CONSTRUCT VALIDATION OF AN INS'TRUMENE T TOl MEIASURFI TEAlCHER AT~lT'ITUDIE
TOWARD) THE IISE OF: T'.I~NTERNATION CO)N'TENT IN TH~E K-12
SOCIAL. STUDIES CUIRRICULUMI[E
THOMPAS OWIENJ EKIl
Ai DISSERT'ATION PRE\SENTED:J TO T~HE3 G:RADUATE~ COU1NCT. of:
TTHE UNIVERSITY OF FtLRIDA
IN P'ARTIAL FUI~'LF. IILLEN OF1 TliF REQU'IIREMIEN1S FR( THE
DEGREE O)F OUCT~OR OF PHIILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Thomas Owen Erb
To Karonl, Christopher, aind Grtapo~ry
Special thanks are due to my chairperson Dr. Arthur J. Lewis and my
cochairperson Dr. Linda MI. Crocker for the great support they have offered
throughout this project. Thanks are due also to D~r. Cordon D. Lawrence
and Dr. Rene Lemarchand for their editorial assistance in preparing the
Special appreciation is due the following people in international
and African studies who have supported this project: Drs. Haig Der-
Hloussikian and R. Hunt Davis at the University of Florida, Dr. Abdelwahab
Hechiche at the University of South Florida, and Dr. Wilfred Owen at the
University of Illinois.
I m indebted to 31 other professors at thle University of Florida,
both in the College of Education and the Center for African Studies, who
assisted this project either by serving on a panel of experts or by
allowing me class time to gain access to the 166 students who participated
as subjects. In the latter regard, I wish to thank Dr. Gus Jimenez for
supporting this research by arranging for 65 Hlillsborough County teachers
to participate in the pilot phase of the project.
Soime assistance oin computer programming was received from the Center
for InsLructi o)na l and ReSeaRTch Computling AZctivities at the University of
Florich~. Compu~lting) wasll rlrlone at l i; ingf thle facilities of the Northeast
Regiondi Data Cenlter of thle State Uiniversity System of Florida located on
the enmpuls of thle Unliversity ,F F~lorida in Gainesville.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. ...... .
LIST OF TABLES ......
LIST OF; FICURES. .......
ABSTRACT .. .
ONE RESEARCH PROBLEM.
The Problem .
TWOr REVIEW OF LITERATURE.
International Education .
Teacher Attjitudes And Their
Summary of Research
Attitude Scale Construction
Procedures for Establj shing
Tests of Construct Validity
F:IVE- CONCLUISIONIS AZND RECOMME1I[NDATI'ONS
Introduce lo rn.
Discussio-n of FTCAS Validlity.
Mulltiple Asplects of U~nidimensional Scales.
A~dequacy of INTTrOT anld E0RTOT as Attitude Scales..
Further Research . .. .. . . .. .. .. 69
Applications ... .. . . ... .. 73
Conclusion .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. 75
REFERENCES. . .. .. . . .. ... 76
A INSTRUMENT USED TO CATEGORIZE 90 OBJECTIVES AS NATIONAL-
TSTIC, INTERNATIONAL,0R( ETT~HER/OR, INCLUDING, THE TALLIY
OF RESULTS . . .. .. . . .. 87
B FAKS ITEM ANALYSIS ... .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 93
C FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL CURRICULUM ASSESSMENT SCALES
SHOWING SUBSCALE STRUCTURE . .. .. .. .. 94
D FLORIDA AFRICAN KNOWLEDGE SCAL. . . .. .. .. .. 98
E WORLDMINDEDNESS SCALE. . .. .. .... .. .. .. 103
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . .. . . .. .. . 106
LTST OF TABLES
1 Response Distribution for Open-Ended Questionnaire on
African Content in the Curriculum. . .. .. . .. 26
2 Reliabilities and Standard F~rrors for the Florida Inter-
national Curriculum Assessment Scales and the Florida
A~frican Knowledg~e Scale based on the Pilot Sample
(N.= 131). . . .. ... .. . .. .. 48
3 Raw Means and Standard Deviations for Hypotliesis One
(N = 33) ... .. ... .... .. . 52
4 Raw Means and Standard Deviations of All Samples and
Variables Entered into the Analyses of Hypotheses Two
Through Five ... .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. 54
5 Inltercorrelations of Cognitive and Affective Subscales
on FICAS .. .... . .. . . . 66
6 lhP~ Biserial Correlations Between the 30 Items Selected
for Inclusion on the FAKS and the FAKS Total Score .. .. 93
LIST OF FIGURES
1 Subscale Structure of the Florrida International Curriculum
Assessment Scales. .. . . . . 30
2 Item Assiginment to Subscales on the Floridn International
Curriculum Assessment Scales .. .. .. .. .. . . 31
3 Correlation and Item Mean Difference Patterns for NATTOT,
EORTOT, and INTTOTT .. .. .. .. . 67
4 Hypothesized Relationship Between Knowledge of Africa and
Attitude Toward African Content. .. .. .. ... . 70
Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
CONSTRUCT VALIDATION OF AN INSTRUMENT TO MEASURE TEACHER ATTITUDE
TOWARD THE USE OF INTERNATlIONAL CONTENT IN THE K-12 SOCIAL,
Thomas Owen Erb
Chairperson: Arthur J. Lewis
Cochairperson: Linda M. Crocker
Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction
Over the past decade educational researchers have established the
importance of teacher attitudes for the success of educational programs.
However, little wans known specifically about teacher attitudes toward
international content in the curriculum. Consequently, it was necessary
to learn more about these attitudes. Since no reliable or valid scales
existed to measure such attitudes, this study sought to develop and
validate the needed instrumentation, which has b~een titled the Florida
International Curriculum Assessment Scales (FICAS).
Using Cronbach's alpha as the measure of internal consistency, this
study employed three established techniques employed for testing construct
validity: Correlates, group differences, and study of change over
occasions. Three subscales of thle FLICAS were tested for validity.
After da:ta were collected fromn 131 experienced teachers, scores on the
three FIrCAS subsea.lle were rorrelated with the Worldmindedness Scale
(WJ-Scale) total score and the Floridan African Knowledge Scale (FAKS) total
score. After this procedur-e was completed, the scores on the FICAS sub-
scales of these 13L teachers who represented a cross section of the
general teacher poplarl~tion were compared to those of 49 teachers from the
Southiiast and Midwest who elected to participate in summer institutes on
African1 studies. Finally, the pretest scores of these institute par-
ticipants were compared to their posttest scores to see if the subscales
of interest could detect change in attitude as a result of institute
parti:i pat ion.
Thec Florida International Cuirriculum Assessment Scales proved to
have high reliability and adequate validity to justify their use in fur-
ther studies. Estimates of coefficient alpha ranged from .87 to .93 for
the three subscales under study. Both the International (INTTOT) and
Either/or (EORTOT) subscales showed the expected correlation with the
W-Scale. The Nationalistic (NATTOT) subscale had a nonsignificant cor-
relation with the WJ-Scale. None of the subscales produced the predicted
correlatlion with th~e FAKS. Al~l three subscales were successful in
measulrtug a difference between the cross section of teachers and those
self-selected for institute participation. The results were inconclusive
from th~e study of change over ocensions. A multivariate F test sug-
gested that the subscales did not detect a significant change over
occasions. However, EORTOT's significant univariate F test suggested
that further validation work needed to be done on EORTOT.
Icenuse of their positive correlations with the W-Scale and because
of their ability to distinguish between groups which should be different
on the attribute being measured, both INTTIOT and EORTOT are recommended
for fu~thlEr researchl. Validated for African conitent, these two subscales
need to be validal-ted for mother international studies areas. Research to
establish their relationships, to other constructs such as beliefs systems
or level of cognit ive moral development could prove fruitful. They also
have potential for basic research into the formation of attitudes as
well as into the consequences of holding certain attitudes. These scales
may also prove to be useful devaluation devices in either pre or inservice
teacher education where an internationalization of perspectives is an
intended result of instruction. Finally, the social studies objectives
comprising the items on these scales could be used to help teachers
develop teaching strategiies for using international content.
Ignorane of the world beyondr our bordecrs is a Insuiry that Americans
cannot afford. Schools must play a positive role in inicreasingi knowledge~
of the non-Western world while working: to diminish Pthlnocentric attituders
toward these areas. Hlowever-, neither preservice Inor inservice teacher
education gives muich, if any, emphansis to drevelopingf thle k~nowledge and
attitudes consistent with techcling Fro~m a cross-raltln t rn1 r global per-
spective. Recoginizinji thiis deficiency the Uinitedl Statns Olfficer of
Ellucation has funded 80 14ralnguae and arena studnies Icnters (including
oight African studies Ccnters) at ulniversities thrroulghout~ the Counltry
(Easton, 19)77). As a condition ofE findings, thofsr r ntrrs are to engagee
in outreach work aimedl at cr-eatingi greater inlternlt ional uinderstanding
among Amefrican public school pupils, teachers, andr the community at
large. These funded centers have fuill disr~rttlon in developingi oultrenchh
programs, and several of them, including: those at the Ulniversity of
Florida and the University of Illiniois, have chos~en to emphasize pre-
parinfi public school leacherss to teach African co~ntent to their stuldrnts.
Have these ouitreach e~ffo~rts bee~n effective in al teriing teacher attituldes
toward the uisefulness of African content to meet arrepted socin1 Ltudics
objectives? Prior to thiis study there hans beren no valid meacnls to assess
RIuch channel inl teCnher attitudes.PR
Consequntlyy this studyl was desiginedl to devempil .l relia~le andi valir
method of assesising teachers' attituides toward frrironr conltenlt in the
curriculum. The resulting instrument was intended~i to be- onel that coulld
be used to measure change~ in teacher attituldes as a1 resullt of preservice
or inservice experiences designeldl to broadecn tearchrs' perceptions of th~e
relevance of African conte~nt. In addition, the instrulment was intended
to be useful for more basic researchi on attitudefs, their forma~tion, a7nd
conseq ueic es .
This studry wans confinedl to validanting on instrumento specificallyp for-
African content rat-her- than international conntent IgeneraivniI. Thlis decision
was made because! the concepF~t Of international cntent was rather vagueC
since it subsu~med many geograp'hical areas or1 divigio~n of thei worilld nhbout
which individual teachers wrre likely to have d ivois oEIpininns: LaJt in
Amierica, Europef, Canada, Asin, th~e nonl-Western world., theI I[hird Worrld.
the Communist world, andl so for~th. For g~reater c(lcertual clarity it
seemed necessary to define a1 spccific intecrna~tionnl region for- this
validation study. Africa was lchosenl bercause of thel rcqearcher's fam~ili-
arity withi programs almed at improving~ Afric~an studies in ther public
schools through teacher inservice edulcation. Howerver, any o~ther- inter-
national region might have served equally well.
As never before Americals need to have an unldt.rstandj~i ngf huiman
experience that transcends I:rochial perspectlives. Dentsions male~ in
centers orf power in or ne rea of the world canir effect peop"le` onr all con-
tinents. Edwin 0. Reischauorr (1973) states thle case for international
edurcation in this way:
Before long, humalnity will face malny diffirtllties thant
can only be solvedl on a iglobal. Rr:le~. ForI this therE
must he a muich h irgher deglree of uinderst ndtinc arlnd afar
greater capacity forr cooperation beltweenl di p;larate
peoples and natjions than exist nowl. dctnhwvr
as it is presently conducted in this country -- and in
every other coulntryy in toe w'ord, for that matter -- is
not moving rapiidly enloulgh inl the right direction to
produce the knowledge about thle oultside world1~ andl the
attitudes toward other peoples that may b~e essential for
humann survival wi thin a1 generationl or tw. Trh is, I
feet, is a much Igrenter international prob~lerr thain thle
military balance o~f power that absorbs so, murch of our
attention to~day. (p. 4)
Americans, who~ inh~abit thle mnost powerful national entity, cannot afford
to remain ignorant of conrd itions elsewhere in the wolrldl. Afr-icai. Asia,
and Latin America have a pLarce in our lives beyondl a mere interest in the
In agreeiing with the need for better internati~ionn studies. educaltors
have recognized the need for bothl cnrriculalr reform (no~w. 1976) and
positive tenclerr attitudles (Billinlgs, 1971; Rich, 197h). Yet so little
is done in collegefs and tecnrher training institultions toi prepare trachprs
to adequately handle interrlntional studies in their teaching (A11plgren &
Gustafsson, 1974; Bidwell., 1964; Carver, cited in Klassen & Moore, 1968;
Intercultuiral Understandityg, 1972; Phillips, 1963; Taylor, 1968/1969;
Wise, 1975a, 1975b). Often those teachers who do nttempyt to handle
international topics leave their- Stuldents with more nlegative andr stereo-
typed images than they hadt when they bfegn their study (Almaron &
Gustafsson, 1374; Beyer & Hlicksi, 1968; Eicher, 1975). However, where
teachers were well prepared and held positive attit~des about inter-
national edulcation, students' knowledge and attitudes~ imrproved as w~ll
(Arlmgren & Gustafsson, 19741; Frech, 1973, 1975; Klnsson & Mloor-e, 1968).
Because of inadequate preservice~ training, inse~rvice colmponents are
needed to help Leachers gajin the competencies necessary to trnchl shoiit
foreign cultures. Outreach p~rograms such al~s those offered byr ther Arican
Studies Centers at the Universities of Florida, 11linois, and Wisennsin
giive teachers the opportunity to participate in workshops and institutes
aimed at increasingg their substantive knowlrlede of Afrr-ica ndM helpinG
them expand their perceptions~ of the va~luef il ntelerating Africann content
into the social studies curriculum. Teachers are exposed to films,
lectures, and discussions on African topics: p~artic ipate in modifiedl
African cultuiral experiences; meet African sc~holars~ ilnd students; and
are introduced to curricularn manterialss and teachiing strategies which aIre
designed to improve their te~ach~ing of Africa.
Natulrally, the people whino aminiister African s~tudiies oultr-ench pro-
grams are inrterested in teachers' knowledge rrf, andl attjitudes toward,
African content in the curriculum. A seairch of thet litrrnture revealed
no studlies of teachers' Attitudes towardl teac-hing about AfriCal. A pr.iva~ntP
communication with Prof. Mnr-i~n .[. Rice oF thle Anlthropololn! Curricullum
Project at the Ulniversity of Georgia has confirmedl that, aside from
content-specific instruments of questionable validity, there was no
reliable. valid measure of teachers' attitudes toward Africa in the
curriculurm. At the University oE Lllinois workshop, inl 1974, trainsactionali
analysis was used to evaluate the interaction amlong: worksholp participants
and the attitudes of the wor-kshonp participants torwnrri thle workishop format
and its suibject matter content (Schmidt, 1917',). Ilrowever, thec instro-
mentation failed to produce danta thalt wouilld nllowlr an ojectivp evaluation
of the teacher attitudes involved. In fact, the teacher attituldes
studied in thle Illinols project were not directly related to the curricular
issue of using African material in the classroom, bult focusedr on thp
internal workings of the workshop i tse~l 'Thus there was a needl to
design, develop, and vallidate a1 reliable attitude s:cale thait would be
suitable for assessinf the formation of attitudes, the influence of
attitudeFs, and change in attitudes toward inlcluding African material in
the curriculum. Withonut suc-h instrumenntati n no researrch or hiecjtive
evaluation could Lake place to assess the impact of inse~rvice education
on teacher attitudes.
Deff i ni tions
Attitude is the psychological constructl wh~iir refers to the comp~osite
of all feelings about, and ~redispostitins for bhavhi~inr r towaird, somne
object. Although Attituldes are covert, they findl rvert expression in
the form of verbalized o~pinio~ns thu~s making: them meiasurrable. Though
based on coginitive processes, attitudes are primairily affective in natur-e.
As measured by attitude scale~s, an attitude is rep~resenrted by a score
which corresponds to the point along, an ulnderlying continualn which der-
Fines the degree of positive evaluation attached to a specific referent
by an individual (see Fishbein, 1967, pp. 257-260; Opprrnheim, 1966,
pp. 105-112; Osgood, 1967, p,. 112; Shaw & rightill. 1967, pp,. 2-7; Trhurston~..
1967, PP. 77-79).
The attitude referent in this study is thle inclus~ion of African
content in the established K-12 curriculum. The uise of Afr-ican content
is not restricted to nn are.a stuidies approach where stuldents focus inl
turn on various culture arease of thle world. Africanr colntrnt refers to
any materials gamese, recordlings, readings, calSe'-stu~i('S, maps. films,
biographies, Activity pacts, learning renters, sp~eakers, field trips,
kits, etc.) which are used w~ith students to achieved srome currjcicula
objective regalrdless of thie ogannizing plrinlCiple unlder whtich thle objee-
Live fits. A teacher's aIttitulde toward inlcluding Afrie~nn content is of
interest regardless of whiether thle fralework is worldl jingiraphy, world
cultures, peace studies, future studies, de~velomienit studies, global.
studies (see Recker, 197?), or any other conceiptual sicheme under which
African content could be subsumed.
African Studies Oultrench Institutes
For the Pulrpo~ses of this study AFrican studiies outlrrech ins~titutes
refer to one two-week sulmmer~ inslittute and (one fo'lr-week~ Blummi' institute
aimed at expanding teachc r aIwarencss of Africa andi de~veloping new
approaches to teaching about Africa. Ther inrstitute~s includlE thr~ee com-
ponents. T`he first uses formal presentations to dissemijnate Enformation
about AfrijcA. A second involves the teachers in enltlural Activities
including African music, films, art, and cuisine. Thle thirdl compo~nent
involves thle teachers in developing materials andi teaching strategiies
for tEaching about Africa..
Internal Consis tency
Reliability is the accuiraiy with which:I a test mo~nsirres thiat which
it measures. A reliability coefficient expresses the squraredl correlationl
between subjects' observed scores on an instrument andi their truie scores
on thle trAit heing measured. WheIn individual tpes items hanve higih cor-
relations with the total test scorrE relativi to their item variances, ther
test of whichi they are a part is said to possess hligh Enternnl consis-
tency which is a measure of reliability if ther test is intenlded to be
bomageneorus~as in an attitude scalP desijined to meansure only one dimensions,
(see Cronhach, 1967, PP. 132-167; Knider & Richardsonl 19?7, pp. 151-160;
Lord & Novick, 1968, pp. GI, 87-95, 179-140. 211-216, 331 ; Remmers. Gnge,
& Rummel, 1965, pp. 129-130).
Construcrt vaidity is thle degree tor which n1 tst mneasulres the con-
struct or attribute that it is designed to neasure. Thep construct or-
attribute is no~t operationnlly definedl. Thei1frefor the problem is for
the researcher in construct validation to ide~ntify thc iionstriretor-
constructs which account for thie variance on a teist (noe Campbefll &
Fiske, 1959, p. 100; Cronhach & Meehl, 1967, pp. 263--270: Lord & Novick,
1968, pp. 261. 278-279).
Cronbach and Mleebl (1967) describe a variety of Lochniques that are
used to establish the construct valid-ity of 1 test. Th1ey conclude thant
the problem is not to determined that a test is valid for mensulring a
construct buit to state as definitely as puonible thr degree of~ validity
the test is presumled to havel (p. 255). A mai ior test o~f construlct
Validity that was used in thie current study is thp croup differences
method (p. 251). Constr-uct validity can he de~monstrated if groups which
should differ in the constrlctt do in fact hnve different mIean scores o~n
the instr-ument. In addition, to establish conistruc~t validity it must bi
determined that the construct beingi measured loateally relates to other
similar constructs (p. 252). Consequently, the snciies onl the attiturde
scale should correlate with1 measures of other cornstructs relalted to
attitude toward Africa~n content in th~e curriculum. As a final test of
construct validity a studyl ofT change over occasio~ns (p. 253) wais con-
diited to see if the attitude scale could detect channge in attitude
toward using Aflrican contenlt in the curriculum as .a result of partici-
pation in summer instituites nimned at inc~reasinji teacher competence in
the area of A\fricaln studies
In order to test the construct validity of a new inst-rument it was
necessary to state specific hyp'otheses conlcerningi thle oultrnmes of thle
proposed analvfses. If thle anailyses confirmedd thec hy~poltheseS, thlen con1-
struct validity would be established for thr instrument. In t he hypothesess
one had to state the expected outcomes and the crite~ri: by whiich juldg-
ments would be made about whether the hypotheses were confirmed or not.
Listed in the next section are the set of hiypotheses which if con-
firmed by statistical analyses would establish thle construct validity of
the Florida International Curriculuim Assessmnent Scales (F1ICAS), the name
chosen for the attitude instrument developed in thi is study. The cOverall
Hypothesis provided a Framework within which specific tests of constructt
validity could be designed. Oper-at ional HypothellSis Onei dic1I(' nt di reCtly
dleal withi establishing
as to whether or not teachers' ratings of thle relevancel of African content
would be affected by the natulre of the test format. Spectfically, if
teachers were asked to~ rate thle reclevanrce ofI Africa.n Iontlent Along with
the relevance of Latinl Amerlean or Eurropean co`il~ntent woulld the~ir TraineS
of Africa be arffctted? Consequelntiv, three for1me of the F~1CAS were
developed -- rone asking teclrhers to rate Africanl co~ntenti only: a seennd,
African and Latin American content; and a third, Africain and E5uro~pean
Hypo7theses Twro through F~ive were designed on, test the construct
validity of thle variousi FTCA~S subhscales. liypotheses Two and Three stAte
expected correlations between thle FICAS subsrcale; andl relatedl constructs:
worldmindedness and knowledge ofi Africa as mea:su~red by the Flo~rida Africani
Knowledge Scale (rAKS). Hyplothiesis Foulr i s biedl an thle irolp, d i fferenres
technique to test whether the instrument courlld derlret an expect d dlif-
ference between a1 pilot group consisting of a1 cross section of teachers
and thle institute groups consiistin ng oE teachers who11 were self-selected~
to participate inl summer institutee s on Afrtcanlr studl(ies. Hypothesi~i S FIve
was desigined to test wjhether or not thef FI('AS could de~ltect a channge inl
attitude that was expected to occur as a resullt of plr-ticipation in th1e
Overa ll Hypothiesis
There exists in teachers an attitulde to~waird telling abioutt Africa
that can b~e measured by hlavinga teachers evainatetr the impolrrtance of sorcin
studies Fbjectives andl the 1elevance of African content to achiieving:
One. Ihere will1 be no si gIn i icant d ifi Iereces~r (p .25) ?1mong1J thet
mean scores of subjects in the pi lot samplr assiclnarl to thIlree dl ffe rent
Forms of the Florida Inte~rnational Curriculumn A~ssersnment Scales.
Two. There will be a significant poiit-ive enrrplation (p < .05)
between scores on the Floridan Enternational Cul~rrienllum A~sCSement Sr-aleS
and scores on thle Worldminrledness Scale.
Three. There will be a positive significantly (p .05~) correclatonn
between scorPs orn the Floridan International Ciirriculawin Assesssmen Scalcs
and scores o'n the Flor-ida Aifrican1 Knowldicag Scale.
Four. Sulbjects who~ elect to p~artiripalte in a r iriculuml wonrkshiop
oni Africa will have a significanntiv higher menc, scorec (p i .05) o~n thle
Florida International Curriculumm Assessment Scanles thn~nl I comprlrisonl
group of a c-ross section of ten:cher-s.
Five. Thef meanr postterst scortes of a group' of tflncherrs enlrolled in
an African, studies center smmerliC inlstitulte will ber Signlifil.anltly
(P_ < .05) higher than their mean score on a protest of thle Florida
Internationally Curriculum Asfsessment Scales.
The vaidation of an attitude scale to~ mrasulre teachers' attitudeis
toward A2frican material in the crlrriculumli is expctedr to open the door
to a variety of research, appllications. TheI1 instruments, couple~d withi a
knowledge~ test, can, be used hy Afriienn stmllion naltienchl programs throuih-
out the United States to assess the impact of their efforts. T`he
attitude andl knowledge Enstruiments can be use~d as p're anld p)slt ~tes
to evaluate c-hange as a Iresult of wo~rkshonps, semlinuls, ori cu~irse treat-
In addition to programs evallenti on, the newly Inntruelfll edtl inlStrulml'n
canl be used to measure attit-ude as either an intlepre1~~ndet r dependent
variable in more basic research stuldies. rthswhardsiin
outreach and/or inservice components for teachers, it may~ he well to know
what factors relate to teachers' attitudecs about Afiric: in the clrr-iculllm.
Knowing what factors mos~t influence the forrmntion If Ilese attitudes,,
designiers of teacher reduction programs can Laike this information into
Account. Other research~r- s may be interested inl using ther scale to rellacte
alttituldes and other variabless to pupil perfo~rmanr le.r The hiypoth-)es sized
importance of teacher attituldes for pupil growthll could~l be empiri really
The design of the attitude scale in thle cir-renrt project coul~ld csily
be adapted to measure attituder toward mother contrlnt Iwcns as wfll. Thle
adapted instrument couldl assess ther perceived relowa~ncef a~ .ny drsignatet d
content domanin for achi~iving: social studlies obhject i ve or even general
educate ion obje ct ives. For :Ilthiough this study is focursinS on social
studies o~bjectives, both Engile (1965) atd ME1tcalf (I(191) maintain that
social studies objectives are often indlistingulishnble fro~m thlose for
gen~eral education .
REIVTEW OF: LTITERATURE
Thiis review of literature demornstrates the Rl hollarl concern for
international eduicatio~n in its many manifestations. Horwe~ver, in spite
of that concern, very littli is being done in ourl publl iC schOols or
teacher training, instituitionis to promote inlternaitjlinll education. The
second theme developed Es thaot teacher attitudel s towanrd eduelntiolnal
processes as well. as toward stuldents themselves hanve b~reen rlmo~nstrated
to play a major role in thle success or failurer of mllnin ntional prog~iirms.
Finally, thle methodolog~ical literature exsplicating issules in attitude
measurement is reviewed. 1hie uinifying frctorr is thle imlportanre of
teacher attitude for the snercess of internaio~lina ~l duration programs.
Thie Theore ti cal Need
The occurrence of ;1 second world war provokled somec sociaL scientists
into conceptualizing a "moral equivalent to war" (I:. Nu~rphly, 1945).
Central to their prescriptions for a new world order was the conviction
that education neerdedl to be freed from natio~nalism to become waorldminded
in orientation (pp. 240-2421. By this thle sorcial 'Ici(.tistL: meant thatt
education should focus~ on precparinE studel~nt s for intelligent world
citizenship basedl upon demoirracy at home (p. 242,). Ju~st fourr years later
Flhria Montessori pub~ilishd hier Educazione e Paoce (19493/1972) ralling for
edulcationr to enlcouragn e the piritua~l andi~ mra~l l derveInlpment of indtividainl s
in anr effort to promoted a plnrcful worrldi.
Growinp out of the bhreakdown of world olrder ini thei 1940'9 were thre
intellectual threads calinl: for greater intrernati~n ional udersFtandingl)
which were to be picked up byv eduicatos in th~e 1960's. A~t tha~t time
thlEre arose a tide of critic ism among, socin studics rechtentorr- s ann:inst
the othnlOCEntric. orientationi of Americanl scho~oling.. lhe as i r orga:ni zn-
tion of social stuldies culrriculln had not cha~nged sincer thec 1916 Natioinal
Educational Associationi Colmmittre on Social Studies o~f thle Conmmission onI
t-he Reoirganizationo of Secrondalry Edulcation, Ircommende~d n1 pradrs Rrven to
twelve scope aInd sequenle whlich rentererl on Ur.S. andli Faropleanl hiStolry
and civics. relaltively newJ social science~ suchi as scio~logy anid
an thropolg wnire re excl udeld f rom the rec ommienda thu asr e was any! mrn ti oni
of non-Wrestern history or reniture (Massialns & Cox,z 1066). :Insfoi (19F61)
in hlis study of schools accredtied by th~e Northll Crntral A~ssciation of
Colleges and Secondary Schools conflirmedl tha~t high, schools conrtinllarl to
iignore non-Werstern arras Of the world right intor the~ 19h0's. Sepai;,rte
courses dominated by A~mericaln and world (Europea~;n?) hlisto`ry characterized
the curriculum (Nlassinlns & C:ox, 1966; No~reland, 1"h2).
By the early 1960's several wr~it~rs w'Ere cailing [nc efforts to
internationaltze the social studies curriculumm. Hairlandi Clevpland (196,0)
suggested that an ulndergraduatef edlcationr in foreign ;I~ntrs Fhoulld
defvelop cultural empathy or still in uinderstaindinr ther innler logiic of
other ways of, life as we~ll aIs theF predisposit inni to~ relrnin fr~om e~nn-
demning these ways of life be~nllSe they arr differently If promoting
world peace and international understanlding were to brcome edulcational
goals. Stearns (1966) assertedl that teacher education muist
identify and~ clarify thc inlformntion, anttitudes,: ilr an kills thant are
related to worldminldelness.. He urged the es:tabllishrment of an indepenldentt
international curriculum lab~oraltory, worldi college:~ flnters,, and a
foundation for international edrrention. In 19h6, thec 11.S. oongress
gave impetus to the movement by passing thc laternat ional ~dulcatio~n Act.
Thiis act called for developingi knowledge of other couniitries to promotee
muitual unders~ntandin anid to strengthen re Lat ions between th~e UnitEd
States a7nd mother countries (quoted in Klassrn & Mo~ore, 1968,H p. I).
Edwin 0. Reischauerr (1973) added his statulre to thei rlebate by criticizing
the past orientation oif emphansis on Western Eulrope. 110 Irged that thec
various culltulral dimensions of the non-Western world1~ bec given more
C~onernedd sholar-s andl educators have attemnpted to, dsc~ribe inter-
national ctdwaetion and non-Wecstern studlies as they woilrl rPply to a
school curriculum. Robannnn (19)73) defined interenitluranl reduction "nis
a structurrini of loomning cvxperinces thatId will helpII hath Studen~ltS aInd
teachers undterstand and useP conICets for u1nderstandringl anld working~ toward
solutions of indlividual. and intergroup problems -- loical, international.
and world wide -- that~ arise fromn cuituiral diVersity" (p. 31). 110
offered a conceptual framework for interculturanl edulcation buijlt on the
view Lthat culture is two-tilered. TJhe "macr-oculturc" is hosed on power
and is large-scale, shared, and worldwide. "Mlicrocullture is based on
love and trust or sperin1 interests andr is smanll-side~ and family and
community oriented (p. 19). Hle argued thant ednenitllrs needed to dis-
tingiiish thie two culturess and~ rebuild schools arenldingly in rrder to,
(a) enable everyone to nlegotiate the staire bertweeni malcrocullturre and
micracultuir e equally wat f n b~othl directlions and (hI) Icuch peo~plee ablout
thle natulre of the marllny mter-lcultures! C in orde t -derfarofoe o
thle next (p. 20). 11e presentedl three key values whichl shiouli lunder-lie
e~ducatio ni in th~e two-tiered frameworrk. At thei rnrvlo~ le~vel thet principal
value is "equlality of opportunity for all." Her Iluggested that "live aind
let live" should govern a Ifai rs wi thin and between mi croc ut ltres.
Thirdly, e~quln access to the stairs between micro andnr marocrllturr e shouldl
be guaranteed. Bohannan insis ted that hIi s aIpproach-l is ne either ont i-
patriotic nor culturally relativistic sentimentalism.
in the Parly 1970's gilrobal stiatles b-ecame the fansl of several
educators interested in international ediuentionl. narilon (1971) proposed
peace stud~ies which concentrate on the issues of huminii aggression andl
conflict resolutionr from thec interpersoinal t the interlnational level.
In a monograph Global Develr lament Studies (19)7 ) ther Manage~r mcnt Institulte
for Nationn] Development ouitlinll a senior hiigh eniirirfrulum thant gioes
heyond the trannsfer of know~ledge to thle chanllingl ni thle stuidenits' per~-
ceptions of reallity. Consc:iousneiss raisingr andi uninesr examination in
relationship to in~ternationall dievelopment issues conrstitute major
objectives inl this program. Becker (1973, 19)7/) advo.cated a cuirriculumi
which helps students to seec the world as others son it. to become aware
of and adept at using alternative sources of information and evaluation.
and to develop a willinginess to consider comlpeting views ofr reality.
Bover (1975) added a futures comrponent to the procless of developingi a
world view among~ students. W)l~hlberg (1974) and~r UNESCO(:( (The UNESCO
Associated Schools. 19)75) conlceptualx~ ie n1 clnhn1 studlils aPPT'rox h bSed
on the relationships between peop le aInd the ir envi ronments. concern-
trating on the theme o~f interdlependence Almgren a nd (:ustafssonl (1974)
suiggestedl thiat international education is aI reqluisite for hulman survival.
A majority of Amerlean public school tearher-s shanre a concern for
greater international underst-~lnd ding. Ciphity iPercent who respoinded toi n
recent National Education Association questionnaire said better rcoopern-
t-ion among nations was a key iSSule inl promoltIn: ai PeCnlEful world
community (McCarron & McCune, 1974).
Within the broadl framerork k of inter-national eduelntioln several recent
books hiave been written to Guide teachers and crirriculumi plannners in
using Africaln content. E~.J. Murphy and Stein (1973) suggcstted six broad
reasons for including Aifrical in the social stuioris curriculum. Under
thle headings of superficiality and rthnocentricity. Hattl (19)77)
has categorized 30 problems~ which currently exist withi the treatment of
Africa in Almerican textbooks. The Afrianl-Amefri cni I nsti tute (Co lliins,
1970), Boyer (19)69), and W~illmer (1975) pro~videdl pract~tiinners with hanth
theoretical considerations and coincrete suggecstions for including an
African perspective in an social studies p~rogral..
Over the past two, decad(es, intellectual leadership hans OfFFfere n
variety of conceptual frameworks for incorp~orating international studies
into th~e curriculum. A key concern is to what extent these scholarly
appraisals and recommendations have found their way into the r~urriculai
of American schools and into~ the inistructio~nal strategies of its teachers.
John Lee (1974) offered a1 somewhat hopeful view. Heo detected several
trends in the late 196,0's anid earlyy 1970)'s which sugge sRte<1 thait cnrrirulal
were being inte national izedl: Jnternational reduction wais beginning
Earlier in the child's schiooling, the concept of thle woirld had been
broadened to include the non-west, and there~ was a1 shiift to the study
af the world's people as a society (a gilihni view as ropposedl toi the study
of one nation ?fter- another) (p. 149). Tog oeecuaigsit
may be occurring, Rose Haydecn (1976,) said thle responses: of Amerricain
public education to thle challenge of preparing citizens to respond
intelligently to global problems was inadequalte. She was palrticullarly
critical of state education naencies whiichi she claiimed dlid not perceive
the need to provide leadecrship for gilohol izine public fdulcation. In
spite of some g~loball curricullum develocpment, some inservice training on
international topics, and increasedl stress on international training: in
teacher education, too little has been dlone to internationalizef public
instruction or to evaluate its results ag~ainstt plobal Roals andi objectives.
Thle A~spen Institltc e has formedl a naitio~nal commnission on coping with~
interdependence (M~orehouse, 1975). Th1e institutee is concFr-ned with two
questions: First, to what extent do American institlt ions,: percelve thie
predienment of interdependence and its implication;; second, what new
attitudes and arrangements many be requIreTd Ln enhance(. thel rnpacity of
Americans to cope withi it? Thle findings revealedl tiat edulcatilnall i~n-
stitutions are ill-equlipped to, deal with the issue o~f interdlependelnce
because it is perceived as a national concern while schiools are run as
a state and local responsibiity. For this and other reasons. it was
concluded that much of the burden for creating a civic literacy on
interdependence issues wouliid have to be ho~rn b~y instttitutios other thann
formal educational ones.
Nonetheless, some schnols anti other sulpportiny agencies f have made
attempts to change curriculum and rearienlt inservice to implement
international education. Several school districts have dervelopedl
international studies programs of one natuire or another (Frepman, 1974;
A~frican Studies Handbook, 1971; Worl~d 1 story Serlie: Afrt-ica. 1972)
State departments of education (Jonles, 1970)! andl other agrencies (Oswald,
1974) have contributed t-heir efforts to RssistinG publliic schantl ls to
improve international stuldies progprams. Thle Afriennl-Americ ien Institutee
(Taching; About Africa, 1972) and the African Stuidies P'rogram at thec
University of Tllin~ois (Schinide,. 1975) harve mnade Ionlgoing efforts to
improve African studies through teacher inservice eduiration.
Teacher Art titudes and Their Mleasurement
A crucidl issue in assessing the role teachlern plaiy in the instruic-
tion of children is toi what extent teacher attitudleN influence the
outcomes exhiibited in children. In conjulnction with tha~t issue, is the
problem of measuring teachers' attitudes anrd their relatiionlship to other
variables. W~iseman (1971) believedl that thle sing~le moist significant
outcome of educational resonrr ch in the last deade~l wasn the rentlizattion
of the power' of teacher Itt ituldes and teacherr~~~r expr tions.
Much of the research into teacher attituldes hais foculsed on their
relationship to various educational issues anid pra t ices In anl experi-
mental study, Homme (1968) reportedly a failure to imprrove teacher attitudes
toward programmed instruction, apparently because o~f lack of commulnica-
tion between experimenters aInd teachers and lack of opltimulm classrooo
conditions. However, Ma~lini (1969) foulnd that nrw "Spanish for Co~mmuni-
cation" materials designed for programmed mlantery of instructional
objectives Emnproved teacher attitude towardi Ilanguagel in~struiction, as
well as changed their teachingl methodologies~ and student performance.
A third study deaing withl tracher attitudesR towedri so~me aspect of
educational practice was conductedl by Walmon, Rell, andi Ramsever (1971)
who hoped to show that teacher randiidates trn inedl in the microplanninfi
technique~ would score higherl onl tests of teancher elffectiveness buit
remain unchanged in attitudel towrdmt students ;Ind teaching:. Thef study
found that teaching teancher-s to contrn1l cognitive struictuire variables
increased their students' reasoning ability buit hadl no effecct on recall
not did it affect any mneasulre of teache r aIt t itde. T'his last finding waos
considered a1 positive one because the experimenters; were aIttempting to
avoid change to undesirable attituides on the part nf tnacherT cnd~idates.
A study by Mlax-in (19)74) showed how negative teacherr attitudles could black
progress in educational practice. He found that trnChers had little
knowledge of, and negantive attitudes toward, edurlnifountl resealrch.
Consequenltly, they shied awayl from its fin~dingis.
Okey (1973) studied thc reflects of learntni: Bloom's mastery teachingf
strategy on teacher candlidate's attitudes~ to~ward tests, clrades, and
diagnostic teaching,. Thle experimentltn group shoedp i sjignificanltly poSi--
tive Attitude Rains in this studyv. Inl a ne~-shot ryxperiment in which
teacher attituldes toward ~lth effectiveness; of diFfe~rent math programs
were supposedly manipulated by havingi technlers read~ bi-ised statements
about the programs, Brager (1970) found no sig~nificant difference in
students related to teacher attitude. A moreH sophisticated longiitudinall
study by Beauchamp and Conran (1975) was set uip to measure the e~ffets
of the operation of a cuirriculum eng~ineering sy~stem. A\ cauisal model
employing path Analysis (se~e Blalack, 19hi4, 1971; licise, 19)75: Van de
Geor, 1971) was; being: usedl I to xamine the rclationships between leader-
ship, currliculum engiinpering,, teacher attitudesR teanchr r performances,
and student performance. Frey (1973) in a survey study of 406 elementary,
middle, and high school. teachers at-tendinfi a summer session at Northeirn
Illinoi~s University found thatl tenchers knew much nbout~ behanviornl
objectives buit held rather neiitral attiutudes about their cffectlyoness
in pupil performance. 13ogarz (1970) found a po~sitive relationship betweencr
teachers' attitudes toward the effectivenress of instrulctional materials
and actual pupil achievement.
Research on teacher attitudes toward snhlject matterc had b~een confinled
mostly to the subject of science. Oshiman (1966). in stuidyingi the dif-
ference between lectulrcle-downstr ation and individunt investi~tientn ars
approaches to teachingi science methods courses to Ilrmentalry school
teacher candidates, measured attitudes toward scIenICe a~s wiell as con-
fidence toward teachingf science, achievement in sc~irener, an d student
teAchingi behaviors in science. Only' the confidnce va riable shOwefd
signi ficanlt d difference between expe~rimentanl and~ ontroll- groupsI). Srge
(1974) studied attitude toward science and its relat ionship to know~ledge
of science. Hie found a low positive corrplatiio n f .?5 hetween measulres
of scientific knowledge and attitudl e toward scince.c S;inceF the coef-
ficient of determination was .06, he questioned the relationship between
knowledge and attitude. However, Bl1eh and Zakha~rindefs (1975), finding
a .25 correlation between science attitudes scoresi and g~rades in science
taken as a mensurie of learning, concluded tha;t ktnowledge of science and
general exposure to science hadl a positive influernle on attituides toward
science. Thle previously mentioned Almgren andl Gusltfsson (1.974) study
looked at the relationship orf teacher ac~ttitmle to~ward teaching about
int-ernational questions and studeints' RttitudelS. TheyC~ found a positive
An important set of research rln teacher attituides has focused on the
relationship between teachers' attitudew toward their students and the
pupils' subsequent achievement. Arno (1975), Clarki (1975), anrd Cecil
(1.971) all found a positive relationship between techellr attitude towrdirr
students and pupil achie~vement.
TIhese studies have made u~se of one or several of the attitude
measurement techniques developed and reftned since thle 1920's. TIhurstonet
(1927, 1929, 1931, 1967) was the first to take attitude measulrenpnt ouit
of the suirvey stage and malke it more rirgorous by intlrodlucjin the equial-
appearing interval technignor. At the time thant Senshore and Ileyner
(1933) were modifyinR Thulrstole'ss techniques. Likert (1~97, 1970) pro-
posed the summated ratinfi method for measuring: attitudesr. Subhsequiently.
G~uttman (1944, 1947), and O:;good (1967; casGood~ & Suci. 195i: nsgoord,
Suci, & Tannenbaun, 1957, Snider &r Osgood,, 19h9) devisedr niternative
systems for attitude mensurlrment.t Edwardls (1957), alppnheim (19h6),
and Shaw and Wrigiht (1967) have each madle attempts tor Rynthesize the
previous work in attitude mealsurement anrd providi rsidelines or devrelop-
ing attitude scales according to thle different techlniqucs avani~lable
Two studies have attempltetl systemati c enmparisons~ of likiert and
Thurstone techniques of scale construction and scoring. Providing a
critical review to previous research, Seiler and Hough (1970) concluded
tha~t the Likert scoring methiod was superior to the Thulrstone method with
regard to the value of the reliability coeflicient obtained for a given
number- of items. Using L~ikert construction and scoring techniques, one
could usulal~v develop a scale with a .90 re tab i lity coerffiicint w~ith
only 20 to 25 items, It would take twice as many Thulrston~e connstructed~r
and scored items to obtain ther same rel aini Ity (p. 171). .ItRecrd,
Weber, and Lundmark~ (1975) used a mul~titrai t-mu~ltimethord matrix (see
Campbell & Fisko, 1959)) to colmpare the test-rftest r~liabil~ities and
divergent and convergecnt validitiEs: of fouir meth~ods of atl-itude measulre-
ment: Likert, Thurstone, nsg~ood, andi Guilford's self-rating. Threy fouindl
little diElerence in the companrati ve rel iahj it les, thr mletho~d variancEs,
or in the divergent and convergient validities of eachl method. W'hate ver
the merits anid demerits of each method may be, these ilifferences cancelledl
out when put to the empirient test. Thurs any of the above techniques
might. be applied to assessiing teacher attitudies towardl social studies
cuirricula, or specifiently African content.
S ummary ~ of eRser~chI
The chanengin nature of the modern world has ranisedi concern amngnfi
educators that curriculal and teaching practices neecd to become more
internationaized. Some senttered eEfacts at curi-rien~la r-eform have b~e-n
made. In addition, scatterted attempts have hern made~l to prepanre tecrhers
to use international content~ in their teach~inS. yet little reserrch has
been dlone into the effects of teacher ttiitudesR on sublsequentt students
learning oE either concepts or alttituldeS relilatin to ilterlnational
However, for fifty years educatio7nal psychollogists have heen de-
veloping and refining a nuimber of techniqises for mcasulring attitudes.
These techniques have been used in recent years to study teacher attitudeis
toward stuldents, varioulS sulbject matterss, and different educational
practices. Whllat is needed now is a mneans of measuringC teacher attitudesi
toward teaching about fo~reirgn cultuires anr interlnationall1 problems.
Making use of accepted techniiques oE a~ttitulde measuremnent, thris study has
uindertaken to devise instrumentation that could validlyv measure these
In establishing the cronstruct vnlidity of theF new scale to measure
teachers' attitudecs toward African content in thef rurriculum,~ three
approaches to construct validation were used. First, corrreltions betw~een
scores on the F~orida International. Curriculumn Assessmeint Scailes and other
measures of similar construlcts were examined. A p~rEViously dePveloped
knowledge test of African content wa7s refined for uise as 1 cr-iterion in
this study. In addit ton another attitude scl l mieaisuring at ti tudesn
similar to, though not idential~ w~ith, attituldes torinld tonehiingi abour
Africa in the classroom was nlso used. The total fiscal sores from these
two instrumnents were correlated with thle niewly deveclopecd FTCAS sublscales
to establish the first type of~ construct vallidity. Se cond, nrollps whiich
should have differed in scores o~n the FlCAS\: subscalrs were .Ilso tested
and compared to see if expected dlifferences had berrn detected. The me~an
scores from the pilot snnmple were compared to the two summer institute
samples to see if the newly developed sub~scalesi could dletect aIn expected
difference inl attitudes between the pilot and mother two groups. Finally,
the pretest scores of the institute samples were co~mpared to th~e post-
test scores to see if any sublscales could meansure a dlifferencef in attitude
expected as a1 result of part iciLpation ini thle institutes.~
This chapter includes the details of the development of thle FTCAS.
A discussion of the procedures usedl to establishI its reliability follows
a description orf its developmentl~. Finally, measures taiken to confirm
the construct validity of thle FTCA1S are lielin~nated along withl a discussion
of the other instruments used( inl thle validaltion procteSs.
Attitude Scale Construction
The purpose of this study was to develop n reliable instrumllent with
sufficient validity to allow it to be used in attitude research andl in
curriculum and instruction evaluation. Ano instrulment was desired to yield
scores on teacher attitude toward African content whlich coulld be analyzed
to learn mnore about the relintionship of thiis attitude to other cons~r rnets
and observable behavior. It was expectFed that thle new instruments would
serve a uiseful purpose ini evaluating p"re and inservicie efforts to~ instill
an international perspective in teachers with reFgardi to their own
In constructing an inst-rument to measures attitude~s towanrd Africani
content in the curricullum several steps were tak~en. The first concern
was to clearly define the dimensionls of thle const rllt under considerat ion
(G~ardner, 19)75). The identified construct hand to- be unridimensional so
that all scale items could be summed to produce a meainingiful total. scale
score (G;ardner, 1975; TVhurstone, 1967). Suchi a scale score wediid hep
uninterpretable if A single linear continuumn did no~t u~nderlie th~e attitude
being measured. Attitudies ar1e assumed to viry- in qualnity anrd intpnsity
along a continuumn from p~osit ive through neitranl to negative (Shaow &*
Idright, 1967, p. 7). If, ini fact, somne scale items measure dimensions
indepenident of the major underlying: conistirut the reslltnin attilude
score will he meaningless wi~th regardl to the attitude that1 was jintended
to be measured.
While pains were taken to insure that1 the attitudef to be mneasured,,
attitude toward thle inCl1sionl of African content inr school culrriculumm
was not confouinded with otherr attitudes suchl as attitudec towir-d AFr~o-
American studies or perhaRps attituides to~warl trradi tional versuls inqui ry
social studies methodologiecs, care was also` exercised to include all
aspects of the uinderlyin6 dlimEnsion (Oppenholm. 1966. p7. 117).A
teacher's attitude toward teanchingi about Africa in the curricultun might
be made up of feelings ab~outl priorities inl thle elr-riculltma feelings about
the school's rol~e vis-a-vis cross-clltluran l reductini l feelings about
Africa's relevance to the canriculumo l or any number of other aspEcts.
These various aspects had to, be identified and mleasulrted~ if a valid scale
were to result from this stu~dy. An analysis of rtesponses to open-endedd
statements about African studies in the curr-iiculum was uised to determine
the r-e~evant undpr-lying dimensions .
A sentence completionl questionnaires withr threer itrms on it was uised
to elicite teachers' views onr African co~ntent. Thei seconnr d item on the
questionnaire was thle most p~ertinent for formullatngi the uinderlying
aspects of the construct which the reseaircher was nttemlpting~ to measur-e.
This item began "Africani content in thle pubtle school enrrriculumn
should. . ." After- completing thiis sentence, teachers wEre ~aked to~
respond to the second part of the iteml whlich said simply ". . heicause
SThul~s in addiction to open-endedl juldfnmnts s on African content,
reasons for these judgments were also solicited. A~lSo inclu(1de in the
questionnnire were two orthetr Ltemis: Thle first of these was simply "Africal
and the second was "Clobal cosiuses
'This qurestion~naire wasR admini:;terl to 100 pri andi inrservicr
teachers. The responses were categoirizedl in an effot~i t d1etermine thec
dimensions underlying attitude toward Africai in thec curirirurlumr (seef
Table 1). It appeared from analyzing the~se responses thait dile relation-
ship of African content to rognitive chieetives is ther major uinderlyingi
dimension of attitulde toward African cointent. lidhen combined with responses
related to affective obljectives, over- 78 percent of thie responses relate
to curriculum objectives.
Response Distributioo n for Open-Enldedl Ilnrstiolnnaire
on Africaln C~ontent in thie Cuirriculum?
Ca tego ry Pe rrc lnt of Responses
Cognitive Ob~jectives 1,7.0
Affective Objectives 11,T
Relative Importance or
Time Considerations 9.4
Intrinsic Interest 5.7
All1 Other Respionses 6.h
Note. Number of subjects equailled LOO, buit thr nulmber of responses
equalled 106 because OE multiple respo~nses.
Source of i tems
Trhe next step was to de~velopi a pool ofr items whlichl coni~ld he pilotedl
in order to construct. an adcequatef scale. These items had to differentintp
between those teachers who hold positive andl those Who~ horld negative
attitudes toward the object in qulestion (L~ikert, 1967. p. 92). Trhe .items
needed to be statements in which respondents could recognize real view-
points and feel strongly about them one wayV or the o~therr (Oppenheim,
1966, p. 114). These items~ had to cover ther ranne OEC asp~cts underlyinin
the attitude and, in a tradlitional scale, the range~ of intensity from
negative to pos itive.
For the attitude that this study attemptedi to mensuire, us~ina standard
Likert-type statements presented a potential problem of interpretation.
Since relationship to curricurlar objectives seemedl to he thle major
underlying dimension of attitude toward Aflrican content in the curricullum,
most items in the L~ikert-typef instrument woulld containi statemernts which
related African content to objectives. ?tro examples would be the
following: "The study of Africn is nercssary to pr-omotee international
understanding," or "The study o~f Africa needs to7 be~ inlud~l~ed in the study
of world geog~Raphy.l If an alttitude isl a rredispositition to art in a
certain WayI toward some objiect, then positive rrsponlsess to thcfie items
might not be measulring~ a Lrancher's inclinati onl to~ Iie A~frican content.
For it is possible thiat a teacher couldl agree that Afr~ienn content was~
important to achieve an objective but believe at thle saime time that thle
objective is not too important. Such a situaltton could~ proutlce a miis-
leading item response.
To overcome this potential problem, the current situdy used statements
of objectives as the items in the instrument. Each teaicher was asked to
rate the importance of the objective as well as ralts the relevance of
African content to achieivins it. TIhe objectives were selected to repre-
sent three content categarie~s covering.. a broad range o~f social studies
objectives. Some objectives are naltiona~list ically adiented in that
Amlerican content would he riliregnlr to achieve the c~hjecitivr (see Appendix
A). Examples include thefsi: "Studelnts should kinl'w ablout the impact of
technology on modern l i f in America," "Studeint s shoruldl hav~e a ktrnowledg~e
of the strict ure of Ame~rican g~overnment," aInd "Studentiis Shoulld~ sIPPOrt
efforts to protect America's environment." Othecr objectives are inter-
national ini orientation because they require content from outside the
U.S. in order- to develop thecm. Such objectives woulld hie the following:
"Students should acquire wor-ldmindedne~ss," "Studelnts shouldl comprehenid
the gulf between rich and poor countries," aind "Studrenits Shoulld understand
different ways of life on different continents." Still a third groulp o~f
objectives are those whose achievement does not dictante the nattennd
or international focus of contenlt in order to necomplisish themn. This
third group of oh jectives enalld be devrlopedl w~ith rather Amecrican or-
international content or both. Examples o~f this third type include
"Students should ulnderstand the balance of annture," "Students shou~ldi
understand thle exchrange orf Goods andl services," an11 "Stuidentl s shoulldd
appreciate a artistic ex~p rcss;ion."
In selecting thie objectives for incluston in th( instrulment, the
first step was to examine thle rspo~nse~s to the oPenI-ended d ques~tiOnnaire
given to pre and inservice teachers and then to review social studies
mnethods texts and school district object-ives statements. h olwn
sources were checked Ear examples of both cognitive and affective ob-
jectives: L.F. Anderson (1968); D.L.. B~rubakear (1973); L,. Ehman. 11.
Mlehlinger, and J. Patr-ick (19741); S.11. Encle (196,5); I.R. Le~e (1974);
B.G:. Massialas and~ C.n. Cox (1966); E..J. Muriphyv and II. Strin (1971);
D.Wd. Oliver and J1.P. Shaver (1966); E.o. Reischanllr (1973); .A.~ Scott
(1972); and M1.D. Waniman, D.D. Bell, and C..C. Ramsever (1971).
Based on thefse sources, a 11st of 54 cognitive chiectives andi 36
affective objectives was drawn up to be subhmitted to a panel of weight
professors of social studies edu~cation and cuirrienium Tispaelrae
the objectives as to the type of content thlat would be required to
accomplish the objective (see Appendix A). The coGn i t ie obj ectives
were written to include on equal number from e7c~h ofI six social studies
disciplines: history, political ficien~ce, anthropology, sociology,
g~eography, and economics. The affective objectives were not so easily
classified accordjIng to disc.ipline.
The FICAS could hiave been analyzed not only as:- a total score, but
according to several subscalecs as well. The sublscale structure of the
FICAS allows for 11 different subscal~es to be examninecd for conlstructt
validity. NJot all scales are independent of ealrh other, butI there exist
three sets Of independent subscales (see Figure~ 1). Thie 48 objectives
on thle scale can he divided accordling to cogrnitivc-n;ffecti ve criteria
(Bloom & Krnthlwohl, 1956; K~Rth~WOhl, Bloom, &r Navlia, 1964)!. inltO two
subscales wi th 28 An7d 20 i tcmsS r-espectively. Alte~rnaltively the scale
can be divided into subhscalrs of nationalistic, international, and
either/or objectives. Pl~acrlemen on1 these scales wals m.ade by a panel of
eight professors who were afiked to judge objectives on~ whether or not
American content or international content was requlirred to achijeve the
stated objective. The third possibility was that th~e objective could
be devel~pell with either type of content.
Naion al~,n1i stic
Nat ionlllis tic i
Co nir t ive
Affective Affective Affective Af
Nalt onal1is tic Tnlte rnn tionall Ei
AZFFTOT (20) AFFNATI (5i) AF1FINIT (5) AF;
Note. Numbers in parentheses~ are nulmber of itens onr each sui
Words in all capitals are abrbreviations of subscalonn used in
SubscAle Structure of ther Florian Iiici~tntrn iona
Currinoluim A~ssessmient Scales
At lenst 75 percent agreement among professor wais required for an
objective to be fiirther considered. Of others objectives Rubmitted to thie
panel of professors, 43 of the 54 cognitive objectives andl 2 of the i6
af fective objectives met th is cri terion (see Aplllndi x A). Fulrthcr paRri ng
of obhjectives was done wijth an eye to maintanininfi anl equal rinumer of
nationalistic and internationally objectives on eachi scnle. Similalr
objectives were entlecd by p~icking thle one whiich had1~ the greatest percent
of agreement. The final 28-objective cognitive scale consiconal of 9
items which had 75 percent agFreement, ] 3 wi th 87.5 per:ent, and 6 with
100 percent agreem~ent. On th1E 20--objective lffective scale the~ numbers
were 7, 11, anrd 2 respectively,
The Florida International Curriculum Scales wiere scored aIccordingi
to the summated rating process (see Edwlards, 1957, pp. 149-170). sin
data points were repinced with the roundledl group mrran foIr rnld1 itemi hasrrl
on the pilot sample of 131.. There were 80 missingf datal points suplplictl
in this manner out1 o1f 6,288 sucrh points. Trhe groupl meauns~ bnsed on the
pilot sample were uised wheni necessary for gieneratingi the scores requiired
to test Hlypotheses One, Tlwo, andl Three. Ilowever, for Hlypothleses Four anld
Five, the group means sulbstituted for the missing aintn points wsere based
on the 222 subjects which comprised the pilot samlelll as well as the pre
and post-test samples fromn the summer institultes. 1This base was choseni
as the most conservative procedure in gienerating total scores to be
entered into an analysis of variance, to thle ]atter en:se 105 data points
were supplied by subhstitutcing the group mean ouit of 10.656 total data
points processed. After respondents ratedl rnch iteml onl a Scanle fromn 0
to 5 along a1 continuum measuiring the celevanlce of African content ranging
from useless to essential, the total scale score wais coImpultedl b summingu
the item scores. The suibscale scores were generatedl in the same manner
by summingi the items on thle relevant subscales (see FiGure 2 and A2ppen-
dix C). All1 nationalistic items can be ident~iifid by reading down the
first column of cells in Fig~ure 2. For international items read down
the second column of cells. The complete either/or sublscale comprises
thle thirdl colmann of cells.
12, 33, 41
ve 1, 20, 2 1, 28, 7, 11, 19, 27, ,5 ,1,
30, 35, 19, 43 40, 42, 44, 48 21, 25, 26,
ve 4, 18, ?222,1 1 8 9 7 4
46, 47 16. 71 3h, 36, 17,
Ltem Assignmefnt to Subhsenlls onl the Floridn International
Curriculum Assessment Scales
Alternative Scoring Methtlods Considered andi Discarded
Another option for scoring also presenitedl itsplf. As mentiorned
earlier, teachers could rate African content hiighly relevant for an
objective which they considered to be relatively ulnimportanlt. Forr ex-
ample affective objective number 27, which renlds "Studelnts should unlder-
stand different ways of life on d iffrerent rantinentls." had an atti tude
scale rating which was well above thie averdge for a F1C(AS Ltem. Ilow-
ever, its importance rating was only average. Cons equen~ltly, nlthlough
many teachers could see the relevance of African content to suich an
objective, they were not inclined to teach thle objective herouse they
perceived it as unimportant.
Therefore, in scoring the FICAS two special weighlting: options; were
tested to see if greater vaIlidity coniid be obtainal.l Since it was thoughti~l
that the importance a teacher attached to an ob~jective would he importa~nt
information in computing attitudef t~ward Afriennl rententl, tochlersi were
asked to rate the imlportancce of eachl abjectiv e whilh irade up the FTCAS.
First, all objectives with a rating of 5 in importance wer-e sroredl as
marked on the FICAS and all other items were weightedr 0. Second, a
rating of either 4 or 5 was usecd to solvct thie items to be scored, all.
Other items being weighted 0. In both cases i tem means were ursed as the~
scale scores inst-ead of summated ratings because of thle different
number of items receiving higih ratings fro~m diffe~rent subjec-ts. Whnen
these weightedt scoringi methods were used, thle values o~f coefficient alpha
remainerl virtually unChannged~ from those bhserTved w~ithl c.onve~tntion)
scoring procedures. Whe:n items with an importanicp ratinE of 5 we~re
Included an alpha of .94 was- observed, .95 fo~r items with impo~rtance
ratings of 4 or 5.
AIlthough these weigihtedl scoring methiods prodluced relitabilities
comparable to the conventional sulmmated rating techiniquie, theyv did~ niot
produce improved validity coefficients as predlicPted. Tefrt tr
native scoring procedure pro~duced an item mean thatl correlated .14
(p_ > .05) with the Worldmindednesss Scale and -.21 (p 05) with the
Florida Afrrican Knowledgef Scale. The second methodl resulted in an item
mean correlatingi .16 (p < .05) with the W-Srale anid -.18 (p < .05) withi
the FAKS. It appeared that using the scor-ingi alternatives of rnlculaingnf
item means for only those objectives which received a high1 importance
rating did not measurably inlcrease their vanlidity roefficients. Con-
sequently, further analysis was limited to testing the validity of the
subscales which were scorerl with the conventiornal liker-t pro~edulres (sci
Procedures for Establish ingReli h nlIitv nulll Val1i d l ey
Coefficient alpha (Cronbach, 1967) was uised as a measure of relia-
bility in this study. The suibscales of the Florida Inte~rnationall
Curricullum Alssessment Scales were designed to be uinidimensiond.ll
Consequently, coefficient alpha which is a mleasuree of internal con-
sistency of the items on a unidimensional scale was an appropriate
device to use.
For thle reliability stuidy thle instriiments we~re naministered in
regular College of Edulcation class sessions meetings at thle University
of Florida during spring quarter 1977. This was trule for these courses:
ED) 600, The School Curricululm (tw~o sectionsl); ED)E h'0. Social Studiesi
Education -- Eleme~ntary Sch~ool; EDE)l 670, Lanlguag): e Alrts in thle Elempentanry
School (off-campus in Marionl Counity, Florida);) tiDF h20 Soclinecronomic
Foundations of Eduication; EDFi 666, Seminar on Research, on Effective
Teaching;; EDF 450, Mleasuirement anid Evalua~tionl in Edrucation: and EDFI 768,
Evaluation of Educational Projects and Systems. Thp students in EDS
635, Suipervisiion of Preservice Teanchers (off-campusll in A\nlachna Coulnty,.
Florida). were given instrulctions for talkine th~e tests and then allorwed
to complete th~e scales at home and return them at thle next class meetinfi.
The elementary teachers participating: in the study fro~m Hi~lsharoulgh
County were given the instruments duiirng ; n meetinl: nE um inservice class1
in social studies meth-ods in the spring of 1977. 'lec Ii~llthborugh~ Couinty
middle school teachers wrre administered theI scniOn duIjl:ng meeting~ Of
a county-widel social studlies curriculumi committees. Ife hligh rhoo~l
teachers in Ilillsborougfh Coulnty were ap~proalched thirrought their reprt~rmente
chairpersons w~ho Ieach~ requested three ofi their dpartment memblers to
respond to thle instruments o~n their own tjlime.
Thie instrument battery used to determine the reclinh~ility and
validity of FICAS contained 12 pages of material. ThIe first pag~e asked
for demogiraphlic data rrlatedl to teaching rxperiencer. ThPe three questions
asked concerned level, subhjrct area, andl years of R-12 teachingif ex-
perience. Tlhe second pagef contained thle inistruciioin s for completing the
importance ratings and thle I:ICAS items. Thisi requiiredl a two-step process:
First, for ench of the 48 enlrrienlar obijectives, thet prubiocts were naked
to rate their importance for the school Culricullum onl a scale from 0 to
5; second, for each objective the subjects were to rate the relevancie
of A~frican content for achievingi the ch~ject ives on n 0 to 5 scale. Thef
next three pages mande up the Flo1riia TInter-nationa~ (l Crrirltum Assessment
Scales. Page~s 6 through 8 containedl the W'orldminidcdnnss Scali (Sampsorn
& Smith, 1957; Shaw & Wirigiht, 1967) entitled "So~cial Attituides cquestio~n-
naire." The last fours pages consisted of the Florida African Knowledgje
Scale which is a 30-item revision of Projec~t Africai's Africa South of thle
Saharn test (19)68). MIost respondents too(k between 30 and 415 minutes to
complete the total battery.
Data uised to estimate coefficient alphar wer~e icollectedl from
131 persons with K-12 teaching Experience drawn Trromi iradulate courses at
the University of Florida Collegie of Edllation and from the ranks of
practicing social studies teachers in thle Htllhboroughil Counlty, Flor~ida,
Public Schools. A total of 1693 people responded to the instruments.
Thirteen subjects wzere eliminated from the sample bconrse thley failed
to complete one or mor-e of the scnlesL or herouIse theCY wiere foreign
nationals without American, publlic schanl cxp~erie~nce.. An additiornal 25
respondents in the graduante coir-ses were set asiC becauISe theyV did no't
have K-12 te~achini: exper-iencre. Consequ~ently, thle pilot~ sample consistedl
of 131 subjects all of whom were either- practicing, teachers or hadr had
previous K-12 teachling experience.
Sixty-six sub~jects were enrot~cd in giradualte coureses at thle Univer-
sity of Florida, including 19 teachers enirolled in an off-cnmpus course
in M~arian Coulnty,, Florida (pop. 69,030). T'he other h5 surbicts w~ere
p~racticingf teachers in Hli~llsoroughl County, Flonridal (Pop. 190(,265), which
includes Tampa and surroulndinC. area. Thle total pilotl samlel' consistedl
of 39 people with only elementary experience, 20 wiithl only middlef school/
junior high experience, and 25 with only highi schnotl experience. Eleveni
teachers had experience at both elementary anid mladlee school,, 18 had
both middle school and high school experience. Eiilhtee~in other subjects
had experience at all levels. With rega~rd to years of experiences, 12
teachers were in their first year of teachiing; 28 hadt 2or- 1 years
experience; 23, 4 or 5 years; 34,, 6 to 10: 18, 10) to 20 years; and 12,
more than 20) years experience. TIhe subjectl matter breakdocwn was weighted
in favor of social studies teachers -- who were xps[ected to comprise
the majority of par~ticipannts in the suimmer insta nltCs. Thirty-five
subjects only had experienrr as social studies Leachellrs and an additional
16 ha~d experience teachinF social studies as wf]l as some other subhject
TwJenty-eigiht taught the basic siubjects (Languagne :IL~s, manthemaltics,
science, social studies) in elementary schools. Seventee~n hadl basic
subject experience as well as e~xperience inl somer iohir aIrea. Ninle Slb--
jects were humanities teachers in that they were nnlyl Clexeienlced in
language arts, art, music, or foreign Innguages. TIwenity-six teachers
only had experience in other areas: math. science, media, phy~sical
education, or vocational education.
Correlates. To establish the construcct validity of the florida
International Curriculum Assessment Scales, several hypo~theses were
generated to test predlictedi relationships invonlvinR the~ construct of
interest, attitude toward thre ulse of Afrie~nn contentl in thle enirricu~lum.
If a predicted pattern of corrrelations enluld he cmp i r i rn Iy veri fied,
then the construct valid ty of a test would receivr rnfi rmat ion. Th~is
study sought to verify positive correlations beptween Envnrableness
toward African content and two related construlcts. worldmindedness and
knowledge of Africa. Neithecr of the criterion attributes wars identical
with thle construct under studyl. Ilnwever, it wasrf tllo~rized thiat tearches
higih o~n worldmindedness anrd know~ledge~ of A~frical wounlld nlso tendir to be
hrigh in attitude toward the usfe of African1 Conlti'nt.
The sample, sometimes reffrerre to as the p~l~itl qsample, ulsed to test
these correlationail IIypOthesesC was the same one descrihod in the section
on reliability. The methodsc of data coll tionti~r wrlre also those rescribed
The first of the instruments uised to establish the ronstr-uct validlity
of the FTCALS was the F~loridnl African Knlowlledgec Scale (FA`KS), developed
by thiis p~rojctl. Examination~ of the tent Africa Srouth of the Sahara
(1968), which is a 60-item test orig~inliv dclve-lopo1, for highi school
students as a part of "Prolject Afrien" (Rover & Ililks, 1968), revealed
a solid base upon which to build an up-to,-dat e knowkllge~# instilument.
Beyer's instrument contatinral six subhsenies whtchi werer re~tained in an
effort tor broadly measures knowledger of Africal. tlhese six subhscales were
(a) physical geographyv, (b) histo~ry bcfor-e IEruropennrl penetratioln,
(c) history of Euiropenns in Africa. (d) indigenouls fiociety, fe) rconominc
development, and (F) cur-rent affairs. Thliis orinilnni Iocumrent was used
by the University of Tllinois Program in A~frican Studies in a pre-post
design to test knowledge gaiin at their innrytrvi e woriknlhop for teachers
in 1974 (Schmidt, 1974, p. 17). Beyer uisedl a 15-member panel to sift
through 120 multiple choicr itrims and enime uip with 70 itemns to~ be itemr
analyzed. O~f thle 70, 60 werre chosen for thle final instrulment. Using anl
add-even spl it-hal f technique,, Boyer foulndl a .60 rerl inh~il i t coefficient
for his seventh grade sample and a .80 conrfricintt for- the twelfth girade
sample (Reyer & Hicks. 1968, p. 22). Althou~lGh IFyer alnd Ilicks (1968)
did not specifically report the number o~f sub~jects inivolvedl in the
reliability study, thley reportedly clsewherr in the~ir pre.Selntatlio thatl
845 seventh grade~rs and 794 twelfthi gradiers wer-r slrvleyed in their
study (p. 5).
Three facts suggested that the Beyer and tlicks test neededl to be
modifiedl for- use withi techellrss in thiis stuidy. The fir-st was that the .60
reliability coefficienlt with thle seventh Crader sample was too low to be
acceptable. Second, since thle test wans developrd in 196,8. events bothi in
Africa and in the field of African scholaarshipl have rrndrb edi several
items outdated. Thirdl, since~ this instrumnn~lt woullld he usled in co~njlne-
tion with an attitude inst ruimprt to evalulate oit reach ] workShop)s, a
shorter test was desired.
Consequently, the original 60-item instrument~t wa:s sublmitted to a
panel of 13 A~friennist s aIsso~ciatedl with ther (c-!nter for Al rican S~~tuies
at the Ulniversity of F-lorira i, evalrnto the colnte~nt validity of the
items. TheseF scholarTS representedtr thle following: disciplines: Engylish,,
geography-, bEhanvioral studirs, cllrriculum an~l d ins~truc~tion, solciology,
art history, French~, anthlropollogy, food ;Ind resoul~r econoimics, history,
linguistics, and comparative educational. All professors we~re asked to
circle the letter of the correct answer as they snw it from thle per-
spective of their ex~perti~se on Africa and then to comment on~ questions
which they thought were poorrly wo~rdedl, deltn with trivia, were ouitdated,
or in any way needed adapting before beinG uisedl wi th teachers. On the
basis of thle responses recrtvell fromn thsr IT experts on Africa. 28 of
the items in the original test were disca:r~lded rtri o
elimination of items included d thle foll~owing: rQuestions basedl on no
longer accepted assumptions (i.e., the correctness of W~estern-style
economic development as a modlel for Aflrica); qurestions calling for value
judgments; qulestionss containing: negative ~i;nses towairds Alfric:a; questions
which were confusing, simplistic, o~r container d imnplnnible-h diqtractor r
(incorrect alternatives): or quecstionsR which were daltedl and Ino longer
valid. Under these criteria the subscales on economic development and
current affairs were especially hard hiit as 60) parents of the former andl
71 percent of thle latter were eliminated from the oirginal tcst. Elevenl
other questonns from the original 60 were slightly mo~dified to bring,
thiem up to date or to chanGe a single implaunlsible~ <1isractor. The outl--
line map of Africa used toi .Inswer the first six items in thle origiinal
test was modified by addling: the four major rivers ofr Afric.7 -- Nile,
Niger, Congao, and Zambezi -- to, the continenital oultline.. Eleven new
items were written For the revised knrowledglle test, Iresultinc in a 43-itrim
instrument to be pilot tested.
The pitat test was administered to 1410 undtergi-.~r lluates at the Ulniver--
sity of Florida. Eigihty-fourl students enrolled ini the Coillegr ni
Education took thle test dlurinR fall quartrer 19761. Anir idditionail 56
students took the test wintter qluarter 1977 dluringi thle first class meetings
of two different introductory African studies courses. These 140 students
were dividend alternativelyp intor two girolpss of ln tor ni low an item
analysis and a double across validation to be performedc'. Thie biserial
correlations between item sncre and total test score were uised as the
indices of item discrimination (L~ordl & Novick, 1968, Chapter 15). The
35 items with the hiighest hiseriail correlations based on submanmple one
were cross validated on subhsample two. A~t the snme t ime the 15 biest
items revealed by an item analysis oni sulbsample two wer-e crossR validatedl
on subsample one. The 30 items which had thle highest aInd most stable
biserial correlations across the two samples were sele~.ctd for thle Einal
knowledgec test. The onnly exception to th~is strict pswholcmetric criterann
was that one item pertaining: to Zaire was diroplped becanuse of thle larLun
number of items alreadyq referring to Zaire and ;no iteml which~ had a toweri,
but acceptable, cross validat~ion biscrial correlation wtith thle total score~
( r= .31) replaced it to keep the origiinil subsolee percentagies tht~n
had been established by Be~yer and flicks (1968, p. 23) Basedl on a new
sample of 131 subjects described ab~ove in the section on reliability, th~e
biserial correlations for the Final 30 items rangedl from .1A La .76 (see
The survivingi 30 itcims we~re given a final ichecrk forr rlntant validity
and proper wording. Thlree items were alte~rcld at th~is p~oint. Thle re.-
sulting instrument consists of 11 ifems takenI unaltered (except for-
changes in the map ulsed to answer some physically genernphy questions)
fromn the original 60-item trst. Teni other items T(lreprSent slight modi-
fications of original quefstions and nine itemis are lomrpletely new ones
wIdtten for the revised test. Consequlently, the rev~ised test consists
of approximately one-third completely new items, one-third ulnchanged
items, and one-third modify led items (see Appendix D)). To overcome any
effects of a response set, the correct answers were arpportio~ned as evenly
as possible among the Eour niternatives. The total scale scor-e coin-
sisted of the sum of correct answers.
The second instruiment uised in thle validantion prncess wars aIn already
constructed L~ikert-type scale known as the Wrorldminded~cness Scale (W-Seale)
(see Appepdix E). This scale was Ilevelopei as p.art oF a studyv to lernr-
what types of intercultuiral e~perienCes haive ai Spec~ial Empallct on
attitudes, the relationship between personallity differences and world-
mindedness, and what relationship exists between attitude prior to an
intercultural expecrience anld reactionl to that expcr ienice (Smnithi, 1935).
The Worldmindedness Scalle hans eightL subscales thant mear~sure attiltudes on
the following: dimensions: religion. immiyr-.tion. !:overnment, econnomics,
patriotism, race, education, andi war (Shaw &r Wright. 1967. p. 203). In
validating the scale Smiith (1955, p. 470) re~porterd thrse correlations
between the Worldmindedlness Srale and thie following: construdts: Ethlno-
centrism -.71, Facism -.46, and Polittenl andI Eco~nnmii n Co~nservatism -.51.
Smith~ found thaRt unstutrurcture heterogecneour s intercultural experifiene hnd
little impact on entering worl~lmindedness. Th1e tendeniicy was fo~r people
on both ends of the Wdorldminldedne~ss Scale to have their attitudces
strengthenedl by initerculturall experiences. fe oprngWrdidd
ness scores to results on factors mankingi up Guii lford anrd Guliltood's
(1934. 1936) int rovers ionr-pt reversion scaleSmlj th (1'155) c~onci ndedl thnt
the "hfihl~y worrldminded person is less mnasculnfine ad lS~cendantt more
impuilsive and emotionally decpendernt, and mo~re ine~l ined toward intro-
spection andl internalizaltion of impulses thnn the \-rry nationallistic
individual" (P. 476). Salmpsron and Smith (105r7) decfinn worldmindedness
as "a frame of reference, oi value orientation, faivoringi a world-vieww of
the problems of hulmanity, with mankinld, raither thain rhi natio~nals of a1
particular country, as thle primary reference granlp"~ (p. 105). Thel~y
emphasize that worldmindledness as they conceive o~f it dlesignaites a value
orientation, or trame of reference, apart from knowslelpr about, or
interest in, international r-elations. SamTPson and ISmith, report a
corrected split-half reliability of .91 and a tcst-rlellst reliability
also equal to .93. Allmnii (1961) uised theF Worldminir ed~ness scale to
compare differences in thle stud~enit bodies of two schooills. Ga rrison
(1961) used thle scale to compare diifferences based on re~ligion, region
of the country lived in, famiily backgrondnd sex, anid yeiar in college.
Based on hlis findings at the University of Georgin, a male frrshman
Baptist from an agricultuiral backgrounds in the Soulthea~stt woulld h~e the
most likely ennididate to be low on wo~rldminldedness. Newman and Wanre
(1976) found a low positive relationship, (r- = .35) hetween worldmindedne~s
and aesthetic perception.
The Worrldmindedness Scale was chosen for uise in th~is study for
several reasons. Not only dioes it hiave solid credrntials for rettability
and va lidity but i t also has a timely quanl i t not shaired with other scal es
aimed at measuiring, internationaolism. Manny scales dcveloped in the
1940's and 1950's contain itemrs which are noi longer- unlicl becalsee theyv
refer to personalities or specific~ situntions which would niot he Eamilialr
to subjects in the 1970's. Tlhe WorlIdmin ded ness Sc; e. how~ever, con ta7ins
items which refer to more gerneric situations which an audirience in 19)77
could r-elate to as easily as one in 1957 whe~n the s:ale was developed.
In addition, thre Sampson and Smitth (1957) scal~e attempts to measure a
broad range of dimensions related to worldmindednr4s. Mlany other scales
are limited to a narrower range of attitudle objects -- fo'r example, war,
communism, patriotism, or traide policy.
In scoring the Wonrldmindedness Scal.c, thef proc-edures outlined in
Shaw and Wrighit (L967, pp. 2031-204) were followed. However, sincp some
item responises were mission ai preliminary step was taken. Foir each
item a group mean was gefnerntte hnsed on the~ p~ilot sample oif Ill teachers.
In order to compute totanl anrd subsorilE series, these item means were
rounded to the nearest integer and substituted for the b~lanks on the
score cardsi. The Statistical Panckage for the Social Sciences (Nie, Hulll,
Jenkins, Steinbhrenner, and Bent, 1975, pp. 181-191) sublprogiram
"Ccndescriptive" was usedi to comp''te thle ite~m means.11~ The mliSSinlg dalta
problem was a very minor one in this case as only iR datn points were
missing out of a total of 4,192. Total sco~rrs werl- g~lernerate for each
subject by addring the value oIf thle item respo~nsess whichr rang~ed from 6
for strong agireement to 0 for strongly disag~rr eement
Discrimninant validation. The second step in e~stablishingi thle con-
struct validity was to state a hiypothesis about thr relationship hotweeni
scores on the FICAS suibscales of two grouips whose scores should be
different. It was assumed thaRt teachers who~ olectedl t attend sulmmcr
institutes on African studies would have morep positive attitudres toward
the use of A~frican content thann wouldl a crOSs section1 Of te nilerS.
Therefore, it was predicted that thle FTCAS suibscalr scores of thle
institute participants wou~ldi be siginificilntiv hi~iighe thn those of a
cross sec-tion (or- pilot) g~ro'up
After preliminary testing to determine the colrrelations between
the FICA\S subscales, the W'orldmindledness Scalle, anlll the FAKS, the in-
struments were administered to 49 tendhers aittendijn) sulmmer institutes on
African studies at either thle University of Illinois, Champaign, or the
University of South Florida, Tampa. Twenty-eight people toolk the thrEe-
test battery on Juine 20, 1977, in Tampa. ITwenty-o~nr took the FICAS and
FAKS in Champaiign on Jlune 9. These protests, given at thie beginning orf
the respective summer institutes, providledl Janl on the Africa attitude
scale to be used in the group differences construct validation procedures.
Bloth i ns ti tut es were s imi lar i n the ir gioaIs Eanch inistituIte sought
to increase teachers' subhstaintive knowledge of Africa aInd Africans, La
introduce teachers to new sorclres of information aboullt Africai, and to
assist teachers In develo~pingi cuirricuilum plans and teachinfi skills
appropriate to integrating: the studry of Africa in~to the~ public school
curriculum. The Champ~aign institute spolnsord hv thle University of
Illinois African Studies Pro-gram under a granlt from11 thl Naitionlal
Endowment for the Hiumanities lasted fouir weeks from Julne 6 to Jully 1,
1977. The Tampa institute~ wais sponsored jointly hv thle Departments of
International Studies and Afro-American Stuldies andii ther (`ntor folr
Economiic Educ~ation at the Uniiversity of Souith F~loridR andl the Center for
African Studies at thle University of Florida.. It lasted for two weeks
from June 20 to July 1, 1977. Each~ workshop Provi~ded participants with
a variety of resoulrces on Africa: Amongi the~se w~ere films, lecture/
diiscuss ions, meet ings w ith ~f ricans s i de-l ec tuIres, anid r~nd i ngs. Ln
addition, the participannts in each workshop were to~ pr-oduce cllrricllarr
materials which were to be implemented in thle schnotr~ veni 1977-78. At
the conclusion of each workshop the FTCAS andn FARS inst~ruments were re-
administered to allow the measuringj of change o~n thle two scales as a
result of workshop participation.
In testing the hypothlesis on giroupl diffcrences~ th~ FICAS subhscale
scores of thie pilot sample were comparerl to those of thie participants
in the two summer institute on African studieS. Attenldingi thle inStitulte
in Tampa were 28 teachers (.!6 fro~m Floridan, o~ne fro~m Lourrisiann. and o~ne
from Georg~in). Twenty-two wcre. white and six were ~lalck. NearlTy, halfl
the teachers, 12 of them, ha~s a combinedl middle schlroo-high srhan1l
background. Five more were exclusively high~ school treachers and four
were excl1us ivelIy middle school~ I/j un ior h1i gh ten;chers. only one teachers
had a comlbinedd middle schan1-elemeenntar backg~rround. Six other teachers
hiad taught at all levels. Mo~re than twice as many macnhers (10) had
taught from 6 to 10 years as had taught any other length of time. One
was in his first year of tealchingi: 5 had t-augh~t 2 ior i years: 5, ii or- 5
years; 3, 10 to 20 year-s; andi 2, 20 years or- molri. AsR hnrl been prediictpd
the majority o~f institute palrticipants were snr-ial studries teachers; 17
exclusively sor and seven more taught social studies and some other
subject. Two teacherss were art tenichers in the humultllliieS entagOry and
only one hiad experience ouitside of social studlies or humannities.e
Thre sample attending thle Champaign wo~rkshop consisted of 23 Nissandr
teachers. Of thiese, data exist on only 21. As oppoised to thle Tampa
group, the Mlissouiri group was predomirinately blacrk. 13~ to eight. This
group also contained a Ilrgepr percentage of elemecntary school teachers:
Four were exclusively sol andi one hald a middle~ srlhool-elementary backgjrolnrl.
Two were exclusively juinior h~igh/middll e school techrrs and six were
exclusively so, for high schant~. F~ivr hand n combinled mnichl10 shool-high
school background. Thle thlrre others had tilughtl at :Ill levelS. TIhe
Missourii teachers also tendred to be more expcriencdc~ thanir their souithern
counterports. Nine of the 21 hiadl 1-aught from 10 to~ 20 Yeairs; 'r, 2 or 3
years; 3. 4 or 5 years; 4, i) to 10 years; andN 1, more thanll 20 YeTrs.
'The Missouri group were for the most part also social studies teachers:
12 fit this description, five of whiom had hand experiernre in another area
as well. T~wo had taugfht only basic elementary Sub~jncts. Three had
taught elementary basic siubjects plus something rlse. TIhree were
humanities teachers and the Inst participant hadl experience ini an aren
outside of social stuidies or humanities.
Change over occannilsios Yet a thirdl methodl~ to- establhish constr-uct
validity is to experienltallya)\ manipulate conditions inl suich a waly that
a change in the construct undel~r studry would occur, thien measure that
change. In thiis study thle "experimental manipulantions"' were summer
institutes dlesignedl to increase teachers' knowledevi~ andl understalnding: of
Africa as wjell as to assist them in incorporlntin A1Frironn conltentt into
their own teachingi. If arttitude re flec ts ai pred isposi fitio to acit toward
an object in a positive or negative manner, then thp instituter experience
should improve the attitude by increasing teachers' desires to include
African content in their tec~ihingi. If the FTCAS Rlubscales couldl measure
the predicted significant rise in attituide preF to po~st as a result of
attending the summer instituites, then another confirmation of construct
validity would have been found. To this end the FICA~S was readministered
to the institute participants at the conclusion of the workshops so that
posttest scores could be comipar-ed to pr-etest senrrs in order to analyze
the ability to measure channge.
The Florida International Curriculum Assessmenlt Scnle~s (FICAS) were
validated using two other instrumments and two separate sam~ples of siub-
jects testedl on three different occasions. Staitistical estimates of
the relinh~ilities of these instruments and their sublsenles are presented
inl this chapter followed by a discussionn of thle sample distributions.
Final~y, results of tests of the experimental hypot-heses designedl to
establ~ish thle construct validity of the FICAS aIre Iceported..
In1 this study Crolnhachl's (1967) nip~hn, a memos~re `f inlternal con-
sistency, was used to estimate reliability. According to Crollnbach.
"alpha is . an estimate of thle correlation expected between two tests
drawn at random From a pool. of items lIke the items in this test" (p.
141). Alpha is the average of all the possible split-half coefficients
for a given test (p. 11~5). The formula uisedl to estimate alphan in this
study is a generalization of the Kuder-Richardson Fonrmu~la 20 (Veldman,
1967, p. 173).
Thle internal consistency coefficients for thle FA\K; andl FICAS are
displayed in Table 2. For F-AKS, only the total scaile score had an alphaR
of greater than .70 based on the pitat samplre ofT 111 subhjects. CoEffi-
cient alpha was .83 fo~r this group. Thlis speci~fler re]liabillty (L~ord &
Reliabilities and Standrdnr Erro~rs for the Florida~ Internation al
Curriculum A~ssessment Scales anid thei Floriian Afrienll
Knowledge Scnle basedl on the Pilot Sample (N = ~11)
A2 lpha Er rors
History before European
History of Europenns
A\FF FOT '
Novick, 1968. Chapter 91 re~mainedl hiigh whcn the teci was adlministere~d to
the 49 subjects attending the summeifr instiltuts. Thei r pre tests y ie lded
an alpha of .77 and their posttests, .78. The FICAS hais hiigh reliabiity
as estimated by the alphan coefficients. Thei coeffricir ent alpha values of1
the 11 subscales ranged from .78 to .93 (sec Tablee 2). 'The internal
consistency estimaLes of thle NATTOT, INTTOT, and EORIKIT subscales were
.92, .87, andl .93 respectively. Slightly hlihelr coecfficients wre~r
observed as a result of administering these scales to the institltce
samples, ranging from .91 to .94 on the protest annd fr~m .92 to .94 on
A~n alpha of .85 was observed for thle to-tal WorldmI~nindednent ss Scale
based on the pilot sample. For- the 28 participants inl the Taimpa Inisti-
tute the coefficient of .83 was computed. As with thc FnkS, thle W'-Srale
subscale reliabilities were ton low for further annnivses Since thie
reliabilities of' the subscales were all below .7i (see Danvis, 1964,
P. 24; Tinkelman, 1971, p. 71; Fox, 1969, p1. 162), o~nly the tiota IJ-SIcale
and the total FAKS scores weire used in attempts to valida7te the FTCAS.
The results of this reliability study revealedl that eachi sub~scale on
the FTCAS was reliable enoughl to be subh jectedl to valIidiLy checks. How-
ever, because of lack of inidependlence between some ofT the 11 sub~scales,
some scales being composites of others, and high mullticaol ineairityl` among
some scales which were thleoreticlly indepenldent, Ionly three sublscales,
NATTOT, INTTOT, and EORTOT, were selected for thle investiGation of
Nlulticallinearity refers to hiigh correlations among independent variab~les
entered into mul~tiple regression (see Blalack, 1964; Gordon. 1968;
Kerlinger & Pedhaz.ur. 1973)
Because the hypotheses set forth in thiis studyv rlledl for the uise
of significance tests used withi the calcuSlatin of both Penrson r's andl
analyses of variance, thle distributions to be entered into each analysis
were checked for normality and homogeneity. Alth~oughl muchl literature
claims that the Pearso~n r (Carrol, 1961; Havliceb & IPeterson, 1977) and
analysis of variance F tests (Kirk, 19683; Linlquist, 1953; Pertson, 1931)
are robust with respect toi violations of the assumlptinns of no~rmality of
distributions and homo~geneity of unriance. except vlen sample size also
varies greatly in conjunctionn with discrcpancies in va'riance (Bonieau,
1971), some distributions in thlis study appeared to~ rep~resent extreme
violations of these assumptions. Thereforealll scresrr on the FI;CAS as
well as the W-Scale and FAKS total scores were norma,;lized befr~ie pro-
coeding with the parametric statistical tests of Ilypothe~ses.
TIests of Construct Validity
In the first phiase of construct validation thle three selected FICAZS
subscales were correlated with measures of attitude anld knowledge which
should have had some relationship to attitulde tOWarl inclu1Cding African
content in the curriculum. The tests of Hyprotheses Tiwor ad Thlrefe con-
stitute this phase of validantion. In the second phanse of construc~t
validation the differential validity was inlvrstigatedi to determine if
the scales could be used to distinguiish herween Groups'T w~ho should have
differed in attitude towardl Africa in the enrrrirenklm (Aee Hyponthesis
Foulr). Finally, the FICAS subhscales were tested to see if they could
be used to detect a channge In ~tltitude asH a re~sult of attendingf summer
institutes on African studlies aimed at increasing rincheir compnetency in
uising African content in clalssroomn teaching: (see lypo~theesis Five).
There will be no significant differences (p .2'1) amo~nF: the mean
scores of subljeCts in the pilot sample assiigned tor take threec different
forms of the Florida Internaitional Cuirriculuim Assessme~nt Scales.
Because the possibility ex~isted that thle rating: of the relevance
of African content might he affected b~y thle co~ntpxt within which the
rating occurred, three forms of thle FICAS were tested. On F'orm A respon-
dan7ts were asked to rate the relevance of studyir ing Eur-openn peoples andl
places in Raddition to rating the relevance of studyling: Africa~n peoples
and places. Form B included In~tin Amnerica along wit~h AFricai. On orm~n
C respondents were askerl to raite the relevancr of Afrriien conltent only.
Thirty-three subljects were assigned at randolm toi oneir of the thiree test
conditions. These subjects were the first 33 to rtpondt to the instrll-
ment from the pilot sample described inl Chapter Thr~ee
Because thle researcher expected thle null hypothesis -- M : X =
X2 = X3 -- to be confirmed, a liberal alpha level of .2!5 was chosen
increasing thle chances of a Type T error, and thus redulcing: the chances
of a Type IL error. The observed difference in meanis wa~s tested against
the expectation that it woulld occuri by chance~l at lest 25 times in 100
before the researcher would accept thle nlll hypothes~ris A o~newny analysis
of va~riance supported the nall h1Ypolhesis. T'he obseilrve F' ratio, .71,
indicated that the differences in mneais woulld occurl 50 limps in 100 by
chance aloner (p = .50)
Raw Meanrs andl Stancllrrl Datavitionsl
for- fypothesis One (N = 11)
Treatment M~ean Standard Deviation
Form A 145.45 33.16
Form B 144.00 35.58
Form C 128.72 78.50
H ~thsis Two
There will be a significant positive correlatiorn (p < .05) between
scores on the F~lorida Interna~tional Curricullum Assessnolnt Scales and
scores on the Wiorldlmindedness Scale.
11ypothlesis Two was tested uising th~e responsesi of thle pilot Rroup of
131 experienced K-12 teac~hrrs. This group consistled I a crossi-section
of teachers representing all1 grade levels andi sub jlact areas. Becausef
multicallinenrity can enuse problems of interpretation in multiple regres
sion analysis,2 the six indF~epdende subscales making uip the total FLCAS
were reduced to three composites. Because there were three subscales of
interest, multiple regression was uised to provide an o~verall significance
test of the relationship betweenl the three FICAS~ sub~cales and thle
criterion of worldmindedness. NATTOTr, INTTO3T,, and ORoTOT had a multiple
For a djSIiscussin o the problems of multicrl linenrity,. see Blalack.
1964; Dalrlingiton, 196;8; Carrdon,, 1968; Johnsosn, 1q72; Nie et al1., 1975.
Tlhe researcher opted to, crrnte compositesi rather than eliminate some of
the highly correlatedl subscales. COGEOII andl AFFFOR (rxy = .84) were
co~mbinedl to form EORTOT; COG:NAT and AF1FNATr (rxy = .8 4) wrre combined
to form NATTOTI; and COGINT andi AFFINT (r,, = .72) wrFIe combined to form
correlation, R, with thie total Worldlmindedlness Scaile oif .28 (withi
F3,127 = 3.47, tl < .05). Since thp overall F ratiio was significant, theI
indi vidtual Pearson-producle t moment correlit ions~ between the :T CAS subh-
scales and the Wi-Scale to~tal were examined to decterminle which ones
differed signiificantly from zero in the expected direcrtion. As hypothe-
sized, both, INTTOT and EORTO(T hand signi ficant posi tivc correlations withi
worldmindedness. Their corrections were .26 and .21 (p_ < .DS) respec-
tively. However, thef correlation between NATTO(T and the W-Scnle total
was not sigrnifieantly greater thann Zero. Conslequenrtly, for Hypothesis
Two there is some evidence nf construct validity for TNiTTOT Hnd EORTOT
but not for NATTAT.
There will he a sifnificant positive correlation (p .05) hetween
scores on thec Florida Interinational Curricuilum Assessmeinnt Scales andi
scores on thle F~lorida African K~nowledge Scalr.
Hlypo~thesis Three was tested using the same pilot samnple of 131
teachers that was used to test Hypothesis Two. An R wais calculated
between NATTOT, INTTOT, and EORTOT on the one hand and the FAKS total
scale score on the other. T'he observed value was R = .2'3 (F = 2.17,
not significant). No significant relationship was found between thle
FICAS subscales anid the test of African knowledgeF.
Subjects who elect to palrtjicipate in a cuirriculumn w~orkshopi on Africa
will have a significantly higher mean senre (p < .05) o~n the Florida
RRaW M.eans nd Standard Deviations ofalll Simples anld Variables
Entered into the Anailyses o~f Hypothe1SSe inr thlroulGh F'ive
(n =131) Sx
(n =131) 5
TampR Prpb r
(n =28) E
Lllinois Pre )
(n =21) E
Tampa P'reb X
(n =22) S
Tampa Postb x
(n =22) S
Illinois Pre X
(n =20) S
Illinois Post X
(n =20) S
mean (n = 222).
S36.16 51.05 i5.71
x16.61 12.60 21.69
S37.68 53.91 83:i.50]
15.49 11.06 16.66
S39.75 55.05 R2.9)0
13.51 8.26 16.16
S38.65 55.35 84.65
16l.30 h.07 12.L3
were supplied based on pilot jiroup mieans (n
sulpplied honsed on pilot and inlStitultE giroups grand
International Curriculum ARSsessment Scales th31n ai riomlpurti o group OF a
cross section of teachers.
The next step in establishing the constrruct vilidityv of the F'ICA\S
was to demonstrate that a significant dirfcferece existedd between the mean
scores of two or more groupsn whio theorceically shoullld hav1e differed on
the scale. TIhe two groups selectedl in this study wecre (a) the pilot
group and (b) the combined institute giroupS. TrhE pilot grollp was a croSS
section of teachers whio happened to be available for ttesting. Thecy wtere
assembled to take coursrwork whiich in no wayv was related to internationniil
education or cross-cultulral studies. The IillilsboroughI Coulnty suibsample
was composed of social studiies teac~hers who were selected hernllse their
availability was unrelated to internatioionu ediiention issues. On thec
other hand, the institute samples were composed of tow;lhers whlo were
self-selected to participate in summer insatuttes o~n Afriian studiies.
They could be presumed to have a mo~re posjtivl nt itlde to~ward teachingi
about Africa than the cross section of teachers in the~ ptilnt group.
Th~erefore, if a significant dlifference- in mean scores between these two
groups could be detected by) the FTCAS sublscales, 'lhen terce won~d be some
evidence for the validity of these attitude mealsurles.. Because the two
institute samples came from diffe~rent areas of the conirtry, they were
treated as separate groups in the analysis. AZ discrimlinant analysis was
performed with the three relevant FICAS subsentell s b~einX uIsed to diS-
criminate between the pilot~ groulp and thie two inlstitulte groups. A post
hoc orthogonal planned comparison (Kirk. 1968, pp. h9-78) wa~s used to
test whether the means of the institute giroups lirffered From each other
and whether their combined means differedi from thef pilot groupl mean.
With three groups, only twoi (k 1) orthiogonail pallanned comparisonss were
possible (Kirk. L968, p. 72). However, withi thpse two, complarisons the
researcher was able to chtniin all thle infoirmationn nee~ded to test
Hypothesis Four. The comparisonr s ulsed can he symbli; 1:. l in thiis wany
(Kirk, 1968, pp. 69-70):
i1 = X2 X3
The first of the two compar-isons testedl whether aIny significant di~ffer-
ences existedi between the inlstitulte groups on thp r-elevant FICAS sulbscales.
The second comparison tested whether thle pilot giroupl rrain was siginificantl y~
different from the average institute g~roupi mean.
Wheni NATTOT. INTTOT, anrd EORHTOT were entered inrto a direct dlis-
criminantn analysis one significant discriminant furnctirion was produced.
The standardized discrimiinantt function coeficiients for this function
were .76 for LN1TTT, .28 for NArTTO)T, andl .09 for- 0I~nTlrl.
After determining that these thlree suibscales do discriminate betweenPI
the three groups in th~e analysis, post hoc analyqiis of variance employing
planned comparisons was usedl with each variable sepairately to test first
if there was a significant difference betwpen ther means of thet institute
groups and second if there was a significant difference between the mean
of the pilot group and thle combined institrlte groups. Thel overall F
ratio for each variable was siginificant at belo~w the .05, rriterion alpha
Icvel. In addlitio~n, on nio vairiable were th~e means of thle institutee
groups found to be significantly di fferent. However, o~n echct variable
the mean of the pilot group was found to bre signiftcantly flower than thie
average of the two Institute groups means. Hyp~othesRis Four confirmed
that INTTIOT, NATTOT, and I:ORT`OT cachl measlredl the~ expected differences
between the piilot group and the instituted C1roIPs. Ytt the~ two institute
groups, each of which consisted of educators seflf-selecteed to participated
in an African studies program, did not differ froim achcl other-.
The. mean posttest score of a giroupl of teachers riinrlled in ann Afr-ienn
studies center summer inlstitulte will be signlificantly (p .05) higher
than their mean score onl a pretest of thle Floridal International Cuirriculumm
Hypothesis Five was designed to see if ther ne~w attitudelF scales could
detect attitude change as a result of summer inst i tute partic~ipAtion.
A multivnriate analysis of variance rep~eated measures IIesignI controlling
for site was developed to test if a changije in attitude1 couldll be measuredt
by the instrument. This anailysis was followed hv post Iir split-plot
analysis of variance withi unequall nI (Kirk, 1968. pip. 2761-279).
When all three vnriables wrer entered into a muiltivariate analysis
of variance an F approximation of thie Pillat-Bartlctt trace statistic
was not significant at the .05 alphan level (see ol son. 1976). Conse-
quently, it must be concluded that the tlree subs~fcales did not distin-
guish between pre and ponsttest scores of inlstitulte pairticipants.
Thefrefore, [Iypothesis Five was not supported.i
CONCLU(STO)NS AND) RECOMMEIINDAlTION S
Two su~bscales of thle Floridn International Cur~riculunm Assessment
Sales have been shown to possess su~fficient reliability and validity to
be employed in further researchI andl evaluation studies. Bothi TNTTOT and
EORTOT demonstrated the Predicted relationship to wa,~rllminll~dredss and
distinguishied successfully between~ the pilot andi institute groups.
NATTOT has served a usefull purpose in this va3lidantion study buit aIppears
to be of no further use in measuring tEa1Cher'S attitudelS tolWard uIsing
international content, Aflriinan or otherwise. In thiis c-haptrer the
psychometric quality of the FICASS is disculssed,. Srlfiestions for fulrthefr
research and applications ar-e also presented.
Before focusing on th~e FTCAZS, the reliability daita observed for the
Floridla African Knowledge Srale and the W~orldmnindedr~ness Snl~e will be
compared to thiat reported elsewhere in thie literature. Foir thle pilot
sample of 131 subjects nn alpha of .83 w~as observedl for thre FA
subjects attendling the suimmler institutes vieldled anr alp~ha of .77 for the
prerest and .78 for the poisttest. These figuires compared favorably with
the reliabilities reportedly by Boyer and 114cks (1968X. p. 22). 'They used
an odld-even split-half techiniquie to compute a1 cocff icintit of .60 for
their seventh grade sample and .80 for their twel Eth g:rade samnple.
However, reliability is a fuinction of test length anld the Beyer andl
Hicks instrument was twice ns Long as the on~e refjinal in the current
study. Later Beyer and Hlicks (.1970) used their own 48-item revision
of the or-ig-inal inst rumen t i n a s tudy wh i h p rod ucedr Kcller-R Kichardson
reliabilities of .73 for the protest and .88 fo~r the posttest.t
As a1 by-pro~duct of vAlidating the FICAS, the 10-i'cm FAKS has been
produced. Its reliabilities are comparable to,, if not sulper~rir. to on::pr
versions of African knowledge tests producedl by earllier stuidies. The
content validity of the FAK~S was assured hy submittinG the itemis poten-
tially to be included in ther instrument to a panell of IT~ Africanists
associated with the Center Ear African Studies atC the Unriversity of
Florida. Items which were danted, poorly wourledl, hiasell, or otherwise
vulnerable were deleted from thle item annalysis aInd cross validation whlich
produced the finial 30-itcnm scalee.
For the W~orldminidedlness Scale, the reclinlhility- enefficie~nts obsiervedl
in this study were slightly lower than those reported b~y Sampson and
Smith (1957). They reportedly both split-hllnl and test-retest reliabilittes
to be .93. For the pilot saimple in this studiiy ain nlphni of .85 was ob-
served. For the 28 participaints in the Tamnril Tnsti~ltut thle coefficient
of .83 was computed. The eight four-item sublscnles on the Wr-Scale hadl
relatively low reliabilities among the pilot sample ranriingi from a .31
for thle "Education" suibscale to .62 for thr "Patriotisrn" sublscale.
Discusionjos ofT FICAS Validity
Among the 11 subscales of FICAS with potential fo~r use inl measuring
teacher attitudes toward including Africanr content in thle curriculum,
only INTTOT and EORTOT emerge as reliable, valid. and independent men-
sures. N"INTTT consis ts o~f IT entrrii curlr orjer t lives requiiri ni i nterna tional
content to achieve (i.e., "Sutudents should decvelop a sense of helongingf
to a world community" and "Students should ulnderstanld dliffrernt ways of
life o-n dlifferent contingents"). Teacher's INTT~lOT crores co~rrelated .26
with their Worldmindedness totAl scale scor-es. Thiis enrrclation was not
only sta~itistilly significant buit of an necepltablle magnitulde in spite
of its mlalest size. The W-Scale wais designed t, mrasurel nationailistil:-
internationalistie attituldes. Through it was theorrized thant teacherles wiho
were positively disposedl to uisinig internatiornal rcontenit (sp~ecifielivll
Af rican con tent) in thei r t each ing woulld hF hIighelr -i n wo rldmini dctnrss
than those not so disposAEd, a highl correlation beftween INrTTOT and the
W-Scale would not be expected because the two scales~ wre~ intendecd to
measure dliffEerent construct-s. A\ general worldmindeldness is dlistinct from
an inclination to uise international content in one's traching.
Althiough no relationship b~etween TNTTOTrn scores and FAK;S to~tal scalle
scores was observed for the pilot group, there is prl-cedencrce for suchi a
finding. Shrigiley (1974) found n low correlation between knlowledge of
science andi attitude townrd srcience among pr-rserviice tceachers. 110
questio-ned the existence o~f a positive relatlionshiip beftween thle two
constructs. Perhanps the culrrrllnt researcehr was expcting. too much to
expect a positive rel~latonshilp to exist betwrsrn knowlrledge of Africa anrd
attitude toward African contentll in thle cur-rienlum.r n Anolthler possibility
also exis~ts. TIhere may' be .1 nonlinearr relationships bet~ween~ knoledge1L: of
Africa anid attitude to~ward African contrnt. Th is Ioss ibil ity wi ll he
taken up later when fuirther- research is dliscused.
Of the tested subtstales, INTTOT'I had the~ highest standardized dis-
crimiinant fulnction coefficient on the function dliscriminati ngi between a
cross section of teachers ilnd a grouIP whiChl w~s sel--lf-slcted to attend
African studies summer institutes. Theorrticallv teaichIEIS who( Would
choose to attend a summer inlstitulte inl African studlies should be more
inclined to use African conltent to achitne international obljectives thann
a more general population of teachers. INTTOT' clearly measures this
That INTTOT failed to measure a pre-past lifferencel~ inl attitude
among summer instituted part~iripants might be explained in neverni wiys;.
It is quiite possible that no, change occurired in the alttitudef measulred by
this scale. Strength is added to this explalnalti On1 b the PrevIous
finding that institute tachclers are relatively h~irgher in their INT'TOT
scores compared to the pilot sample thani they are o~n thle other twio scalles
being tested. Their initial higih scores may have left Little room for
additional change. in addition, the phenomenon of r-rgrission toward the
mean could have plnyed al major role in FINIT~OT's nout mea:surina a changer
in attitudde. It is also possible that INTTUI'T failed to detect a change
in attitude thlat didl occuir amongrn thle inst~itute techellrs. Ilowreverr
INTTOT's power in detecting a difference bet~weeni institutep techellrs anid
a cross section of teachiers makes the explanation of no real change mo-re
p~lausible than that of an unldetetedl real change.
The EORTOT subsente consists of 22 obilortives whiich can he devel~lopd
with either nationalistic or international content, oir both (i..e.,
"Students should understand the balance of rnature," "Studtents should
know about the role of government," or "Stuldent s should accept chiangef
as a natural feature of the human condition"). Siichi obeCtivesS are not
specifically international in scope, as are INTTOT(,'s, but one would
suspect that a worldmindjed teacher would be mo~re inlrlinled to use inter-
national content to develop either/or objectives th~n u~nal~l n teacher
with a more othlnocentric viewpoint. Consequently, o~ne would expect to
find EORT~OT scores to be positively related to thoRe noi thle W-Snent but
not qulite as strongly as INfTOr'ss scores. Sulch wals in factL the case as
the correlation between EORTOT and thle WJ-Scale equa.lld .21 (p < .05).
Althougfh no significant re~lationship was found bectwee~n EO(RT10f and the
FAIKS total scores, furithcr r-esearch maiy show this findingF to resullt froml
a nonlinear relationship, existing between the two' (.nnstruCtS.
EORTOT also distincluishledl between the piilot cross sortion sample
and the institute samp~le. however, because of i ts h i[gh enrrelation with
TNTTOT (r = .72), it adds little information wheln TNITTOT is; also entered
into a dliscriminanti analysis. Conse~quently, its discriminant fuinction~
coefficient is rather 10w when compared to 1NTTOT. Nonellcthelss,. when
used separately in its ow~n right, EORTOT'1 is anl rffective dlicriminnator
between pilot andr institute grollps.
The EO~RTT scale was expectedl to menaur-e the t;tlitudel l variableL mosnt
amenable to change as a result of attending sulmmer institute, A
teachers learned more about Africa aInr developed culrriculair applici~ations
for African content, it was expected that they would see more and more
uses for- Afri can content aImong thle ei ther/or object~i vs Because of :1
nonsiginificant multivalrintc F ratio, the researchers r dlirl rit examine ther
univariate (ratios for NAT10~lT, INTfTO'T,; ll and EORTOT fo ir thle pulrpose~s of
drawing statistical conclusions. However, it should be noted that in
spite of thep mulltivaridte F'Is being nonsiginificant, EoRTOI'sR univnriate
I' was significant (p < .0)5). Suich a result, which con neculr when several
weak dependent variables; are included inl a mat~tivnr-iat anarlysis (see
Uack, 1975, p. 155), suggetss that the issue of EnrKTOT~'s ability y to
detect pre-post differences as a result of summer institute attendance
is still unresolved. TIhough1 thiis stu~dy has not beelln ble to establish
the abi~lityr of EORTOT to detect a pre-post differececc neither has Lt
Inid to rest the possibility of EORTOT's ability to~ do so,.
NATTOT has served a ulseful purpose in thle vail id~t ion process by
being distinct from INTT0T alnd E01RTOT'1. Ilowever, it no~s not appear to
be a valid measurer of teacher inclination to use internationally co~ntent.
This result was expected. NAT'ITOT consisted of 13 c~urricular objectives
which required American content to achieve (i.e., "Studeints should be
proud of our national accomplishments" and "Student-~s should have a
knowledge of social change inl America"). Although somr individuals who
like to teach fromr a comiarattve perspective might~ filnd international
content relevant to achievingR natiornalistic objectives, it was not ex-
pected that a cross section of American school tealrlchern nr teven the
institute participan-ts, wouldl perceive Afriro; n Icontent to b~e relevant
for teaching to national tstic objiectives.
NATTOT scores proved to, have no significant relationship to IJ-Scale
scores. A correlation of .04 was observed!. Neither did NATTOnT sco~res
shrow the predicted relationship to FAKS scores. A-2 p<.5 a
observed where a positive relationship was hlypothlesized.l It appears that
as teachers knew more about Africa they were less EnclinedI to ulse this
knowledge to achieve nationalistic object i ves. Tholrse fi ndings fulrthrc
reinforce the conclusion that NATTOTr) 7 is indeedl measulrinc a traiit distinctt
from that meAsuredl by INTTnT and EO(RTrOT.
White it is true thiat NATTOT was useful in distinguiishing between
pilot and institute groups, its complete resistancr La rhangei as a result
of in1stitutE treatment has added weight to thc argulmenlt that it is d~is-
tinct from TNTTOT and EOnRTOcT and useless as la ensure ofi teacher attitude
toward thle use of Africain !rnntent. Among thec tortal Inumber of institute
participants there was virtually no changefi in NATrl` laf il mean sors pre-post.
In fact, amonga the Illilnois institute sublsample threnr wais a no~nsignifi-
cant decline in Group meanr. Thlis palttcrn of findli ings leads to thle coni-
clusion that NATrTOT is not nI use~ul subscale to meaisure teacher attitudes
toward includling African content in the curriculum.
However, NATTOT has yinyedl a uiseful role in thle vallidatio~n process
precisely because it hacs shorwnn up as distinct from TNTTOTT andl EORTO)T,
One precaution that mo~st Likert-type attitude scanles take to correct for
response set is to word one half of the items negati~~rvel and one half
positively. The negative items are theni refletctd in scoring:. However,
since FTCAS items consist ofT curricular o~jectives it wasB not possible
to word one half of them nrCuntively. COnISequently,~ it wais realssuringl to
find that the nationalistic i tems scattered througfhoutt tbo FTCAS were
responded to differently by the subjects. Ro~th subscalles, NATITOTL and
INTTOT,~ hiad a potential rannge of zero to 65. Among thl pilot groulp the
raw mean for NAT'TOT wals 28. 1 while thle raw mnean for INTITO'T was 43.8.
This difference w~as significant at thle .001 nipha~ lo~Vrl. 1hlis finding
lends support to the argument thlat FICAS and its subhscales were measuiring
muich more than response set.
Mlultip~le Asp~ects of Unidimenlsionall Scales
Thee hlih murlticallincari ty foindl betwe n several sets of FICAS suib-
scales has confirmed the uinderlyingi structure of It ti tude toward African
content in the curriculum.1 In1 alnalyZinfi the open-ienderle qlestionnnares
during thle early stages of the test develop~ment, the~ re~searchefr depterminll~r
that the two major undlerlyingf cimensionss of thie aItetitrile undefr considerni-
tion were the relationshiip ofl Africann content- to ronin Live ob~jectives on
the one hlandl and to affective objectives on the( mother (see Tab;lelt 1).
Consequently, bot, conjintive and affective objectives w ere includedc oni
thle FTCAS under each of the three entejio~riie: nationa~listic, interna-
tional., and either/or. TIhe intercorrel.ations amony: the vertonsi cournttive
andi affective sulbscales indicates that they belong togthier on their
respective scales. Tnb le 5 displays these cog:ni tive-n ffectivr initer-
correlations which show tha:t on the two Risubseale ofE host validity,
INTTOT and EORTOTr, the cogn~itive-af~fctive compone~ts haln .72 and .84
In terrr c~torrltos of Coign t ivr ind
Alffctive Subscales Iin FICTAS
Cognitive A2ffective SubhsI.ales
Subscales AFFNAT AFFINT AIFEO)R AFFTOTI
Adeq~uacy of INTTOT and~1 EORTOT as AttitudIre caley~
INTTOT and EORTOTr have been shown to possess highl reliahtility and
various degrees of validfity. Buit how do thecy mpasuire up whtEn checrked
argainlst theoretical criterin for evainat~inga goold atltitudelt inst rumecnts?
Gardner (1975) has cri tiqued~ recent research inl :Ittitllli measurementn
pa'rticularly in the area of at tituides to~ward sc icns.r 11 points out
three major defects whiichi he has found andl thant sholdtll he avoidIEd:
(1) scales which lack any discernible uinderlyingf
theoretical c~onstruct;; (2) scales in whichl va~riouss
thieoretical constructs are confouindedl tloge~ther, i.e.,
scales which attempt to reduce multi-dimen~ nsikunil1
attribu~tes to sinlerJ scores; (3) experimnta~rli trc:t-
ments in which ~lthre is little dliscernible relationi-
ship between the experimental treatment applied and
the scale used to measures its oultcomles.. (p. 101)
Both INTTOT` and EORTOT have unlderlyingi thenretien1 constructs. INTTOTl's
items as judge~d by aI panel ofT eight social stuidies and cllrriculumr pro-
fes~sors at the University of Flor-ida relate to teachiit~: ngaout foreign
peoples and places; thley are international content curricullar objectives.
The LatnSI of hIypothesesP coupled( With thet finding thatI iNT'lO1T's mean scrre~
wals s ign tfica~n tly di f lfeen t from NA F`TOT's anld thart the~ I NTTOT()~ NATTOT1
intercorrelaition is: low (r = .35) confirms thant INrnnT is indeed mEasulr-
ing teachers' perceptions oif the relevance of using: African contpn t n
achieve international curricular objectives.
EORTOT's items were jldyedl by the smle eiight-member panel to be
cuirricular objectives specifically requirina neither national. nor inter-
national content but amenable to usingf either or haoth. Figuire- 3 shows
that th~e pattern of intercorrelations amongi NATTOTT EO)RTOT,, andl NTTOTI
reinforced by the raw mean differences between sub~senies, supplorts thec
theoreticnl basis ulnd~r~lying the subscales. NA~TTOT and INTTOrT which
reflect very different subhjectt matter domains arc shownl to be far apart
by both a Inw correlat ion (r .35) andl 1 lInrre rau i tem mieani di fference
of 1.20. EORTOT which reflects a suibject matter doma~in thalt is somewhere
between NTAT'TOT and INIT(~al SinceF it Shollld theonreticallly represent a
combination of the two, is lolndd to fall. between the~ NATTnT and TNTTOT
extremes on two COunits, correlation coeFfiCients andl rnlw itemI meanl dil-
ferences. INTTOTI, EORTOT, and NATT~OT doi thenr a1pponr to represent
distinct uinderlyingf theoretirnl constructs.
SuibscaleS : NAFTOT ORTT INTT`1OT
Raw item means: 2.17 2.1 .37
H~ean dilffrences: 20.?
Correlation andr Item Hefan Diffe~rence P'Atterns
for NATT`OT, EORTOT, and INTT~OT
Begiinning this validat ion study by examininfi all siz independent
subhscales, thet researclerr hans met Cnrdlner's second crite~ricn thant various
Lbearetical constructs not h~e confounded. Where mullticallinearity sup-
ported theoretical expectations as in thle case of coGnlitivee and affectivec
subscales, scales were combined to include all aSp)ectS of a single
unidimnens ional construlct. In this process NTJ~TOT, I NTTOT, and~ EORTIIT
emerged as scales measuringr separate attributes. As a consequence no
attempt has been made to analyze the FICArS total sco~res. Indeed, thle
FICAS total score, rep~resenting a combinations of NAiTTOT,. INfTTOT, and
EORTOT, is mlultidimensionall anrd as suchi is difficult to interpret. Con-
sequently, INTTOT andi EORTOT() are heing reco~nmmended as separate uinidimien-
sional scales to be used in fuTthler research and e~valuaion.n
The response to Ganrdlner's thiirdl criterion vni les fo~r IN'TTOT1 and
EORTOT in terms of the current study. Clearly IN1TOT is not suiited to
be used as a measure of thef effects of institutes treatments where the
selE-selected particip~ants .Ire already highr on thip scall. Thie case is
not closed on EORTOT. Theonretically EORTOT should be :Imenable to change
as a result of institute treatment. It contains objectives for which
teachers have probably not thou~htt of using inlternational conitent until
they engagfed in an intensive experience to increase their knowledge of
foreign areas and to help th~em write curriculumi projects to incorporate
international content. There would seemn to be a dliscernable relationship
between the institute treatment and the EORTOT,1 subsca~le. it remains to
be shown, however, that EORfoT does indee etl rc~t the texpcrtedl change in
attitude. Gardlner's criteriai for de~veloping I:ood attitudelF 8rcles appear
to have been met by the INTTOl)T and EORnTOT sanles.
New Test of EOR~TOT's Validity
The first order of business will be to test E0(RTOf's Abil~ity to
discriminate pre-post attitude changes as a result of institute partici-
pation. LL wais necessary for thiis studyv to use a multlivarintr F: test ini
order to simultaneously evaluate thre ability of echi~l ii thle thiree scales
of interest to detect thle experctd changej in tende~lr aittitudte. Tlhe three
scales in combination dil Inot detect a change;; howuever, EnRTOT1 by itself
did. Yet thls latter resullt must be viewedl with sispi ien beenuII se of
the nonsignificant multivariate I' test. TIhei currently stuldy hans eliminated
NATTOT and INTITOT from cons Ede-ration to detect. pre-post8 diff~erenres.
However, it is necessary to test EORTOT, using a ulnivnrinte F Lest. on a1
new institute sample indecpendent of thant used in thiis studyl. If a test
based on a large enough sample is: condu~cted, a nonsi~iicnifcnt result
would indicate that EnRTOT, dloesi not dlistingulis h prec-postt changes. A
Positive result would confi rm expectations thant it does dertect real
channges when they occur.
P~ossibility of aNon-Linea Re~lationship Bc` t weenr ~INETTOTI~ anld FAZKS
The failure to findl a sig~nificant linear relationship between the
otherwise valid FICAS sulbscales. INTTOT anid EORTOT. andl kn~owlrede of
Africa raises questions about the nature ofi thle relationship between
knowledge of Africa and inclination, to Iise At ricaln content in tecnhing.
A nonlinear relationship may exist (see Figulre 4) h~etwteen the two
attributrs. It is quite possible that the teacher w~ithi a little bit of
knowledge might be less inclinedl to use Africani co~ntentl than thle teAchefr
who knows virtually nothing. 'This phenenolnoln cou11 ll occur bo(rnullSe thle
little bit ofI knowledge a typical tahrmgtnqiewudpoal
come froml Tarzan movies, Idi A2min news repor-ts, or fromn mythological
relics of the colonial era. Such sources of information aIre hardly
likely to, inspire a teacher's uising: African coltlent for iurricuilar pir--
poses. However, as knowledge of Africa increasesR in both breandthl and1
depthi so that teacher s can uinderstand ACr-iro;n soictietie as mankingy a c~n-
tribution to human understaindingi, these teach~rrs wourldl he more and more
inclined to use African content. A preliminaryv Ilok at the danta in this
study lenids support to this theory with respecct to IN'TTOT. For thle pilot
sample whose knowledgec level was signi fienntly Iower thann thle institute
pre sample, there was observed a negative correltion h~etween INTTOT and
FAZKS. For the institute prl Iroulp there was a1 mo<1oral;~ te pcs itIi ve relat ion-
ship. For the institute post giroup whose know~ledG- level wa~s significantly
higher thian the institutep pre sample, an7 even strongei~r positive reJlatjin-
shiip between [NTTOT and FAKhS was ob~ser-ved. A studei~ is neededl to ader-
quately test the possibility of a nonlinear relationship beftween knowledge
of Africai and teachers' inclinatio ns to uise Afrien:n conltent to accomplish
Kniowledige of Africa
ilypothiesized Relatlionship Between Knlowledgee of Aifrica
and Attituide Toward African Content
Validity Studiies for O~the(r international Areas
In another line of research the Florida Internatnnaln Cir-riculuim
Assessment Scales need to be validated for- international co~ntent areas
other than Africa. The items on the scales, clnrril cullar- objectives,
should be as appropriate for measuringi teacher attitude~ toward teaching
about other areas of thle world as they hanve bee~n sho~wn to be for
measuiring teacher attitulde toward African co~ntent. Sincer n~one of thle
items needs to be changed, thre FTCAS ontly needs to hanve two wolrds chaniged
in its inistructions (Appenldtx C) to alter it to test teacher attituide
toward Latin American, Euiropean, or Asian content. More generic terms
such as non-Western. foreiign, or non-Amertenln could~ also b~e tested.
Although this study focusedt on validating, thc Afrienin content because of
thre availability of data from two African studies summer institutes for
teachers, there is every rcasorn to suspect thatL thle in~strument would hie
useful for other international co~ntent areas -- henirce thle worrd
"International" in its title.
Additional validlity studriies shoulrl be carrird outl to relate scores
on TNTTOT and EORTOT to other constructs and to tecicher performance.
According to Cronbach and Mleebt (1967), to bre scientifical? ly missile
a construct miist occuir in a nomological not, at Irngt same of whose l~aws
involve observables. They define a nomnological network as an interlocking:
system of lInws which constitute a theory (p. 25'7). Thc laiws in a namo-
logical net may involve thlree types of relationshlips. First, observable
properties may be related to each othcr; se~ond,, thefolraticn] construlct s
many be related to abservablels; and third, different thieoreticall con-
structs may be relatedl to one another (P. 255). Ihis studyl hans beguln
the thiirdl part by demonstrating a molerate re~lationshipl of ther constructs
measured by INTTOT and EORTOT to tha~t menusred by thle worldminldedness
Yet more needs to be donne in this thirdl area to more completely
describe the relationshiip between the construlcts measuredl by INTTnT and
EORTOT andr other constructs. One potential fruitfuil rcintions~hip to
investiqate would be that between attitude tolward inclunding international
content and bElief systems as defined by 0..J. Ha~rvry (196,7; )Irvey, Hunt,
& Schiroder, 1961). He hias dlescribed fouir systems of helief alonfi a
concreteness-abstr actness co`ntinuium. One would~ expect~ to, findl a positive
relationship between thle ablstrnetness withi which n techejlr thinks andi
willingness to use interinatiirina content. nelief systems have beeni
related to attitude changes (Hanrvey, 19617), parent chibi relations
(Harvey & Felknor, 1970), classrooms atmnospherte andl stlndent performance
(Hlarvey, P'rather, Wihite, & linffmofister, 1968), anrd alongi withi sub~jert
matter and sex of teacher to students' Igrade achievement and student
perception of teachers (Ilarvey. Wells, Schimidt, & IGrimnm, 19171). Con-
sequently, if a relationships between attitulde towardt international content
and belief systems can be shown, a big step in deve~loping thle nomologient
net around the new construct will have been taken.
Anoither potentially reproductive area o~f research fo~r expandling, the
nomological network around thle construlct m~easured by~ INTTOTr and EORTUT)' 1
would be to investigate thec relationship between level of teacher cogni-
tive moral development (Kohlbherg, 1964, 1969, 1970, 1971) and attitude
toward uising International content. Erb (1976,) has arguled that
international or cross-rlltltral studlies are ess.ntinI for arbievingi the
higher levels of moral dleve~lopmenit. However, it re-mainis to be demon-
strated that n1 positive reintionshhip does in fact exYis It betwoo n atitude~
toward international conlten~t and higher levels of oran~l development.
Cronibachi and Mleebil's (1967) second category for the laws in a
nomologiical net is the relationshi p between thleoreticall conistruct s andr
observables. T'o further vnltd;ate thle INTT1OT and I-[,inO suibsentes one
would have to observe the classroom tecA~hing of those who achieve dliT-
ffrent levels on the two scalles to see if dlifferncel~s in thie uise of
international content did exist. Althougfh atltitudr is an incinaation to,
behave in a certain way and not a b~ehavior ini its ownl rightI (Finlhbein.
1967, p. 2h0; Shaw & Wrifiht, 19)67, p,. 6; Trhurstonr,, 19~7, p. 78), niti-
tudes must predict behaviors to make them wo~rth worrying about.. Suich
variab les as the t ime teachers spendl on int-erna tirnal:~ topi cs the variety
of ways they introduce international content, nr then numbehcr of timnes
they necept stulen~t initiatives to introduced inlter-national ideras inlto
lessons are some of the teacher behnviors which mighlt he~ looked at and
related to scores on EORTOTr and 1NTTOT.
There are two General aIreas in which thr FTICAS col~lld be put to goodl
use. One aren is in haiste researchICI into' atjtitude frma~n~tionl. As: thel
nomoloaical net is built upy nroundl atituide toward 'Ising international
content. in the curriculum, it will be possible to test hypotheses about
whiat vlriablels contribute to, the formation of this atltitude. A causal
model coiid be developed andi testedl by path1 analysiR (Blalack, 1964,
1971; Eleise, 1969, 1975; Wrifiht, 1921, 1934). Both11 mr.sures of enn-
struicts and observable roaid be enteredl intor analysis. nnckgroulnd
variables such as previous exposure to internationally situations such as
foreign~ travel or meeting foreign visitor- s or~ formal study Ruch as course
work or study abroad mnight form one cluister of variablel s relatedl to,
attitude formation. Personality factors mirght forl ancother cluster of
traits which could be shown to have a h~earingi on aIttitudes toward usinn
international content. Environmental factors suich as school r~lmate,
type of community, or aspirartions of students might contribute yet a
third set o~f factors affect ing teachers' attituldes toward international
content. The possiibilitie appear endless for invisticating th~e factors
related to the formationi of thle attitudes meansurred hv INT~cT;T ad EORTOTr.
Evalua tion andi Teac~hiri
The instruments developed by thiis study, IN'rraf,r FnRTOUT, andl FKS
total score, could be used in evaluation stuldies. PendijnJ further
validation studies on EORTOT', that scale could be uised to, evaluate the
results of teacher inservice programs. Intenlsive institutes and year-
long progcramns could be candidates Ear evnaluatio usinlg EORTOTI. If the
teacher participants waere no~t self-selected so that- their init tal INT10T'l
scores were very hjigh, INTTOIT might also, be ulsed tn evalluate suchl
TNTTOT and EORTOT could be used in preservice teacher educational to
measure where teacher candicl3Les were in their thinkil6nh abot interlnationall
content in the curriculum. INTTOT and E()RTIOTI used with preservice
teachers might be employed rjther in more baisic rpeserch or evaluation
of efforts to make teacher randidates miore inclinedl to use international
Finally ENTITOT and E~ORTOT might be Iised ini lonju~nctio n withi cur-
ricululm research. Efforts to modify cuirricula often necessitate changless
in instruction as well, AnI effort to inter~natiolnnalive thp culrricululm in
a given school~ district could he supported by5 knorwledgye of where the
teachers stood in their attituldes toward includlingl international content
in the curriculum. These inistruiment s could be uised in teaching as we~l
as research devices in an effort to changef curriculla. The obljectives
which make up the items o~f FICAS could he used to Fcensiitiz techerlfs to
thle applications of international content to bo~th inte~rnatiional and
either/or objectives. or to~ natiolnalistic obrjectives on a enmpal~rative
basis. However, using thle scales for teachingr precluldes their uise with
the same group of teachers for research purproses.
In this study two attitude scales and a kniowlj ge scale were
developed that can he used to further research andi evaluation in the
area of international cuirricuilum and instruction. Vallidated for lf rican
content, INTTIOT and EORTOTr stand ready for vailidationl and application in
a wide range of international studies arena. These scales have potentint
for basic research into the formation of attitudels arnd the co~nsequences
of certain attituldes. liey can serve n uiseful pulrpose in cvaluaitio~n,
measuring change as a result of inlservice o~r preslervice treatmennt. ia
thley could he used for teachiing devices by having: teachers focus on thle
individual items (i.e., curricular objectives) inl n effort to develop
strategies for using international content for achiieving the objectives.
Africa Southl of th~e Sahara: An_ Objective Test fo~r Seondary Schanls.
Pittsb~urgh1: Carnegie-Mellon University, 1968. (ERIC: Document
Reprodutlioni Service No. ED 070 010)
African Studies Handlbook for: ElementIary and S~econdarily Shooll Tea~chers:
Part I. Amherst: University of Mlassachulsetts and Wol~rcester Teacher
Allman, R.iJ. A study ofi the~ social attitudel s of college~ studecnts.
Jolr-nal of Social Ps~ychologfy. 1961, 53, 33-51
Almgiren E. & GuistaFssnn, T. World Citizen Rieslionsibility: As~sssment,
Technirppes, Develop~me~nt Stu~dies, Mater-ial Constr-uct an, anrd
Experimental Tenrl~ing. April, 1.974. (ERITC Docum~llent Rep roduclrt ion
Service No. ED, 110 173)
Anderson, L..F. An examination of thie structure and~ chjectives of inter--
nationn] education. So~cial Education. 1968, 12, 639-667.
Aron, R. Effects of Teq;clietr Expectyncies: My~th olr nrlity1 Pape~r pre-
sented at- the annontn. rreting oif the Americani Per-sonnel anirt Guidanc~e
Association, N'ew York, Ma~rchl 1975. (ERI1C thrulment Reproduction
Service Noe. ED 115 722)
Beauchanmp, G;.A. & Conran, R.C. L~ongtituinal Studly in Curricu~lum Eng6ineer
ing. Paper presented ait thle annual meetings o~f thle American Edu~ca-
tional Research Associaition, Washington, 11.C., Aprril 1975. (ERKIC
Document Reproduction Service No. EDU LO2 670)
Becker, J. Education for a Globail Society. Bloominigfton, Indiana: Phii
Delta Ka1ppa Edulcatiolnal Fouindation, 1973.
Becker, J. Perspectives on globdl education. Social Eduention. 1976,
Beyer, B.K. Africa Soulthr of the Sahanra: A Resout~re and Cu~rriculumm
Guide. New York: Randrom louise, 1969.
Beyer, B.K. 8 Hicks, E-.P. mesoAfi:A prtnWhtArca
Se!condaryy School Student~s Know anid nelieve Aboult Africal Soulth ofr
the Sahara. Pitishu~rgh,: Carnegie-MElllr n Uniiversity, 191,8. (ERIC
Doculment Reproduction Service No,. ED 023 691)
Beyer-, B.K. & Hicks. E.P'. A Soc-iil Studies Curri-cuilulm Projctl to Develop
and Terst Instructionn} Manterials, Teaching: (hides,. and Co~ntent Uniits
on the Hlistory andi Cllturle of Sub-Saharann Afrirn for use a7t Selected
Grade Levels in Selonda~ryI Selools. Project Afrien~l: Fnl eot
Pittsbulrghl: CarnefgifPe-Melon Ulnivers i ty 1')70. (RCDcmn
Reprodluction Service Nn. ED 042 673)
Bidwell, P.W. Foreign affairs in the colleges: Strcnjctheningl interna-
tionalR edulcrt-ion. :Joumnal of HFi_ghe Ir [duc;tingr. 194, 35, 4 26-4 33.
Billeh, V.Y. & Zakharinies, G~.A. The developments anld aplplicaltion of a
scale For measulring scientific attituldrs. Scie nce Edlucation. 1975,
Billings;, C.E. The challenrge of A1frica in thle ciirricilum. Social
Education. 1971, 15, 139-146 & 153.
Blalock, H.M., Jr. Causnl Inferences in Nonexperimental Research. Chapel
Hill: University of North Car~olinia Precss, 1966.
Blalock, fl.M., Jr. (Edl.). canusal Models in thle Social Sciences. Chicagpo:
Bloom, B.S. & Kr3thwolWOII D.R~. TaIx~onomy of E~duentliona~l Objectives:
Handbook I, The Cognitive Domfg'yg. Newi Yor-k: Davlid Mclrlay, 1956.
Bock, R.D. tlultivarintr Statiti~ical Mlethods; in liehavior Resealrch.
New York: Mc~raw-fllill, 1975.
Bogatz, B.F. An InvestiEat ion o~f Tleacher E:xpeLnctacls of Instructional
aElriarjls: Reseairtl Report #12. Engenel(' (Iregan': Northwest Regiionall
Special Eduicatio, n inlstrulction al. Mnter-ials (Center, 1970. (ERIC
Document Reproduction Service No. ED 075 3451
BOhlannan, P. A\ Prelininalry Review of thec Intercultura~l Dimiensions in
Interpat ional /In tercul tural Edluc~at ion, Grades h%- 14' Final Report .
Publication No. 156. Boulder, Colofrdll: So~cial service Edulcation
Consortium, 1973. (ERIC Document Reproduction, Service No. ED 100
Boneau, C.A. The effects of violation of assulmtiotlns underlyingR the t
test. In n. Lieberman (Edl.). Contempolrary Problems in Statistics:
A Book of Readingis for the B~ehavioral Sciences. New York: ox.ford
University Press, 1971.
Boyer, !u. World order rdura~tion: Whatn is it? PhIi Declta Kapp~an.
1975, 56, 524-527.
Brager, G.1,. Teacher exportancy and~ mothematics alichievement. Journal
of Research in Ma~themat ics Edulcationr 170;, I. X8-9i.
Brubalker, D~.L. Secondary S~cia~l Stu"dies; for ly 70's: P~lnlapnig for
Instru~ction. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell C:o., 1973.
Campbell, D,.T. & Fiske, D.IW. Conlvergent nn~l dis~ rimiinant validationi by
thle multitrait-mul timethlod mntr-ix.. P)sycl~(gchlogi ni Blletin. 1959,
Carroll, .J.B. Thle nature of thle danta, or howr toi < home a correlationr
coefficient. Psychometrika. 1961, 26, 347-37'.
Cecil, C..E. A Summlary of th~e Four-Yea: Research Pr'ogram Condulcted aIs a
Project of the fluntsvilIle-Mandison Counrty Education Improvement
Program. Cumulative Research Bulletiin. Atlantn~: Southern Associ-
ation of Colleges anid Schools, 1971. (ERIC Docuiment Reproduc ti on
Service No. ED 058 371)
Clark, R.M1. A\ Study_ of Taclcher Behavior and Attit~des in Ejlementary
Schools with 11(gh aind L~ow Puipil Achfervement. Paper presented at
the arninul meetings of thle American E~ducational lrRfserch Association,
wdashrington D.C., Aplril 1975. (ERIC D~culment Reprioduction Service
No. ED 109 025)
CLevelanid, H. The Overseas Americans. New Yo~rk: Mlc~raw-llill, 1960.
Collins, il.Tr. Are You G:oingE to Teach About Afrirna Nlew York: African-
Amnerican Institute, 1970. (ERIC Dnenimenti Repiroductionl Servire No.
ED) 044 324)
Cronbalch, L.J. Coefficiie((nt llpha and the internall mar-ncture nf testfi.
In W.AZ. Mehrens & R1.L. Ebel (Eds.), PrinCiplesi of Educat.ionn i and
Psyhological Measu-re~net: A Book_ of Srflected~ Ralndglngs. Chlirng,~ :
Rand Mlcrally, 19h7.
Cronhach, L.J.I & Nlechl, P.F. Conistruct validity in psychollogirn1 tests.
In1 W.A~. Mlehrens & R~.L. Ebe~l (Elds.), Prin~~l~ciple ofI Educational and~
Psychological Nlensulrement. Chicago: Rand Mc~`!lly, 1967. (R~e-
printted from _1y~chlogical Oulletin 1955, 52.)
Dahiberg, K.Ai. Environmental Studies: Some~ Probilemis and Prtarities.
Paper presented at the annual meeting of ther inte~rnatio nal Stuidies
A2ssciaition, M-arch 19741. (ERIC Document Reproduciiti on Service No.
ED 103 283)
Darlingiton, R.B. Multiple regression in PSycholl ogicai l rESe~rch and
practice. Psycholrggicill Bulletin. 19h8, 69, 161-182.
Davis, F.B. Educationii MElcsuirements anld Thleir Intlerp~retiions. Belmont,
California: Wadswo~rth Publishing, 1964.
Dow, P.11. MAICOS : Social studlies inl crisis. E~duc.tio~nal Leadership.
1976, 34, 35-19.
Easton. S.C. NDEA Centers fnr Internatir~nl 1 nd Lar~~nguge ang( Aren
Studies -- 1976-78. Wa~shiing~ton, D.C.. UI.S. Derp-'rtment of Hlealth,
Eduction~,~ and elfare, Office of Educantion, .Tuine 1977. (Mimeo-
Edwar-ds. A.L,. Techniqes_ of Attitllde Scale (Iranstruction.. New Yrork:
Ehman, L.., Mlehlinger, fl., & Patrick, JT. Towarld E-ffeelive ~Instrlction in
Secondary Social Studies;. Boston: Illoughtotn Mifflin,, 1974.
Eicher, C.E:. An Investigaltion of Eileme~ntary Chlildrenl's Pe~rceptions of
Selecc~te Countries of thle World: A Techlnical~ Report. Vermillion,
Sounthh Dakato: Southi Dakota University E3durntionn: l Iresearch and
Service Center, 1975. (ER1C Documient Reprodulction Servie No,
ED 123 149)
Engile, S.II. Objectives of the social situdies. I ..Msi~s&FR
Smith (Eds.), Newj Chlalleng~es in t-he Soc~ial Studli('s: Emp~licationss
of Resear-ch for ~Techin. Belmont, Caifornin:l Wntdsworth
Erb, T.O. The Deve_4olopmen o~f Noral Juidgern L W~ith n D~iscurssion of thle
R~ole olf Cross-CuIltura! and Internatio~natiS~l Suifs Un1pbl1lishied
manuscript, University of F~loridla, 197fi.
Fishbein. )i. A consideration of beliefs and~ their rn le in attitude
measulrement. In MI. F~ishbein (Ed.), Rca!iings i~n Attit~ude 'Theory and
Measurement. New York: Johln Wiley & So~ns. 1967.
Fox, D.JT. The Research Process in Education. Niew Yoik: Horlt, Rinehart
and W'inston, 1969.
Frech, V.P., Jr. An annnivis orf thle effect of the: Anthlroplognly Culrriculuml
Project material. Thc C:oncept of Culttrue,~ (n the( Cthnlocenttrc
attitudres of Fourthi Fprale students (Donctoral l isseration. Ulnivrrsity
of Geo~rgia, 1973). Disserttatin Abstracts Interna~tionaal, 1973,
34, 38?0A. (University Mlicrofilms No. 73-31, 881)
Frech, W.P.., Jr. The effc~ts of cognitive tra~iningC ini ntroporrloiy on ethno~--
centric attitldes;. I'sycholgg~ in the Slloorls. 1975, 12 36,4-370.
Freeman.. R.E:. Curriculum Materin s E7valuation as -a Process for 1..~;,
Educating:~ Work of the D~iabrlo Va~lley Eguca~tion Proj~ect. Or-inda,
Cali fo rn ia : Diable Valley Elducation Pro~ject. 19)7i. (ERIC D~ocumecnt
Reproduction Servic~e Nn. ED 099 283)
Frey, S. Teachers and! Behnyior Objecrtivces. 1973. (FRJlC Doc~ument
Reproduction Service No,. E:D 088 849)
Gardner. F.L. Attitudre measuremilent: A2 c'ritiqule o~f some recent research.
Edwaltiona~l Research. 1975, 17, 101-109.
Garrifion, K.,C. Worldmrinded attituldes of colllege stiidenrts in a soutihern
university. Journal ofl Scia~lsy~ l Psychc logy. 191 54, 167-151.
Global Development Studirs: A Mondel Curricululm forl anil Aademic Year
Colrse in Clobal Systems and Human Development~ aL tlle Secondary and
Undergraduate Levels of Genieral Eduication. New Yo'irk: Manangement
Tnstitute for National Development. 1973.
Gordorn, R.A. Issues in multliple rlTegrSSion. American.;ll .Jurlnal of
Sc~ciology;. 1968, il, 592-616h.
Guifon, JP.& Gilfrd.R.Anl analvasj of thr I'll.ors in a typical
t es t of int rove rsio n- est rove rs ionl. Junlo homlSca
I'sychology. 193'1, 28. 377-399.
Guilford, J.P. & Guilford, R. Pers-onality factors S, T:, & M1 and their1
measulrEment. Jollrnal Iof Psychlology. 96 ,1917
Gllttman, Li. A basis f~or sca.lingf qualitativ e daita. Amelric in Srcirlog(enl
Review. 1944. 9. 199-150.
Guttman, L. The Corn~l~l Te'chniqule for Rcale :Ind intensity aInalysis.
Educational and P'sycpho~l~ogcl Measurempt.nt 1')47. 7, 247-280.
11311, S..A. Africa in Ul.S. Edulrantiona lMte-r-ials: lhir-ty P'roble~ms and~
Responses. New York: The African-Amerjrrica Ilstitlltc School
Services Division, 197.
Harve~y, ('.J. Coneptal Rystems~ and attitrlde change:~. In M1. Sheriff &
C.WJ. Sherif (Eds.), Att~itulde-, Ego-In~lvolvement, anl Chnn:e Nlew
Yorkr: J.ohn Wiley & Sons, ]1967.
Harvey. 0... & Felknor, C:. Iarent ciildl relations ais an nnlteredent to
conrlepelnal functiouninC. ..Mlo .C iml(~h1 al
Experience and the ProlCesses OF Soc'ialiationl. NewV Ynrkr: ACademic
PressR, 19 70 .
Harvey, ('..[., Hulnt, D.E., & Sch~rodlor,, I.M. Colciqpf ug11 Systems ni d
Personality. New Yo~rl: .Tohn WJiley & S~ons, l')hl
Ha rvey, ()..., Prather, M., W~hi t e. I.J., & lin f fmr ls t er-, ..LE,: In M1.I.
M~ilrs. Wi.W. Ch~arter. Ar., & N.L. Clfe (E-ds.), Readn~ings ini thle So~cial
Psyc hology of Edulcationn Roston: A~llyni & Raironr 1970. (Reprinted
from Americanl Educational Researchi Journa).l, 198, 5.)
Harvey, O..T., liells, I;., Sllhmidt, C., & G~rimmll, C. Efllects of Subject
Matter. thle Beliefs System annd Se,. of 'rnliadr: and Stuidents upon
Students' Gradle A~chievcnment and Percepction of fenchler. Urnpub lishecd
manuiscript, University of Colorado, 1973.
Havlicek, 1,.1 & Peterson,. N.L.. EFfects of the~ vio~latio~n of assimptio~ns
uupon significance levels of thle PeIrSon r. yhooca ulin
1977, 84, 373-377.
Hayden, R.L,. Internationall izing rubliC E~duca.tionl: whalt thet States AreO
and International Educat~io~n So~ciety, Tulranto,, February 1"76. (ERIC
Document Reprodurtion Service No. ED 124 462)
Heise, D.R. Problems in pathl analysis aInd (iisail inferrencer. In1 E.F.
Bo~rgatta (Ed.), Socig~gical Methodolol gy 19(19. San F~ralnesco:
Hleise, D.R. Causal Analysis. New York: Joh~ln IWiler! & Sons, 1975.
Hioamm, L..E. A Denlonstration of the Ulse of Self-ln~struc~tinal anll Othler'
Teaching Techniques for Rcmedial Instrucltionl of I.aw-Achlievin ng
Adol escents in Read~nin and Mathemat~icy:s Tecigiegl~ Progr-ess ReFport
No. 2. Albllquerq ue, Neww Mextrao: TPI Instiiiute, 196R. (ERIC
Document Reprodulction Service No. ED 018 111)
Interculltural Unlderstanding: Projet Finall Reporrt. P'ittsburgih: All.e-
gheny County Schools, 1972. (ERIC Do~cumnent Rcpro~ductionl Service
No. ED 081 705)
Jaccard, JI., Weher, JI., & Lanndmlark.. .1. A mulltitralit- nall time~thodl anarlysis
of four attitude assessment procedures. Jounalml of E~xper-imenltal
Social EPsychology. 1975, 11, 149-154,
Johlnston, .l Econometri ~Ftlotods (2nd ed.). Nrvw York: M~a-il
Jones, E. An Evaluatioiq Re or~t on the Regiongll Eduypt~ionn1 Agencies
Project (Alabama, L~ouisiana, Tennessee, Texas) ini Internlt ional
Education. Austtn: ~lexas Elducation A1:ency, office o~f InternoLionnil
and Bilinguint Eduication,. 1970. (ERIC Documient RIeprorlrction Service
No. ED 048 086)
Kerlinger, F~.N~. & Pedhiazuir, K..T. Nhl tiple r. .inn inl Behalvior
Research. New York: 1101[, Rinehart and Winstnn. 1977.
Kirk, R.T,. Expefrimentala De-sign: Procedur!es for ther liehavior Sciences.
Belmlont,, California: Brooks/Cole~ Publ~ ishinge En., 1968.
Klassen, F.11. & M~oore, R,.S. De-velo~pment of qql Instrumefnt or th~ie Study
of International E~ducytfion in Teache-r IEducatilly IProgram of U.S.
Collge and Universities: Final Repor-t. Wal:Shing/ton, D.C.:
American Association of COLleges for Tea:herr Fdulcation, 1968.
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 032 010)
Kohlberg, L. Development ofI morall character- aind irelog~~ly. nM
Hioffman and L.W. Hoffman (Eds.), Review of Child Developm~ent
Research. New York: Russell Sage Fou~lndation, 196,4.
Kohlberg, L. Stage and sequenlcce: 'The colgnitiv-lve-developmental approach
to srcialization. In D). Cosli n (Ed~.), Ilandil, lokl of Socialization
Theory. Chicagn: Rand MlcNally, 1969.
Kohlbergi, L,. Education For- justice: A moderrn statelment of the Platonic
viewr. Inl T. Sizer (Ed.), Noral Edulrcatio~n. Cambrhidg~e: Ilarvard
University Press, 1970.
Kohlberg, LI. The claim ofr meanl adequnry of a1 highest stnge of moral
judgment. Th~e Jurnal ofl Philosophy. 1973, 70, h10-646.
Kra thwohl D 1.R., Bloom, H.S. & Mad~a, I!.R. Jaxol~nany of Educational
Objectives: Handbook II, The A~ifective Domain. New Yolrk: Davidl
Kuder, (:.F. & Richardson. MI.W. Thet thleory of the est imot ion o~f test
reliablility. Psychometrika 13, 5-1
Lefe, JI.R. Teaching~ Srcal Stldies in the E~liemallpry Schpol~~,. Nerw Yo~rk:
The Free Press, 1974.
Likert, R. The method ofr consltructinf an attitudl e scale. In n. Fishbein
(Ed.). Readings 'gn Attlii lde Theor~y anld NEIgsujlt'lrlment New York: lohln
Wiley &~ Sons, 1967. (Excrpte~d from thle appe.nrlin of A technique for
the measurement of attituldES, Arclives Of Psveh~lology,~ 1932, 22.)
Likert, R. A techniquef for ther menlsuremen t of nt i tudcs. In G;.F. Sulmmcrs
(Ed.), Attitudle Measurem~nent. Chiicag~o: Ralnd Mclnally, 1970.
(Excerpted from A~rchive~s ofr Psy~chol~rlogy, 1912, 22.)
Lindquist, E:.F. Decsigi.n d nrul Aslysis of I':4per~irpelqs in Psycholog~y and
Education. Boston: lollghto~n Mifflin, 195 1.
Lord. T.MI. & Novick, Mi.R. SLatistical Th~eor-ies of] Mental TecsL Scores.
Reali n g, th ssa chuIseItts : Andd~son-Wesley, 1968 .
Maicias, C.C. Progirammnedl lyprningi as Ulsedl in tite f;roma Public Schiiols.
Includedl in th~e proceedlingi s of the~ 20thi Anniin1 Pac~ific Lnorthwest
Confernce o~n Foreiign .Languagers, Portlanrd,, clroun, April 1969O.
(ERIC Document Reprodulction Se~rviee No. 1:D 1.25 33
Nlnrion, K.:l. Kappon initerview: Krvinl Michacl Marllian talks about pea~ce
studies. Phi Delta Kalppan. 19173 55. 187-180,.
riculumln in Nor-th Cclntral Assoi Ention Schols.,li Th1e Northi Central
Association Qularterly. 1963, 38S, 205-213.
Hlassialas, B.(:. & Cox, C:.C. Inqryi ScplSyle. York:
Maxim, TG.W. TIhe role of reseanrch~ in competenryl hoinied towhrll ednelntion.
Education. 1974, 95, 94-96.
McCarron, J. &, McCunle, S. A Tefachr's' Pe~rsppetiyeg I six keta~l iss~los.
Washingtonl, D.C.: Naitional Educatio~n Asscc~iatiion, 1974. (ERIC:
Document Reproduction LService No. ED1 120 112)
Nletcalf, L.E. Resenrih onl teaiching, thec Fsorji stuies. n NL. age
(E<1.). Hanndbook of Rcsea;rchi on T'eachLngl. Chicngn: Rand M~cNilly,
Mlontessol i, NI. LEducationn anrd Powe l (.R.lnet n ) hian
Henry Reg~nery, 1972. (Originally pulblishecd, 1949.,)
Mlorehouse,, W. A New Civic ~iteracy: Angeriyno F~drlrgti~ng gd I:loba~l
Intelrdeppn~dencE. New Yorlk: A\SPEn InStitultr fr~ ((umanilStiC StudrieS,
1975. (ERIC Docuiment Replrodulction Serv~ices Nor. EDI 120 084)
Moreland, W.D). Currientumi trends in thef snrin1l studiins. Social Education.
1962. 26, 73-76.
Murphy, E. I. & Stei~n, 11. TechigS Africa 19d tly: 41 linlll~rulboo for fearhers
and CuriTTcuum1 Plannlers. New York: Citaltionl Pre1.Ss, )197.
Murphy, G. (Ed.). Human Naturlre and Elndurilgg Pencr. Boson~il: Houghton--
M~if flin~, 1945 .
Newman, A\..l. & Ware, Wi. Acsteh~tic perceptions anr dnl wIldmindftednes -- A
research note. Thle NewJ Era. 1976, 57, 45-116; 'IR.
Nie, N.1l., Lnt C.FI., Ienkins, J.i. ,. Stei inbrcn ner. K., h listl, D.11.
Statistical Packangi l Ear' the S~cial Sciegres (2ndl edt.). New~ York:
Okey, J .Rl. The EFffects of Mrsltery TachiggF Strqr~egy r! ~legacher Attitudes
and Pupclil chvem ent. Paper pre~sented aIt the' annon~i. meeting of
the National A~sso~ciajion for Researchl in Scien~ce rfeaching,~ Detroit,
March 1973. (ERIC Doculment Reprodu~ction Service No. ED, 080 311)
OlIVEr, D).W. & Shaverln J.P. Tching; Publ_1~ ISSleS inl the IHiph Schoorl.
Boston: lioughi~ton-Hifflin, 19h6.
Olsoni, C..L. On choosing a rest statistic in mullltive.rinte analysis of
variance. Psycholo~gien1 Bulletin. 1976, 8 1, 57'1-586.
OIppenhleim, A.N. Questionna~iire Design and Atti~tude leas1ur-ement. News
York: Basic Books, 19h6.
Osgiood, C.Er. Cross-ciltltral compara~bility in afttitude~ monSurfment via
mul t ilingual seman, t ic dIi ffe rent i ls. Inl M. F-ishhlnlc (Edl.), Readingis
in Attitude Trheory~mt and easur-ement. Ne~w Yo~rk: .Ilnhn Wdiley &~ Sons,
Osgoord, C.E5. & SuJci, 6.J1. Factor analysis of mleaningf. Journal of~
'I|xperimlental Psychlggy.~I 1935, 50, 325-138.
Osgood, C.E., Suci, G~.J.. & Tannonbaum, P.11. T)(e Metnsurfemeq of Meanling.
Urbana, Illinois: Uniiversiity of Illinnis Preass 1957.
Olshima, E.A. Changes ini attituldeS toward scienCe and1( Confidellce in
teaching% science of pro~spective flelemntar techeclrr s (Doctordl
dissertation, Oklahoma State Ulniversity, 1966). D~issrt~ation
A~bstracts Internatiolnal, 196r7, 27, 31981A-41701. (University
MlicrofTlms No. 67-017, 268) (ERIC Documrnts Rerrodulrctionl l Ser-vice
No. ED) 014 4124)
O)swald, J.M.. _Ilt~erculltural Social Stuldies Plrojllt:L Appendcl ees 8, C, D,
G, 11, and 1. Hano~ver, NIew Ilamplshire: Amelrie:nn Fuiversit les Field
Staff, 1974. (ERIC Do~n Iment Reprodulction, Servic~e NIo. EDI 099 286)
Pearson. E.S. The analysis of varinacen in casers ('f nonl-tlrnormal vrtatiol.
Biometrika. 1931, 23, 114-111.
Phillip~s, C.S., JIr. The p~rrsent wor ld chl lenger t o h i ghr edulcat ion.
The Educational Recorrd. 19h3, 44. 266-276.~
Reischauer,, E.O. Toward ~th~ Twefnty--First (centur-y: detnfoa
Changlrlin World. Newi Yolr-k: Vintage Hoorks, 1971.
Remmers, II.H1., CGe~, N.L., & Rummel, JT.F. A Practicail Introduction to
Mleasulrement and Evalatlion. N~ew York: Hlarper & Ronw. 1965.
Rich, Ei.J. Good news andl bard news: Afrienn stud~ies ini Americanl school0S.
1955-1975. Issue: A\ quart~erly Jourrna of
Sampson. D).L. & Smniti, II.P. A scale to mealsure w~r-ldlmin~deal artituides,
JournTal of _Socil Isy~clloloy 95,4, 916
Schmidt, N.J1. African Oultrenc~h Workshopl 19174. thbannrl:, Illinois:
Universi ty of Illinnis, A1Frican Studlies Progiram, 1975. (ERIC
Document Reproduction Service No,. ED 107 64h)
Sott, J.A. Teachin for a Change. NFW YOrk: UninL;1 Rook;S, 1972,
Seasbore, R.H. & ftevncr, K.4. A time-saving deviar foi th~e ennstrulctio n
of attitude scalES. Jlour~na~l Socinl 1sychology. 1931, ii, 3h6-372.
Seiler, L,.1. & Rlough,~ R.L,. Empiricl3 compar-isons ofr the rhurllstone and
Likecrt techn~iquefs.. in G.F. Suimmers (Ed.), A~ttiitude Measulcmrement
Chicagio: Rand McrNolly, 1970.
Shaw, M.E. & Wrightl, .M. Scales for the Neasulrement of Attitudels. New
York: Mlc(raw-fill, 19r67.
Shrigley, R.L. T'he cnrr-elation onf sciene aIttitudelr and science knowjledge
of preservice elementary teachers. Science Edlucation. 1976, 58,
Smith, H.P. Do interculltmal l experiences alffet lt itritdes? Journal of
'110111 Social P'sycl(lwty_. 1955, 51, 469-h77.
Snider, J. & Osgood, C.E.. Semantic Differentin le~chnique:: A Source
Book. Chicagor: Aldine Publishing! Company, 1969.
Stearns, T. Ideas forT thle Developmen~lt of I'.rograpisR Rellting _to the
International Shcene andi its KRole in thle Scho~ols. Lnig ihgn
Mlichiigan Sltat Roardi of E~duration. 1966. (F.RIC Ilocument Reproduc-
tion Service No. EDl 021 644)
Taylor, 11. The Worrld as Teaicher. Cronle11ini:Sthn
Illinn~is University Prress, 1969. As ulse ne h il
T'he W'orld and the American Tealcher. Was-hingitci D.C.: American
Association of Collegies for Teacher Eduication, 1968.
T~eachigg about Africa inl thec Sccial Studies C:urriclrulum. Ralleighl, North
Caroling: State Department of Public Instruiction, Division of
Thulrsto ne .L. Ps~ychorphysicnl analysis. Americanl Jou~rrnlc of P'sych-ology..
1927, 38, 368-389.
Th~urstone, L.LI. Theor-y of attitulde measulrr mntPscolgrp Blet
1924, 36, 222-241.
Thurstone, L,.L. The measurement of social attituides. .Journal of A2bnormal
Social Psych~ology. 19 11, 26, 249-2h9.
Trhurstonel, L.L. Attituldes can he measulred. In MI. F~islhbin (Ed.),
Readings in Attitude Theorly and Meansyrr~ement New Yo~rk: Jlohl WIjley
& SIons, !.967. (Rep'rintedl from Ame ri enn Jouirnal of~ Socirology, 192L8,
Tinlketman, S.N. rlanningj thle objectives test. I ..Tonie(d)
Educational Mecasurerment (2nd ed.). Washingttonl. Ir.C.: Amerie~nn
Council on Educatio~n, 1971.
The UNErSCO associated schlools project in reduction fo~r internationlll
cooperation and peace. Edlucational Do~cumentation and Informatioio n
Bulletin of the International Burfani of Eduerntion. 1975, 49, 29-31.
Van de Geor, J..P Introduct iont to M-ultivariatt Analysis for the Social
Sciences. San Francisco: Freemlan, 1971.
Veldman, D.J1. Fortran Progr.4mi~ng for- to Behaviorntl Sc~inceLs. New York:
Hlolt, Rinohart and W~inston, 1967.
Waimon, M1.D., Bell, D.D., & Ramlseycr, (.C. 1eEht fKolcg
AboutC Subj~Lect~ Maitter~l ir thc Pcr~for~mance and A!t itudescr of Pggyspertiy;
Teachecrs. Norma ,. Illino~is: 11Ti no i s St ate 'n iversri ty, 1 71.
(ERIC Document Reprolduction Service? No. ED, 052 1 In)
Willmer, J.E. (Ed.). Afric,: To~ny)~ in Prslpiectif and Apprqclies.
Tualatin, Oregon: G~eographic and Area Study Publlications.. 1975.
Wise, .J.11. hn Apppg~lnin Isgnorane f !, ye World: lile I'rte r7 f Affluence
Pape~r presented at Lhr annuiral meeting: of the Institute of Auistralian
Geographers, WollongonC, Necw Sout~h Wales, Australia, Aufiust 1975.
(ERIC Document KRproduction Service No. IED Ill 745) (a)
Wise, J.H. Student-- deficienicy in haste world kno~wledrte. Journal of
Geogirapliv. 1975, 74, 477-488. (b)
Wisemann S. TIhe ctdnen~tional obstacle race: Factor! thait hinder pupil
progiress. Educational Research~. 1973, 15, 87-9 3.
World Ilistory Ser-ies: African. Rockville, Nolry ilnnd : Thar- i ofT E~ducaton
of Mo~ntgomery Couinty, 1972.
iright, S. Correlation aInd causatio~n Jagrnal of AXT icultuir;l Research.
1921, 20, 557-585.
Wright, S;. Thie methodl of pathl enefficients. Ann.!ls of MaIlfthematiCal
Statistics. 1934, 5, 161-215.
INSTROUMENT USED TO0 CATEGI~ORIZE 90 OBJEC(T~IVES AS NATIONAITS1|C,,
INTERNATIONAL, OR EITI`IER/OR, INCLUDINGh'( THEII TA'l~lY OF RE~SULTIS
Attached is a list of 5/4 cognitive anil 36 effective objectives
which could be selected in rlevelopingi a social stud~ies ciirrjicultun. Some
objectives focus on A~merica and can beSt, pe~rhaps only, be pulrsuled usingC
content derived from the Ameirican experience. Other objecttives are more
international, or global, or jiaterculturalnl in focusR so, that thery coulld
only be achievedl by using conitent whiich is deprived fromr outeir cultures,
nations, and peoples. A third set of objecttvesR aIre harder to- classify
as to their American or internationally fol'us. That:1 is they could be
achieved by usingR American conntent or international contentn o~r a com-
hination of bo~th.
After reading each obljective, plel nso mrk thef ent-gKory into which
youi think it should be placed.
-- If an objective would~ require mainly Amerlean cntent~~ o c~hieve
place a check in Columnln I.
-- If an objective wouldc require internlatiional ot- global content to
achieve, place a chEck in Coluimn Ll.
-- If an objective dores not specificallly requiire other American or
international content but conuldl be developed d withi either or both,
place' a check in Column Ill.
Co I umn
I If flI StudeFnts shou~rld
X L. ulnderstand thle U.S. Consiit it I tion
X 2. hanve a ktnow~ledge of Chtincs! dynasties
X 3. know the role of natuirnl rresources in
I II ZII Studrents shoulld.
6 2 1. halve a knowledge. of unrl<11 history
6 2 2. comprehernd the CI1lf b~l~etwee rich\ and poor
8 3. understand thle consumer'-s role~ in the
8 4. understand social conf iit
8 5. comprehend Lhe role ofT Inhaor in produlction
6 2 6. nodterstaind difCferent wayvs or li fe on
li ffere~nt c~ont inents
7 1 7. have a kno~wledge of social chnane in America
7 1 8. comprehend the p~roiness IF nging in oulr so~ciety
8 9. understand the cau~ses aIndl Iffects of
7 I 10. know about the imlpact of technology on
modern life in America
7 1 1.1. haJve a knowledlge of thec relationship betw~ieen
environmental and wasv of ma~king, a Ilving round
7 2 1.2. understand the reintionship between coloniid-
ism and nationalism
8 13. Hiave a knowledgei of social interaction
8 14t. know about ~the role of rrovcrnment
IIf III Studelnts should.
6 2 15. hanve a knowl'`thi~r of woiilrld Gl'ongrPhyY
8 16. have a chlrounlog~iral I~nnwledger of major
Americaln historical events
7 1 17. hanve a knowledge OE thec structurer of American
gove rnoen t
5 3 18. have a knowledge' of d ifferent cul tures
7 1 1.9. comprehend the principlesi of American
1 7 20. understand~ the princriplels of coo~peration
7 1. 21. know the locattion of t he world's major
6 2 22. understand thle Americ:,i economic systemr
1 7 23. understand intrtaction amnngi variousf social
1 1 6 24. understand urba~nizatio~n
6 2 25. haive a knowlEd!: e ofI vaiirous American ethnic
2 6 26. understand thle rnuses of wair
5 37 27. comprehend dirffrent systems of government
5 3 28. comiprehend the pinranlistic nature of Ame~rican
8 29. kniow the major produicts of the student's
33 3a a30. comprehend~ Ameri can forei rn polio cy
6 2 31. ulnderstmulr l d iff erent~ Iitterns o f family
orga~nization arolndd thle wotrldl
3a 4; 3n 3:2. comprehendl Ameri c~a 's ris to a po~sition o F
3 8 33. rnmp~rehen crult rlr l cli ffus irtn
1 7 34. unlderstand thle e~xch-angF nf goods and