orange

motifs are from the south arc excavations units and were recovered in the

first three levels.











As the ceramic tabulation shows, no support for a plain fiber-

tempered ceramic horizon is provided. Decorated ceramics are found be-

neath the midden as well as within it. It is interesting to note that

no decorated sherds were recovered on the north ring arc until almost

one meter of midden had been removed. On the south arc, decorated cera-

mics were very superficial.

Bone/Antler

Cultural items made of bone were far more common than those of antler.

A sizeable sample of worked bone was recovered, the majority small frag-

ments. Only three examples of utilized antler were identified. Much of

the antler recovered from marsh proveniences could not be verified as

utilized because of its poor state of preservation. All examples of

worked bone appear to be made of fragments of larger bones. Some may

be specifically identified as constructed from the metapodials of white-

tailed deer. A catalog of worked bone and antler is provided in Appendix 9;

illustrations of selected examples follow in Appendix 10.

Three basic categories of worked bone are exemplified: awls, points,

and pins. Awls are defined as pointed, tapered implements having an

expanded base. Frequently a constriction or grooving is observed at the

base. Seven examples were recovered. Only two points were identified,

one of bone and the other of antler. Points are characterized by short

length and are cylindrical but tapered in cross-section having a con-

stricted base. Bone pins have been one of the most characteristic arti-

facts from fiber-tempered sites. Pins are constructed of split fragments

of deer metapodial. Specimens are limited in length to the length of the

metapodial. In the Cannon's Point collections, length from base (or head)

to point is 12 to 16 cm. Fragments were rounded, apparently by abrasion,









63

and a high polish is usual. It is uncertain if the polish is a result

of abrasion in manufacture or from usage. Nine examples were recovered.

In addition, many of the worked bone fragments are parts of pin shafts

and points. The application of decorative motifs was limited to this

category. The most common design (#342) observed was a zoned triangular

or diamond incised motif. Two examples of the scroll designs of the

Bilbo type bone pins described by Waring (1940: 170-171) are included

in this collection. One is rectilinear (#776 and the other gives a hint

of a curvilinear design (#817a).

Worked bone was recovered as a midden inclusion with more frequency

than in features. In Features #19 and #21 (a highly cemented hearth

extending through the shared baulk), one awl, a broken pin tip, and one

decorated shaft fragment were retrieved. In Feature #20, another probable

hearth which lacked the consolidation of shells observed in Feature #19

and #21, most of a pin was recovered. In contrast, Feature #18 which

consistently yielded large quantities of fauna, produced only a fragment

of utilized turtle.

The elaborately engraved bone pin fragment (#776) was exposed below

the midden and its impression was visible in the submidden soil. Proven-

ience and Waring's criteria suggest a later date for these sites. The

radiocarbon dates, instead of supporting elaborately decorated bone pins

as a later development, suggest that in the Cannon's Point area this

artifact has a much earlier date.

One additional type of worked bone was frequently observed. In the

catalog, it comprises over 50% of the recovered examples. The carapace

of specific turtles evidences internal scraping which removed the verte-

bral attachments on the neurals and exposed the cancellous structure of









64

the pleurals and marginals. The carapace is cut from the plastron through

the bridge marginals apparently to allow removal of edible meat. This

cut area usually shows considerable polish. Such treatment of turtle

carapace is consistently seen on Deirochelys reticularia, Chrysemys cf.

floridana, and Malaclemys terrapin. These species have frenulated exteriors,

a fact that apparently was culturally valued. That they are the largest

turtles locally available is another observation which must be included.

Because scraping increases the porosity of the shell, it would seem that

items intended to be contained within (if in fact the shell was used as

a container) were dry instead of liquid.

Lithics

Culturally altered lithic material recovered from the marsh ring

consisted of three examples. The location of each item is particularly

interesting. A granitic hone was recovered in Feature #19 associated

with a bone awl. In the submidden soil of the southern half of al8N, 3E,

a chert projectile point was recovered. This point, illustrated in Appen-

dix 11, is not a typical Savannah River Stemmed point, rather it is

reminiscent of a Florida Arredondo point typologically (Bullen 1975).

The third specimen is a stemmed, bifacially worked object excavated from

a pit adjacent to Feature #12. The specimen is of chert and appears to

have been repeatedly retouched. Its function may have been as a knife

or scraper.

During this time period, coastal sites have consistently produced

few lithic artifacts. The small inventory discussed above was expected.

Debris from tool-making or retouching was similarly meager, suggesting

that lithic items were brought to the coastal area as finished products.












No cores or reforms were recovered. A small number of chert flakes

were retrieved from the West Ring but no lithic artifacts. Quartz

pebbles were more frequently recovered, particularly in the basal levels.

The marsh cultural level presented a very different picture. Six

lithic artifacts were excavated in units south of the marsh ring. Flint

was black or bluish in color in contrast to the white specimens from

the marsh ring. Debitage was present in greater frequency than the few

chips recovered in the ring sites. It is probable that screening would

have produced additional specimens.

From the scarcity of lithic material in the ring sites and the

greater frequencies in the marsh cultural level, it seems apparent that

lithic availability in the coastal area increased with time. The change

in color is interesting also. Black flint outcrops have been reported

from the Fall Line but not from the coastal plain.

Shell

Definition of this class of artifacts if particularly problematical.

Certainly any shell is a potential tool but conditions of preservation

may obscure evidence of use. Clarification of criteria used for classi-

fication of shell tools was required as field work progressed. A mollusc

shell was considered utilized if non-naturally occurring alterations were

observed. These alterations could be evidence of use as food rather than

tool use. Additionally, it was anticipated that some specimens would

evidence both food and tool use modification.

Gastropods were the most commonly excavated mollusc class exhibiting

consistent alterations. Such molluscs can be removed from their shells

by pulling the animal out by its foot. Perforation of the shell provides









66

access to the muscle attachments, which when cut makes removal possible.

Holes in the shoulder of the shell or absent spires were considered alter-

ations for food use. The criteria for tool use were based on alterations

of the umbilical area (base) and lip edge (at the shell opening). Blunting

of the base, angular wear resulting in basal pointing, and lip edge wear

were the most consistently observed alterations.

Two gastropods were commonly recovered from the midden with such modi-

fications: Busycon carica and Busycon carica-eliceans. The former seemed

to repeatedly exhibit modification for food use, the latter for tool and

food use. Busycon carica is a thin-shelled species; Busycon carica eliceans

is a more robust species. Some of the archaeological specimens had segments

of shell removed exposing the columella. Such detachment produces sections

of shell which can be used for manufacture of other itesm (e.g. beads).

Bivalves were the most numerous midden inclusion, but evidence of food

or tool alteration was not as obvious. A single example of utilized oyster,

modified by the removal of a circular section from the valve body was re-

covered. Use is not known. In the West Ring, a clam shell (Mercenaria sp.)

with the umbo (hinge) removed and exhibiting considerable edge wear of this

area was retrieved. The specimen may have served as a dipper or scoop.

Single shells were generally encountered during excavation but occa-

sionally clumps of shells were observed, but these plus crustaceans (usually bar-

nacles) were not sizeable nor was their location repetitive. Many Busycons

were excavated with internally adhering oyster growth indicating that the

initial reason for collecting this specimen was not for food. Since these

specimens usually exhibited no modification from tool use, the choice of

these shells remains a question. Such gathering practices seem to suggest









67

a lack of discrimination in the selection of potential foodstuffs. Per-

haps the location of the habitation area was near enough to the source to

compensate for the waste of energy represented by transportation of ined-

ible mollusc shells. Another suggestion of the proximity of mollusc

sources to the habitation area is offered by one specimen which was

initially a tool then discarded in water andsubsequently regathered with

adhering immature oyster growth (Appendix 12, #568). This specimen demon-

strates immature oyster growth over edge wearand removal of the lip.

On the other hand, the functions of shell tools may have included acti-

vities done on or near the water with loss of this specimen being a pre-

dictable consequence of use.

Clams frequently exhibited exterior shell removal near the umbo.

Perforation did not occur but an inner layer of shell was exposed. A blow

to loosen the hinge and facilitate extraction of the mollusc is a probable

cause. Small concave areas of shell are frequently observed to be absent

from the lip of the clam suggesting that prying may have been attempted.

Most clams evidences neither lip nor umbo alteration. Appendix 12 catalogs

the utilized shell from both ring sites and includes photographs of selected

specimens.

Faunal Materials

Molluscan resources represent such an obvious contribution to the

subsistence base of Late Archaic peoples that the perception of coastal-

dwelling groups as "oyster eaters" inevitably developed. Unfortunately,

little else was considered. Identification and enumeration of faunal

remains from the Cannon's Point sites indicates that it is more realistic

to perceive coastal inhabitants during this time period as participants









68

in a procurement system in which the tidal creek and the surrounding marsh

were critical sources of food. However, a discussion of molluscs is appro-

priate to initiate any consideration of Late Archaic subsistence.

While oysters are obviously the dominant species present, many other

molluscs occur as midden inclusions in significant quantities. All too

frequently, this fact has been overlooked. As noted previously, some

species combined subsistence and technological functions. A list of the

molluscs excavated from the ring sites is presented in Table 9 (identification

is based on Abbott 1974 and Burch 1962). It is apparent that mollusc habitat

varies greatly. Oysters, clams, whelks, stout tagelus (Tagelus plebius),

and mussels (Geukensia demissa) made the greatest food contribution. Marsh

periwinkles seem to have been more important in the West Ring while the subsis-

tence role of marsh snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta, Melampus bidentatus),

oyster drill (Urosalpinx cinerea), and others is less certain. These species

may have been gathered with other resources representing incidental inclusion

in the midden. Carnivorous terrestrial snails seem to have been drawn in

very large numbers to the decaying midden debris. There is no evidence that

these may have been utilized.

Table 10 presents a composite faunal list for each ring site and the marsh

cultural level. Taxonomy is based on the following sources: fishes Bailey

et al. 1970; amphibians and reptiles Conant 1975; birds Peterson 1947;

Robbins et al. 1966; mammals Burt and Grossenheider 1964, Golley 1962. The

diversity of faunal species identified is remarkable. Species lists for each

excavation unit and a level-by-level assessment of the faunal material is

available in Appendix 5. From these tabulations, it is evident that verte-

brate fauna is critically important to aboriginal subsistence. This point

is clearly supported when a dietary assessment of available data for molluscs






Table 9: Composite Molluscan Species List, 9GN57 and 9GN76



Species Common Name Habitat


Stenotrema fraterna (Pillsbry)

Triodopsis hopetownensis (Shuttleworth)

Polygyra cereolus (Muller)

Euglandina rosea (Ferrusac)


Haplotrema concava (Say)

Mesomphix vulgatus Baker

Melampus bidentatus (Say)

Detracea floridana (Gmelin)

Nerltina reclivata (Say)

Polynlces duplicate (Linn.)

Littorina Irrorata (Linn.)

Busycon carica (Gmelin)

Busycon carica eliceans (Montfort)

Busycon canallculatum (Linn.)

Ilyanassa obsoleta (Say)


land

land

land

land


snail

snail

snail

snail


land snail

land snail

marine snail

marine snail

marine snail

moon snail

common periwinkle

knobbed whelk

Keiner's whelk

channeled whelk

eastern mud nassa


floodplains, forested habitats

floodplains, lowlands

marsh edge

warmer subtropical and temperate climate,
lowland areas, damp habitats

lowland floodplains, damp vegetation

floodplains, lowlands, forests

brackish marshes

brackish marshes

brackish marshes

shallow-water sand bottoms

brackish water marshes on weeds

shore to 30 feet

shore to 30 feet

in sand; 3-50 feet

in muddy intertidal flats, salt marshes






Table 9 Continued.


Species Common Name Habitat


Urosalpinx clnerea (Say)

Eupleura caudata (Say)

Terrebra sp.

Odontostoma sp.

Limopsis sp.

Anadara ovalis (Bruguiere)

Tagelus plebius (Lightfoot)

Mercenaria mercenaria (Linn.)

Mercenaria campechlensis (Gmelin)

Dinocardium robustum (Lightfoot)

Crassostrea virginica (Gmelln)

Geukensia demissa (Dillwyn)

Crytopleura costata (Linn.)


Atlantic oyster drill

thick-lipped drill

auger shells

snail

clam

blood ark

stout tagelus

northern quahob clam

southern quahob clam

giant Atlantic cockle

eastern oyster

Atlantic ribbed mussel

angel wing


oyster bars; low tide mark to 25 feet

oyster bars

muddy and sandy bottoms

oyster bars

mud bottoms

6-100 feet

In sandy mud, intertidal

2-40 feet

in sand 3-50 feet

3-100 feet

estuaries, tidal creeks

marshes, intertidal

colonies In mud and clay












Table 10: Faunal List.


Marsh
Cultural
Fauna 9GN57 9GN76 Level


CRUSTACEA

Decapoda x x
Callinectes sp. x x

CHONDRICHTHYS

Carcharhinidae x
Galeocerdo cuvieri x
Sphyrnidae
Sphyrna sp. x x
Rajiformes x x
Dasyatis sp. x
Aetobates narinarl x

OSTEICHTHYS

Lepisosteus sp. x x x
Amia calva x x
Elops saurus x x
Clupeidael x x
BrevoortiQ sp. x
Siluriformes x
Ictalurus sp. x
Ariidael x x x
Arius felis x x
Bagre marinus x x x

Micropterus sp. x
Opsanus sp. x x
Pomatomus saltatrix x
Carangidae' x x
Sparidael x
Lagodon sp. x

Archosargus sp. x x x
Sciaenidae' x x x
Bairdiella chrysura x x
Cynoscion sp. x x
Leiostomus xanthurus x x
Menticirrhus americanus x











Table 10: Faunal List. (Continued)


Marsh
Cultural
Fauna 9GN57 9GN76 Level


Micropogon undulatus x x x
Pogonias cromis x x x
Sciaenops ocellata x x x
Stellifer lanceolatus x x

Mugil sp. x x x
Prionotus sp. x
Paralichthys sp. x x x

AMPHIBIA

Siren sp. x

REPTILIA

Chelydra serpentina x
Kinosternon sp. x x x
Terrapene carolina x
Malaclemys terrapin x x x
Chrysemys sp. x x x
Chrysemys cf. floridana x
Deirochelys reticularia x x
Alligator mississipiensis x
Iguanidae x

Anolis carolinensis x

Natrix sp. x
Coluber constrictor x
Lampropeltis sp. x

AVES

Phalacocorax auritus auritus x
Ardea herodias wardi x
Bucephala clangula x
Buteo lineatus alleni x
Rallidael


Larus argenticus









73

Table 10: Faunal List (Continued)


Marsh
Cultural
Fauna 9GN57 9GN76 Level


MAMMALIA

Didelphis virginiana x x x
Soricidae x x
Cryptotis parva x
Blarina brevicauda x x

Scalopus aquaticus x
Sylvilagus sp. x x x
Rodentla x x x
Glaucomys volans x
Sciurus carolinensis x
Microtinae cf. Neofiber x
Neofiber alleni x
cf. Neotoma x
cf. Peromyscus x x
Oryzomys sp. x
Peromyscus sp. x
Sigmodon hispidus x x

Lutra canadensis x
Mustela vision x
Canis familiaris x x x
Procyon lotor x x x
Odocoileus virginianus x x x
Homo sapiens x x


Indicates elements only identified to this level.










74

and several vertebrate species is made. Table 11 documents the fact that

crustaceans and vertebrate fauna comprise a more significant contribution

by weight than molluscan fauna.

With a few notable exceptions, all fishes identified are marine and

inhabit the tidal creek biotope. The exceptions are freshwater catfish

(Ictalurus sp.), bowfin or mudfish (Amia calva), and bass (Micropterus sp.).

All usually inhabit freshwater biotopes but may enter brackish waters. They

are represented in the faunal collection by a very small number of fragments.

Their presence in these sites may indicate a change in the local habitat.

It is possible that these species were resident in semi-permanent ponds on

the island. Such standing water as is present on the island today depends

upon rainfall and is generally scarce. Freshwater catfish are taken today

in marine habitats when unusually high freshwater run-offs occur. These

run-offs may be caused by increased rainfall over a period of time or by

storms. A similar situation occurring prehistorically may account for the

presence of these species. Additionally, freshwater turtles were recovered

from most excavation units.

The tidal creek biotope constantly fluctuates with tidal condition.

At periods of high tide, the tidal creek expands vastly. Conversely, at

periods of low tide, the marshes extend for miles. Many mammalian species

other than man depend upon the marshes and tidal creeks for their maintenance.

Crabs (particularly of the genus Uca fiddlers) constitute a staple item in

the diet of island raccoons. Deer and rabbits (Sylvilagus sp.) include marsh

grasses in their diets. Otter and mink, both semi-aquatic mammals, prey on

numerous species present in these biotopes. Many avian species are perma-

nent residents of the area, others are seasonal. While the majority of avian






Table 11: Dietary Contributions of Selected Species (Watt and Merrll 1963)
(100 grams of edible portion)


E
In 0
E 2

4A E E E U
E m E 0 C <
SI 0 < E 1 I
01 2) 5 2 Z O I E O r 1
01 -. In 2 0 2 a ro u2
Iv E L 2 E E > E u
E1 2 -C E -a E I E C -0
,0 4J n0 0 I) c In C I o o U 0
S O 4 L C L 0 0 4j U
M to I I W -C L 0 0 C In
ap L) LU O LLa < U IL 0. 1 > I- Z <


Eastern oyster,
raw

Atlantic mussels,
meat+liquid raw

Clams, hard

Menhaden, canned

Croaker, Atlantic
raw
baked

Drum(redflsh) raw

Spot raw

Crab steamed

Rabbit raw

Deer venison raw


84.6 66 8.4


83.8 66 9.6 1,4 3.1


86.2 49 6.5 .4 4,2

67,9 172 18.7 10.2


79.2 96 17.8 2.2
71.3 133 24.3 3.2

80.2 80 18.0 0.4

65.3 219 17.6 15.9

78,5 93 17.3 1.9 .5

73.0 135 21.0 5.0

74.0 126 21.0 4.0


1,8 3.4 1.8 94 143 5,5 121 73 310 ,14 .18 2.5


1,3
1.2

1.3

1.2

1.8 43 175 0.8

1.0

1.0 10 249


234 87
323 120

273 55

61


60 ,12 .08 5.5
70 .13 .10 6.5

.15 .05 3.5

.16 .22

2,170 .16 .08 2.8 2


.23 .48 .63







Table 11 Continued.


E
A01
0 E E
M E c -0
E E
u E E E U
E m 01 A E6 01 C E <
n .- 1A E 3 0 < E 0-
S-o E 3 E > E U
L ) c 1 >. 01 E O 0 *- C C a *-
w) G- C E E l E *- C -0
4- 0 O I- cn 0 3 E E C L.
M O a-) .0 0 A C ( *- ( o 0 U 0
S 0 4-' L .f 0 0 4-1 -0 4- .0 U
S 1- (0 *- (A ( -C 1- 0 0 C -
da o L.. U C Lw < UL a a- > i- z <


Opossum roasted 57.3 221 30.2 10.2 2.3 .12 .38





international units.








77

species identified from the collections are permanent residents, one migra-

tory species is present (American golden-eye).

Two species identified are not present-day residents of the area.

Aetobates narinari (spotted eagle ray) is not reported for the Georgia

coast (Dahlberg 1975: 31). Similarly, the present distribution of Neofiber

alleni (Florida water rat) does not include the Georgia coast (Burt and

Grossenheider 1964: 200-202).

Several species are particularly important in the faunal sample: blue

crab (Callinectes sp.), menhaden (Clupeidae cf. Brevoortia), marine catfish

(Ariidae), members of the drum family (Sciaenidae), and mullet (Mugi1 sp.).

The majority of individuals in the sample are represented by these species.

Mammalian species contribute a greater amount of edible meat by weight than

fish or crabs but are not present in large numbers in the collections. It

is obvious from the areas tested that mollusc gathering was augmented largely

by fishing.

Amphibian fauna is represented by only one genus, Siren. In general,

amphibian remains were so tiny that adequate collections were not available

for positive identification. Consequently most of the recovered amphibian

fauna is listed as unidentified. Reptilian fauna, particularly snake verte-

brae, presented a comparable problem. The condition of erosion and frag-

mentation of the elements makes the identification of snakes very tentative.

Turtles were well represented. It is interesting to note that turtles in

the marsh cultural level included two species not present in the ring sites:

Chelydra serpentina and Terrapene carolina. Chelydra serpentina was present

in considerable quantity. One fragment of alligator was recovered from the

marsh cultural level. This was the only example of this reptile retrieved.









78

Many species may represent incidental inclusions rather than food

remains. Some of these are flying squirrel, mole, shrews, green anole

(chameleon), and several species of rats. Regardless of their function,

the presence of these small animals add considerable information about

the prehistoric environment.

The role of the dog is uncertain. Dog remains occurred in the midden

as any other food remains might have been observed. One partial maxilla

was recovered in Feature #19. Its cracked and burned condition suggests

that whatever the premortem function of the dog, its postmortem role in-

cluded human consumption. It is interesting to note that no teeth were

recovered with the maxilla or in the feature. While dog teeth are frequently

recovered drilled for stringing, no evidence of this practice was observed.

Dog remains were recovered at each of the locations.

The marsh cultural level evidences an increased incidence of use of

turtle and deer. As previously mentioned, no molluscan remains were asso-

ciated with any of the faunal or cultural material exposed beneath the pre-

sent marsh surface. This absence suggests several hypothetical answers:

a decreased abundance of molluscs, a culturally motivated subsistence

change, differential use of the area (i.e. not for mollusc harvesting),

or differential preservation of bone and shell beneath the marsh. At this

time, adequate support for any of these hypotheses is lacking.

Floral Remains

Regardless of the reports of previous investigators, floral material

is a midden inclusion and may be retrieved using screened samples. Floral

remains were recovered as seeds, nutshells, and carbonized nuts (particu-

larly acorn). A tentative floral list is provided in Table 12 with addi-

tional plotting of the seasonal availability of the edible parts of the

plant.






Table 12: Seasonal Availability of Identified Flora.


Species Month Comments Common Name
J F M A M J J A S 0 N D


Pinus spp.

Juniperus spp.

Carya spp.

Quercus spp.

Celtis spp.



Prunus serotina

Ilex vomitoria


Bumelia lycoides
(L.)Gaertn
Foresteiera spp.

Vitus spp.

Brassica spp.


shed seeds

Mature berries

mature nuts

__ mature acorns

berries may per-
sist through
winter

mature fruit

leaves available
year 'round

S fruit available


fruit available

fruit available

tentative


"_


Pine

Red cedar

Hickory

Oak

Hackberry



Black berry

Yaupon


Buckthorn


Swamp privet

Grape

Mustards


I











Pinus is not present in the sample in any quantity. Juniperus spp.

is presently the dominant cover of the marsh ring and present on the

West Ring. In the marsh cultural level, juniper roots were exposed.

Identification was based on the characteristically red inner coloration

and odor. Quercus spp. was moderately abundant. Carya spp. was the most

numerically abundant nutshell. Considerable quantities were recovered

throughout the midden with a significant increase in the submidden soil.

It was not possible to determine whether these'fragments were burned or

carbonized. An increased frequency of Carya was noted in Feature #18,

#24, and #25. Celtis spp. is second to Carya in abundance. Its frequency

is particularly high in Features #19, #20, and #21. There seems to be

some correlation between the occurrence of Celtis and areas identified as

probable hearths. Celtis is also abundant in the general levels throughout

the midden. Prunus serotina, Ilex vomitoria, Bumelia lyciodes, and Fores-

teiera sp. are not present in any quantity. It should be remembered that

the leaves of Ilex vomitoria are known to have been used aboriginally for

ceremonial drinks (Swanton 1946: 699).

In general, the floral species identified still grow in the area.

Brassica spp. has been tentatively identified but is not common. This

species represents an introduction from Eurasia or Africa (Small 1933: 562).

Level-by-level species identification is provided in Appendix 13 for the West Ring.

Other Analyses

Soil

Soil samples were taken whenever a feature was designated or an area

of unusual color or texture appeared. Additionally, a stratified sample

was taken from marsh unit 045S, 15E for comparative analysis. The question









81

of amount of carbonate resorption taking place was felt to be critical to

problems of differential preservation of shell and bone. Because marsh

periwinkle and Atlantic ribbed mussels were noted in marsh excavations

in a state of decay, comparative analyses were required to check the

carbonate levels. The samples were submitted to the Institute of Food

and Agricultural Sciences Soil Sciences Laboratory at the University of

Florida. Unfortunately, the tabulations were misplaced, and the only

results which are available concern pH values. These values are listed

below and indicate an alkaline environment, a condition already suspected

in view of the excellent bone preservation.

Soil Depth below
Sample # Surface pH value Associations


59 0-18 cm 7.4 Spartina growth heavy

60 31-43 cm 7.6 Spartina rootlets present
but growth not thick

61 70-80 cm 7.3 Corresponds to level of
cultural and subsistence
materials

62 120 cm 7.5 Below the cultural level


Pollen

Samples for pollen analysis were taken, particularly from the marsh

excavation units. Initial processing of these samples in the Florida State

Museum Paleoecology Lab revealed extensive Spartina contamination. Conse-

quently, the samples were of little value. One would question the value

of pollen samples in an area at the mouth of a river in any event. Much

of the pollen deposition may include water-borne pollens from non-local

areas.











Human Osteology

Although fpur of six excavation units in the marsh ring produced some

human skeletal material, the total inventory is small. Table 13 summarizes

this material. Skeletal material recovered was fragmentary but generally

gave the impression of being crushed in place. Because cannibalism had been

hypothesized to explain the fragmentary nature-of previous finds of human

skeletal material in shell ring sites, much care was taken to observe support-

ing information. However, no solid evidence of cannibalism is offered by

this collection. Admittedly, some of the bones have articular surfaces

missing but this could be caused by the manner in which the skeletal element

became a part of the midden.

The inclusion of non-articulated skeletal material in the midden pre-

sents a puzzle. It Is possible that the lower levels of the ring were

borrowed from shell heaps in which burials had been made. It is also pos-

sible that considerable shifting of the midden overburden through the years

caused relocation of material and disarticulation. It may be that the burial

practices of these people included exposure and that subsequent burial of

the remaining bones was haphazard. No cultural items have been excavated in

association with human skeletal remains.

The cranium and pelvis are probably from the same individual, a male

aged 22-28 years, although their locations in the midden are some three meters

diagonally distant. They are, however, from approximately the same level.

The remaining material is enigmatic, particularly the right leg and foot

from the south arc excavation units.

Consideration of Methods and Techniques

At this point, it seems appropriate to consider the methods and techniques

applied during excavation since analysis points out the inconsistencies, pro-






Table 13: Human Skeletal Material


Provenience Level Element Condition Sex/Age


femur, rt.





tibia, rt.


calcaneous, rt.


molar


cranium


S9S,15E


East Baulk pelvis


incisor


ilium and pubic symphysis present.

root absent; extensive attrition


u24S,24E 75-85 cm bs parietals


fragmented; distal articular surface in-
cluded in sample but not attached. Proxi-
mal articular surface absent from below
lesser trochanter. Sizeable portion of
diaphysis intact.

proximal epiphysis present In sample but
not attached; sizeable portion of diaphysis
intact. Distal articular surface absent.

medially split; articular surfaces for
talus present.

split with roots missing; extensive attri-
tion evident.

frontal, parietals, temporals, small amount
of occiptal present. Basal portions of
occlptal absent and left side of maxilla,
Right side of maxilla has one remaining
molar (M ) which evidences extensive attri-
tion. M Is erupted. Abcess noted in pre-
molar. Supraorbital torus present but not
marked.


09S,15E



a 6S,15E


06S,15E


O 18N,OE


d 18N,OE

S18N,3E


Male/in 20's


Male/22-28


badly eroded









84

or contributions of these aspects of excavation strategy. The methodology

and techniques applied are responsible for generating the raw data which

when analyzed, supports the observations made.

Screening

When an excavator makes a commitment to screening, several problems

immediately arise. Time required for field processing is greatly increased.

Material recovered similarly increases (depending on the site). The area

that can be excavated with the time allowed maybe lessened unless the

crew is large. Time required for post-excavation analysis is lengthened.

In a shell site, the amount of material to be processed when screening is

used is phenomenal. Most of the excavator's time is not spent in the exca-

vation unit but at the screen clearing shell debris and picking out the

archaeologically significant material. Davidson (1964) notes many of the

same problems and states:

In almost all cases, the critical division seemed to lie
between the 1/4 inch and 1/8 inch. Material retained by
an 1/8 inch sieve was identifiable without difficulty.
Objection to it lies in the great increase in time necessary
for a very small increase in exactness. The material re-
tained by the sieve was always less than 10% of the total
weight of the sample and usually considerably less.
(Davidson 1964: 155).

A very interesting comment on the amount of archaeologically significant

material recovered from a shell ring excavation level is offered in Table 14.

Calculations for this table were made possible by the fact that 06S, 15E was

excavated during the last few days of the Winter Field Session. Time did

not allow field processing of the material in the lower screen. Consequently,

significant material was separated in the top screen and bagged (note first

column); all material caught in the lower screen was bagged and processed at












Table 14: Contribution of Screening by Weight of Processed Material,n6S,15El


Fauna

Shell

Flora

Ceramics

Total weight

Total weight lower screen

% of lower screen weight






Fauna

Shell

Flora

Ceramics

Total weight

Total weight lower screen

% of lower screen weight


Level 7

Top screen
(3/8x3/4 in.)

25.5 g 42.0%

22.1 g 78.9%

1.2 g 25.5%

615.9 g 96.92%

664.9 g


Level 8

Top screen
(3/8x3/4 in.)

63.5 g 36.7%

130.2 g 96.3%

3.05 g 52.6%

975.6 g 99.92

1172.35 9


Lower screen
(1/8 in.)

35.5 g 58.0%

5.9 g 21.1%

3.5 g 74.5%

19.5 g 3.1%

64.25 g

11228.45 g


Lower screen
(1/8 in.)

109.4g 63.3%

5.05 g 3.7%

2.75 g 47.4%

0.8 g 0.1%

118.0 g


7418.0 g


Weights given represent the amount of material considered archaeologically
significant. Shell debris represents discarded material. Weights given as
"shell" here refer to terrestrial and marine molluscs recovered.
2
Includes weight of potsherds excavated and mapped in place in the excavation
unit.


Lower screen
Shell debris



11164.2 g





11164.2 g


99.5%


Lower screen
Shell debris



7300.0 g





7300.0 g




Full Text

PAGE 1

n CERAMICS, MOLLUSCS, AND SEDENTiSM: THE LATE ARCHAIC PERIOD ON THE GEORGIA COAST By ~ Rochelle A. Marrinan A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1975

PAGE 2

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Although some research efforts may be individual undertakings, archaeological investigations characteristically are not. Many factors — the site, quantities of material to be processed, techniques used to gather information, and the usually public nature of excavations--preclude the possibility that a single person can accomplish the field research singlehandedly. During the four field sessions spent gathering data which make this dissertation possible, over 30 students were provided field research experience. Their participation in the University of Florida Department of Anthropology Archaeology Field Schools made possible the excavation of materials presented herein. It is with gratitude that I acknowledge the following field col laborators: Summer , 1973 . Nain Anderson, Roberta Leml ich, Leonard Roberts, Sandra Sampson, and Mary Turpen. Spring , 197^ Chris Birdsall, Mark Brooks, Marion Drescher, Leslie Gresh, Steve Hamburg, Lynne Jackson, Tim Kohler, and Hugh Prine. Summer , 197** . Richard Atwood, John Barksdale, Debbi Baukney, Bill Chr istofferson, Robin Futch, Jean Gearing, Elizabeth Hill, Brenda Lavelle, David Lawrence, Maureen Lineaweaver, Karen Malesky, Harvey McKenzie, Janet McPhail, and Rebeca Quintana-Garcia, Connie Welsch, and Joy Willard. Winter , 1975 Nain Anderson, George Edwardson, Sandra Forney, Tim Kohler, and Mary Turpen. Robin Futch, Elizabeth Hill, Roberta Leml ich, Janet McPhail, and Rebeca Quintana-Garcia volunteered many weekends of assistance which added needed time to field work.

PAGE 3

Analysis of excavated materials involved the assistance of many specialists. I should like to thank Dr. Fred Thompson, Malacologist , Florida State Museum, for aid in identification of the molluscs; Dr. Pierce Brodkorb of the University of Florida Department of Zoology for assistance with the intricacies of avian osteology, and Dr. David Hubbel, Institute of Food and Agricultural Scjences, University of Florida, who made possible the processing of soil samples. Dr. William R„ Maples, Chairman of the Department of SoclaL. Sciences, Florida State Museum, aged the few human skeletal elements recovered. Dr. Robert L. Stephenson, Director of the Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, made copies of preliminary work on South Carolina ring sites available. Dr. E. Thomas Hemmings, West Virginia Geological Survey, made available copies of manuscripts in preparation and preliminary field analysis. Special thanks is extended to Chester DePratter, University of Georgia, for his continued interest. His knowledge of the Georgia coastal area provided numerous insights. Charles Pearson, University of Georgia, shared his knowledge of sites within the project area. Mr. Pearson first reported the Marsh Ring site in 1972. Dr. Donald L. Crusoe, Southeastern Archaeological Center, made available copies of manuscripts in preparation and discussed his research findings. Preliminary paleobotanical identification was made by Timothy A. Kohler using the facilities of the University of Florida Herbarium and his own collections. Mr. Kohler was twice a field crew member and any expression of gratitude of his contributions would be insufficient.

PAGE 4

George Edwardson and Lynn Cunningham (University of New Mexico) spent considerable time with illustrations presented, Roberta Lemlich provided the photographs of lithic and shell artifacts. Dr. William R. Maples kindly made the photographic equipment of the Department of Social Sciences, Florida State Museum, available. Sea Island Properties, Inc., made this project possible and it is impossible to thank them sufficiently. However, I would specifically like to thank Mr. William A. Jones, Sr. , Mr. William A. Jones, Jr., and Mr. J.D„ Benefield, Jr., for their kindness and cooperation. I am very grateful that the opportunity to conduct research in such an interesting and extremely beautiful area was mine. To the members of my committee, I extend thanks for their continued academic and personal support. Dr. Dickinson spent considerable time editing this manuscript. Dr. Patton generously provided information and encouragement. Dr. Milanich provided advice, field assistance, and editorial time. Dr. Wing has been a great help to me since I first came to her for assistance with a field school project as an undergraduate. Since that time and particularly since 1973* she has made space available for work, comparative collections, and invaluable information on almost a daily basis. I have greatly profited from this contact. Dr. Fairbanks initially interested me in this research topic and continued financial support for field and analytical work. Four field sessions constitute a major outlay of funds. I am particularly grateful for the confidence, the personal contact, and the direction he has willingly given. In the final analysis, Dr. Fairbanks is responsible for providing the opportunity to undertake this research. iv

PAGE 5

There are probably others to whom an expression of gratitude is due. ! apologize for any oversight and wish to point out that while the above-named individuals have provided information from their special competencies, I am responsible for its presentation In this manuscript.

PAGE 6

PREFACE This dissertation is a study in the application of hypothesis formulation and testing to archaeological investigation of an early prehistoric aboriginal culture. It is presented chronologically in order to document the considerations and observations in perspective. To do otherwise would create an artificial impression of smoothness and correctness that is not real. Further, this study is seen as an exploration of the application of more systematic methodological techniques in field excavation. Analysis of data thus collected to an long-standing problem in southeastern United States prehistory generates very interesting results. Finally, it is intended to be a contribution to the status of knowledge on the subject of southeastern shell ring sites. To this point, it is a compilation of data presently available in the archaeological literature as well as a presentation of data resulting from field excavations on Cannon's Point, St. Simon's Island, Glynn County, Georgia. It is believed that such data be used for comparative purposes by investigators considering the same or similar problems.

PAGE 7

TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS H PREFACE vl LIST OF TABLES . x LIST OF FIGURES . xi ABSTRACT . . xfll CHAPTER 1: SHELL RINGS IN SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES ARCHAEOLOGY .......... 1 Introduction ....... ... 1 The University of Florida St . S i mon ' s Island Archaeol o gical Project 2 Southeastern Shel 1 Rings ..... 3 Previous Investigations and Interpretations . . 9 Chronological Assessment 13 The Cul tural Phenomena 15 CHAPTER 2: EXCAVATIONS ON CANNON'S POINT PART 1: SUMMER 1973, SPRING 197^ 19 Present Envi ronment . 19 Excavation Strategy : Objective and Techniques 2k Summer 1973: Excavation Summary 25 Spring 1974 : Excavation Summary ........ 28 Prel iminary Observations 32 vi i

PAGE 8

CHAPTER 3: EXCAVATIONS ON CANNON'S POINT PART 2: SUMMER 1974, WINTER 1975 ..... 37 Formulation of Hypotheses and Test Impl i cat Ions 37 Summer 1974 : Excavation Summary 39 Winter 1975 : Excavation Summary ** ' Summary of Excavation Findings ............... " Evaluation of Hypotheses and Test Impl ications . ^ CHAPTER 4:". ANALYSIS OF EXCAVATED MATERIALS .......... Z|8 Radiocarbon Dates ..................... 48 Cul tural Remains ........ ....... 51 Faunal Materials 67 Floral Remains ........... ..... 78 Other Analyses .......... . 80 Consideration of Methods and Techni ques 82 CHAPTER 5: THE LATE ARCHAIC OCCUPATION OF CANNON'S POINT ... 89 Prehistoric Environment 89 91 96 102 Techno-envi ronmental Adaptation Seasonal i ty and Sedentism . Extra-areal Relationships ... CHAPTER 6: POST-EXCAVATION ASSESSMENTS OF THE LATE ARCHAIC . . 105 The Cultural Phenomena '"-* Relationships to Other New World Sites l °9 Summary and Conclusions 116 APPENDIX 1 ............. . 119 APPENDIX 2 130 APPENDIX 3 131 APPENDIX 4 134

PAGE 9

APPENDIX 5 ..... • • • 1*0 APPENDIX 6 201 APPENDIX 7 2o6 APPENDIX 8 217 APPENDIX 9 220 APPENDIX 10 . . . . . . . . . i 225 APPENDIX 11 ........... . 2 32 APPENDIX 12 .................... • 2 33 APPENDIX 13 2 * 8 APPENDIX 14 ................. • . . 250 REFERENCES CITED . 2 53 BIBLIOGRAPHY 26 *

PAGE 10

LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Site Distribution ............. 6 Table 2. Ring Dimensions in Meters .......... ... 8 Table 3° Chronological Summary ...... . 16 Table k„ Radiocarbon Dates for Ring Sites ...... 35 Table 5° Radiocarbon Dates for Other Fibe rTe mpered Sites ...... 50 Table 6„ Ceramic Distribution for the Cannon's Point Ring Sites ... 56 Table 7" Ceramic Distribution for the Marsh Cultural Level ...... 57 Table 8. Total Recovered Ceramic Material .............. 58 Table 9„ Composite Molluscan Species List ~ 9GN57, 3GN76 ....... 69 Table 10. Faunal Lists: 9GN57, 9GN76, and Marsh Cultural Level .... 71 Table 11. Dietary Contributions of Selected Species 75 Table 12. Seasonal Availability of Identified Flora .......... 79 Table 13Human Skeletal Material ...... 83 Table H. Contribution of Screening by Weight of Processed Material 6S, 15E 85

PAGE 11

LIST OF FIGURES Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 18 . . 19 • 20 . . 21 . . 22 . . 20 21 26 31 132 133 202 203 20lf 205 218 219 226 227 228 229 230 231 237 238 Ikh

PAGE 12

List of Figures continued Figure 23 . . . . • 2Z »5 Figure 24 ........ . . 246 Figure 25 • . . . . 24?

PAGE 13

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy CERAMICS, MOLLUSCS, AND SEDEflTISM: THE LATE ARCHAIC PERIOD ON THE GEORGIA COAST Rochelle A. Marrinan August, 1975 Chairman: Charles H. Fairbanks Major Department: Anthropology Previous researchers have contended that during the Late Archaic Period ( ci rca 2500-1000 BC) , human groups on the present-day coast of South Carolina and Georgia practiced a mollusc-centered subsistence strategy. The abundance of molluscan resources has been viewed as evidence of a relatively permanent residence pattern. This stable pattern of residence was thought to have been instrumental in the innovation of fired clay pottery. Today these former habitation sites exist as annular rings and amorphous middens of molluscan debris. Recent archaeological investigations on Cannon's Point, St. Simon's Island, Georgia, in such habitation sites indicate that although molluscan resources were obviously an important contributor to prehistoric subsistence, crustaceans and vertebrate fauna (particularly fishes) also were critical nutritional supplements.

PAGE 14

Fiber -tempered ceramics, to date the earliest type of earthenware reported in the United States, are present in all of the Late Archaic Period sites excavated. Affiliations between Georgia fiber-tempered ceramic decorative motifs and motifs associated with Orange pottery from the St. John's River drainage in Florida are noted. This finding supports the previous observation of Holder and others for the St. Simon's Island area. The Georgia coastal ceramic tradition is considered influential in the development of Orange ceramics. Reconsideration of the generally accepted belief that decorated fibertempered ceramics are later than plain ceramics is urged based on the findings from the excavation of two shell ring sites (dated by radiocarbon at 22^01815 BC and 191 01 665 BC) . Decorated ceramics occur in these sites at all levels, dating coevally with plain specimens. Reconsideration is also urged for Waring's contention that the Bilbo-style engraved bone pins are a stylistic development. Both of the two bone pin fragments recovered in the Cannon's Point excavations were from a sub-shell stratum. In the marsh surrounding the largest ring site, a cultural deposit was exposed 0.5-1.0 meter beneath the present surface. The association of cultural materials (ceramics, worked bone, lithics, flora, and fauna) with tree stumps suggested that environmental change is evidenced in the immediate vicinity of the ring sites. When deposited, the Marsh Ring accumulated in a forest environment. Ceramics from this cultural deposit are both fibertempered and grit-tempered; however, the manner in which deposition occurred is unclear. Radiocarbon dates indicate that environmental change in this area occurred after 835-820 BC. Permanence of residential pattern cannot be fully evaluated at present. Evidence suggesting a Spring-Fall occupation of the Cannon's Point sites

PAGE 15

is considered tenuous at this time. Investigation of inland riverine sites having fibertempered ceramics is needed to evaluate the relationship of these biotopes to the coast. Excavations in the Cannon's Point shell ring sites have demonstrated that more systematic methods and techniques must be applied to data recovery* Perceptions of coastal cultural developments have been framed in terms of cultural inventory and artifact attributes. Development of a research strategy to Investigate the articulation between human culture and physical environment is urged to provide an understanding of cultural events during the Late Archaic Period.

PAGE 16

CHAPTER I SHELL RINGS in SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES ARCHAEOLOGY Introduction For thousands of years prior to the founding of European colonies in the New World, native American populations experienced remarkable variety in cultural complexity, geographical
PAGE 17

2 anthropological knowledge may be achieved. The present study demonstrates the use of archaeological data to explain cultural phenomena. It proceeds from a review of the pertinent archaeological literature to recognition of specific needs and problems requiring further study within the research area. Hypotheses are generated for field testing using excavation techniques selected to maximize data recovery. Hypotheses, it should be noted, do not spring forth at the need of the investigator. Rather, they are usually the result of continuing research. In this study, it should be made clear that the status of information regarding the research topic was not sufficient enough to support more than very general hypotheses at the outset. As excavation and more importantly analysis progressed, data suggested direction for inquiry. Hypotheses were generated to structure excavation strategy and future analysis. Working hypotheses will be explicitly stated in Chapter 2 and 3The University of Florida St . Simon' s I sland Archaeological Project Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks and Dr. Jerald T. Milanich of the University of Florida Department of Anthropology were approached in 1972 by Sea Island Properties, Inc., regarding a proposed archaeological survey of Cannon's Point, St. Simon's Island, Glynn County, Georgia. Several sites of known archaeological interest were in areas scheduled for development promting the landowners' concern for recovery and preservation of prehistoric and historic materials. Ruins of the Couper Plantation were listed in the National Register of Historic Palces. Excavations in the extensive shell heaps on the property had been made by Preston A. Holder during the late 1930's. Human skeletal remains were frequently exposed in plowed fields. A shell ring site was identified by a site survey team in 1972.

PAGE 18

3 A grant (#GB-3?889) to support excavations was awarded by the National Science Foundation (Fairbanks and Milanich) in 1973Field research began in that year. Investigation of the changing relationships between man and his environment during the period 2000 BC and AD 1865 was the organizational theme of the project. The presentation and discussion which follows concerns the Late Archaic aspect of the project ( circa 2000-1000 BC) . Field research and analysis were also supported by funds from the Sea Island Foundation. Southeastern Shel 1 Ring Sites Structures of unusual size, location, composition, or configuration have been popular subjects for study and speculation: pyramids, henges, and earthen effigy mounds are but a few examples. Accounts of early travelers, proceedings of learned academies, and personal letters document the interest in such sites. William McKinley of Mil ledgevi 1 le, Georgia, wrote of circular shell heaps on Sapelo Island, Georgia, in 1872. His letter to the Smithsonian Institution is included in the Annual Report for that year (McKinley 1873: *»22-J»28) . Apparently this is the first mention of a shell ring site. The first excavations at Sapelo were some twenty years later. Clarence B. Moore and field party conducted excavations within the largest shell enclosure (1897: 71-73). As a result of Moore's coastal investigations, two other shell ring sites were reported (1899). However, because large quantities of artifacts were not forthcoming, Moore's group shied away from further excavations in ring sites. Fifty years later, the first scientific investigation of a shell ring was headed by Antonio J. Waring, Jr., in the largest Sapelo Island ring (Waring and Larson 1968: 263-278). Circular accumulations of shell dot the barrier islands along the

PAGE 19

k coast of South Carolina and Georgia. Shell ring sites are located on the first barrier island, or as is more commonly the case, on islands in the lagoon and estuaries between the initial barrier and the mainland. Ring sites are frequently located in salt marsh environments. At this time, known distribution is limited to the states of South Carolina and Georgia. South Carolina reports twenty-two; Georgia has at least half that many. Table 1 summarizes published distributional information. It is possible that two additional shell ring sites exist in Florida (Talbot Island, Jupiter Island). The cultural inventories of these sites do not exhibit any similarity to Georgia and South Carolina sites. Oysters ( Crassostrea virginica) are the most abundant constituents, but other species are present, particularly clam ( Mercenaria sp.) whelk ( Busycon carica ) , and ribbed mussel ( Geukeysia demissa) . While most species are estuarine, several terrestrial forms are observed. In addition to molluscs, sediment, vertebrate remains and human cultural materials are present. Dimensions of the shell rings are extremely variable (Table 2). In general, diameter ranges from 37 to hS meters. Height also varies considerably, a result to some extent of time and weathering. All measurements are given in metric. While a few rings have a complete circular contour, most are incomplete in some aspect. Erosion, shell borrowing, and initial construction design may account for this. Speculations regarding ring function began with McKinley's (1873) suggestion of use for games, ceremonials, or torture. Since that time, additional hypotheses have been offered. Moore (1897), as another possible explanation, considered fortifications. Waring and Larson concluded that the Sapelo Island rings were public in nature and

PAGE 20

FIGURE 1. Shell Ring Site Distribution.

PAGE 21

CT\ — — w— — vD — — :* — o^-a— — — c uF

PAGE 22

flj — — o o — 3 01 ro _ _ — D) — — — o ._ _ ~ d)

PAGE 23

Z3

PAGE 24

9 represented some " . .. ceremonial or social arrangement ... " (1355-60: 273)= After excavations in the Sewee Mound ring in South Carolina, Edwards concluded that the site represented the remains of an aboriginal fishtrap (1965)= Refuse debris from internal pile dwellings is another suggestion (Caldwell as quoted in Crusoe 1973). Unpublished sources have contended that these sites were supportsfor structures built directly on the midden accumulation or protection fot dwellings located within. It should be mentioned at the outset that some argument exists regarding ring origin as being of natural construction rather than human. Proponents of the natural origin view contend that redeposition of naturally occurring oyster bars and human cultural debris by storms and currents is responsible. Clarence B. Moore was convinced of their human origin but interested himself in determining them to be aboriginal rather than English. This study suggests human construction responsible for ring sites. Data supporting this contention will be presented in Chapter 3Previous Invest igat ions and Interpretations An examination of the results of four shell ring site excavations is made at this point since information from these sites comprises the foundation for existing interpretations of prehistory during the Late Archaic. The relevant sites are Sapelo Island Ring Number 1 (Waring and Larson 1955-60 263-278), Sewee Mound (Edwards 1965), Hilton Head Island Rings (Calmes 1968), and Fig Island (Hemmings 1970a, 1970b). Because the following comments are general considerations, the reader is referred to Appendix 1 for a detailed summary of information available for these sites.

PAGE 25

10 Previous excavation strategy followed two basic approaches. Waring and Larson and Hemmings excavated 10-foot wide trenches from approximate ring center through the shell deposit to the exterior edge. Edwards and Calmes selected a smaller sampling size (5-foot square units) and tested more locations within the site. Excavation techniques varied significantly. No use of screens is reported by Waring and Larson or Calmes. Hemmings used 1/4inch screen as a standard at Fig Island and relied on window screen for separating material recovered from features. After observing the quantities of faunal material lost through 1/4inch screen, Edwards changed to 1/8 inch. Additionally, he used water separation in the screening process. Location of sites presented some logistical problems for investigators. Hemmings and Edwards experienced tidal innundation during excavation because of low elevation above sea level. The higher elevation of the Sapelo Island sites precluded such problems with tidal water or elevated ground water levels during excavation. Reporting of information is sketchy. Waring and Larson's (1 S55-60: 263-278) report appears in The Waring Papers , published in 1 968. Until a few years ago, this report was considered a rather thorough job. In comparison with more recent archaeological research, it lacks information on many relevant questions. Calmes ( 1 968) brief paper comprises the total published information on the Hilton Head Island sites. Oriented toward establishing chronological placement of the sites on the basis of ceramics, it offers very little else. Edwards' (1965) report is entitled "preliminary." No further analysis has been made public. Information on Hemmings' Fig Island excavations are contained in two papers dealing very generally with that site. Faunal information for

PAGE 26

11 this site is available from the Zooarchaeblogy Laboratory, Florida State Museum. The Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology of the University of South Carolina has graciously made their copies of Hemmings' artifact analyses available. Data are variously interpreted. The following discussion summarizes interpretations of excavators and other southeastern prehistor ians. . The origins of human inhabitants of the coastal area during this time period ( circa 2500-1000 BC) are obscured by the fact that there is no solid evidence for an inland-coastal cultural continuum. Sites dating within the time span circa 4000-2000 BC are absent in the coastal plain. Waring (1940:191) posits an inland cultural development for coastal peoples based on lithic technology. Since no lithic material is naturally available in the coastal strand, Waring and lately Crusoe and DePratter (n.d.:15), agree that previous cultural development in an inland area is probable. The extensive shell heaps in the states of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Nothern Alabama are offered as examples of possible sources of a cultural tradition that later adapted to the lower Atlantic coast (Stoltman 1972:53). Basic similarities in riverine and coastal subsistence are also offered as further substantiation of the riverine origins of these peoples. Riverine mollusc gatherers are believed to have made the adjustment of estuarine mollusc procurement while fishing and hunting techniques required only slight reorientation to the new environment. Analysis of the cultural remains rests on three important artifact classes: pottery, projectile points, and worked bone. Shell tools, a common component of cultural inventories in coastal sites are not distinctive enough for the purposes of tracing cultural affiliations.

PAGE 27

12 Ceramics appear early in this geographical area and are very distinctive In the United States, ceramics initially occur in the southeast and are dated at circa 2500 BC (Stoltman 1966:872). These ceramics are fibertempered; a typological distinction based on the inclusion of vegetal material as a tempering agent. A plain ceramic horizon preceded decorated ceramic types (V/aring and Larson 1 955-60; Hemmings 1970b; Milanich 1971). Evidence for this progression is observed at Bilbo, Sapelo Island, and Stal lings Island (located at the Fall Line on the Savannah River near Augusta, Georgia). Ceramics are variously termed: Stall ings, Bilbo, St. Simons. It should be noted here that the type site for fiber-tempered ceramics is the Stall ings Island site (Claflin 1931). ft is riverine in orientation. Subsequent reports of fiber-tempered ceramics in Georgia and South Carolina were lumped under the Stal lings nomen. Decorative types included incision, punctation, combinations of these techniques, and drag and jab (frequently called linear punctation). Ceramics are apparently hand-molded as no evidence of coil fracturing is observed. In South Carolina, ceramics are primarily sand-tempered and typed Awendaw, Horse Island, or Thorns Creek (DePratter, Jefferies, and Pearson 197*») . Radiocarbon dates indicate that sand-tempered and fiber-tempered ceramics are at least partially contemporary in occurrence with the latter occurring first. It is possible that Awendaw and Horse Island are coastal variants of the Thorns Creek type which is identified for inland contexts. Ceramic types overlap geographically. Fiber-tempered types are reported from as far north as the Edisto River drainage in South Carolina. Sand-tempered types are reported along the Savannah River drainage from the coast inland. Lithic artifacts associated with fiber-tempered ceramic sites (rings and middens) are large, triangular stemmed projectile points usually

PAGE 28

13 termed Savannah River Stemmed. It has been noted that recovery of any quantity of lithic material from ring sites is not usual. These sites are especially non-productive of lithic debris and worked examples. Bilbo, a non-ring midden site located near Savannah, Georgia, yielded large quantities of lithic artifacts (Waring 1 9^0 : 152-197). It is contended that this feature is unusual in the coastal area (Crusoe and DePratter n.d.; Marrinan 1 973) » Bone tools include both crude and sophisticated workmanship. Some forms are consistent and stylized enough to be described and given type names. The long bones of deer were fashioned into several types of artifacts, but the most distinctive one is the Bilbo-style bone pin described by Waring (1940: 1 65™ 171)This artifact is made from a split section of the deer metapodial and frequently retains a portion of the proximal articular surface. Incised designs are occasionally present on the surface. Geometric motifs are the usual decoration; naturalistic designs are unknown. Waring contends that the style changes from a "nail-head type" to an "expanded-headed type" (1940-42: 254). Thus the latter pin style indicated a later chronological placement to Waring (1940-42: 254). Chronological Assessment Radiocarbon dates for fibertempered sites (both ring and midden) fall within a 2500-1000 BC time range. This period has been termed Stall ings, St. Simon's, Bilbo, Sapelo-St. Simon's, and Fiber-tempered. Chronological designations are categorical conventions used to organize information, artifacts, and sometimes intuition. Using such a structure, prehistory is examined and interpreted. At times, these exercises become particularly cumbersome as the chronological dilemma of fibertempered sites aptly exemplifies.

PAGE 29

14 Understanding Late Archaic cultural developments on the Georgia coast is complicated by the assignment of several typological names derived from distinct geographical locales (e.g. Stallings, Bilbo, St. Simon's). There is a lack of concensus regarding just what criteria should be used in developing these designations: artifacts or adaptations. There is also a tendency to use attributes of a single artifact as the basis for developing typological levels. Waring (1940: 160) observed that Stallings nomen cannot be applied to the coastal sites since there were too many dissimilarities. These observed differences were ceramic: vessel shape and thickness, execution of a punctated design, presence of crude simple stamping on vessel bottoms (1940: 160). He proposed a bipartite Bilbo nomen: Bilbo I with plain fibertempered ceramics and Bilbo II with decorated fiber-tempered ceramics and elaborately decorated bone pins. Williams (1968: 320-321) presented a Stallings Island Culture composed of a Stallings Island Phase, a Bilbo Phase, and a St. Simon's Phase. This structuring encompasses the geographical aspect but considers little else. Milanich (1971: 1 1 91 28) expressed dissatisfaction with the equating of Stallings Island and the coastal cultural traditions. He developed a bipartite division for the coast: Sapelo Phase and St. Simon's Phase. The Sapelo Phase is associated with shell ring sites but temporally overlaps the midden-related St. Simon's Phase. These phases mark the beginning of what Milanich called the "Coastal Tradition" and are based on radiocarbon dates, differences in subsistence orientation, distinct settlement types, and artifact inventories. Crusoe (n.d.: 4-10) presented a four-part division (Stallings 1-4) articulating the Georgia area with Bullen's

PAGE 30

15 (195^: *»7) Orange chronology for Florida. The criteria for these divisions are primarily changes in manufacture and decoration of fi be rtempered ceramics. It is rather obvious that no concensus exists. Table 3 summarizes the different chronologies. The Cul tural Phenomena At this point, it is pertinent to summarize the cultural phenomena peculiar to the coast as exemplified by fiber-tempered ceramic sites in general and shell ring sites in particular. The explication and explanation of these cultural developments are the tasks to which this study is addressed. A. Reliance on molluscs is the most obvious characteristic. This subsistence strategy is held responsible for influencing settlement pattern and allowing more sedentary existence. Lengthy settlements are inferred from the extensive and deep deposits. Habitation areas during the time period circa 2500-1000 BC are of two types: ring and amorphous midden. Both are primarily composed of shellfish refuse. Some researchers consider coastal inhabitants derived from inland riverine shellfish gatherers (e.g. Tennessee River Valley Archaic people). B. Ceramics first appear in the United States at this time. The inclusion of ceramics in a site inventory once lent credence to claims of sedentism (as well as horticulture). A nomadic existence was said to be ruled out by the problems of transporting ceramics. In Georgia and extending to the Edisto River drainage of South Carolina, fiber-tempered ceramic types are recovered. For the remainder of the area of distribution of shell ring sites (to the Santee River in South Carolina) and with some overlapping at the coast and inland in the Savannah River drainage, sand-tempered types occur. C. Cultural inventories are sparse and quantities of recovered artifacts vary with location. There is also some suggestion that inventories

PAGE 31

16 »—

PAGE 32

17 o o o o o o o CO Lf\ CM O o o o o o o o o IA0O LT\ CM CM — — — _ . «j 10

PAGE 33

18 vary with type of site (i.e. middens may be more productive than ring sites). Sites nearer the Savannah River contain more lithic material. Bone pins are a very important diagnostic artifact but their function is uncertain. Cultural inventories are composed of subsistenceoriented items made of locally available materials. D. At approximately 1000 BC there is an end to this lifestyle. Molluscs decline in subsistence importance, new ceramic types utilizing different construction and tempering techniques appear, and cultural inventories change. This then was the cultural problem to be archaeological ly investigated and interpreted. A better explanation of the particular adaptation made by the occupants of the coastal area was obviously a very real need considering both the data base available for archaeological interpreta ion as well as the interpretations generated.

PAGE 34

CHAPTER 2 EXCAVATIONS ON CANNON'S POINT PART 1: SUMMER 1973, SPRING 197^ Present Envi ronment The Atlantic mainland is protected by barrier islands along the majority of its extent. These islands are characteristically elongated in contour and result from deposition of waterand wind-borne sediments. Width is usually limited to several kilometers, but length may exceed 160 kilometers. St. Simon's Island is one of the southern barrier islands along the Georgia coast. Located between Sapelo and Jekyll Islands, it is approximately 57 kilometers from the Georgia-Florida border (Fig. 2). The northern end of St. Simon's Island is divided into two points of land: Butler Point on the west and Cannon's Point on the east (Fig. 3) • These points are separated by an expanse of salt marsh through which Jones Creek meanders. The archaeological project area comprises the entire eastern point. To the north, the area is bounded by the Hampton River; on the south by a property line fronting on Lawrence Road. Little St. Simon's Island forms a protective barrier to the north against the Altamaha River and against the Atlantic Ocean on the east. Consequently, the Cannon's Point area is sufficiently distant (3-8 km) from the first barrier that vegetational wind forms produced by increased salt content in the atmosphere are observed only in a very marginal fringe along the marsh edge. Extensive changes in the floral cover of Cannon's Point have been affected since the Plantation Period by land clearing for cultivation of commercial and staple crops and by free ranging cattle and pigs. In a 19

PAGE 35

20 SAPELO ISLAND ST. Catherine's island LITTLE ST. SIMON S ISLAND ISLAND ST. SIMONS ISLAND FIGURE 2. St. Simon's Island and Adjacent Islands.

PAGE 36

21 MCINTOSH CO GLYNN CO. FIGURE 3. The Cannon's Point Project Area.

PAGE 37

22 very limited way, this practice is continued today. During the Plantation Period, a lane of oaks was planted along the main access to the planter's home. John Hamilton Couper whose family owned the Cannon's Point Plantation from 179^-1861 was an ardent amateur naturalist who introduced many different plant species (Lyell I8*t9). Land clearance probably left few areas of Cannon's Point untouched. In someareas, live oaks (Quercus vi rginiana) are all the same size and pines are heavily concentrated in other areas (it is not clear If this condition represents planting of pine or regrowth of a previously cleared area). Floral cover of the Marsh Ring site (9GN57) is presently dominated by cedars (Juniperus virginiana) which evidence wind forms and stunting. A few oaks are observed. The understory is sparse but yaupon ( I lex ' vomi toria) and marsh (Iva sp.) elder are present. Yucca ( Yucca al ternif lora) grows on the highest elevation of the ring. Because the ring is open on its northeast arc, a marsh vegetation composed primarily of Spartina a Item if lora grows within. Outside the ring stretches an extensive salt marsh dominated by Spartina and Juncus romerianus , interrupted only by meandering tidal creeks. Presently, the closest tidal creek is located at approximately 1 60 meters distance. Nearest high ground is 35 meters southwest, the edge of which is fringed by palmetto ( Serenoa repens) , yucca, oak, and cedar. The West Ring (9GN76) is located some 85 meters southwest of the marsh ring on high ground. On its south arc, this ring erodes into the marsh. Oaks, magnolia ( Magnolia grandif lora) , cedar, hickory ( Carya ), and hackberry (Celtis) are common in the floral cover of this area. Yucca, palmetto, Smi lax sp. , yaupon, and grapes (Vitis) contribute to a rather dense understory in the Immediate ring environment. Spanish moss is found within the forest margin.

PAGE 38

23 !n the Hampton River, the average annual tidal factor is guaged at 2.1 meters (United States Commerce Department 195*0. At periods of high tide, the marsh ring is completely surrounded by water and the center innundated. Fiddler crabs (Uca spp.) abound in and around the marsh ring. A species of land crab is frequently observed in the trees atop the marsh ring but incidence drops as one progresses into the forest. Salicornia virginica a common marsh plant is frequently observed in the moist areas near the land edge (Carlton 1975: 13) . A small freshwater stream possibly the result of ditches constructed during the plantation period empties into the marsh west of the ring sites. Water is caught in a shallow depression inland and flows easterly into the marsh during wet periods. Flow is minimal during dry periods. Although topographic maps show several artesian wells in the area of Cannon's Point, none are presently free-flowing. Terrestrial animals seen in the vicinity of the rings include birds, mammals, and reptiles; both native and introduced forms. Deer, raccoons, and opossums have been observed during daylight hours and after dark. Feral pigs, cows, and horses are presently free in the area. Marsh hawks ( Circus cyaneus ) and red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis) , are the largest predatory birds seen. Turkey vultures ( Cathartes aura) are frequently observed. Wood ibis (Mycteria americana) and herons ( Ardea herodias and Hydranassa tricolor) are common shore birds. Red-winged blackbirds ( Agelaius phoeniceus) , mourning doves ( Zenaidura macroura) , pileated woodpeckers ( Hylatomus pileatus) , painted buntings ( Passerina ciris ) , and blue jays ( Cyanocitta cristata ) are frequently observed in the immediate surroundings. Diamond-back terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin ) and musk turtles ( Kinosternon sp.) were observed on the ring sites.

PAGE 39

2k Several snakes were present: black racer ( Coluber constrictor ), Indigo ( Drymarchon corais) , and corn snake ( Elaphe guttata) . Excavation Strategy : Objective and Techniques A review of available shell ring literature initially suggested the following problems for investigation: a. ring function b. subsistence reconstruction Co radiocarbon dating for southern distributional extent Determining the manner by which the site was deposited offered the most plausible means of approaching the question of function. Utilization of large, adjacent excavation units was thought to provide the most efficient means of examining stratigraphy, changes in contour, or features related to structures on or in the ring. A 3 x 3 meter excavation unit size was selected. Additionally, systematic mapping of cultural and subsistence material was planned to overcome the difficulties of excavating a shell site. Screening was considered imperative to reconstructing aboriginal subsistence strategies. Past reports had all too casually dispensed with this aspect. One-fourth inch screen was selected for standard screening with additional reliance on flotation of material from features. Quantities of faunal material were anticipated, but recovery of floral remains was considered particularly important. Flotation was intended to provide the means of recovering floral material. Radicarbon dates were similarly considered important. The Cannon's Point excavations represent a southern extreme of shell ring distribution. On the basis of the nearest similar site, a relative date of circa 1500 BC

PAGE 40

25 was selected as a working date. The Sapelo Island Number I Ring had an average radiocarbon date of 1750 BC and primarily plain ceramics. The marsh ring was known to have decorated sherds from a surface collection made in 1972 by the author. Summer 1973 ? Excavation Summary Field crew members numbered five persons for the ten week session. A section of the south arc of the marsh ring was selected for excavation because of the absence of tree cover. A transit station (0N,0E) was established on the southwest arc and tied to a benchmark on the nearest high ground (Fig. 4). A surveyor's stake from the 1970 property survey was located and a large cedar next to this stake became the benchmark. An east grid line was set out with stakes at 3-meter intervals. From this line, a north-south stake line was set out at 15E and 18E. The area included a 3-meter wide cut across the ring from south to north. Originally, excavating a north-south trench across the ring was planned. The matrix encountered in the south arc was a sticky, chocolate colored clay. It was impossible to separate material in the screen. Midway through the field session, a pump was secured allowing water separation of material. This procedure facilitated processing of excavated midden material and undoubtedly increased recovery. Water was obtained from two reservoir sumps dug in the marsh floor south of the ring. While digging the second of these pits, considerable aboriginal cultural materials were exposed at a depth of 0.6-0.7 meters below the present marsh surface. Additionally, the stumps of two trees were observed but no shell deposit was seen.

PAGE 41

26 -tht arrttvr iik r *'C 0.1} latjtr , _ *Jj* ofi/pC f,« J FIGURE k. The Marsh Ring (9GN57) and Marsh Excavation Units.

PAGE 42

27 In the midden excavation units (a6S, 1 5E and CJ9S, 15E), removal of material proceeded in 15 cm levels; actual midden removal was accomplished by 5 cm layers. Initially three and four prong rakes were used but these were discarded since it became apparent that they posed problems for vertical control as well as the trauma to midden inclusions. Trowelling was a slower but more precise means of removing material. Tests were begun in the ring center (DON, 15E and £J3N, 15E). Stripping of superficial marsh grasses was done by hand^__lni tially, screening was attempted but this proved productive only in areas where midden was projecting into the excavation units (in DON, 15E only). Finally, a 1 x 1 meter sondage was made prior to leaving the field. This test revealed a sandy deposit below the marsh grass and was virtually sterile. Excavation units in the ring midden provided quantities of faunal material. In addition, a sizeable ceramic sample was obtained. Sherds were all fiber-tempered. Plain ceramics were more frequent than decorated. Motifs included punctation, incision, and combinations of these. Several sherds suggestive of Orange Series motifs were recovered. Shell tools, basal ly blunted and having holes near the spire, were infrequent midden inclusions. Several examples of worked bone were recovered but none were decorated beyond ci rcumferential ly incised lines. Neither of the units opened in the ring midden were completed. Excavations below the marsh surface (027S, 18E and 027S, 21 E) exposed fiber-tempered ceramics in association with grit-tempered sherds. Faunal remains were present but minimal. A few nutshells ( Carya spp.) were recovered. These findings suggested a now-drowned cultural deposit made

PAGE 43

28 at a time when the environment In the vicinity of the marsh ring differed significantly. Testing in the ring center was not extensive and revealed no features suggesting either structures or disturbance. In the excavation of oON,15E, the extent of midden deposit contracted perceptibly toward the ring evidencing slump. This indicated that the ring was higher and basal ly thinner than its present dimensions. Spring , \31k i Excava t ? on^*Summa ry The field crew numbered nine people for the ten week session. Of initial concern was the completion of the two opened units on the south arc of the ring. It soon became evident, however, that this pursuit was an impossibility given the tidal conditions. Ground water levels were too high and continuous pooling of muddy water forced abandonment of this area. Attention was turned to the area of highest elevation on the north side of the ring. The grid system was extended northward and two adjacent units (ol8N,0E and Dl8N,3E) were opened in the area of maximum height. These 3x3 meter units extended along the apex of the ring. As a direct result of our 1973 findings, changes were made in both excavation techniques and in processing. Excavation proceded by 5 cm. levels to allow observation of changes in cultural material, flora, and 2 fauna. A 30 cm. column sample area was reserved in each square to allow qualification and quantification of midden constituents. Screen size was reduced to 1/8-inch. This change was motivated chiefly by dissatisfaction with previous floral recovery. Two standing screens having 3/4x3/8-inch expanded mesh upper screens and 1/8inch detachable underscreens had been

PAGE 44

29 constructed. Use of flotation sampling was again planned for features and areas of high humic content. A sump was dug several meters off the north edge of the ring. Again, ceramics were exposed associated with the remains of trees. No aboriginal flora or faunal materials were recovered. The grid was extended to enclose this area (oiflN,12E) and the finds were mapped In place. The original intention in digging the sump was to allow processing of excavated materials on the north side of the ring. Wheelbarrows were used to transport excavated midden to the screens on the marsh floor for processing. This practice eliminated problems from backdirt. In addition to the sump excavation unit (a^lN,12E), two additional units were opened in the marsh north of the ring (oS^N.lZE and q80N, 12E) . A small quantity of ceramics and one historic or modern fencepost were recovered. The post was cedar and had bark adhering to the exterior. As the distance of excavation units increased from the vicinity of the Marsh Ring, the incidence of cultural material decreased. A superficial scattering (0-10 cm„) of grit-tempered sherds was observed in the north ring excavation units. No decorated ceramics were recovered during this field session. One-half meter of midden material was removed and processed from each square. One shell disc bead and one bone point were recovered in the screens. Faunal recovery was heavy; flora, particularly Carya and Celtis were frequently observed in the matrix and in the screens. Because the excavations in the marsh north of the ring had shown no concentration of cultural material, attention was turned toward the south marsh. Two adjacent 3x3~meter units were opened (033S.15E and Q33S.12E).

PAGE 45

30 Both squares proved productive far In excess of our expectations. Excavation proceeded by shovel until cultural material was encountered. Usually fragments of carbonized wood were exposed immediately above the cultural deposit. Once cultural material had been exposed, trowels were used. Cultural materials and features were mapped in place for future study of distribution and associations. A l§rge stump, apparently burned in place was an interesting feature. Adjacent to it was a large cedar root burned only on the side next to the stump_(west) . Attempts to return to the two south excavation units in the ring proper continued to be frustrated by high tides. A new unit (a30N,3E) opened on the north arc of the ring at the intersection of midden and marsh met with the same problems. It was possible, however, to note that slump in this area had been more gradual than that noted in the south ring interior (Q0NJ5E). A second ring site was identified by testing during the Christmas holiday in 1973 (Fig. 5). The West Ring (9GN76) was located on land southwest of the marsh ring, it was incomplete on the south side where intersection with the marsh occurs. Presently the site is located beneath a substantial humic layer from hardwoods and thick understory. A 2x2-meter unit (Test 1) had been opened on its north arc and screened using 3Ax3/8inch expanded metal screen. Fifteen centimeter levels were used but time did not allow completion of the test. After the unit had been excavated to 45 cm. below the surface, only the southern 1x2 half of the square was excavated to sterile (65 cm.). Sand-tempered sherds and one possible complicated stamped sherd were recovered in the first level; below this

PAGE 46

31

PAGE 47

32 decorated and plain fiber-tempered sherds were collected. Marsh periwinkle ( Littorina irrorata ) shells were recovered in greater frequencies In this test than in the marsh ring. Their use as food items was indicated by the consistent removal of the spires of each shell. During the Spring 197^ Field Session, the unexcavated northern 1x2 meter half of Test 1 was excavated and processed using water separation over 1/8-inch screen. The results presented in Appendix 2 offer a strong case of the value, in terms of recovery, for use of fine screens in shell sites. A second 2x2 meter test (a5S,30E) was opened on the east side of the ring. Material was removed in 5 cm. levels. The unit was not completed prior to the close of this field Session. Prel iminary Observations After the first two field sessions, numerous observations were stated preliminary to formulating hypotheses by which to structure the following Summer Field Session excavations. There were many interesting aspects of excavation findings to consider for more vigorous testing. An assessment of these observations follows. A. Environmental change : The presence of a cultural deposit below the present marsh surface suggested an instability in the marsh in this area. Evidence of the continuing changing relationship of marsh and high ground on the east side of Cannon's Point is observed by the marginal area of dead and dying trees along the marsh edge. The marsh was thus perceived as a dynamic factor in the Cannon's Point environment. The fact that the ring, at deposition had stood in a forested area indicated that the "fishtrap" hypothesis was not valid.

PAGE 48

33 EL Ceramics ; A plain to decorated ceramic continuum seemed to be indicated by preliminary findings from the south ring at excavation units. Decorated ceramics were confined to the upper three levels (0-^5 cm.). Below that, to the depth that excavation had progressed (90 cm.), only plain ceramics were recovered. A cultural level having fiber-tempered ceramics and grittempered ceramics located 6.5-1.0 meters below the present marsh surface suggested an occupation following the ringbuilding inhabitants and not associated with mollusc midden debris. While flora, fauna, and cultural material were recovered, no mollusc concentration was exposed beneath the marsh surface. Some contact with the St. Johns River area of present day Florida was indicated by the presence of Orange Series ceramic motifs. These are illustrated in Appendix 3. Evidence of this contact had been initially observed by Holder (1938) and noted again by DePratter (n.d.) at the Bony Hammock site on St. Simon's Island. C. Li thics ; An increased amount of lithic material, slight though it was, in the marsh cultural level and the West Ring indicated an availability and use not demonstrated in the Marsh Ring. This suggested a change related to the increased amounts of deer present. D. Subsistence : Marked differences in faunal recovery were obvious. For example, fish remains were numerous in the Marsh Ring faunal assemblage but the lower levels of the West Ring provided evidence that use of fish had far greater importance (both by number of species identified and number of individuals) to the inhabitants of that site. Marsh periwinkles, small marsh-dwelling gastropods were found in the West Ring midden used as food items, suggesting a need to utilize less productive resources.

PAGE 49

3^ Periwinkles have far less food value to offer for the time expended in gathering and preparation. The midden deposit was much thinner (0.65 cm) in the West Ring than in the Marsh Ring (average 1.3 m) . Appendix 5 clearly shows that faunal elements present in the marsh cultural level were higher in numbers of deer and small mammals. Reptiles were noticeably more frequent. Fish, while presents were not numecous. E. Dates : The working date, selected from a comparison of the Sapelo Island Ring (Number 1) suggested a 1000 year—time span (marsh ring, West Ring 9 and marsh cultural deposit). Because grit-tempered ceramics included no check-stamping, a later decorative trait, a terminal date of 750 BC was selected. The working time range was then 1750-750 BC. Table k lists radiocarbon dates for shell ring sites. After considering these points, an hypothesis based on marsh change to account for the observed differences in faunal procurement offered a point from which future excavations could be directed and analysis structured. Test implications supporting such an hypothesis basically depended on continuing support for the observations noted above. The proposed 750 year time span did not seem unreasonable given the three cultural entities. Length of debris accumulation was estimated from Hilton Head Island sites. Calmes (1968) reported that the Sea Pines ring had two feet of deposit and totalled approximately 300 years. On Hilton Head Island, Calmes (1968: 45-58) obtained radiocarbon dates for the Ford Rings (Large and Small) representing a total deposition time in excess of 800 years (eight feet and two feet of midden deposit respectively). Test implications would be examined through extending excavation in the West Ring and marsh cultural deposit.

PAGE 50

35 cn

PAGE 51

36 Completion of all opened excavation units In the marsh ring would end excavation at that site. Analysis would be oriented at reconstruction of the aboriginal environment.

PAGE 52

CHAPTER 3 EXCAVATIONS ON CANNON'S POINT PART II: SUMMER 197^, WINTER 1975 Formulation of Hypotheses and Test Impl ications Information from analysis was at this point adequate for the evaluation of research directions. Each of the previously stated observations was carefully considered. Overall, the most concrete and interesting aspect of the excavation was the indication that a change in resource usage occurred. Using the marsh ring as a base, change is reflected in the West Ring and the marsh cultural level. The question of cause was posed. The approach then taken considered the possibilities that such a finding could have cultural cause, environmental cause, or a combination of these factors could be responsible. It was decided to pursue causal statements within the ecological realm since the cultural status of these populations was not sufficiently developed (i.e. social organization, population density, population size, etc.). Several hypotheses were generated and suitable test implications were formulated. Hypothesis J_ H Q : No perceptible change in resource usage is evident among the Late Archaic sites in the Cannon's Point area. H. : A perceptible change in resource usage is evident among the Late Archaic sites in the Cannon's Point area. Test Impl ications I,: Inter-site vertebrate inventories are comparable. I„: Inter-site molluscan usage is comparable. 37

PAGE 53

38 This hypothesis offered the ability to objectively test the observation that a change in resource usage was in fact observable and repeatable through new excavations. Hypothesis 2_ H : During the period of occupation (ca. 1500-750 BC) no changes in the marsh occurred. Hi: During the period of occupat+on, marsh encroachment and silting occurred. Test Impl ications I,: Submarsh shell midden having fiber-tempered ceramics is not found. I : Changes in the marsh occurred subsequent to the occupation. This hypothesis was offered both to suggest causality and establish the time of the proposed ecological change. Hypothesis 3_ H • Marsh silting and land encroachment would have no effect on molluscan and vertebrate fauna availability. H, : Marsh silting and land encroachment would have an effect on molluscan and vertebrate fauna availability. Test Impl ications I,: No effect can be documented in the literature. I?'No effect can be demonstrated in excavation findings. These hypotheses offered a framework within which to structure the Summer and Winter Field Sessions. Specific excavation goals were devised. Extended excavations of the marsh were planned. Excavations in the marsh north of the marsh ring indicated that the cultural concentration evident on the south side of the ring was not present. Four units had been opened in the marsh south of the ring and at least six more were planned to allow

PAGE 54

39 testing of areas between the marsh ring and land. Determination of the limits and focal areas of the cultural deposit was a goal. Testing east of the ring was planned. If time allowed, additional testing of the West Ring was planned. However, the investigation had been initially committed to a strategy of collection of deep stratigraphic samples of floral, faunal, and cultural materials from the marsh ring and no reason to abandon these priorities was seen. Recovery techniques would continue in the^same manner. Trowelling of exposed material in the marsh excavation units was believed to be comparable to removing the material in a level. Mapping of in-place finds was particularly important in determining the depositional nature of the marsh cultural level. Summer 197*> : Excavat ion Summary Only six weeks were given to excavations in the Late Archaic component of the project locale during this field session. Work proceeded on the north marsh ring units. Three additional units were opened in the marsh south of the ring (Q15S, 6W; Q30S, 3W; Q30S, 12W). Several levels of the remaining uncompleted West Ring unit (a5S, 30E) were processed. Crew members numbered between 12 and 15 persons daily. Approximately one meter's worth of midden material was processed from the north ring units (al8N, OE; 0l8N, 3E) . Of special interest were two features: Feature #18 (al8N, 3E) and Feature #21 (al8N, OE). Feature #18 had initially been defined during the Spring 197^ session as an area of increased incidence of floral and faunal material with a high humic content. The feature was sampled for flotation on several occasions. A large crab concentration ( Cal 1 inectes sp. , approximately 100 individuals represented) was exposed during the Summer Field Session. Feature #21, also initially

PAGE 55

ko defined during the Spring Field Session, was observed to be an area of dark brown soil within the shell deposit. As excavation progressed, a level of cemented shell was encountered. The most visible aspects of this feature were the numerous hackberry seeds and the ashy condition of the shells. This feature was assumed to represent a hearth. No decoration was obvious on any of the ceramics recovered from the north excavation units to this point. One south ring unit (d6S, 1 5E) was reopeaed but tidal problems continued. A well point was positioned in the southern (and lowest area) portion of the square against the baulk, but problems with pump availability prevented continuous use of this means of water evacuation. The unit was again closed after the identification of Feature #23, an area of blue-grey sand believed to represent submidden soil mixed with obviously weathered oyster and clam shells. The marsh excavations were notable. Each unit contained several lithic fragments, most of which were worked. Additionally, some worked bone was recovered. Deer antler was a more common item than previously observed. Ceramics continued to be exposed in the same associations. While carbonized material was recovered in each unit, no large concentrations of tree stumps or roots were encountered. A 1 x 1-meter test (d6N, 8E) was opened in the shell projection in the center of the marsh ring. The object of this test was determination of ceramic contemporaneity of this deposit. Ceramics were all plain fibertempered sherds. Sterile was reached at 0.75 meter below the present surface. Material was removed by trowel and hand rake and processed through 3A x 3/8 inch mesh using water.

PAGE 56

Winter 1 975 1 Excavat ion Summary With the exception of a brief look at submidden sterile in a I x Imeter test (06N, 8E) , commitment to a rather laborious processing of midden material resulted in uncompleted excavation units. An overriding objective of the Winter Field Session was the completion of excavation units. Crew members numbered six for the 10-week session. Weather was expected to be problemmatical but fortunately was mild. The first good look at submidden sterile— came one month into this field session when al8N, OE was completed. Submidden was reached at 1.65 meters below the surface. Two features (#26, #27) were defined in the interface. Both were pottery concentrations having plain fiber-tempered sherds with the exception of one curvilinear incised and punctated fibertempered sherd. A human cranium was recovered at 1.3 meters below the surface, well within the midden deposit. A human pelvis was found at approximately the same level but was three meters distant from the cranium. Another remarkable feature (#24) was identified within the shell deposit. This feature had a very high faunal content and was reminiscent of the remains of a dumped cookpot. Elevation of sterile was higher than anticipated. The midden deposition was apparently made in an area having a slight sandy knoll. It is interesting to note that decorated ceramics were encountered below one meter in depth. Decorative motifs were combinations of punctation and incising. Considering the time required to process midden material, it was decided to excavate only one half of the remaining north excavation unit (0l8N, 3E) to sterile. The southern half of this square was selected

PAGE 57

because it contained Feature #18, an area of increased fauna and flora. Sterile was reached at 1.65 meters. Decorated ceramics were encountered at 1 meter and below. A projectile point and an elaborately engraved bone pin fragment were recovered from the interface. On the south side of the ring,Q6S, 1 5E was finally completed. Again the interface was a highly productive area. A plain bone pin, a worked lithic specimen, and a quantity of ceramics were recovered. Decorated ceramics were recovered in this unit in Levels 1-3 (0-^5 cm) and Levels 7-9 (90-135 cm). Sterile was reached at 1.3 meters below the present surface. A well point was successfully used to evacuate water from this unit. A human molar was recovered from the interface. When the human cranium was recovered inOlShl, 0E, no additional human skeletal material could be observed. Since very little skeletal material had been recovered from shell ring sites, examination of the area behind (west) the baulk was indicated. A 1.5 x 2-meter excavation unit was opened (019-5N, 2W) to expose the adjacent area. After removing 1.75 meters of shell overburden, no additional material was observed. No screening was used, but a visual collection of flora, fauna, and cultural material was made. Excavation of this area added a 2-meter expanse for observation of the interface. More ceramics were recovered from this area than in the midden. All ceramics were plain fiber-tempered. Four excavation units were opened in the marsh: three south of the ring (0A5S, 15E;Q24S, 2AE; uk2S, 2*tW) and one east of the ring (pON, 58E) . In the east excavation unit, only three raccoon ( Procyon lotor) teeth were recovered after 0.75 meter of excavation. Instability of the floor (sponginess) forced a premature closure. The physical conditions encountered in the unit were unlike any of the south units.

PAGE 58

Each of the south marsh excavation units was remarkable in the quantity of cultural material recovered. The southernmost, and least productive, square excavated in the marsh was a^5S , 15E. The most westerly and moderately productive was n^2S, 2k\i. Additionally, below the cultural level, white sand was exposed. This unit is closest to present high ground. In the vicinity of the original marsh sump excavations of 1973, Q2^S, 24E was opened. A fragment of human cranium was recovered from this unit along with the cultural and subsistence assemblage. It should be noted that during this field session, an attempt was made to screen material excavated from the marsh units. This proved unfeasible because of the added water problem created by the water-screening. There was too much additional seepage generated. If the screening could have been done at some distance from the opened excavation unit, it would prove more acceptable. The West Ring excavation unit (a5S, 30E) was completed. In the basal midden deposit, numerous potsherds were recovered. Sherds were plain and decorated fiber-tempered ceramics. The decorative motifs were unusual in comparison with those previously recovered. Combinations of punctation and incision in curvilinear and rectilinear designs were unlike the primarily horizontal application usually observed. Quantities of fish otoliths were recovered in the lowest levels of this unit in the same manner as Test 1 . Finally, the last excavation unit to be opened in the vicinity of the marsh ring wasal2N, 15E, positioned in the center of the ring. The location of this unit offered the ability to check the extent of the projection of shell in the center of the marsh ring. Previous testing had

PAGE 59

kk revealed that it was contemporaneous to the surrounding midden on the basis of ceramic constituents. However, as the overlying marsh accumulations were removed, the projection was seen to extend into the center much farther than indicated on the surface. Probing of this area revealed that the situation with regard to extent of the projection is unclear. Overlying marsh would need to be removed to make an assertion of extent or absence in an area. Summary of Excavation Findings In terms of material excavated and information gathered, the Winter Field Session had been one of the most profitable sessions. Excavation units in the marsh ring had been completed providing an observation of the condition of the submidden deposit. A second unit in the West Ring and five additional marsh excavation units had been completed. All of the previous conceptions of the progression of cultural events on the coast were questionable in light of the information gathered. The working date no longer inspired any confidence. Chronological placement by radiocarbon dating could conceivably assign these sites early or late dates. Some findings worthy of discussion follow. Interface The interface proved to be a particularly productive area. More cultural material was concentrated in this area than any level of the midden deposit or any feature. Elaborately engraved bone pin fragments, supposedly a late cultural feature were recovered from the base of the midden deposit. Decorated ceramics and two examples of lithic artifacts came from this area of the site.

PAGE 60

k5 Ceramics Plain and decorated ceramics occur in these ring sites without stratification. Thus, a plain to decorated ceramic continuum could not be supported by the findings. The fiber-tempered ceramics from the north excavation units contained a perceptible amount of grit-tempering, not observed in the ceramic samples from the ring sites. This suggested a situation of transition in ceramic manufacturing techniques to grittempered types. Skeletal Material Human skeletal material, though scanty, was not recovered in the context of an articulated burial, but scattered throughout the midden deposit. Construction Further evidence of the forested nature of the environment prior to ring deposition suggested that the site was constructed by human inhabitants rather than natural forces. The fact that the interface represented such a heavy concentration of human cultural remains was considered evidence that the midden had begun to accumulate as the result of human subsistence practices or intentional placement. Evaluation of Hypotheses and Test Impl ications As the Summer and Winter Field Sessions progressed, it became evident that one hypothesis was unprovable given the extent, direction, and capabilities of excavations and a second unsupported by excavation findings. An examination of these hypotheses Is made to point out the problems. Hypothesis 3: Null Hypothesis Marsh silting and land encroachment have no effect on molluscan and vertebrate faunal availability.

PAGE 61

While an effect upon molluscan and some vertebrate fauna by increased amounts of sediment could be documented as possible (Buck 1956: 2^9-261; Galtsoff 1956: ^08-419), our excavation findings did not demonstrate such evidence. No relict oyster beds were defined. While a probable margin of inundated land can be observed from aerial photographs of the area, no direct correlation between silting and encroachment could be demonstrated for local molluscan fauna. The Null hypothesis, while not acceptable, is similarly not rejectable either. This is a situation in which reformulation and a new excavation strategy are required prior to acceptance or rejection. Hypothesis 2: Null hypothesis During the period of occupation ( circa 1500-750 BC) no changed in the marsh occurred. Discernible changes in the marsh in the vicinity of the ring sites occurred subsequent to the fiber-tempered occupation. Radiocarbon dates indicate that inundation of the south marsh cultural level occurred after 835"820 BC. No submarsh midden deposit having fiber-tempered ceramics was exposed by excavation supporting Test Implication 1. No molluscan fauna was exposed in association with any material from the marsh cultural level. Argument for accepting the Null hypothesis is felt to reflect the findings at the site. Hypothesis 1 : Null hypothesis No perceptible change in resource usage is evident among the Late Archaic sites in the Cannon's Point area. In the analysis of faunal material from the three cultural deposits in the Cannon's Point area, consistent differences in faunal inventories are observed. This involves molluscan and vertebrate faunal components. Appendix 5 lists the results of the faunal analysis from the Late Archaic

PAGE 62

hi occupations. Intersite vertebrate inventories are not similar. The West Ring demonstrates a higher reliance upon fish. Analysis of fauna from the marsh cultural level reveals an increased use of mammals and reptiles. Intersite use of molluscan resources is not similar. The West Ring indicates a subsistence use of periwinkle, an incidental mollusc in the marsh ring. The marsh cultural level demonstrates no use of molluscs. Therefore, neither of the test implications are supported. The Null hypothesis must be rejected for lack of supporting evidence and the Test hypothesis accepted.

PAGE 63

CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF EXCAVATED MATERIALS Radiocarbon Dates Radiocarbon dates were not available untjl May, 1975, well after the close of the Winter Field Session. Material for dating was submitted to the University of Miami Radiocarbon Dating Lab. Apparent age was calculated relative to 0.35X NBS oxalic acid radiocarbon dating standard. Quoted precisions are one standard deviation and include only the counting precisions of the unknown sample, background, and modern standard. (Eldridge 1975) A discussion of the six samples, their proveniences, and significance fol lows. The Ring at Cannon's Point ( Marsh Ring) : 9GN57 Two samples were submitted from the north excavation units. Since these units were located in the area of maximum depth of deposit, material for dating from this area was desirable. 1815 BC Sample taken from Ql8N, 3E at approximately 13 cm 3765+90 BP below the present surface (1.13 m below datum). UM-521 Sample consisted solely of oyster shells (Crassostrea vi rginica) . This sample dates the upper levels of this deposit and was removed just below the humic zone. Sample is from Shell Sample #118, Field Specimen #848. 2240 BC Sample taken from Ql8N, OE west baulk at a depth of 4190+90 BP 1.46-1.58 m below the surface (2.09-2.21 m below UM-520 datum). Sample taken from the immediate vicinity of human cranium. Sample of oyster shell exclusively. Sample dates the lower midden levels and the human cranium. Sample is from Field Specimen #663. 48

PAGE 64

49 The West R i ng : 9GN76 Two samples were submitted from the east baulk of Test 1 with the intention of dating the upper levels and the basal levels of the deposit. 1655 BC Sample consisting solely of oyster shells ( Crassos3605+110 BP trea virginica) taken from approximately 19 cm beUM-523 low the surface (1.86-1.97 m below datum). Sample dates upper levels of midden. Removed just below humic zone. From Field Specimen #83* Shell Sample #15. 1910 BC Sample taken from the lowest level of midden deposit 3860+90 BP at approximately 46 cm below the surface (2.24 m UM-522 below datum). Shell Sample #16 comprised only of oyster shells ( Crassostrea virginica) . Field Specimen #84. Table 5 provides radiocarbon dates for non-ring fiber-tempered sites. Marsh Cul tural Level Two samples were submitted from separate proveniences on the south side of the marsh ring (9GN57) • The first sample was collected during the summer of 1973; the second in the spring of 1974. Dates from these proveniences were felt to be requisite for determining the age of the fiber-tempered/grit-tempered ceramic associations. Additionally, some indication of the length of time represented by the marsh build-up would be given. 820 BC Sample collected fromo27S, 18E and consisted of wood 2770+95 BP taken from a tree stump associated with floral, faunal , UM-5T9 and cultural materials. Ceramics were fiber-tempered and grit-tempered. Depth of the sample was approximately 61 cm below the present marsh surface (3-21 m below datum). Field Specimen #40. Dates demise of tree--probably at time of marsh encroachment. 835 BC Sample taken from033S, 12E at a depth of 76-87 cm 2785+80 BP below the surface (3-36-3.47 m below datum). Field UM-518 Specimen #279 consisted of carbonized material from a carbon concentration associated with faunal remains. Sample dates the fiber-tempered/grit-tempered cultural association.

PAGE 65

50 — TJ l — c o

PAGE 66

51 Correction factors based on dendrochronological analysis is presented here to provide an indication of realistic dates. All dates are given as date range from Ralph, Michael, and Han 1973: 1-20. Radiocarbon Date Dendrochronological Correction Range 1815 BC+90 years 2180-2070 BC 22l»0 BC+90 years 2910-2580 BC 1655 BC+110 years 2110(1750-1710) BC 1910 BC+90 years (2^1 0-23^0) -21^0 BC 820 BC+95 years 1010-800 BC 835 BC+80 years 1010-810 BC Cultural Remains Cultural inventories reconstructed by archaeological excavations in shell ring sites are not elaborate. Based on the raw material utilized in construction, four categories are recognized: ceramic, bone/antler, lithic, and shell. It is pertinent to remember that cultural items made from plant resources constitute a potentially diverse category no longer recoverable. In sites where conditions of preservation have been favorable (e.g. caves or bogs), the contribution of plant resources is impressive. The absence of cultural items constructed from plant materials generally creates a rather lopsided view of aboriginal technology. Although occupational debris in the marsh cultural level was covered by a considerable deposit of muddy silt, no examples of culturally modified wood or fiber were recovered from aboriginal contexts. This would seem to indicate that inundation occurred so slowly that deterioration of any such material was completed prior to submergence. Similarly, no impressions of basketry, matting, or twining were observed on fibei — tempered sherds.

PAGE 67

52 Ceramics Ceramic typology mirrors the lack of concensus previously noted in consideration of cultural chronology. Claflin's report (1931) of the Stal ling's Island excavations introduced the terms Stal ling's Island culture and Stal ling's Island pottery. Unfortunately, Claflin did not recognize the ceramics as being fiber-tempered or propose any relationship to known vegetal -tempered ceramics from Florida (Wyman 1875). Holmes (1894) had more succinctly described vegetaVtemper ing in aboriginal ceramics. Holder (1938) noted vegetal tempering in the ceramics in his collections from St. Simon's Island, Georgia. As a result of his findings, a St. Simon's Fiber-Tempered type was recognized. This type, however, was never formally described, and Holder's work has been published only recently (Chance 197*0That this ceramic type existed and was used is documented by Caldwell and Waring's application (1939) of the nomen in their description of Chatham County, Georgia, pottery types. The Bilbo site report, written in 19^0 but not published until 1968, uses the terminology. Griffin (19^3) defined the Stal ling's Island types and applied the Stal ling's nomen to fiber-tempered ceramics from the Beaufort, South Carolina, area establishing a relatedness, almost an equivalence between the ceramics of the Stal ling's Island and coastal Chester Field sites. He reiterated this point in a subsequent paper defining the Orange ceramic types of Florida (1945). The attempts to check unwarranted creation of ceramic types resulted in the inclusion of all fiber-tempered ceramics in one of three regional categories. This scheme was formalized by Sears and Griffin in 1950.

PAGE 68

53 Regardless of any consideration of attributes other than ceramic ones, ceramics were identified on the basis of the geographical location of the find. That is, if the ceramics were excavated in Florida, they belonged to the Orange Series; in Alabama and Tennessee to the Wheeler Series; in Georgia to the Stal ling's Island Series. !t was not until the Bilbo site excavations that Waring began to have second thoughts (ca, 19^*0) = He then devised a Bilbo period chronology which he introduced in a paper written around 1952 (1955-60: 253-255). Williams (1968) lists the report of the Sapelo Island shell ring excavation as being written between 1955 and I960. In this report (1955-60: 265-280), Waring adhered to the St. Simon's type with no mention of Bilbo classification. More recently, Crusoe and DePratter (n.d.) have redefined the Bilbo chronology and urged its usage. Crusoe (n.d.) in a paper written subsequently proposes a four-fold classification returning to the Stal ling's nomen and articulating with Bullen's (195*0 five-fold Orange period classification. Since 19^0, the status of excavations and particularly analysis of sites on the Georgia coast has been that of very little public communication. This is especially true for fiber-tempered sites. Excavations have consisted of small tests with interest continuing in a ceramics-to-chronology orientation. No adequate site survey of the Georgia coast has been done during this time. The situation in 1975 is not appreciably improved. Proposal of a new typology, adherence to an old one, or consolidation of several is not intended here. Coastal sites are significant in more meaningful ways than ceramic motifs or attributes of ceramic manufacture. Milanich (1971) takes a refreshing direction in proposing a Coastal

PAGE 69

5k Tradition based on subsistence strategy, total artifact: inventories, and settlement type within a frame of radiocarbon dates. This is one of the first attempts to understand cultural developments on the coast in terms of a lifestyle and not in terms of viewing the people as possessors of distinct artifacts. The greatest problem to researchers is the absence of a systematic body of data from excavated sites in either riverine or coastal environments. As many times as the Stal ling's lsland~site has been excavated or tested, interest in this site is primarily that of its unique ceramics or ceramic change (Claflin 1931 , Bullen and Greene 1970, Crusoe and DePratter n.d.). The notable exception is Fairbanks' (19^2) assessment of the cultural traits represented by excavation findings. Too often discussions of subsistence strategy in archaeological reports are obviously based on impression and not the result of analysis of food remains. Riverine information is augmented somewhat by Miller's (19^*9) Lake Spring site report and the paper by Phelps and Burgess (196A) on the White Mound. The state of information reflects insufficient analysis and publication upon which to build a coherent structure of chronology or ceramic typology. Until this data base is available, a moratorium on further classification and categorization is urged to allow objective and impartial collection of information. This should not be construed to propose information gathering today and theorizing tomorrow. Rather it is recognition that the framework within which the Late Archaic situation in Georgia, as now perceived, is insufficient support. It is additionally a recognition that the quality of the Cannon's Point collections precludes their comparison with any extant collection. For these reasons, no new scheme will be offered.

PAGE 70

55 Before interpretive presentations of human development in the Georgia coastal area are made, prehistorians must be willing to investigate the adaptation as a totality, not one or two traits. A portion of this study is a contribution to such a data base. Ceramics have been a major concern for archaeologists since their unique ability to reflect cultural development was recognized. To this end, a ceramic analysis is provided for each excavation unit giving level distribution and totals. Many recovered decorated sherds are illustrated with their respective proveniences. Illustrations of decorated ceramics and rim forms may be found in Appendix 3 (sherds having Orange series motifs) and Appendix 6. Additionally, distribution by level is provided in Appendix 7. illustrations of grit-tempered ceramics are included as Appendix 8. Ceramic fragments recovered from excavation units in the ring sites were overwhelmingly fibertempered. Table 6 lists the distribution of fiber-tempered and grit-tempered sherds for both ring sites. Table 7 lists ceramic distribution for each excavation unit in the marsh. Table 8 presents totals of ceramic material recovered from the three contexts. It should be mentioned that fiber-tempered sherds tend to fragment upon removal from the midden and as a result of excavation trauma. A sherd is here defined as a ceramic fragment having both an interior and an exterior surface intact. A paste fragment is defined as any ceramic fragment lacking either one or both surfaces. Such a distinction reduces sherd counts appreciably but is felt to be more representative of the material reocvered. Weights are included to provide an indication of paste fragment contribution to the total ceramic sample.

PAGE 71

56 D> CD U"V — P— — |V% en — — d n a en

PAGE 72

57 4->

PAGE 73

58 — 3 o — t~ E O w E O ro en Sa. nj O 00 -a— NO OO
PAGE 75

60 Several observations regarding the ceramic collection from the Cannon's Point Late. Archaic sites are pertinent. The term fiber-tempered is used to designate those sherds in which vegetal paste inclusions have resulted in post-firing vermiculation and channeling. Grit-tempering (grit in the form of visible quartz inclusions) is present in all ceramics that are not fiber-tempered. While fiber-tempered sherds excavated in Georgia should be typed Stal lings, the situation for grit-tempered sherds is either simple stamped or cross-simple stamped (Appendix 8). Radiocarbon dates (820-835 BC) place these ceramics within the Refuge Phase (ca. 1100-600 BC) as defined by Peterson (1970: 76-81). Waring (1968: 198-208) first described this phase after excavating the Refuge site, a shell midden located on a tributary of the Savannah River in South Carolina. Distinction between Refuge and the later Deptford phase was based on ceramic attributes. A coarser, thicker paste is reported for Refuge sherds. This phase is best known from the Savannah River drainage and its coastal affiliations are not clear. Peterson (1970: 76-81) notes a distinct change in environmental usage in terms of exploited resources and area of habitation. This information comes from the excavations headed by Stoltman at Groton Plantation, Allendale County, South Carolina. Peterson contends that Refuge sites are situated in the uplands. When the swamps are used, occupation is not associated with mollusc gathering since Refuge phase sites on Groton Plantation yield no mol luscan debris. In the Cannon's Point project area, the marsh cultural level similarly reflects no mollusc association. It is true that in this cultural level, the majority of grit-tempered sherds were recovered in association with fiber-tempered sherds, but it is in the latter sherds that an interesting

PAGE 76

61 change is noted. In the fiber-tempered sherds from the ring sites, only an occasional grit inclusion is observed. Fiber-tempered sherds from the marsh cultural level, however, evidence a very high frequency of grit inclusions. The tempering of the grit-tempered sherds from this provenience were admittedly coarse, but assignment to a Refuge type may be premature. As Stoltman observes (197^: 22) Waring's Refuge typology was subjectively developed and may not be accurately reproduced by another investigator. Perhaps the event occurring in the marsh cultural level is one of development from predominantly fiber-tempered to grittempered types--a pre-check stamped Deptford situation. Unlike fibertempered ceramics, coil fracturing is frequently observed on these grittempered sherds. Ceramic decorations continue to be distinct, however. No incised or punctated motifs appear on grit-tempered sherds: no stamping is present on fiber-tempered sherds. Decorative motifs on fiber-tempered ceramics from St. Simon's Island shell ring sites are highly variable. The typical Stall ings motif, linear punctation, does not occur in this sample and is generally not a common coastal decoration. Waring (1955: 219) notes that Orange Incised, a Florida type, appears to extend as far north as St. Simon's Island, Georgia. Excavations in both ring sites substantiate this point (Appendix 3). Of particular interest are sherds from the West Ring, particularly proveniences 59, 62, and 67. These sherds are nearly identical to Griffin's (19^5) examples of Tick Island Incised (see Griffin's Figures D-l). The sherds are from basal levels of the east arc of the midden (the basal levels of the west arc are dated at ca. 1910 BC) . In the Marsh Ring, sherds having Orange motifs are from the south arc excavations units and were recovered in the first three levels.

PAGE 77

62 As the ceramic tabulation shows, no support for a plain fibertempered ceramic horizon is provided. Decorated ceramics are found beneath the midden as well as within it. It is interesting to note that no decorated sherds were recovered on the north ring arc until almost one meter of midden had been removed. On the south arc, decorated ceramics were very superficial. Bone/Antler Cultural items made of bone were far more common than those of antler. A sizeable sample of worked bone was recovered, the majority small fragments. Only three examples of utilized antler were identified. Much of the antler recovered from marsh proveniences could not be verified as utilized because of its poor state of preservation. All examples of worked bone appear to be made of fragments of larger bones. Some may be specifically identified as constructed from the metapodials of whitetailed deer. A catalog of worked bone and antler is provided in Appendix 9; illustrations of selected examples follow in Appendix 10. Three basic categories of worked bone are exemplified: awls, points, and pins. Awls are defined as pointed, tapered implements having an expanded base. Frequently a constriction or grooving is observed at the base. Seven examples were recovered. Only two points were identified, one of bone and the other of antler. Points are characterized by short length and are cylindrical but tapered in cross-section having a constricted base. Bone pins have been one of the most characteristic artifacts from fiber-tempered sites. Pins are constructed of split fragments of deer metapodial. Specimens are limited in length to the length of the metapodial. In the Cannon's Point collections, length from base (or head) to point is 12 to 16 cm. Fragments were rounded, apparently by abrasion,

PAGE 78

63 and a high polish is usual. It is uncertain if the polish is a result of abrasion in manufacture or from usage. Nine examples were recovered. In addition, many of the worked bone fragments are parts of pin shafts and points. The application of decorative motifs was limited to this category. The most common design (#3^2) observed was a zoned triangular or diamond incised motif. Two examples of the scroll designs of the Bilbo type bone pins described by Waring (1 9^0 : 1 70-1 71 ) are included in this collection. One is rectilinear (#776T~and the other gives a hint of a curvilinear design (#8l7a). Worked bone was recovered as a midden inclusion with more frequency than in features. In Features #19 and #21 (a highly cemented hearth extending through the shared baulk), one awl, a broken pin tip, and one decorated shaft fragment were retrieved. In Feature #20, another probable hearth which lacked the consolidation of shells observed in Feature #19 and #21, most of a pin was recovered. In contrast, Feature #18 which consistently yielded large quantities of fauna, produced only a fragment of uti 1 ized turtle. The elaborately engraved bone pin fragment (#776) was exposed below the midden and its impression was visible in the submidden soil. Provenience and Waring's criteria suggest a later date for these sites. The radiocarbon dates, instead of supporting elaborately decorated bone pins as a later development, suggest that in the Cannon's Point area this artifact has a much earlier date. One additional type of worked bone was frequently observed. In the catalog, it comprises over 50% of the recovered examples. The carapace of specific turtles evidences internal scraping which removed the vertebral attachments on the neural s and exposed the cancellous structure of

PAGE 79

6*» the pleurals and marginals. The carapace is cut from the plastron through the bridge marginals apparently to allow removal of edible meat. This cut area usually shows considerable polish. Such treatment of turtle carapace is consistently seen on Deirochelys reticularia , Chrysemys cf. f loridana , and Malaclemys terrapin . These species have frenulated exteriors, a fact that apparently was culturally valued. That they are the largest turtles locally available is another observation which must be included. Because scraping increases the porosity of the_shell, it would seem that items intended to be contained within (if in fact the shell was used as a container) were dry instead of liquid. Lithics Culturally altered lithic material recovered from the marsh ring consisted of three examples. The location of each item is particularly interesting. A granitic, hone was recovered in Feature #19 associated with a bone awl. In the submidden soil of the southern half of CJ18N, 3E, a chert projectile point was recovered. This point, illustrated in Appendix 11, is not a typical Savannah River Stemmed point, rather it is reminiscent of a Florida Arredondo point typological ly (Bullen 1975). The third specimen is a stemmed, bifacial ly worked object excavated from a pit adjacent to Feature #12. The specimen is of chert and appears to have been repeatedly retouched. Its function may have been as a knife or scraper. During this time period, coastal sites have consistently produced few lithic artifacts. The small inventory discussed above was expected. Debris from tool-making or retouching was similarly meager, suggesting that lithic items were brought to the coastal area as finished products.

PAGE 80

65 No cores or preforms were recovered, A small number of chert flakes were retrieved from the West Ring but no lithic artifacts. Quartz pebbles were more frequently recovered, particularly in the basal levels. The marsh cultural level presented a very different picture. Six lithic artifacts were excavated in units south of the marsh ring. Flint was black or bluish in color in contrast to the white specimens from the marsh ring. Debitage was present in greater frequency than the few chips recovered in the ring sites. It is probable that screening would have produced additional specimens. From the scarcity of lithic material in the ring sites and the greater frequencies in the marsh cultural level, it seems apparent that lithic availability in the coastal area increased with time. The change in color is interesting also. Black flint outcrops have been reported from the Fail Line but not from the coastal plain. Shell Definition of this class of artifacts if particularly problemmatical . Certainly any shell is a potential tool but conditions of preservation may obscure evidence of use. Clarification of criteria used for classification of shell tools was required as field work progressed. A mollusc shell was considered utilized if non-natural ly occurring alterations were observed. These alterations could be evidence of use as food rather than tool use. Additionally, it was anticipated that some specimens would evidence both food and tool use modification. Gastropods were the most commonly excavated mollusc class exhibiting consistent alterations. Such molluscs can be removed from their shells by pulling the animal out by its foot. Perforation of the shell provides

PAGE 81

66 access to the muscle attachments* which when cut makes removal possible. Holes In the shoulder of the shell or absent spires were considered alterations for food use. The criteria for tool use were based on alterations of the umbilical area (base) and lip edge (at the shell opening). Blunting of the base, angular wear resulting in basal pointing, and lip edge wear were the most consistently observed alterations. Two gastropods were commonly recovered from the midden with such modifications: Busycon carica and Busycon car ica-el iceans . The former seemed to repeatedly exhibit modification for food use, the latter for tool and food use. Busycon carica is a thin-shelled species; Busycon carica el iceans Is a more robust species. Some of the archaeological specimens had segments of shell removed exposing the columella. Such detachment: produces sections of shell which can be used for manufacture of other itesm (e.g. beads). Bivalves were the most numerous midden inclusion, but evidence of food or tool alteration was not as obvious. A single example of utilized oyster, modified by the removal of a circular section from the valve body was recovered. Use is not known. in the West Ring, a clam shell ( Mercenar ia sp.) with the umbo (hinge) removed and exhibiting considerable edge wear of this area was retrieved. The specimen may have served as a dipper or scoop. Single shells were generally encountered during excavation but occasionally clumps of shells were observed, but these plus crustaceans (usually barnacles) were not sizeable nor was their location repetitive. Many Busycons were excavated with internally adhering oyster growth indicating that the initial reason for collecting this specimen was not for food. Since these specimens usually exhibited no modification from tool use, the choice of these shells remains a question. Such gathering practices seem to suggest

PAGE 82

67 a lack of discrimination in the selection of potential foodstuffs. Perhaps the location of the habitation area was near enough to the source to compensate for the waste of energy represented by transportation of inedible mollusc shells. Another suggestion of the proximity of mollusc sources to the habitation area is offered by one specimen which was initially a tool then discarded in water and.,subsequently regathered with adhering immature oyster growth (Appendix 12, #568). This specimen demonstrates immature oyster growth over edge wear_ and removal of the lip. On the other hand, the functions of shell tools may have included activities done on or near the water with loss of this specimen being a predictable consequence of use. Clams frequently exhibited exterior shell removal near the umbo. Perforation did not occur but an inner layer of shell was exposed. A blow to loosen the hinge and facilitate extraction of the mollusc is a probable cause. Small concave areas of shell are frequently observed to be absent from the lip of the clam suggesting that prying may have been attempted. Most clams evidences neither lip nor umbo alteration. Appendix 12 catalogs the utilized shell from both ring sites and includes photographs of selected specimens. Fauna 1 Materials Molluscan resources represent such an obvious contribution to the subsistence base of Late Archaic peoples that the perception of coastaldwelling groups as "oyster eaters" inevitably developed. Unfortunately, little else was considered. Identification and enumeration of faunal remains from the Cannon's Point sites indicates that it is more realistic to perceive coastal inhabitants during this time period as participants

PAGE 83

68 in a procurement system in which the tidal creek and the surrounding marsh were critical sources of food. However, a discussion of molluscs is appropriate to initiate any consideration of Late Archaic subsistence. While oysters are obviously the dominant species present, many other molluscs occur as midden inclusions in significant quantities. All too frequently, this fact has been overlooked. As noted previously, some species combined subsistence and technological functions. A list of the molluscs excavated from the ring sites is presented in Table 9 (identification is based on Abbott 197^ and Burch 1962). It is apparent that mollusc habitat varies greatly. Oysters, clams, whelks, stout tagelus ( Tagelus plebius) , and mussels ( Geukensia demissa) made the greatest food contribution. Harsh periwinkles seem to have been more important in the West Ring while the subsistence role of marsh snails ( llyanassa obsoleta , Melampus bidentatus ), oyster drill (Urosalpinx cinerea), and others is less certain. These species may have been gathered with other resources representing incidental inclusion in the midden. Carnivorous terrestrial snails seem to have been drawn in Livery large numbers to the decaying midden debris. There is no evidence that these may have been utilized. Table iO presents a composite faunal list for each ring site and the marsh cultural level. Taxonomy is based on the following sources: fishes Bailey et_ aj_. 1970; amphibians and reptiles Conant 1975; birds Peterson 19^7; Robbins et^ aJL 1 966; mammals Burt and Grossenheider 1964, Gol ley 1962. The diversity of faunal species identified is remarkable. Species lists for each excavation unit and a level-by-level assessment of the faunal material is available in Appendix 5. From these tabulations, it is evident that vertebrate fauna is critically important to aboriginal subsistence. This point is clearly supported when a dietary assessment of available data for molluscs

PAGE 84

69 u

PAGE 85

70 c >o o E E U O ,_ — U) — E O «o ro o c — — TO

PAGE 86

Table 10: Faunal List. 71 Fauna 9GN57 9GN76 Marsh Cultural Level CRUSTACEA Decapoda Cal 1 inectes sp. CHONDRICHTHYS Carcharhinidae Galeocerdo cuvierf Sphyrnidae Sphyrna sp. Raj i formes Dasyati s sp. Aetobates narinari OSTEICHTHYS Lepisosteus sp. Ami a calva Elops saurus Clupeidae' Brevoortia sp. Si luriformes Ictalurus sp. Ar i idae^ Ar ius fel i s Bagre mar inus Micropterus sp. Opsanus sp. Pomatomus sal tatrix Carangidae 1 Spar idae' Lagodon sp. Archosargus sp. Sciaenidae Baird iel la chrysura Cynoscion sp. Leiostomus xanthurus Menticirrhus americanus XX X X X X X X X X X X XXX X X XXX X X X X X X X X XXX XX X X X X X X X X

PAGE 87

Table 10: Faunal List. (Continued) 72 Fauna 9GN57 9GN76 Marsh Cultural Level Micropogon undulatus Pogonias cromis Sciaenops ocel lata Stel 1 i f er 1 anceol atus Mugi 1 sp. Prionotus sp. Paral ichthys sp. AMPHIBIA Si ren sp. REPTILIA Chelydra serpentina Kinosternon sp. Terrapene carol ina Malaclemys terrapin Chrysemys sp. Chrysemys cf . f loridana Dei rochelys ret icular ia Al 1 i gator missi ssipiensis Iguanidae' Anol is carol inensis Natrix sp. Coluber constrictor Lampropel tis sp. AVES Phalacocorax aur i tus aur itus Ardea herod ias wardi Bucephala clangula Buteo 1 ineatus al leni Rail idae 1 Larus argenticus

PAGE 88

Table 10: Faunal List (Continued) 73 Fauna 9GN57 9GN76 Marsh Cultural Level MAMMALIA Didelphis virginiana Soricidae' Cryptotis parva Blarina brevicauda Scalopus aquaticus Sylvi lagus sp. Rodent i a Glaucomys volans Sciurus carol inensis Microtinae cf. Neof iber Neof iber al leni cf. Neotoma cf . Peromyscus Oryzomys sp. Peromyscus sp. Sigmodon hispidus Lutra canadensis Mustela vison Cani s fami 1 iar is Procyon lotor Odocoi leus vi rginianus Homo sapiens XX X X X X X X X XXX XXX X X X X X X X X X X X X X XX X XXX XX X X X indicates elements only identified to this level

PAGE 89

Ik and several vertebrate species is made. Table 11 documents the fact that crustaceans and vertebrate fauna comprise a more significant contribution by weight than molluscan fauna. With a few notable exceptions, all fishes identified are marine and inhabit the tidal creek biotope. The exceptions are freshwater catfish ( ictal urus sp.) , bowfin or mudfish ( Am? a calva) , and bass ( Micropterus sp.). All usually inhabit freshwater biotopes but may enter brackish waters. They are represented in the faunal collection by a very small number of fragments. Their presence in these sites may indicate a change in the local habitat. It is possible that these species were resident in semi -permanent ponds on the island. Such standing water as is present on the island today depends upon rainfall and is generally scarce. Freshwater catfish are taken today in marine habitats when unusually high freshwater run-offs occur. These run-offs may be caused by increased rainfall over a period of time or by storms. A similar situation occurring prehistor ically may account for the presence of these species. Additionally, freshwater turtles were recovered from most excavation units. The tidal creek biotope constantly fluctuates with tidal condition. At periods of high tide, the tidal creek expands vastly. Conversely, at periods of low tide, the marshes extend for miles. Many mammalian species other than man depend upon the marshes and tidal creeks for their maintenance. Crabs (particularly of the genus Ilea fiddlers) constitute a staple item in the diet of island raccoons. Deer and rabbits ( Syl vi lagus sp.) include marsh grasses in their diets. Otter and mink, both semi-aquatic mammals, prey on numerous species present in these biotopes. Many avian species are permanent residents of the area, others are seasonal. While the majority of avian

PAGE 90

75 o

PAGE 91

w6w pioy oiqjoosv uj6uj uioejM uj6lu ujABijoqiy iu6m ujuieiqx 76 uiBuj uin ipo$ tu6w ujnisse^oj iu6u uoj | ui6uj sruoqdsoijd uj6iu uin io l S3 SW6 L|S\/ suj6 Jsqjj sui6 aiBjpXqoqjBQ sw6 }ej siu6 uia^ojj sauoieo

PAGE 92

77 pecies identified from the collections are permanent residents, one migratory species is present (American golden-eye). Two species identified are not present-day residents of the area. Aetobates narinar? (spotted eagle ray) is not reported for the Georgia coast (Dahlberg 1975: 31). Similarly, the present distribution of Neofiber al leni (Florida water rat) does not include thje Georgia coast (Burt and Grossenheider 1964: 200-202). Several species are particularly important in the faunal sample: blue crab ( Cal 1 inectes sp.) , menhaden (Clupeidae cf. Brevoortia) , marine catfish (Ariidae), members of the drum family (Sciaenidae) , and mullet (Mugil sp.). The majority of individuals in the sample are represented by these species. Mammalian species contribute a greater amount of edible meat by weight than fish or crabs but are not present in large numbers in the collections. It is obvious from the areas tested that mollusc gathering was augmented largely by fishing. Amphibian fauna is represented by only one genus, Siren . In general, amphibian remains were so tiny that adequate collections were not available for positive identification. Consequently most of the recovered amphibian fauna is listed as unidentified. Reptilian fauna, particularly snake vertebrae, presented a comparable problem. The condition of erosion and fragmentation of the elements makes the identification of snakes very tentative. Turtles were well represented. It is interesting to note that turtles in the marsh cultural level included two species not present in the ring sites: Chelydra serpentina and Terrapene carol ina . Chelydra serpentina was present in considerable quantity. One fragment of alligator was recovered from the marsh cultural level. This was the only example of this reptile retrieved.

PAGE 93

78 Many species may represent incidental inclusions rather than food remains. Some of these are flying squirrel, mole, shrews, green anole (chameleon), and several species of rats. Regardless of their function, the presence of these small animals add considerable information about the prehistoric environment. The role of the dog is uncertain. Dog remains occurred in the midden as any other food remains might have been observed. One partial maxilla was recovered in Feature #19Its cracked and burned condition suggests that whatever the premortem function of the dog, its postmortem role included human consumption. It is interesting to note that no teeth were recovered with the maxilla or in the feature. While dog teeth are frequently recovered drilled for stringing, no evidence of this practice was observed. Dog remains were recovered at each of the locations. The marsh cultural level evidences an increased incidence of use of turtle and deer. As previously mentioned, no molluscan remains were associated with any of the faunal or cultural material exposed beneath the present marsh surface. This absence suggests several hypothetical answers: a decreased abundance of molluscs, a culturally motivated subsistence change, differential use of the area (i.e. not for mollusc harvesting), or differential preservation of bone and shell beneath the marsh. At this time, adequate support for any of these hypotheses is lacking. Floral Remains Regardless of the reports of previous investigators, floral material is a midden inclusion and may be retrieved using screened samples. Floral remains were recovered as seeds, nutshells, and carbonized nuts (particularly acorn). A tentative floral list is provided in Table 12 with additional plotting of the seasonal availability of the edible parts of the plant.

PAGE 94

79 a) *j *j > a>

PAGE 95

80 Pi nus is not present in the sample In any quantity. Junip er us spp. is presently the dominant cover of the marsh ring and present on the West Ring. In the marsh cultural level, juniper roots were exposed. Identification was based on the characteristically red inner coloration and odor. Quercus spp. was moderately abundant. Carya spp. was the most numerically abundant nutshell. Considerable ^uanti ties were recovered throughout the midden with a significant increase in the submidden soil. It was not possible to determine whether thesA ^fragments were burned or carbonized. An increased frequency of Carya was noted in Feature #18, #24, and #25. Cel tis spp. is second to Carya in abundance. Its frequency is particularly high in Features #19, #20, and #21. There seems to be some correlation between the occurrence of Celtis and areas identified as probable hearths. Cel t is is also abundant in the general levels throughout the midden. Prunus serotina , I lex vomi tor ia , Bumel ia lye? odes , and Foresteiera sp. are not present in any quantity. it should be remembered that the leaves of Ilex vomi tori a are known to have been used aboriginally for ceremonial drinks (Swanton 1 946 : 699). In general, the floral species identified still grow in the area. Brassica spp. has been tentatively identified but is not common. This species represents an introduction from Eurasia or Africa (Small 1933: 562). Level-by-level species identification is provided in Appendix 13 for the West Ring. Other Analyses Soil Soil samples were taken whenever a feature was designated or an area of unusual color or texture appeared. Additionally, a stratified sample was taken from marsh unitrj45S, 15E for comparative analysis. The question

PAGE 96

81 of amount of carbonate resorption taking place was felt to be critical to problems of differential preservation of shell and bone. Because marsh periwinkle and Atlantic ribbed mussels were noted in marsh excavations in a state of decay, comparative analyses were required to check the carbonate levels. The samples were submitted to the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Soil Sciences Laboratory at the University of Florida. Unfortunately, the tabulations were misplaced, and the only results which are available concern pH values. These values are listed below and indicate an alkaline environment,, a condition already suspected in view of the excellent bone preservation. Soil Depth below Sample # Surface pH value Associations 59 0-18 cm T .k Spartina growth heavy 60 31-**3 cm 7-6 Spart i na rootlets present but growth not thick 61 70-80 cm 7-3 Corresponds to level of cultural and subsistence materials 62 120 cm 7-5 Below the cultural level Pol len Samples for pollen analysis were taken, particularly from the marsh excavation units. Initial processing of these samples in the Florida State Museum Paleoecology Lab revealed extensive Spartina contamination. Consequently, the samples were of little value. One would question the value of pollen samples in an area at the mouth of a river in any event. Much of the pollen deposition may include water-borne pollens from non-local

PAGE 97

82 Human Osteology Although fpur of six excavation units in the marsh ring produced some human skeletal material, the total inventory is small. Table 13 summarizes this material. Skeletal material recovered was fragmentary but generally gave the impression of being crushed in place. Because cannibalism had been hypothesized to explain the fragmentary nature-of previous finds of human skeletal material in shell ring sites, much care was taken to observe supporting information. However, no solid evidence of cannibalism is offered by this collection. Admittedly, some of the bones have articular surfaces missing but this could be caused by the manner in which the skeletal element became a part of the midden. The inclusion of non-articulated skeletal material in the midden presents a puzzle. It is possible that the lower levels of the ring were borrowed from shell heaps in which burials had been made. It is also possible that considerable shifting of the midden overburden through the years caused relocation of materia! and disarticulation. It may be that the burial practices of these people included exposure and that subsequent burial of the remaining bones was haphazard. No cultural items have been excavated in association with human skeletal remains. The cranium and pelvis are probably from the same individual, a male aged 22-28 years, although their locations in the midden are some three meters diagonally distant. They are, however, from approximately the same level. The remaining material is enigmatic, particularly the right leg and foot from the south arc excavation units. Consideration of Methods and Techniques At this point, it seems appropriate to consider the methods and techniques applied during excavation since analysis points out the inconsistencies, pro-

PAGE 98

83

PAGE 99

or contributions of these aspects of excavation strategy. The methodology and techniques applied are responsible for generating the raw data which when analyzed, supports the observations made. Screening When an excavator makes a commitment to screening, several problems immediately arise. Time required for field processing is greatly increased. Material recovered similarly increases (depending on the site). The area that can be excavated with the time allowed may_be lessened unless the crew is large. Time required for post-excavation analysis is lengthened. In a shell site, the amount of material to be processed when screening is used is phenomenal. Most of the excavator's time is not spent in the excavation unit but at the screen clearing shell debris and picking out the archaeological ly significant material. Davidson (196*0 notes many of the same problems and states: In almost all cases, the critical division seemed to lie between the \/k inch and 1/8 inch. Material retained by an 1/8 inch sieve was identifiable without difficulty. Objection to it lies in the great increase in time necessary for a very small increase in exactness. The material retained by the sieve was always less than 10% of the total weight of the sample and usually considerably less. (Davidson 196^ : 155) . A very interesting comment on the amount of archaeological ly significant material recovered from a shell ring excavation level is offered in Table 14. Calculations for this table were made possible by the fact that a6S, 15E was excavated during the last few days of the Winter Field Session. Time did not allow field processing of the material in the lower screen. Consequently, significant material was separated in the top screen and bagged (note first column); all material caught in the lower screen was bagged and processed at

PAGE 100

85 Table 14: Contribution of Screening by Weight of Processed Mater ial , 06S, 15E Fauna Shell Flora Ceramics Total weight Total weight lower screen % of lower screen weight Fauna Shell Flora Ceramics Total weight Total weight lower screen % of lower screen weight Level 7 Top screen (3/8x3 A in.) 25.5 9 **2.0% 22.1 g 78.9% 1.2 g 25.5% Lower screen (1/8 in.) 35.5 g 58.0% 5.9 g 21.1* 3.5 g 7^.5* 615. 9 g 96.9 % 19.5 g 3.1 664.9 g Level 8 Top screen (3/8x3 A in.) 64.25 g 11228.45 g .5% Lower screen (1/8 in.) 63.5 g 36.7% 109. 4g 63.3% 130.2 g 96.3% 5.05 g 3.7% 3.05 g 52.6% 2.75 g 47. k% 975-6 g 99.9 2 % 0.8 g 0.1* 1172.35 g 118.0 g 7418.0 g 2% Lower screen Shell debris 11164.2 g 11164.2 g 99.5* Lower screen Shell debris 7300.0 g 7300.0 g Weights given represent the amount of material considered archaeological ly significant. Shell debris represents discarded material. Weights given as "shell" here refer to terrestrial and marine molluscs recovered. ) "Includes weight of potsherds excavated and mapped in place in the excavation unit.

PAGE 101

86 the Florida State Museum (second column). Weighing of shell debris from the lower screen was thereby made possible. Exception is taken to Davidson's comment that there is "... a very small increase in exactness" (1964: 155). Although the significance of numbers of individuals and species identified is not indicated by Table \k, reference to Appendix 2 shows the gain in information when the change from 3A x 3/8 inch screen is made. Additionally, note the lower three levels of D6S, 15E in Appendix 5 for an indication of the significance to faunal analysis of the change from \/k inch (Levels 1-6) to 1/8 inch screen (Levels 7~9) . One-eighth inch screen provided a floral sample and a very extensive faunal sample. Sampling for flotation analysis should be utilized and processed as excavation progresses to check the effectiveness of screening. Use of water with 1/8 inch screen aided in recognition, separation of sand and clay, and cut processing time. Water changes the color of some materials, particularly bone making it more highly visible. Caution should be used with water screening in sites where material has been in dry soils or has been allowed to dry prior to processing. Dry floral material literally disintegrates when moistened. Finally, although screening is a time-consuming commitment to make, the rewards are felt to greatly outweigh the problems. Consistency is urged since intrasite comparisons are difficult to make if different sizes are used. Faunal Analysis An adequate faunal analysis depends largely upon an adequate comparative collection. The faunal analysis presented here is, at this stage, a very rudimentary one comprised basically of species identification and enumeration of minimum number of individuals. The identification process, while only the

PAGE 102

87 initial step in a faunal analysis is extremely time consuming. Minimum number of individuals was computed using the most frequently excavated element for a praticular species. These counts, it must be stressed, represent very conservative estimates. The element upon which the estimate is based is indicated for relevant species (any species having more than one individual) in Appendix 5Even with a good comparative col lection, ^problems in identification arise. This was especially true in the identification of avian fauna. The family kail idae includes rails and gallinules. Based on habits and distribution, at least four different species were possible. To complicate matters even further, dimorphism is present in all species. Using the extensive collections of Dr. Pierce Brodkorb of the University of Florida, Department of Zoology, measurements of the males and females of each species were made. Unfortunately, all archaeological ly recovered specimens fell within the range of variation for these species. For this reason, all recovered elements are identified as Rail idae. Column Sampl ing Quantification of constituents of shell sites is a very real need. Efforts of this magnitude of identification were initiated years ago for California sites (Treganza and Cook 1 9^8) Presently, this type of detailed information is not available for southeastern sites. A more precise understanding of the contributions of vertebrate and invertebrate fauna to the subsistence base may be gained from this type of sampling and analysis. Similarly, estimates of energy flow can be calculated when information on caloric intake, number and size of faunal individuals contributing to diet, contribution of floral constituents, and comparative contributions of molluscan species is available.

PAGE 103

88 The basic problem with column sampling is the time required to process samples. Analysis of a single sample should be conceptualized in terms of days and not hours. It is anticipated that total processing of the Cannon's Point material will require years of analysis time.

PAGE 104

CHAPTER 5 THE LATE ARCHAIC OCCUPATION ON CANNON'S POINT Prehistoric Environment Floral and faunal analysis of excavated materials from Cannon's Point indicates that the Late Archaic environment and the present environment are similar in many ways. Relative location of the salt marshes and sea level heights are two probable differences. Excavations indicate that the area in the immediate vicinity of the marsh ring supported a forest cover (cedar and hardwoods) during the occupation period. Encroachment of the marsh in this area occurred after 820-835 BC. Prehistoric sea level values have not been an area of agreement among geologists. Controversy has persisted concerning the heights of Holocene sea levels, particularly the period of interest to prehistorians (10,000 BP to the present). Some have contended that sea level has been stable for the past 6,000 years, others that levels have fluctuated, and still others that sea levels have been rising. Lately, scholars seem to be agreed that a rise in sea level has occurred during this time period (Shepard 1 964 ; Emery and Edwards 1 966) . The current controversy focuses on the rate of rise, a geographically variable factor (Redfield 1 967) Brooks (n.d.:2), investigating Florida marine terraces, suggests that 4-5,000 years ago sea levels were approximately 10 feet below the present level . 89

PAGE 105

90 St. Simon's Island and other nearby barrier islands are composed of Late Pleistocene and Holocene (Recent) geological deposits. The Pleistocene deposits on St. Simon's is known as the Silver Bluff Terrace. According to Hoyt et^ aj_. (1964) this terrace was created by the formation of a lagoon-estuary system when sea level was 2-4.5 feet above the present level. Age of the Silver Bluff Terrace isestimated as early as 37,000 years before the present (Hoyt and Hails 1974). Hoyt (1 968) suggests that sea level fe*l to almost 100 meters below the present level approximately 18-20,000 years ago. At that time, the Georgia coast extended much farther east than its present location. After 18-20,000 years ago, sea level began to rise. The rate of rise in the Georgia coastal area is not clear, The marsh ring is located on the Pleistocene deposits of St. Simon's island, apparently resting on a relict dune ridge. Submidden soil was reached at 2.30 meters below datum (value for the bottom of Feature #26 which rested on submidden soil) in a north excavation unit (ol8N,0E). The marsh floor on the north side is presently 2.61 meters below datum (stake 41N.12E); on the south side at 2.49 meters below datum (stake 6S,0E)„ The instability of the substrate in the marsh encountered in excavations on the east side of the Marsh Ring suggests that encroachment of this area is more recent. Elevation of this area is 2.45 meters below datum. It is felt that when accumulation began, the ring was located in a forested area having a slightly higher elevation than the surrounding environment and overlooking the marsh.

PAGE 106

91 Techno-Envi ronmental Adaptation Human groups potentially face an infinite number of ways in which to adapt to and exploit their environment. That the variety of choices is not reflected by an unlimited array of unique cultures has at various times been considered by scholars under the guise of "psychic unity", environmental determinism, or limited possibilities. Since Steward's (1938) pioneering studies of the adaptation of Shoshoni hunting and gathering groups to their environment, archaeological anthropology has evolved use of an ecological focus in studies of human prehistory. This perspective has made extensive use of analogy with living or recently extant groups. In situations of archaeological cultures, the question is posed as to the validity of the application of this type of information to human groups having lived so far in the past that there is no surviving oral tradition. Freeman (1968:267) feels that the use of analogy prevents development of theoretical frameworks oriented toward understanding the sociocultural significance of archaeological inventories based directly on comparison of those inventories. He also stresses that use of models based on parallels with modern groups precludes discovery of parameters of sociocultural structure unique to the prehistoric time period. 1 believe that this is a valid contention. That no data base for archaeological cultures of this geographic distribution and time period exists has been sufficiently lamented previously. There is now a body of information from one locale which may be closely examined and compared to what information does exist. This study then intends no ethnographic analogy, simply development of as comprehensive a model as possible for the data generated from the Cannon's Point area.

PAGE 107

92 initially the "tangibles" those artifacts which comprise the "cultural inventory" should be considered. As previously noted, the inventory of extant cultural items is not highly developed (by comparison with other areas) nor plentiful. Use of local raw materials, particularly bone and shell is a common practice. It is possible that a division between articles for uti 1 i tarian'use and decorative or personal use may be indicated by the rather sophisticated decoration of some bone pins and fragments. This feature is not known to have been valued any more highly than a plain specimen. There Is some indication of function among bone artifacts. Some objects appear to be awls and may have been used for perforation or separation. It should be noted that the highly esteemed (by archaeologists) bone pins may simply be lengthy awls. Both awls and pins may be fids for coiled basketry. Several bone and antler objects called "points" may have functioned in fish procurement as points In leisters or spears. While the presence of the bow and arrow is not supported, bone or antler points could have served to tip arrows. Lithic artifacts, specifically the single recovered projectile point are bulky for bow hunting by contemporary standards. Consequently, the presence of the atlatl is inferred. This may be a justifiable inference but it should be noted that atlatl weights and hooks are not common artifacts in ring site inventories. Presence of large mammals in the faunal sample is also considered evidence of atlatl use. A self spear is an additional possibility. Ceramics present a special group of problems: early dates, questions of independent invention and diffusion, use, origins. Basically, the problem boils down to the question: What Is a group of

PAGE 108

93 mollusc collectors and fishing people doing with ceramic containers before anyone else has them? The idea that this trait must connote settled life poses problems for considering that such a development is not unlikely given need, time, raw materials, creative minds and a receptive audience. It should be mentioned that ceramics do not appear in a rudimentary form in this collection suggesting that the occupants, wherever they originated, possessed the skill prior to their residence in the Cannon's Point locale. ---—=_Use of ceramics has been documented in archaeological sites in primarily a storage or mixing vessel role. If Western concepts of diseased or spoiled foods are put aside, many sorts of foods may have been stored in them. Stoltman (1972:^*0 suggests live storage of molluscs. Nuts, acorns, and seeds are obvious storage considerations. Some processing may have been accomplished in ceramic vessels (e.c^. extraction of nut oils). The tasks accomplished using shell tools are unknown. Functions suggested range from pounding to smoothing, digging to cutting. Some may have been hafted, others simply hand held. A shell bead is the single item confidently considered a decorative or personal object in the Cannon's Point collections. Again, the role of plant resources in the cultural inventory is probably considerable. Evidence of some sorts of use is occasionally indicated by impressions observed in wet clay. As noted above, this sort of evidence is lacking. In this case, however, some indication of netting is suggested. On the basis of the faunal sample, specimens of the Family Clupeidae are observed to be consistently small and could

PAGE 109

have been taken by gill nets. Other explanations for their presence in the sample are use of fish poisons or creek impoundment. The need for transportation of gathered resources (particularly molluscs) in the habitation locale suggests another use of plant materials. While the weight of some gathered materials (e_.£. seeds, berries) would not present too great a burden, some transportable lightweight vessel is indicated for moving heavier foodstuffs. Since ceramic containers are already in evidence, an friTtTa! consideration of their contribution to this need is pertinent. Reconstructed ceramic fragments do not indicate large vessels. Judging from the weight of many of the sherds recovered, a whole vessel would increase the weight being transported significantly. A ceramic vessel is a relatively fragile object representing much time and energy in manufacture. This investment would suggest that tasks offering high risk of breakage would not be chosen for these receptacles. In light of these observations, use of basketry is probable. in the Cannon's Point area, several plants capable of contributing to the manufacture of baskets are available (yucca, palmetto, spartina). Because most of the bivalves (specifically oysters) do not show extensive battering, it is felt that the molluscs were gathered singy or in clumps. Clams evidence alteration suggestive of battering and prying. The significant number of clams exhibiting no alteration implies removal by heating. Clams also loosen when left out of water for a time. The "intangibles" are more difficult to explore. A consideration of social organization might seem a futile exercise but there are a few

PAGE 110

95 tentative clues: ring construction and treatment of the dead. Regardless of the "obvious waste of energy" involved, ring accumulations of shell are preferred as the way midden material should be piled. There are over 30 ring sites hardly a happenstance situation. Whether people lived on them, in them, or around them, a circular accumulation of shell refuse in the habitation area was required'. In at least two instances (Cannon's Point and Hilton Head) two rings were being accumulated simultaneously. The attention to symmetry and~the recognition of a collective desire for this sort of edifice is as real as any Midwestern earthen effigy mound or British long barrow. Treatment of the dead by aboriginal cultures is of great consequence to archaeologists and all manner of inference regarding status, role, wealth, disease, age, sex, and so forth are made. Skeletal material from Cannon's Point is admittedly not well represented; nor is human skeletal material from any other ring site. In several instances, human material was recovered in a condition suggesting possible post mortem consumption (Moore 1897; Waring 1968). While the material from Cannon's Point does not support or refute these observations, the condition of human skeletal material is one of the occurrence of individual elements in the midden, not articulated burials. In the lower levels of the marsh ring, the shell midden has a yellowed hue and was looser than in successive levels. In the profiles, whole oysters were in the majority in this level. While discoloration from continually moist environmental conditions was offered as an explanation, this condition was noted in all excavat ionunits opened in the marsh ring. It was in this yellowed shell that the human cranium and

PAGE 111

96 pelvis were recovered. Adjacent to the pelvis was a large amount of cancellous bone which probably represented the sacrum and vertebral column (one lumbar vertebra was reconstructed from the material). These finds were approximately three meters diagonally separate. The question of the possibility that the original ring configuration was laid out using shell material borrowed from a midden area having previous burials was raised at this time. Because both the cranium and the pelvis are aged at the approximate age of 20-30 years and apparently come from a male, this question may be negatively answered. Nevertheless f human material seems to have received no special treatment. Seasonal i ty and Sedentism Answers to the question of seasonality are presently incomplete but some observations may be offered. Floral analysis suggests that a late summer and fall occupation occurred (Small 1933). However, when considering the evidence for human use of the recovered material there are a few problems. Hickory is plentifully recovered, particularly beneath the midden. The area chosen for excavation could conceivably been placed in the vicinity of a prehistoric hickory tree. Some discoloration in the submidden soil suggested rather large roots. Admittedly, hickory does occur in the midden but it is never as heavy nor as concentrated at that of the submidden area. On the basis of the areas tested, a strong case for the use of hickory cannot be supported. The floral species most suggestive of human utilization is hackberry. While hackberry remains are prevalent throughout the midden, frequency increases in features that were probably associated with food

PAGE 112

97 preparation (e.g_. Feature #19-21, #20). Oak and other floral species are not present in high enough frequencies to indicate use. Most of the oak remains are acorn halves and it would seem that the nut would be the desired portion. No amount of acorn hull debris was recovered. Potentially, this would be less well preserved than hickory. If heavy use occurred, one would anticipate considerable specimen recovery. The faunal sample is even less helpful. One fragment of a migratory water bird does not equal a fall-winter occupation. This could represent a gathered object rather than a food item. One deer cranium with mature, unshed antlers intact was recovered. This finding normally indicates a late summer and early fall condition (Golley 1962:203). The status of fishes is a bit more complicated. To determine the times of peak availability as well as duration of availability, contemporary records and information from commercial fisheries are frequently used. This is another type of analogy, suggesting that conditions of availability or distribution of fishes have not changed through time. This assumption is not valid, but one can use the information to suggest distributional occurrence. During the excavation, a 5 cm arbitrary level thickness was selected for the purposes of effecting a tightly controlled faunal sample. It was hoped that differential availability could be observed and compared to distributional information resulting in seasonal identification. In general, no such archaeological occurrences were noted during excavation of analysis. One family of fishes may be more heavily utilized as exemplified by the basal levels of the West Ring. The Atlantic croaker (Micropogon undulatus ) and other sciaenids (drum family) increase in frequencies remarkably.

PAGE 113

98 Before a secure feeling of having substantially pinpointed an example for seasonal occupation prevades, it should be cautioned that a shell midden is not a static situation. Material may be moved by water, root action, or gravity during the process of accumulation and subsequent to abandonment. During excavation, screening indicated that as much as 20 cm difference could result from simple loosening of shells in the midden. The example cited here is one in which a bone pin fragment was broken during excavation. This example was not an isolated incident. In the West Ring, species counts for fish MNI (minimum number of individuals) are based primarily on otolith and atlas vertebrae counts. Otoliths are dense osseus objects having distinct configurations allowing interfamil ial identification (particularly in the case of the drum family). Each fish has two otoliths (which aid hearing), some have four (two distinct forms are in Stel 1 i f er lanceloatus and Bairdiel la chrysura ) . Atlas vertebrae in this sample are very small. Either otoliths or atlases could be easily moved in the midden. Most of the fishes represented in the sample are available year 'round but are known to occur in larger numbers today In particular months (Dahlberg and Odum 1970: 382-392). Sciaenidae are particularly abundant from April to November, particularly Cynoscion sp. , Micropogon undulatus , Sciaenops ocellata , and Stel lifer lanceolatus (Dahlberg 1975: 38). Menhaden are considered to be more abundant during the period from May through November, but fisheries experiments report abundant catches in tidal creeks for the months of January and February (Mahood et al. 197^: Table 7). These studies note an increase in tidal creek-located

PAGE 114

99 catches (using trawls) for Micropogon , Stel ] ifer , Cynoscion and Paralichthys during June to September (Mahood et_ aJL 197^:64-71). Catches by gill netting were high for sciaenids during March and May, Mugi 1 in September, and menhaden in April (Mahood et_ al_. 1974:81-83). Young fish were taken by Georgia Game and Fish Division researchers in the estuary by seining: Mugi 1 (27 _ 49 mm)-were present in high frequencies in the period from January to May, Micropogon (28 mm) in December, Leiostomus (21-31 mm) February through April (Mahood et al_. 1974:86-88). Most of the fish remains recovered in the West Ring were small individuals when compared to skeletal collections at the Florida State Museum indicating that a large percentage of the collection is. young fish. Putting analogues in their proper perspective, there is a possibility of a spring-to-fall occupation based on representative fishes and size of individuals. However, a winter occupation is tenuous, at best. Sedentism is a more difficult topic to approach. There is no developed measure of sedentism at present. Mention of "increased sedentism" is made, particularly when horticulture is being discussed. Unfortunately any time an extensive heap of midden is observed, statements about sedentism are elicited. It is critical to consider whether the observed attributes of the site as a whole or the reconstructable quality of life of the inhabitants is being discussed. One can have a base camp situation which archaeological ly demonstrates or suggests long residence but having a highly mobile daily hunting and gathering round. The overall appearance would be "sedentary" or one of "increased sedentism" but the lifestyle is far from sedentary. One must specify

PAGE 115

100 whether it is the site or the people one is considering. In this case, it is the lifestyle of the inhabitants. Time is a factor in midden accumulation that is presently more controllable than in the past. Radiocarbon dating does offer a framework within which to work. The critical unknown is the rate of deposition, a question which really asks how mu&h food eaten by how many people? And this question brings the discussion to the limits of information at this time. Concepts of aboriginal nutritional requirements are based upon standards computed for Western European-derived peoples. These may be grossly inaccurate when applied to the prehistoric populations. The lifestyles are too disparate for application of contemporary standards. Information on dietary deficiencies which might be observed skeletal ly are lacking because the inventory of human skeletal material from this time period is so scanty. At the present time, there exists no other alternative to protein and calorie computations applied to subsistence remains attempting to work back to rate of deposition. Spatial analysis is useless since the manner in which the land was used for habitation is not known. The question is stuck at the level of, how many Indians are required to eat a site full of oysters? An additional complication to this problem is the possibility of secondary deposition. If the site represents sedentary occupation, that is, if the length of occupation is in terms of months or years, the theoretical problems of hunting and gathering peoples living in a settled situation arises. Can the lifestyle of coastal inhabitants using the resource assemblage outlined be truly sedentary? While mollusc-producing areas were apparently

PAGE 116

101 quite abundant for a long period of time, the critical resource was fish. Again, in terms of current standards of nutrition, the contribution of fish complements the nutritional value of molluscs. The question of the ability of the lifestyle to be sedentary must be addressed to the resources required to supplement molluscs. The salt marshes of the world are the most productive ecological system known to man. At every trophic level, production is considerable (Gosselink, Odum, and Pope 1973). The fisheries of the world depend on marsh-estuary systems as the breeding and nursery grounds for species of commercial value. in the Georgia coastal area, this productivity is not a new feature but rather one of many thousands of years of development: and modification. It is by no means a stable system since human pollution can rapidly produce change or destruction. But it is productive, and in the absence of drastic geological or human intervention, continues to support an incredible variety of life forms. Extensive salt marshes were available to the aboriginal inhabitants of the area and made their residence possible. Based on floral and faunal resources, St is possible to live in the Cannon's Point area year 1 round . Climatic factors may discourage such occupation since the area is subject to severe northeasterly storms with associated prolonged high tides or flooding. Because there is no indication of the type of structure built by human groups in this area, it is difficult to determine if substantial housing existed or if more sheltered locales must be sought. Perhaps the ring structures afforded some sort of protection. While the resources are numerous and varied, a large number of occupants residing continually in the area could conceivably deplete

PAGE 117

102 suppliesSeasonal residence would allow floral and molluscan regrowth. The problem thwarting any coherent statement of man-land relationships is that posed by the present inability to relate numbers of occupants to available resources. Extra-Areal Relationships Solid evidence for contacts with non~coastal areas exists in the form of lithic artifacts. Such material does not naturally occur in the Georgia coastal strand. Consequently, noting the scarcity of such material, either contacts with people (or groups) possessing lithic artifacts were rare or the uses for which lithic artifacts were really required were few. The scarcity of material does not seem to indicate a sampling bias since such findings are also reported at Sapelo, Hilton Head, and Fig Island. While freshwater fauna recovered in the sample suggests a riverine or lake environment, this material is felt to be a reflection of change in local conditions and not evidence of mainland or riverine contacts. The impression may have been given and maintained that fibertempering of ceramics is only found on the coast of Georgia. Stall ings Island and Rabbit Mount are two very important riverine sites. Crusoe (personal communication; n.d.) has located two sites having fibertempered ceramics in riverine contexts. The Sansavilla and Popwell's Landing sites are located on bluffs overlooking the Altamaha River. Tests at the Sansavilla site recovered plain fibertempered ceramics. In the course of excavation, a large vessel was recovered almost in its entirety. The weight and size of this specimen suggest that its functions did not include movement.

PAGE 118

103 Mention should be made of contacts with Florida since these apparently occurred during the occupation of Cannon's Point and suggest rather significant relationships with contemporary Florida groups. The earliest dates for fiber-tempered Orange ceramics do not precede 2,000 BC. In fact, the oldest dates are 1600-1700 BC (Bullen 1972:10-17). The only evidence from Cannon's Point of Florida contacts is ceramic (the projectile point is considered too tenuous). The nature of the contact between these two areas can only be-suggested. Most fiber-tempered sherds from Georgia and Florida are indistinguishable unless they are made from the chalkier, wares of ;the St . John's River area (noted in the Florida State Museum Tick Island Collections). Typological ly, Orange Punctated is very similar to Georgia coastal punctation. Some incised Georgia styles are almost identical to incised motifs on Orange ceramics from Florida sites. While some diagonal and chevron incising is evidenced by ceramic samples from the Georgia coast, the development of the motif does not seem to become as stylistically important as in Orange sites. It is suggested here that influences from the South Carolina Georgia area will ultimately be shown responsible for ceramic developments in Florida. These skills were spread coast-wise continuing along the Florida coast and up the St. John's River drainage. Tick Island style motifs present an interesting distribution. Not many ceramic fragments are in existence. Goggin lists seven examples from a cluster of St. John's River sites (1952:^3). The exact same few sherds consistently appear in published illustrations (cf. Griffin, JB 19^5:221; Griffin, JW: 1952:324; Sears and Griffin 1950:8-3; Bullen 1972:28). The Cannon's Point

PAGE 119

10A collections have Tick Island ceramics but only from the basal levels of the West Ring. Examination of this problem requires more research in the intervening area, more confident dates on fiber-tempered associations from Florida and Georgia, and more systematic considerations of cultural development.

PAGE 120

CHAPTER 6 POSTEXCAVATION ASSESSMENTS OF THE LATE ARCHAIC The Cultural Remai ns In Chapter 1 , four statements were introduced regarding the cultural phenomena associated with Late Archaic coastal sites. It is possible to re-examine these statements and offer interpretive assessments. Rel iance on Mol luscs In any environment having human inhabitants, some resource is abundant and available. In the Cannon's Point area, that resource was molluscan fauna. Using even a very limited technology, subsistence based on mollusc gathering was possible. However, it is almost a certainty that nutritional requirements could not have been met by such a singular specialization. Analysis of the faunal collection has amply indicated efforts to secure crustaceans and fishes. Additionally, some use of floral resources has been documented. Subsistence strategy determines to some extent the location of human occupational sites in the environment. Site choice rests on a variety of factors: resource availability, fresh water, shelter, defensive protection,, etc. When the requirements for a satisfactory living situation (as perceived by any group) are fulfilled, settlement occurs. That a pattern of settlement utilizing available salt marsh and tidal creek resources resulted during this time period is not unlikely given the ability of groups to be self-sustaining on available resources. 105

PAGE 121

106 Lengthy settlement cannot adequately be supported by depth and extent of midden accumulation. Radiocarbon dating provides the only means presently available for such estimations. The unknown factors obtaining in this situation are the number of people responsible for the accumulation and the manner in which the accumulation occurs (i.e. intentional or incidental). To be accurate" radiocarbon dating of several locations within a ring site should be undertaken but this represents a substantial capital outlay. Ceramics Radiocarbon dates indicate an early ceramic horizon in the Savannah River drainage and along the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia. Fiber-tempered ceramics are dated earlier and probably provided stimulus for the development of sand-tempered forms. One can see Thorns Creek, Horse Island, and Awendaw types as the result of the application of an idea manifested by different techniques of manufacture, especially temper and coiling. The layered effect of fiber-tempered ceramics achieved by the inclusion of vegetal fibers suggests an approximation of the function of the coiling technique but leaves no fracture scar. Intermeshing seems to be more complete than that accomplished by paddling out coils. It has been suggested in this study that Florida Orange ceramics are developed from the Georgia coastal ceramic tradition of fiber-tempering. There is much to support this contention: radiocarbon dates, decorative motifs, and similarities in cultural adaptation to comparable environmental resources. It should be noted that ceramic motifs along the Georgia coast are highly variable. Conversely, Florida Orange ceramics evidence particular stylistic adherence; the same situation is noted for

PAGE 122

107 Stal lings Island. One is reminded of the evolutionary tenet regarding generalization giving rise to specialization. A final observation is appropriate here. The presumed developmental sequence of a plain to a decorated horizon is suspect from the Cannon's Point findings. It is hard to conceive of a group of people having ceramics and being that unimaginative for hundreds of years. While such a situation is apparently documented for the Glades area (Florida), reassessment of this concept on the Georgia coast is needed. New tests in old sites might be the most expedient means. The difficulties of travel with ceramics is consistently offered as an argument for sedentism. Once people have pottery, they settle down; or once they settle down, they get pottery. At least, that seems to be the general opinion. If most of the traveling is accomplished by water transport instead of on foot, such arguments could be invalid. The use of the canoe is not documented for this time period along the Georgia coast but its presence is indicated by the island environments being inhabited. it is important to remember that in no site excavated to this date are ceramics observed in what could be interpreted as a developmental stage. MacNeish's work in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico suggests that developmental stages are observable (1 97 1 *: 536) . However, the overwhelming abundance of ceramic fragments in collections compared to the number of whole vessels may be a silently eloquent comment on the state of the art.

PAGE 123

108 Sparse Cul tural i nventories Excavations on Cannon's Point support the observation that cultural inventories are indeed sparse. It is suggested that this is a reflection of a highly specialized, highly efficient technological adaptation and that little exists in excess of need. Replacements could be more easily obtained in such an environment compared -with some life zones. In keeping with the urging to make comparisons temporally cross-cultural, it should be noted that material culture at" "this time is not generalized. Cultural inventories are marked by utilitarian objects. Conceptions of technological elaboration are promoted by the reporting of ornamental objects of bone and shell. Only a single item recovered from the Late Archaic sites on Cannon's Point can be assigned with certainty a personal or decorative role. End to Lifestyle If the depositional nature of the marsh cultural level were clearer, some comment regarding a terminal date for the manufacture of fibertempered ceramics in the Cannon's Point area could be offered here. Fibertempered ceramics in this provenience could be the result of a previous occupation (rings) and the grit-tempered types from a second, noncontemporaneous component. The technical attributes of the fiber-tempered ceramics from the marsh provenience suggest change. In the project area, another site having fibertempered ceramics was tested (Martinez 1975: 6366). In this instance, the fiber-tempered ceramics were associated with Deptford ceramics and shell midden materials (predominantly turtle and fish).

PAGE 124

109 Fibertempered ceramics disappear in this area to be supplanted by Deptford types. Bone pins do not occur in Deptford period middens and Milanich (1971:182) notes that the worked bone industry in Deptford period sites is not well-developed. Whether Deptford represents an in situ development on the Georgia coast or is the result of the movement of peoples from other areas is not presently clear. Perhaps the key to understanding the demise of fiber-tempered ceramics and its cultural associations lies in interpreting the origins of Deptford. Relationships with Other New World Sites Ultimately one must consider origins. This task is not an easy one since there are two alternatives (at least): indigenous development or diffusion. The problem of Investigating indigenous developments is complicated by the fact that no sites dating between *t,000 and 2,000 BC, and meeting the requirements of originating cultural elements, are extant. There are two directions in which to look: behind the coast (inland) or off the coast. One inland look is Groton Plantation which contributes the oldest dates associated with fibertempered ceramics in the Southeastern United States. The results at Groton Plantation suggest that searching should be extended in this area. Looking off the coast is the second directional choice. It is interesting that Crusoe and DePratter (n.d.) dismiss this area from serious consideration because they feel that conditions were not available for support of mollusc growth and thereby human groups. There seems to be a few things wrong with this life of thinking. First, Hoyt (1968:22) indicates that 18,000 years ago sea level was as much as 100 meters lower than present day levels. This fact is very

PAGE 125

no important since 100 meters vertical drop in the Southeastern coastal plain involves many kilometers of horizontal exposure. It is inconceivable that in the 18,000 years available for sea level to achieve its present height that sea level rise was so rapid that conditions for growth of extensive molluscs beds never occurred. Secondly, even if Crusoe and DePratter are correct and no Syster beds could have been present, is that really such a problem? Other exploitable resources are possible for human consumption (e_.£. sea mammals, crustaceans, turtles, fishes, not to mention the land mammals). It is difficult to believe that this area constituted a kind of forbidden zone. It is similarly difficult to accept the precondition that a preeeramic occupation must be equated with shell heaps. The truth of the matter is that we have not really looked, tt is almost axiomatic in archaeology that when one sets out to find something there is usually success, MacNeish's quest of early domesticates provides an enlightening comment on this point (MacNeish 1974:207-23*0. The perseverance of L.S.B. Leakey is a similar lesson. Granted, the Atlantic coastline is a very violent geological environment. But, it is not adequate or acceptable to say that probably all evidence has been destroyed. The conviction is that location of potential sites on the continental shelf will come as no surprise. Emery and Edwards (1966: 733"737) suggest just such a possibility. The alternative of diffusion is more complex and unfortunately, more sensational. The recent popular preoccupation with extra-terrestrial origins for Old World and New World cultures has blunted the public appetite for simple global theories, however. The questions of origins

PAGE 126

Ill of civilization-once, twice, many times, one continent, both hemispheres-has been a concern of antiquarians and archaeologists for much of human history. Many theories have been advanced but none have become widely accepted. Many New World archaeologists subscribe to a belief in the separation of the two hemispheres since the Bering Strait migrations populated much of the New World. This allows comparison of the two areas and testing of questions relative to the development: of human cultures, variety, and similarity. With the publication in 1965 of Meggers, Evans, and Estrada's work on the Ecuadorian coast came the formalization of a theory of transoceanic contact. James A. Fiord, long interested in such theories presented in 1966 an extension of their ideas relating specifically to the Florida and Georgia area of the Southeastern United States. In this paper, Ford traced the development of the early cultures in this area as direct derivations of Ecuadorian and Colombian formative period sites. Formative is defined by Ford as a cultural stage marked by people having reached the food-production level (1966: 782). This stage gererally occurs between 3000 BC and AD I. Ford hypothesized that intentional colonizing ventures were the stimuli for the cultural features noted during this time period in the Southeastern United States (Ford I966: 781-799). The 1966 paper was a prelude to Ford's posthumously published documentation and expansion of these ideas in I969. Formative chronology is seldom applied to the cultural developments in the southeastern United States (the notable exception is Coe 1964) . Formative has come to connote events and developments leading to the

PAGE 127

112 cultural complexities of the high civilizations of Middle and South America. Use of domesticated plants is another feature commonly associated with a Formative Stage. Ford's hypothesis of contacts between South America and Southeastern United States has not received a great deal of professional debate since publication. Ford's untimely death removed J: he person to whom such argument would be addressed. It is interesting that there is yet no dialogue concerning his hypotheses. One can understand the respect with which Ford's contributions are held but it seems likely that Ford would have been far more approachable in defending his diffusionist views than others have been. Is there no argument because archaeologists secretly feel that whether or not they can accept Ford's data and explanations, some day someone will pin It all down even tighter than Ford? Or does it simply not make much difference? Ford's chief defender (to the knowledge of the author) in the Southeast is Donald Crusoe. Crusoe's doctoral dissertation compared ceramic attributes from South American and Southeastern sites plus available data from site reports and concluded that Ford was indeed correct. A comparison of site configuration, geology, animal remains, and aesthetic attributes of artifacts clearly points to an identical lifestyle for the Colombian and Southeast United States fiber-tempered pottery-making people. (1972: 88) One of the greatest problems is that research oriented toward a consideration of the indigenous events in South America has taken a back seat to the diffusionist schemes. From 1 965 to 1972, Meggers, Evans, and Estrada's theoretical stance dominated concepts of South American development. In 1972, Bischof and Gamboa reported the discovery of a Pre-Valdivia pottery complex. Named San Pedro, this pottery complex

PAGE 128

113 was critically important for a number of reasons. First, the type did not represent an incipient stage of ceramic technology but was observably more primitive than Valdivia. The San Pedro ceramics generally resembled the Canapote ceramics of northern Colombia. Most interestingly though, the excavations where these ceramics were recovered were recovered were conducted as a display of eujtural stratigraphy at the by then famous Valdivia site itself. This discovery was a blow to the explanations of South American ceramic technology as Japanese imports allowed a return to the pursuit of developing an understanding of events in South America in terms of South America. Today research is on-going and rumors are heard of more shell rings and more fiber-tempered ceramicsin Ecuador this time. One shell ring has been excavated by Porras on an island off the Ecuadorian coast. Efforts to secure a copy of this manuscript have fai led. Puerto Hormiga is another matter. Reichel-Dolmatoff 's excavation (1965) clearly documents the presence of. a shell ring site in coastal Colombia having fiber-tempered and sand-tempered ceramics. Its inhabitants subsisted on shellfish and vertebrate fauna. This is the only documented example available from Colombia, but other shell rings are rumored to exist. In Colombia, fiber-tempered ceramics are associated with both estuarine molluscs (Puerto Hormiga) and riverine molluscs (Bucarelia site on the Magdalena River) (1971 :3^5). Reichel-Dolmatoff (1972:2) posits construction by the filling in of areas between several small individual middens. Cultural stability characterized by little change in material culture is observed by Reichel-Dolmatoff for this time period.

PAGE 129

The question that has always been a problem with Ford's hypothesis is that he never explains what the initial motivating factor for the hypothesized voyages might be. We are led to believe that religious fervor suffices in the Theocratic Formative, but what sets off the Colonial Formative? Moseley, in his recent monograph on the foundations of Andean civilization makes an interesting comment about the nature of the development of civilization. Civilization has the potential of arising out of any type of subsistence economy capable of supporting a sedentary and dense population with many people living in daily contact with one another and with a certain amount of time free from food procurement. (1975: 115) Population pressure arising out of insufficient resources is a possible stimulus for the seeking of other comparably rich environments. If overexploitation of available food could be adequately demonstrated in the Intermediate Area or South America, a stronger, more believable case would be presented. Generally causal factors are multifaceted and single explanations are hardly acceptable. There has been a tendency to attach great expectations to cultural groups exhibiting early technological developments, particularly ceramics. The failure of these advances to provide stimuli for development of "civilization" presents a difficult explanatory problem. This question is particularly apt for the southeastern coastal area subsequent to the Late Archaic. Considering Moseley's (1975: 115) criteria for the ci vi 1 izational process, perhaps reasons for the disappearance of the lifestyle associated with early ceramics and ring sites can be sought in the man-land relationships

PAGE 130

115 of the coastal area. if environmental resources could not support a sustained population increase and raw materials requisite for technological improvements for better exploitation of resources were not available in the locale, subsequent development would not be favored. Consequently, populations would remain low and material culture rather meager. After the Late Archaic, the South Carolina and Georgia coast was generally marginal to the areas of notable cultural development. Caldwell (1958:12) considered a mollusc centered subsistence base to be an Archaic invention leading to a ".. .greater degree of residential stability." Additionally, Caldwell (1958:15) presented molluscs as an abundant food resource correlated with the innovation of earthenware. Seasonal movement was suggested and the use of major stream valley areas (Caldwell 1958:14). Evaluation of these observations remain a need some seventeen years after their publication. Excavation of inland, riverine sites and comparisons with coastal sites are required at this point to evaluate the contributions of subsistence base, affiliations of cultural inventories, and occupational period represented. During the Late Archaic, riverine and coastal areas may have been occupied by groups of people utilizing the resources of a locale without need for seasonal movement. Conversely, inland sites may be the seasonal residences of groups responsible for shell ring and midden sites on the coast. Direction of inquiry toward these questions is a very critical need for expanding perceptions of cultural developments in the Southeastern United States. Understanding the role of shell ring and midden sites is incomplete without such investigation.

PAGE 131

116 Research on Cannon's Point has shown that there are many questions remaining which can be archaeologically investigated and much to learn of cultural developments in the coastal environment during this time periodPerceptions of human groups in terms of their cultural inventories or attributes of cultural artifacts is considered a very narrow view. Application of systematic and innovative methodologies and techniques to the problems of cultural development during the Late Archaic is urged. Such research is requisite to any evaluation of the origins of cultural traits in the southeast as being either indigenous or diffused. Summary and Concl us ions In conclusion, a reiteration of the salient points under consideration in this study is presented. 1. The earliest aboriginal earthenware in the Southeastern United States is the fiber-tempered type. Radiocarbon dating indicates a 2500-1000 BC time range for these ceramics in this area. The ultimate derivation of fiber-tempered ceramics from some other New World area has been explored. Colombia and Ecuador have been suggested on the basis of early radiocarbon dates (3000 BC) and early ceramic types (San Pedro and Valdivia) respectively. 2. Georgia and South Carolina fiber-tempered ceramics are temporally earlier than South Carolina sand-tempered types. Fiber-tempered ceramics and sand-tempered types are subsequently contemporaneous and overlap in geographic distribution. A causal relationship may be indicated between fiber-tempered ceramics and the development of sandtempered types.

PAGE 132

117 3. Georgia coastal fiber-tempered ceramics are temporally earlier than Florida Orange varieties. On the basis of motif development and distribution, a causal relationship has been suggested between Georgia and Florida ceramics. 4. Aboriginal subsistence in the Cannon's Point locale and along the coastal strand was primarily based on a gathering and fishing procurement system. The tidal creek biotope was exploited most heavily. Marsh and forest biotopes contributed to-the subsistence base but evidence for exploitation of the beach-dune biotope is absent. 5. Molluscs, crustaceans, and fishes were the primary faunal base. Reptiles and mammals were secondary contributors to the aboriginal diet. Floral contribution Ss assumed but not adequately documented. 6. Seasonality of settlement probably involves at least a Spring to Fall occupation. Winter residence is presently unsupported. No indication of frequency of use of the Cannon's Point locale during this time period is available at present. 7. Presence of ceramics does not equate with a sedentary existence. Determining the degree of sedentism is coupled with the problem of ascertaining seasonal or year 'round residence in the locale. Use relationships with riverine and mainland areas are unclear. 8. Shell ring sites are purposeful accumulations of subsistence and cultural debris consistently located in the barrier islands— lagoons or estuaries of the coastal strand. Use as a fishtrap is discounted but other functional hypotheses cannot presently be dismissed. The process of ring deposition is unclear.

PAGE 133

118 9. At approximately 1000 BC, the lifestyle (as defined by subsistence strategy, site configuration and location, and material culture) ends. While subsequent occupation of the area occurs, the coast is generally marginal to the cultural elaboration of succeeding archaeological periods.

PAGE 134

APPENDIX I: SHELL RING SITE SUMMARIES Sewee Mound William E. Edwards excavated the Sewee Mound Shell Ring in I965 using a variety of techniques. Located adjacent to and siding on active salt marsh, this ring is incomplete on Its southeast side. Pumps were required to complete excavations in several units. Initially, £-inch screen was used, with a change to 1/8inch prompted by an observable loss of faunal material. Additionally, waterseparation was used. Excavation units were 5 ft. X 5 ft. squares using 6 in. arbitrary levels. A total of four units were opened in the ring proper and one in the ring center. Edwards 1 report remains in very preliminary form and apparently no further analysis of this material has been done or is planned. Faunal analysis is only vaguely outlined. A summary of the cultural and subsistence remains recovered follows. Cul tural Cerami cs .Edwards mentions a ceramic sample size of 10,000 sherds. Of this sample, k/S are said to lack decoration. All are of the Awendaw Series. Specifically mentioned are seven Awendaw Red Filmed, three Awendaw Dentate Stamped, and two Awendaw incised. Combing, punctation, pinching, and finger grooving are additional methods of decoration. Ten sherd abraders were recovered. Listed are 11 baked clay objects — all appear to have a central hole. Shel 1 .Columella sections, "conch" plates, beveled picks or adzes, clam and cockle scrapers, and drilled oysters are listed. A single shell bead was recovered. Edwards identifies its source as clam shell. 119

PAGE 135

120 Lithics .Of the 15 lithic fragments that were recovered, four evidenced use. Edwards lists one chert spear point, one smaller broad stemmed projectile point, one spherical bead, and a pale blue-grey flaked fragment. Bone/ Antler .Five examples of bone pins were recovered. Four of these were engraved. Additionally, two antler projectile points, one antler atlatl hook, a drilled canine, two cylindrical objects, and a beveled bird bone chisel are mentioned. Fauna .Vertebrate fauna mentioned includes fish (catfish, drum, and gars), alligator, turtles, deer, dog, opossum, and human remains. Oysters, mussels, marsh snails, razor clams, cockles, Angel wings, and whelks were listed as invertebrate remains along with barnacles, crabs, skates or rays, and possibly lobster. Flora . The single example of floral material recovered at the time of the report was hickory nut. Excavat ion Cubic volume excavated 59-7 m (ring midden) k. 65 m (center) Units: A-l , F-l , E-l, D-J (ring midden; H-l (center. Source Edwards 1965

PAGE 136

121 Fig Island E. Thomas Hemmings of the Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology of the University of South Carolina excavated the largest of the Fig Island rings in 1970 (Number 2). Hemmings' excavation strategy followed Waring and Larson's approach. A trench 10 ft. wide was excavated from approximate ring center through the east arc o.f the ring. Additionally, a trench was excavated through the southern arc. Hemmings used i-inch screens for general levels and window screen for features and pits. For arbitrary levels 6-inch screens were used. Cul tural Ceramics .1765 Sand-tempered sherds (70.9% of collection) 904 Sand-tempered Plain (51.2% of sand-tempered sherds) 861 Sand-tempered Decorated (48.8% of sand-tempered sherds) 7 Fiber-tempered sherds (0.2% of collection) 719 Indeterminate sherds (28.9% of collection) This listing does not include material from features or a single fragment of European feather-edged ware recovered superficially in the south trench. Reported decorations on aboriginal ceramics list punctation as the most common. Use of the marsh periwinkle as a tool for punctating the exterior is frequently mentioned. Both the spire and the wall of the mollusc were used. Cane provided another punctating tool. Drag and jab (linear punctation) motifs are present but were not common. Zoning of motifs seems to be a very common practice. Bone/Antler . Numerous bone pin fragments, socketed antler projectile points, and bone awls are listed in Hemmings' Field Specimen Catalog.

PAGE 137

122 A geometrically incised specimen is illustrated in Hemmings 1 initial report (1970a). Turtle carapace evidences interior scraping. L? thic . One bifacial ly retouched chert fragment is catalogued. Limonite nodules and hematite are also mentioned. Fauna A fairly complete faunal list is available for this excavation from the files of the Zooarchaeology Lab, Florida State Museum. Cal 1 inectes ^ sp< Sphyraena sp. Mylobatoidea Acipenser sp. Lepisosteus sp. Ami a ca 1 va Ictalur idae Ictalurus sp. Ari idae Ar ius fel i s Bagre mar i nus Opsanus sp. Caranx sp. Flora Cynoscion sp. Micropogon undulatus Pogonias cromis Sciaenops ocel lata Archosargus sp. Mugi 1 sp. Paral ichthys sp. Rana sp. Col ubr idae Halaclemys terrapin Chrysemys sp. Gopherus polyphemus I bis sp. Anas sp. Mel leagr i s galapavo Ral 1 idae Didel phi s vi rgi niana Syl vi lagus sp. Coluber constrictor Sciurus carol inensis Drymarchon corais Agki strodon sp. Kinosternon sp. Terrapene carol i na Neotoma

PAGE 138

123 Chester Field Warren K. Moorehead and field party sampled sites in the vicinity of Beaufort, South Carolina, in 1933One of these sites, the Chester Field site, is described as a "... horseshore-shaped mound, the ends of which meet the steep overgrown embankment of Broad River" (Flannery 19^3:150). The site is interpreted as a Stal lings Island Culture permanent camp or villagec There is no suggestion that the site was a ring. Excavation proceeded by "test holes" andtrenches. In the center of the ring, considerable disturbance was revealed. Ceramics, animal bone, and fire pits were encountered. The elevation of the site suggests that little disturbance from marsh or tidal inundation has taken place In the ring center. Ceramic artifacts were analyzed by Griffin. Cultural Ceramics .28 Stall ings Plain 12A Stal lings Punctated 6 Miscel laneous (finger pinched, incised) 158 sherds Bone/Antler . Four bone pins having decorations were recovered along with a bone scraper and one antler point. An antler prong having an incised line is reported. Li thic . The lithic inventory lists only several chipped flints and flakes and one half of a round, pitted stone. Fauna Vertebrate fauna mentioned were deer and raccoon. Oysters, clams, and marsh periwinkles are listed as midden constituents. Some concentrations of periwinkles are noted.

PAGE 139

124 Source Flannery 1943 : 147-153 ; Griffin 1943:154-168 Hi 1 ton Head Island Alan Calmes, a member of Edwards 1 Sewee Ring field crew sampled three ring sites on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. His remarks are oriented toward ceramic chronology. Consequently, very little else is mentioned. Radiocarbon dates are reported for each of the three sites. One 5 ft. x 5 ft. excavation unit was opened in the midden deposit of each ring and one in each ring center. Arbitrary 6-inch levels were used and screening is not mentioned. When considering the significance of the radiocarbon dates, caution is urged. Calmes had a situation of two intersecting rings (Large and Small Ford rings), but he did not sample the intersection to determine superposition. There is no date for the basal levels of the Large Ford Ring. The total depth of deposit in the Small Ford Ring is 2 ft. On the basis of a date taken from well above 2 ft. in the Large Ford Ring, Calmes contends that the Small Ford Ring is older. Ceramic differences are also offered. In the Small Ford Ring, Calmes recovered more carefully applied decorative motifs similar to those at the base of the Large Ford Ring. The status of this report is hardly acceptable. Cultural Large Ford Ri ng Smal 1 Ford Ring Sea Pines Ring 902 total sherds 87 total sherds 127 total sherds Thorns Creek (majority) Thorns Creek only Thorns Creek (majority)

PAGE 140

125 Punctate comparable Fi bertempered (mito lower levels of nority) Large Ford Ring. Drag and jab (51) Fingerna i 1 marked Fiber-tempered (minority) £-1/3 of col lection was punctated Multiple drag and jab increased toward the upper level s. Bone.One bone pin with an engraved scroll motif is mentioned. Lithic Savannah River Stemmed projectile points are reported. Shell ."Conch" shell tools are listed. Other.Fired round clay balls having a central hole were recovered, Area Excavated Large Ford Ring: 5 cubic meters Small Ford Ring: 1.4 cubic meters Sea Pines Ring: 1.4 cubic meters Source Calmes 1968 Oemler Marsh Midden — North This site represents the northernmost Georgia shell ring and is located in the Savannah locale. The site was initially tested by a WPA crew. Waring notes the scarcity of ceramic material. DePratter surface collected this site and recovered sherds of sand-tempered types he believes may be related to South Carolina Awendaw types. Waring .From a 10 ft. x 10 ft. test, Waring recovered 12 sherds. No mention is made of their type.

PAGE 141

126 DePratter .From a surface collection, DePratter recovered 3*» sherds 26 Fibertempered Plain, 6 sand-tempered Plain, 2 Deptford. Two possible baked clay objects and a bone pin fragment were also recovered. Source Waring 19^0:182 DePratter n.d. Creighton Island Creighton Island is located between Sapelo Island and the mainland. The A. Busch Krick site, excavated by Crusoe and DePratter occupies a part of the southwestern land-marsh margin. Today a horseshoe configuration remains, having a height of 2.1 meters on its northern arc. Elsewhere (east and south), the height is approximately 1.2 meters. Two excavation units were opened by Crusoe and DePratter: one 3 ft. x 15 ft. trench in the north arc; one 6 ft. x 6 ft. test in the east arc. Zonation was observed and a possible hearth. An area of crushed shell which is believed to be a living floor is reported by no postholes were identified. Cultural Ceramics .Upper 6 inches: glass, sand-tempered sherds, and fibertempered sherds. Below 6 inches: fiber-tempered sherds. Lithics.One crudely shaped flint fragment is the only lithic material reported. Bone/Antler .Antler projectile points, and punches and flakers are reported. She! 1 .The only mention of shell usage is of whelks with battered bases.

PAGE 142

127 Area Excavated k. 07 cubic meters (east) 2.7*f cubic meters (north) Source Crusoe and DePratter n.d. DePratter n.d. Sapelo Island Waring and Larson excavated a 100 ft. long trench from approximate ring center northward to the outer ring edge. Arbitrary levels of six inches were used. Levels (1-17) were not horizontal but followed ring o contour. Artifact analysis is based on Unit k, a 200 ft. (surface excavation). Material was trowelled; no report of screen use is mentioned. Cultural Ceramics .1121 St. Simon's Plain k Lamar Plain 9 St. Simon's Punctated k Lamar Complicated Stamped k St. Simon's Incised 102 Baked Clay Objects 3 Linear Punctated I Cylindrical Clay Object Lithics .1 bannerstone 1 flint fragment 1 stone ball 1 ferrous sandstone bead Bone/ Antler .11 bone pins (plain and 1 antler projectile point engraved) 8 fragments of worked bone k bone awls Shell .1 shell bead Fauna Crassostrea virginica Meleagris gal lapavo Busycon sp. Butorides virescens

PAGE 143

128 Mercenar ia sp. Anadara sp. Balanus sp. Cal 1 inecthes sp. Mennippes sp. Bagre marinus Pogonias cromis Pseudemys sp. Caretta caretta Area Excavated A8. 15 cubic meters Excavation Un i t 10 ft. x 20 ft. x 8.5 ft. + 1700 cubic feet Source Waring and Larson 1968:263-278 Sciurus carol inensis Sylvi lagus sp.

PAGE 144

129 Source DePratter n.d. 2 . The Ring at Cannon's Point ( Marsh Ring) Excavations in this marsh-situated shell ring were initiated in 1973 and ended in 1975The site is basically a C-shaped deposit being incomplete on the northeastern arc. Interiorly, a shell deposit juts out from the southwest toward the northeast. This projection may represent an earlier configuration that was subsequently widened. Excavation units were usually 3 m x 3 m in size. The midden deposit averages about 1.3 m in depth. At its deepest, the deposit is approximately 1.8 m. Excavation was conducted inside the ring with no observance of hearths or habitation evidence. Extensive excavations were made outside of the ring revealing a cultural deposit approximately 0.5-1.0 m below the present marsh surface. Fiber-tempered ceramics and grit-tempered ceramics were recovered in association. The deposit was not associated with a shell deposit but a quantity of vertebrate faunal remains was recovered. Source Marrinan n.d.: field notes 3West Ring Initial testing of this site was made in 1973 and excavations continued in 197^ and 1975The ring is located in forest with a relatively heavy understory. Depth ranges from 0.^5-0.65 m. Using screens two 2 m x 2 m units were opened. Source Marrinan n.d.: field notes

PAGE 145

APPENDIX 2 FAUNAL COMPARISON BY SCREEN SIZE, 9GN 76TEST 1 Screen size 3Ax3/8 inch 1/8 inch Volume excavated Number species identified Number individuals identified Number fragments identified Number fragments recovered Unidentified fragments Fish Amphibian Snake Turtle Bird Mamma 1 Mi seel laneous Identified species Fish Turtle Mammal Crustacea Identified Individuals (MN I ) Fish Turtle Mammal Crustacea 2.2 m15 19 60 101 k] 17 k 1 17 11 5 5 0.4 nT 27 95 709 2292 1583 i486 1 2 17 39 31 15 2 7 2 82 2 7 2 130

PAGE 146

APPENDIX 3 ILLUSTRATIONS: CERAMICS HAVING ORANGE MOTIFS

PAGE 147

132 13 9GN76 67 9GN76 62 63 15 61 FIGURE 6. Ceramics having Orange Motifs,

PAGE 148

133

PAGE 149

APPENDIX h: FEATURE SUMMARIES FEATURE #1 Location: 09S, 15E Description: grey colored area in the southeastern corner of the square. Probably represents the old marsh-ring periphery. Discontinued as a feature. FEATURE #2 Location: aSS, 15E Description: chocolate brown clay and cemented oyster shells. This proved to be the ring surface and matrix which had resulted as the effects of tidal innundation in this area of the ringover the years. Discontinued as a feature. FEATURE #3 Location: 6S, 15E Description: concentration of potsherds located at I. 96 meters below datum (36 cm below the surface). Approximately 0.18 meter in diameter. Quantity of crab and fish observed in the same area. Ceramics recovered had incised chevron motif with zoning; randomly placed punctations within zoned area. Feature opened 7/5/73; closed 7/23/73 at 2.19 meters below datum. FEATURE #k Location: 6S, 15E Description: concentration of pottery in association with grey sand and carbon. Approximately 20 cm in diameter, located at 2.18 meters below datum. Opened 7/12/73; closed 7/16/73FEATURE §5 Location: a 6S, 15E Description: Tagelus concentration observed at 2.10 meters below datum. Numerous broken and whole individuals. Diameter of area 0.52 meter northsouth by O.kl meter east-west. Opened 7/16/73; closed same day. FEATURE #6 Location: 6S, 15E Description: carbon concentration in association with oysters, Atlantic ribbed mussels, tagelus, and a small amount of grey sand. Tagelus and mussels are crushed. Matrix is chocolate clay. Elevation: 2.21 meters below datum (top); 2.27 meters below datum closing. Opened 7/19/73; closed same day. 13*»

PAGE 150

135 APPENDIX k (Continued) FEATURE #7 Location: Q 6S, I5E Description: concentration of dark grey sand and carbon surrounded by scattered carbon and sand. Matrix continued to be chocolate clay, relatively free of faunal material. Very tiny, red powdery clay fragments interspersed throughout. Datum elevation: top at 2.19 meters; bottom at 2.26 meters. Opened 7/19/73; closed same day. FEATURE #8 Location: a 6S, 15E Description: large carbon concentration in chocolate clay. Top datum elevation: 2.28 meters below datum; bottom at 2.29 meters below datum. Opened 7/26/73; closed same day. FEATURE #9 Location: d6S, 15E Description: clam shell deposit underlain by crushed mussel. Shells have a reddish-black appearance. Some shells are flat while others are on edge in the matrix. Approximately 18 whole individuals represented. Opening datum at 2.29 meters; closing at 2.39 meters below datum. Opened 7/25/73; closed same day. FEATURE #10 Locat ion: a 6S, 15E Description: pottery concentration in the northwest corner of the square. Opening datum elevation at 2.33 meters below datum. Two large ceramic fragments recovered with some faunal material. Closing datum elevation: 2.375 meters below datum. Opened 7/31/73; closed same day. FEATURE #11 Locat ion: Q 6S, 15E Description: carbon concentration in northeast quarter of the square appearing to continue into north baulk. Rectangular in shape. Located at 2.36 meters below datum top elevation; closed at 2.39 meters below datum. Association of sherds and fauna observed. Opened and closed 8/1/73. FEATURE #12 Location: D 6S, 15E Description: grey sand in southeastern corner of the square. Top datum elevation at 2.56 meters below datum. Extends into east and south baulk. Flotation sample from this area yielded quartz pebbles. Probing this area revealed that the deposit was sterile of shell material. Continuance of excavation of this feature during the Winter 1975 revealed that the deposit of shell barren soil apparently constitutes the back dirt from a pit. The adjacent pit yielded one worked lithic specimen.

PAGE 151

136 APPENDIX h (Continued) Sides of the deposit of sand slanted outwardly. Opened 8/7/73; closed 3/18/75. FEATURE #13 Location: a 6S, 15E Description: area of crushed mussel shell in grey-tan sand. Subsequent to observing this area, the crushed mussel was observed throughout the floor of the excavation unit. It was possible that walking in the square caused this feature. No remarkable associations were observed. Opened 8/12/73; closed same day. FEATURE §\k Location: D 9S, 1 5E Description: concentration of grey-black sand, carbon, clay, sherds, and faunal remains. Feature material continues into the east baulk. Opened at 2.26 meters below datum; closed at 2.38 meters below datum. Opened 8/13/73; closed 8/16/73FEATURE #15 Location: P 18N, 3E Description: area of compacted shells with fauna and ceramics. A kidney-shaped area within a matrix of humus, dark brown soil, and roots. Top datum elevation at 0.95 meters below datum (1^ cm below the surface). It was felt that the feature area represented the old ring surface below a more recent humic deposit. Opened k/2>/lk; closed k/22/lk. FEATURE #16 Location: P33S, 15E Description: concentration of potsherds and floral material. Top datum at 3-33 meters below datum (approximately 73 cm below surface). Feature bottomed out at 3-39 meters below datum. Matrix grey to white mottled sand with Spartina roots. Opened V17/7 1 *; closed same day. FEATURE #17 Location: 033S, 15E Description: concentration of faunal material, potsherds, and sandstone in association with a root system. Datum elevation 3-33 meters below datum top; closed at 3-38 meters below datum. Opened V19/75; closed same day. FEATURE #18 Location: p 18N, 3E Description: increased incidence of clams, garbage snails, and faunal bone with scattered carbon. Top elevation at 1.13 meters below

PAGE 152

137 APPENDIX k (Continued) datum (22 cm) . Clams mapped and umbos saved for count. Nutshells frequently observed as well as seeds (notably hackberry) . Feature area redefined on several occasions. At one point, a concentration of crabs was encountered (99 individuals). The faunal analysis from this feature is noteworthy (Appendix 5). Opened h/lh/Jh; closed 2/27/75Closing datum elevation at 1.83 meters below datum. FEATURE #19 Location: Ol8N, 3E Description: area of loose shell and higher amounts of soil. General soil condition was ashy. Potsherds found in upper levels. Datum elevation for top at 1.09 meters below datum -(average) . Feature observable in the west baulk as excavation progressed. Atlantic ribbed mussel and Tagelus in higher frequencies; terrestrial snails not very common. One fragment of lithic material recovered (granitic hone). Several examples of worked bone recovered, notably a raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) fibula awl. dence for consumption of dog from this feature. Feature apparently represents a pit filled with ashy shell and a few items of cultural material. Probably extends into Feature #21 in the adjacent square (18N, 0E). Closing datum elevation 1.62 meters below datum. Opened 5/6/7^; closed 8/21/7 2 *. FEATURE #20 Location: Dl8N, 0E Description: initially noted as an area in the center of the square composed of broken and fragmented burned shells; sample taken for flotation. Subsequently, a sizeable potsherd recovered adjacent to the designated flotation area. Feature designation included old flotation area. Top elevation: 1.09 meters below datum. Opened 5/8/7**; closed 1/1^/75 at 1.81 meters below datum. FEATURE #21 Location: a 18N, 0E Description: area of darker soil noted initially with fragmented shell and roots. Some bone and clam shells were observed. As excavation progressed, area of tightly cemented ashy shells was reached. High incidence of hackberry seeds and fauna observed at this level. Feature extended into the baulk (east) and joins with Feature #19The feature apparently represented a hearth. Opened 5/9/7**; closed 1/15/75 at 1.50 meters below datum (opened at 1.165 meters below datum). FEATURE #22 Locat ion: d33S, 12E Description: pottery concentration with associated quantities of carbon; faunal material also present. Top elevation: 3 255 3 35 meters below datum. Bottom at 3-^7 meters below datum. Large quantity of

PAGE 153

138 APPENDIX k (Continued) fiber-tempered sherds recovered from this feature. Most may belong to one pot that was broken in place, but the surfaces were too eroded for reconstruction. A quantity of grit inclusions noted in the paste. Opened 5/13/7**; closed same day. FEATURE #23 Location: D 6S, 15E Description: area of blue grey sand mottled with carbon. Contained some shell and faunal material. Clay and shefls surrounded the feature area. At this level, shells — particularly oysters and whelks--show extensive signs of weathering (very soft and appear deteriorated). Top elevation at 2.69 meters below datum. As excavation progressed, it became obvious that the feature represented the basal midden with shell sand admixture. Discontinued as a feature. Opened 8/9/7**; closed Winter 1975. FEATURE §2k Location: D 18N, OE Description: initially designated a flotation area because of high incidence of faunal material observed. Higher frequency of loose sandy soil in the feature area than the remaining midden floor. Faunal concentration composed of fishes, crabs, and turtle primarily. Appears to continue into the baulk on the east side. Continued into the flotation column sampling area against the south baulk. The deposit of faunal material was very thin actually. This feature was reminiscent of a spilled or dumped vessel of soup or stew. Datum elevation at I. 96 top center. Closing datum elevation: 2.19 meters below datum. Opened 1/19/75; closed 1/27/75FEATURE #25 Location: Ol8N, OE Description: initially noted as an area of dark brown humic material appearing in the west and south profiles. Top datum elevation at 1.96 meters below datum; closed at 2.26 meters below datum. Opened 1/23/75; closed 1/30/75. FEATURE #26 Location: fl 18N, OE Description: concentration of potsherds and Busycons in what was apparently a hearth. Datum elevation: top at 2.30 meters below datum. Sherd KK was curvilinear punctated incised. These sherds and Busycons rested on submidden soil. Closing datum elevation at 2.32 meters below datum. Opened 1/31/75; closed 2/7/75-

PAGE 154

139 APPENDIX k (Continued) FEATURE #27 Location: ol8N, OE Description: concentration of sherds, clams, and carbon. Datum elevation at top was 2.295; bottom at 2.30 meters below datum. Located atop submidden soil. Opened 2/2/75; closed 2/7/75-

PAGE 155

APPENDIX 5: 06S, 15E-FAUNAL LIST 140 Species Minimum Number of Individuals Number of Fragments Cal 1 inectes sp. Carcharhinus sp. Raj i formes Dasyatis sp. Lepisosteus sp. Amia calva El ops saurus Clupeidae Ari idae Arius fel is Bagre marinus Micropterus sp. Sciaenidae Ba? rdiel la chrysura Cynoscion sp. Leiostomus xanthurus Micropogon undulatus Pogonias cromis Sciaenops ocel lata Stel 1 ifer lanceolatus Mugi 1 sp. Paral ichthys sp. Si ren sp. 3 29 7 17 1 9 12 9 9 7 2 11 2 31 4 1 301 1 75 4 300 162 22 92 721 17 402 1 91 21 12 9 16 9 70 5 455

PAGE 156

APPENDIX 5 CContinuedn6S,15E HI Species Minimum Numb of Individua

PAGE 157

— — r-^ 142 <

PAGE 158

143 vo —
PAGE 159

Ikk — — en *v > *-> o — <0 O vO c-» vO •— r»\ vo CO -T -3" 10

PAGE 160

1)

PAGE 161

\k6

PAGE 162

l-»7 cm ro in
PAGE 163

148 APPENDIX 5: FAUNAL LIST,ol8N,0E Species Decapoda Cal 1 inectes sp. Carcharhinidae Galeocerdo cuvieri Sphyrna sp. Mylobatoidea Aetobates narinari Lepisosteus sp. Ami a calva Elops saurus Clupeidae Brevoortia sp. Ari idae Ar ius fel is Bagre marinus Opsanus sp. Pomatomus saltatrix Carangidae Sparidae cf. Lagodon Sciaenidae Bairdiel la chrysura Cynoscion sp. Leiostomus xanthurus Minimum Number

PAGE 164

149 APPENDIX 5 (Contfnued) D l8N,0E Species Ment ici rrhus americanus Micropoqon undulatus

PAGE 165

150 APPENDIX 5 (Continued) Q l8N,0E Species Sylvi laqus sp= Rodent la Sciurus carol inensis cf„ Neotoma cf. Peromyscus Oryzomys sp. Peromyscus sp* Procyon lotor Odocoi leus vi rg inianus Homo sapiens Minimum Number of Individuals Number of Fragments

PAGE 166

151 — eo <1>

PAGE 167

152 CM cv-k p"v -acm cm CM CM 3 CM P"V D E

PAGE 168

153 — c —

PAGE 169

)5k CM — CM C\ — _ r^ — v£> — u\

PAGE 170

155
PAGE 171

156 -3" — — — CM — v s s — r*^ — r»-> — -v. «^ CTi — oo Q — — CM

PAGE 172

157 en cs — -a— — o -T cm
PAGE 173

158 a

PAGE 174

159 \fl N ^» "*s *». r*"> — — r«"\ — —

PAGE 175

1 60 .— — \0 en cm — —

PAGE 176

161 c

PAGE 177

162 TO

PAGE 178

163 m — — — — -3~r S N \ N N S V, CM CM _ _. _ _ _ a

PAGE 179

164 en — — — ^ \ ^s ^ .3c-> oi — -T — — +-> E — 3 c -z. o z co

PAGE 180

165 — — CM — — CO — — CO -T — CM CM — o r-3-

PAGE 181

166 -3— m vD -T m~» cr\ -3" U\ — CO — -3" OO JT ITi
PAGE 182

167 m — — cs co — -a•^ v» — ^ — — CM — (0 O i L. 4-> 0) <0
PAGE 183

168 £ > c -o — c 2: — in — — tM — LA "^ -^ — CM — •^ E — 3 C 2 ~

PAGE 184

APPENDIX 5: P 19.5N,2W-FAUNAL LIST (no screening) i69 Species Minimum Number of Individuals Number of Fragments Cal 1 inectes sp. Ari idae Bag re marinus Cynoscion sp. Sciaenops ocel lata Mugi 1 sp. Malaclemys terrapin Chrysemys sp. Deirochelys reticularia Odocoi leus virginianus 28 17 12 1 2 1 7 22 1 7

PAGE 185

170 APPENDIX 5: D 9S ; 15E-FAUNAL LIST (Levels 1-3; 1 Level=15 cm) Species Cal 1 inectes sp. Raj f formes Clupeidae Ari idae Arius fel is Bag re marinus Sclaenidae Cynoscion sp. Pogonias c rom i s Sciaenops ocel lata Mugi 1 sp. Paral ichthys sp. Kinosternon sp. Malaclemys terrapin Rail idae Didelphis virginiana Sylvi lagus sp. Mustela vison Canis fami 1 iar is Procyon lotor Odocoi leus vi rginianus Homo sapiens Minimum Number of Individuals 2 1 _ I 12 1 8 3 1 1 2 k 2 1 2 Number of Fragments 12 k 1 265 11 130 hS k I 15 99 38 5 33 3 13 1 k 1 9 20 ko

PAGE 186

APPENDIX 5: Ol8N ,3E-FAUNAL LIST 171 Species Minimum Number

PAGE 187

172 APPENDIX 5 (Contfnued)-al8N,3E Species Minimum Number of Individuals

PAGE 188

173 Minimum

PAGE 189

CM CTt ia p»» — -3-3" CM 174 cm — cm m

PAGE 190

175 c\ — -a— — cm — — CM CO -3" CM CM -3— vO CM — CO CD 0)

PAGE 191

176 (M r— — — V» \ *«V *"«s (M N — ro -=r — — CI rr\ — — CO — — CO — -3— — vO — — — .— -3" rg — — O

PAGE 192

177 CM U\ CM CM CM CM CM CM CO ra -T CM r«» CM C"» OO D CO)

PAGE 193

178 CM CM CM CO — CO -3" -3" CO l/l

PAGE 194

— oo — 179 — 00 — CM CM CM OO — — — -3CM — — CM CM O \ ^ ^ \ cm oo -a— »— vO C"V — \ -^ \ N — ,— — r»"« X

PAGE 195

1 80 CM vD pa m

PAGE 196

181 CO a CNJ — —

PAGE 197

182 — tr\ — V. ^ ^N — CM <— CM CM •— — CM — — — CM — — f*"> C^» \S\ — 3" — — — <— CM — 1/)

PAGE 198

183 — — CM LA m c*t m f«"i vo vo cs -ain — -acr\ CT>
PAGE 199

184 -ac*% co co LT\ tM

PAGE 200

185 -co — — CM — 3 C"V +J . — m — — — CO — TO 4-> 1O — PO — — CM — l/>

PAGE 201

186 APPENDIX 5: DFAUNAL LIST, TEST 1 Species Cal 1 inectes sp. Raj i formes Sphyrna sp. Lepisosteus sp. Clupeidae Ari idae Ar ius fel Is Bagre mar inus Sciaenidae Bai rdiel la chrysura Cynosclon sp. Leiostomus xanthurus Micropogon undulatus Pogonias c rom i s Sciaenops ocel lata Stel 1 ifer lanceolatus Mug? 1 sp. Paral ichthys sp. Kinosternon sp. Malaclemys terrapin Chrysemys sp. Didelphis virginiana Blarina brevicauda Minimum Number

PAGE 202

APPENDIX 5 (Continued) -Test 1 187 Species Microtinae cf. Neofiber Neof iber al leni Scalopus aquat icus Sylv? lagus sp* Sigmodon dispidus Procyon lotor Can is fami 1 iar? s Odocoi leus virginianus Minimum Number of Individuals Number of Fragments 8 I 2 2 2 13 i 8

PAGE 203

F

PAGE 204

189 io < II

PAGE 205

190 -C \~ to < IS\

PAGE 206

191 (TJ

PAGE 207

192 APPENDIX 5: FAUNAL LfST,D5S,30E Species Decapoda Cal 1 inectes sp. Raj i formes Lepisosteus sp» Elops saurus Clupeldae Ari idae Arius fel is Bagre mar inus Opsanus sp. Carangidae Archosargus sp. Sciaenidae Bairdiel la chrysura Cynosclon sp. Lelostomus xanthurus Micropogon undulatus Pogonias cromls Sciaenops ocel lata Stel 1 ifer lanceolatus Hugil sp. Paral ichthys sp. Kinosternon sp. Minimum Number

PAGE 208

APPENDIX 5 CContinued) D 5S,30E 193 Species Minimum Number of Individuals Number of Fragments Malaclemys terrapin Chrysemys sp. Ral 1 idae Didelphis virginiana Soricidae Blar ina brevicauda Sylv? lagus sp. Rodent i a cf. Peromyscus Sigmodon hispidus Procyon lotor Odocoi leus virginianus 83 I 5 k 1 1 2 3 I 1 6 19

PAGE 209

I9*f — — .— — oo -3t— — — r— ^ "^ ^ *>. «^. oo i^— — — u% cm CI CM LA O II <= -3— Q O la _ vo — — c-i vO — S — — CM

PAGE 210

ir\

PAGE 211

196 fij

PAGE 212

197 u

PAGE 214

199

PAGE 215

200 a fU

PAGE 216

APPENDIX 6 ILLUSTRATIONS: DECORATED FIBER-TEMPERED CERAMICS

PAGE 217

202 817 11 706 9GN76 67 50 705 9GN76 67 FIGURE 8. Decorated Fiber-Tempered Ceramics.

PAGE 218

,'rM V..V-. ,-:?^f^~ \ 203 3 ;;. ';.. 746 13 817 FIGURE 9Decorated Fiber-Tempered Ceramics.

PAGE 219

20^ 18 Figure 10: Decorated Fiber-Tempered Ceramics

PAGE 220

205

PAGE 221

APPENDIX 7 CERAMIC INVENTORY

PAGE 222

vO 0> in o< (y o «h cj cu cx< CM tH r 1 {1 5(55 r j-i 207 vO uS

PAGE 223

208 O V 1A ITS (D § » J 5 rj H d CO 0» iH \D-*i-l-*lACj<-tK\K\l>-^coerocor^ioorxrHO^oiAcvi k\ eo rH r\ rH t^ iH CM o>cocoo>oi/\o.-)C\i-stco -i frivo^i-iiricMOca s » .S?.5 i a c^ co in Ifl W H Ifl eg i-i K\ to \o 1T\ {\1 fl K\ K\ ifi m f-i o> o i-i c\j io <\j cm o>j cu cv «"> k\ K\ r-i a H S*« v£3 i<0 vD <-l vO O fcl (*" S5 CO CT' O

PAGE 224

*.

PAGE 225

210 O CO O^ CO » * 5 (55 CVi CO C^ CO cv #H £ "2 r* lO R * s * •H K\ S 8 E o « £ « * « a in eg cp \£> *D vjO

PAGE 226

211 CJr-IocOrHtOvOOvOO^CNJOiHiri^jKNvOO^tor-KJ cm k\ S\ cm 3 rtSs k\ vo -* m k\ as r.» 10 "3 "E •<-> a> •H vO tH CM iH CMCM.»CMt-llrt\OM1 f-J-OWCMOK\0>iHOCMOOf-IK\C0K\K\J»•H K\ r-l iH fl i-t i-l i-liH eoK\omcoir»o N wcMcoc»-c^cr>K\iAO!fN CM CM i-i «H rHf-l fl»n.-tCM»-««-t-»CM r-l CM CM 2 B rH «H -! CM «-l iH ITl i-H CM W\iHiHCMf-».-lK\jr CM CM iH O tH CM i-l CM -»CMCM-»CMi-»K\vO U (A I "2 CM H \Q H (\l H CM C\JCM-*C\irHK\OK> •-« CM K\ 4* iA\0 fN.OOC^O*-«CMK\^-irv\OC^«OC^O'-t Wf-*»H»-H^H»-»i-4f-*r-li-»CMCM 1 n. a •<-< a* r=4 U A .8 8. \oa^rjiHO^rr\ir»CMCMO-*C»-r-iS5oo-»eo»OOrr\\0 ^irvScoioocjiH^cT^iA-a-r-a^cMCMCMgv-^--*-* ^^,^irtr-tc\iCMi^HSi<\jj--*-»-»iANNr^c^c^c^

PAGE 227

$> 212 ,3 W KN IO VO r-» r-l r^<\iOtA\OCT'COCO lACrvO>\DC^rHK\rH -« vO ^D N\ lA K\ OJf-4-3tAi-lvOK\\OK\ •h "1 a O cH CM CM K\ lf\ ICi c^r»tvr-r--NSr^c^coco
PAGE 228

213 K\ KS St til « E +> to in « I 2 .22 "Bee U V) St MM

PAGE 229

2\k rH —I (M 00 K\ K\ CM r-< i-l CO K\ vjP C^ -» O vp f\J (^ ^f (V. •H O CM ff\ -» r-» CM •-! <-l CJ «-l .-* rCM •3^ 0» V3 r-4 CJ f-t C* * co co OJ (T> fTi 00 K\ rH CO CM K> CO CM KN t-t CJ \X3 in if\ cm cm tf"i O m « •* m CT> O CM »h »h es E O .3^ K\ CM i-l rH O CM CM CM i-* 0> K\ B) eo cr> ici o~> o o> cm k\ r>cm o> co r-! SK i-l K> rt O r-( CT^ CT> K\ K\ CM H in A •* rt N 3 « CM VO K\ KN * \0 *^V r+ CM f* »A U VI 2 "E IA CN \0 S * S 3 Vp H -! 33; •*: =tfc r-l K\ vO O •H l-l iH CM lf\ 00 CO IO *3 O CO WA CV* \£) rt i~l CM CM

PAGE 230

•3^ *-> 215 -*rH\OlA#-lr-lr-lO> K\ OJ 0* %£) * <* $ 3 1ft W H (0 >• a. b. (0 (. o o & c •H a -* cr> co .*t (Ta S £ S A R 8 fHO«0*VH<* iin is 8! S O \D -* «H i-t i-4 ITl c-l vD ITl
PAGE 231

216 ,>» •Sc a 11 2 t B .-• i>f-i -=r C> in C\J u*\ #-H CO K\ O in to in n in 4 \D \C m cm m in fl K\ K\ rH CO m CN N1 k\ m cm ih m cr> rH * .-I iH CM CM CM \0 #H i-4 iH vO »-i rl rH l>m l>\0 m •H CO K> \0 « .H CM rf\-»m\£>tv.C0C^O.-ICM H r-l •"• (d CT> CM ••!C l O>mCT^(MO cm om.a-.3inmvovo 8! s

PAGE 232

APPENDIX 8 ILLUSTRATIONS: GRIT-TEMPERED DECORATED SHERDS

PAGE 233

218 D42S, 24W D33S.12E Figure 12: Decorated Grit-Tempered Ceramics.

PAGE 234

i'H 219 FIGURE 13. Rim Forms from Grit-Tempered Sherds.

PAGE 235

en c E — — *0 220 J-J vD C -3"
PAGE 236

221 co c E .— — (0 0) iE »T3 — —

PAGE 237

222 ._

PAGE 238

223 en c E en en — oo c-\ o o> Cn oo cm

PAGE 239

oi 01 01 cn -3— m r~— ^r 00 -r 22*1

PAGE 240

APPENDIX 10 ILLUSTRATIONS: WORKED BONE

PAGE 241

226 390 817 225 Figure lA: Worked Bone Objects

PAGE 242

227 'Mi^-y^nu^ [>•' —

PAGE 243

228 806 701 582 421 9GN76 4 354 Figure 16: Worked Bone and Antler Objects

PAGE 244

229 776 342 A f

PAGE 245

230 ra o -o a

PAGE 246

231 9 . li fie**. E c o P^ ? ; j

PAGE 247

E lT3 —
PAGE 248

233 E L. TCJ —
PAGE 249

234 o
PAGE 250

235 Cn

PAGE 251

E l-o — a) ~ o x> 0)
PAGE 252

237

PAGE 253

238 Figure 21: Recovered Lithic Material

PAGE 254

CO (/) X =D O 239 T3 E C o o o
PAGE 255

240 to in jO ^ O — -at)

PAGE 256

JD 0) o 4-1 — (1) .— "O XI — xj — o o o o o o o o o o o o 4-1 U«44-> <44-1 2k\

PAGE 257

242 X> 0! TO in xi 3 o — -o O O O O E TO ._ a) o 3 ta> a> c Q. O x: xi — JQ 3 o c c a> -a E c •— TO U (U
PAGE 258


PAGE 259

2kk

PAGE 260

245

PAGE 261

246

PAGE 262

2^7

PAGE 263

2A8 pai-jjrjuapjun •dds ejaiatjsajoj •dds sruad junp dds sn}|/\ •dds snojanft ddS SI313Q [9A9T imp § u3uj loads piaij vD — — O CM ~ — O Dl -a— — o o

PAGE 264

249 pai j. ijuapjuf) ddS PJ9I31S9JOJ •dds sruadiunp dds snjj/\ dds snojanft •dds si^iaQ •dds eAjeQ 18A31 3"un # uaui loads PI 3 Id o

PAGE 265

APPENDIX ]k: LIST OF SCIENTIFIC/COMMON FAUNAL NAMES Decapoda Cal 1 inectes sp, Menippes sp. Chondr ichthys Carcharhinidae Galeocerdo cuvieri Sphyrn idae Sphyrna sp. Raj i formes Mylobatoidea Dasyat Is sp. Aetobates narinari Osteichthys Acipenser sp. Lepisosteus sp. Ami a cal va Elops saurus CI upeidae Brevoort ia sp. Si lur i formes Ictalur idae Ictalurus sp. Ar i idae Arius fel is Bagre mar inus Opsanus sp. Ca rang idae ; . Spar idae : -_. LagOdon sp. Sciaenidae Bai rd iel la chrysura Cynoscion sp. Leiostomus xanthurus Ment ?c irrhus amer icanus Micropogon undulatus Pogonias cromis Sciaenops ocel lata Stellifer lanceolatus crabs blue crab stone crab cartilaginous fishes requiem sharks tiger shark hammerhead sharks bonnethead shark skates and rays rays sting ray spotted eagle ray bony fishes sturgeon gar bowf in ladyf ish herrings menhaden catf ishes freshwater catfishes freshwater catfish sea catfishes sea catfish gafftopsail catfish toadf ish jacks and pompanos porgies pinfish drums si 1 ver perch sea trout spot southern kingfish Atlantic croaker black drum redfish or red drum star drum Mugi 1 sp. Pr ionotus sp. Paral ichthys sp. mul let sea robins flounders 250

PAGE 266

APPENDIX \k continued 251 Amph i b i a Rana sp. Si ren sp. Repti 1 ia Ai 1 igator mississipiensis Chelydra serpentina Kinosternon sp. Terrapene carol ina Malaclemys terrapin Chrysemys sp. Chrysemys cf . f loridana Dei rochelys reticular ia Gopherus polyphemus Caretta caretta Iguanidae Anol is carol inens is Natr ix sp. Coluber constrictor Drymarchon corais Lampropel t is sp. Agkistrodon sp. Aves Phalacocorax auritus aur i tus Ardea herodias wardi Butorides virescens Ra Ibis sp. Anas sp. Bucephalus clangula Buteo \ ineatus a I lent Heleagris gal lapavo 1 1 idae Larus argent icus Mamma I i a Pi del phis virqiniana Soricidae Cryptotis parva Blarina brevicauda amphibians frog eel alligators, turtles, snakes si 1 igator snapping turtle mud turtle Eastern box turtle diamondback terrapin cooters and sliders Florida cooter chicken turtle gopher tortoise Atlantic loggerhead turtle anoles and 1 izards green anole (chameleon) water snake black racer ind igo kingsnake copperhead bi rds double crested cormorant great blue heron green heron ibis surface feeding duck American golden eye red shouldered hawk turkey rai Is and gal 1 inules herring gul 1 mamma 1 s opossum shrews least shrew short-tailed shrew Scalopus aquaticus Sy I vi lagus sp. Glaucomys volans Sciurus carol inensis Eastern mole rabbi t flying squirrel Eastern Gray squirrel

PAGE 267

APPENDIX ]k continued 252 Rodent ia Neofiber alleni Neotoma f lor idana Oryzomys sp. Peromyscus sp. Sigmodon hlspidus Turs iops truncatus Can is fami 1 iar is Procyon lotor Lutra canadensis Musteia vison Odocoi leus virginianus Homo sapiens rodents Florida water rat Eastern wood rat rice rat white-footed and pygmy mice hispid cotton rat bottle-nosed dolphin domestic dog raccoon river otter mink whi te-tai led deer human

PAGE 268

REFERENCES CITED Abbott, R. Tucker 197^ American Seashells, Second Edition. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Bailey, R.M., J.E. Fitch, E.S. Herald, E.A. Lachner, L.L. Lindsey, C.R. Robins, and W.B. Scott 1970 A List of Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States and Canada (Third Edition). American Fisheries Society, Spec. Pub. No. 6. Binford, Lewis R. 1962 Archaeology an Anthropology. American Antiquity 28(3): 217-225. Bischof, Henning, and Julio Viteri Gamboa 1972 Pre-Valdivia Occupations on the Southwest Coast of Ecuador. American Antiquity 37(A): 5^8-551. Brockington, Paul 1971 South Carolina's Oldest Lady: A Skeleton from 38BU9, Daws Island, Beaufort County. Inst. Archaeol . Anthrop. Notebook, Univ. South Carolina 3(6): 128-131. Brooks, H.K. n.d. Late Pleistocene and Holocene Climatic Change in Peninsular Florida. Manuscript on file, Florida State Museum. Buck, D.H. 1956 Effects of Turbidity on Fish and Fishing. Trans. 21st North American Wildlife Conf . , New Orleans, Louisiana. Washington, D.C.: Wildlife Management Inst. Bui len, Ripley P. 195^ Culture Changes during the Fiber-Tempered Period in Florida. Southeastern Archaeo. Conf. Newsletter Ml): 45-^8. 253

PAGE 269

25^4 1972 The Orange Period of Peninsular Florida. Florida Anthrop. 25(2): 9-33. 1975 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile Points. Gainesville, Florida. Kendall Books. Bullen, Ripley P., and H. Bruce Green 1970 Stratigraphic Tests at Stal lings Island, Georgia. Florida Anthrop. 23(1): 8-28. Burch, John B. 1962 How to Know the Eastern Land Snails. Dubuque, Iowa: William Brown Company Publishers. Burt, William Henry, and Richard Phillip Grossenheider 196^ A Field Guide to the Mammals, 2nd Edition. Boston: Houghton Mi f f 1 in Company. Caldwel I , Joseph R. 1958 Trend and Tradition in the Prehistory of the Eastern United States. American Anthrop. Assn. Memoir No. 88. Caldwell, Joseph R. , and A.J. Waring, Jr. 1939 The Use of a Ceramic Sequence in the Classification of the Aboriginal Sites in Chatham County, Georgia. Southeastern Archaeol. Conf. Newsletter 2(1): 6-7Calmes, Alan 1968 Test Excavations at Three Late Archaic Shell-Ring Mounds on Hilton Head Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina. SouthEastern Archaeol. Conf. Bull. 8: 45"^8. Carl ton, Jedfrey M. 1975 A Guide to Common Florida Salt Marsh and Mangrove Vegetation. Florida Marine Res. Publ . No. 6. Florida Dept. Natural Resources Chance, Marsha A. 197^ The W.P.A. Glynn County Project: A Ceramic Analysis. Unpublished Master 's Thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee.

PAGE 270

255 Clafl in, W i 1 1 iam H. , Jr. 1931 The Stal ling's Island Mound, Columbia County, Georgia. Pap. Peabody Mus. American Archaeo. Ethno. 19(0 • Cambridge: Harvard University. Coe, Joffre L. ]%k The Formative Cultures of the Carolina Piedmont. Trans. American Phil. Soc. 5M5). Conant, Roger 1958 A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of the United States and Canada East of the 100th Meridian. Boston: Houghton Mi f f 1 in Company. Crane, H.R., and J.B, Griffin I96A University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates IX. Radiocarbon 6: 1-24, Crusoe, Donald L. 1972 Interaction Networks and New World Fiber-Tempered Pottery. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Georgia. 1973 Cumberland Island National Seashore: A Research Prospectus. National Park Service, Southeast Archaeological Center. n.d. The American Formative and Fiber-Tempered Ceramics. National Park Service, Southeast Archaeological Center. Crusoe, Donald L., and Chester B. DePratter 1972 A New Look at the Georgia Shell Mound Archaic. Paper presented to the Southeastern Archaeological Conference Meeting, Morgantown, West Virginia. n.d. A New Look at the Georgia Coastal Shell Mound Archaic. Revision of a paper presented to the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Morgantown, West Virginia, October 1973= Dahlberg, Michael D. 1975 Guide to Coastal Fishes of Georgia and Nearby States. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

PAGE 271

256 Dahlberg, Michael D. , and Eugene P. Odum 1970 Annual Cycles of Species Occurrence, Abundance, and Diversity on Georgia Estuarine Fish Populations. American Mid. Nat. 83(2): 382-391. Davidson, J.M. 196^ Processing and Analysing Midden Samples. New Zealand Archaeol . Assn. Newsletter 7(^0: 152-163DePratter, Chester B. n.d. Appendix I: Site Descriptions. Rough draft from Masters Thesis in preparation, University of Georgia. DePratter, C.B., R.W. Jeffries, and C. Pearson 1973 A Review of Early Pottery from the South Carolina Coast. Inst, of Archaeol. Anthrop., Univ. South Carolina, 5(2): A5~53Edwards, Wi 1 1 iam E. 1965 A Preliminary Report on the Sewee Mound Shell Midden, Charleston County, South Carolina. Ms, Southeast Archaeol. Center, National Park Service, Macon, Georgia. Eldridge, Koneta 1975 Radiocarbon Dates, Univ. Miami Radiocarbon Dating Lab. Personal Communication. Emery, K.O., and R.L. Edwards 1966 Archaeological Potential of the Atlantic Continental Shelf. American Antiquity 31(5): 733-737Fairbanks, C.H. 19'f2 The Taxonomic Position of Stal ling's Island, Georgia. American Antiquity 7(3): 223-231. Flannery, Regina 19^3 Some Notes on a few Sites in Beaufort, South Carolina. Bureau of American Ethno. Bull. 133: 1^7-153Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Ford James A. 1966 Early Formative Cultures in Georgia and Florida. American Antiquity 31(6): 781-799-

PAGE 272

257 1969 A Comparison of Formative Cultures in the Americas. Smithsonian Contri. Anthrop., No. 11. Freeman, L.G. , Jr. 1968 A Theoretical Framework for Interpreting Archeological Materials. In Man the Hunter, R.B. Lee and I. DeVore, eds. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton, pp. 262-267. Galtsoff, Paul S. 1956 Ecological Changes Affecting the Productivity of Oyster Grounds. Trans. 21st North American Wildlife Conf., New Orleans, Louisiana: 308-1*19. Goggin, J.H. 1952 Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns Archaeology, Florida. Yale Univ. Publ . Anthrop., No. k~l , New Haven. Gol ley, Frank B. 1962 Mammals of Georgia: A Study of their Distribution and Functional Role in the Ecosystem. Athens: Univ. Georgia Press. Gosselink, J.G., E.P. Odum, and R.M. Pope 1973 The Value of the Tidal Marsh. Work Paper #3, Urban and Regional Development Center. Univ. Florida, Gainesville. Pre-publication draft, subject to revision. Griffin, James B. 19^3 An Analysis and Interpretation of the Ceramic Remains from two Sites near Beaufort, South Carolina. Bur. American Ethno. Bull. 133, Anthrop. Pap. No. 22: 155-168. 19^5 Fiber-tempered Pottery of the St. Johns Area in Florida. J. Washington Acad. Sci. 35(7): 218-223. 1952 Prehistoric FloHda: A Review. In Archaeology of the Eastern United States, James B. Griffin. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, pp. 322-33^. Hemmings, E. Thomas 1970a Preliminary Report of Excavations at Fig Island, South Carolina. Inst. Archaeol . Anthrop. Notebook, Univ. South Carolina 2(9): 9-15. 1970b Emergence of Formative Life on the Atlantic Coast of the Southeast. Southeastern Archaeol. Conf. Bull. 12.

PAGE 273

258 n.d. Early Ceramic Shell Rings on the Sea Island Coast, South Carolina and Georgia. Manuscript in preparation. Holder, Preston 1938 Excavations on St. Simons Island and Vicinity, Winter of 1936-37. Proc. Soc. Georgia Archaeol . 1(1): 8-9Holmes, Will tarn H. 189^ Earthenware of Florida: Collections of Clarence B. Moore. J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phi la. 10(1): 105-128. Hoyt, J.H. 1968 Geology of the Golden Isles and Lower Georgia Coastal Plain. In The Future of the Marshlands and Sea Islands of Georgia. Proc. Conf., Cloister, October 13 _ 1^, Sea Island, Georgia. Hoyt, J.H. , and J.R. Hails 1974 Pleistocene Stratigraphy of Southeastern Georgia. J_n PostMiocene Stratigraphy: Central and Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain, R.Q. Oaks and J.R„ DuBar, eds. Logan: Utah State Univ. Press, pp. 191-205. Hoyt, J.H., R.J. Weimer, and V.J. Henry, Jr. 196A Late Pleistocene and Recent Sedimentation, Central Georgia Coast, USA. J_n Developments in Sedimentology, Vol. 1, Deltaic and Shallow Marine Deposits, L.M.J. U. Van Straaten, ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company. Lyell, Charles 18^9 A Second Visit to the United States of North America. 2 Vols. London: John Murray. MacNeish, R.S. 1964 Ancient Mesoamerican Civilization. Science 143(3606): 531-537197^ Reflections on my Search for the Beginnings of Agriculture in Mexico. j_n Archaeological Researches in Retrospect, Gordon Willey, ed. pp. 207-23**. Mahood, Robert K. , CD. Harris, J.L. Music, Jr., and B.A. Palmer 1974 Survey of the Fisheries Resources in Georgia's Estuarine and Inshore Waters, Part I: Southern Section, St. Andrews Sound and St. Simons Sound Estuaries. Georgia Dept. Natural Resources s Game and Fish Div., Coastal Fish. Off., Contr. Series No. 22.

PAGE 274

259 Marrinan, Rochelle A. 1973 The Cultural Ecology of Fibertempered Ceramic Sites: South Carolina and Georgia. Unpublished Thesis: Tulane University. Martinez, Carlos A. 1975 Culture Sequence on the Central Georgia Coast, 1000 BC-AD 1650. Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of Florida. McKinley, Wi 1 1 iam 1873 Mounds in Georgia. Ann. Rept. Board Regents, Smithsonian Institution for 1872, 22: 422-428. Meggers, Bety J. s Clifford Evans, and Emelia Estrada 1965 Early Formative Period of Coastal Ecuador: The Valdivia and Machalella Phases. Smithsonian Contr. Anthrop. , Vol. 1. Washington. Milanich, J.T. 1971 The Deptford Phase: An Archaeological Reconstruction. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida. 1973 The Southeastern Deptford Culture: A Preliminary Definition. Florida State Board of Archives and History, Bull. 3: 51-63Miller, C.F. 1949 The Lake Spring Site, Columbia County, Georgia. American Antiquity 15(1): 38-51Moore, C.B. 1897 Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Georgia Coast. J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 11(1): 4-138. 1899 Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Coast of South Carolina. J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 11(2): 146-166. Moseley, M.E. 1975 The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization. Menlo Park, California: Cummings Publishing Company. Peterson, D.A. 1970 The Refuge Phase in the Savannah River Region. SEAC Bull. 13: 76-81.

PAGE 275

260 Peterson, R*T. A Field Guide to the Birds. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Phelps, D.S., and R. Burgess 196*1 A Possible Case of Cannibalism in the Early Woodland Period of Eastern Georgia. American Antiquity 30(2): 199-202. Plog, F.T. 197^ The Study of Prehistoric Change. New York: Academic Press Ralph, E.K., H.N. Michael, and M.C. Han 1973 Radiocarbon Dates and Reality. Masca Newsletter 9(1): 7~20. Redfield, A.L. 1967 Post Glacial Change in Sea Level in the Western North Atlantic Ocean. Science 157(3789): 687-692. Reichel-Dolmatoff , G. 1965 Excavaciones Arqueologiacas en Puerto Hormego, (Departmento de Bolivar), Antropologia Vol. 2, Bogota. 1971 Early Pottery from Colombia. Archaeology 2h{k): 338-3^5. 1972 The Cultural Context of Early Fiber-tempered Pottery in Northern Colombia. Florida Anthrop. 25(2-2): 1-8. Robbins, C.S., Bertel Bruun, and A.S. Zim 1966 Birds of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. New York: Golden Press. Sears, W.H., and J.B. Griffin 1950 Fiber-tempered Pottery of the Southeast. Jjt^ Prehistoric Pottery of the Eastern United States. Ann Arbor: Univ. Michigan. Shepard, F.P. 196A Sea Level Changes in the Past 6000 Years: Possible Archaeological Significance. Science 1^3(3606): 57^-576. Small, J.K. 1933 Manual of the Southeastern Flora. Lancaster: Science Press Printing Company.

PAGE 276

261 Steward, J.H. 1938 Basin-Plateau Aboriginal Socio-Pol i t ical Groups. Bureau of American Ethno.. Bull. 120. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Stoltman, J.B. 1966 New Radiocarbon Dates for Southeastern Fiber-tempered Pottery. American Antiquity 31(6): 872-874. 1972 The Late Archaic in the Savannah River Region. Florida Anthrop. 25(2-2): 37-62. 197^ Groton Plantation: An Archaeological Study of a South Carolina Locality. Mono. Peabody Mus., No. I. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Swanton, J.R. 19^6 The Indians of the Southeastern United States. Bureau of American Ethno. Bull. 137Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Treganza, A.E., and S.F. Cook 19^8 The Quantitative Investigation of Aboriginal Sites: Complete Excavation with Physical Analysis of a Single Mound. American Antiquity 13: 287-297U.S. Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey 1954 Altamaha Sound Quadrangle, Georgia. 7-5 Minute Series (Topographic). Washington: U.S. Geological Survey. Waring, A.J., Jr. 1940 The Bilbo Site Chatham County, Georgia. J_n_ The Waring Papers, S.B. Williams, ed. Pap. Peabody Mus. Archaeo. Ethno. 58: 152-1971940The Earliest Ceramic Remains. J_n The Waring Papers, S.B. 42 Williams, ed. Pap. Peabody Mus. Archaeo. Ethno. 58: 247-255. 1955 The Cultural Sequence at the Mouth of the Savannah River. Jjt_ The Waring Papers, S.B. Williams, ed. Pap. Peabody Mus. Archaeo. Ethno. 58: 216-221. I960 The Refuge Site, Jasper County, South Carolina. \n_ The Waring Papers, S.B. Williams, ed. Pap. Peabody Mus. Archaeo. Ethno. 58: 198-208. V/aring, A.J., Jr., and L.H. Larson, Jr. 1955The Shell Ring on Sapelo Island. J_r^ The Waring Papers, S.B. 60 Williams, ed . Pap. Peabody Mus. Archaeo. Ethno. 58: 263-278.

PAGE 277

262 Watson, P.J., S.A. LeBlanc, and C.L. Redman 1971 Explanation in Archeology: An Explicitly Scientific Approach. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. Watt, B.K., and A.L. Merrill I963 Composition of Foods: Raw, Processed, Prepared. Agri. Handbook No. 8. U.S. Dept . Agriculture. Washington: Government Printing Office. Williams, S.B. 1968 (editor) The Waring Papers: The Collected Works of Antonio J. Waring, Jr. Pap. Peabody Mus = Archaeo. Ethno. 58. 1968 Epilogue: Some Thoughts on Georgia Prehistory. _hn The Waring Papers, S.B. Williams, ed. Pap. Peabody Mus. Archaeo. Ethno. 58: 315-326. I968 Appendix: Radiocarbon Dates from the Georgia Coast. J[n_ The Waring Papers, S.B. Williams, ed. Pap. Peabody Mus. Archaeo. Ethno. 58: 329-332. Wyman , J . 1875 Fresh-water Shell Mounds of the St. John's River, Florida. Mem. Peabody Acad. Sci. 1(A): \Sk. Salem.

PAGE 278

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Rochelle Ann Marrinan was born August 17, 19**^ in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, Her family has resided in Eastlake Weir, Florida, since 19^8. She was educated in the Marion County Public School System. In 1965, she was graduated from St. Vincent's School of Nursing, Jacksonville, Florida, and was employed as a Nurse Specialist until 1969. The Associate in Arts degree with honors was received from Polk Junior College, Winter Haven, Florida. In 1971, the Bachelor of Arts with high honors was received from the University of Florida and the Master of Arts from Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1 S73 • Graduate study in the Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, was begun in 1973 and has been supported by National Science Foundation funds. 263

PAGE 279

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Charles H. Fairbanks, Chairman Professor of Anthropology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. <0 El izabeVh S. Wing r -> Associate Professor of Anthropology Associate Curator in Zooarchaeology i certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. V
PAGE 280

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. jkfrm^ %/ ./gj/cf^y Thomas H. Patton Associate Professor of Zoology Associate Curator in Vertebrate Paleontology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Joshua C. Dickinson, Jr. Professor of Zoology Director, Florida State Museum ^^^ l This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Anthropology in the College of Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. August, 1975 Dean, Graduate School

PAGE 281

3 1262 08553 0441