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The Effect of the relaxation response on the positive personality characteristics of paraprofessional counselors

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Title:
The Effect of the relaxation response on the positive personality characteristics of paraprofessional counselors
Creator:
Bole, David Nelson, 1948-
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1978
Language:
English
Physical Description:
x, 112 leaves ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Counselor training ( jstor )
Empathy ( jstor )
Medical treatment ( jstor )
Meditation ( jstor )
Personality psychology ( jstor )
Psychological counseling ( jstor )
Relaxation techniques ( jstor )
Relaxation time ( jstor )
Research facilities ( jstor )
School counselors ( jstor )
Counseling ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Foundations of Education -- UF ( lcsh )
Foundations of Education thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Paraprofessionals in social service ( lcsh )
Personality ( lcsh )
City of Lake Worth ( local )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 105-110.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by David Nelson Bole.

Record Information

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
022240827 ( ALEPH )
04272237 ( OCLC )
AAG9672 ( NOTIS )

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THE EFFECT OF THE RELAXATION RESPONSE ON THE
POSITIVE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF
PARAPROFESSIONAL COUNSELORS











By

David Nelson Bole


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1978






























Dedicated to my father

Nelson S. Bole















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The author wishes to express his appreciation to his

Committee Chairman, Dr. Donald L. Avila, for his sage advice

and counsel, and to the other members, Dr. Walter Busby and

Dr. Richard Anderson, for their scholarship, friendship and

guidance.

The author also wishes to thank the faculty of the

Human Services Department at Santa Fe Community College,

Gainesville, Florida, for their support of this research.

Special thanks to Dr. William Korth for his support and to

Maria Duncan for her creative suggestions and help through-

out the development of this research. Also, thanks to the

Human Services' student volunteers who were the subjects of

this experiment.

Special thanks to Alec Riddle, University of South

Carolina, for his cooperation in offering research informa-

tion which was most helpful to the author.

Grateful mention must also be made of Dr. Paul Schauble,

University of Florida Counseling Center, for his advice and

aid in providing raters for this research. Thanks to David

Linquist and Gabriel Rodriquez who served as the raters.

Finally, the author expresses his deepest gratitude to

his father for his untiring support and encouragement.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . iii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . ... .. . vi

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . .viii

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . 1
Purpose of the Study . . . . . 1
Background of the Study . . . . 1
Paraprofessionals .. . . . 1
Counselor Behavior Variables . . 3
Meditation . . . . . . . 5
Hypotheses . . . . . . . 6
Need for the Study . . . . . . 8

II REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH . . . . 10
Counselor-offered Conditions, Personality
and Client Growth . . . . . . 10
Facilitative Conditions and Personality 13
Counselor Verbal Responses Approach 16
Psychological Effects of Meditation . 19
Transcendental Meditation . . . 19
Relaxation Response . . . . . 23
Meditation in Theory . . . . . 24
Psychoanalytic Derepression . . .. 24
Generalized Desensitization . . . 26
The Relaxation Response (RR) . . 26
Elements of Meditation . . . . 28

III EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND PROCEDURES . . 31
Experimental Design . . . . . . 31
Population . . . . . .. 32
Subjects' Demographic Data . . . 32
Research Instruments . . . . . 33
Assessment of Self-Actualization . . 33
Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) 34
Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS). 37
Demographic Questionnaire . . . 40









TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


Page


Collection of Data . . . . ... 40
Initial Data . . . . . ... 40
Selection and Training of Raters . 41
Relaxation Response (RR) Training . 42
Posttest . . . . . . ... 44
CVRS Data Collection . . . ... 44
Statistical Design . . . ... 44

IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY . . . . . 46
Testing of the Hypothesis . . . . 47
Hypothesis 1: Self-Actualization . 47
Hypothesis 2: Affective/Cognitive . 51
Hypothesis 3: Understanding/Nonunder-
standing . . ... 54
Hypothesis 4: Specific/Nonspecific . 55
Hypothesis 5: Exploratory/Nonexplora-
tory . . . .. . 56

V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS . .. 66
Summary . . . . . . . ... 66
Results . . . . . . .. 69
Conclusions . . . . . . . 71
Limitations of the Study . . . . 74
Implications for Future Research . . 74

APPENDICES

A How to Bring Forth the Relaxation Response
and Eliciting the Relaxation Response . 79

B Counselor Verbal Response Scale
Counselor Verbal Response Scale Rating Sheet. 83

C Relaxation Response Calendar . . .. . 95

D Demographic Data Sheet . . . . . 97

E Additional Analyses of POI Scores . . . 101

REFERENCES . . . . . . .. . . . 105

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . .... . 111














LIST OF TABLES


TABLE Page


1 Analysis of Posttest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups . . . ... 48

2 Analysis of Experimental Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores . . ... .. . 49

3 Analysis of Control Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores . . . ... 50

4 Analysis of Pretest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups . . . 52

5 Analysis of CVRS Scores for Facilitative
Responses . . . . . . . . 53

6 Comparisons of Group Mean Facilitative Responses
RR & NRR Groups: Pretest vs Posttest .. . 58

7 Comparison of Group Mean Facilitative Responses
Pretest and Posttest Scores: RR vs NRR . . 59

8 Analysis of Mean Group Proportions
All Facilitative Responses on CVRS . . . 62

9 Counselor Response Level . . . . ... 62

10 Average Number of Relaxation Response Sessions
Per Week by Members of Experimental Group . 64

11 Scoring Categories for the Personal
Orientation Inventory . ... . . . 65

12 Analysis of Posttest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups . .. . . 101

13 Analysis of Control Groups
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores . . . ... .102









LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


TABLE Page

14 Analysis of Experimental Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores . . . ... 103

15 Analysis of Pretest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups . . . ... .104








Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


THE EFFECT OF THE RELAXATION RESPONSE ON THE
POSITIVE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF
PARAPROFESSIONAL COUNSELORS

By

David Nelson Bole

March 1978

Chairman: Donald L. Avila
Major Department: Foundations of Education


This study hypothesized that there would be measurable

gains in self-actualizing values of a group of student para-

professionals as a result of the regular practice of the

Benson Relaxation Response (RR), a meditation technique.

It was further hypothesized that such gains would be associ-

ated with increased proportions of facilitative responses

on the parts of these students, acting as counselors, in

reacting to the communications of fellow-students, acting

as clients.

The study was carried out during the winter semester of

1977 when a group of volunteers who were students in their

first term at Santa Fe Community College were randomly

assigned to two groups: 14 to an experimental group

and 8 to a control group. The experimental group practiced

RR throughout a 10 week period while the control group did

not.


vi11








Both groups were pretested by use of the Shostrom

Personal Orientation Inventory, which is believed to measure

values that have been associated with self-actualization and

positive mental health. Research cited indicates a correla-

tion between many of the values measured by the POI and

counselor effectiveness.

In measuring changes in proportion of facilitative

responses the unit of analysis employed was the level of

content in the counselor's response to client communication

of four dichotomized dimensions as rated on the Counselor

Verbal Response Scale (CVRS): (a) Affective/Cognitive; (b)

Understanding/Nonunderstanding; (c) Specific/Nonspecific;

and (d) Exploratory/Nonexploratory. Each member of the

population made a pretest tape at the beginning of the study

which was compared with a posttest tape made at the end.

Significant gains in self-actualization by the RR group

vis-a-vis the NRR group were found in five of the POI scales.

Significant gains were also made in the posttest scores of

the RR group compared with its pretest scores. No gains in

any self-actualizing values were found in the NRR group.

Significant gains by the RR group in their proportion

of facilitative responses were found only in the area of

understanding of the client's responses. However, in spite

of the absence of significant gains, as measured by the "t"

test statistic, in any of the other CVRS scales, the RR

posted impressive percentage gains in the proportion of








their facilitative responses on all CVRS scales. And when

the facilitative response proportion of all the scales was

combined, the mean group proportion showed significant gains

by the RR group.

It was concluded that the Benson Relaxation Response

is one method for acquiring and developing the positive

personality traits which have been linked to effective

counseling and resulting client growth. In terms of coun-

selor behavior that is measured by the CVRS scale, the

initial results of RR practice may be a gain in the capacity

for understanding another person's verbal communication,

rather than in the other areas which may depend more on

specific training and experience than on stage of personality

development.















CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION



Purpose of the Study


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of

a meditation technique upon the behavior of a group of para-

professionals acting as counselors. The specific behavior

examined was the counselor's responses to client communica-

tions in terms of four dichotomized dimensions: (a) affective-

cognitive; (b) understanding-nonunderstanding; (c) specific-

nonspecific; and (d) exploratory-nonexploratory. (See

Appendix B.) The meditation technique used was that

developed by Benson. It was used to test meditation as a

method of developing and improving skills related to effec-

tive counseling as well as to enhancing those perceptual

attitudes and personality traits correlated with effective

counseling performance.



Background of the Study


Paraprofessionals

Community services, such as care for the physically,

emotionally and intellectually handicapped all require far








more trained manpower than professional schools have been

producing. To meet this need programs have been established

to train Human Services' personnel who, working under pro-

fessional supervision, can provide such necessary services

as counseling and interviewing.

The recognition and acceptance of this need for counsel-

ing services has rapidly accelerated over the last twenty

years. Counseling services have become an integral part of

programs aimed at the educational, vocational, and psycho-

logical well-being of the individual. As a result of this

growth, both the training and use of a new body of workers

have been the target of increasing research. These workers

are referred to as "support personnel," "lay helpers" or

most commonly, paraprofessionalss" (Morgan, 1976). Such a

paraprofessional program was established at Santa Fe

Community College, Gainesville, Florida in 1970 and designated

as the Human Services Program (HSP).

The purpose of the HSP is to provide intensive training

in human relations, general helping skills, psychopathology,

and different approaches to counseling. The two most

important assumptions underlying the program are: (1) that

the single most critical resource a person has to bring to

the helping situation is himself as an open, sensitive,

caring human being; and (2) that the most effective learning

takes place in situations in which a person is actively

working in the area of study.








The core skills taught are those which deal with those

competencies that should be possessed by persons working in

a human services agency. These skills include interviewing

and therapeutic skills, knowledge of community resources and

community dynamics, process recording and psychopathology.

Fieldwork competencies deal with skills related to working

directly with people and the student's ability to apply the

knowledge he has obtained. Fieldwork skills include con-

ducting on-going counseling and in-take interviews, working

with groups, case management activities, client advocacy, out-

reach and any other activities that human service agencies

require of their counselors.

In addition to their other courses, students are

required to take a minimum of 18 hours of general education,

including mathematics, science, communications, humanities

and social and behavioral sciences. At the completion of

this curriculum students are awarded an A.S. degree in Human

Services work.


Counselor Behavior Variables

Rogers (1957) presented an organized theoretical formu-

lation in which he hypothesized that three characteristics

of the counselor, when adequately communicated to the client,

are both necessary and sufficient conditions for construc-

tive personality and behavior change. These are: (1)

empathic understanding of the client by the counselor; (2)








unconditional positive regard for the client by the coun-

selor; and (3) the genuineness or self-congruence of the

counselor in the counseling relationship. The improvement

of the counselor's position and professional status is the

major stimulus for the present research.

To achieve a more effective level of counseling Truax

and Carkhuff (1967) have elaborated upon the position of

Rogers and sought to describe the process of effective

counseling and/or interpersonal functioning more specifi-

cally. They proposed a model which brings together many

theoretical orientations:

Despite the bewildering array of divergent
theories and the difficulty in translating
concepts from the language of one theory to
that of another, several common threads
weave their way through almost every major
theory of psychotherapy and counseling,
including psychoanalytic, client centered,
behavioristic, and many of the more eclectic
and derivative theories. In one way or
another all have emphasized the importance
of the therapist's ability to be integrated,
mature, genuine, authentic or congruent in
his relationship to the patient. They have
all stressed the importance of the thera-
pist's ability to provide a non-threatening,
trusting, safe or secure atmosphere by
acceptance, non-possessive warmth, uncon-
ditional positive regard or love. Finally,
virtually all theories of psychotherapy
emphasize that for the therapist to be
helpful he must be accurately empathic, be
"with" the client, be understanding, or
grasp the patient's meaning.
These sets of characteristics can for
lack of better words be termed accurate
empathy, non-possessive warmth and genuine-
ness. (Truax & Carkhuff, 1967, p. 25)








The evidence of a growing number of studies (Carkhuff,

1968; Truax & Carkhuff, 1967: Luborsky, Auerback, Chandler,

Cohen, & Backrach, 1971) strongly indicate that therapists

who exhibit more of the aforementioned conditions are

significantly more helpful in terms of client growth, while

those who provide low levels of these conditions are

actually harmful.


Meditation

One technique that shows great promise for enhancing

the positive personality characteristics of counselors is

meditation. Meditation is increasingly becoming a subject

of empirical study. Research in meditation indicates that

behaviors derived from such practices are compatible with

and facilitative of counselor behaviors as taught in the

traditional and developing schools of counseling and psycho-

therapy (Keefe, 1973).

Investigations of meditation have yielded interesting

results. A variety of psychological and physiological

changes are reported in research studies cited by the Tran-

scendental Meditation Society and reviewed by Bloomfield,

Cain and Jaffe (1975), Kanellakos and Ferguson (1973),

Kanellakos and Lukas (1974), Wallace (1970a, 1970b), and

Wallace, Benson and Wilson (1971).

Of most interest to psychotherapists is that meditation

has been found to be productive of enhanced empathic ability

(Keefe, 1976) and correlates highly with measures of

enhanced interpersonal functioning (Lesh, 1970).









A technique of meditation that is highly valuable for

future research and which has been adapted for use in the

present study is one described by Benson (1975) called the

Relaxation Response (RR). This method is best suited for

research because it is well standardized and therefore makes

possible further studies under uniform conditions. In

addition, it is easily learned so that experience is

developed after only a short period of training. Furthermore,

learning the technique does not involve adherence to any

specific religion, belief system or life style.



Hypotheses


The present researcher agrees that accurate empathy,

genuineness and respect are necessary characteristics of

effective counselors and that any process which increases

these characteristics in an individual is contributing to

the development of a more effective counselor. This is true

whether the candidate is a paraprofessional or a fully certi-

fied professional. Furthermore, meditation appears to be a

technique which can contribute to counselor effectiveness

by enhancing the positive personality characteristics

mentioned above.

On the basis of these assumptions, the following

hypotheses were tested. The hypothesis for the study related

to four dimensions for measuring the subject's ability to

relate interpersonally and one dimension measuring the








subject's level of self-actualization. Three hypotheses

(one major and two minor) were concerned with each of the

dimensions. The major hypotheses were statements of no

difference between groups. The minor hypotheses were state-

ments of no difference within each treatment group.

Hypothesis 1: Self-Actualization

H1 There will be no significant difference between
subjects in the RR* and NRR** groups on self-
actualization as measured by the Personal
Orientation Inventory.

H1A There will be no significant gain in self-
actualization for subjects in the RR group.
H1B There will be no significant gain in self-
actualization for subjects in the NRR group.

Hypothesis 2: Affective/Cognitive

H2 There will be no significant difference in gain
between subjects in the RR and NRR groups on the
feeling level of the responses to the clients.

H2A There will be no significant gain in feeling
level of the responses to their clients for
subjects in the RR group.
H2B There will be no significant gain in feeling
level in the responses to their clients for
subjects in the NRR group.

Hypothesis 3: Understanding/Nonunderstanding

H3 There will be no significant difference in gain
between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in
understanding of client responses.

H3A There will be no significant gain in under-
standing of client responses for subjects
in the RR group.




*RR trained in Relaxation Response (experimental
group) .
**NRR no training in Relaxation Response (control
group).








H3B There will be no significant gain in under-
standing of client responses for subjects
in the NRR group.

Hypothesis 4: Specific/Nonspecific

H4 There will be no significant difference in gain
between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in
the degree of specificity of responses to their
clients.

H4A There will be no significant gain in the
degree of specificity of responses to
clients for subjects in the RR group.
H4B There will be no significant gain in the
degree of specificity of responses to
clients for subjects in the NRR group.

Hypothesis 5: Exploratory/Nonexploratory

H5 There will be no significant difference in gain
between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in
ability to give responses that lead clients to
further self-exploration.

H5A There will be no significant gain in
ability to give responses that lead
clients to further self-exploration for
subjects in the RR group.
H5B There will be no significant gain in
ability to give responses that lead
clients to further self-exploration for
subjects in the NRR group.


Need for the Study


The ideas generated by Carkhuff and Truax have been of

great value to the field of counseling in describing how

the effective helper interacts with his client. However,

Bergin (1966), Carkhuff (1969a, 1969b), and Truax and

Carkhuff (1967) have all advocated the need for more re-

search investigating ways of developing more positive per-

sonality characteristics of counselors.





9


The research herein presented is an attempt to assist

in the fulfillment of the need for aiding counselors in

providing the therapeutic and facilitative conditions

requisite of client growth by enhancing personal functioning

through meditation.















CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH



The review of pertinent research is divided into the

following four areas: (1) Counselor-offered conditions

contributing to client growth; (2) Facilitative condition

and Personality; (3) Psychological effects of meditation,

and (4) Theory of meditation.



Counselor-offered Conditions, Personality
and Client Growth


In 1952 and 1961 Eysenck published research which

seemed to deny the value of counseling and psychotherapy

(Eysenck, 1952, 1961). These controversial articles caused

those who were convinced of the benefits of counseling to

try to find ways to show its effectiveness. Part of what

they found was that there were some factors that could be

isolated which distinguished effective from ineffective

therapists. These ingredients Rogers calls the "necessary

and sufficient conditions" for therapeutic change (Rogers,

1961). These necessary and sufficient conditions have become

the basis for the scales measuring counselor effectiveness

that Truax developed (Truax, 1961b, 1962a, 1962b).








Since the early 1960's Truax, Carkhuff and others have

conducted research on therapist and client variables that

have accounted for positive outcomes in therapy (Truax &

Carkhuff, 1967; Carkhuff, 1966; Carkhuff, 1969a; Carkhuff

& Berenson, 1967).

The Truax and Carkhuff research findings can be

summarized as follows:

(1) Individuals possessing such personal character-

istics as empathic understanding, nonpossessive

warmth and genuineness can effect positive

changes in clients. They can also rapidly

develop more sophisticated therapeutic skills.

(2) Counselors who have the facilitative inter-

personal qualities effect therapeutic changes

without fully understanding the complexities of

personality dynamics.

(3) Lengthy professional training is not a pre-

requisite for effective functioning as a

therapist.

(4) Paraprofessionals with limited training can be

just as effective as professionals in facilitat-

ing client change over relatively short periods

of time.

Piaget, Berenson, and Carkhuff (1967) found that high-

functioning therapists elicited higher levels of client

self-exploration than did moderate-functioning therapists.








The higher the initial level of client self-exploration,

the more elevated it becomes in the presence of a high-

functioning therapist, whereas the moderate to poor thera-

pist had his most deleterious effects on clients with

initially low levels of self-exploration. When therapists

intentionally lowered their levels of functioning during the

middle third of the interview, the self-exploration of those

clients of moderate-functioning therapists were more

seriously lowered and the moderate-functioning therapists

appeared less able to reestablish the earlier exhibited

level of facilitative conditions.

Cannon and Pierce (1968) designed a two-way study to

check on the effect of lowered and heightened facilitative

conditions. The therapists saw three patients in a 45

minute interview. Group I therapists offered Hi-Low-Hi

conditions and Group II therapists offered Low-Hi-Low con-

ditions. Results indicate that the clients explored them-

selves more deeply (p<.05) when the therapists offered

high-level conditions.

Holder (1968) found that high-functioning helpers have

clients who engage in significantly fewer (p<.05) topics

and engage in each topic for approximately 20 minutes. The

study compared nine high rated versus nine low rated inter-

viewers.









In studying the effects of these conditions in other

settings Aspy (1965) found that students receiving rela-

tively high levels of empathic understanding, warmth and

genuineness from teachers gained significantly in reading

achievement (p<.01). Truax and Tatum (1966) found that

observer ratings of facilitative behavior of teachers were

significantly correlated with increased socialization and

adjustment of their students. Thus, the above mentioned

conditions seem to be important for facilitative teacher-

child relationships as well as counselor-client

relationships.




Facilitative Conditions and Personality


A few research investigations have attempted to study

the relationships between particular personality charac-

teristics of counselors and their ability to offer the

therapeutic conditions previously mentioned.

Bergin and Solomon (1963) found that the Depression

(p<.05) and Psychasthenia (p<.01) scale of the Minnesota

Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) correlated

negatively with ratings of therapist empathy. The Consist-

ency, Intraception and Order Scale of the Edwards Personal

Preference Schedule (EPPS) were negatively correlated and

Dominance and Change were positively correlated with empathy.

All correlations were statistically significant (p<.05).









Foulds (1967) found significant positive relation-

ships between self-actualization measures, the Personal

Orientation Inventory (POI), and counselor trainees' ability

to offer conditions of empathy and genuineness at the end

of their practicum. This research found six POI scales

related to empathy and 10 to 12 scales related to

genuineness. Therefore, as measured by these scales,

positive mental health is related to the provision of a

positive therapeutic condition.

Truax and Carkhuff (1967, pp. 233-235) cite the

unpublished findings of Truax, Silber, and Wargo (1966)

of the correlation between counselor offered conditions of

empathic understanding, positive regard and genuineness

with EPPS scores. In this study the MMPI and the EPPS were

administered to 16 graduate students in counseling before

and after experiencing an integrated didactic and experi-

ential approach to training (Truax & Carkhuff, 1967).

Tape recorded counseling sessions were made early and late

in the training program and were then evaluated with respect

to the trainees' ability to communicate empathic under-

standing, positive regard, and genuineness to their clients.

Students showing high ability to offer these conditions

were then compared with students of lower ability in

demonstrating these conditions. Counselors showing the

greatest ability to provide the therapeutic conditions were









initially lower on the Order, Intraception, and Deference

scales of the EPPS than counselors who showed little or no

gain in ability to offer the therapeutic conditions.

The counselors who scored higher initially in the

Change and Autonomy scales scored even higher on these

scales by the end of the training program. Truax, Silber

and Wargo's findings were highly consistent with the

findings of the previously cited Bergin and Solomon study.

The data gathered from the studies cited above

suggest that the counselor's ability to offer high levels

of therapeutic or facilitative conditions in a counseling

relationship may be dependent on the well-being and

personal adequacy of the counselor. These studies have

indicated that counselors who are anxious, defensive,

conflicted or personally inadequate are least likely to

facilitate constructive behavior change in their clients.

Conversely, there is a positive relationship between the

personal adequacy, authenticity or self-actualization of

the counselor and his ability to facilitate constructive

change in his clients.

These studies emphasize the direct effects of the

helper's interpersonal level of functioning on the helpee.

According to Carkhuff's model, the degree to which the

helping person offers high levels of empathy, positive

regard, and genuineness is related directly to the degree








of the client's ability to internalize these facilitative

conditions into his own personal life. In addition, the

degree to which the action-oriented helpful counselor is

freely, spontaneously, and deeply himself, disclosing of

himself, actively confronting himself and the client,

being in the moment, and taking concrete courses of action

is directly related to the helpee's ability to apply these

same facilitative activities in his own life situation.

Counselor Verbal Responses Approach

Attempts to measure counselor effectiveness through

types and levels of verbal responses given by the counselor

are probably the most widely researched of all the dif-

ferent system of measuring counselor effectiveness. Carkhuff,

Truax, Berenson, and Rogers have been leading researchers

in this area. Their research deals primarily with relating

a set of interpersonal core factors to client gain. These

factors are empathy, unconditional positive regard, con-

gruency, and concreteness. Effectiveness of communication

of these relationship factors is measured through scales

that assess the effectiveness of counselor responses on

those dimensions.

In his model for effective therapy Carkhuff offers

several propositions concerning the effect of facilitative

helper dimensions on the client-counselor interaction. A

review of his two propositions and corollaries seems appro-

priate as the interactional scale used in this study closely









relates to that used by Carkhuff. In Helping and Human

Relations, Volume One, he supports the following statements

with a wide variety of research evidence.

Proposition I. The degree to which the
helping person offers high levels of
facilitative conditions in response to the
expressions of the person seeking help, is
related directly to the degree to which
the person seeking help engages in processes
to constructive change or gain.

Corollary I. The degree to which the helping
person offers high levels of empathic under-
standing of the helpee's world is related
directly to the degree to which the helpee is
able to understand himself and others.

Corollary II. The degree to which the helping
person communicates high levels of respect and
warmth for the helpee and his world is related
directly to the degree to which the helpee is
able to respect and direct warm feelings toward
himself and others.

Corollary III. The degree to which the helper
is helpful in guiding exploration to specific
feelings and content is related directly to
the degree to which the helpee is able to make
concrete his own problem areas.

Corollary IV. The degree to which the helper
is responsively genuine in his relationship
with the helpee is related to the degree to
which the helpee is able to be responsively
genuine in his relationship with himself and
others.

Proposition II. The degree to which the helping
person initiates action-oriented dimensions in
a helping relationship is directly related to
the degree to which the person seeking help
engages in processes that lead to constructive
change or growth.

Corollary I. The degree to which the helper
can be freely, spontaneously and deeply himself,
including the disclosing of significant infor-
mation about himself when appropriate, is








directly related to the degree to which the
helpee is able to be genuine and self-
disclosing in appropriate relationships.

Corollary II. The degree to which the helper
actively confronts the helpee and himself is
directly related to the degree to which the
helpee is able to confront himself and others.

Corollary III. The degree to which the helper
both acts and directs the actions of the
helpee immediately in the present in the
relationship between helper and helpee is re-
lated to the helpee's ability to act with
immediacy and later to direct the actions of
others.

Corollary IV. The degree to which the helper
can make concrete a course of constructive
action is related to the degree to which the
helpee can go on to make concrete courses of
action for himself and others. (Carkhuff,
1969, pp. 84-90)

These statements emphasize the direct effects of the

helper's interpersonal level of function on the helpee.

According to Carkhuff's model, the degree to which the

helping person offers high levels of empathy, warmth, re-

spect, concreteness, and genuineness is related directly to

the degree of the client's ability to internalize these

facilitative conditions into his own personal life. In

addition, the degree to which the action-oriented helpful

counselor is freely, spontaneously, and deeply himself,

disclosing of himself, actively confronting himself and the

client, being with the moment, and making concrete courses

of action is directly related to the helpee's ability to

apply these same facilitative activities in his own life

situation.









The Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) has been

found to have a .40 positive correlation with the Carkhuff

scales (Schauble, Pierce, & Resnikoff, 1976). Additionally,

it has been found to be more sensitive to small gains in

interpersonal level of functioning and thus more appropriate

for measuring relatively short-term counselor trainee

progress (Schauble, Pierce, & Resnikoff, 1976).



Psychological Effects of Meditation


The research available on meditation suggests that the

technique may be able to increase the degree of positive

personal characteristics needed by professional helpers.

These behaviors include enhanced awareness of one's own

feelings, the ability to hold cognitive processes in abey-

ance, enhanced perception, and increased present centered-

ness. The purpose of this section is to examine some of the

relevant investigations of meditation.

Much of meditation research has been conducted by the

members of the Transcendental Meditation Society (Bloomfield

et al., 1975); therefore, these studies will be reviewed

first.


Transcendental Meditation

Most of the studies investigating the psychological

effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) have used paper-

and-pencil tests. Some attention has been devoted to the








effects of TM on self-actualization as measured by the POI.

In the first such study (Seeman, Nidich, & Banta, 1972)

meditators and nonmeditators were administered the POI two

months apart. For the TM group, the first administration

took place two days prior to instruction in TM. There were

no differences between these groups on the first administra-

tion. But upon retesting the meditators scored significantly

higher (p<.05) than nonmeditators on 6 of the 12 scales

(inner directedness,self-actualizing value, spontaneity,

self-regard, acceptance of aggression, and capacity for

intimate contact). In a second study using the same design

Nidich, Seeman, and Dreskin (1973) found similar differences

in 10 of the 12 POI scales.

The differences found in these two studies were thought

to have been influenced by expectancy, that is, the experi-

mental subjects expected to experience positive personality

changes from the practice of meditation, whereas nonmedita-

tors had no such expectation of change. Hjelle (1974), in

order to test for this possibility, compared two groups of

experienced meditators (meditating average of 22.6 months)

and novice meditators who were tested a week prior to being

instructed in TM. Experienced meditators scored higher on

7 of the 12 POI scales (inner directedness, time competence,

spontaneity, self-regard, self-actualizing value, feeling

reactivity, and capacity for intimate contact. The findings

of Seeman et al. (1972) were supported by this study on five








scales (inner directedness, spontaneity, self-regard, self-

actualizing value, and capacity for intimate contact).

This suggests that expectancy may not have made any signifi-

cant difference in accounting for the observed changes.

Russie (1975) suggested that expectancy may be at least

a minor factor in the changes in the POI scores as a result

of TM. Meditators and nonmeditators were tested five months

apart, meditators having been first tested two days prior

to learning TM. After five months, meditators scored

significantly higher than nonmeditators on seven scales

(inner directedness, time competence, self-actualizing value,

feeling reactivity, spontaneity, self-acceptance, and

capacity for intimate contact). Changes on four of these

scales (inner directedness, self-actualizing value,

spontaneity, and capacity for intimate contact) replicated

the findings of both Seeman et al. (1972) and Hjelle (1974).

However, as determined by correlation between subjects'

pretest expectation scores and actual pre- and posttest

differences, a significant positive relationship (p<.04)

was found between prospective meditators' expectations of

positive changes and the results achieved in six of the POI

scales. Thus, while some of the changes in the POI do

appear to be a result of practicing TM, and are replicable,

they do not seem to have resulted entirely from expectancy.

Apparently expectation of change may account for at least

some of the variance in these differences.








Drennen and Chermol (in press) noted that initial

studies of the effects of TM on self-actualization (Seeman

et al., 1972; Nidich et al., 1973) did not control for

possible expectancy or placebo effect. That is, meditators

were not compared with nonmeditators who followed other

practices of regularly sitting quietly. These early studies

compared three groups: meditators, nonmeditators (who were

told to relax following a relaxation training twice a day

for 20 minute periods) and no treatment controls. The POI

was administered prior to instruction and again one month

later. Subjects in all groups showed positive changes on

the second administration of the POI: on 5 scales for the

control group, 6 scales for the TM group, and 9 scales for

the relaxation group. These results were interpreted as

indicating (a) that placebo effects need to be taken into

account in TM research, and (b) that other relaxation tech-

niques may produce changes similar to those resulting from

TM.

Dick and Ragland (1973) administered the POI eight

weeks apart to three groups of subjects who (a) learned TM,

(b) received individual counseling and learned TM, or (c)

received individual counseling and rested quietly for 15

minutes twice each day. Subjects in the latter two groups

were drawn from individuals seeking treatment at a counsel-

ing center and were randomly assigned to groups. Thus,

expectancy was controlled in that subjects in all three








groups expected some improvement, and the relaxation vari-

able was controlled by having control subjects rest twice

daily. The authors predicted that scores of the counseling

plus TM groups would be higher than for the group practicing

TM alone, which in turn, would be higher than the counseling

with rest group. This hypothesis was supported (p<.05) for

the time competence and inner directedness scales. It

appears, then, that TM facilitates certain changes measured

by the POI to a greater extent than expectancy or rest

alone can account for.

Research to date indicates that the regular practice of

TM certainly results in significantly positive changes in

self-actualization as measured by the POI. However, it is

quite possible that there may be other relaxation techniques

which produce similar changes. Transcendental meditation

has not been shown to be unique in its effects on self-

actualization as measured by the POI.


Relaxation Response

Another method of meditation which lends itself well

to research is that described by Benson. It is called the

Relaxation Response (RR). Beary and Benson (1974) have

provided evidence that RR is effective in eliciting the

relaxation response as defined by Benson and his colleagues

(Benson, 1975; Benson, Beary, & Carol, 1974; Wallace,

Benson, & Wilson, 1971). Seventeen subjects, each serving

as his own control, learned RR by reading instructions from








a sheet of paper. Subjects were novices at this technique.

Expectancy was minimized by telling subjects that only the

physiology of relaxation was being investigated. During

the experiment, subjects practiced RR during 1 of 5 consecu-

tive periods of 12 minutes each. During control periods

subjects either sat quietly and read material of neutral

emotional content or sat with eyes closed. Subjects were

randomly assigned to two sequences. Oxygen consumption,

carbon dioxide production and respiration rate were measured.

All three were significantly lower during the RR period

than during control periods. These results were interpreted

as indicating changes resulting from RR.

While the research on the effects of RR has been very

limited, especially with regard to psychological data,

initial findings suggest that the physiological and emo-

tional states produced by RR are similar to if not the same

as those associated with TM. Further, the regular practice

of RR may have beneficial long-term effects. This new

technique offers the opportunity for more highly controlled

studies of meditation.


Meditation in Theory

Three theories, two psychological and one physiological,

have been put forth to account for the effects of meditation.

Psychoanalytic Derepression

Initiates to TM (and to certain other forms of medi-

tation) are repeatedly reminded of the need for effortlessness.








That is, during meditation extraneous thoughts are not to

be resisted any more than they are to be attended to

closely; rather, such thoughts are to be allowed to occur

dispassionately. In practice, while a mantra is being re-

peated this effortless dealing with extraneous thoughts

amounts of noninterfering observation. Naranjo (1971) has

compared this observation to the activity of the second

witness (the therapist) to free associations of a patient

in the psychoanalytic situation. With repeated meditations,

resistance to the awareness of certain thoughts becomes

weakened, and such thoughts become increasingly spontaneous.

Shaffii (1973) has compared the meditation and psycho-

analytic processes in detail. Two major events are common

to both. The reexperiencing of psychic traumas during

meditation frees psychic energy for present uses. This

amounts to bringing repressed thoughts into consciousness

and transcending the conflicts related to them. The repeti-

tion of such events leads gradually to a controlled regres-

sion to a nonverbal stage of development, at which point

traumatic experiences can be resolved internally at a level

deeper than verbal or cognitive processes permit. The major

difference between psychoanalysis and meditation is that the

former emphasizes verbalization and the latter silence. The

therapeutic aspects of both processes are seen to be the

same.









Generalized Desensitization

A second theory, behavioral in nature, is quite com-

patible with the first. Goleman (1971, 1974), noting the

similarity between the relaxation states produced by both

meditation and relaxation training, has compared meditation

with systematic desensitization. In the latter, a hierarchy

of images troublesome to a patient is presented to him by a

therapist while he is relaxed, beginning with the least

anxiety-producing images and ending with the most trouble-

some. Anxiety responses are thereby inhibited by the

association of relaxation with stimuli. In meditation, the

contents of the mind (both verbalizations and imagery) are

presented to consciousness in a self-regulated manner while

the meditator is relaxed. As troublesome thoughts occur,

anxiety is inhibited by the association of relaxation with

such thoughts. While this occurs in a less systematic

manner than in desensitization, the hierarchy is optimally

salient to the individual. Meditation is seen as a slower

and less efficient means to the same end, but perhaps a more

thorough one in that items in the hierarchy are not limited

to those selected by therapist and patient.

The Relaxation Response (RR)

A third theory, compatible with both of the above

theories, is based on the physiological correlates of

meditation. Benson (1975) and Benson et al. (1974) have

theorized that the physiological changes associated

with meditation constitute "an integrated hypothalamic








response which results in generalized decreased sympathetic

nervous system activity, and perhaps also increased para-

sympathetic activity" (Benson et al., 1974, p. 37). This

relaxation response is the counterpart of the flight-or-

fight response of extreme arousal. The latter is also an

integrated response, mediated by the sympathetic nervous

system and characterized by increased arousal and body

metabolism, which is elicited by and prepares an organism

for dealing with a threatening situation or set of stimuli.

Because civilized man is socially reinforced for

inhibiting literal fight-or-flight responses, the repeated

elicitation of the fight-or-flight response in varying

degrees results in the accumulation of stress at a physio-

logical level, and probably at other levels as well. A

person thus may become less efficient with time due to ever-

accumulating stress. The regular elicitation of the

relaxation response, which TM and other forms of meditation

provide, serves both to release accumulated stresses and

to prevent further accumulation. This may result in the

alleviation and prevention of physical, mental, and emotional

symptoms that are produced by stress.

French and Tupin (1973, 1974) and Benson (1975a and b)

have developed procedures designed to elicit the relaxation

response in a manner similar to that of TM and other forms

of meditation. The latter procedure is the only one to

have been researched in a controlled manner.








Benson (1975b) reported that his technique for elicit-

ing the relaxation response was developed by comparing the

various practices of meditation, yoga, prayer, and secular

relaxation practices. Four essential components were found

to be common to these practices: (a) a mental device con-

sisting of some constant stimulus upon which attention is

focused; (b) a passive attitude (i.e., not trying to relax

and not worrying about whether the technique is being

practiced correctly); (c) decreased muscle tonus, which

necessitates a posture conducive to relaxation; and (d) a

quiet environment in which outside stimuli are minimal. The

procedure for eliciting the relaxation response, as de-

scribed by Benson (1975), consists of having a person sit

quietly in a comfortable position, close his eyes, relax all

the body muscles (beginning with the feet and progressing

upward to the face), and once relaxation is attained, repeat

silently to himself the word "ONE" in conjunction with each

respiratory exhalation.


Elements of Meditation

Beary and Benson (1974) have provided evidence that

this technique of meditation is effective in eliciting the

relaxation response as defined by Benson and his colleagues

(Benson, 1975; Benson et al., 1975; Wallace et al., 1971).

Seventeen subjects, each serving as his own control, learned

RR by reading instructions from a sheet of paper. Prior to

being studied, practice had been limited to one hour, so








that subjects were relative novices at the technique.

Expectancy was minimized by telling subjects only that the

physiology of relaxation was being investigated. During the

experiment, subjects practiced the RR during 1 of 5 con-

secutive periods of 12 minutes each. During control periods,

subjects either sat quietly and read material of neutral

emotional content or sat with eyes closed. Subjects were

randomly assigned to two sequences. Oxygen consumption,

carbon dioxide production, and respiration rate were meas-

ured. All three were significantly lower during the RR

period than during control periods, and sitting with eyes

closed resulted in no differences from sitting and reading.

There is also evidence that the regular practice of RR

may have long-term physiological effects. Benson (1975b;

Beary & Benson, 1974) reported that the regular practice of

RR has been found to be associated with decreased blood

pressure in hypertensive patients and increased blood pres-

sure in hypotensive patients. Benson, Alexander, and

Feldman (1975) found that the regular practice of RR after

four weeks reduced premature ventricular contractions in

patients with ischaemic heart disease during both wakeful-

ness and sleep.

The previously cited research of Benson et al. (1975)

and Benson et al. (1974) have provided evidence that this

technique of meditation is effective in eliciting the relax-

ation response as defined by Benson (1975). The results of




30


these studies were interpreted as indicating changes

resulting from the RR were similar to those resulting from

TM.














CHAPTER III

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND PROCEDURES



This chapter discusses the experimental design used in

the study and the major considerations involved. It in-

cludes a description of the training program, the study

population, the hypotheses advanced, and the criterion

instruments employed. In addition, the chapter provides

an explanation of experimental procedures used in the

investigation.



Experimental Design


This study employed the pretest-posttest control group

design which included the following procedure:

1) the administration of a pretest to both groups;

2) administration of treatment to the experimental

group, but not the control group, and

3) administration of a posttest to both groups.

Students were assigned to groups by means of their

Personal Data Sheets collected during the orientation ses-

sion. Each data sheet was numbered inconspiciously 1, 2,

or 3 and distributed at the orientation session. Subjects







whose sheets numbered 1 or 2 became the experimental group

and those numbered 3 became the control group. However,

these numbers were known only to the experimenter.


Population

A group of paraprofessional counselor students in their

first term at the Santa Fe Community College Human Services

Department was selected to be the subjects of this study.

Out of a total of 36 students in the program, 28 volunteered

initially. Two students dropped out of the Human Services

program after two weeks and 4 dropped out of this study as

subjects. The total number of subjects completing the

study was 22 (see demographic data sheet, Appendix C).


Subjects' Demographic Data

Sex--The sexual composition of the groups are as

follows: the experimental group had 9 females and 5 males.

The control group had 4 females and 4 males.

Race--The experimental group had 11 whites and 3 blacks.

The control group had 4 whites and 4 blacks.

Age--The figures for the total sample are: mean 26,

range 19-52, mode 21, and median 23. The figures for the

experimental group are: mean 27, range 19-52, mode 21, and

median 23. The figures for the control group are: mean 24,

range 19-38, mode 21, and median 22.








Marital status

Experimental Group Control Group

Single 42.8% 37.5%

Married 21.4% 12.5%

Separated, divorced
or widowed 35.8% 50.0%



Research Instruments


The instruments used in this study were: the Personal

Orientation Inventory (POI) (Shostrom, 1966) and the Coun-

selor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967).



Assessment of Self-Actualization


The psychological construct, "self-actualization," has

been used by personality theorists such as Combs (1962),

Maslow (1954, 1962), Rogers (1961), and others. Counselors,

psychotherapists, personality theorists, and researchers

have felt a need for a comprehensive measure of values and

behavior seen to be of importance in the development of

self-actualization. Shostrom (1964, 1966) developed the

Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) to meet this need.

Most diagnostic instruments have been developed for use with

seriously disturbed psychiatric populations, and they

attempt to provide measures of the subjects' pathology.

This is a negative approach to personality assessment.







Shostrom (1966) appears to use the terms self-actualization,

fully functioning, and positive mental health synonymously.

A description of the POI is presented below.


Personal Orientation Inventory (POI)

The POI is an instrument developed by Shostrom (1964,

1966) which purports to provide a comprehensive measure of

values believed to be of importance in the development of

self-actualization or positive mental health. The POI con-

sists of 150 two-choice paired-opposite statements of values,

and scores are reported for 2 major scales and 10

secondary scales which purport to assess particular person-

ality characteristics considered to be associated with self-

actualization. The POI purports to assess a person's

position on a continuum for each of the following personality

variables.

Major Scales:

Time Competence (Tc): measures the degree to
which one is "present" oriented.

2. Inner Direction (I): measures whether reactivity
orientation is basically toward self or others.

Secondary Scales:

1. Self-Actualizing Values (SAV): measures affirma-
tion of values held by self-actualizing persons.

2. Existertiality (Ex): measures ability to
situationally or existentially react without
rigid adherence to principles.

3. Feeling Reactivi t (Fr): measures sensitivity of
responsiveness to one's own needs and feelings.








4. Spontaneity (S): measures freedom to react
spontaneously or to be oneself.

5. Self-Regard (Sr): measures affirmation of worth
or strength.

6. Self-Acceptance (Sa): measures affirmation or
acceptance of self in spite of weaknesses or
deficiencies.

7. View of the Nature of Man (Nc): measures degree
of the constructive view of the nature of man,
masculinity, femininity.

8. Synergy (Sy): measures ability to be synergistic,
to transcend dichotomies.

9. Acceptance of Aggression (A): measures ability to
accept one's natural aggressiveness as opposed to
defensiveness, denial, or repression of aggression.

10. Capacity for Intimate Contact (C): measures
ability to develop contactful intimate relation-
ships with other human beings, unencumbered by
expectations and obligations.

The POI is essentially self-administered. The ques-

tions are printed in a reusable test booklet, and the

examinee records his answers on a specially designed answer

sheet. There is no time limit set for completion of the

inventory. Testing time is usually about 30 to 40 minutes.

The POI was validated on 650 freshmen at Los Angeles

State College, 75 members of a sensitivity training program

at UCLA, and 15 school psychologists in a special training

program. Retested after training, the latter two groups

showed definite growth in inner directedness.

The POI was also tested on three other groups: 160

normal adults, 29 relatively self-actualized adults, and

34 relatively nonself-actualized adults nominated by the








clinical psychology societies of Orange and Los Angeles

Counties, California. The test does discriminate between

self-actualized and nonself-actualized persons on 11 of 12

scales according to Shostrom (1964).

Robert Knapp (1965) compared the POI with the Eysenck

Personality Inventory (EPI). The EPI measures neuroticism-

stability and extraversion-introversion. High- and low-

neurotic students were selected from 136 undergraduates on

the basis of their EPI and correlated with the POI. Low-

neurotic students tended toward self-actualization as did

extroverted students. The POI and EPI are from different

theoretical frames of reference but seem to be tapping a

common core. Shostrom and Knapp (1956) correlated the POI

with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

and found high correlations between the POI and the Social

I.E. (SI) and Depression (D) scales of the MMPI.

The POI manual gives high reliability correlations of

.91 to .93. An independent retest (50 week interval) study

gave a much more modest correlation of .55 for the Time

Competent (Tc) scale and .71 for the Inner Directed (I)

scale. The mean correlation for the subscales was .58.

Although this is not as high as would be desirable, it is

well within the range of reliability similarly established

for the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule and the MMPI

(Ilardi & May, 1968). On the basis of the above studies

it was felt that the POI would be a valid instrument for the

present research.








Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS)

The CVRS purports to describe a counselor's response to

client communication in terms of four dichotomized dimen-

sions: (a) affective-cognitive; (b) understanding-

nonunderstanding; (c) specific-nonspecific; (d) exploratory-

nonexploratory. A fifth dimension, effective-noneffective,

provides a global rating of the adequacy of each response

which is made independently of the four descriptive ratings.

For the purposes of this study the first four dimensions

were used.

The unit of analysis was the verbal interaction between

counselor and client represented by a client statement and

counselor response. A counselor response is rated on each

of the four dimensions of the rating scale, with every

client-counselor interaction being judged independently of

preceding units. In judging an individual response, the

primary focus is on describing how the counselor responded

to the verbal elements of the client's communication. The

procedure is based upon the theories of Carl Rogers and

theories and research of Truax and Carkhuff.

The CVRS consists of five forced choice dichotomous

dimensions measuring the extent to which counselors are

characterized by affective, understanding, specific, explor-

atory, and effective responses. The dimensions are defined

as follows: An affective response is one which makes

reference to or encourages some affective or feeling aspect







of the client's communication while a cognitive response

refers to the cognitive component of a client's statement;

understanding refers to the counselor's ability to convey

to the client his awareness of, and his sensitivity to, the

client's feelings and concerns by attempting to deal with

the core of his concerns rather than making vague responses

or referring to peripheral concerns; exploratory responses

encourage the client to explore his feelings and provide

him with an opportunity to do so. Nonexploratory responses

typically restrict the client's freedom to explore. The

final dimension, effective-noneffective, is a global rating

of overall effectiveness of a counselor's response in

promoting client movement. A sample rating sheet can be

found in Appendix B.

Inter-judge reliability was determined by applying

Hoyt's analysis of variance technique to the ratings of two

sets of judges who had rated the videotaped interviews of

50 inexperienced M.A. candidates in Counseling and Guidance

at Michigan State University. Corresponding four minute

segments were rated for 53 counselors (the post tape of one

of the M.A. candidates was lost). Of the 53, 45 were M.S.

candidates and 8 Ph.D. candidates, and they interviewed the

same coached client. Because timed segments with unequal

numbers of responses were used, ratings were converted to

proportionate scores. Corresponding 20 response segments

were rated for the remaining 10 counseling interviews.








Coefficients were obtained of average tape inter-judge

reliability of .84, .80, .79, .68, and .79 for the affective-

cognitive, understanding-nonunderstanding, specific-

nonspecific, exploratory-nonexploratory, and effective-

noneffective dimensions of the scale, respectively (Kagan &

Krathwohl, 1967).

These scales have been validated on 53 counselor educa-

tion trainees. Forty-five of these trainees were M.A. candi-

dates and 8 were Ph.D. candidates. Tapes of counseling

interviews from each of the trainees were collected and

rated using the CVRS. On each dimension of the scale signif-

icances (p<.01) were found between the responses of the Ph.D.

candidates and the M.A. candidates, with the former having

more responses rated as affective, understanding, specific,

exploratory, and effective (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967). When

separate ratings were made of 10 counselors with M.A.'s

having some advanced training and counseling experience and

were compared to the ratings of the 53 trainees, the

response pattern of these counselors fell between those of

the M.A. and the Ph.D. candidates (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967).

Other validation studies have been conducted by Kagan and

Krathwohl (1967, pp. 84-90).

The CVRS differs from other rating scales in that it

focuses on a series of individual client/counselor verbal

units (client statement . counselor response) during the

course of an interview, rather than on global ratings of









entire interviews or longer interview segments. Thus, the

judge is required to describe every counselor response to

a client's verbalization on each of the dimensions of the

scale. After 20 counselor responses have been dichotomized

on each dimension, totals are obtained. A sample rating

record sheet can be found in Appendix B.

These scales have been validated through several

studies presented by Kagan and Krathwohl (1967, pp. 84-90).

Ratings in this scale have also been found to have a

positive correlation with the Carkhuff scales (Schauble,

Pierce & Resnikoff, 1976). These scales have also been

validated in extensive process and outcome research in

counseling and psychotherapy (Truax & Carkhuff, 1967).

(Refer to Appendix B.)


Demographic questionnaire

The demographic questionnaire or personal data sheet

was intended to elicit personal information so that com-

parisons could be made between the two sample groups. This

questionnaire was developed by the Human Services Department

of Santa Fe Community College as a student data sheet. A

sample of this form may be found in Appendix E.



Collection of Data


Initial Data

In an orientation session during the first week of

classes for the winter semester 1977, 26 students








volunteering for this study from the Human Services Program

were pretested using the POI. At this time they also filled

out a student data sheet. After completion of the POI the

subjects were given a cassette tape and asked to make a 30

minute taped interview with a student in their class acting

as a client who would share a problem with the subject

acting as counselor. These tapes were made during class

time with other students.


Selection and Training of Raters

Research on the selection of raters suggest that both

raters' level of functioning and raters' training by a

qualified professional are a significant influence on dis-

crimination scores (Cannon & Carkhuff, 1969), and that

persons functioning below minimal facilitation levels (level

3) would not be capable of accurate ratings. While the

CVRS used in this research employs a dichotomous rating

assignment, the training and rating procedure are essentially

the same.

Four raters were selected from a group of graduate

students in counseling psychology. Those individuals were

functioning at above minimal levels of facilitative inter-

action, as judged by independent ratings of their own tapes

as helpers. The training of the raters was conducted by a

Counseling Psychologist, at the University of Florida's

Counseling Center, who is experienced in using the process

scales.








A pair of trained judges individually rated pre- and

postinterview segments with respect to the CVRS. For the

CVRS scale a 10 minute segment from each tape was selected.

A 5 minute segment in the first half and a 5 minute segment

in the second half of each counseling tape were used.

Raters started rating the first response after the first

minute of the interview. Then they advanced the tape to

the middle and rated the following 5 minute segment.


Relaxation Response (RR) Training

All subjects attended a general meeting during the

second week of the semester and the counseling tapes were

collected. At this time the experimental group was told to

remain for further training in the RR. Students in the

control group met separately and were told they would learn

the RR at the end of the semester.

The researcher then instructed the 14 experimental

group subjects in the RR in three phases, in a manner

similar to that described by Benson (1975).

Phase 1. Instructions:

Find a comfortable position. Close your eyes,

Deeply relax your muscles as you repeat inter-

nally, "I relax my feet . I relax my calves

S. .etc." Beginning at your feet and pro-

gressing up to your face--feet, calves, thighs,

lower torso, chest, shoulders, neck, head. Allow

them to remain deeply relaxed. Now breathe








through your nose and feel your breathing.

(Students practiced this for 2 minutes.)

Phase 2. Instructions:

Sit comfortably with your eyes closed for a

moment Open our eyes . Close the eyes

SOpen the eyes . Were you aware of

thoughts during the silence? Did you notice

how easily and naturally they came? This is

how easily you should think of the sound "So"

as you breathe in and "Hum" as you breathe out.

Now close your eyes again and begin repeating the

sound "So" each time you breathe in and "Hum"

each time you breathe out. Slowly open the eyes.

(Student practiced this for 5 minutes.)

Phase 3. Instructions:

This is the way to do the RR. Remember, don't

resist thoughts or sounds, but when they occur,

gently allow your mind to return to the sound

"So" when breathing in and "Hum" when breathing

out. Remember to wait about half a minute with

eyes closed before beginning to practice and take

a couple of minutes to open your eyes after you

finish. Are there any questions? (At this point

questions that may arise are answered and sub-

jects are given an opportunity to discuss their

experience with RR.)









Before the training session ended subjects were given

written instructions to take with them (Appendix A) on how

to bring forth the relaxation response.

Students were then reminded to practice the RR daily

for the duration of the semester and were given a calendar

to record the time and days they practiced (Appendix C).


Posttest

A date and time were set for posttesting in 10 weeks.

At that time all subjects were given the POI for the second

time. Subjects were given a second cassette tape to record

a posttest counseling tape to be submitted the following

week.

Upon receiving all the tapes, the control group was

trained during the last week of the semester in the RR in

the manner described above.


CVRS Data Collection

At the conclusion of the semester all pre- and post-

tapes which had been collected by the experimenter were sent

to the University of Florida Counseling Center for analyses

on the CVRS scale by a trained set of raters (see section on

Selection and Training of Raters, page 41 above) and sub-

sequently returned to the experimenter.


Statistical Design

The criterion instruments were administered to the

subjects in both experimental and control groups prior to








and after the first semester of training in the Human

Services Program. Analysis of the POI score employed the

Mann-Whitney U test. The Mann-Whitney U test may be used

to test whether two independent groups have been drawn from

the same population. This is one of the most powerful of

the nonparametric tests, and it is a most useful alternative

to the parametric "t" test when the researcher wishes to

avoid the "t" test's assumptions, or when the measurement

in the research is weaker than interval scaling (Siegel,

1956). However, for purposes of comparing the results, the

traditional "t" test was also made on the POI scores and

those results are also shown. The analysis of the CVRS data

employs the "t" test as well as cross-tabular analysis of

the CVRS scores converted to percentage figures.














CHAPTER IV

RESULTS OF THE STUDY



The purpose of this study was to investigate the

effect of the Relaxation Response on the personality charac-

teristics of paraprofessional counselors. In the first

part of this chapter, the analyses of the data relevant to

the hypothesis are reported. In the second part of the

chapter, additional analyses are summarized.

Two instruments were used to measure and evaluate 16

variables in a pre-post test design. Five major hypotheses

and 10 minor hypotheses were concerned with each of the

variables. The major hypotheses were statements of no

difference between groups. The minor hypotheses were

statements of no difference within each treatment group.

The ManrnWhitney U was used to test measures of Self-

Actualization as was the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic

and the "t" test statistic. The "t" test statistic was

used to test the significance of changes in proportion of

facilitative responses on the CVRS.









Testing of the Hypothesis


Hypothesis 1: Self-Actualization

Hypothesis H1: There will be no significant dif-

ference in gain in self-actualization between subjects in

the RR (experimental) and in the NRR (control) groups as

measured by the POI.

A summary of the analysis of the posttest POI scores

relevant to this hypothesis is found in Table 1. Because

of the significant gains (p<.05) made in five of the scales

(Other, Inner, Existentiality, Spontaneity, Self-Acceptance,

and Acceptance of Aggression) the hypothesis H1 was rejected.

Hypothesis H A: There will be no significant gain in

self-actualization for RR (experimental) group subjects.

A summary of the analysis of the Experimental Group

pretest vs posttest scores relevant to this hypothesis is

found in Table 2. Because of the significant gains in the

Inner Directed, Spontaneity, Self-Regard and the Self-

Acceptance scales (see Table 2 for the relevant confidence

levels) hypothesis HIA was rejected.

Hypothesis HIB: There will be no significant gain in

self-actualization for subjects in the NRR (control) group.

A summary of the analysis of the Control Group pretest

vs posttest POI scores relevant to this hypothesis is found

in Table 3. Because of the lack of significant gains in

the scales hypothesis H1B was accepted.












Table 1
Analysis of Posttest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups


Control Experimental Mean
POI symbol** mean S.D. mean S.D. difference U* Significance


Ti 7.88 4.27 6.00 3.08 -1.88 38 NS

Tc 15.13 4.27 17.01 3.08 1.88 38 NS

0 46.13 9.51 34.87 13.33 -11.26 30 p<.05 Exp.
I 79.25 9.48 91.94 13.31 12.69 29 p<.05 Exp.>Cont.

SAV 20.00 2.23 19.93 2.93 .07 49 NS

Ex 17.38 3.66 22.15 5.40 4.77 27 p<.05 Exp.>Cont.

Fr 15.75 2.62 17.57 2.98 1.82 32.5 NS

S 12.38 2.77 14.72 1.81 2.34 31 p<.05 Exp.>Cont.

Sr 11.13 2.36 12.87 2.28 1.74 35 NS

Sa 13.75 2.56 17.86 3.09 -4.11 17 p<.05 Exp.>Cont.

Nc 11.25 2.72 12.29 1.51 1.04 45 NS

Sy 6.25 .94 6.72 1.09 0.47 49.5 NS

A 14.75 1.89 16.51 3.64 1.76 32 NS

C 17.38 4.40 20.37 3.82 2.99 33.5 NS


*Mann-Whitney U.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description













Table 2
Analysis of Experimental Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores


Pretest Posttest Mean
POI symbol** mean S.D. mean S.D. difference W* Significance


Ti 6.21 2.77 6.00 3.08 -0.21 42 NS

Tc 16.80 2.77 17.01 3,08 0.21 42 NS

0 39.94 9.60 34.87 13.33 -5.07 29 NS

I 85.43 9.55 91.94 13.31 6.51 26.5 NS

SAV 20.51 2.79 19.93 2.93 -0.58 22 NS

Ex 20.79 3.71 22.15 5.40 1.36 30.5 NS

Fr 16.86 2.72 17.57 2.98 0.71 27 NS

S 13.79 1.67 14.72 1.81 0.93 21 NS

Sr 11.87 2.21 12.87 2.28 1.00 13 p<.05 Post>Pre

Sa 14.79 2.72 17.86 3.09 3.07 20 p<.05 Post>Pre

Nc 12.29 1.54 12.29 1.51 0 38.5 NS

Sy 6.86 1.09 6.72 1.09 .14 8 NS

A 15.87 2.73 16.51 3.64 0.64 40.5 NS

C 19.16 2.43 20.37 3.82 1.21 24.5 NS


*Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description.













Table 3
Analysis of Control Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores


Pretest
POI symbol** mean S.D.


7.88

15.13

43.75

78.00

18.75

17.75

15.63

12.38

11.50

14.13

8.75

6.50

15.88

17.88


3.13

3.13

6.99

8.03

3.88

4.31

1.37

1.64

2.28

3.01

2.32

.83

1.26

2.56


Posttest Mean
mean S.D. difference W*


7.88

15.13

46.13

79.25

20.00

17.38

15.75

12.38

11.13

13.75

1 1.25

6.25

14.75

17.38


4.27

4.27

9.51

9.48

2.23

3.66

2.62

2.77

2.36

2.57

2.72

.94

1.89

4.40


0

0

2.38

1.25

1.25

-0.37

0.12

0

-0.37

-0.38

2.50

- .25

1.13

- .50


10.5

10.5

12

10.5

5

9

18

14

10.5

6

1.5

5

7

12.5


*Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description.


Significance








At this point it should be noted that the Mann-Whitney

U showed no significant differences between the pretest POI

scores of the control and experimental groups with the

single exception of the scale, Nature of Man, Constructive,

where the experimental group received a significantly higher

score than the control group. See Table 4.


Hypothesis 2: Affective/Coqnitive

Hypothesis H2: There will be no significant difference

in gain between subjects in the RR and NRR groups in terms

of the feeling level of their responses to clients.

Table 5 presents a summary of the results of applying

"t" tests of significance to the facilitative responses of

the subjects as measured on the Counselor Verbal Response

Scale. The nonfacilitative components of these four dichot-

omized dimensions are not shown in Table 5 since we are

focusing on possible gains in facilitative responses and a

gain in one component of a dimension is necessarily accom-

panied by an equal loss in the score of the other component,

and vice versa.

Since Table 5 shows that there was no significant dif-

ference in the posttest scores of the control and experi-

mental groups, this hypothesis is accepted.

Hypothesis H2A: There will be no significant gain in

feeling level of the responses to their clients for sub-

jects in the RR group.












Table 4
Analysis of Pretest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups


Control Experimental Mean
POI symbol** mean S.D. mean S.D. difference U* Significance


Ti 7.88 3.13 6.21 2.77 -1.67 34.5 NS

Tc 15.13 3.13 16.80 2.77 1.67 34.5 NS

0 43.75 6.99 39.94 9.60 -3.81 50.5 NS

I 78.00 8.03 85.43 9.55 7.43 34.5 NS

SAV 18.75 3.88 20.51 2.79 1.76 43.5 NS

Ex 17.75 4.31 20.79 3.71 3.04 39 NS

Fr 15.63 1.37 16.86 2.72 1.23 32 NS

S 12.38 1.64 13.79 1.67 1.41 34.5 NS

Sr 11.50 2.28 11.87 2.21 0.37 55.5 NS

Sa 14.13 3.01 14.79 2.72 0.66 48.5 NS

Nc 8.75 2.32 12.29 1.54 3.54 14 p<.05 Cont.>Exp.

Sy 6.50 .83 6.86 1.09 0.36 48 NS

A 15.88 1.26 15.87 2.73 .01 49.5 NS

C 17.88 2.56 19.16 2.42 1.28 43 NS


*Mann-Whitney U.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description.








Table 5
Analysis of CVRS* Scores for Facilitative Responses


Facilitative Response** "t" Score Significance


Dimension: Affective

Control: Pretest vs. Posttest

Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Pretest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest

Dimension: Understanding

Control: Pretest vs. Posttest

Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Pretest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest

Dimension: Specific

Control: Pretest vs. Posttest

Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Pretest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest

Dimension: Exploratory

Control: Pretest vs. Posttest

Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Pretest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest


1.208

1.466

0.383

1 .566



1.325

2.790

1.748

2.511



0.504

1.833

1.011

1.226



1.678

0.766

0.994

1.175


*Counselor Verbal Response Scale.
**Facilitative responses only are analyzed
are in terms of proportion of responses.


NS

p<.05 Post>Pre

NS

p<.05 Exp.>Cont.



NS

NS

NS

NS



NS

NS

NS

NS


since scores








No significant gain was found between the pretest and

posttest scores of the RR group; therefore this hypothesis

is accepted. See Table 5.

Hypothesis H2B: There will be no significant gain in

feeling level in the responses to their clients for sub-

jects in the NRR group.

Since no significant gain was found, Table 5, between

the pretest and posttest scores of the NRR group, this

hypothesis is accepted.


Hypothesis 3: Understanding/Nonunderstanding

Hypothesis H3: There will be no significant difference

in gain in understanding of client responses between sub-

jects in the RR and the NRR groups.

As shown in Table 5, a significant difference (p<.05)

was found in gain in understanding between the posttest

scores of the experimental group compared with the control

group. Therefore, this hypothesis is rejected.

Hypothesis H 3A: There will be no significant difference

in gain in understanding of client responses for subjects

in the RR group.

Table 5 reflects the finding of a significant gain in

understanding in the posttest scores of the RR group com-

pared with their pretest scores. Therefore, this hypothesis

is rejected.










Hypothesis H3B: There will be no significant gain in

understanding of client responses for subjects in the NRR

group.

No significant gain was found between the posttest and

pretest scores of the NRR group, as indicated in Table 5.

Therefore, this hypothesis is accepted.


Hypothesis 4: Specific/Nonspecific

Hypothesis H4: There will be no difference in gain

between the RR and the NRR groups in the degree of

specificity of responses to their clients.

Application of the "t" test of significance to the

posttest scores of the two groups found the differences not

significant at the 95 percent level of confidence. This

hypothesis, therefore, is accepted.

Hypothesis H4A: There will be no significant gain in

the degree of specificity of responses to clients for sub-

jects in the RR group.

No significant gain was found between the pretest and

posttest scores of the RR group and, therefore, this

hypothesis is accepted.

Hypothesis H B: There will be no significant gain in

the degree of specificity of responses to clients for sub-

jects in the NRR group.

No significant gain was found between the pretest and

posttest scores of the NRR group, as indicated in Table 5.

Hypothesis H4B, therefore, is accepted.








Hypothesis 5: Exploratory/Nonexploratory

Hypothesis H5: There will be no significant difference

in gain between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in

ability to give responses that lead clients to further

self-exploration.

The difference in the posttest scores of the two

groups were not significant (p<.05) and this hypothesis is

accepted.

Hypothesis H5A: There will be no significant gain in

ability to give responses that lead clients to further self-

exploration for subjects in the RR group.

No significant differences were found in the pretest

and posttest scores of the subjects in the RR group. This

hypothesis, therefore, is accepted.

Hypothesis H5B: There will be no significant gain in

ability to give responses that lead clients to further self-

exploration for subjects in the NRR group.

The pretest and posttest scores of subjects in the NRR

group revealed no significant gain. Hypothesis H5B is

accepted for that reason.

The analysis of our results thus far indicates that,

although the RR group scored significant gains in a broad

range of self-actualizing values, which replicates some of

the results reported in Chapter II (Seeman, Nidich, & Banta,

1972), these gains were translated into higher ratios of

facilitiative responses only in the dimension of understanding.









The RR group gained in this dimension both in relation to

its own pretest score and vis-a-vis the control group in the

posttest scores. However, when we examine the actual group

means which are shown in Table 6 and Table 7 in terms of

actual proportions (percentages) of responses, a somewhat

different picture emerges. Table 6 shows that whereas the

control group actually decreased their proportion of

facilitative responses for each of the four dimensions, the

experimental group showed an increase in every case. This

group's affective, understanding and specific responses

increased by 50 percent or more while its exploratory re-

sponses increased by almost 18 percent, comparing posttest

to pretest scores. If we sum the group means of just the

facilitative responses for each dimension we find that the

combined group mean proportion went from 46.8 percent down

to 37.9 percent for the control group while increasing from

35.8 percent to 51.4 percent for the experimental group.

A comparison of the pretest scores of the two groups,

as shown in Table 7, reveals that the average proportion of

all facilitative responses of the experimental group was 11

points, or almost 31 percent lower than that for the

control group. By the time of the posttest, however, the

experimental group had a combined mean proportion that was

13.5 points and 26 percent higher than the control subjects.

These are impressive gains by the experimental group but

not large enough, except in the case of the understanding








Table 6
Comparisons of Group Mean Facilitative Responses
RR* & NRR** Groups: Pretest vs Posttest


Dimensions


Mean Proportion Point
Pretest Posttest Difference


Percent
Change


RR (Experimental) Group


Affective
Cognitive
Understanding
Nonunderstanding
Specific
Nonspecific
Exploratory
Nonexploratory

Mean Proportion of
All Facilitative Res.


15.3
84.7
55.1
44.9
27.8
72.2
44.9
55.1


35.8


28.4
71.6
82.4
17.6
41.9
58.1
52.8
47.2


51 .4


+13.1
-13.1
+27.3
-27.3
+14.1
-14.1
+7.9
-7.9


+15.6


+85.6
-15.5
+49.5
-60.0
+50.7
-19.5
+17.6
-14.3


+43.6


Affective
Cognitive
Understanding
Nonunderstanding
Exploratory
Nonexploratory


NRR (Control) Group

17.9 12.1
82.1 87.9
75.9 65.1 -
24.1 34.9 +1
55.6 41.5 -1
44.4 58.5 +1


Mean Proportion of
All Facilitative Res. 46.8


37.9


-5.8
+5.8
10.8
10.8
4.1
14.1


8.9


-32.4
+7.1
-44.8
+44.8
-25.4
+31.8


-19.0


*RR: Relaxation Response (Experimental Group).
**NRR: Non-Relaxation Response (Control Group).


-









Comparison
Pretest



Dimensions


Table 7
of Group Mean Facilitative Responses
and Posttest Scores: RR* vs NRR**


Mean Proportion Point Percent
RR NRR Difference Change


Affective
Cognitive

Understanding
Nonunderstanding

Specific
Nonspecific

Exploratory
Nonexploratory

Mean Proportion of
All Facilitative Res.



Affective
Cognitive

Understanding
Nonunderstanding

Specific
Nonspecific

Exploratory
Nonexploratory

Mean Proportion of
All Facilitative Res.


Pretest Responses
15.3 17.9
84.7 82.1

55.1 75.9
44.9 24.1

27.8 37.9
72.2 62.1

44.9 55.6
55.1 44.4


35.8


Post
28.4
71.6

82.4
17.6

41.9
58.1

52.8
47.2


51.4


-2.6
+2.6

-20.8
-20.8

-10.1
+10.1

-10.7
+10.7


46.8 -11.0


test Responses
12.1
87.9

65.1
34.9

32.8
67.2

41.5
58.5


37.9


+16.3
-16.3

+17.3
-17.3

+9.1
-9 .1

+11.3
-11.3


+13.5


-17.0
+3.1

-37.7
+46.3

-36.3
+14.0

-23.8
+19.4


-30.7



+57.4
-22.8

+21 .0
-98.3

+21.7
-15.7

+21 .4
-23.9


+26.3


*RR: Relaxation Response (Experimental Group).
**NRR: Non-Relaxation Response (Control Group).


----~-----









dimension, to conclude according to the "t" statistic test,

that such differences could be expected in only 5 percent

of the cases in samples drawn from the same population.

But this result stems from examining each of our

hypotheses, and therefore, each dimension separately from

the other. If we apply our "t" test statistic to the aver-

age proportion of all facilitative responses combined, as

shown in Tables 6 and 7 ("Mean Proportion of All Facilita-

tive Responses"), we get another perspective of the results.

Table 8 shows the results of applying "t" tests of

significance at the 95 percent confidence level (p<.05) to

the mean proportion of all four facilitative dimension

responses combined. These results show a significant dif-

ference between the pretest and posttest scores of the

control group which reflects the decrease in proportion of

facilitative responses pointed out above. On the other hand,

the experimental group showed significant gains both in

their own posttest scores compared to pretest, and in their

posttest scores compared to those of the control group.

Our conclusion, then, is that when individual dimen-

sions are considered, the experimental group shows gains at

the level of confidence we chose to employ, only in the

dimension of understanding. But there was a sufficient gain

in each dimension to produce an overall significant gain

when all facilitative responses in all dimensions are con-

sidered as a whole. No significant difference was found

between the pretest scores of the two groups.








As stated above, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U and

the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic were used to test meas-

ures of self-actualization in the POI and to serve as a

criterion for accepting or rejecting hypothesis 1. For

comparison purposes, the parametric "t" statistic was also

used to test the measures of Self-Actualization in

hypothesis 1. The results of these tests of significance

are given for information in Appendix E.

Table 11 of Appendix E agrees with Table 1 in the

text in the analysis of posttest POI scores, control vs

experimental, except that the "t" statistic found a signifi-

cant gain in Self-Regard (Sr) while the Mann-Whitney U did

not. On the other hand, the Mann-Whitney U indicates a

significant gain in the Acceptance of Aggression while the

"t" test statistic does not. In all important respects,

however, both tests tend to corroborate the findings of this

study.

Table 9 tabulates the number of responses by each

counselor in the 10 minute segment of tapes which was used

in rating counselor responses. These figures indicate that

there was no significant variation in the counselor re-

sponse level between groups or between tests of the same

group. Therefore, counselor response level is not consid-

ered to be a contributing factor to any variations in

results between treatment groups.








Table 8
Analysis of Mean Group Proportions
All Facilitative Responses on CVRS


Treatment Group "t


Control: Posttest vs Pretest

Experimental: Posttest vs Pretest

Pretest: Exp. vs Control

Posttest: Exp. vs Control


" Statistic Significance


4.19 p<.05 Pre>Post


3.77

2.96


p<.05 Post>Pre

NS


6.86 p<.05 Exp.>Cont.


Table 9
Counselor Response Level


Subject Number


Control Group_
Pretest Posttest


Exerimental Grou
Pretest Posttest


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Total Responses
Average Number


122 130
15.25 16.25


19
26
24
20
13
12
24
17
9
14
19
16
222
18.50


16
34
18
14
20
6
7
17
11
18
15
14
190
15.80


-- ------~









The average number of times per week that each subject

in the experimental group practiced Relaxation Response is

tabulated in Table 10. These data were computed from the

calendars maintained by each of the 12 subjects whose CVRS

responses have been tabulated in this report. As can be

seen in the figures, there was considerable variation as to

the number of times the members of the experimental group

practiced meditation. The bottom quartile averaged only

4.8 meditation sessions for the 10 week period while the

top quartile averaged 11 sessions. The overall average was

7.1 practice sessions per week, however,all quartiles but the

top one averaged less than the group average. No attempt

was made to collate calendar information with test scores

since the test results were not identified by subject name.

Therefore, no correlation between amount of meditation and

gains in facilitative response dimensions could be carried

out.











Table 10
Average Number of Relaxation Response Sessions
Per Week by Members of Experimental Group


Av. No. Weekly Quartile
Subject No. Quartile No. RR Sessions Average


4.2
4.8
5.5
5.6
6.1
6.1
6.4
6.8
7.0
7.6
12.1
13.2


4.8



5.9



6.7



11.0


Group Average
Group Median














Table 11
Scoring Categories for the Personal
Orientation Inventory


Number Scale
cf Items Number Symh o Description

1. Ratio Scores

23 1/2 T /TC TIME RATIO
rime Incompetence/
Time Competence -
measures degree
to which one Is
"present" or ented
127 3/4 0/1 SUPPORT RATIO
Other/Inner-
measures whether
reactivity orien-
tation is basi-
cally toward
others or self
II. Sub-Scales

26 5 SAV SELF-ACTUALIZIING
VALUE
Measures affirma-
tion of primary
values of self-
actual izng
persons
32 6 Ex EXISrENTIALI TY
Measures ability
to situationally
or existentially
react ithlout
rigid adherence
to principles
23 7 Fr FEELING RFACTIVITY
Measures seniltiivty
of responsivren's to
one's own needs and
feel Ings
18 8 S SPONTANEITY
Measures freedom to
react spontaneoualy
er to be oneself
16 9 Se SELF-REGARD
H(-asures aff irm.-
tinn of self b--
caiuse no worth or
strength


NImber Scale
of Items Number Symbol Description

26 10 Sa SELF-ACCEPTANCE
Measures affir-
mation or
acceptance of
self in spite
of weaknesses
or deficiencies
16 11 Nc NATURE OF MAN
Measures degree
of the construc-
tive vlew of the
nature of man,
m.asculinity,
feminity
9 12 Sy SYNERGY
Measures ability
to be synergistic,
to transcend
dIchotomies
25 13 A ACCEPTANCE OF
AGGRESSION
Measures ability
to accept one's
natural aggres-
sivenoss as
opposed to de-
fensiven-ss,
denial, and
repression of
aggress ian
28 14 C CAPACITY FOR
INTIMATE CONTACT
Measures ability
to develop ccn-
tactful intimate
relationships
with other hl~an
beings, uncn-
cumbered by
expectations and
obl nations














CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS



Summary


This study was designed to measure the effects of a

meditation technique upon the behavior of a group of para-

professionals acting as counselors. Of primary interest

was the question of whether or not a meditation technique

developed by Benson and referred to as the Relaxation

Response resulted in the enhancement of the positive person-

ality characteristics which have been correlated with

counselor effectiveness. It has been found (Carkhuff, 1969b,

pp. 84-90) that the degree to which the helping person

offers high levels of empathy, warmth, respect, concreteness

and genuineness is related directly to client growth.

Available research on meditation suggests that these are the

very qualities which have been found to be enhanced by

meditation. Previous research (see page 21, above, for

examples) found that meditators scored significantly higher

than nonmeditators on such scales as inner directedness,

time competence, self-actualization values, spontaneity and

self-acceptance. These are among the qualities measured by










the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) (Shostrom, 1966),

one of the research instruments used in this study.

The specific behavior examined in this study was the

counselor's responses to client communications in terms of

four dichotomized dimensions measured by the Counselor

Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967),

which is the other principal research instrument used in

this study. The four dichotomized dimensions included in

the CVRS are: 1) affective/cognitive; 2) understanding/

nonunderstanding; 3) specific/nonspecific; and 4) exploratory/

nonexploratory. Counselor response in a client-counselor

interaction was rated on each of the four dimensions of the

rating scale, with each interaction being judged as an

independent unit. The counselor's responses were judged

primarily on the manner in which he responded to the verbal

elements of the client's communication. The judges rated

each counselor response to the client on each of the dimen-

sions of the scale. Totals were tallied after responses had

been dichotomized on each dimension on two five minute

segments of each tape.

The study population consisted of 22 paraprofessional

counselor-candidates who were attending their first term

at the Santa Fe Community College Human Services Department.

These subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups--

an eight member control group and a 14 member experimental

group. Two of the tapes for the experimental group subjects









were lost and our CVRS analysis, therefore, was based upon

12 experimental group members, while the POI analysis covers

all 14 experimental group members.

The members of each group were pretested with the

Personal Orientation Inventory, an essentially self-

administered instrument developed by Shostrom (1964, 1966).

The POI consists of 150 two-choice paired opposite state-

ments of personal values which are believed to be important

in the development of positive mental health. Scores are

reported on two major scales and 10 secondary scales as out-

lined on page 34, above.

After completing the initial POI each subject, acting

as counselor, taped an interview with a fellow student,

acting as client. Subjects in the experimental group then

received instructions in the meditation technique developed

by Benson, called the Relaxation Response. They were given

forms on which to record the number of times and the time

of day that they practiced meditation during the ensuing 10

weeks in a regular daily program of meditation which they

were asked to undertake. Members of the control group were

told that they would receive instruction in RR at the end

of the semester.

At the end of 10 weeks all the subjects were given the

POI for the second time and were given a second cassette

tape on which to record a posttest counseling tape.









Four graduate students in counseling psychology were

selected as raters for the two sets of counseling tapes.

They were trained as raters by a counseling psychologist.

Ten minute segments of each tape were rated by each of two

raters. In scoring the CVRS the ratings of the two raters

were averaged.


Results

Significant gains by the experimental group compared to

the control group were found in 5 of the 12 scales of the

POI. The experimental group evidenced gains compared with

the control group in Inner Directedness, Existentiality,

Spontaneity, Self-Acceptance and Acceptance of Aggressive

Tendencies in Oneself. On the other hand, the control group

posttest scores showed a significant (p<.05) gain in Other

Directedness, a nonself-actualizing factor, relative to the

posttest scores of the experimental group.

All of these gains were found to be significant by use

of the Mann-Whitney U (see Table 1). Also, all of these

gains were corroborated as significant (p<.05) by the "t"

statistic, with the exception of Acceptance of Aggression.

In addition, the "t" statistic indicated a significant gain

in Self-Regard.

Use of the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic validated

significant gains in the experimental group's posttest

scores compared with those of the pretest in the following








dimensions: Inner Directedness, Spontaneity, Self-Regard

and Self-Acceptance.

There was a significant difference between the pretest

scores of the experimental versus the control group only

in the dimension, Nature of Man, Constructive, with the

experimental group ranking higher. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank

Statistic revealed no significant gains or losses in the

posttest scores of the control group compared with its pre-

test scores.

Performance of "t" tests of significance on the pretest

and posttest scores on the Counselor Verbal Response Scale

of the two groups revealed no significant differences except

in the understanding-nonunderstanding dimension. The RR

group's posttest scores showed significant gains compared

with their own pretest score and compared to the control

group's posttest scores. The pretest scores of the two

groups yielded no significant differences at all.

Thus there were no significant gains or losses in the

other three dichotomized dimensions: affective/cognitive;

specific/nonspecific; and exploratory/nonexploratory. How-

ever, comparisons of the actual group proportions expressed

in percentage terms reveals impressive percentage gains in

the posttest scores of the experimental group compared to

their pretest figures and compared to the posttest scores of

the control group. Whereas these gains were not great

enough by individual dimension to rule out the possibility









that they could have occurred in a similar pretest sample

drawn from the same population, when the proportions for

all dimensions were averaged for facilitative responses only,

significant differences did become apparent. Applying the

"t" test to the mean proportion of all facilitative responses

from all dimensions for each group revealed that: the

control group registered significant losses in the proportion

of facilitative responses; the experimental group exhibited

significant gains in the overall proportion of facilitative

responses, posttest versus pretest; and that the experi-

mental group gained significantly in their proportion of

facilitative responses vis-a-vis the control group, based

upon a comparison of their posttest scores.


Conclusions

In this study we attempted to measure the affects, if

any, on counselor behavior of a meditation technique,

Relaxation Response, which was developed by Benson. The

research design called for measuring in an experimental

group any gains in self-actualization that might be

attributable to meditation and the Relaxation Response.

Since the control group was chosen from the same population

as the experimental group and all other conditions and

influences were assumed to be equal--for example, the train-

ing that both groups were receiving at the Human Services

Department--any significant gains by the experimental group








might be attributed to the program of meditation carried out

by the members of that group.

The POI scores indicated that significant gains in a

broad spectrum of self-actualizing values were made by

the RR group. Particularly important was the gain by the

RR group in Inner Directedness, one of the two principal

scales of the POI. Inner, or self-directed individuals are

guided primarily by internal principles and motivations,

one of the attributes of positive mental health.

Did this gain by the experimental group in self-

actualizing values translate itself into more effective

counseling behavior as measured by the CVRS? Significant

gains in desirable counselor behavior were found only in the

dimension of understanding. No significant gains were noted

in the facilitative responses characterized as affective,

specific and exploratory. A possible explanation for this

result may be found in distinguishing between the charac-

terizations of counselor response in the CVRS model. The

habit of responding to client verbalizations in specific

terms or in terms that encourage further exploration could

be thought of as depending on learned technique rather than

on basic personality factors. In contrast, the quality of

understanding, particularly in the context of the inter-

actions between a counselor and client, would seem to depend

more on the stage of personality development and experience

than on specific techniques that can be taught in a class-

room situation.








If this premise is accepted, then it would seem logical

that new gains in a person's level of self-actualization and

in basic positive personality characteristics would first

manifest themselves in a greater capacity to understand the

communications of another human being. As we saw on page 3

above, Rogers (1957),in describing the necessary charac-

teristics of effective counselors, linked "empathic under-

standing of the client" and the "self-congruence of the

counselor." Thus in our present study, we may conclude that

the measured gains in self-actualization were linked at the

basic personality level to gains in the capacity for under-

standing. We may also conclude that such gains at the

level of personality development may not be translated

immediately into specific professional skills or techniques

(a verbal bag of tools) which require learning. This would

appear to be especially true of the subjects of this study

who were students in the initial stages of learning their

profession.

Our principal conclusion, based upon the results of

this study, is that the Benson Relaxation Response technique

of meditation appears to offer one means of acquiring and

developing the positive personality characteristics which

have been linked to effective counseling. The first results

of such a meditation technique may manifest themselves in

a capacity for increased understanding of another's communi-

cation.








Limitations of the Study


Generalization based on this study are limited to the

Santa Fe Community College Human Services Program for para-

professional counselors. The sampling procedures did not

make allowance for generalizing outside of this population.

A small sample size of twenty-two further limits generaliza-

bility.

The amount of time in which subjects engaged in the

practice of the Relaxation Response (RR) is an important

factor. The overall length of time that the experimental

group practiced the RR was 10 weeks. The average number of

times per week was 7 times. However, there was a wide vari-

ance in the meditation schedules of the individual members,

see Table 10. All quartiles except the top quartile had a

practice rate of less than the group average of 7 times a

week. It may be that a more consistent schedule may produce

more definite results. (See Implications for Future Research

#5) .



Implications for Future Research


The findings of this investigation suggest that a medi-

tation procedure, namely the Relaxation Response (RR), can be

adopted by a paraprofessional counseling program. Research

cited in this study demonstrated the importance of positive

personality characteristics as it relates to counselor









effectiveness. The present study also suggests training

designed to aid in the development of self-actualizing attrib-

utes in counselors. This type of training may be considered

as important to counselors as the formal training in mechan-

ical skills and theory.

The following suggestions may be of value to those

interested in further research on this subject.

1) To further investigate the quality of meditation

being practiced by each student. Researchers can

carefully monitor not only the actual amount of

time spent in the RR, but the quality of the experi-

ence by means of biofeedback equipment. Biofeedback

equipment which measures brain waves (EEG), muscle

tension (EMG), or galvanic skin resistance (GSR)

may contribute to further exploration and develop-

ment of student potentials.

2) A longitudinal design could be used to investigate

the long term effect of the RR on the personality

characteristics of paraprofessional counselors.

Also, this type of design could allow more time for

students to translate their personal perceptions

from the RR experience to behaviors measurable by

the research instruments. Further research is needed

to explore the relationship of time spent in medi-

tation and personal growth.









3) The present study indicates the need for further

investigation of the correlation of the affective

content of counselor responses with the degree of

self-actualization of the counselor. We have

attempted to explain the fact that the specific and

exploratory dimensions of the CVRS did not increase

in tandem with the gains in measures of self-

actualization with the assumption that these

dimensions are more dependent upon skill-training

than on the development of positive personality

traits. However, a person gaining in self-

actualizing values would, by our definition, also

be increasing his capacity for empathy and there-

fore, would be expected to manifest this empathy

by increased levels of feeling content versus

cognitive content in his responses to clients. The

reason for the failure of our experimental group to

show significant gains in the proportion of these

responses needs further study.

4) Researchers may further investigate the interaction

effects of self-actualization, meditation, and

counselor effectiveness. For example, one question

not answered by the present research is, do initially

high self-actualized individuals show significantly

greater gains from practice of the RR than initially

low self-actualized individuals? More research is

necessary to answer this question.








5) As mentioned in the Limitations of the Study, the

amount of time spent in the practice of the RR was

shown to be highly variable. Future research may

show that a more consistent schedule of meditation

can produce more definite results. Therefore,

researchers may wish to incorporate into their

experimental design methods to insure a minimum

period of time in which the subjects engage in

practice of the RR. For example, incentives such

as the payment of fees to subjects may be advanta-

geous, however, more research is needed to verify

this conclusion.

6) In the counseling relationship, clients respond to

both the verbal and nonverbal behaviors of the

counselor. In addition to verbal communication,

the counselor uses facial, postural and gestural

modes of communication. Therefore, future research

may be supplemented by videotape recordings of the

client/counselor interaction to observe changes in

both verbal and nonverbal communications as a result

of the RR training.

Continued research is needed which focuses directly upon

the kinds of experience which will facilitate the counselor's

personal awareness, integration and psychological maturity.



























APPENDIX A

How to Bring Forth the Relaxation Response

and

Eliciting the Relaxation Response















How to Bring Forth the Relaxation Response


(1) A Quiet Environment.

Ideally, you should choose a quiet, calm environment

with as few distractions as possible. A quiet room is

suitable, as is a place of worship. The quiet environment

contributes to the effectiveness of the repeated work or

phrase by making it easier to eliminate distracting thoughts.

(2) A Mental Device.

To shift the mind from logical, externally oriented

thought, there should be a constant stimulus: a sound, word,

or phrase repeated silently or aloud; or fixed gazing at an

object. Since one of the major difficulties in the elicita-

tion of the Relaxation Response is "mind wandering," the

repetition of the word or phrase is a way to help break the

train of distracting thoughts. Your eyes are usually closed

if you are using a repeated sound or word; of course, your

eyes are open if you are gazing. Attention to the normal

rhythm of breathing is also useful and enhances the repeti-

tion of the sound or the word.

(3) A Passive Attitude.

When distracting thoughts occur, they are to be dis-

regarded and attention redirected to the repetition or








gazing; you should not worry about how well you are per-

forming the technique, because this may well prevent the

Relaxation Response from occurring. Adopt a "let it happen"

attitude. The passive attitude is perhaps the most impor-

tant element in eliciting the Relaxation Response. Dis-

tracting thoughts will occur. Do not worry about them.

When these thoughts do present themselves and you become

aware of them, simply return to the repetition of the mental

device. These other thoughts do not mean you are performing

the technique incorrectly. They are to be expected.

(4) A Comfortable Position.

A comfortable posture is important so that there is no

undue muscular tension. Some methods call for a sitting

position. A few practitioners use the cross-legged "lotus"

position of the Yogi. If you are lying down, there is a

tendency to fall asleep. As we have noted previously, the

various postures of kneeling, swaying, or sitting in cross-

legged position are believed to have evolved to prevent

falling asleep. You should be comfortable and relaxed.



Eliciting the Relaxation Response


(1) In a quiet environment, sit in a comfortable position.

(2) Close your eyes.

(3) Deeply relax your muscles, beginning at your feet and

progressing up to your face--feet, calves, thighs, lower

torso, chest, shoulders, neck, head. Allow them to

remain deeply relaxed.








(4) Breathe through your nose. Become aware of your

breathing. As you breathe in, say the sound "So"

silently to yourself and as you breathe out say "Hum."

Thus: breathe in--"So" . breathe out with "Hum."

In, "So" and out with "Hum."

(5) Continue this practice for twenty minutes. You may

open your eyes to check the time, but do not use an

alarm. When you finish, sit quietly for several

minutes, at first with your eyes closed and later with

your eyes open.

(6) Remember not to worry about whether you are successful

in achieving a deep level of relaxation--maintain a

passive attitude and permit relaxation to occur at its

own pace. When distracting thoughts occur, ignore

them and continue to repeat "So-Hum" as you breathe.

The technique should be practiced twice daily, and not

within two hours after any meal, since the digestive

processes seem to interfere with the elicitation of

the expected.


























APPENDIX B

Counselor Verbal Response Scale

Counselor Verbal Response Scale Rating Sheet















Counselor Verbal Response Scale


Description of Rating Dimensions


I. Affective-cognitive dimension

The affective-cognitive dimension indicates whether a

counselor's response refers to any affective component of a

client's communication or concerns itself primarily with

the cognitive component of that communication.

A. Affective responses: Affective responses generally

make reference to emotions, feelings, fears, etc. The

judge's rating is solely by the content and/or intent of the

counselor's response, regardless of whether it be reflection,

clarification or interpretation. These responses attempt

to maintain the focus on the affective component of a

client's communication. Thus they may:

(a) Refer directly to an explicit or implicit

reference to affect (either verbal or nonverbal)

on the part of the client.

(b) Encourage an expression of affect on the part

of the client. Example: "How does it make

you feel when your parents argue?"

(c) Approve of an expression of affect on the part

of the client. Example: "It doesn't hurt to








let your feelings out once in a while, does

it?"

(d) Presents a model for the use of affect by the

client. Example: "If somebody treated me like

that, I'd really be mad."

Special care must be taken in rating responses which use the

word "feel." For example, in the statement "do you feel

that your student teaching experience is helping you get

the idea of teaching?" the phrase "do you feel that" really

means "do you think that." Similarly, the expression "How

are you feeling?" is often used in a matter-of-fact, con-

versation manner. Thus, although the verb "to feel" is

used in both these examples, these statements do not repre-

sent responses which would be judged "affective."

B. Cognitive Responses: Cognitive responses deal

primarily with the cognitive element of a client's communi-

cation. Frequently, such responses seek information of

factual nature. They generally maintain the interaction on

the cognitive level. Such responses may:

(a) Refer directly to the cognitive component of

the client's statement.

Example: "So then you're thinking about

switching your major to chemistry?"

(b) Seeks further information of a factual nature

from the client.

Example: "What were your grades last term?"








(c) Encourage the client to continue to respond

at the cognitive level.

Example: "How did you get interested in art?"


II. Understanding-nonunderstanding dimension

The understanding-nonunderstanding dimension indicates

whether a counselor's response communicates to the client

that the counselor understands or is seeking to understand

the client's basic communication. This encourages the client

to continue to gain insight into the nature of his concerns.

A. Understanding responses: Understanding responses

communicate to the client that the counselor understands the

client's communication--the counselor makes appropriate

reference to what the client is expressing or trying to ex-

press both verbally and nonverbally--or the counselor is

clearly seeking enough information of either a cognitive or

affective nature to gain such understanding. Such responses:

(a) Directly communicate an understanding of the

client's communication.

Example: "In other words, you really want to

be treated like a man."

(b) Seek further information from the client in

such a way as to facilitate both the coun-

selors' and the clients' understanding of the

basic problems.

Example: "What does being a man mean to you?"

(c) Reinforce or give approval or client communica-

tions which exhibit understanding.









Example: CL: "I guess then, when people

criticize me, I'm afraid they'll

leave me."

CO: "I see you're beginning to make

some connection between your

behavior and your feelings."

B. Nonunderstanding responses: Nonunderstanding

responses are those in which the counselor fails to under-

stand the client's basic communication or makes no attempt

to obtain appropriate information from the client. In

essence, nonunderstanding implies misunderstanding. Such

responses:

(a) Communicate misunderstanding of the client's

basic concern.

Example: CL: "When he said that, I just

turned red and clenched my

fists."

CO: "Some people don't say nice

things."

(b) Seek information which may be irrelevant to

the client's communication.

Example: CL: "I seem to have a hard time

getting along with my brothers."

CO: "Do all your brothers live at

home with you?"








(c) Squelch client understanding or move the focus

to another irrelevant area.

Example: CL: "I guess I'm really afraid that

other people will laugh at me."

CO: "We're the butt of other poeple's

jokes sometimes."

Example: CL: "Sometimes I really hate my aunt."

CO: "Will things be better when you

go to college?"


III. Specific/nonspecific dimension

The specific-nonspecific dimension indicates whether

the counselor's response delineates the client's problems

and is central to the client's communication or whether the

response does not specify the client's concern. In essence,

it describes whether the counselor deals with client's

communication in a general, vague, or peripheral manner, or

"zeros in" on the core of the client's communication. NB:

A response judged to be nonunderstanding must also be non-

specific since it would, by definition, misunderstand the

client's communication and not help the client to delineate

his concerns. Responses judged understanding might be

either specific (core) or nonspecific (peripheral) i.e.,

they would be peripheral if the counselor conveys only a

vague idea that a problem exists or "flirts" with the idea

rather than helping the client delineate some of the dimen-

sions of his concerns.









A. Specific responses: Specific responses focus on

the core concerns being presented either explicitly or

implicitly, verbally or nonverbally, by the client. Such

responses:

(a) Delineate more closely the client's basic

concerns.

Example: "This vague feeling you have when

you get in tense situations--is it

anger or fear?"

(b) Encourage the client to discriminate among

stimuli affecting him.

Example: "Do you feel in all your

classes or in only some classrooms?"

(c) Reward the client for being specific.

Example: CL: "I guess I feel this way most

often with someone who reminds

me of my father."

CO: "So as you put what others say

in perspective the whole world

doesn't seem so bad; it's only

when someone you value, like

Father, doesn't pay any attention

that you feel hurt."

B. Nonspecific responses: Nonspecific responses indi-

cate that the counselor is not focusing on the basic con-

cerns of the client or is not yet able to help the client









differentiate among various stimuli. Such responses either

miss the problem area completely (such responses are also

nonunderstanding) or occur when the counselor is seeking to

understand the client's communication and has been presented

with only vague bits of information about the client's

concern. Thus, such responses:

(a) Fail to delineate the client's concern and

cannot bring them into sharper focus.

Example: "It seems your problem isn't very

clear--can you tell me more about it?"

(b) Completely miss the basic concerns being pre-

sented by the client even though the counselor

may ask for specific details.

Example: CL: "I've gotten all A's this year

and I still feel lousy."

CO: "What were your grades before

then?"

(c) Discourage the client from bringing his concerns

into sharper focus.

Example: "You and your sister argue all the

time. What do other people think of

your sister?"


IV. Exploratory-nonexploratory

The exploratory-nonexploratory dimension indicates

whether a counselor's response permits or encourages the

client to explore his cognitive or affective concerns, or








whether the response limits a client's exploration of these

concerns.

A. Exploratory responses: Exploratory responses

encourage and permit the client latitude and involvement in

his response. They may focus on relevant aspects of the

client's affective or cognitive concerns but clearly attempt

to encourage further exploration by the client. Such

responses are often open-ended and/or are delivered in a

manner permitting the client freedom and flexibility in

response. These responses:

(a) Encourage the client to explore his own con-

cerns.

Example: Cognitive--"You're not sure what you

want to major in, is that

it?"

Affective--"Maybe some of these times

you're getting mad at

yourself, what do you

think?"

(b) Assist the client to explore by providing him

with possible alternatives designed to increase

his range of responses.

Example: Cognitive--"What are some of the other

alternatives that you have

to history as a major?"

Affective--"In these situations, do

you feel angry, mad, help-

less, or what?"




Full Text

PAGE 1

THE EFFECT OF THE RELAXATION RESPONSE ON THE POSITIVE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF PARAPROFESSIONAL COUNSELORS By David Nelson Bole A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1978

PAGE 2

Dedicated to my father Nelson S . Bole

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express his appreciation to his Committee Chairman, Dr. Donald L. Avila, for his sage advice and counsel, and to the other members, Dr. Walter Busby and Dr. Richard Anderson, for their scholarship, friendship and guidance. The author also wishes to thank the faculty of the Human Services Department at Santa Fe Community College, Gainesville, Florida, for their support of this research. Special thanks to Dr. William Korth for his support and to Maria Duncan for her creative suggestions and help throughout the development of this research. Also, thanks to the Human Services' student volunteers who were the subjects of this experiment. Special thanks to Alec Riddle, University of South Carolina, for his cooperation in offering research information which was most helpful to the author. Grateful mention must also be made of Dr. Paul Schauble, University of Florida Counseling Center, for his advice and aid in providing raters for this research. Thanks to David Linquist and Gabriel Rodriquezwho served as the raters. Finally, the author expresses his deepest gratitude to his father for his untiring support and encouragement.

PAGE 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii LIST OF TABLES . v i ABSTRACT . viii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose of the Study 1 Background of the Study 1 Paraprof essi onal s 1 Counselor Behavior Variables 3 Meditation 5 Hypotheses 6 Need for the Study 8 II REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH 10 Counselor-offered Conditions, Personality and Client Growth 10 Facilitative Conditions and Personality . 13 Counselor Verbal Responses Approach . . 16 Psychological Effects of Meditation ... 19 Transcendental Meditation 19 Relaxation Response 23 Meditation in Theory 24 Psychoanalytic Derepression 24 Generalized Desens i ti zati on 26 The Relaxation Response (RR) 26 Elements of Meditation 28 III EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND PROCEDURES 31 Experimental Design 31 Population . " 32 Subjects' Demographic Data 32 Research Instruments 33 Assessment of Sel f -Actual i zati on 33 Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) . 34 Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS). 37 Demographic Questionnaire 40 i v

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page Collection of Data Initial Data Selection and Training of Raters Relaxation Response (RR) Training Posttest CVRS Data Collection Statistical Design IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY . . . Testing of the Hypothesis Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 3 Hypo thes i s Hypothesi s Self-Actualization . . Affective/Cognitive Understand ing/Nonunderstanding Specific/Nonspecific . Expl oratory /Nonexpl oratory SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Summary Resul ts Conclusions Limitations of the Study Implications for Future Research . 40 40 41 42 44 44 44 46 47 47 51 54 55 56 66 66 69 71 74 74 APPENDICES A How to Bring Forth the Relaxation Response and Eliciting the Relaxation Response .... 79 B Counselor Verbal Response Scale Counselor Verbal Response Scale Rating Sheet. 83 C Relaxation Response Calendar .„.„.... 95 D Demographic Data Sheet . . . . „ 97 E Additional Analyses of POI Scores ...... 101 REFERENCES 105 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . HI

PAGE 6

LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 Analysis of Posttest POI Scores Control vs Experimental Groups 48 2 Analysis of Experimental Group Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores 49 3 Analysis of Control Group Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores 50 4 Analysis of Pretest POI Scores Control vs Experimental Groups 52 5 Analysis of CVRS Scores for Facilitative Responses 53 6 Comparisons of Group Mean Facilitative Responses RR & NRR Groups: Pretest vs Posttest 58 7 Comparison of Group Mean Facilitative Responses Pretest and Posttest Scores: RR vs NRR .... 59 8 Analysis of Mean Group Proportions All Facilitative Responses on CVRS 62 9 Counselor Response Level 62 10 Average Number of Relaxation Response Sessions Per Week by Members of Experimental Group ... 64 11 Scoring Categories for the Personal Orientation Inventory 65 12 Analysis of Posttest POI Scores Control vs Experimental Groups 101 13 Analysis of Control Groups Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores 102 vi

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LIST OF TABLES (Continued TABLE 14 Analysis of Experimental Group Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores Page 103 15 Analysis of Pretest POI Scores Control vs Experimental Groups 104

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE EFFECT OF THE RELAXATION RESPONSE ON THE POSITIVE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF PARAPROFESSIONAL COUNSELORS By Davi d Nel son Bole March 1978 Chairman: Donald L. Avila Major Department: Foundations of Education This study hypothesized that there would be measurable gains in self-actualizing values of a group of student paraprof essi onal s as a result of the regular practice of the Benson Relaxation Response (RR), a meditation technique. It was further hypothesized that such gains would be associated with increased proportions of facilitative responses on the parts of these students, acting as counselors, in reacting to the communications of fellow-students, acting as clients. The study was carried out during the winter semester of 1977 when a group of volunteers who were students in their first term at Santa Fe Community College were randomly assigned to two groups: 14 to an experimental group and 8 to a control group. The experimental group practiced RR throughout a 10 week period while the control group did not. VI 1 i

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Both groups were pretested by use of the Shostrom Personal Orientation Inventory, which is believed to measure values that have been associated with sel f -actual i zation and positive mental health. Research cited indicates a correlation between many of the values measured by the POI and counselor effectiveness. In measuring changes in proportion of facilitative responses the unit of analysis employed was the level of content in the counselor's response to client communication of four dichotomized dimensions as rated on the Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS): (a) Affective/Cognitive; (b) Unders tandi ng/Nonunders tanding ; (c) Specific/Nonspecific; and (d) Expl ora tory/Nonexpl oratory . Each member of the population made a pretest tape at the beginning of the study which was compared with a posttest tape made at the end. Significant gains in sel f -actual i zati on by the RR group vis-a-vis the NRR group were found in five of the POI scales. Significant gains were also made in the posttest scores of the RR group compared with its pretest scores. No gains in any se 1 f -ac tua 1 i zi ng values were found in the NRR group. Significant gains by the RR group in their proportion of facilitative responses were found only in the area of understanding of the client's responses. However, in spite of the absence of significant gains, as measured by the "t" test statistic, in any of the other CVRS scales, the RR posted impressive percentage gains in the proportion of i x

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their facilitative responses on all CVRS scales. And when the facilitative response proportion of all the scales was combined, the mean group proportion showed significant gains by the RR group. It was concluded that the Benson Relaxation Response is one method for acquiring and developing the positive personality traits which have been linked to effective counseling and resulting client growth. In terms of counselor behavior that is measured by the CVRS scale, the initial results of RR practice may be a gain in the capacity for understanding another person's verbal communication, rather than in the other areas which may depend more on specific training and experience than on stage of personality devel opmen t .

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a meditation technique upon the behavior of a group of paraprofessionals acting as counselors. The specific behavior examined was the counselor's responses to client communications in terms of four dichotomized dimensions: (a) affectivecognitive; (b) understandi ng-nonunders tandi ng ; (c) specificnonspecific; and (d) expl oratory-nonexpl ora tory . (See Appendix B.) The meditation technique used was that developed by Benson. It was used to test meditation as a method of developing and improving skills related to effective counseling as well as to enhancing those perceptual attitudes and personality traits correlated with effective counseling performance. Background of the Study Paraprofessionals Community services, such as care for the physically, emotionally and intellectually handicapped all require far 1

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more trained manpower than professional schools have been producing. To meet this need programs have been established to train Human Services' personnel who, working under professional supervision, can provide such necessary services as counseling and interviewing. The recognition and acceptance of this need for counseling services has rapidly accelerated over the last twenty years. Counseling services have become an integral part of programs aimed at the educational, vocational, and psychological well-being of the individual. As a result of this growth, both the training and use of a new body of workers have been the target of increasing research. These workers are referred to as "support personnel," "lay helpers" or most commonly, "paraprof ess i onal s " (Morgan, 1976). Such a paraprof essional program was established at Santa Fe Community College, Gainesville, Florida in 1970 and designated as the Human Services Program (HSP). The purpose of the HSP is to provide intensive training in human relations, general helping skills, psychopa thol ogy , and different approaches to counseling. The two most important assumptions underlying the program are: (1) that the single most critical resource a person has to bring to the helping situation is himself as an open, sensitive, caring human being; and (2) that the most effective learning takes place in situations in which a person is actively working in the area of study.

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The core skills taught are those which deal with those competencies that should be possessed by persons working in a human services agency. These skills include interviewing and therapeutic skills, knowledge of community resources and community dynamics, process recording and psychopa thol ogy . Fieldwork competencies deal with skills related to working directly with people and the student's ability to apply the knowledge he has obtained. Fieldwork skills include conducting on-going counseling and in-take interviews, working with groups, case management activities, client advocacy, outreach and any other activities that human service agencies require of their counselors. In addition to their other courses, students are required to take a minimum of 18 hours of general education, including mathematics, science, communications, humanities and social and behavioral sciences. At the completion of this curriculum students are awarded an A.S. degree in Human Serv i ces work . Counselor Behavior Variables Rogers (1957) presented an organized theoretical formulation in which he hypothesized that three characteristics of the counselor, when adequately communicated to the client, are both necessary and sufficient conditions for constructive personality and behavior change. These are: (1) empathic understanding of the client by the counselor; (2)

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unconditional positive regard for the client by the counselor; and (3) the genuineness or self-congruence of the counselor in the counseling relationship. The improvement of the counselor's position and professional status is the major stimulus for the present research. To achieve a more effective level of counseling Truax and Carkhuff (1967) have elaborated upon the position of Rogers and sought to describe the process of effective counseling and/or interpersonal functioning more specifically. They proposed a model which brings together many theoretical orientations: Desp theo cone that weav theo i ncl beha and anot of t matu h i s all pi s t trus acce d i t i v i rt e m p h help "wit gras T lack empa ness i te ri es epts of e th ry o udi n vi or deri her he t re , rel a s tre 's a ting ptan onal uall as i z ful h" t p th hese of thy, • ( the and fro anot ei r f ps g ps i s ti va ti all hera genu ti on ssed b i 1 i , sa ce , pos y al e th hem he c e pa set bett non Trua bewi the m th her , way ycho ycho c , a ve t have pi s t i ne , ship the ty t f e o nonit i v 1 th at f us t lien ti en s of er w -pos x & 1 deri diff e 1 an seve th rou thera anal y nd ma h e o r i emph 's ab auth to t impo o pro r sec posse e reg e o r i e or th be ac t, be t's m char ords ses si Carkh ng arra i cul ty guage o ral com g h a 1 m o py and tic, cl ny of t es . In as i zed i 1 i ty t enti c o he pa ti rtance vide a ure a tm s s i v e w ard or s of ps e thera curatel unders ean i ng . a c t e r i s be term ve warm uff, 19 y of d i n tra f one mon th s t eve counse i e n t c he mor one w the i m o be i r cong en t . of the nonth ospher armth , love, ychoth pi s t t y empa tandi n tics c ed ace th and 67, p. i v e r g e n t n s 1 a t i n g theory to reads ry major ling, entered , e eclectic ay or portance n tegra ted, r u e n t in They have thera reateni ng , e by unconFinal 1 y , erapy o be t h i c , be g , or an for ura te genui ne25)

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The evidence of a growing number of studies (Carkhuff, 1968; Truax & Carkhuff, 1967: Luborsky, Auerback, Chandler, Cohen, & Backrach, 1971) strongly indicate that therapists who exhibit more of the aforementioned conditions are significantly more helpful in terms of client growth, while those who provide low levels of these conditions are actual 1 y harmful . Medi tation One technique that shows great promise for enhancing the positive personality characteristics of counselors is meditation. Meditation is increasingly becoming a subject of empirical study. Research in meditation indicates that behaviors derived from such practices are compatible with and facilitative of counselor behaviors as taught in the traditional and developing schools of counseling and psychotherapy (Keefe, 1973). Investigations of meditation have yielded interesting results. A variety of psychological and physiological changes are reported in research studies cited by the Transcendental Meditation Society and reviewed by Bloomfield, Cain and Jaffe (1975), Kanellakos and Ferguson (1973), Kanellakos and Lukas (1974), Wallace (1970a, 1970b), and Wallace, Benson and Wilson (1971). Of most interest to psychotherapists is that meditation has been found to be productive of enhanced empathic ability (Keefe, 1976) and correlates highly with measures of enhanced interpersonal functioning (Lesh, 1970).

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A technique of meditation that is highly valuable for future research and which has been adapted for use in the present study is one described by Benson (1975) called the Relaxation Response (RR). This method is best suited for research because it is well standardized and therefore makes possible further studies under uniform conditions. In addition, it is easily learned so that experience is developed after only a short period of training. Furthermore, learning the technique does not involve adherence to any specific religion, belief system or life style. Hypotheses The present researcher agrees that accurate empathy, genuineness and respect are necessary characteristics of effective counselors and that any process which increases these characteristics in an individual is contributing to the development of a more effective counselor. This is true whether the candidate is a paraprof es s i onal or a fully certified professional. Furthermore, meditation appears to be a technique which can contribute to counselor effectiveness by enhancing the positive personality characteristics mentioned above. On the basis of these assumptions, the following hypotheses were tested. The hypothesis for the study related to four dimensions for measuring the subject's ability to relate i nterpersonal ly and one dimension measuring the

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subject's level of self-actualization. Three hypotheses (one major and two minor) were concerned with each of the dimensions. The major hypotheses were statements of no difference between groups. The minor hypotheses were statements of no difference within each treatment group. Hypothesis 1: Sel f -Ac tual i zation H-j There will be no significant difference between subjects in the RR* and NRR** groups on selfactualization as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory. 1 A There will be no significant gain in selfactualization for subjects in the RR group There will be no significant gain in selfactualization for subjects in the NRR group Hypothesis 2: Affective/Cognitive H^ There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the RR and NRR groups on the feeling level of the responses to the clients. 2A '2B There will be no significant gain in feeling level of the responses to their clients for subjects in the RR group. There will be no significant gain in feeling level in the responses to their clients for subjects in the NRR group. H ypothesis 3: Unders tandi ng/Nonunders tandi ng H^ There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in understanding of client responses. H^^ There will be no significant gain in understanding of client responses for subjects in the RR group . *RR trained in Relaxation Response (experimental group). **NRR no training in Relaxation Response (control group).

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H' H 3B There will be no significant gain in understanding of client responses for subjects in the NRR group. iQthesis 4: Specific/Nonspecific H^ There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in the degree of specificity of responses to their c 1 i e n t s . 4A 4B There will be no significant gain in the degree of specificity of responses to clients for subjects in the RR group. There will be no significant gain in the degree of specificity of responses to clients for subjects in the NRR group. H ypothesis 5: Expl ora tory/Nonexpl oratory H 5 There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in ability to give responses that lead clients to further self-exploration. 5A 5B There will be no significant gain in ability to give responses that lead clients to further sel f -expl ora ti on for subjects in the RR group. There will be no significant gain in ability to give responses that lead clients to further sel f -expl ora ti on for subjects in the NRR group. leed for the Study The ideas generated by Carkhuff and Truax have been of great value to the field of counseling in describing how the effective helper interacts with his client. However, Bergin (1966), Carkhuff (1969a, 1969b), and Truax and Carkhuff (1967) have all advocated the need for more research investigating ways of developing more positive personality characteristics of counselors.

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The research herein presented is an attempt to assist in the fulfillment of the need for aiding counselors in providing the therapeutic and facilitative conditions requisite of client growth by enhancing personal functioning through meditation.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH The review of pertinent research is divided into the following four areas: (1) Counselor-offered conditions contributing to client growth; (2) Facilitative condition and Personality; (3) Psychological effects of meditation, and (4) Theory of meditation. Counselor-offered Conditions, Personality and Client Growth In 1952 and 1961 Eysenck published research which seemed to deny the value of counseling and psychotherapy (Eysenck, 1952, 1961). These controversial articles caused those who were convinced of the benefits of counseling to try to find ways to show its effectiveness. Part of what they found was that there were some factors that could be isolated which distinguished effective from ineffective therapists. These ingredients Rogers calls the "necessary and sufficient conditions" for therapeutic change (Rogers, 1961). These necessary and sufficient conditions have become the basis for the scales measuring counselor effectiveness that Truax developed (Truax, 1961b, 1962a, 1962b). 10

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11 Since the early 1960's Truax, Carkhuff and others have conducted research on therapist and client variables that have accounted for positive outcomes in therapy (Truax & Carkhuff, 1967; Carkhuff, 1966; Carkhuff, 1969a; Carkhuff & Berenson, 1 967) . The Truax and Carkhuff research findings can be summarized as follows: (1) Individuals possessing such personal characteristics as empathic understanding, nonpossessi ve warmth and genuineness can effect positive changes in clients. They can also rapidly develop more sophisticated therapeutic skills. (2) Counselors who have the facilitative interpersonal qualities effect therapeutic changes without fully understanding the complexities of personality dynamics. (3) Lengthy professional training is not a prerequisite for effective functioning as a therapi s t . (4) Paraprofessional s with limited training can be just as effective as professionals in facilitating client change over relatively short periods of time . Piaget, Berenson, and Carkhuff (1967) found that highfunctioning therapists elicited higher levels of client self-exploration than did moderate-functioning therapists.

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12 The higher the initial level of client sel f-expl oration , the more elevated it becomes in the presence of a highfunctioning therapist, whereas the moderate to poor therapist had his most deleterious effects on clients with initially low levels of sel f-expl oration . When therapists intentionally lowered their levels of functioning during the middle third of the interview, the self-exploration of those clients of moderate-functioning therapists were more seriously lowered and the moderate-functioning therapists appeared less able to reestablish the earlier exhibited level of facilitative conditions. Cannon and Pierce (1968) designed a two-way study to check on the effect of lowered and heightened facilitative conditions. The therapists saw three patients in a 45 minute interview. Group I therapists offered Hi-Low-Hi conditions and Group II therapists offered Low-Hi-Low conditions. Results indicate that the clients explored themselves more deeply ( p< . 05 ) when the therapists offered high-level conditions. Holder (1968) found that hi gh -f unc ti on i ng helpers have clients who engage in significantly fewer (p<.05) topics and engage in each topic for approximately 20 minutes. The study compared nine high rated versus nine low rated interv i ewers .

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13 In studying the effects of these conditions in other settings Aspy (1965) found that students receiving relatively high levels of empathic understanding, warmth and genuineness from teachers gained significantly in reading achievement ( p< . 01 ) . Truax and Tatum (1966) found that observer ratings of facilitative behavior of teachers were significantly correlated with increased socialization and adjustment of their students. Thus, the above mentioned conditions seem to be important for facilitative teacherchild relationships as well as counselor-client relationships. Facilitative Conditions and Personality A few research investigations have attempted to study the relationships between particular personality characteristics of counselors and their ability to offer the therapeutic conditions previously mentioned. Bergin and Solomon (1963) found that the Depression (p<.05) and Psychas theni a ( p< . 01 ) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) correlated negatively with ratings of therapist empathy. The Consistency, Intraception and Order Scale of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) were negatively correlated and Dominance and Change were positively correlated with empathy All correlations were statistically significant (p<.05).

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14 Foul ds (1967) found significant positive relationships between sel f -actual i zation measures, the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), and counselor trainees' ability to offer conditions of empathy and genuineness at the end of their practicum. This research found six POI scales related to empathy and 10 to 12 scales related to genuineness. Therefore, as measured by these scales, positive mental health is related to the provision of a positive therapeutic condition. Truax and Carkhuff (1967, pp. 233-235) cite the unpublished findings of Truax, Silber, and Wargo (1966) of the correlation between counselor offered conditions of empathic understanding, positive regard and genuineness with EPPS scores. In this study the MMPI and the EPPS were administered to 16 graduate students in counseling before and after experiencing an integrated didactic and experiential approach to training (Truax & Carkhuff, 1967). Tape recorded counseling sessions were made early and late in the training program and were then evaluated with respect to the trainees' ability to communicate empathic understanding, positive regard, and genuineness to their clients. Students showing high ability to offer these conditions were then compared with students of lower ability in demonstrating these conditions. Counselors showing the greatest ability to provide the therapeutic conditions were

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15 initially lower on the Order, In traception , and Deference scales of the EPPS than counselors who showed little or no gain in ability to offer the therapeutic conditions. The counselors who scored higher initially in the Change and Autonomy scales scored even higher on these scales by the end of the training program. Truax, Silber and Wargo's findings were highly consistent with the findings of the previously cited Bergin and Solomon study. The data gathered from the studies cited above suggest that the counselor's ability to offer high levels of therapeutic or facilitative conditions in a counseling relationship may be dependent on the well-being and personal adequacy of the counselor. These studies have indicated that counselors who are anxious, defensive, conflicted or personally inadequate are least likely to facilitate constructive behavior change in their clients. Conversely, there is a positive relationship between the personal adequacy, authenticity or sel f -actual i zati on of the counselor and his ability to facilitate constructive change in his clients. These studies emphasize the direct effects of the helper's interpersonal level of functioning on the helpee. According to Carkhuff's model, the degree to which the helping person offers high levels of empathy, positive regard, and genuineness is related directly to the degree

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16 of the client's ability to internalize these facilitative conditions into his own personal life. In addition, the degree to which the action -oriented helpful counselor is freely, spontaneously, and deeply himself, disclosing of himself, actively confronting himself and the client, being in the moment, and taking concrete courses of action is directly related to the helpee's ability to apply these same facilitative activities in his own life situation. Counselor Verbal Responses Approach Attempts to measure counselor effectiveness through types and levels of verbal responses given by the counselor are probably the most widely researched of all the different system of measuring counselor effectiveness. Carkhuff Truax, Berenson, and Rogers have been leading researchers in this area. Their research deals primarily with relating a set of interpersonal core factors to client gain. These factors are empathy, unconditional positive regard, congruency, and concre teness „ Effectiveness of communication of these relationship factors is measured through scales that assess the effectiveness of counselor responses on those dimensions. In his model for effective therapy Carkhuff offers several propositions concerning the effect of facilitative helper dimensions on the client-counselor interaction. A review of his two propositions and corollaries seems appropriate as the interactional scale used in this study closely

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17 relates to that used by Carkhuff. In Helping and Human Relations, Volume One , he supports the following statements with a wide variety of research evidence. Proposition I . The degree to which the helping person offers high levels of facilitative conditions in response to the expressions of the person seeking help, is related directly to the degree to which the person seeking help engages in processes to constructive change or gain. Corollary I. The degree to which the helping person offers high levels of empathic understanding of the helpee's world is related directly to the degree to which the helpee is able to understand himself and others. Corollary II. The degree to which the helping person communicates high levels of respect and warmth for the helpee and his world is related directly to the degree to which the helpee is able to respect and direct warm feelings toward himself and others. Corollary III. The degree to which the helper is helpful in guiding exploration to specific feelings and content is related directly to the degree to which the helpee is able to make concrete his own problem areas. Corollary IV. The degree to which the helper is responsively genuine in his relationship with the helpee is related to the degree to which the helpee is able to be responsively genuine in his relationship with himself and others . Proposition II . The degree to which the helping person initiates action-oriented dimensions in a helping relationship is directly related to the degree to which the person seeking help engages in processes that lead to constructive change or growth . Corollary I. The degree to which the helper can be freely, spontaneously and deeply himself, including the disclosing of significant information about himself when appropriate, is

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directly related to the degree to which the helpee is able to be genuine and selfdisclosing in appropriate relationships. Corollary II. The degree to which the helper actively confronts the helpee and himself is directly related to the degree to which the helpee is able to confront himself and others. Corollary III. The degree to which the helper both acts and directs the actions of the helpee immediately in the present in the relationship between helper and helpee is related to the helpee's ability to act with immediacy and later to direct the actions of others . Corollary IV. The degree to which the helper can make concrete a course of constructive action is related to the degree to which the helpee can go on to make concrete courses of action for himself and others. (Carkhuff, 1969, pp. 84-90) These statements emphasize the direct effects of the helper's interpersonal level of function on the helpee. According to Carkhuff 's model, the degree to which the helping person offers high levels of empathy, warmth, respect, concreteness , and genuineness is related directly to the degree of the client's ability to internalize these facilitative conditions into his own personal life. In addition, the degree to which the action-oriented helpful counselor is freely, spontaneously, and deeply himself, disclosing of himself, actively confronting himself and the client, being with the moment, and making concrete courses of action is directly related to the helpee's ability to apply these same facilitative activities in his own life situation.

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19 The Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) has been found to have a .40 positive correlation with the Carkhuff scales (Schauble, Pierce, & Resnikoff, 1976). Additionally, it has been found to be more sensitive to small gains in interpersonal level of functioning and thus more appropriate for measuring relatively short-term counselor trainee progress (Schauble, Pierce, & Resnikoff, 1976). Psychological Effects of Meditation The research available on meditation suggests that the technique may be able to increase the degree of positive personal characteristics needed by professional helpers. These behaviors include enhanced awareness of one's own feelings, the ability to hold cognitive processes in abeyance, enhanced perception, and increased present centeredness. The purpose of this section is to examine some of the relevant investigations of meditation. Much of meditation research has been conducted by the members of the Transcendental Meditation Society (Bloomfield et al . , 1975); therefore, these studies will be reviewed first. Transcendental Meditation Most of the studies investigating the psychological effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) have used paperand-pencil tests. Some attention has been devoted to the

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20 effects of TM on sel f -actual i zati on as measured by the POI . In the first such study (Seeman, Nidich, & Banta, 1972) meditators and nonmedi tators were administered the POI two months apart. For the TM group, the first administration took place two days prior to instruction in TM. There were no differences between these groups on the first administration. But upon retesting the meditators scored significantly higher (p<.05) than nonmedi ta tors on 6 of the 12 scales (inner directedn ess, self-actualizing value, spontaneity, self-regard, acceptance of aggression, and capacity for intimate contact). In a second study using the same design Nidich, Seeman, and Dreskin (1973) found similar differences in 10 of the 12 POI scales. The differences found in these two studies were thought to have been influenced by expectancy, that is, the experimental subjects expected to experience positive personality changes from the practice of meditation, whereas nonmeditators had no such expectation of change. Hjelle (1974), in order to test for this possibility, compared two groups of experienced meditators (meditating average of 22.6 months) and novice meditators who were tested a week prior to being instructed in TM. Experienced meditators scored higher on 7 of the 12 POI scales (inner di rec tedness , time competence, spontaneity, self-regard, sel f -actua 1 i zi ng value, feeling reactivity, and capacity for intimate contact. The findings of Seeman et al. (1972) were supported by this study on five

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21 scales (inner di rectedness , spontaneity, self-regard, selfactualizing value, and capacity for intimate contact). This suggests that expectancy may not have made any significant difference in accounting for the observed changes. Russie (1975) suggested that expectancy may be at least a minor factor in the changes in the POI scores as a result of TM. Meditators and nonmedi ta tors were tested five months apart, meditators having been first tested two days prior to learning TM. After five months, meditators scored significantly higher than nonmedi ta tors on seven scales (inner di rectedness , time competence, self-actualizing value, feeling reactivity, spontaneity, self-acceptance, and capacity for intimate contact). Changes on four of these scales (inner di rectedness , self-actualizing value, spontaneity, and capacity for intimate contact) replicated the findings of both Seeman et al . (1972) and Hjelle (1974). However, as determined by correlation between subjects' pretest expectation scores and actual preand posttest differences, a significant positive relationship (p<.04) was found between prospective meditators' expectations of positive changes and the results achieved in six of the POI scales. Thus, while some of the changes in the POI do appear to be a result of practicing TM , and are replicable, they do not seem to have resulted entirely from expectancy. Apparently expectation of change may account for at least some of the variance in these differences.

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22 Drennen and Chermol (in press) noted that initial studies of the effects of TM on sel f -actual i za ti on (Seeman et al., 1972; Nidich et al . , 1973) did not control for possible expectancy or placebo effect. That is, meditators were not compared with nonmedi ta tors who followed other practices of regularly sitting quietly. These early studies compared three groups: meditators, nonmedi ta tors (who were told to relax following a relaxation training twice a day for 20 minute periods) and no treatment controls. The POI was administered prior to instruction and again one month later. Subjects in all groups showed positive changes on the second administration of the POI: on 5 scales for the control group, 6 scales for the TM group, and 9 scales for the relaxation group. These results were interpreted as indicating (a) that placebo effects need to be taken into account in TM research, and (b) that other relaxation techniques may produce changes similar to those resulting from TM. Dick and Ragland (1973) administered the POI eight weeks apart to three groups of subjects who (a) learned TM, (b) received individual counseling and learned TM, or (c) received individual counseling and rested quietly for 15 minutes twice each day. Subjects in the latter two groups were drawn from individuals seeking treatment at a counseling center and were randomly assigned to groups. Thus, expectancy was controlled in that subjects in all three

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23 groups expected some improvement, and the relaxation variable was controlled by having control subjects rest twice daily. The authors predicted that scores of the counseling plus TM groups would be higher than for the group practicing TM alone, which in turn, would be higher than the counseling with rest group. This hypothesis was supported (p<.05) for the time competence and inner directedness scales. It appears, then, that TM facilitates certain changes measured by the POI to a greater extent than expectancy or rest alone can account for. Research to date indicates that the regular practice of TM certainly results in significantly positive changes in self-actualization as measured by the POI. However, it is quite possible that there may be other relaxation techniques which produce similar changes. Transcendental meditation has not been shown to be unique in its effects on selfactualization as measured by the POI. Relaxation Response Another method of meditation which lends itself well to research is that described by Benson. It is called the Relaxation Response (RR). Beary and Benson (1974) have provided evidence that RR is effective in eliciting the relaxation response as defined by Benson and his colleagues (Benson, 1975; Benson, Beary, & Carol, 1974; Wallace, Benson, & Wilson, 1971). Seventeen subjects, each serving as his own control, learned RR by reading instructions from

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24 a sheet of paper. Subjects were novices at this technique. Expectancy was minimized by telling subjects that only the physiology of relaxation was being investigated. During the experiment, subjects practiced RR during 1 of 5 consecutive periods of 12 minutes each. During control periods subjects either sat quietly and read material of neutral emotional content or sat with eyes closed. Subjects were randomly assigned to two sequences. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and respiration rate were measured All three were significantly lower during the RR period than during control periods. These results were interpreted as indicating changes resulting from RR. While the research on the effects of RR has been very limited, especially with regard to psychological data, initial findings suggest that the physiological and emotional states produced by RR are similar to if not the same as those associated with TM. Further, the regular practice of RR may have beneficial long-term effects. This new technique offers the opportunity for more highly controlled studies of meditation. Meditation in Theory Three theories, two psychological and one physiological, have been put forth to account for the effects of meditation. Psychoanalytic Derepression Initiates to TM (and to certain other forms of meditation) are repeatedly reminded of the need for effortlessness.

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25 That is, during meditation extraneous thoughts are not to be resisted any more than they are to be attended to closely; rather, such thoughts are to be allowed to occur dispassionately. In practice, while a mantra is being repeated this effortless dealing with extraneous thoughts amounts of noni nterfering observation. Naranjo (1971) has compared this observation to the activity of the second witness (the therapist) to free associations of a patient in the psychoanalytic situation. With repeated meditations, resistance to the awareness of certain thoughts becomes weakened, and such thoughts become increasingly spontaneous. Shaffii (1973) has compared the meditation and psychoanalytic processes in detail. Two major events are common to both. The reexpe ri enci ng of psychic traumas during meditation frees psychic energy for present uses. This amounts to bringing repressed thoughts into consciousness and transcending the conflicts related to them. The repetition of such events leads gradually to a controlled regression to a nonverbal stage of development, at which point traumatic experiences can be resolved internally at a level deeper than verbal or cognitive processes permit. The major difference between psychoanalysis and meditation is that the former emphasizes verbalization and the latter silence. The therapeutic aspects of both processes are seen to be the same .

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26 Generalized Desensi ti zation A second theory, behavioral in nature, is quite compatible with the first. Goleman (1971, 1974), noting the similarity between the relaxation states produced by both meditation and relaxation training, has compared meditation with systematic desensi ti zati on . In the latter, a hierarchy of images troublesome to a patient is presented to him by a therapist while he is relaxed, beginning with the least anxiety-producing images and ending with the most troublesome. Anxiety responses are thereby inhibited by the association of relaxation with stimuli. In meditation, the contents of the mind (both verbalizations and imagery) are presented to consciousness in a sel f -regul ated manner while the meditator is relaxed. As troublesome thoughts occur, anxiety is inhibited by the association of relaxation with such thoughts. While this occurs in a less systematic manner than in desensi ti zati on , the hierarchy is optimally salient to the individual. Meditation is seen as a slower and less efficient means to the same end, but perhaps a more thorough one in that items in the hierarchy are not limited to those selected by therapist and patient.. The Relaxatio n Response (RR) A third theory, compatible with both of the above theories, is based on the physiological correlates of meditation. Benson (1975) and Benson et al. (1974) have theorized that the physiological changes associated with meditation constitute "an integrated hypothalamic

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27 response which results in generalized decreased sympathetic nervous system activity, and perhaps also increased parasympathetic activity" (Benson et al . , 1974, p. 37). This relaxation response is the counterpart of the flight-orfight response of extreme arousal. The latter is also an integrated response, mediated by the sympathetic nervous system and characterized by increased arousal and body metabolism, which is elicited by and prepares an organism for dealing with a threatening situation or set of stimuli. Because civilized man is socially reinforced for inhibiting literal f i gh t-or-f'l i ght responses, the repeated elicitation of the f i ght-or-f 1 i ght response in varying degrees results in the accumulation of stress at a physiological level, and probably at other levels as well. A person thus may become less efficient with time due to everaccumulating stress. The regular elicitation of the relaxation response, which TM and other forms of meditation provide, serves both to release accumulated stresses and to prevent further accumulation. This may result in the alleviation and prevention of physical, mental, and emotional symptoms that are produced by stress. French and Tupin (1973, 1974) and Benson (1975a and b) have developed procedures designed to elicit the relaxation response in a manner similar to that of TM and other forms of meditation. The latter procedure is the only one to have been researched in a controlled manner.

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Benson (1975b) reported that his technique for eliciting the relaxation response was developed by comparing the various practices of meditation, yoga, prayer, and secular relaxation practices. Four essential components were found to be common to these practices: (a) a mental device consisting of some constant stimulus upon which attention is focused; (b) a passive attitude (i.e., not trying to relax and not worrying about whether the technique is being practiced correctly); (c) decreased muscle tonus, which necessitates a posture conducive to relaxation; and (d) a quiet environment in which outside stimuli are minimal. The procedure for eliciting the relaxation response, as described by Benson (1975), consists of having a person sit quietly in a comfortable position, close his eyes, relax all the body muscles (beginning with the feet and progressing upward to the face), and once relaxation is attained, repeat silently to himself the word "ONE" in conjunction with each respiratory exhalation. Elements of Meditation Beary and Benson (1974) have provided evidence that this technique of meditation is effective in eliciting the relaxation response as defined by Benson and his colleagues (Benson, 1975; Benson et al., 1975; Wallace et a 1 . , 1971). Seventeen subjects, each serving as his own control, learned RR by reading instructions from a sheet of paper. Prior to being studied, practice had been limited to one hour, so

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29 that subjects were relative novices at the technique. Expectancy was minimized by telling subjects only that the physiology of relaxation was being investigated. During the experiment, subjects practiced the RR during 1 of 5 consecutive periods of 12 minutes each. During control periods, subjects either sat quietly and read material of neutral emotional content or sat with eyes closed. Subjects were randomly assigned to two sequences. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and respiration rate were measured. All three were significantly lower during the RR period than during control periods, and sitting with eyes closed resulted in no differences from sitting and reading. There is also evidence that the regular practice of RR may have long-term physiological effects. Benson (1975b; Bea ry & Benson, 1974) reported that the regular practice of RR has been found to be associated with decreased blood pressure in hypertensive patients and increased blood pressure in hypotensive patients. Benson, Alexander, and Feldman (1975) found that the regular practice of RR after four weeks reduced premature ventricular contractions in patients with ischaemic heart disease during both wakefulness and si eep . The previously cited research of Benson et al. (1975) and Benson et al. (1974) have provided evidence that this technique of meditation is effective in eliciting the relaxation response as defined by Benson (1975). The results of

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30 these studies were interpreted as indicating changes resulting from the RR were similar to those resulting from TM.

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CHAPTER III EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND PROCEDURES This chapter discusses the experimental design used in the study and the major considerations involved. It includes a description of the training program, the study population, the hypotheses advanced, and the criterion instruments employed. In addition, the chapter provides an explanation of experimental procedures used in the investigation. Ex perimental Design This study employed the pre tes t-pos t tes t control group design which included the following procedure: 1) the administration of a pretest to both groups; 2) administration of treatment to the experimental group, but not the control group, and 3) administration of a posttest to both groups. Students were assigned to groups by means of their Personal Data Sheets collected during the orientation session. Each data sheet was numbered i neons p i c i ous ly 1, 2, or 3 and distributed at the orientation session. Subjects 31

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32 whose sheets numbered 1 or 2 became the experimental group and those numbered 3 became the control group. However, these numbers were known only to the experimenter. Popul a ti on A group of parap rof es s i ona 1 counselor students in their first term at the Santa Fe Community College Human Services Department was selected to be the subjects of this study. Out of a total of 36 students in the program, 28 volunteered initially. Two students dropped out of the Human Services program after two weeks and 4 dropped out of this study as subjects. The total number of subjects completing the study was 22 (see demographic data sheet, Appendix C). Subjects' Demographic Data Sex --The sexual composition of the groups are as follows: the experimental group had 9 females and 5 males. The control group had 4 females and 4 males. Race— The experimental group had 11 whites and 3 blacks. The control group had 4 whites and 4 blacks. A^e--The figures for the total sample are: mean 26, range 19-52, mode 21, and median 23. The figures for the experimental group are: mean 27, range 19-52, mode 21, and median 23. The figures for the control group are: mean 24, range 19-38, mode 21, and median 22.

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33 Marital status Single Married Separated, divorced or widowed Experimental Group Control Group 4 2.8% 3 7.5% 21.4% 12.5% 35.8% 50.0% Research Instruments The instruments used in this study were: the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) (Shostrom, 1966) and the Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967) Ass essment of Self-Actualization The psychological construct, " s el f -ac tual i za ti on , " has been used by personality theorists such as Combs (1962), Maslow (1954, 1962), Rogers (1961), and others. Counselors psychotherapists, personality theorists, and researchers have felt a need for a comprehensive measure of values and behavior seen to be of importance in the development of sel f -actual i za ti on . Shostrom (1964, 1966) developed the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) to meet this need. Most diagnostic instruments have been developed for use with seriously disturbed psychiatric populations, and they attempt to provide measures of the subjects' pathology. This is a negative approach to personality assessment.

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Shostrom (1966) appears to use the terms sel f -actual i zati on , fully functioning, and positive mental health synonymously. A description of the POI is presented below. Personal Orientation Inventory ( P 1 ) The POI is an instrument developed by Shostrom (1964, 1966) which purports to provide a comprehensive measure of values believed to be of importance in the development of self-actualization or positive mental health. The POI consists of 150 two-choice paired-opposite statements of values, and scores are reported for 2 major scales and 10 secondary scales which purport to assess particular personality characteristics considered to be associated with selfactualization. The POI purports to assess a person's position on a continuum for each of the following personality variables . Major Scales: 1 . Time Competence (Tc): measures the degree to which one is "present" oriented. 2. Inne r Dire c tion (I): measures whether reactivity orientation is basically toward self or others. Secondary Scales: 1. Self-Actual izing Values (SAV): measures affirmation of values held by sel f -ac tua 1 i zi ng persons. 2. £xj^s ten tjaj i _ty_ (Ex): measures ability to situationally or existentially react without rigid adherence to principles. 3 . Fee lin g Rea c ti vi ty ( F r ) : measures sensitivity of responsiveness to one's own needs and feelings.

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35 4 • Spontaneity (S): measures freedom to react spontaneously or to be oneself. 5 Sel f-Regar_d_ (Sr): measures affirmation of worth or s trength . 6. Sel f-Acceptance (Sa): measures affirmation or acceptance of self in spite of weaknesses or deficiencies . 7. View of the Nature of Man (Nc): measures degree of the constructive view of the nature of man, masculinity, femininity. 8. Syne rgy (Sy): measures ability to be synergistic, to transcend dichotomies. 9 A cceptance of A ggression (A): measures ability to accept one's natural aggressiveness as opposed to def ens i venes s , denial, or repression of aggression 1 . Capa city for I ntimate Contact (C): measures ability to develop contactful intimate relationships with other human beings, unencumbered by expectations and obligations. The POI is essentially sel f -admi ni s tered . The questions are printed in a reusable test booklet, and the examinee records his answers on a specially designed answer sheet. There is no time limit set for completion of the inventory. Testing time is usually about 30 to 40 minutes. The POI was validated on 650 freshmen at Los Angeles State College, 75 members of a sensitivity training program at UCLA, and 15 school psychologists in a special training program. Retested after training, the latter two groups showed definite growth in inner d i rec te dnes s . The POI was also tested on three other groups: 160 normal adults, 29 relatively sel f -actual i zed adults, and 34 relatively nonse 1 f -ac tua 1 i zed adults nominated by the

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36 clinical psychology societies of Orange and Los Angeles Counties, California. The test does discriminate between self-actualized and nonsel f -ac tua 1 i zed persons on 11 of 12 scales according to Shostrom (1964). Robert Knapp (1965) compared the POI with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI). The EPI measures neuroticismstability and ex tra vers i oni n trovers i on . Highand lowneurotic students were selected from 136 undergraduates on the basis of their EPI and correlated with the POI. Lowneurotic students tended toward self-actualization as did extroverted students. The POI and EPI are from different theoretical frames of reference but seem to be tapping a common core. Shostrom and Knapp (1956) correlated the POI with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and found high correlations between the POI and the Social I.E. (SI) and Depression (D) scales of the MMPI. The POI manual gives high reliability correlations of .91 to .93. An independent retest (50 week interval) study gave a much more modest correlation of .55 for the Time Competent (Tc) scale and .71 for the Inner Directed (I) scale. The mean correlation for the subscales was .58. Although this is not as high as would be desirable, it is well within the range of reliability similarly established for the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule and the MMPI (Ilardi & May, 1968). On the basis of the above studies it was felt that the POI would be a valid instrument for the present research.

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37 Counselo r V erbal Response Scale (CVRS) The CVRS purports to describe a counselor's response to client communication in terms of four di chotomi zed dimensions: (a) affective-cognitive; (b) understand ingnonunderstandi ng ; (c) specific-nonspecific; (d) exploratorynonexpl oratory . A fifth dimension, ef f ecti ve-nonef f ecti ve , provides a global rating of the adequacy of each response which is made independently of the four descriptive ratings. For the purposes of this study the first four dimensions were used . The unit of analysis was the verbal interaction between counselor and client represented by a client statement and counselor response. A counselor response is rated on each of the four dimensions of the rating scale, with every client-counselor interaction being judged independently of preceding units. In judging an individual response, the primary focus is on describing how the counselor responded to the verbal elements of the client's communication. The procedure is based upon the theories of Carl Rogers and theories and research of Truax and Carkhuff. The CVRS consists of five forced choice dichotomous dimensions measuring the extent to which counselors are characterized by affective, understanding, specific, exploratory, and effective responses. The dimensions are defined as follows: An affective response is one which makes reference to or encourages some affective or feeling aspect

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38 of the client's communication while a cognitive response refers to the cognitive component of a client's statement; understanding refers to the counselor's ability to convey to the client his awareness of, and his sensitivity to, the client's feelings and concerns by attempting to deal with the core of his concerns rather than making vague responses or referring to peripheral concerns; exploratory responses encourage the client to explore his feelings and provide him with an opportunity to do so. Nonexpl ora tory responses typically restrict the client's freedom to explore. The final dimension, effective-noneffective, is a global rating of overall effectiveness of a counselor's response in promoting client movement. A sample rating sheet can be found in Appendix B. Inter-judge reliability was determined by applying Hoyt's analysis of variance technique to the ratings of two sets of judges who had rated the videotaped interviews of 50 inexperienced M . A . candidates in Counseling and Guidance at Michigan State University. Corresponding four minute segments were rated for 53 counselors (the post tape of one of the M.A. candidates was lost). Of the 53, 45 were M.S. candidates and 8 Ph.D. candidates, and they interviewed the same coached client. Because timed segments with unequal numbers of responses were used, ratings were converted to proportionate scores. Corresponding 20 response segments were rated for the remaining 10 counseling interviews.

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39 Coefficients were obtained of average tape inter-judge reliability of .84, .80, .79, .68, and .79 for the affectivecognitive, understand ing-nonunderstanding, specificnonspecific, expl oratory-nonexpl oratory , and effectivenoneffective dimensions of the scale, respectively (Kagan & Krathwohl , 1967) . These scales have been validated on 53 counselor education trainees. Forty -five of these trainees were M.A. candidates and 8 were Ph.D. candidates. Tapes of counseling interviews from each of the trainees were collected and rated using the CVRS. On each dimension of the scale significances ( p < . 1 ) were found between the responses of the Ph.D, candidates and the M.A. candidates, with the former having more responses rated as affective, understanding, specific, exploratory, and effective (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967). When separate ratings were made of 10 counselors with M.A.'s having some advanced training and counseling experience and were compared to the ratings of the 53 trainees, the response pattern of these counselors fell between those of the M.A. and the Ph.D. candidates (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967). Other validation studies have been conducted by Kagan and Krathwohl (1967, pp. 84-90). The CVRS differs from other rating scales in that it focuses on a series of individual client/counselor verbal units (client statement . . . counselor response) during the course of an interview, rather than on global ratings of

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40 entire interviews or longer interview segments. Thus, the judge is required to describe every counselor response to a client's verbalization on each of the dimensions of the scale. After 20 counselor responses have been dichotomized on each dimension, totals are obtained. A sample rating record sheet can be found in Appendix B. These scales have been validated through several studies presented by Kagan and Krathwohl (1967, pp. 84-90). Ratings in this scale have also been found to have a positive correlation with the Carkhuff scales (Schauble, Pierce & Resnikoff, 1976). These scales have also been validated in extensive process and outcome research in counseling and psychotherapy (Truax & Carkhuff, 1967). (Refer to Appendi x B . ) Demographic Questionnaire The demographic questionnaire or personal data sheet was intended to elicit personal information so that comparisons could be made between the two sample groups. This questionnaire was developed by the Human Services Department of Santa Fe Community College as a student data sheet. A sample of this form may be found in Appendix E. Collection of Data Initi al Data In an orientation session during the first week of classes for the winter semester 1977, 26 students

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41 volunteering for this study from the Human Services Program were pretested using the POI. At this time they also filled out a student data sheet. After completion of thePOI the subjects were given a cassette tape and asked to make a 30 minute taped interview with a student in their class acting as a client who would share a problem with the subject acting as counselor. These tapes were made during class time with other students. Selection and Training of Raters Research on the selection of raters suggest that both raters' level of functioning and raters' training by a qualified professional are a significant influence on discrimination scores (Cannon & Carkhuff, 1969), and that persons functioning below minimal facilitation levels (level 3) would not be capable of accurate ratings. While the CVRS used in this research employs a dichotomous rating assignment, the training and rating procedure are essentially the same. Four raters were selected from a group of graduate students in counseling psychology. Those individuals were functioning at above minimal levels of facilitative interaction, as judged by independent ratings of their own tapes as helpers. The training of the raters was conducted by a Counseling Psychologist, at the University of Florida's Counseling Center, who is experienced in using the process scales.

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42 A pair of trained judges individually rated preand pos ti n terview segments with respect to the CVRS . For the CVRS scale a 10 minute segment from each tape was selected. A 5 minute segment in the first half and a 5 minute segment in the second half of each counseling tape were used. Raters started rating the first response after the first minute of the interview. Then they advanced the tape to the middle and rated the following 5 minute segment. Relaxation Response (RR) Training All subjects attended a general meeting during the second week of the semester and the counseling tapes were collected. At this time the experimental group was told to remain for further training in the RR. Students in the control group met separately and were told they would learn the RR at the end of the semester. The researcher then instructed the 14 experimental group subjects in the RR in three phases, in a manner similar to that described by Benson (1975). Phase 1 . Instructions: Find a comfortable position. Close your eyes, Deeply relax your muscles as you repeat internally, "I relax my feet ... I relax my calves . . . etc." Beginning at your feet and progressing up to your face--feet, calves, thighs, lower torso, chest, shoulders, neck, head. Allow them to remain deeply relaxed. Now breathe

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43 through your nose and feel your breathing. (Students practiced this for 2 minutes.) Phase 2 . Ins true ti ons : Sit comfortably with your eyes closed for a moment . . . Open our eyes . . . Close the eyes . . . Open the eyes . . . Were you aware of thoughts during the silence? Did you notice how easily and naturally they came? This is how easily you should think of the sound "So" as you breathe in and "Hum" as you breathe out. Now close your eyes again and begin repeating the sound "So" each time you breathe in and "Hum" each time you breathe out. Slowly open the eyes. (Student practiced this for 5 minutes.) Phase 3. Instructions: This is the way to do the RR. Remember, don't resist thoughts or sounds, but when they occur, gently allow your mind to return to the sound "So" when breathing in and "Hum" when breathing out. Remember to wait about half a minute with eyes closed before beginning to practice and take a couple of minutes to open your eyes after you finish. Are there any questions? (At this point questions that may arise are answered and subjects are given an opportunity to discuss their experience with RR.)

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44 Before the training session ended subjects were given written instructions to take with them (Appendix A) on how to bring forth the relaxation response. Students were then reminded to practice the RR daily for the duration of the semester and were given a calendar to record the time and days they practiced (Appendix C). Pos ttes t A date and time were set for posttesting in 10 weeks. At that time all subjects were given the POI for the second time. Subjects were given a second cassette tape to record a posttest counseling tape to be submitted the following week . Upon receiving all the tapes, the control group was trained during the last week of the semester in the RR in the manner described above. CVRS Data Collection At the conclusion of the semester all preand posttapes which had been collected by the experimenter were sent to the University of Florida Counseling Center for analyses on the CVRS scale by a trained set of raters (see section on Selection and Training of Raters, page 41 above) and subsequently returned to the experimenter. Stat ist i ca 1 Design The criterion instruments were administered to the subjects in both experimental and control groups prior to

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45 and after the first semester of training in the Human Services Program. Analysis of the POI score employed the Mann-Whitney U test. The Mann-Whitney U test may be used to test whether two independent groups have been drawn from the same population. This is one of the most powerful of the nonparametri c tests, and it is a most useful alternative to the parametric "t" test when the researcher wishes to avoid the "t" test's assumptions, or when the measurement in the research is weaker than interval scaling (Siegel, 1956). However, for purposes of comparing the results, the traditional "t" test was also made on the POI scores and those results are also shown. The analysis of the CVRS data employs the "t" test as well as cross-tabular analysis of the CVRS scores converted to percentage figures.

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the Relaxation Response on the personality characteristics of paraprof essi onal counselors. In the first part of this chapter, the analyses of the data relevant to the hypothesis are reported. In the second part of the chapter, additional analyses are summarized. Two instruments were used to measure and evaluate 16 variables in a pre-post test design. Five major hypotheses and 10 minor hypotheses were concerned with each of the variables. The major hypotheses were statements of no difference between groups. The minor hypotheses were statements of no difference within each treatment group. The Mann-Wh i tney U was used to test measures of SelfActualization as was the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic and the "t" test statistic. The "t" test statistic was used to test the significance of changes in proportion of facilitative responses on the CVRS. 46

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47 Testin g of the Hypothesis Hypothesis 1: Sel f -Actual i za ti on Hypothes is H -. : There will be no significant difference in gain in sel f -actual i zati on between subjects in the RR (experimental) and in the NRR (control) groups as measured by the POI . A summary of the analysis of the posttest POI scores relevant to this hypothesis is found in Table 1. Because of the significant gains ( p< . 05 ) made in five of the scales (Other, Inner, Exi stential i ty , Spontaneity, Sel f -Acceptance , and Acceptance of Aggression) the hypothesis H, was rejected Hypothesis H ,.: There will be no significant gain in sel f -actual i zati on for RR (experimental) group subjects. A summary of the analysis of the Experimental Group pretest vs posttest scores relevant to this hypothesis is found in Table 2. Because of the significant gains in the Inner Directed, Spontaneity, Self-Regard and the SelfAcceptance scales (see Table 2 for the relevant confidence levels) hypothesis H,„ was rejected. Hypothesis H.^: There will be no significant gain in self-actualization for subjects in the NRR (control) group. A summary of the analysis of the Control Group pretest vs posttest POI scores relevant to this hypothesis is found in Table 3. Because of the lack of significant gains in the scales hypothesis H, R was accepted.

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48 Table 1 Analysis of Posttest POI Scores Control vs Experimental Groups Control Experimental Mean POI symbol** mean S.D. mean S.D. difference U* Significance Ti 7.88 4.27 6.00 3.08 Tc 15.13 4.27 17.01 3.08 46.13 9.51 34.87 13.33 1 79.25 9.48 91.94 13.31 SAV 20.00 2.23 19.93 2.93 Ex 17.38 3.66 22.15 5.40 Fr 15.75 2.62 17.57 2.98 S 12.38 2.77 14.72 1.81 Sr 11.13 2.36 12.87 2.28 Sa 13.75 2.56 17.86 3.09 Nc 11.25 2.72 12.29 1.51 Sy 6.25 .94 6.72 1.09 A 14.75 1.89 16.51 3.64 C 17.38 4.40 20.37 3.82 -1.88

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49 Table 2 Analysis of Experimental Group Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores POI symbol' Pretest mean S.D, Posttest Mean mean S.D. difference Ti 6.21 2.77 6.00 3.08 -0.21 Tc 16.80 2.77 17.01 3„08 0.21 39.94 9.60 34.87 13.33 -5.07 1 85.43 9.55 91.94 13.31 6.51 SAV 20.51 2.79 19.93 2.93 -0.58 Ex 20.79 3.71 22.15 5.40 1.36 Fr 16.86 2.72 17.57 2.98 0.71 S 13.79 1.67 14.72 1.81 0.93 Sr 11.87 2.21 12.87 2.28 1.00 Sa 14.79 2.72 17.86 3.09 3.07 Nc 12.29 1.54 12.29 1.51 Sy 6.86 1.09 6.72 1.09 .14 A 15.87 2.73 16.51 3.64 0.64 C 19.16 2.43 20.37 3.82 1.21 W* 42 42 29 26.5 22 30.5 27 21 13 20 38.5 8 40.5 24.5 Significance NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS p<.05 Post>Pre p<.05 Post>Pre NS NS NS NS *Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic. **See Figure 1 for symbol description.

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50 Table 3 Analysis of Control Group Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores Pretest Posttest Mean POI symbol** mean S.D. mean S.D. difference W* Significance Ti 7.88 3.13 7.88 4.27 10.5 NS Tc 15.13 3.13 15.13 4.27 10.5 NS 43.75 6.99 46.13 9.51 2.38 12 NS 1 78.00 8.03 79.25 9.48 1.25 10.5 NS SAV 18.75 3.88 20.00 2.23 1.25 5 NS Ex 17.75 4.31 17.38 3.66 -0.37 9 NS Fr 15.63 1.37 15.75 2.62 0.12 18 NS S 12.38 1.64 12.38 2.77 14 NS Sr 11.50 2.28 11.13 2.36 -0.37 10.5 NS Sa 14.13 3.01 13.75 2.57 -0.38 6 NS Nc 8.75 2.32 11.25 2.72 2.50 1.5 NS Sy 6.50 .83 6.25 .94 .25 5 NS A 15.88 1.26 14.75 1.89 1.13 7 NS C 17.88 2.56 17.38 4.40 .50 12.5 NS *Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic. **See Figure 1 for symbol description.

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51 At this point it should be noted that the Mann-Whitney U showed no significant differences between the pretest POI scores of the control and experimental groups with the single exception of the scale, Nature of Man, Constructive, where the experimental group received a significantly higher score than the control group. See Table 4. Hypothesis 2: Affective /C ognitive Hypothesis H ^: There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the RR and NRR groups in terms of the feeling level of their responses to clients. Table 5 presents a summary of the results of applying "t" tests of significance to the facilitative responses of the subjects as measured on the Counselor Verbal Response Scale. The nonf ac i 1 i tat i ve components of these four dichotomized dimensions are not shown in Table 5 since we are focusing on possible gains in facilitative responses and a gain in one component of a dimension is necessarily accompanied by an equal loss in the score of the other component, and vice versa. Since Table 5 shows that there was no significant difference in the posttest scores of the control and experimental groups, this hypothesis is accepted. Hy pothesis H ^: There will be no significant gain in feeling level of the responses to their clients for subjects in the RR group .

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52 Table 4 Analysis of Pretest POI Scores Control vs Experimental Groups Control Experimental Mean POI symbol** mean S.D. mean S.D. difference U* Significance Ti 7.88 3.13 6.21 2.77 -1.67 34.5 Tc 15.13 3.13 16.80 2.77 1.67 34.5 43.75 6.99 39.94 9.60 -3.81 50.5 1 78.00 8.03 85.43 9.55 7.43 34.5 SAV 18.75 3.88 20.51 2.79 1.76 43.5 Ex 17.75 4.31 20.79 3.71 3.04 39 Fr 15.63 1.37 16.86 2.72 1.23 32 S 12.38 1.64 13.79 1.67 1.41 34.5 Sr 11.50 2.28 11.87 2.21 0.37 55.5 Sa 14.13 3.01 14.79 2.72 0.66 48.5 Nc 8.75 2.32 12.29 1.54 3.54 14 Sy 6.50 .83 6.86 1.09 0.36 48 A 15.88 1.26 15.87 2.73 .01 49.5 C 17.88 2.56 19.16 2.42 1.28 43 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS p<.05 Cont.>Exp. NS NS NS *Mann-Whitney U. **See Figure 1 for symbol description.

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53 Table 5 Analysis of CVRS* Scores for Facilitative Responses Facilitative Response** t" Score Dimension: Affective Control: Pretest vs. Posttest 1.208 Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest 1.466 Cont. vs. Exper.: Pretest 0.383 Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest 1.566 Dimension: Unders t a_n d_ j_n_q Control: Pretest vs. Posttest 1.325 Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest 2.790 Cont. vs. Exper.: Pretest 1.748 Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest 2.511 Dimension: Specific Control: Pretest vs. Posttest 0.504 Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest 1.833 Cont. vs. Exper.: Pretest 1.011 Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest 1.226 Dimension: Exploratory Control: Pretest vs. Posttest 1.678 Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest 0.766 Cont. vs. Exper.: Pretest 0.994 Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest 1.175 Significance NS NS NS NS NS p< . 05 Post>Pre NS p< . 05 Exp . >Cont . NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS *Counselor Verbal Response Scale. **Faci 1 i tati ve responses only are analyzed since scores are in terms of proportion of responses.

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54 No significant gain was found between the pretest and posttest scores of the RR group; therefore this hypothesis is accepted. See Table 5. Hypothesis H ^: There will be no significant gain in feeling level in the responses to their clients for subjects in the NRR group. Since no significant gain was found, Table 5, between the pretest and posttest scores of the NRR group, this hypothesis is accepted. Hypothesis 3: Unders t andi ng/Nonunde rs tandinj Hypothesis H .,: There will be no significant difference in gain in understanding of client responses between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups. As shown in Table 5, a significant difference (p<.05) was found in gain in understanding between the posttest scores of the experimental group compared with the control group. Therefore, this hypothesis is rejected. Hypothes i s H ^: There will be no significant difference in gain in understanding of client responses for subjects in the RR group. Table 5 reflects the finding of a significant gain in understanding in the posttest scores of the RR group compared with their pretest scores. Therefore, this hypothesis is rejected.

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55 Hypothesis H ^: There will be no significant gain in understanding of client responses for subjects in the NRR group . No significant gain was found between the posttest and pretest scores of the NRR group, as indicated in Table 5. Therefore, this hypothesis is accepted. Hypothesis 4: Specific/Nonspecific Hy pothesis H ^: There will be no difference in gain between the RR and the NRR groups in the degree of specificity of responses to their clients. Application of the "t" test of significance to the posttest scores of the two groups found the differences not significant at the 95 percent level of confidence. This hypothesis, therefore, is accepted. Hypothesis H ^: There will be no significant gain in the degree of specificity of responses to clients for subjects in the RR group. No significant gain was found between the pretest and posttest scores of the RR group and, therefore, this hypothesis is accepted. Hypothesis H ^ B : There will be no significant gain in the degree of specificity of responses to clients for subjects in the NRR group. No. significant gain was found between the pretest and posttest scores of the NRR group, as indicated in Table 5. Hypothesis H^g, therefore, is accepted.

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56 Hypothesis 5: Expl ora tory/N o nexpl ora tory Hypothesis H ,-: There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in ability to give responses that lead clients to further sel f -expl ora ti on . The difference in the posttest scores of the two groups were not significant ( p< . 05 ) and this hypothesis is accepted . Hypothesis H ^: There will be no significant gain in ability to give responses that lead clients to further selfexploration for subjects in the RR group. No significant differences were found in the pretest and posttest scores of the subjects in the RR group. This hypothesis, therefore, is accepted. Hypothesis H ^: There will be no significant gain in ability to give responses that lead clients to further selfexploration for subjects in the NRR group. The pretest and posttest scores of subjects in the NRR group revealed no significant gain. Hypothesis H™ is accepted for that reason. The analysis of our results thus far indicates that, although the RR group scored significant gains in a broad range of sel f -ac tua 1 i zi ng values, which replicates some of the results reported in Chapter II (Seeman, Nidich, & Banta, 1972), these gains were translated into higher ratios of faci 1 i tiati ve responses only in the dimension of understanding

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57 The RR group gained in this dimension both in relation to its own pretest score and vis-a-vis the control group in the posttest scores. However, when we examine the actual group means which are shown in Table 6 and Table 7 in terms of actual proportions (percentages) of responses, a somewhat different picture emerges. Table 6 shows that whereas the control group actually decreased their proportion of facilitative responses for each of the four dimensions, the experimental group showed an increase in e^ery case. This group's affective, understanding and specific responses increased by 50 percent or more while its exploratory responses increased by almost 18 percent, comparing posttest to pretest scores. If we sum the group means of just the facilitative responses for each dimension we find that the combined group mean proportion went from 46.8 percent down to 37.9 percent for the control group while increasing from 35.8 percent to 51.4 percent for the experimental group. A comparison of the pretest scores of the two groups, as shown in Table 7, reveals that the average proportion of all facilitative responses of the experimental group was 11 points, or almost 31 percent lower than that for the control group. By the time of the posttest, however, the experimental group had a combined mean proportion that was 13.5 points and 26 percent higher than the control subjects. These are impressive gains by the experimental group but not large enough, except in the case of the understanding

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58 Table 6 Comparisons of Group Mean Facilitative Responses RR* & NRR** Groups: Pretest vs Posttest

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59 Table 7 Comparison of Group Mean Facilitative Responses Pretest and Posttest Scores: RR* vs NRR** Dimensions

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60 dimension, to conclude according to the "t" statistic test, that such differences could be expected in only 5 percent of the cases in samples drawn from the same population. But this result stems from examining each of our hypotheses, and therefore, each dimension separately from the other. If we apply our "t" test statistic to the average proportion of al 1 facilitative responses combined, as shown in Tables 6 and 7 ("Mean Proportion of All Facilitative Responses"), we get another perspective of the results. Table 8 shows the results of applying "t" tests of significance at the 95 percent confidence level ( p< . 05 ) to the mean proportion of all four facilitative dimension responses combined. These results show a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores of the control group which reflects the decrease in proportion of facilitative responses pointed out above. On the other hand the experimental group showed significant gains both in their own posttest scores compared to pretest, and in their posttest scores compared to those of the control group. Our conclusion, then, is that when individual dimensions are considered, the experimental group shows gains at the level of confidence we chose to employ, only in the dimension of understanding. But there was a sufficient gain in each dimension to produce an overall significant gain when all facilitative responses in all dimensions are considered as a whole. No significant difference was found between the pretest scores of the two groups.

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61 As stated above, the nonparametr i c Mann-Whitney U and the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic were used to test measures of self-actualization in the POI and to serve as a criterion for accepting or rejecting hypothesis 1. For comparison purposes, the parametric "t" statistic was also used to test the measures of Sel f -Ac tual i zati on in hypothesis 1. The results of these tests of significance are given for info rm at ion in Appendix E. Table 11 of Appendix E agrees with Table 1 in the text in the analysis of posttest POI scores, control vs experimental, except that the "t" statistic found a significant gain in Self-Regard (Sr) while the Mann-Whitney U did not. On the other hand, the Mann-Whitney U indicates a significant gain in the Acceptance of Aggression while the "t" test statistic does not. In all important respects, however, both tests tend to corroborate the findings of this study. Table 9 tabulates the number of responses by each counselor in the 10 minute segment of tapes which was used in rating counselor responses. These figures indicate that there was no significant variation in the counselor response level between groups or between tests of the same group. Therefore, counselor response level is not considered to be a contributing factor to any variations in results between treatment groups.

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62 Table 8 Analysis of Mean Group Proportions All Facilitative Responses on CVRS Treatment Group t" Statistic Significance Control: Posttest vs Pretest 4.19 Experimental: Posttest vs Pretest 3.77 Pretest: Exp. vs Control 2.96 Posttest: Exp. vs Control 6.86 p<.05 Pre>Post p<.05 Post>Pre NS p< .05 Exp . >Cont Table 9 Counselor Response Level

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63 The average number of times per week that each subject in the experimental group practiced Relaxation Response is tabulated in Table 10. These data were computed from the calendars maintained by each of the 12 subjects whose CVRS responses have been tabulated in this report. As can be seen in the figures, there was considerable variation as to the number of times the members of the experimental group practiced meditation. The bottom quartile averaged only 4.8 meditation sessions for the 10 week period while the top quartile averaged 11 sessions. The overall average was 7.1 practice sessions per week, however, all quartiles but the top one averaged less than the group average. No attempt was made to collate calendar information with test scores since the test results were not identified by subject name. Therefore, no correlation between amount of meditation and gains in facilitative response dimensions could be carried out .

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64 Table 10 Average Number of Relaxation Response Sessions Per Week by Members of Experimental Group Subject No. Quart i 1 e No Av . No . Weekly RR Sessions Quarti 1 e Average 1

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Table 11 Scoring Categories for the Personal Orientation Inventory Niraibf of I'. Seal" lumber Symbol Description I. Ratio Scores 23 1/2 3/4 II. Sub-Scales 26 5 V T C O/I TIME RATIO Time Incompetence/ Time Competence measures degree to which one Is "present" oriented SUPPORT RATIO Other/Innermeasures whether reactivity orientation is basically toward others or self SELF-ACTUALIZING VALUE Measures affirmation of primary values of selfactualizing persons EXISTENTIAL ITT Measures ability to si tua t iona 1 ly or existent tally react without rigid adherence to principles FEELING REACTIVITY Measures sensitivity of responsiveness to one's own needs and feel Ing s SPONTANEITY Measures freedom to react spontaneously or to be oneself SELF-REGARD Measures affirmation of self because .if worth or s trcugth Numbe r of Items Description 10 Sa 11 Nc 12 Sy 13 A 14 C SELF-ACCEPTANCE Measures affirmation or acceptance of self in spite of weaknesses or deficiencies NATURE OF MAN Measures degree of the constructive view of the nature of man, mascul ini ty , f emini ty SYNERGY Measures ability to be synergistic to transcend dichotomies ACCEPTANCE OF AGGRESSION Measures ability to accep t one ' s natural aggressiveness as opposed to def ensiveness, denial, and repression of aggression CAPACITY FOR INTIMATE CONTACT Measures ability to deve lop con tactful intiraate re lationships with other human beings, unencumbered by expectations and obligations

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CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Summary This study was designed to measure the effects of a meditation technique upon the behavior of a group of paraprofessionals acting as counselors. Of primary interest was the question of whether or not a meditation technique developed by Benson and referred to as the Relaxation Response resulted in the enhancement of the positive personality characteristics which have been correlated with counselor effectiveness. It has been found (Carkhuff, 1969b, pp. 84-90) that the degree to which the helping person offers high levels of empathy, warmth, respect, concreteness and genuineness is related directly to client growth. Available research on meditation suggests that these are the very qualities which have been found to be enhanced by meditation. Previous research (see page 21, above, for examples) found that meditators scored significantly higher than non meditators on such scales as inner directedness, time competence, self-actualization values, spontaneity and sel f -acceptance . These are among the qualities measured by 66

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67 the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) (Shostrom, 1966), one of the research instruments used in this study. The specific behavior examined in this study was the counselor's responses to client communications in terms of four dichotomized dimensions measured by the Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967), which is the other principal research instrument used in this study. The four dichotomized dimensions included in the CVRS are: 1) affective/cognitive; 2) understanding/ nonunderstanding; 3) specific/nonspecific; and 4) exploratory/ nonexploratory. Counselor response in a client-counselor interaction was rated on each of the four dimensions of the rating scale, with each interaction being judged as an independent unit. The counselor's responses were judged primarily on the manner in which he responded to the verbal elements of the client's communication. The judges rated each counselor response to the client on each of the dimensions of the scale. Totals were tallied after responses had been dichotomized on each dimension on two five minute segments of each tape. The study population consisted of 22 paraprof ess i onal counselor-candidates who were attending their first term at the Santa Fe Community College Human Services Department. These subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups-an eight member control group and a 14 member experimental group. Two of the tapes for the experimental group subjects

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68 were lost and our CVRS analysis, therefore, was based upon 12 experimental group members, while the POI analysis covers all 14 experimental group members. The members of each group were pretested with the Personal Orientation Inventory, an essentially selfadministered instrument developed by Shostrom (1964, 1966). The POI consists of 150 two-choice paired opposite statements of personal values which are believed to be important in the development of positive mental health. Scores are reported on two major scales and 10 secondary scales as outlined on page 34, above. After completing the initial POI each subject, acting as counselor, taped an interview with a fellow student, acting as client. Subjects in the experimental group then received instructions in the meditation technique developed by Benson, called the Relaxation Response. They were given forms on which to record the number of times and the time of day that they practiced meditation during the ensuing 10 weeks in a regular daily program of meditation which they were asked to undertake. Members of the control group were told that they would receive instruction in RR at the end of the semester. At the end of 10 weeks all the subjects were given the POI for the second time and were given a second cassette tape on which to record a posttest counseling tape.

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69 Four graduate students in counseling psychology were selected as raters for the two sets of counseling tapes. They were trained as raters by a counseling psychologist. Ten minute segments of each tape were rated by each of two raters. In scoring the CVRS the ratings of the two raters were averaged. Resul ts Significant gains by the experimental group compared to the control group were found in 5 of the 12 scales of the POI. The experimental group evidenced gains compared with the control group in Inner Directedness, Exi s tenti al i ty , Spontaneity, Self-Acceptance and Acceptance of Aggressive Tendencies in Oneself. On the other hand, the control group posttest scores showed a significant (p<.05) gain in Other Directedness, a nonsel f -actual i zi ng factor, relative to the posttest scores of the experimental group. All of these gains were found to be significant by use of the Mann-Whitney U (see Table 1). Also, all of these gains were corroborated as significant ( p< . 05 ) by the "t" statistic, with the exception of Acceptance of Aggression. In addition, the "t" statistic indicated a significant gain in Self-Regard. Use of the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic validated significant gains in the experimental group's posttest scores compared with those of the pretest in the following

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70 dimensions: Inner Di rec tednes s , Spontaneity, Self-Regard and S e 1 f-Acceptance. There was a significant difference between the pretest scores of the experimental versus the control group only in the dimension, Nature of Man, Constructive, with the experimental group ranking higher. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic revealed no significant gains or losses in the posttest scores of the control group compared with its pretest scores . Performance of "t" tests of significance on the pretest and posttest scores on the Counselor Verbal Response Scale of the two groups revealed no significant differences except in the unders tandi ngnonunders tand i ng dimension. The RR group's posttest scores showed significant gains compared with their own pretest score and compared to the control group's posttest scores. The pretest scores of the two groups yielded no significant differences at all. Thus there were no significant gains or losses in the other three dichotomized dimensions: affective/cognitive; specific/nonspecific; and expl oratory/nonexpl oratory . However, comparisons of the actual group proportions expressed in percentage terms reveals impressive percentage gains in the posttest scores of the experimental group compared to their pretest figures and compared to the posttest scores of the control group. Whereas these gains were not great enough by individual dimension to rule out the possibility

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71 that they could have occurred in a similar pretest sample drawn from the same population, when the proportions for all dimensions were averaged for facilitative responses only, significant differences did become apparent. Applying the "t" test to the mean proportion of al 1 facilitative responses from all dimensions for each group revealed that: the control group registered significant losses in the proportion of facilitative responses; the experimental group exhibited significant gains in the overall proportion of facilitative responses, posttest versus pretest; and that the experimental group gained significantly in their proportion of facilitative responses vis-a-vis the control group, based upon a comparison of their posttest scores. Conclusions In this study we attempted to measure the affects, if any, on counselor behavior of a meditation technique, Relaxation Response, which was developed by Benson. The research design called for measuring in an experimental group any gains in sel f -actual i zati on that might be attributable to meditation and the Relaxation Response. Since the control group was chosen from the same population as the experimental group and all other conditions and influences were assumed to be equal--for example, the training that both groups were receiving at the Human Services Department--any significant gains by the experimental group

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72 might be attributed to the program of meditation carried out by the members of that group. The POI scores indicated that significant gains in a broad spectrum of s el f -actual i zi ng values were made by the RR group. Particularly important was the gain by the RR group in Inner Di rec tedness , one of the two principal scales of the POI. Inner, or sel f -di rected individuals are guided primarily by internal principles and motivations, one of the attributes of positive mental health. Did this gain by the experimental group in selfactualizing values translate itself into more effective counseling behavior as measured by the CVRS? Significant gains in desirable counselor behavior were found only in the dimension of understanding. No significant gains were noted in the facilitative responses characterized as affective, specific and exploratory. A possible explanation for this result may be found in distinguishing between the characterizations of counselor response in the CVRS model. The habit of responding to client verbalizations in specific terms or in terms that encourage further exploration could be thought of as depending on learned technique rather than on basic personality factors. In contrast, the quality of understanding, particularly in the context of the interactions between a counselor and client, would seem to depend more on the stage of personality development and experience than on specific techniques that can be taught in a classroom si tua ti on .

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73 If this premise is accepted, then it would seem logical that new gains in a person's level of sel f -actual i zation and in basic positive personality characteristics would first manifest themselves in a greater capacity to understand the communications of another human being. As we saw on page 3 above, Rogers (1957), in describing the necessary characteristics of effective counselors, linked "empathic understanding of the client" and the "sel f -congruence of the counselor." Thus in our present study, we may conclude that the measured gains in sel f -actual i zati on were linked at the basic personality level to gains in the capacity for understanding. We may also conclude that such gains at the level of personality development may not be translated immediately into specific professional skills or techniques (a verbal bag of tools) which require learning. This would appear to be especially true of the subjects of this study who were students in the initial stages of learning their prof essi on . Our principal conclusion, based upon the results of this study, is that the Benson Relaxation Response technique of meditation appears to offer one means of acquiring and developing the positive personality characteristics which have been linked to effective counseling. The first results of such a meditation technique may manifest themselves in a capacity for increased understanding of another's communication.

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74 Limitations of the Study Generalization based on this study are limited to the Santa Fe Community College Human Services Program for paraprofessional counselors. The sampling procedures did not make allowance for generalizing outside of this population. A small sample size of twenty-two further limits generalizabil i ty. The amount of time in which subjects engaged in the practice of the Relaxation Response (RR) is an important factor. The overall length of time that the experimental group practiced the RR was 10 weeks. The average number of times per week was 7 times. However, there was a wide variance in the meditation schedules of the individual members, see Table 10. All quartiles except the top quartile had a practice rate of less than the group average of 7 times a week. It may be that a more consistent schedule may produce more definite results. (See Implications for Future Research #5) . Implications for Future Re s e arch The findings of this investigation suggest that a meditation procedure, namely the Relaxation Response (RR), can be adopted by a paraprofessional counseling program. Research cited in this study demonstrated the importance of positive personality characteristics as it relates to counselor

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75 effectiveness. The present study also suggests training designed to aid in the development of self-actualizing attributes in counselors. This type of training may be considered as important to counselors as the formal training in mechanical skills and theory. The following suggestions may be of value to those interested in further research on this subject. 1) To further investigate the quality of meditation being practiced by each student. Researchers can carefully monitor not only the actual amount of time spent in the RR, but the quality of the experience by means of biofeedback equipment. Biofeedback equipment which measures brain waves (EEG), muscle tension (EMG), or galvanic skin resistance (GSR) may contribute to further exploration and development of student potentials. 2) A longitudinal design could be used to investigate the long term effect of the RR on the personality characteristics of paraprof es s i onal counselors. Also, this type of design could allow more time for students to translate their personal perceptions from the RR experience to behaviors measurable by the research instruments. Further research is needed to explore the relationship of time spent in meditation and personal growth.

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76 The present study indicates the need for further investigation of the correlation of the affective content of counselor responses with the degree of sel f -actual ization of the counselor. We have attempted to explain the fact that the specific and exploratory dimensions of the CVRS did not increase in tandem with the gains in measures of selfactualization with the assumption that these dimensions are more dependent upon sk i 1 1 traini ng than on the development of positive personality traits. However, a person gaining in selfactualizing values would, by our definition, also be increasing his capacity for empathy and therefore, would be expected to manifest this empathy by increased levels of feeling content versus cognitive content in his responses to clients. The reason for the failure of our experimental group to show significant gains in the proportion of these responses needs further study. Researchers may further investigate the interaction effects of self-actualization, meditation, and counselor effectiveness. For example, one question not answered by the present research is, do initially high self-actualized individuals show significantly greater gains from practice of the RR than initially low self-actualized individuals? More research is necessary to answer this question.

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77 5) As mentioned in the Limitations of the Study, the amount of time spent in the practice of the RR was shown to be highly variable. Future research may show that a more consistent schedule of meditation can produce more definite results. Therefore, researchers may wish to incorporate into their experimental design methods to insure a minimum period of time in which the subjects engage in practice of the RR. For example, incentives such as the payment of fees to subjects may be advantageous, however, more research is needed to verify thi s concl us i on . 6) In the counseling relationship, clients respond to both the verbal and nonverbal behaviors of the counselor. In addition to verbal communication, the counselor uses facial, postural and gestural modes of communication. Therefore, future research may be supplemented by videotape recordings of the client/counselor interaction to observe changes in both verbal and nonverbal communications as a result of the RR training. Continued research is needed which focuses directly upon the kinds of experience which will facilitate the counselor's personal awareness, integration and psychological maturity.

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APPENDIX A How to Bring Forth the Relaxation Response and Eliciting the Relaxation Response

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How to Bring Forth the Relaxation Response (1) A Quiet Environment. Ideally, you should choose a quiet, calm environment with as few distractions as possible. A quiet room is suitable, as is a place of worship. The quiet environment contributes to the effectiveness of the repeated work or phrase by making it easier to eliminate distracting thoughts. (2) A Mental Device. To shift the mind from logical, externally oriented thought, there should be a constant stimulus: a sound, word, or phrase repeated silently or aloud; or fixed gazing at an object. Since one of the major difficulties in the elicitation of the Relaxation Response is "mind wandering," the repetition of the word or phrase is a way to help break the train of distracting thoughts. Your eyes are usually closed if you are using a repeated sound or word; of course, your eyes are open if you are gazing. Attention to the normal rhythm of breathing is also useful and enhances the repetition of the sound or the word. (3) A Passive Attitude. When distracting thoughts occur, they are to be disregarded and attention redirected to the repetition or 79

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80 gazing; you should not worry about how well you are performing the technique, because this may well prevent the Relaxation Response from occurring. Adopt a "let it happen" attitude. The passive attitude is perhaps the most important element in eliciting the Relaxation Response. Distracting thoughts will occur. Do not worry about them. When these thoughts do present themselves and you become aware of them, simply return to the repetition of the mental device. These other thoughts do not mean you are performing the technique incorrectly. They are to be expected. (4) A Comfortable Position. A comfortable posture is important so that there is no undue muscular tension. Some methods call for a sitting position. A few practitioners use the cross-legged "lotus" position of the Yogi. If you are lying down, there is a tendency to fall asleep. As we have noted previously, the various postures of kneeling, swaying, or sitting in crosslegged position are believed to have evolved to prevent falling asleep. You should be comfortable and relaxed. Eliciting the Relaxation Response (1) In a quiet environment, sit in a comfortable position. (2) Close your eyes. (3) Deeply relax your muscles, beginning at your feet and progressing up to your face--feet, calves, thighs, lower torso, chest, shoulders, neck, head. Allow them to remain deeply relaxed.

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.1 (4) Breathe through your nose. Become aware of your breathing. As you breathe in, say the sound "So" silently to yourself and as you breathe out say "Hum." Thus: breathe in--"So" . . . breathe out with "Hum." In, "So" and out with "Hum." . . . (5) Continue this practice for twenty minutes. You may open your eyes to check the time, but do not use an alarm. When you finish, sit quietly for several minutes, at first with your eyes closed and later with your eyes open. (6) Remember not to worry about whether you are successful in achieving a deep level of relaxation--maintain a passive attitude and permit relaxation to occur at its own pace. When distracting thoughts occur, ignore them and continue to repeat "So-Hum" as you breathe. The technique should be practiced twice daily, and not within two hours after any meal, since the digestive processes seem to interfere with the elicitation of the expected.

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APPENDIX B Counselor Verbal Response Scale Counselor Verbal Response Scale Rating Sheet

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Counselor Verbal R e sponse Scale Description of Rating Dimensions I • Affectivecognitive dimension The affective-cognitive dimension indicates whether a counselor's response refers to any affective component of a client's communication or concerns itself primarily with the cognitive component of that communication. A. Affective responses: Affective responses generally make reference to emotions, feelings, fears, etc. The judge's rating is solely by the content and/or intent of the counselor's response, regardless of whether it be reflection, clarification or interpretation. These responses attempt to maintain the focus on the affective component of a client's communication. Thus they may: (a) Refer directly to an explicit or implicit reference to affect (either verbal or nonverbal) on the part of the client. (b) Encourage an expression of affect on the part of the client. Example: "How does it make you feel when your parents argue?" (c) Approve of an expression of affect on the part of the client. Example: "It doesn't hurt to 83

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84 let your feelings out once in a while, does it?" (d) Presents a model for the use of affect by the client. Example: "If somebody treated me like that, I'd really be mad . " Special care must be taken in rating responses which use the word "feel." For example, in the statement "do you feel that your student teaching experience is helping you get the idea of teaching?" the phrase "do you feel that" really means "do you think that." Similarly, the expression "How are you feeling?" is often used in a matter-of-fact, conversation manner. Thus, although the verb "to feel" is used in both these examples, these statements do not represent responses which would be judged "affective." B. Cognitive Responses : Cognitive responses deal primarily with the cognitive element of a client's communication. Frequently, such responses seek information of factual nature. They generally maintain the interaction on the cognitive level. Such responses may: (a) Refer directly to the cognitive component of the client's statement. Example: "So then you're thinking about switching your major to chemistry?" (b) Seeks further information of a factual nature from the cl i en t . Example: "What were your grades last term?"

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85 (c) Encourage the client to continue to respond at the cognitive level. Example: "How did you get interested in art?" 1 1 • Understandingnonunde rstanding dimension The understanding-nonunderstanding dimension indicates whether a counselor's response communicates to the client that the counselor understands or is seeking to understand the client's basic communication. This encourages the client to continue to gain insight into the nature of his concerns. A . Underst an ding responses : Understanding responses communicate to the client that the counselor understands the client's commun i ca ti on-the counselor makes appropriate reference to what the client is expressing or trying to express both verbally and nonverbal ly--or the counselor is clearly seeking enough information of either a cognitive or affective nature to gain such understanding. Such responses: (a) Directly communicate an understanding of the client's communication. Example: "In other words, you really want to be treated like a man." (b) Seek further information from the client in such a way as to facilitate both the counselors' and the clients' understanding of the basic problems. Example: "What does being a man mean to you?" (c) Reinforce or give approval or client communications which exhibit understanding.

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86 Example: CL: "I g uess then , when people criticize me, I'm afraid they'll 1 eave me . " CO: "I see you're beginning to make some connection between your behavior and your feelings." B. Nonunderstanding responses : Nonunderstanding responses are those in which the counselor fails to understand the client's basic communication or makes no attempt to obtain appropr i ate information from the client. In essence, nonunderstanding implies misunderstanding. Such responses : (a) Communicate misunderstanding of the client's basic concern . Example: CL : "When he said that, I just turned red and clenched my fists. " CO: "Some people don't say nice things." (b) Seek information which may be irrelevant to the client's communication. Example: CL: "I seem to have a hard time getting along with my brothers." CO: "Do all your brothers live at home with you?"

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Squelch client understanding or move the focus to another irrelevant area. Example: CL : "I guess I'm really afraid that other people will laugh at me." CO: "We're the butt of other poeple's jokes sometimes." Example: CL: "Sometimes I really hate my aunt. CO: "Will things be better when you go to col 1 ege?" III. Specific/nonspecific dimension The specific-nonspecific dimension indicates whether the counselor's response delineates the client's problems and is central to the client's communication or whether the response does not specify the client's concern. In essence, it describes whether the counselor deals with client's communication in a general, vague, or peripheral manner, or "zeros in" on the core of the client's communication. NB: A response judged to be nonunderstanding must also be nonspecific since it would, by definition, misunderstand the client's communication and not help the client to delineate his concerns. Responses judged understanding might be either specific (core) or nonspecific (peripheral) i.e., they would be peripheral if the counselor conveys only a vague idea that a problem exists or "flirts" with the idea rather than helping the client delineate some of the dimensions of his concerns.

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A. Speci fie responses : Specific responses focus on the core concerns being presented either explicitly or implicitly, verbally or nonverbally, by the client. Such res ponses : (a) Delineate more closely the client's basic concerns . Example: "This vague feeling you have when you get in tense situations--is it anger or fear?" (b) Encourage the client to discriminate among stimuli affecting him. Example: "Do you feel in all your classes or in only some classrooms?" (c) Reward the client for being specific. Example: CL: "I guess I feel this way most often with someone who reminds me of my father. " CO: "So as you put what others say in perspective the whole world doesn't seem so bad; it's only when someone you value, like Father, doesn't pay any attention that you feel hurt . " B . Nonspecific responses : Nonspecific responses indicate that the counselor is not focusing on the basic concerns of the client or is not yet able to help the client

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89 differentiate among various stimuli. Such responses either miss the problem area completely (such responses are also nonunderstandi ng) or occur when the counselor is seeking to understand the client's communication and has been presented with only vague bits of information about the client's concern. Thus, such responses: (a) Fail to delineate the client's concern and cannot bring them into sharper focus. Example: "It seems your problem isn't very clear--can you tell me more about it?" (b) Completely miss the basic concerns being presented by the client even though the counselor may ask for specific details. Example: CL : "I've gotten all A's this year and I still feel 1 ousy . " CO: "What were your grades before then?" (c) Discourage the client from bringing his concerns into sharper focus. Example: "You and your sister argue all the time. What do other people think of your sister?" I V . Exp! ora to ry-nonexpl oratory The expl ora tory-nonexpl ora tory dimension indicates whether a counselor's response permits or encourages the client to explore his cognitive or affective concerns, or

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90 whether the response limits a client's exploration of these concerns . A. Exploratory responses : Exploratory responses encourage and permit the client latitude and involvement in his response. They may focus on relevant aspects of the client's affective or cognitive concerns but clearly attempt to encourage further exploration by the client. Such responses are often open-ended and/or are delivered in a manner permitting the client freedom and flexibility in response. These responses: (a) Encourage the client to explore his own concerns . Example: Cogn i ti ve-" You ' re not sure what you want to major in, is that it?" Aff ecti ve-"Maybe some of these times you're getting mad at yourself, what do you think?" (b) Assist the client to explore by providing him with possible alternatives designed to increase his range of responses. Example: Cogn i ti ve-"What are some of the other alternatives that you have to history as a major?" Affective--" In these situations, do you feel angry, mad, helpless, or wha t? "

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91 (c) Reward the client for exploratory behavior. Example: Cogn i ti ve-" I t seems that you've considered a number of alternatives for a major, that's good." Affective-"So you're beginning to wonder if you always want to be treated like a man." B. Nonexpl ora tory responses : Nonexp 1 oratory responses either indicate no understanding of the client's basic communication, or so structure and limit the client's responses that they inhibit the exploratory process. The responses give the client little opportunity to explore, expand, or express himself freely. Such responses: Discourage further exploration on the part of the client. Example: Cogni ti ve-" You really resent your parents treating you like a child." V . Effective-noneffective dime nsion Ratings on the effective-noneffective dimension may be made independently of ratings on the other four dimensions of the scale. This rating is based solely upon the judge's professional impression of the appropriateness of the counselor's responses, that is, how adequately does the counselor's response deal with the client's verbal and nonverbal

PAGE 102

92 communication. This rating is not dependent on whether the response has been judged affective, cognitive, etc. A rating of 4 indicates that the judge considers this response among the most appropriate possible. In the given situation, while a 3 indicates that the response is appropriate but not among the best. A rating of 2 indicates a neutral response which neither measurably affects client progress nor inhibits it, while a rating of 1 indicates a response which not only lacks basic understanding of the client's concerns but which in effect may be detrimental to the specified goals of client growth.

PAGE 103

93 D. O X u W 113

PAGE 104

APPENDIX C Relaxation Response Calendar

PAGE 105

To Help You Incorporate the Relax Response In Your Daily Life, You May Use This Calendar Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 1 1 Week 12 AM PM AM PM AM PM AM PM AM PM AM PM AM PM AM PM AM PM AM PM AM PM AM PM Sun . Mon . Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Make a check mark ( ) in the appropriate place each time you practice the Relaxation Response 95

PAGE 106

APPENDIX D Demographic Data Sheet

PAGE 107

HUMAN SERVICE TRAINING PROGRAM Santa Fe Community College August, 1976 Student Data Sheet Please fill in the blanks or circle the answer that is correct for you. 1. NAME: Local Area: 2. Race: A . white B. black C . other 3 . Sex : A . male B. female 4. Age: 5. Marital Status (at present time): A. single (never married) B . married C. separated D. divorced E . wi dowed 6. Did you complete high school? A . yes B. no 7. Have you ever attended a college or junior college? A . yes B. no 8. Do you at present hold a college degree? A . yes B. no 97

PAGE 108

98 9. If you hold a college degree, please indicate what type of degree. Associate of Arts ( A. A . ) Associate of Science (A.S.) Bachelor of Arts (B.A. ) Bachelor of Science (B.S.) Other: 10. When you were growing up what was the job your father held most often? (Please be as specific as possible.) 11. If your mother worked while you were growing up, what was the job she held most often? 12. How many children do you have? 13. How many brothers do you have? 14. How many sisters do you have? 15. How many of these brothers and sisters are older than you? 16. In what city do you currently live? 17. How long have you lived there? A . less than 1 year B . 1-2 years C . 2-3 years D . 3-4 years E . 4-5 years F . 1 onger than 5 years 18. How many different cities have you lived in during the last 5 years? 19. Did your father graduate from high school? A . yes B. no C . don ' t know 20. Did your father ever attend college? A . yes B. no C . don ' t know

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99 21. Did your mother graduate from high school? A . yes B. no C . don ' t know 22 23 Did your mother ever attend college? A B C yes no don ' t know Which of the following reasons most influenced your decision to enroll in this program? (Please choose on ly one) A. Better job security B. To improve counseling skills C. Available training money D. Other: Comments : 24. Previous work experience (start with most recent): EMPLOYER DATES TYPE OF WORK 1 . 2. 3. 4.

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APPENDIX E Additional Analyses of POI Scores

PAGE 111

Table 12 Analysis of Posttest POI Scores Control vs Experimental Groups POI symbol** t" Statistic Si gni f icance Tc I SAV Ex Fr S Sr Sa Nc Sy A C 2.26 2.12 2.27 2.51 3.03 p< .05 Exp . >Cont p< . 05 Exp.>Cont p<.05 Exp.>Cont. p< . 05 Exp . >Cont p< .05 Exp . >Cont ^Parametric "t" Statistic. **See Figure 1 for symbol description 101

PAGE 112

102 Table 13 Analysis of Control Groups Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores POI symbol** t" Statistic* Significance Tc I SAV Ex Fr S Sr Sa Nc sy A C Identical Means .266 .738 .173 .107 Identical Means .298 .254 1 .850 .523 1 .31 .259 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS *Parametric "t" Statistic. **See Figure 1 for symbol description.

PAGE 113

103 Table 14 Analysis of Experimental Group Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores POI

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104 Table 15 Analysis of Pretest POI Scores Control vs Experimental Groups POI symbol Tc I SAV Ex Fr S Sr Sa Nc Sy A C t" Statistic 1 .44 2.15 1 .32 1 .92 1 .45 2.17 .420 .580 4.57 .940 .120 1 .30 Significance NS p<.05 Exp.>Cont NS NS NS p< . 05 Exp . >Con t , NS NS p< . 05 Exp . >Con t , NS NS NS Parametric "t" Statistic. **See Figure 1 for symbol description

PAGE 115

REFERENCES Aspy, D. The relationship between the level of conditions offered by the teacher and academic achievement in third-grade pupils. Doctoral dissertation, University of Kentucky, 1965. Beary, J.F. & Benson, H. A simple psychophysiologic technique which elicits the hypome tabol i c changes of the relaxation response. Psychosomatic Medicine , 1974, 36, 115-120. " Benson H The relaxation resp onse. New York: William, Morrow and Co., Inc., 1975 Benson, H. The relaxation response. In M. Roman & C. Swencionis (Chair.), Biofeedback meditation and selfregulatory therapies. Symposium presented by the Dept. of Psychiatry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, Nov. 23, 1975 (b). Benson, H., Alexander, S. & Feldman, C.L. Decreased premature ventricular contraction through use of the relaxation response in patients with stable ischaemic heart disease, Lancet , 1975, 79_3, (ii), 380-382. Benson, H., Beary, J.F. & Carol, M.P. The relaxation response. Psychia try , 1974, 37.> 37-46. Berenson, B. & Carkhuff, R. (Eds.) Sources of gain in counseling and psychotherapy . New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1967. Bergin, A.E. Some implications of psychotherapy research for therapeutic practice. Journal of Abno r mal Psychology , 1966, 7J_, 235-246. Bergin, A.E. & Solomon, S. Personality and performance correlates of emphathic understanding in psychotherapy American Psychologist , 1963, 18, 393. • loom field, H.H., Cain, M.P Jaffe, D.T TM: inner energy and overcomin g stress . New York: Delacorte, 1975. Discovering 105

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106 Cannon, J.R. & Carkhuff, R.R. The effect of rater level of functioning and experience upon discrimination of facilitative conditions. Journal of Consultin g Psychology, 1969, 3J, 189-T9l~ ' Cannon, J.R. & Pierce, R.M. Order effects in the experimental manipulation of therapeutic conditions. Jo urnal of Clinical Ps ychology. 1968, 2_4, 242-244. Carkhuff, R.R. Counseling research, theory and practice. Jo urnal of Counseling Psycholog y, 1966, J_3, 467-480. Carkhuff, R.R. Differential functioning of lay and professional helpers. Jou rnal o f Counseling Psychology, 1968, 15_, 117-126. Carkhuff, R.R. Helping and human relations. Vol. 1. Selecti on and t raining. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1969TI7T Carkhuff, R.R. Helping and human relations: A primer for liLZ-JLOil £rg_fe s si on a! helpers. Vol. 2. Practice and research 1969 New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Carkhuff, R.R. The prediction of the effects of teacher counselor education: The development of communication and discrimination selection indexes. Counsel or Ed ucation and Supervi sion. 1969, 8, 265-272 ( c ) 7 Carkhuff, R.R, the rapy . 1967. & Berenson, B.G. Beyond counseling and New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Combs, A.W. A perceptual view of the adequate personality In A.W. Combs (Ed.) Perceiving, behavi ng , beco ming: Yearboo k of the Association for supervison and curriculum development , 196 2. Dick, L.D. & Ragland, R.E, service of counseling. University of Oklahoma A study of meditation in the Unpublished manuscript, 1973. Drennen, W.T. & Chermol , B.H. Relaxation and placebosuggestion as uncontrolled variables in TM research. Journal o f Humanistic Psychology , (in press). Eysenck, H.J. The effects of psychotherapy: An evaluation Jour nal of Consulting Psychology , 1952, 1_6, 319-324.

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107 Eysenck, H.J. The effects of psychotherapy. In H.J. Eysenck (Ed.) Han dbook of Abnormal Psyc ho logy , New York: Basic Books, 1961 . Foulds, MoL. An investigation of the relationship between therapeutic conditions offered and a measure of selfactualization. Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1967. French , A . P Tupin, J. P. Method of relaxation. Journal of the Am erican Medical Association , 19 73, 223, 801 802. ~ ' ~~ ~ ' ~ ~ French, A. P. & Tupin, J. P. Therapeutic application of a simple relaxation method. American Journal of Psycho thera py, 1974, 28, 282-287. Goleman, D. Meditation as me ta -therapy : Hypothesis toward a proposed fifth state of consciousness. Journal of Trans pe rsonal Psychology , 19 71, 3_, 1-25. Goleman, D. Meditation as me tatherapy . In J. White (Ed.) What is medi tation? Garden City, N.J.: Doubleday, 19 74. Hjelle, L.A. Transcendental Meditation and psychological health. Pe rceptual and Motor Skills , 1974, 39_, 623628. "~ " ~" _ Holder, T. Length of Encounter as a therapist variable. Journal of Clinical Psych ology, 1968, 2_4, 249-250. Ilardi, R.I. & May, W.T. A reliability study of Shostrom's Personal Orientation Inventory. Journal of Humanistic Psych ology, 1968, 68-72. Kagan, N. & Krathwohl , D.R. Studies in human interaction: Int erpersonal process recall stimulated by video tape East Lansing, Michigan: Educational Publication Services, Michigan State University, 1967. Kanellakos, D.P. & Ferguson, P.C. The p s ychob i ol ogy of transcendental meditation (An annotated bibliography) Los Angeles: MIU Press, 1973. Kanellakos, D.P. & Lukas, J.S. The psychob i o 1 ogy of tran scendental meditation: A literature review . Menlo Park, Ca„: W.A. Benjamin, 1974. Keefe, T. Empathy: Impact of social work education and enhancement technique. Doctoral dissertation, University of Utah , 1973 .

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108 Knapp, R.R. Relationship of a measure of self-actualization to neuroticism and extraversion. Journal of Consultin g Psychology , 196 5, 29_, 168-172. Lesh, T.V. Zen meditation and the development of empathy in counselors. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 1970, 10, 39-74. "~ Luborsky, L., Auerback, A.H., Chandler, M., Cohen, H. & Backrach, J.M. Factors influencing the outcome of psychotherapy: A review of quantitative research. Psychological Bulletin, 1971, 75, 145-185. Maslow, A.H. 1954. Motivation and Personality . New York: Harper, Maslow, A.H. Toward a psychology of being Nostrand, 1962. Pri nceton Van McPheeters, H.L. & King, J.B. Pl ans for teaching me n tal health worker s community college curriculum objectives Atlanta: Southern Regional Education Board, 1971. Morgan, J.I. Introduction to Paraprof es s i ona 1 training: Function, methods and issues. In J.I. Morgan (Ed.) Psychological a nd Vocational Counseling Center Mono graph Series Voj _. _2_^ Psychological and Vocational Counseling Center and Division of Continuing Education University of Florida, Gainesville, 1976. Naranjo, C. Meditation: Its spirit and technique. In Naranjo & R.E. Ornstein, On the psychology of medita tion . New York: Viking, 1971. Nidich, S., Seeman, W. & Dreskin, F. Influence of transcendental meditation: A replication. Journal of Counseling Psychol ogy, 1973, 20_, 565-566. Piaget, G.W., Berenson, G.W. & Carkhuff, R.R. Differential effects of the manipulation of therapeutic conditions by highand moderate-functioning therapists upon high and low functioning clients. Journal of Consulting Psychology , 1967, 31_, 481-486. Rogers, C.R. The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Cons ul ti ng Psychology, 1957, 2J_, 95-103. Rogers, C.R. On becoming a Miff ling, 1961 . person . Boston: Houghton

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109 Russie, R.E. The influence of transcendental meditation on positive mental health and self-actualization and the role of expectation, rigidity and self-control in the achievement of these benefits. Doctor dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, 1975. Schauble, P., Pierce, R. & Resnikoff, A. Measurement of counselor effectiveness. Comparison of dichotomous and continuous rating scales. Unpublished manuscript, 19 76. Seeman, W. , Nidich, S. & Banta, T. Influence of transcendental meditation on a measure of self-actualization. Journal of Counseling Psychol ogy, 19 72, }9_, 184-187. Shaffii, M. Adaptive and therapeutic aspects of meditation International Journal of Psy choanalytic Psychotherapy, 1973, T, 364-382. KJ ~ Shostrom, E.L. A test for the measurement of selfactualization. Educational and Psycholo gical Measurement, 1964, 24, 207-218. ~ ~ Shostrom, E.L. Manual for the Personal Orientation Inventory San Diego, Calif.: Educational and Industrial Testing Servi ce , 1 966 . Shostrom, E.L. & Knapp, R.R. The relationship of a measure of self-actualization (POI) to a measure of pathology (MMPI) and to therapeutic growth. American Journal of Ps ychotherapy , 1966, 2_0 , 193-202. Siegel, S. Nonparametri c statistics for the behavioral sc iences . McGraw Hi 1 1 Book Co. , Inc. , N. Y. , 1956. Thigpen, J.D. Most and least helpful experiences in the supervision of pa raprof ess ional mental health workers. Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1974. Truax, C.B. The process of group psychotherapy: Relationship between hypothesized therapeutic conditions and intrapersonal exploration. Ps ychol ogica l Monogram, 1961, 75, 7 (Whole No 511) (ij. Truax, C.B. A scale for the measurement of accurate empathy. Psychiatr ic Institute Bulletin , Wisconsin Psychiatric Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1961, I, issue 12 (b).

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1 10 Truax, C.B. A tentative scale for the measurement of therapist genuineness or self-congruence. Discussion Papers , Wisconsin Psychiatric Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1962, No 35 (a). Truax, C.B. A tentative scale for the measurement of unconditional positive regard. Psychiatric Institute Bulletin , Wisconsin Psychiatric Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1962, No 2, issue No 1 (b). Truax, C.B. & Carkhuff, R.R. and practice . Chicago, Toward effective counseling 111 . , Aldine, 1967. Truax, C.B., Silber, L. & Wargo, D. Personality change and achievement in therapeutic training. Unpublished manuscript, Arkansas Rehabilitation Research and Training Center, University of Arkansas, 1966. Truax, C.B. & Tatum, C. An extension from the effective psychotherapeutic model to constructive personality change in preschool children. Childhood Education , 1966, 42, 456-462. Wallace, R.K. Physiological effects of transcendental meditation. Science , 1970, J_6J_, 1751-1754 (a). Wallace, R.K. The physiological effects of transcendental meditation. A proposed fourth state of consciousness Los Angeles: MI U Press, 1970 (b). Wal lace, R.K. , Benson , H. hypome tabol i c state. 1971 , 221 , 795-799. i Wi 1 son , A. F. A wakeful American Journal of Physiology , Wehr, M. A study of the relationship between group facilitative involvement and predicted effectiveness of counselor paraprofessionals. Doctoral dissertation University of Florida, 1973.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH David Nelson Bole was born July 26, 1949, in Detroit, Michigan. He attended a Catholic elementary school until his family moved to settle in Lake Worth, Florida. There he completed his public school education and was graduated from Lake Worth Senior High School in 1967. Later that same year he attended Palm Beach Junior College in Lake Worth, Florida, where he received his A. A. degree in 1969. In September of 1969 David attended the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida, where he received his B.A. degree in psychology in 1971. He continued his education at the University of Florida in the Foundations of Education After receiving his M.Ed, in June, 1972, he was accepted in the Ph.D. program in the Foundations of Education Department emphasizing Human Growth and Development. In August of 1974 he joined the faculty as a full-time psychology instructor in the Human Service Department at Greenville Technical College. Here he taught psychology, counseling, and directed Student Field Placements. He developed and led inservice teacher training programs for the Greenville Co. School System in communication skills and in behavior management. After remaining in this teaching position for 111

PAGE 122

112 two years, David left Greenville to finish his doctoral studies program at the University of Florida. David specializes in the area of personal growth, bringing together the Eastern and Western theories of personality through an experiential orientation to education. David has studied Eastern psychologies, yoga, Tai Chi Chuan, relaxation methods, body awareness, and health in the United States, Canada, and India. He is also a licensed massage therapist and offers workshops designed to enhance awareness and health.

PAGE 123

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. ( 'i & *^\£ n ' Donald L. Avila, Chairman Professor Foundations of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Walter Busby Assistant Professor Foundations of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my ipinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. I\U14> /-'. a^.. '?.~-QW^ Richard Arfder son Professor of Psychology This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Foundations of Education in the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. March 1978 < t-Ud A-A C _c_ i Chairman, Foundations of Education Dean, Graduate School

PAGE 124

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 08552 9559


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THE EFFECT OF THE RELAXATION RESPONSE ON THE
POSITIVE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF
PARAPROFESSIONAL COUNSELORS
By
David Nelson Bole
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1978

Dedicated to my father
Nelson S. Bole

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author wishes to express his appreciation to his
Committee Chairman, Dr. Donald L. Avila, for his sage advice
and counsel, and to the other members, Dr. Walter Busby and
Dr. Richard Anderson, for their scholarship, friendship and
guidance.
The author also wishes to thank the faculty of the
Human Services Department at Santa Fe Community College,
Gainesville, Florida, for their support of this research.
Special thanks to Dr. William Korth for his support and to
Maria Duncan for her creative suggestions and help through¬
out the development of this research. Also, thanks to the
Human Services' student volunteers who were the subjects of
this experiment.
Special thanks to Alec Riddle, University of South
Carolina, for his cooperation in offering research informa¬
tion which was most helpful to the author.
Grateful mention must also be made of Dr. Paul Schauble,
University of Florida Counseling Center, for his advice and
aid in providing raters for this research. Thanks to David
Linquist and Gabriel Rodriquez who served as the raters.
Finally, the author expresses his deepest gratitude to
his father for his untiring support and encouragement.
i i i

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES vi
ABSTRACT . „ viii
CHAPTER
I INTRODUCTION 1
Purpose of the Study 1
Background of the Study 1
Paraprofessionals 1
Counselor Behavior Variables 3
Meditation 5
Hypotheses 6
Need for the Study 8
II REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH 10
Counselor-offered Conditions, Personality
and Client Growth 10
Facilitative Conditions and Personality . 13
Counselor Verbal Responses Approach . . 16
Psychological Effects of Meditation . . . 19
Transcendental Meditation 19
Relaxation Response 23
Meditation in Theory 24
Psychoanalytic Derepression 24
Generalized Desensitization 26
The Relaxation Response (RR) 26
Elements of Meditation 28
III EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND PROCEDURES 31
Experimental Design 31
Population 32
Subjects' Demographic Data 32
Research Instruments 33
Assessment of Self-Actualization 33
Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) . 34
Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS). 37
Demographic Questionnaire 40

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Page
Collection of Data 40
Initial Data 40
Selection and Training of Raters . . . 41
Relaxation Response (RR) Training ... 42
Posttest 44
CVRS Data Collection 44
Statistical Design 44
IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY 46
Testing of the Hypothesis 4 7
Hypothesis 1: Self-Actualization ... 47
Hypothesis 2: Affective/Cognitive . . 51
Hypothesis 3: Understanding/Nonunder¬
standing 54
Hypothesis 4: Specific/Nonspecific . . 55
Hypothesis 5: Exploratory/Nonexplora¬
tory 56
V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS .... 66
Summary 66
Results 69
Conclusions 71
Limitations of the Study 74
Implications for Future Research 74
APPENDICES
A How to Bring Forth the Relaxation Response
and Eliciting the Relaxation Response .... 79
B Counselor Verbal Response Scale
Counselor Verbal Response Scale Rating Sheet. 83
C Relaxation Response Calendar . „ . , . . . . 95
D Demographic Data Sheet . . . . „ 97
E Additional Analyses of POI Scores 101
REFERENCES 105
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .... Ill
v

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1 1
1 2
LIST OF TABLES
Page
Analysis of Posttest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups 48
Analysis of Experimental Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scares 49
Analysis of Control Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores 50
Analysis of Pretest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups 52
Analysis of CVRS Scores for Facilitative
Responses 53
Comparisons of Group Mean Facilitative Responses
RR & NRR Groups: Pretest vs Posttest 58
Comparison of Group Mean Facilitative Responses
Pretest and Posttest Scores: RR vs NRR .... 59
Analysis of Mean Group Proportions
All Facilitative Responses on CVRS 62
Counselor Response Level 62
Average Number of Relaxation Response Sessions
Per Week by Members of Experimental Group . . . 64
Scoring Categories for the Personal
Orientation Inventory 65
Analysis of Posttest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups 101
Analysis of Control Groups
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores 102
vi

LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
TABLE Page
14 Analysis of Experimental Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores 103
15 Analysis of Pretest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups 104
vi i

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE EFFECT OF THE RELAXATION RESPONSE ON THE
POSITIVE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF
PARAPROFESSIONAL COUNSELORS
By
Oavid Nelson Bole
March 1978
Chairman: Donald L. Avila
Major Department: Foundations of Education
This study hypothesized that there would be measurable
gains in self-actualizing values of a group of student para-
professionals as a result of the regular practice of the
Benson Relaxation Response (RR), a meditation technique.
It was further hypothesized that such gains would be associ¬
ated with increased proportions of facilitative responses
on the parts of these students, acting as counselors, in
reacting to the communications of fellow-students, acting
as clients.
The study was carried out during the winter semester of
1977 when a group of volunteers who were students in their
first term at Santa Fe Community College were randomly
assigned to two groups: 14 to an experimental group
and 8 to a control group. The experimental group practiced
RR throughout a 10 week period while the control group did
v i i i
not.

Both groups were pretested by use of the Shostrom
Personal Orientation Inventory, which is believed to measure
values that have been associated with self-actualization and
positive mental health. Research cited indicates a correla¬
tion between many of the values measured by the POI and
counselor effectiveness.
In measuring changes in proportion of facilitative
responses the unit of analysis employed was the level of
content in the counselor's response to client communication
of four dichotomized dimensions as rated on the Counselor
Verbal Response Scale (CVRS): (a) Affective/Cognitive; (b)
Understanding/Nonunderstanding; (c) Specific/Nonspecific;
and (d) Exploratory/Nonexploratory. Each member of the
population made a pretest tape at the beginning of the study
which was compared with a posttest tape made at the end.
Significant gains in self-actualization by the RR group
vis-a-vis the NRR group were found in five of the POI scales.
Significant gains were also made in the posttest scores of
the RR group compared with its pretest scores. No gains in
any se 1f-actúa 1 izing values were found in the NRR group.
Significant gains by the RR group in their proportion
of facilitative responses were found only in the area of
understanding of the client's responses. However, in spite
of the absence of significant gains, as measured by the "t"
test statistic, in any of the other CVRS scales, the RR
posted impressive percentage gains in the proportion of

their facilitative responses on all CVRS scales. And when
the facilitative response proportion of all the scales was
combined, the mean group proportion showed significant gains
by the RR group.
It was concluded that the Benson Relaxation Response
is one method for acquiring and developing the positive
personality traits which have been linked to effective
counseling and resulting client growth. In terms of coun¬
selor behavior that is measured by the CVRS scale, the
initial results of RR practice may be a gain in the capacity
for understanding another person's verbal communication,
rather than in the other areas which may depend more on
specific training and experience than on stage of personality
develo pmen t.
x

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of
a meditation technique upon the behavior of a group of para-
professionals acting as counselors. The specific behavior
examined was the counselor's responses to client communica¬
tions in terms of four dichotomized dimensions: (a) affective-
cognitive; (b) understanding-nonunderstanding; (c) specific-
nonspecific; and (d) exploratory-nonexploratory. (See
Appendix B.) The meditation technique used was that
developed by Benson. It was used to test meditation as a
method of developing and improving skills related to effec¬
tive counseling as well as to enhancing those perceptual
attitudes and personality traits correlated with effective
counseling performance.
Background of the Study
Pa ra pro fes siona 1 s
Community services, such as care for the physically,
emotionally and intellectually handicapped all require far
1

2
more trained manpower than professional schools have been
producing. To meet this need programs have been established
to train Human Services' personnel who, working under pro¬
fessional supervision, can provide such necessary services
as counseling and interviewing.
The recognition and acceptance of this need for counsel¬
ing services has rapidly accelerated over the last twenty
years. Counseling services have become an integral part of
programs aimed at the educational, vocational, and psycho¬
logical well-being of the individual. As a result of this
growth, both the training and use of a new body of workers
have been the target of increasing research. These workers
are referred to as "support personnel," "lay helpers" or
most commonly, "paraprofessionals" (Morgan, 1 976 ). Such a
paraprofessional program was established at Santa Fe
Community College, Gainesville, Florida in 1970 and designated
as the Human Services Program (HSP).
The purpose of the HSP is to pro vide intensive training
in human relations, general helping skills, psychopathology,
and different approaches to counseling. The two most
important assumptions underlying the program are: (1) that
the single most critical resource a person has to bring to
the helping situation is himself as an open, sensitive,
caring human being; and (2) that the most effective learning
takes place in situations in which a person is actively
working in the area of study.

3
The core skills taught are those which deal with those
competencies that should be possessed by persons working in
a human services agency. These skills include interviewing
and therapeutic skills, knowledge of community resources and
community dynamics, process recording and psychopathology.
Fieldwork competencies deal with skills related to working
directly with people and the student's ability to apply the
knowledge he has obtained. Fieldwork skills include con¬
ducting on-going counseling and in-take interviews, working
with groups, case management activities, client advocacy, out¬
reach and any other activities that human service agencies
require of their counselors.
In addition to their other courses, students are
required to take a minimum of 18 hours of general education,
including mathematics, science, communications, humanities
and social and behavioral sciences. At the completion of
this curriculum students are awarded an A.S. degree in Human
Services work .
Counselor Behavior Variables
Rogers (1957) presented an organized theoretical formu¬
lation in which he hypothesized that three characteristics
of the counselor, when adequately communicated to the client,
are both necessary and sufficient conditions for construc¬
tive personality and behavior change. These are: (1)
empathic understanding of the client by the counselor; (2)

4
unconditional positive regard for the client by the coun¬
selor; and (3) the genuineness or self-congruence of the
counselor in the counseling relationship. The improvement
of the counselor's position and professional status is the
major stimulus for the present research.
To achieve a more effective level of counseling Truax
and Carkhuff (1967) have elaborated upon the position of
Rogers and sought to describe the process of effective
counseling and/or interpersonal functioning more specifi¬
cally. They proposed a model which brings together many
theoretical orientations:
Despite the bewildering array of divergent
theories and the difficulty in translating
concepts from the language of one theory to
that of another, several common threads
weave their way through almost every major
theory of psychotherapy and counseling,
including psychoanalytic, client centered,
behavioristic, and many of the more eclectic
and derivative theories. In one way or
another all have emphasized the importance
of the therapist's ability to be integrated,
mature, genuine, authentic or congruent in
his relationship to the patient. They have
all stressed the importance of the thera¬
pist's ability to provide a non-threatening,
trusting, safe or secure atmosphere by
acceptance, non-possessive warmth, uncon¬
ditional positive regard or love. Finally,
virtually all theories of psychotherapy
emphasize that for the therapist to be
helpful he must be accurately empathic, be
"with" the client, be understanding, or
grasp the patient's meaning.
These sets of characteristics can for
lack of better words be termed accurate
empathy, non-possessive warmth and genuine¬
ness. (Truax & Carkhuff, 1967, p. 25)

5
The evidence of a growing number of studies (Carkhuff,
1968; Truax & Carkhuff, 1967; Luborsky, Auerback, Chandler,
Cohen, & Backrach, 1971) strongly indicate that therapists
who exhibit more of the aforementioned conditions are
significantly more helpful in terms of client growth, while
those who provide low levels of these conditions are
actually harmful.
Meditation
One technique that shows great promise for enhancing
the positive personality characteristics of counselors is
meditation. Meditation is increasingly becoming a subject
of empirical study. Research in meditation indicates that
behaviors derived from such practices are compatible with
and facilitative of counselor behaviors as taught in the
traditional and developing schools of counseling and psycho¬
therapy (Keefe, 1973).
Investigations of meditation have yielded interesting
results. A variety of psychological and physiological
changes are reported in research studies cited by the Tran¬
scendental Meditation Society and reviewed by Bloomfield,
Cain and Jaffe (1975), Kanellakos and Ferguson (1973),
Kanellakos and Lukas (1974), Wallace (1970a, 1970b), and
Wallace, Benson and Wilson (1971).
Of most interest to psychotherapists is that meditation
has been found to be productive of enhanced empathic ability
(Keefe, 1976) and correlates highly with measures of
enhanced interpersonal functioning (Lesh, 1970).

6
A technique of meditation that is highly valuable for
future research and which has been adapted for use in the
present study is one described by Benson (1975) called the
Relaxation Response (RR). This method is best suited for
research because it is well standardized and therefore makes
possible further studies under uniform conditions. In
addition, it is easily learned so that experience is
developed after only a short period of training. Furthermore,
learning the technique does not involve adherence to any
specific religion, belief system or life style.
Hypotheses
The present researcher agrees that accurate empathy,
genuineness and respect are necessary characteristics of
effective counselors and that any process which increases
these characteristics in an individual is contributing to
the development of a more effective counselor. This is true
whether the candidate is a paraprofess i on a 1 or a fully certi¬
fied professional. Furthermore, meditation appears to be a
technique which can contribute to counselor effectiveness
by enhancing the positive personality characteristics
mentioned above.
On the basis of these assumptions, the following
hypotheses were tested. The hypothesis for the study related
to four dimensions for measuring the subject's ability to
relate interpersonally and one dimension measuring the

7
subject's level of self-actualization. Three hypotheses
(one major and two minor) were concerned with each of the
dimensions. The major hypotheses were statements of no
difference between groups. The minor hypotheses were state¬
ments of no difference within each treatment group.
hypothesis 1: Self-Actualization
H, There will be no significant difference between
subjects in the RR* and NRR** groups on self-
actualization as measured by the Personal
Orientation Inventory.
Hi^ There will be no significant gain in self-
actualization for subjects in the RR group.
H-|g There will be no significant gain in self-
actualization for subjects in the NRR group.
Hypothesis 2: Affective/Cognitive
There will be no significant difference in gain
between subjects in the RR and NRR groups on the
feeling level of the responses to the clients.
There will be no significant gain in feeling
level of the responses to their clients for
subjects in the RR group.
Hgg There will be no significant gain in feeling
level in the responses to their clients for
subjects in the NRR group.
Hypothesis 3: Understanding/Nonunderstanding
Hg There will be no significant difference in gain
between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in
understanding of client responses.
H,« There will be no significant gain in under¬
standing of client responses for subjects
in the RR group.
*RR - trained in Relaxation Response (experimental
group).
**NRR - no training in Relaxation Response (control
group).

8
H^g There will be no significant gain in under¬
standing of client responses for subjects
in the NRR group.
Hypothesis 4: Specific/Nonspecific
There will be no significant difference in gain
between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in
the degree of specificity of responses to their
cl i ents.
There will be no significant gain in the
degree of specificity of responses to
clients for subjects in the RR group.
There will be no significant gain in the
degree of specificity of responses to
clients for subjects in the NRR group.
Hypothesis 5: Exploratory/Nonexp1 oratory
Hg There will be no significant difference in gain
between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in
ability to give responses that lead clients to
further self-exploration.
There will be no significant gain in
ability to give responses that lead
clients to further sel f-exploration for
subjects in the RR group.
Hgg There will be no significant gain in
ability to give responses that lead
clients to further se1f-exploration for
subjects in the NRR group.
Need for the Study
The ideas generated by Carkhuff and Truax have been of
great value to the field of counseling in describing how
the effective helper interacts with his client. However,
Bergin (1966), Carkhuff (1969a, 1969b), and Truax and
Carkhuff (1967) have all advocated the need for more re¬
search investigating ways of developing more positive per¬
sonality characteristics of counselors.

9
The research herein presented is an attempt to assist
in the fulfillment of the need for aiding counselors in
providing the therapeutic and facilitative conditions
requisite of client growth by enhancing personal functioning
through meditation.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH
The review of pertinent research is divided into the
following four areas: (1) Counselor-offered conditions
contributing to client growth; (2) Fácilitative condition
and Personality; (3) Psychological effects of meditation,
and (4) Theory of meditation.
Counselor-offered Conditions, Personality
and Client Growth
In 1952 and 1961 Eysenck published research which
seemed to deny the value of counseling and psychotherapy
(Eysenck, 1952, 1961). These controversial articles caused
those who were convinced of the benefits of counseling to
try to find ways to show its effectiveness. Part of what
they found was that there were some factors that could be
isolated which distinguished effective from ineffective
therapists. These ingredients Rogers calls the "necessary
and sufficient conditions" for therapeutic change (Rogers,
1961). These necessary and sufficient conditions have become
the basis for the scales measuring counselor effectiveness
that Truax developed (Truax, 1961b, 1962a, 1962b).
10

Since the early 1960's Truax, Carkhuff and others have
conducted research on therapist and client variables that
have accounted for positive outcomes in therapy (Truax S
Carkhuff, 1967; Carkhuff, 1966; Carkhuff, 1969a; Carkhuff
& Berenson, 1 967 ) .
The Truax and Carkhuff research findings can be
summarized as follows;
(1) Individuals possessing such personal character¬
istics as empathic understanding, nonpossessive
warmth and genuineness can effect positive
changes in clients. They can also rapidly
develop more sophisticated therapeutic skills.
(2) Counselors who have the facilitative inter¬
personal qualities effect therapeutic changes
without fully understanding the complexities of
personality dynamics.
(3) Lengthy professional training is not a pre¬
requisite for effective functioning as a
therapist.
(4) Para professiona1s with limited training can be
just as effective as professionals in facilitat¬
ing client change over relatively short periods
of time.
Piaget, Berenson, and Carkhuff (1967) found that high-
functioning therapists elicited higher levels of client
self-exploration than did moderate-functioning therapists.

12
The higher the initial level of client self-exploration,
the more elevated it becomes in the presence of a high-
functioning therapist, whereas the moderate to poor thera¬
pist had his most deleterious effects on clients with
initially low levels of self-exploration. When therapists
intentionally lowered their levels of functioning during the
middle third of the interview, the self-exploration of those
clients of modera te-fu netioning therapists were more
seriously lowered and the moderate-functioning therapists
appeared less able to reestablish the earlier exhibited
level of facilitative conditions.
Cannon and Pierce (1968) designed a two-way study to
check on the effect of lowered and heightened facilitative
conditions. The therapists saw three patients in a 45
minute interview. Group I therapists offered Hi-Low-Hi
conditions and Group II therapists offered Low-Hi-Low con¬
ditions. Results indicate that the clients explored them¬
selves more deeply (p<.05) when the therapists offered
high-level conditions.
Holder (1968) found that high-functioning helpers have
clients who engage in significantly fewer (pc.05) topics
and engage in each topic for approximately 20 minutes. The
study compared nine high rated versus nine low rated inter¬
viewers .

13
In studying the effects of these conditions in other
settings Aspy (1965) found that students receiving rela¬
tively high levels of empathic understanding, warmth and
genuineness from teachers gained significantly in reading
achievement (p< . 01) . Truax and Tatum ( 1 966 ) found that
observer ratings of facilitative behavior of teachers were
significantly correlated with increased socialization and
adjustment of their students. Thus, the above mentioned
conditions seem to be important for facilitative teacher-
child relationships as well as counselor-client
relationships.
Facilitative Conditions and Personality
A few research investigations have attempted to study
the relationships between particular personality charac¬
teristics of counselors and their ability to offer the
therapeutic conditions previously mentioned.
Bergin and Solomon (1963) found that the Depression
(p<.05) and Psychasthenia (pc.01) scale of the Minnesota
Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) correlated
negatively with ratings of therapist empathy. The Consist¬
ency, Intraception and Order Scale of the Edwards Personal
Preference Schedule (EPPS) were negatively correlated and
Dominance and Change were positively correlated with empathy.
All correlations were statistically significant (pc.05).

14
Foulds (1967) found significant positive relation¬
ships between self-actualization measures, the Personal
Orientation Inventory (POI), and counselor trainees' ability
to offer conditions of empathy and genuineness at the end
of their practicum. This research found six POI scales
related to empathy and 10 to 12 scales related to
genuineness. Therefore, as measured by these scales,
positive mental health is related to the provision of a
positive therapeutic condition.
Truax and Carkhuff (1967, pp. 233-235) cite the
unpublished findings of Truax, Silber, and Wargo (1966)
of the correlation between counselor offered conditions of
empathic understanding, positive regard and genuineness
with EPPS scores. In this study the MMPI and the EPPS were
administered to 16 graduate students in counseling before
and after experiencing an integrated didactic and experi¬
ential approach to training (Truax & Carkhuff, 1967).
Tape recorded counseling sessions were made early and late
in the training program and were then evaluated with respect
to the trainees' ability to communicate empathic under¬
standing, positive regard, and genuineness to their clients.
Students showing high ability to offer these conditions
were then compared with students of lower ability in
demonstrating these conditions. Counselors showing the
greatest ability to provide the therapeutic conditions were

initially lower on the Order, Intraception, and Deference
scales of the EPPS than counselors who showed little or no
gain in ability to offer the therapeutic conditions.
The counselors who scored higher initially in the
Change and Autonomy scales scored even higher on these
scales by the end of the training program. Truax, Silber
and Wargo's findings were highly consistent with the
findings of the previously cited Bergin and Solomon study.
The data gathered from the studies cited above
suggest that the counselor's ability to offer high levels
of therapeutic or facilitative conditions in a counseling
relationship may be dependent on the well-being and
personal adequacy of the counselor. These studies have
indicated that counselors who are anxious, defensive,
conflicted or personally inadequate are least likely to
facilitate constructive behavior change in their clients.
Conversely, there is a positive relationship between the
personal adequacy, authenticity or self-actualization of
the counselor and his ability to facilitate constructive
change in his clients.
These studies emphasize the direct effects of the
helper's interpersonal level of functioning on the helpee.
According to Carkhuff's model, the degree to which the
helping person offers high levels of empathy, positive
regard, and genuineness is related directly to the degree

16
of the client's ability to internalize these facilitative
conditions into his own personal life. In addition, the
degree to which the action-oriented helpful counselor is
freely, spontaneously, and deeply himself, disclosing of
himself, actively confronting himself and the client,
being in the moment, and taking concrete courses of action
is directly related to the helpee's ability to apply these
same facilitative activities in his own life situation.
Counselor Verba 1 Responses Approach
Attempts to measure counselor effectiveness through
types and levels of verbal responses given by the counselor
are probably the most widely researched of all the dif¬
ferent system of measuring counselor effectiveness. Carkhuff,
Truax, Berenson, and Rogers have been leading researchers
in this area. Their research deals primarily with relating
a set of interpersonal core factors to client gain. These
factors are empathy, unconditional positive regard, con¬
gruency, and concreteness. Effectiveness of communication
of these relationship factors is measured through scales
that assess the effectiveness of counselor responses on
those dimensions.
In his model for effective therapy Carkhuff offers
several propositions concerning the effect of facilitative
helper dimensions on the cl i ent-counse1or interaction. A
review of his two propositions and corollaries seems appro¬
priate as the interactional scale used in this study closely

relates to that used by Carkhuff. In Helping and Human
Relations, Volume One, he supports the following statements
with a wide variety of research evidence.
Proposition I. The degree to which the
helping person offers high levels of
facilitative conditions in response to the
expressions of the person seeking help, is
related directly to the degree to which
the person seeking help engages in processes
to constructive change or gain.
Corollary I. The degree to which the helping
person offers high levels of empathic under¬
standing of the helpee's world is related
directly to the degree to which the helpee is
able to understand himself and others.
Corollary II. The degree to which the helping
person communicates high levels of respect and
warmth for the helpee and his world is related
directly to the degree to which the helpee is
able to respect and direct warm feelings toward
himself and others.
Corollary III. The degree to which the helper
is helpful in guiding exploration to specific
feelings and content is related directly to
the degree to which the helpee is able to make
concrete his own problem areas.
Corollary IV. The degree to which the helper
is responsively genuine in his relationship
with the helpee is related to the degree to
which the helpee is able to be responsively
genuine in his relationship with himself and
others .
Proposition II. The degree to which the helping
person initiates action-oriented dimensions in
a helping relationship is directly related to
the degree to which the person seeking help
engages in processes that lead to constructive
change or growth.
Corollary I. The degree to which the helper
can be freely, spontaneously and deeply himself,
including the disclosing of significant infor¬
mation about himself when appropriate, is

18
directly related to the degree to which the
helpee is able to be genuine and self¬
disclosing in appropriate relationships.
Corollary II. The degree to which the helper
actively confronts the helpee and himself is
directly related to the degree to which the
helpee is able to confront himself and others.
Corollary III. The degree to which the helper
both acts and directs the actions of the
helpee immediately in the present in the
relationship between helper and helpee is re¬
lated to the helpee's ability to act with
immediacy and later to direct the actions of
o thers .
Corollary IV. The degree to which the helper
can make concrete a course of constructive
action is related to the degree to which the
helpee can go on to make concrete courses of
action for himself and others. (Carkhuff,
1969, pp. 84-90)
These statements emphasize the direct effects of the
helper's interpersonal level of function on the helpee.
According to Carkhuff's model, the degree to which the
helping person offers high levels of empathy, warmth, re¬
spect, concreteness, and genuineness is related directly to
the degree of the client's ability to internalize these
facilitative conditions into his own personal life. In
addition, the degree to which the action-oriented helpful
counselor is freely, spontaneously, and deeply himself,
disclosing of himself, actively confronting himself and the
client, being with the moment, and making concrete courses
of action is directly related to the helpee's ability to
apply these same facilitative activities in his own life
situation.

19
The Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) has been
found to have a .40 positive correlation with the Carkhuff
scales (Schauble, Pierce, & Resnikoff, 1976). Additionally,
it has been found to be more sensitive to small gains in
interpersonal level of functioning and thus more appropriate
for measuring relatively short-term counselor trainee
progress (Schauble, Pierce, & Resnikoff, 1976).
Psychological Effects of Meditation
The research available on meditation suggests that the
technique may be able to increase the degree of positive
personal characteristics needed by professional helpers.
These behaviors include enhanced awareness of one's own
feelings, the ability to hold cognitive processes in abey¬
ance, enhanced perception, and increased present centered-
ness. The purpose of this section is to examine some of the
relevant investigations of meditation.
Much of meditation research has been conducted by the
members of the Transcendental Meditation Society (Bloomfield
et al . , 1 975 ); therefore, these studies will be reviewed
first.
Transcendental Meditation
Most of the studies investigating the psychological
effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) have used paper-
and-pencil tests. Some attention has been devoted to the

20
effects of TM on self-actualization as measured by the POI.
In the first such study (Seeman, Nidich, & Banta, 1972)
meditators and nonmeditators were administered the POI two
months apart. For the TM group, the first administration
took place two days prior to instruction in TM. There were
no differences between these groups on the first administra¬
tion. But upon retesting the meditators scored significantly
higher (p<.05) than nonmeditators on 6 of the 12 scales
(inner directedness,self-actualizing value, spontaneity,
self-regard, acceptance of aggression, and capacity for
intimate contact). In a second study using the same design
Nidich, Seeman, and Dreskin (1973) found similar differences
in 10 of the 12 POI scales.
The differences found in these two studies were thought
to have been influenced by expectancy, that is, the experi¬
mental subjects expected to experience positive personality
changes from the practice of meditation, whereas nonmedita¬
tors had no such expectation of change. Hjelle (1974), in
order to test for this possibility, compared two groups of
experienced meditators (meditating average of 22.6 months)
and novice meditators who were tested a week prior to being
instructed in TM. Experienced meditators scored higher on
7 of the 12 POI scales (inner directedness, time competence,
spontaneity, self-regard, se 1f-actua1 izing value, feeling
reactivity, and capacity for intimate contact. The findings
of Seeman et al. (1972) were supported by this study on five

21
scales (inner directedness, spontaneity, self-regard, self-
actualizing value, and capacity for intimate contact).
This suggests that expectancy may not have made any signifi¬
cant difference in accounting for the observed changes.
Russie (1975) suggested that expectancy may be at least
a minor factor in the changes in the POI scores as a result
of TM. Meditators and nonmeditators were tested five months
apart, meditators having been first tested two days prior
to learning TM. After five months, meditators scored
significantly higher than nonmeditators on seven scales
(inner directedness, time competence, self-actualizing value,
feeling reactivity, spontaneity, self-acceptance, and
capacity for intimate contact). Changes on four of these
scales (inner directedness, self-actualizing value,
spontaneity, and capacity for intimate contact) replicated
the findings of both Seeman et al. (1972) and Hjelle (1974).
However, as determined by correlation between subjects'
pretest expectation scores and actual pre- and posttest
differences, a significant positive relationship (p < . 04)
was found between prospective meditators' expectations of
positive changes and the results achieved in six of the POI
scales. Thus, while some of the changes in the POI do
appear to be a result of practicing TM, and are replicable,
they do not seem to have resulted entirely from expectancy.
Apparently expectation of change may account for at least
some of the variance in these differences.

22
Drennen and Chermol (in press) noted that initial
studies of the effects of TM on self-actualization (Seeman
et a 1 . , 1972; Nidich et a 1 . , 1973) did not control for
possible expectancy or placebo effect. That is, meditators
were not compared with nonmeditators who followed other
practices of regularly sitting quietly. These early studies
compared three groups: meditators, nonmeditators (who were
told to relax following a relaxation training twice a day
for 20 minute periods) and no treatment controls. The POI
was administered prior to instruction and again one month
later. Subjects in all groups showed positive changes on
the second administration of the POI: on 5 scales for the
control group, 6 scales for the TM group, and 9 scales for
the relaxation group. These results were interpreted as
indicating (a) that placebo effects need to be taken into
account in TM research, and (b) that other relaxation tech¬
niques may produce changes similar to those resulting from
TM.
Dick and Ragland (1973) administered the POI eight
weeks apart to three groups of subjects who (a) learned TM,
(b) received individual counseling and learned TM, or (c)
received individual counseling and rested quietly for 15
minutes twice each day. Subjects in the latter two groups
were drawn from individuals seeking treatment at a counsel¬
ing center and were randomly assigned to groups. Thus,
expectancy was controlled in that subjects in all three

23
groups expected some improvement, and the relaxation vari¬
able was controlled by having control subjects rest twice
daily. The authors predicted that scores of the counseling
plus TM groups would be higher than for the group practicing
TM alone, which in turn, would be higher than the counseling
with rest group. This hypothesis was supported (p< .05) for
the time competence and inner directedness scales. It
appears, then, that TM facilitates certain changes measured
by the POI to a greater extent than expectancy or rest
alone can account for.
Research to date indicates that the regular practice of
TM certainly results in significantly positive changes in
self-actualization as measured by the POI. However, it is
quite possible that there may be other relaxation techniques
which produce similar changes. Transcendental meditation
has not been shown to be unique in its effects on self-
actualization as measured by the POI.
Relaxation Response
Another method of meditation which lends itself well
to research is that described by Benson. It is called the
Relaxation Response (RR). Beary and Benson (1974) have
provided evidence that RR is effective in eliciting the
relaxation response as defined by Benson and his colleagues
(Benson, 1975; Benson, Beary, & Carol, 1974; Wallace,
Benson, & Wilson, 1971). Seventeen subjects, each serving
as his own control, learned RR by reading instructions from

24
a sheet of paper. Subjects we re novices at this technique.
Expectancy was minimized by telling subjects that only the
physiology of relaxation was being investigated. During
the experiment, subjects practiced RR during 1 of 5 consecu¬
tive periods of 12 minutes each. During control periods
subjects either sat quietly and read material of neutral
emotional content or sat with eyes closed. Subjects were
randomly assigned to two sequences. Oxygen consumption,
carbon dioxide production and respiration rate were measured.
All three were significantly lower during the RR period
than during control periods. These results were interpreted
as indicating changes resulting from RR.
While the research on the effects of RR has been very
limited, especially with regard to psychological data,
initial findings suggest that the physiological and emo¬
tional states produced by RR are similar to if not the same
as those associated with TM. Further, the regular practice
of RR may have beneficial long-term effects. This new
technique offers the opportunity for more highly controlled
studies of meditation.
Me dita tion in Theory
Three theories, two psychological and one physiological,
have been put forth to account for the effects of meditation.
Psychoanalytic Derepression
Initiates to TM (and to certain other forms of medi¬
tation) are repeatedly reminded of the need for effortlessness.

25
That is, during meditation extraneous thoughts are not to
be resisted any more than they are to be attended to
closely; rather, such thoughts are to be allowed to occur
dispassionately. In practice, while a mantra is being re¬
peated this effortless dealing with extraneous thoughts
amounts of non interfering observation. Naranjo (1971) has
compared this observation to the activity of the second
witness (the therapist) to free associations of a patient
in the psychoanalytic situation. With repeated meditations,
resistance to the awareness of certain thoughts becomes
weakened, and such thoughts become increasingly spontaneous.
Shaffii (1973) has compared the meditation and psycho¬
analytic processes in detail. Two major events are common
to both. The reexperiencing of psychic traumas during
meditat ion frees psychic energy for present uses. This
amounts to bringing repressed thoughts into consciousness
and transcending the conflicts related to them. The repeti¬
tion of such events leads gradually to a controlled regres¬
sion to a nonverbal stage of development, at which point
traumatic experiences can be resolved internally at a level
deeper than verbal or cognitive processes permit. The major
difference between psych oana 1ysis and meditation is that the
former emphasizes verbalization and the latter silence. The
therapeutic aspects of both processes are seen to be the
same.

26
Generalized Desensitization
A second theory, behavioral in nature, is quite com¬
patible with the first. Goleman (1971, 1974), noting the
similarity between the relaxation states produced by both
meditation and relaxation training, has compared meditation
with systematic desensitization. In the latter, a hierarchy
of images troublesome to a patient is presented to him by a
therapist while he is relaxed, beginning with the least
anxiety-producing images and ending with the most trouble¬
some. Anxiety responses are thereby inhibited by the
association of relaxation with stimuli. In meditation, the
contents of the mind (both verbalizations and imagery) are
presented to consciousness in a se 1 f-regu 1 ated manner while
the meditator is relaxed. As troublesome thoughts occur,
anxiety is inhibited by the association of relaxation with
such thoughts. While this occurs in a less systematic
manner than in desensitization, the hierarchy is optimally
salient to the individual. Meditation is seen as a slower
and less efficient means to the same end, but perhaps a more
thorough one in that items in the hierarchy are not limited
to those selected by therapist and patient.
The Relaxation Response (RR)
A third theory, compatible with both of the above
theories, is based on the physiological correlates of
meditation. Benson (1975) and Benson et al. (1974) have
theorized that the physiological changes associated
with meditation constitute "an integrated hypothalamic

27
response which results in generalized decreased sympathetic
nervous system activity, and perhaps also increased para¬
sympathetic activity" (Benson et al . , 1 974, p. 37). This
relaxation response is the counterpart of the flight-or-
fight response of extreme arousal. The latter is also an
integrated response, mediated by the sympathetic nervous
system and characterized by increased arousal and body
metabolism, which is elicited by and prepares an organism
for dealing with a threatening situation or set of stimuli.
Because civilized man is socially reinforced for
inhibiting literal fi ght-or-f'l ight responses, the repeated
elicitation of the fight-or-flight response in varying
degrees results in the accumulation of stress at a physio¬
logical level, and probably at other levels as well. A
person thus may become less efficient with time due to ever-
accumulating stress. The regular elicitation of the
relaxation response, which TM and other forms of meditation
provide, serves both to release accumulated stresses and
to prevent further accumulation. This may result in the
alleviation and prevention of physical, mental, and emotional
symptoms that are produced by stress.
French and Tupin (1973, 1974) and Benson (1975a and b)
have developed procedures designed to elicit the relaxation
response in a manner similar to that of TM and other forms
of meditation. The latter procedure is the only one to
have been researched in a controlled manner.

28
Benson (1975b) reported that his technique for elicit¬
ing the relaxation response was developed by comparing the
various practices of meditation, yoga, prayer, and secular
relaxation practices. Four essential components were found
to be common to these practices: (a) a mental device con¬
sisting of some constant stimulus upon which attention is
focused; (b) a passive attitude (i.e., not trying to relax
and not worrying about whether the technique is being
practiced correctly); (c) decreased muscle tonus, which
necessitates a posture conducive to relaxation; and (d) a
quiet environment in which outside stimuli are minimal. The
procedure for eliciting the relaxation response, as de¬
scribed by Benson (1975), consists of having a person sit
quietly in a comfortable position, close his eyes, relax all
the body muscles (beginning with the feet and progressing
upward to the face), and once relaxation is attained, repeat
silently to himself the word "ONE" in conjunction with each
respiratory exhalation.
Elements of Meditation
Beary and Benson (1974) have provided evidence that
this technique of meditation is effective in eliciting the
relaxation response as defined by Benson and his colleagues
(Benson, 1975; Benson et a 1 . , 1975; Wallace et a 1., 1971),
Seventeen subjects, each serving as his own control, learned
RR by reading instructions from a sheet of paper. Prior to
being studied, practice had been limited to one hour, so

29
that subjects were relative novices at the technique.
Expectancy was minimized by telling subjects only that the
physiology of relaxation was being investigated. During the
experiment, subjects practiced the RR during 1 of 5 con¬
secutive periods of 12 minutes each. During control periods,
subjects either sat quietly and read material of neutral
emotional content or sat with eyes closed. Subjects were
randomly assigned to two sequences. Oxygen consumption,
carbon dioxide production, and respiration rate were meas¬
ured. All three were significantly lower during the RR
period than during control periods, and sitting with eyes
closed resulted in no differences from sitting and reading.
There is also evidence that the regular practice of RR
may have long-term physiological effects. Benson (1975b;
Beary & Benson, 1974) reported that the regular practice of
RR has been found to be associated with decreased blood
pressure in hypertensive patients and increased blood pres¬
sure in hypotensive patients. Benson, Alexander, and
Feldman (1975) found that the regular practice of RR after
four weeks reduced premature ventricular contractions in
patients with ischaemic heart disease during both wakeful¬
ness and sleep.
The previously cited research of Benson et al. (1975)
and Benson et al. (1974) have provided evidence that this
technique of meditation is effective in eliciting the relax¬
ation response as defined by Benson (1975). The results of

30
these studies were interpreted as indicating changes
resulting from the RR were similar to those resulting from
TM.

CHAPTER III
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND PROCEDURES
This chapter discusses the experimental design used in
the study and the major considerations involved. It in¬
cludes a description of the training program, the study
population, the hypotheses advanced, and the criterion
instruments employed. in addition, the chapter provides
an explanation of experimental procedures used in the
investigation.
Experimental Design
This study employed the pretest-posttest control group
design which included the following procedure:
1) the administration of a pretest to both groups;
2) administration of treatment to the experimental
group, but not the control group, and
3) administration of a posttest to both groups.
Students were assigned to groups by means of their
Personal Data Sheets collected during the orientation ses¬
sion. Each data sheet was numbered ineonspici o us 1 y 1, 2,
or 3 and distributed at the orientation session. Subjects
31

32
whose sheets numbered 1 or 2 became the experimental group
and those numbered 3 became the control group. However,
these numbers were known only to the experimenter.
Population
A group of paraprofessional counselor students in their
first term at the Santa Fe Community College Human Services
Department was selected to be the subjects of this study.
Out of a total of 36 students in the program, 28 volunteered
initially. Two students dropped out of the Human Services
program after two weeks and 4 dropped out of this study as
subjects. The total number of subjects completing the
study was 22 (see demographic data sheet, Appendix C).
Subjects' Demographic Data
Sex--The sexual composition of the groups are as
follows: the experimental group had 9 females and 5 males.
The control group had 4 females and 4 males.
Race--The experimental group had 11 whites and 3 blacks.
The control group had 4 whites and 4 blacks.
Age--The figures for the total sample are: mean 26,
range 19-52, mode 21, and median 23. The figures for the
experimental group are: mean 27, range 19-52, mode 21, and
median 23. The figures for the control group are: mean 24,
range 19-38, mode 21, and median 22.

33
Mari tal s ta tus
Experimenta i Group Control Group
Single
42.8%
3 7.5%
Married
21.4%
12.5%
Separated, divorced
or widowed
35.8%
50.0%
Research Instruments
The instruments used in this study were: the Personal
Orientation Inventory (POI) (Shostrom, 1966) and the Coun¬
selor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967).
Assessment of Self-Actualization
The psychological construct, "self-actualization," has
been used by personality theorists such as Combs (1962),
Maslow (1954, 1962), Rogers (1961), and others. Counselors,
psychotherapists, personality theorists, and researchers
have felt a need for a comprehensive measure of values and
behavior seen to be of importance in the development of
self-actualization. Shostrom (1964, 1966) developed the
Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) to meet this need.
Most diagnostic instruments have been developed for use with
seriously disturbed psychiatric populations, and they
attempt to provide measures of the subjects' pathology.
This is a negative approach to personality assessment.

Shostrom (1966) appears to use the terms self-actualization,
fully functioning, and positive mental health synonymously.
A description of the POI is presented below.
Personal Orientation Inventory (P 0 I)
The POI is an instrument developed by Shostrom (1964,
1966) which purports to provide a comprehensive measure of
values believed to be of importance in the development of
self-actualization or positive mental health. The POI con¬
sists of 150 two-choice paired-opposite statements of values,
and scores are reported for 2 major scales and 10
secondary scales which purport to assess particular person¬
ality characteristics considered to be associated with self-
actualization. The POI purports to assess a person's
position on a continuum for each of the following personality
variables .
Major Scales:
1. Time Competence (Tc): measures the degree to
which one is "present" oriented.
2. Inner Direction (I): measures whether reactivity
orientation is basically toward self or others.
Secondary Scales:
1. Self-Actualizing Values (SAV): measures affirma¬
tion of values held by self-actualizing persons.
2- Existential i t.y (Ex): measures ability to
situationally or existentially react without
rigid adherence to principles.
3. Feeling Reactivity (Fr): measures sensitivity of
responsiveness to one's own needs and feelings.

35
4. Spontaneity (S): measures freedom to react
spontaneously or to be oneself.
5. Self-Regard (Sr): measures affirmation of worth
or strength.
6. Self-Acceptance (Sa): measures affirmation or
acceptance of self in spite of weaknesses or
deficiencies .
7. View of the Nature of Man (Nc): measures degree
of the constructive view of the nature of man,
masculinity, femininity.
8. Synergy (Sy): measures ability to be synergistic,
to transcend dichotomies.
9. Acceptance of Aggression (A): measures ability to
accept one's natural aggressiveness as opposed to
defensiveness, denial, or repression of aggression.
10.Capacity for Intimate Contact (C): measures
ability to develop contactful intimate relation¬
ships with other human beings, unencumbered by
expectations and obligations.
The P01 is essentially se 1f-administered, The ques¬
tions are printed in a reusable test booklet, and the
examinee records his answers on a specially designed answer
sheet. There is no time limit set for completion of the
inventory. Testing time is usually about 30 to 40 minutes.
The POI was validated on 650 freshmen at Los Angeles
State College, 75 members of a sensitivity training program
at UCLA, and 15 school psychologists in a special training
program. Retested after training, the latter two groups
showed definite growth in inner directedness .
The POI was also tested on three other groups: 160
normal adults, 29 relatively se1f-actua1ized adults, and
34 relatively nonself-actualized adults nominated by the

36
clinical psychology societies of Orange and Los Angeles
Counties, California. The test does discriminate between
self-actualized and nonself-actualized persons on 11 of 12
scales according to Shostrom (1964).
Robert Knapp ( 1 96 5 ) compared the P 01 with the Eysenck
Personality Inventory (EP1). The EPI measures neuroticism-
stability and extraversion-introversion. High- and low-
neurotic students were selected from 136 undergraduates on
the basis of their EPI and correlated with the POI. Low-
neurotic students tended toward self-actualization as did
extroverted students. The POI and EPI are from different
theoretical frames of reference but seem to be tapping a
common core. Shostrom and Knapp (1956) correlated the POI
with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
and found high correlations between the POI and the Social
I.E. (SI) and Depression (D) scales of the MMPI.
The POI manual gives high reliability correlations of
.91 to .93. An independent retest (50 week interval) study
gave a much more modest correlation of .55 for the Time
Competent (Tc) scale and .71 for the Inner Directed (I)
scale. The mean correlation for the subscales was .58.
Although this is not as high as would be desirable, it is
well within the range of reliability similarly established
for the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule and the MMPI
(Ilardi & May, 1968). On the basis of the above studies
it was felt that the POI would be a valid instrument for the
present research.

37
Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS)
The CVRS purports to describe a counselor's response to
client communication in terms of four dichotomized dimen¬
sions: (a) affective-cognitive; (b) understanding¬
nonunderstanding; (c) specific-nonspecific; (d) exploratory-
nonexploratory. A fifth dimension, effective-noneffective,
provides a global rating of the adequacy of each response
which is made independently of the four descriptive ratings.
For the purposes of this study the first four dimensions
were used.
The unit of analysis was the verbal interaction between
counselor and client represented by a client statement and
counselor response. A counselor response is rated on each
of the four dimensions of the rating scale, with every
client-counselor interaction being judged independently of
preceding units. In judging an individual response, the
primary focus is on describing how the counselor responded
to the verbal elements of the client's communication. The
procedure is based upon the theories of Carl Rogers and
theories and research of Truax and Carkhuff.
The CVRS consists of five forced choice dichotomous
dimensions measuring the extent to which counselors are
characterized by affective, understanding, specific, explor¬
atory, and effective responses. The dimensions are defined
as follows: An affective response is one which makes
reference to or encourages some affective or feeling aspect

38
of the client's communication while a cognitive response
refers to the cognitive component of a client's statement;
understanding refers to the counselor's ability to convey
to the client his awareness of, and his sensitivity to, the
client's feelings and concerns by attempting to deal with
the core of his concerns rather than making vague responses
or referring to peripheral concerns; exploratory responses
encourage the client to explore his feelings and provide
him with an opportunity to do so. Nonexploratory responses
typically restrict the client's freedom to explore. The
final dimension, effective-noneffective, is a global rating
of overall effectiveness of a counselor's response in
promoting client movement. A sample rating sheet can be
found in Appendix B.
Inter-judge reliability was determined by applying
Hoyt's analysis of variance technique to the ratings of two
sets of judges who had rated the videotaped interviews of
50 inexperienced M.A. candidates in Counseling and Guidance
at Michigan State University. Corresponding four minute
segments were rated for 53 counselors (the post tape of one
of the M.A. candidates was lost). Of the 53, 45 were M.S.
candidates and 8 Ph.D. candidates, and they interviewed the
same coached client. Because timed segments with unequal
numbers of responses were used, ratings were converted to
proportion ate scores. Corresponding 20 response segments
were rated for the remaining 10 counseling interviews.

39
Coefficients were obtained of average tape inter-judge
reliability of .84, .80, .79, .68, and .79 for the affective-
cognitive, understanding-nonunderstanding, specific-
nonspecific, exploratory-nonexploratory , and effective-
noneffective dimensions of the scale, respectively (Kagan &
Krathwohl , 1 967 ).
These scales have been validated on 53 counselor educa¬
tion trainees. Forty-five of these trainees were M.A. candi¬
dates and 8 were Ph.D. candidates. Tapes of counseling
interviews from each of the trainees were collected and
rated using the CVRS. On each dimension of the scale signif¬
icances (p<.01) were found between the responses of the Ph.D.
candidates and the M.A. candidates, with the former having
more responses rated as affective, understanding, specific,
exploratory, and effective (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967). When
separate ratings were made of 10 counselors with M.A.'s
having some advanced training and counseling experience and
were compared to the ratings of the 53 trainees, the
response pattern of these counselors fell between those of
the M.A. and the Ph.D. candidates (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967).
Other validation studies have been conducted by Kagan and
Krathwohl (1967, pp. 84-90).
The CVRS differs from other rating scales in that it
focuses on a series of individual client/counselor verbal
units (client statement . . . counselor response) during the
course of an interview, rather than on global ratings of

40
entire interviews or longer interview segments. Thus, the
judge is required to describe every counselor response to
a client's verbalization on each of the dimensions of the
scale. After 20 counselor responses have been dichotomized
on each dimension, totals are obtained. A sample rating
record sheet can be found in Appendix B.
These scales have been validated through several
studies presented by Kagan and Krathwohl (1967, pp. 84-90).
Ratings in this scale have also been found to have a
positive correlation with the Carkhuff scales (Schauble,
Pierce & Resnikoff, 1976). These scales have also been
validated in extensive process and outcome research in
counseling and psychotherapy (Truax & Carkhuff, 1967).
(Refer to Appendix B.)
Demographic Questionnaire
The demographic questionnaire or personal data sheet
was intended to elicit personal information so that com¬
parisons could be made between the two sample groups. This
questionnaire was developed by the Human Services Department
of Santa Fe Community College as a student data sheet. A
sample of this form may be found in Appendix E.
Collection of Data
Initial Data
In an orientation session during the first week of
classes for the winter semester 1977, 26 students

41
volunteering for this study from the Human Services Program
were pretested using the POI. At this time they also filled
out; a student data sheet. After completion of the POI the
subjects were given a cassette tape and asked to make a 30
minute taped interview with a student in their class acting
as a client who would share a problem with the subject
acting as counselor. These tapes were made during class
time with other students.
Selection and Training of Raters
Research on the selection of raters suggest that both
raters' level of functioning and raters' training by a
qualified professional are a significant influence on dis¬
crimination scores (Cannon & Carkhuff, 1969), and that
persons functioning below minimal facilitation levels (level
3) would not be capable of accurate ratings. While the
CVRS used in this research employs a dichotomous rating
assignment, the training and rating procedure are essentially
the same.
Four raters were selected from a group of graduate
students in counseling psychology. Those individuals were
functioning at above minimal levels of facilitative inter¬
action, as judged by independent ratings of their own tapes
as helpers. The training of the raters was conducted by a
Counseling Psychologist, at the University of Florida's
Counseling Center, who is experienced in using the process
scales.

42
A pair of trained judges individually rated pre- and
postinterview segments with respect to the CVRS. For the
CVRS scale a 10 minute segment from each tape was selected.
A 5 minute segment in the first half and a 5 minute segment
in the second half of each counseling tape were used.
Raters started rating the first response after the first
minute of the interview. Then they advanced the tape to
the middle and rated the following 5 minute segment.
Relaxation Response (R R) Training
All subjects attended a general meeting during the
second week of the semester and the counseling tapes were
collected. At this time the experimental group was told to
remain for further training in the RR. Students in the
control group met separately and were told they would learn
the RR at the end of the semester.
The researcher then instructed the 14 experimental
group subjects in the RR in three phases, in a manner
similar to that described by Benson (1975).
Phase 1. Instructions:
Find a comfortable position. Close your eyes,
Deeply relax your muscles as you repeat inter¬
nally, "I relax my feet ... I relax my calves
. . . etc." Beginning at your feet and pro¬
gressing up to your face--feet, calves, thighs,
lower torso, chest, shoulders, neck, head. Allow
them to remain deeply relaxed. Now breathe

through your nose and feel your breathing.
(Students practiced this for 2 minutes.)
43
Phase 2. Instructions:
Sit comfortably with your eyes closed for a
moment . . . Open our eyes . . . Close the eyes
. . . Open the eyes . . . Were you aware of
thoughts during the silence? Did you notice
how easily and naturally they came? This is
how easily you should think of the sound "So"
as you breathe in and "Hum" as you breathe out.
Now close your eyes again and begin repeating the
sound "So" each time you breathe in and "Hum"
each time you breathe out. Slowly open the eyes.
(Student practiced this for 5 minutes.)
Phase 3. Instructions:
This is the way to do the RR. Remember, don't
resist thoughts or sounds, but when they occur,
gently allow your mind to return to the sound
"So" when breathing in and "Hum" when breathing
out. Remember to wait about half a minute with
eyes closed before beginning to practice and take
a couple of minutes to open your eyes after you
finish. Are there any questions? (At this point
questions that may arise are answered and sub¬
jects are given an opportunity to discuss their
experience with RR.)

Before the training session ended subjects were given
written instructions to take with them (Appendix A) on how
44
to bring forth the relaxation response.
Students were then reminded to practice the RR daily
for the duration of the semester and were given a calendar
to record the time and days they practiced (Appendix C).
Pos ttes t
A date and time were set for posttesting in 10 weeks.
At that time all subjects were given the POI for the second
time. Subjects were given a second cassette tape to record
a posttest counseling tape to be submitted the following
week.
Upon receiving all the tapes, the control group was
trained during the last week of the semester in the RR in
the manner described above.
CVRS Data Collection
At the conclusion of the semester all pre- and post¬
tapes which had been collected by the experimenter were sent
to the University of Florida Counseling Center for analyses
on the CVRS scale by a trained set of raters (see section on
Selection and Training of Raters, page 41 above) and sub¬
sequently returned to the experimenter.
Statistical Design
The criterion instruments were administered to the
subjects in both experimental and control groups prior to

45
and after the first semester of training in the Human
Services Program. Analysis of the POI score employed the
Mann-Whitney U test. The Mann-Whitney Ü test may be used
to test whether two independent groups have been drawn from
the same population. This is one of the most powerful of
the nonparametric tests, and it is a most useful alternative
to the parametric "t" test when the researcher wishes to
avoid the "t" test's assumptions, or when the measurement
in the research is weaker than interval scaling (Siegel,
1956). However, for purposes of comparing the results, the
traditional "t" test was also made on the POI scores and
those results are also shown. The analysis of the CVRS data
employs the "t" test as well as cross - tabular analysis of
the CVRS scores converted to percentage figures.

CHAPTER IV
RESULTS OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study was to investigate the
effect of the Relaxation Response on the personality charac¬
teristics of paraprofessional counselors. In the first
part of this chapter, the analyses of the data relevant to
the hypothesis are reported. In the second part of the
chapter, additional analyses are summarized.
Two instruments were used to measure and evaluate 16
variables in a pre-post test design. Five major hypotheses
and 10 minor hypotheses were concerned with each of the
variables. The major hypotheses were statements of no
difference between groups. The minor hypotheses were
statements of no difference within each treatment group.
TheMann-Wh i tney U was used to test measures of Self-
Actualization as was the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic
and the "t" test statistic. The "t" test statistic was
used to test the significance of changes in proportion of
facilitative responses on the CVRS.
46

47
Testing of the Hypothesis
Hypothesis 1: Self-Actualization
Hypothesis H, : There will be no significant dif¬
ference in gain in self-actualization between subjects in
the RR (experimental) and in the NRR (control) groups as
measured by the POI .
A summary of the analysis of the posttest POI scores
relevant to this hypothesis is found in Table 1. Because
of the significant gains (p<.05) made in five of the scales
(Other, Inner, Ex istenti a 1ity , Spontaneity, Se 1f-Acceptanee ,
and Acceptance of Aggression) the hypothesis H-| was rejected.
Hypothesis H,.: There will be no significant gain in
self-actualization for RR (experimental) group subjects.
A summary of the analysis of the Experimental Group
pretest vs posttest scores relevant to this hypothesis is
found in Table 2. Because of the significant gains in the
Inner Directed, Spontaneity, Self-Regard and the Self-
Acceptance scales (see Table 2 for the relevant confidence
levels) hypothesis was rejected.
Hypothesis g: There will be no significant gain in
self-actualization for subjects in the NRR (control) group.
A summary of the analysis of the Control Group pretest
vs posttest POI scores relevant to this hypothesis is found
in Table 3. Because of the lack of significant gains in
the scales hypothesis H^g was accepted.

48
Table 1
Analysis of Posttest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups
POI symbol**
Control
mean S.D.
Experimental
mean S.D.
Mean
difference U*
Significance
Ti
7.88
4.27
6.00
3.08
-1.88
38
NS
Tc
15,13
4.27
17.01
3.08
1.88
38
NS
0
46.13
9.51
34.87
13.33
-11.26
30
p<.05 Exp.cCont.
I
79.25
9.48
91 .94
13.31
12.69
29
p< .05 Exp.>Cont.
SAV
20.00
2.23
19.93
2.93
- .07
49
NS
Ex
17.38
3.66
22.15
5.40
4.77
27
p<.05 Exp.s-Cont.
Fr
15.75
2,62
17.57
2.98
1 .82
32.5
NS
S
12.38
2.77
14.72
1.81
2.34
31
p< .05 Exp.>Cont.
Sr
11.13
2.36
12.87
2.28
1.74
35
NS
Sa
13.75
2.56
17.86
3.09
-4.11
17
p<.05 Exp.>Cont.
Nc
11.25
2.72
12.29
1 .51
1 .04
45
NS
Sy
6.25
.94
6.72
1 .09
0.47
49.5
NS
A
14.75
1 .89
16.51
3.64
1.76
32
NS
C
17.38
4.40
20.37
3.82
2.99
33.5
NS
*Mann-Whitney U.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description.

49
Table 2
Analysis of Experimental Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores
POI symbol**
Pretest
mean S.D.
Posttest
mean S.D.
Mean
difference
VI*
Significance
Ti
6.21
2.77
6.00
3.08
-0.21
42
NS
Tc
16.80
2.77
17.01
3.08
0.21
42
NS
0
39.94
9.60
34.87
13.33
-5.07
29
NS
1
85.43
9.55
91.94
13.31
6.51
26.5
NS
SAV
20.51
2.79
19.93
2.93
-0.58
22
NS
Ex
20.79
3.71
22.15
5.40
1.36
30.5
NS
Fr
16.86
2.72
17.57
2.98
0.71
27
NS
S
13.79
1 .67
14.72
1.81
0.93
21
NS
Sr
11.87
2.21
12.87
2.28
1 .00
13
p<.05 Post>Pre
Sa
14.79
2.72
17.86
3.09
3.07
20
p<.05 Post>Pre
Nc
12.29
1.54
12.29
1 .51
0
38.5
NS
sy
6.86
1 .09
6.72
1.09
- .14
8
NS
A
15.87
2.73
16.51
3.64
0.64
40.5
NS
C
19.16
2.43
20.37
3.82
1 .21
24.5
NS
*Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description.

50
Table 3
Analysis of Control Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores
Pretest Posttest Mean
symbol
** mean
s.
D.
mean
S.
,D.
difference
W* Significance
Ti
7.
CO
1 CO
3,
.13
7.
CO 1
CO
4.
.27
0
10.5
NS
Tc
15.
.13
3.
.13
15.
.13
4.
.27
0
10.5
NS
0
43.
75
6.
.99
46.
,13
9,
.51
2.38
12
NS
I
CO
r-^
.00
8.
,03
79
.25
9
.48
1.25
10.5
NS
SAV
18,
.75
3.
.88
20.
.00
2
.23
1 .25
5
NS
Ex
17.
.75
4,
.31
17
.38
3
.66
-0.37
9
NS
Fr
15.
.63
1.
,37
15
,75
2.
.62
0.12
18
NS
S
12.
.38
1.
.64
12
.38
2.
.77
0
14
NS
Sr
11 .
.50
2
.28
11
.13
2
.36
-0.37
10.5
NS
Sa
14,
.13
3,
.01
13
.75
2,
.57
-0.38
6
NS
Nc
8
.75
2,
.32
11
.25
2
.72
2.50
1 .5
NS
sy
6,
.50
.83
6
.25
.94
- .25
5
NS
A
15.
.88
1
.26
14
.75
1
.89
1 .13
7
NS
C
17.
CO
OD
2
.56
17
.38
4
.40
- .50
12.5
NS
*Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description.

51
At this point it should be noted that the Mann-Whitney
U showed no significant differences between the pretest POI
scores of the control and experimental groups with the
single exception of the scale, Nature of Man, Constructive,
where the experimental group received a significantly higher
score than the control group. See Table 4.
Hypothesis 2: Affective/Cognitive
Hypothesis H,: There will be no significant difference
in gain between subjects in the RR and NRR groups in terms
of the feeling level of their responses to clients.
Table 5 presents a summary of the results of applying
"t" tests of significance to the facilitative responses of
the subjects as measured on the Counselor Verbal Response
Scale. The nonfaci 1 itative components of these four dichot¬
omized dimensions are not shown in Table 5 since we are
focusing on possible gains in facilitative responses and a
gain in one component of a dimension is necessarily accom¬
panied by an equal loss in the score of the other component,
and vice versa .
Since Table 5 shows that there was no significant dif¬
ference in the posttest scores of the control and experi¬
mental groups, this hypothesis is accepted.
Hypothesis Hq„: There will be no significant gain in
feeling level of the responses to their clients for sub¬
jects in the RR group.

52
Table 4
Analysis of Pretest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups
Control Experimental Mean
POI symbol** mean S.D. mean S.D. difference U* Significance
Ti
7,
.88
3,
.13
6.
.21
2.
.77
-1.
.67
34.
,5
NS
Tc
15.
.13
3.
.13
16.
.80
2.
,77
1.
.67
34.
5
NS
0
43.
.75
6.
.99
39.
.94
9.
.60
-3.
.81
50.
.5
NS
I
78.
O
o
8.
.03
85.
,43
9.
.55
7
.43
34.
.5
NS
SAV
18.
.75
3,
.88
CD
CM
.51
2,
.79
1.
.76
43
.5
NS
Ex
17,
.75
4.
.31
20.
.79
3.
.71
3,
.04
39
NS
Fr
15,
.63
1.
.37
16.
.86
2.
.72
1
.23
32
NS
S
12
.38
1
.64
13
.79
1.
.67
1
.41
34
.5
NS
Sr
11,
.50
2
.28
11.
.87
2
.21
0
.37
55
.5
NS
Sa
14
.13
3.
.01
14.
.79
2
.72
0
.66
48.
.5
NS
Nc
8.
.75
2
.32
12.
.29
1
.54
3
.54
14
p<.05
Sy
6
.50
.83
6
.86
1,
.09
0
.36
48
NS
A
15
.88
1
.26
15
.87
2,
.73
-
.01
49.
.5
NS
C
17
.88
2
.56
19
.16
2.
.42
1
.28
43
NS
*Mann-Whitney U.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description.

53
Table 5
Analysis of CVRS* Scores for Facilitative Responses
Facilitative Response**
"t" Score
Significance
Dimension: Affective
Control: Pretest vs. Posttest
1 .208
NS
Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest
1 .466
NS
Cont. vs. Exper.: Pretest
0 .383
NS
Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest
1 .566
NS
Dimension: Understanding
Control: Pretest vs. Posttest
1 . 325
NS
Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest
2.790
p< .05
Pos t>Pre
Cont. vs- Exper.: Pretest
1 . 748
NS
Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest
2.511
p< .05
Exp . >Cont
Di me ns i on: Specific
Control: Pretest vs. Posttest
0.504
NS
Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest
1 .833
NS
Cont. vs. Exper.: Pretest
1.011
NS
Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest
1 . 226
NS
Dimension: Exploratory
Control: Pretest vs. Posttest
1 .678
NS
Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest
0 . 766
NS
Cont. vs. Exper.: Pretest
0.994
NS
Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest
1.175
NS
â– ^Counselor Verbal Response Scale.
**Facilitative responses only are analyzed since scores
are in terms of proportion of responses.

54
No significant gain was found between the pretest and
posttest scores of the RR group; therefore this hypothesis
is accepted. See Table 5.
Hypothesis : There will be no significant gain in
feeling level in the responses to their clients for sub¬
jects in the NRR group.
Since no significant gain was found, Table 5, between
the pretest and posttest scores of the NRR group, this
hypothesis is accepted.
Hypothesis 3: Understanding/Nonunderstandinq
Hypothesis H^: There will be no significant difference
in gain in understanding of client responses between sub¬
jects in the RR and the NRR groups.
As shown in Table 5, a significant difference (p < .05)
was found in gain in understanding between the posttest
scores of the experimental group compared with the control
group. Therefore, this hypothesis is rejected.
Hypothesis H^: There will be no significant difference
in gain in understanding of client responses for subjects
in the RR group.
Table 5 reflects the finding of a significant gain in
understanding in the posttest scores of the RR group com¬
pared with their pretest scores. Therefore, this hypothesis
is rejected.

55
Hypothesis There will be no significant gain in
understanding of client responses for subjects in the NRR
group .
No significant gain was found between the posttest and
pretest scores of the NRR group, as indicated in Table 5.
Therefore, this hypothesis is accepted.
Hypothesis 4: Specific/Nonspecific_
Hypothesis H.: There will be no difference in gain
between the RR and the NRR groups in the degree of
specificity of responses to their clients.
Application of the "t" test of significance to the
posttest scores of the two groups found the differences not
significant at the 95 percent level of confidence. This
hypothesis, therefore, is accepted.
Hypothesis H^: There will be no significant gain in
the degree of specificity of responses to clients for sub¬
jects in the RR group.
No significant gain was found between the pretest and
posttest scores of the RR group and, therefore, this
hypothesis is accepted.
Hypothesis H^g: There will be no significant gain in
the degree of specificity of responses to clients for sub¬
jects in the NRR group.
No. significant gain was found between the pretest and
posttest scores of the NRR group, as indicated in Table 5.
Hypothesis H^g, therefore, is accepted.

56
Hypothesis 5: Exp1oratory/Nonexploratory
Hypothesis H^: There will be no significant difference
in gain between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in
ability to give responses that lead clients to further
self-exploration.
The difference in the posttest scores of the two
groups were not significant (p< .05) and this hypothesis is
accepted.
Hypothesis There will be no significant gain in
ability to give responses that lead clients to further self¬
exploration for subjects in the RR group.
No significant differences were found in the pretest
and posttest scores of the subjects in the RR group. This
hypothesis, therefore, is accepted.
Hypothesis : There will be no significant gain in
ability to give responses that lead clients to further self¬
exploration for subjects in the NRR group.
The pretest and posttest scores of subjects in the NRR
group revealed no significant gain. Hypothesis H^g is
accepted for that reason.
The analysis of our results thus far indicates that,
although the RR group scored significant gains in a broad
range of se 1f-actualizing values, which replicates some of
the results reported in Chapter 11 (Seeman, Nidich, & Banta,
1972), these gains were translated into higher ratios of
facilitiative responses only in the dimension of understanding.

57
The RR group gained in this dimension both in relation to
its own pretest score and vis-a-vis the control group in the
posttest scores. However, when we examine the actual group
means which are shown in Table 6 and Table 7 in terms of
actual proportions (percentages) of responses, a somewhat
different picture emerges. Table 6 shows that whereas the
control group actually decreased their proportion of
facilitative responses for each of the four dimensions, the
experimental group showed an increase in every case. This
group's affective, understanding and specific responses
increased by 50 percent or more while its exploratory re¬
sponses increased by almost 18 percent, comparing posttest
to pretest scores. If we sum the group means of just the
facilitative responses for each dimension we find that the
combined group mean proportion went from 46.8 percent down
to 37.9 percent for the control group while increasing from
35.8 percent to 51.4 percent for the experimental group.
A comparison of the pretest scores of the two groups,
as shown in Table 7, reveals that the average proportion of
all facilitative responses of the experimental group was 11
points, or almost 31 percent lower than that for the
control group. By the time of the posttest, however, the
experimental group had a combined mean proportion that was
13.5 points and 26 percent higher than the control subjects.
These are impressive gains by the experimental group but
not large enough, except in the case of the understanding

58
Table 6
Comparisons of Group Mean Facilitative Responses
RR* & NRR** Groups: Pretest vs Posttest
Mean
Proportion
Point
Percent
Dimens ions
Pretest Posttest
Difference
Change
RR (Experimental)
Group
Affective
15.3
28.4
+ 13.1
+ 85.6
Cognitive
84.7
71 .6
-13.1
-15.5
Understanding
55 .1
82.4
+ 27.3
+ 49.5
Nonunderstandi ng
44.9
17.6
-27.3
-60.0
Specific
27.8
41 .9
+ 14.1
+ 50.7
Nonspecific
72.2
58.1
-14.1
-19.5
Exploratory
44.9
52.8
+ 7.9
+ 17.6
Nonexploratory
55.1
47.2
-7.9
-14.3
Mean Proportion of
All Facilitative Res
. 35.8
51 .4
+ 15.6
+ 43.6
NRR
(Control ) Group
Affective
17.9
12.1
-5.8
-32.4
Cognitive
82.1
87.9
+ 5 .8
+ 7 .1
Understanding
75.9
65.1
-10.8
-44.8
Nonunderstanding
24.1
34.9
+ 10.8
+ 44.8
Exploratory
55.6
41.5
-14.1
-25.4
Nonex pi ora tory
44.4
58.5
+ 14.1
+ 31 .8
Mean Proportion of
All Facilitative Res
. 46.8
37.9
-8.9
-19.0
*RR: Relaxation Response (Experimental Group).
**NRR: Non-Relaxation Response (Control Group).

59
Table 7
Comparison of Group Mean Facilitative Responses
Pretest and Posttest Scores: RR* vs NRR**
Mean Proportion Point Percent
Dimensions RR MRR Difference Change
Pretest
Responses
Affec tive
15.3
17.9
-2.6
-17.0
Cognitive
34.7
82.1
+ 2.6
+ 3.1
Understanding
55.1
75.9
-20.8
-37.7
Nonunders ta nding
44.9
24.1
-20.8
+ 46.3
Specific
27.8
37.9
-10.1
-36.3
Nonspecific
72.2
62.1
+ 10.1
+ 14.0
Explora tory
44.9
55.6
-10.7
-23.8
Nonexploratory
55.1
44.4
+ 10.7
+ 19.4
Mean Proportion of
All Facilitative Res.
35.8
46.8
-11.0
-30.7
Posttest
Res ponses
Affective
28.4
12.1
+ 16.3
+ 57.4
Cognitive
71.6
87.9
-16.3
-22.8
Understanding
82.4
65.1
+ 17.3
+ 21 .0
Nonu nders tanding
17.6
34.9
-17.3
-98.3
Specific
41 .9
32.8
+9.1
+ 21 .7
Nonspecific
58.1
67 . 2
-9 .1
-15.7
Expl oratory
52.8
41 . 5
+ 11.3
+ 21 .4
Nonexploratory
47.2
58.5
-11.3
-23.9
Mean Proportion of
All Facilitative Res.
51.4
37.9
+ 13.5
+ 26.3
*RR: Relaxation Response (Experimental Group).
**NRR: Non-Relaxation Response (Control Group).

60
dimension, to conclude according to the "t" statistic test,
that such differences could be expected in only 5 percent
of the cases in samples drawn from the same population.
But this result stems from examining each of our
hypotheses, and therefore, each dimension separately from
the other. If we apply our "t" test statistic to the aver¬
age proportion of a 11 facilitative responses combined, as
shown in Tables 6 and 7 ("Mean Proportion of All Facilita¬
tive Responses"), we get another perspective of the results.
Table 8 shows the results of applying "t" tests of
significance at the 95 percent confidence level (p< .05) to
the mean proportion of all four facilitative dimension
responses combined. These results show a significant dif¬
ference between the pretest and posttest scores of the
control group which reflects the decrease in proportion of
facilitative responses pointed out above. On the other hand,
the experimental group showed significant gains both in
their own posttest scores compared to pretest, and in their
posttest scores compared to those of the control group.
Our conclusion, then, is that when individual dimen¬
sions are considered, the experimental group shows gains at
the level of confidence we chose to employ, only in the
dimension of understanding. But there was a sufficient gain
in each dimension to produce an overall significant gain
when all facilitative responses in all dimensions are con¬
sidered as a whole. No significant difference was found
between the pretest scores of the two groups.

61
As stated above, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U and
the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic were used to test meas¬
ures of self-actualization in the POI and to serve as a
criterion for accepting or rejecting hypothesis 1. For
comparison purposes, the parametric "t" statistic was also
used to test the measures of Self-Actualization in
hypothesis 1. The results of these tests of significance
are given for information in Appendix E.
Table 11 of Appendix E agrees with Table 1 in the
text in the analysis of posttest POI scores, control vs
experimental, except that the "t" statistic found a signifi¬
cant gain in Self-Regard (Sr) while the Mann-Whitney U did
not. On the other hand, the Mann-Whitney U indicates a
significant gain in the Acceptance of Aggression while the
"t" test statistic does not. In all important respects,
however, both tests tend to corroborate the findings of this
study.
Table 9 tabulates the number of responses by each
counselor in the 10 minute segment of tapes which was used
in rating counselor responses. These figures indicate that
there was no significant variation in the counselor re¬
sponse level between groups or between tests of the same
group. Therefore, counselor response level is not consid¬
ered to be a contributing factor to any variations in
results between treatment groups.

62
Table 8
Analysis of Mean Group Proportions
All Facilitative Responses on CVRS
Treatment
Group
„t"
Statistic
Significance
Control: Posttest vs Pretest
4.19 p<
.05
Pre>Pos t
Experimental:
Posttest vs
Pre tes t
3.77 p<
.05
Pos t>Pre
Pretest: Exp.
vs Control
2.96
NS
Pos ttes t: Exp.
. vs Control
6.86 p<
.05
Exp. >Cont.
Table 9
Counselor Response Level
Control
Grou p
Experimental
Group
Subject Number
Pretest
Posttes t
Pretest Posttest
1
19
9
1 9
16
2
23
1 2
26
34
3
1 2
22
24
18
4
23
23
20
14
5
1 6
14
1 3
20
6
10
1 5
1 2
6
7
10
18
24
7
8
9
1 7
1 7
17
9
9
1 1
10
14
18
11
1 9
1 5
1 2
1 6
14
Total Responses
1 22
1 30
222
190
Average Number
15.25
16.25
18.50
15.80

63
The average number of times per week that each subject
in the experimental group practiced Relaxation Response is
tabulated in Table 10. These data were computed from the
calendars maintained by each of the 12 subjects whose CVRS
responses have been tabulated in this report. As can be
seen in the figures, there was considerable variation as to
the number of times the members of the experimental group
practiced meditation. The bottom quartile averaged only
4.8 meditation sessions for the 10 week period while the
top quartile averaged 11 sessions. The overall average was
7.1 practice sessions per week, however,all quartiles but the
top one averaged less than the group average. No attempt
was made to collate calendar information with test scores
since the test results were not identified by subject name.
Therefore, no correlation between amount of meditation and
gains in fácilitative response dimensions could be carried
out.

64
Table 10
Average Number of Relaxation Response Sessions
Per Week by Members of Experimental Group
Subject No. Quartile No.
Av. No. Weekly
RR Sessions
Quartile
Average
1 1
4.2
4.8
2
4.8
3
5.5
4 2
5.6
5.9
5
6 .1
6
6.1
7 3
6.4
6.7
8
6.8
9
7.0
10 4
7.6
11.0
1 1
12.1
12
13.2
Group Average
7 . 1
Group Median
6.2

65
Table 11
Scoring Categories for the Personal
Orientation Inventory
Number Scale
cf Items Number Symbol Description
1- Ratio Scores
23 1/2 TI/'TC TIHE RATIO
Time Incompetence/
Time Competence ~
measures degree
to which one Is
"present" oriented
127 3/4 0/1 SIT PORT RATIO
Other/Inner-
measures whether
reactivity orien¬
tation is basi¬
cally toward
others or self
Number Scale
of Items Number Symbol Description
26 10 Sa SELF-ACCEPTANCE
Measures a f f 1 r-
mation or
acceptance of
self in spite
of weaknesses
or deficiencies
16 11 Nc NATORE OF MAN
Measures degree
of the construc¬
tive view of the
nature of man,
masculinity,
feralnity
11. Sub-Scales
26 5 SAV
32 6 Ex
23 7 Fr
18 8 S
16 9 Se
SELF-ACTUALIZING
VALUE
Measures affirma¬
tion of primary
values of self¬
actual izlng
pe rsons
EX1S TENTIALITY
Measures ability
tc s1tuationa 1 ly
or existentially
react without
rigid adherence
to principles
FEELING REACTIVITY
Measures sensitivity
of responsiveness to
one’s own needs and
feel Ings
SPONTANEITY
Measures freedom to
react spontaneously
er to be oneself
SFLF-REGARD
Measures affirma¬
tion of en 1f be¬
cause of worth or
Strength
9 12 Sy
25 13 A
28 H C
SYNERGY
Measures ability
to be synergist 1c ,
to transcend
dIcho tomles
ACCEPTANCE OF
AGGRESSION
Measures ability
to accept one's
natural aggres¬
siveness as
opposed to de¬
fensiveness,
denial, and
repression of
aggress ion
CAPACITY FOR
INTIMATE CONTACT
Measures ability
to develop con¬
tactful intimate
relationships
with other human
beings, unen¬
cumbered by
expectations and
obi Igations

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
Summary
This study was designed to measure the effects of a
meditation technique upon the behavior of a group of para-
professionals acting as counselors. Of primary interest
was the question of whether or not a meditation technique
developed by Benson and referred to as the Relaxation
Response resulted in the enhancement of the positive person¬
ality characteristics which have been correlated with
counselor effectiveness. It has been found (Carkhuff, 1969b,
pp. 84-90) that the degree to which the helping person
offers high levels of empathy, warmth, respect, concreteness
and genuineness is related directly to client growth.
Available research on meditation suggests that these are the
very qualities which have been found to be enhanced by
meditation. Previous research (see page 21, above, for
examples) found that meditators scored significantly higher
than nonmeditators on such scales as inner directedness,
time competence, self-actualization values, spontaneity and
self-acceptance. These are among the qualities measured by
66

67
the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) (Shostrom, 1966),
one of the research instruments used in this study.
The specific behavior examined in this study was the
counselor's responses to client communications in terms of
four dichotomized dimensions measured by the Counselor
Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967),
which is the other principal research instrument used in
this study. The four dichotomized dimensions included in
the CVRS are: 1) affective/cognitive; 2) understanding/
nonunderstanding; 3) specific/nonspecific; and 4) exploratory/
nonexploratory. Counselor response in a client-counselor
interaction was rated on each of the four dimensions of the
rating scale, with each interaction being judged as an
independent unit. The counselor's responses were judged
primarily on the manner in which he responded to the verbal
elements of the client's communication. The judges rated
each counselor response to the client on each of the dimen¬
sions of the scale. Totals were tallied after responses had
been dichotomized on each dimension on two five minute
segments of each tape.
The study population consisted of 22 paraprofessional
counselor-candidates who were attending their first term
at the Santa Fe Community College Human Services Department.
These subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups--
an eight member control group and a 14 member experimental
group. Two of the tapes for the experimental group subjects

68
were lost and our CVRS analysis, therefore, was based upon
12 experimental group members, while the P01 analysis covers
all 14 experimental group members.
The members of each group were pretested with the
Personal Orientation Inventory, an essentially self-
administered instrument developed by Shostrom (1964, 1966).
The POI consists of 150 two-choice paired opposite state¬
ments of personal values which are believed to be important
in the development of positive mental health. Scores are
reported on two major scales and 10 secondary scales as out¬
lined on page 34, above.
After completing the initial POI each subject, acting
as counselor, taped an interview with a fellow student,
acting as client. Subjects in the experimental group then
received instructions in the meditation technique developed
by Benson, called the Relaxation Response. They were given
forms on which to record the number of times and the time
of day that they practiced meditation during the ensuing 10
weeks in a regular daily program of meditation which they
were asked to undertake. Members of the control group were
told that they would receive instruction in RR at the end
of the semester.
At the end of 10 weeks all the subjects were given the
POI for the second time and were given a second cassette
tape on which to record a posttest counseling tape.

69
Four graduate students in counseling psychology were
selected as raters for the two sets of counseling tapes.
They were trained as raters by a counseling psychologist.
Ten minute segments of each tape were rated by each of two
raters. In scoring the CVRS the ratings of the two raters
were averaged.
Results
Significant gains by the experimental group compared to
the control group were found in 5 of the 12 scales of the
POI. The experimental group evidenced gains compared with
the control group in Inner Directedness, Existentiality,
Spontaneity, Self-Acceptance and Acceptance of Aggressive
Tendencies in Oneself. On the other hand, the control group
posttest scores showed a significant (pc.05) gain in Other
Directedness, a nonself-actualizing factor, relative to the
posttest scores of the experimental group.
All of these gains were found to be significant by use
of the Mann-Whitney U (see Table 1). Also, all of these
gains were corroborated as significant (p < . 0 5 ) by the "t"
statistic, with the exception of Acceptance of Aggression.
In addition, the "t" statistic indicated a significant gain
in Self-Regard .
Use of the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic validated
significant gains in the experimental group's posttest
scores compared with those of the pretest in the following

70
dimensions: Inner Directedness, Spontaneity, Self-Regard
and Self-Acceptance.
There was a significant difference between the pretest
scores of the experimental versus the control group only
in the dimension, Nature of Man, Constructive, with the
experimental group ranking higher. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank
Statistic revealed no significant gains or losses in the
posttest scores of the control group compared with its pre¬
test scores.
Performance of "t" tests of significance on the pretest
and posttest scores on the Counselor Verbal Response Scale
of the two groups revealed no significant differences except
in the understanding-nonunderstanding dimension. The RR
group's posttest scores showed significant gains compared
with their own pretest score and compared to the control
group's posttest scores. The pretest scores of the two
groups yielded no significant differences at all.
Thus there were no significant gains or losses in the
other three dichotomized dimensions: affective/cognitive;
specific/nonspecific; and exploratory/nonexploratory. How¬
ever, comparisons of the actual group proportions expressed
in percentage terms reveals impressive percentage gains in
the posttest scores of the experimental group compared to
their pretest figures and compared to the posttest scores of
the control group. Whereas these gains were not great
enough by individual dimension to rule out the possibility

71
that they could have occurred in a similar pretest sample
drawn from the same population, when the proportions for
all dimensions were averaged for facilitative responses only,
significant differences did become apparent. Applying the
"t" test to the mean proportion of a 11 facilitative responses
from all dimensions for each group revealed that: the
control group registered significant losses in the proportion
of facilitative responses; the experimental group exhibited
significant gains in the overall proportion of facilitative
responses, posttest versus pretest; and that the experi¬
mental group gained significantly in their proportion of
facilitative responses vis-a-vis the control group, based
upon a comparison of their posttest scores.
Conclusions
In this study we attempted to measure the affects, if
any, on counselor behavior of a meditation technique,
Relaxation Response, which was developed by Benson. The
research design called for measuring in an experimental
group any gains in self-actualization that might be
attributable to meditation and the Relaxation Response.
Since the control group was chosen from the same population
as the experimental group and all other conditions and
influences were assumed to be equal--for example, the train¬
ing that both groups were receiving at the Human Services
Department--any significant gains by the experimental group

72
might be attributed to the program of meditation carried out
by the members of that group.
The POI scores indicated that significant gains in a
broad spectrum of self-actualizing values were made by
the RR group. Particularly important was the gain by the
RR group in Inner Directedness, one of the two principal
scales of the POI. Inner, or self-directed individuals are
guided primarily by internal principles and motivations,
one of the attributes of positive mental health.
Did this gain by the experimental group in self-
actualizing values translate itself into more effective
counseling behavior as measured by the CVRS? Significant
gains in desirable counselor behavior were found only in the
dimension of understanding. No significant gains were noted
in the facilitative responses characterized as affective,
specific and exploratory. A possible explanation for this
result may be found in distinguishing between the charac¬
terizations of counselor response in the CVRS model. The
habit of responding to client verbalizations in specific
terms or in terms that encourage further exploration could
be thought of as depending on learned technique rather than
on basic personality factors. In contrast, the quality of
understanding, particularly in the context of the inter¬
actions between a counselor and client, would seem to depend
more on the stage of personality development and experience
than on specific techniques that can be taught in a class¬
room situa tion.

73
If this premise is accepted, then it would seem logical
that new gains in a person's level of self-actualization and
in basic positive personality characteristics would first
manifest themselves in a greater capacity to understand the
communications of another human being. As we saw on page 3
above, Rogers ( 1 957 ), in describing the necessary charac¬
teristics of effective counselors, linked "empathic under¬
standing of the client" and the "self-congruence of the
counselor." Thus in our present study, we may conclude that
the measured gains in self-actualization were linked at the
basic personality level to gains in the capacity for under¬
standing. We may also conclude that such gains at the
level of personality development may not be translated
immediately into specific professional skills or techniques
(a verbal bag of tools) which require learning. This would
appear to be especially true of the subjects of this study
who were students in the initial stages of learning their
profession.
Our principal conclusion, based upon the results of
this study, is that the Benson Relaxation Response technique
of meditation appears to offer one means of acquiring and
developing the positive personality characteristics which
have been linked to effective counseling. The first results
of such a meditation technique may manifest themselves in
a capacity for increased understanding of another's communi¬
cation.

74
Li mitations of the Study
Generalization based on this study are limited to the
Santa Fe Community College Human Services Program for para-
professional counselors. The sampling procedures did not
make allowance for generalizing outside of this population.
A small sample size of twenty-two further limits generaliza¬
ba i ty .
The amount of time in which subjects engaged in the
practice of the Relaxation Response (RR) is an important
factor. The overall length of time that the experimental
group practiced the RR was 10 weeks. The average number of
times per week was 7 times. However, there was a wide vari¬
ance in the meditation schedules of the individual members,
see Table 10. All quartiles except the top quartile had a
practice rate of less than the group average of 7 times a
week. It may be that a more consistent schedule may produce
more definite results. (See Implications for Future Research
#5) .
Implications for Future Research
The findings of this investigation suggest that a medi¬
tation procedure, namely the Relaxation Response (RR), can be
adopted by a paraprofessi o na 1 counseling program. Research
cited in this study demonstrated the importance of positive
personality characteristics as it relates to counselor

75
effectiveness. The present study also suggests training
designed to aid in the development of self-actualizing attrib¬
utes in counselors. This type of training may be considered
as important to counselors as the formal training in mechan¬
ical skills and theory.
The following suggestions may be of value to those
interested in further research on this subject.
1) To further investigate the quality of meditation
being practiced by each student. Researchers can
carefully monitor not only the actual amount of
time spent in the RR, but the quality of the experi¬
ence by means of biofeedback equipment. Biofeedback
equipment which measures brain waves (EEG), muscle
tension (EMG), or galvanic skin resistance (GSR)
may contribute to further exploration and develop¬
ment of student potentials.
2) A longitudinal design could be used to investigate
the long term effect of the RR on the personality
characteristics of paraprofession a 1 counselors.
Also, this type of design could allow more time for
students to translate their personal perceptions
from the RR experience to behaviors measurable by
the research instruments. Further research is needed
to explore the relationship of time spent in medi¬
tation and personal growth.

76
3) The pre sent study indicates the need for further
investigation of the correlation of the affective
content of counselor responses with the degree of
self-actualization of the counselor. We have
attempted to explain the fact that the specific and
exploratory dimensions of the CVRS did not increase
in tandem with the gains in measures of self-
actualization with the assumption that these
dimensions are more dependent upon skil 1 - training
than on the development of positive personality
traits. However, a person gaining in self-
actualizing values would, by our definition, also
be increasing his capacity for empathy and there¬
fore, would be expected to manifest this empathy
by increased levels of feeling content versus
cognitive content in his responses to clients. The
reason for the failure of our experimental group to
show significant gains in the proportion of these
responses needs further study.
4) Researchers may further investigate the interaction
effects of self-actualization, meditation, and
counselor effectiveness. For example, one question
not answered by the present research is, do initially
high self-actualized individuals show significantly
greater gains from practice of the RR than initially
low self-actualized individuals? More research is
necessary to answer this question.

77
5) As mentioned in the Limitations of the Study, the
amount of time spent in the practice of the RR was
shown to be highly variable. Future research may
show that a more consistent schedule of meditation
can produce more definite results. Therefore,
researchers may wish to incorporate into their
experimental design methods to insure a minimum
period of time in which the subjects engage in
practice of the RR. For example, incentives such
as the payment of fees to subjects may be advanta¬
geous, however, more research is needed to verify
this conclusion.
6) In the counseling relationship, clients respond to
both the verbal and nonverbal behaviors of the
counselor. In addition to verbal communication,
the counselor uses facial, postural and gestural
modes of communication. Therefore, future research
may be supplemented by videotape recordings of the
client/counselor interaction to observe changes in
both verbal and nonverbal communications as a result
of the RR training.
Continued research is needed which focuses directly upon
the kinds of experience which will facilitate the counselor's
personal awareness, integration and psychological maturity.

APPENDIX A
How to Bring Forth the Relaxation Response
and
Eliciting the Relaxation Response

How to Bring Forth the Relaxation Response
(1) A Quiet Env i ronttie n t.
Ideally, you should choose a quiet, calm environment
with as few distractions as possible. A quiet room is
suitable, as is a place of worship. The quiet environment
contributes to the effectiveness of the repeated work or
phrase by making it easier to eliminate distracting thoughts.
(2) A Mental Device.
To shift the mind from logical, externally oriented
thought, there should be a constant stimulus: a sound, word,
or phrase repeated silently or aloud; or fixed gazing at an
object. Since one of the major difficulties in the elicita¬
tion of the Relaxation Response is "mind wandering," the
repetition of the word or phrase is a way to help break the
train of distracting thoughts. Your eyes are usually closed
if you are using a repeated sound or word; of course, your
eyes are open if you are gazing. Attention to the normal
rhythm of breathing is also useful and enhances the repeti¬
tion of the sound or the word.
(3) A Passive Attitude.
When distracting thoughts occur, they are to be dis¬
regarded and attention redirected to the repetition or
79

80
gazing; you should not worry about how well you are per¬
forming the technique, because this may well prevent the
Relaxation Response from occurring. Adopt a "let it happen"
attitude. The passive attitude is perhaps the most impor¬
tant element in eliciting the Relaxation Response. Dis¬
tracting thoughts will occur. Do not worry about them.
When these thoughts do present themselves and you become
aware of them, simply return to the repetition of the mental
device. These other thoughts do not mean you are performing
the technique incorrectly. They are to be expected.
(4) A Comfortable Position.
A comfortable posture is important so that there is no
undue muscular tension. Some methods call for a sitting
position. A few practitioners use the cross-legged "lotus"
position of the Yogi. If you are lying down, there is a
tendency to fall asleep. As we have noted previously, the
various postures of kneeling, swaying, or sitting in cross-
legged position are believed to have evolved to prevent
falling asleep. You should be comfortable and relaxed.
Eliciting the Relaxation Response
(1) In a quiet environment, sit in a comfortable position.
(2) Close your eyes .
(3) Deeply relax your muscles, beginning at your feet and
progressing up to your face--feet, calves, thighs, lower
torso, chest, shoulders, neck, head. Allow them to
remain deeply relaxed.

81
(4) Breathe through your nose. Become aware of your
breathing. As you breathe in, say the sound "So"
silently to yourself and as you breathe out say "Hum."
Thus: breathe in--"So" . . . breathe out with "Hum.”
In, "So" and out with "Hum." . . .
(5) Continue this practice for twenty minutes. You may
open your eyes to check the time, but do not use an
alarm. When you finish, sit quietly for several
minutes, at first with your eyes closed and later with
your eyes open.
(6) Remember not to worry about whether you are successful
in achieving a deep level of relaxation--maintain a
passive attitude and permit relaxation to occur at its
own pace. When distracting thoughts occur, ignore
them and continue to repeat "So-Hum" as you breathe.
The technique should be practiced twice daily, and not
within two hours after any meal, since the digestive
processes seem to interfere with the elicitation of
the expected.

APPENDIX B
Counselor Verbal Response Scale
Counselor Verbal Response Scale Rating Sheet

Counselor Ver-bal Response Scale
Description of Rating Dimensions
I . Affective-cognitive dimension
The affective-cognitive dimension indicates whether a
counselor's response refers to any affective component of a
client's communication or concerns itself primarily with
the cognitive component of that communication.
A. Affective responses: Affective responses generally
make reference to emotions, feelings, fears, etc. The
judge's rating is solely by the content and/or intent of the
counselor's response, regardless of whether it be reflection,
clarification or interpretation. These responses attempt
to maintain the focus on the affective component of a
client's communication. Thus they may:
(a) Refer directly to an explicit or implicit
reference to affect (either verbal or nonverbal)
on the part of the client.
(b) Encourage an expression of affect on the part
of the client. Example: "How does it make
you feel when your parents argue?"
(c) Approve of an expression of affect on the part
of the client. Example: "It doesn't hurt to
83

84
let your feelings out once in a while, does
it?"
(d) Presents a model for the use of affect by the
client. Example: "If somebody treated me like
that, I'd really be mad."
Special care must be taken in rating responses which use the
word "feel." For example, in the statement "do you feel
that your student teaching experience is helping you get
the idea of teaching?" the phrase "do you feel that" really
means "do you think that." Similarly, the expression "How
are you feeling?" is often used in a matter-of-fact, con¬
versation manner. Thus, although the verb "to feel" is
used in both these examples, these statements do not repre¬
sent responses which would be judged "affective."
B. Cognitive Responses: Cognitive responses deal
primarily with the cognitive element of a client's communi¬
cation. Frequently, such responses seek information of
factual nature. They generally maintain the interaction on
the cognitive level. Such responses may:
(a) Refer directly to the cognitive component of
the client's statement.
Example: "So then you're thinking about
switching your major to chemistry?"
(b) Seeks further information of a factual nature
from the client.
Example: "What were your grades last term?"

85
(c) Encourage the client to continue to respond
at the cognitive level.
Example: "How did you get interested in art?"
11 - Understanding-nonunderstanding dimension
The understanding-nonunderstanding dimension indicates
whether a counselor's response communicates to the client
that the counselor understands or is seeking to understand
the client's basic communication. This encourages the client
to continue to gain insight into the nature of his concerns.
A. Understanding responses: Understanding responses
communicate to the client that the counselor understands the
client’s common ication--the counselor makes appropriate
reference to what the client is expressing or trying to ex¬
press both verbally and nonverbally--or the counselor is
clearly seeking enough information of either a cognitive or
affective nature to gain such understanding. Such responses:
(a) Directly communicate an understanding of the
client's communication.
Example: "In other words, you really want to
be treated like a man."
(b) Seek further information from the client in
such a way as to facilitate both the coun¬
selors' and the clients' understanding of the
basic problems.
Example: "What does being a man mean to you?"
(c) Reinforce or give approval or client communica¬
tions which exhibit understanding.

86
Example: CL: "I guess then, when people
criticize me, I'm afraid they'll
leave me,"
CO: "I see you're beginning to make
some connection between your
behavior and your feelings."
B. Non understanding responses: Nonunderstanding
responses are those in which the counselor fails to under¬
stand the client's basic communication or makes no attempt
to obtain appropriate information from the client. In
essence, nonunderstanding implies misunderstanding. Such
responses:
(a) Communicate misunderstanding of the client's
basic concern
Example: CL:
II
When he said that, I just
turned red and clenched my
fists."
CO:
n
Some people don't say nice
things. "
(b) Seek information which may be irrelevant to
the client's communication.
Example: CL:
it
I seem to have a hard time
getting along with my brothers."
CO: "Do all your brothers live at
home with you?"

87
(c) Squelch client understanding or move the focus
to another irrelevant area.
Example:
CL :
"I guess I'm really afraid that
other people will laugh at me."
CO:
"We're the butt of other poeple's
jokes s orne ti mes ."
Ex am pie :
CL:
"Sometimes I really hate my aunt.
CO:
"Will things be better when you
go to college?"
III. Specific/nonspecific dimension
The specific-nonspecific dimension indicates whether
the counselor's response delineates the client's problems
and is central to the client's communication or whether the
response does not specify the client's concern. In essence,
it describes whether the counselor deals with client's
communication in a general, vague, or peripheral manner, or
"zeros in" on the core of the client's communication. NB:
A response judged to be nonunderstanding must also be non¬
specific since it would, by definition, misunderstand the
client's communication and not help the client to delineate
his concerns. Responses judged understanding might be
either specific (core) or nonspecific (peripheral) i.e.,
they would be peripheral if the counselor conveys only a
vague idea that a problem exists or "flirts" with the idea
rather than helping the client delineate some of the dimen¬
sions of his concerns.

88
A. Specific responses: Specific responses focus on
the core concerns being presented either explicitly or
implicitly, verbally or nonverbally, by the client. Such
responses:
(a) Delineate more closely the client's basic
concerns .
Example: "This vague feeling you have when
you get in tense situations--is it
anger or fear?"
(b) Encourage the client to discriminate among
stimuli affecting him.
Example: "Do you feel in all your
classes or in only some classrooms?"
(c) Reward the client for being specific.
Example: CL: "I guess I feel this way most
often with someone who reminds
me of my father."
CO: "So as you put what others say
in perspective the whole world
doesn't seem so bad; it's only
when someone you value, like
Father, doesn't pay any attention
that you feel hurt."
B. Nonspecific responses: Nonspecific responses indi¬
cate that the counselor is not focusing on the basic con¬
cerns of the client or is not yet able to help the client

89
differentiate among various stimuli. Such responses either
miss the problem area completely (such responses are also
nonunderstanding) or occur when the counselor is seeking to
understand the client's communication and has been presented
with only vague bits of information about the client's
concern. Thus, such responses:
(a) Fail to delineate the client's concern and
cannot bring them into sharper focus.
Example: "It seems your problem isn't very
clear--can you tell me more about it?"
(b) Completely miss the basic concerns being pre¬
sented by the client even though the counselor
may ask for specific details.
Example: CL: "I've gotten all A's this year
and I still feel lousy."
CO: "What were your grades before
then?"
(c) Discourage the client from bringing his concerns
into sharper focus.
Example: "You and your sister argue all the
time. What do other people think of
your sister?"
IV . Exploratory-nonexploratory
The exploratory-nonexploratory dimension indicates
whether a counselor's response permits or encourages the
client to explore his cognitive or affective concerns, or

90
whether the response limits a client's exploration of these
concerns.
A. Exploratory responses: Exploratory responses
encourage and permit the client latitude and involvement in
his response. They may focus on relevant aspects of the
client's affective or cognitive concerns but clearly attempt
to encourage further exploration by the client. Such
responses are often open-ended and/or are delivered in a
manner permitting the client freedom and flexibility in
response. These responses:
(a) Encourage the client to explore his own con¬
cerns .
Example: Cognitive--"You're not sure what you
want to major in, is that
it?"
Affective--"Maybe some of these times
you're getting mad at
yourself , what do you
think?"
(b) Assist the client to explore by providing him
with possible alternatives designed to increase
his range of responses.
Example: Cognitive--"What are some of the other
alternatives that you have
to history as a major?"
Affective--"In these situations, do
you feel angry, mad, help¬
less, or what?"

91
(c) Reward the client for exploratory behavior.
Example: Cogni ti ve--" 11 seems that you've
considered a number of
alternatives for a major,
that' s good ."
Affecti ve--"So you're beginning to
wonder if you always want
to be treated like a man."
B. Nonexploratory responses: Nonexploratory responses
either indicate no understanding of the client's basic
communication, or so structure and limit the client's re¬
sponses that they inhibit the exploratory process. The
responses give the client little opportunity to explore,
expand, or express himself freely. Such responses:
Discourage further exploration on the part of
the client.
Example: Cognitive-You really resent your
parents treating you like
a child."
V. Effective-noneffective dimension
Ratings on the effective-noneffective dimension may be
made independently of ratings on the other four dimensions
of the scale. This rating is based solely upon the judge's
professional impression of the appropriateness of the coun¬
selor's responses, that is, how adequately does the coun¬
selor's response deal with the client's verbal and nonverbal

92
communication. This rating is not dependent on whether the
response has been judged affective, cognitive, etc.
A rating of 4 indicates that the judge considers this
response among the most appropriate possible. In the given
situation, while a 3 indicates that the response is
appropriate but not among the best. A rating of 2 indicates
a neutral response which neither measurably affects client
progress nor inhibits it, while a rating of 1 indicates a
response which not only lacks basic understanding of the
client's concerns but which in effect may be detrimental to
the specified goals of client growth.

IPR COUNSELOR VERBAL RESPONSE RATING SCALE
Judge:
Subject:
Date:
DIMENSIONS
Counselor Response
Evaluation
j Affec-
Responses tive
Cognitive
Under¬
standing
Nonunder- Í
scanding f Specific
3
Non¬
specific
Explor¬
atory
Nonex-
plora tory
Effective Noneffeetive
4 3 2 1
i J
¡i
i
2 ¡
1
3 ‘i
1
4 '\
.i ¡i
5 i
1
6 '
7 ;
8 ¡
•i
9 ?
10 Á
11 i
12
\
13
il
LA
n ,\
"IV" fl
15 *
:i
s
16 5
:i
- j â– 
17 «¡
-i
18 ii
l|
i
19 J
i
j
i
20 i
Ú
i
21 ii
Ij
22 J
!
!
23 i
1!
. .. ..J
24 Ü
4
!
25 i
ii
Z of Re- j
sponses Í
j
I
TOTAL
TOTAL

APPENDIX C
Relaxation Response Calendar

To Help You Incorporate the Relax Response
In Your Daily Life, You May Use This Calendar
Sun. Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri.
AM
Week 1
PM
AM
Week 2
PM
AM
Week 3
PM
AM
Week 4
PM
AM
Week 5
PM
AM
Week 6
PM
AM
Week 7
PM
AM
Week 8
PM
AM
Week 9
PM
AM
Week 10
PM
AM
Week 11
PM
AM
Week 12
PM
Make a check mark ( ) in the appropriate place
each time you practice the Relaxation Response.
Sat.
95

APPENDIX D
Demographic Data Sheet

HUMAN SERVICE TRAINING PROGRAM
Santa Fe Community College
August, 1976
Student Data Sheet
Please fill in the blanks or circle the answer that is
correct for you.
1.NAME:
Local Area:
2.Race:
A. white
B. black
C. other
3.Sex:
A. male
B. female
4 . Age:
5.
Marital Status (at present time):
A. single (never married)
B. married
C. separated
D. divorced
E . widowe d
6.Did you complete high school?
A. yes
B. no
7.Have you ever attended a college or junior college?
A. yes
B. no
8.Do you at present hold a college degree?
A. yes
B. no
97

98
9. If you hold a college degree, please indicate what type
of deg
ree.
A.
Associate of Arts (A.A.)
B.
Associate of Science (A.S.
C .
Bachelor of Arts (B.A.)
D.
Bachelor of Science (B.S.)
E.
Other:
10.When you were growing up what was the jab your father
held most often? (Please be as specific as possible.)
11.If your mother worked while you were growing up, what
was the job she held most often?
12. How many children do you have?
13. How many brothers do you have?
14. How many sisters do you have?
15. How many of these brothers and sisters are older than
you?
16. In what city do you currently live?
17. How long have you lived there?
A.
less than 1
year
B .
1 - 2 years
C .
2-3 years
D.
3-4 years
E.
4-5 years
F.
longer than
5 years
18.How many different cities have you lived in during the
last 5 years?
19. Did your father graduate from high school?
A. yes
B. no
C. don't know
20. Did your father ever attend college?
A. yes
B. no
C. don 1t know

99
21. Did your mother graduate from high school?
A. yes
B. no
C. don't know
22. Did your mother ever attend college?
A. yes
B. no
C. don't know
23. Which of the following reasons most influenced your
decision to enroll in this program? (Please choose
only one)
A. Better job security
B. To improve counseling skills
C. Available training money
D. Other:
Comments:
24.
Previous work experience (start with most recent):
1 .
2.
3.
4 .
EMPLOYER
DATES
TYPE OF WORK

APPENDIX E
Additional Analyses of POI Scores

Analysis
Control
Table 12
of Posttest POI
vs Experimental
Scores
Groups
P01 symbol**
" t" Statistic*
Significance
Tc
1
2.26
p < . 0 5
Exp.>Cont
SAV
Ex
2.12
p< . 05
Exp . >Cont
Fr
S
2.27
p < . 0 5
Exp. >Cont
S r
2.51
p< . 05
Exp.>Cont
Sa
3.03
p<. 05
Exp. >Cont
Nc
Sy
A
C
*Parametric "t" Statistic.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description.
101

102
Table 13
Analysis of Control Groups
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores
POI symbol**
"t" Statistic*
Significance
Tc
Identical Means
NS
I
.266
NS
SAV
.738
NS
Ex
.173
NS
Fr
.107
NS
S
Identical Means
NS
Sr
.298
NS
Sa
.254
NS
Nc
1 .850
NS
sy
.523
NS
A
1 .31
NS
C
.259
NS
* Parame trie "t" Statistic.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description.

103
Table 14
Analysis of Experimental Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores
POI symbol**
"t" Statistic
Significance
Tc
.182
NS
I
1 .43
NS
SAV
.51 6
NS
Ex
.713
NS
F r
. 634
NS
s
1 .36
NS
Sr
1.13
NS
Sa
2.68
p< .05 Post>Pre
Nc
Identical Means
NS
sy
. 326
NS
A
.506
NS
c
.963
NS
^Parametric "t" Statistic.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description.

104
Table 15
Analysis of Pretest POI
Control vs Experimental
Scores
Groups
POI symbol**
"t" Statistic
Significance
Tc
1 .44
NS
I
2.15
p<.05 Exp.>Cont.
S AV
1 .32
US
Ex
1 . 92
NS
F r
1 .45
NS
s
2.17
p< . 05 E xp . >Con t.
Sr
.420
NS
Sa
. 580
NS
Nc
4.57
p<.05 Exp.>Con t.
sy
.940
NS
A
.120
NS
C
1 .30
NS
*Parametric "t" Statistic.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description.

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Á

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
David Nelson Bole was born July 26, 1949, in Detroit,
Michigan. He attended a Catholic elementary school until
his family moved to settle in Lake Worth, Florida. There
he completed his public school education and was graduated
from Lake Worth Senior High School in 1967. Later that
same year he attended Palm Beach Junior College in Lake
Worth, Florida, where he received his A.A. degree in 1969.
In September of 1969 David attended the University of
Florida in Gainesville, Florida, where he received his B.A.
degree in psychology in 1971. He continued his education
at the University of Florida in the Foundations of Education.
After receiving his M.Ed, in June, 1972, he was accepted
in the Ph.D. program in the Foundations of Education Depart¬
ment emphasizing Human Growth and Development. In August
of 1974 he joined the faculty as a full-time psychology
instructor in the Human Service Department at Greenville
Technical College. Here he taught psychology, counseling,
and directed Student Field Placements. He developed and
led inservice teacher training programs for the Greenville
Co. School System in communication skills and in behavior
management. After remaining in this teaching position for
111

112
two years, David left Greenville to finish his doctoral
studies program at the University of Florida.
David specializes in the area of personal growth,
bringing together the Eastern and Western theories of
personality through an experiential orientation to educa¬
tion. David has studied Eastern psychologies, yoga, Tai
Chi Chuan, relaxation methods, body awareness, and health
in the United States, Canada, and India. He is also a
licensed massage therapist and offers workshops designed to
enhance awareness and health.

I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Donald L. Avila, Chairman'"
Professor
Foundations of Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Walter Busby
Assistant Professor
Foundations of Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
ipinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
,• . r
J_[t'fiCtKiV ^ /rU itjv 't-gy-
Richard Arfderson
Professor of Psychology
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of
the Department of Foundations of Education in the College
of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted
as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
March 1978
Chairman, Foundations of Education
Dean, Graduate School

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08552 9559